Science.gov

Sample records for capital moral obligation

  1. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  2. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that "ought implies can." We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1-3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the "ought implies can" principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a "blame implies can" principle.

  3. Ethical theory, "common morality," and professional obligations.

    PubMed

    Alexandra, Andrew; Miller, Seumas

    2009-01-01

    We have two aims in this paper. The first is negative: to demonstrate the problems in Bernard Gert's account of common morality, in particular as it applies to professional morality. The second is positive: to suggest a more satisfactory explanation of the moral basis of professional role morality, albeit one that is broadly consistent with Gert's notion of common morality, but corrects and supplements Gert's theory. The paper is in three sections. In the first, we sketch the main features of Gert's account of common morality in general. In the second, we outline Gert's explanation of the source of professional moral rules and demonstrate its inadequacy. In the third section, we provide an account of our own collectivist needs-based view of the source of the role-moral obligations of many professional roles, including those of health care professionals.

  4. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  5. Genetic ignorance, moral obligations and social duties.

    PubMed

    Takala, T; Häyry, M

    2000-02-01

    In a contribution to The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Professor Rosamond Rhodes argues that individuals sometimes have an obligation to know about their genetic disorders, because this is required by their status as autonomous persons. Her analysis, which is based on Kant's concept of autonomy and Aristotle's notion of friendship, is extended here to consequentialist concerns. These are of paramount importance if, as we believe and Professor Rhodes herself implies, the Kantian and Aristotelian doctrines can be helpful only in the sphere of private morality, not in the public realm. Better tools for assessing the right to genetic ignorance as an issue of public policy can, we contend, be found in Mill's ideas concerning liberty and the prevention of harm. Our own conclusion, based on the Millian way of thinking, is that individuals probably do have the right to remain in ignorance in the cases Professor Rhodes presents as examples of a duty to know.

  6. Deconfounding Distance Effects in Judgments of Moral Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Jonas; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A heavily disputed question of moral philosophy is whether spatial distance between agent and victim is normatively relevant for the degree of obligation to help strangers in need. In this research, we focus on the associated descriptive question whether increased distance does in fact reduce individuals' sense of helping obligation. One problem…

  7. Deconfounding Distance Effects in Judgments of Moral Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Jonas; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A heavily disputed question of moral philosophy is whether spatial distance between agent and victim is normatively relevant for the degree of obligation to help strangers in need. In this research, we focus on the associated descriptive question whether increased distance does in fact reduce individuals' sense of helping obligation. One problem…

  8. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  9. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  10. To what do we have moral obligations and why? II.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-08

    Following up on his 1 June 1985 article on moral obligations to living human beings versus other sentient beings, Gillon focuses on arguments for and against prohuman "speciesism," the claim that "viability" is a justifiable criterion for differentiating between humans that may be killed and those that may not, and claims that "personhood" is a morally relevant differentiating concept. He discusses the positions taken by Peter Singer and Dame Mary Warnock on "speciesism," and the theories of such philosphers as John Locke, Immanuel Kant, and Michael Tooley regarding the essence of personhood. He sees no solid basis for grounding the scope of moral obligations on simple sentience, membership in the human species, or technical differentia such as viability, and concludes that medical ethics still suffers from the lack of an adequate theory on which to base a right to life.

  11. Is there a moral obligation to select healthy children?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Benjamin Meir

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive decision-making in the post-genetic age is a minefield of complex ethical problems. One such problem centres on whether there is an obligation on reproducers to choose the best possible child. This paper focusses on a simplified scenario: there are two embryos to choose from, one of which will develop a condition that diminishes quality of life but would still have 'a life worth living', the other of which is normal. Is there an obligation to choose the healthier child? If so, what is the nature and scope of this obligation? The answer to these questions relies on a satisfactory answer to the non-identity problem (NIP). This paper explores several solutions to the NIP and argues for a solution grounded in the concept of harm. Various accounts of harm are discussed and synthesised to provide a new 'comparative bad state view' of harm. This account is used to justify the obligation to choose the healthier child. How far should this obligation go? This paper rejects the conservative position of 'procreative autonomy' - which holds that such obligations have no place in reproductive decisions - and the radical position of 'procreative beneficence' - which holds that there is an even stronger obligation to make the best possible child. The obligation to choose the healthier child may be over-ridden by countervailing reasons; the moral calculus in any individual case will be largely dependent on the expected quality of life of the child. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Limiting the Scope of Moral Obligations to Help: A Cross-Cultural Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Jonathan; Miller, Joan G.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed U.S. and Indian college students regarding the moral obligation to save someone's life by donating bone marrow. Indians were more likely to consider donation morally required. Both groups limited obligation to help out-group members. Indians regarded donating more highly when it arose from duty. Americans regarded donating more highly…

  13. Limiting the Scope of Moral Obligations to Help: A Cross-Cultural Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Jonathan; Miller, Joan G.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed U.S. and Indian college students regarding the moral obligation to save someone's life by donating bone marrow. Indians were more likely to consider donation morally required. Both groups limited obligation to help out-group members. Indians regarded donating more highly when it arose from duty. Americans regarded donating more highly…

  14. An integrated moral obligation model for landowner conservation norms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pradhananga, Amit K.; Davenport, Mae A.; Fulton, David C.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.; Current, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This study applies an integrated moral obligation model to examine the role of environmental and cultural values, and beliefs in the activation of landowner conservation norms. Data for this study were collected through a self-administered survey of riparian landowners in two Minnesota watersheds: Sand Creek and Vermillion River watersheds. Study findings suggest that collectivistic and biospheric–altruistic values form the bases for the activation of personal norms. Further, beliefs about local responsibility and ability to act influence personal norms to protect water resources. Findings suggest that landowners’ personal norms of water conservation are more likely to be activated by conservation strategies that appeal to biospheric–altruistic and collectivistic values, emphasize adverse consequences of water pollution, highlight water resource protection as a local responsibility, and provide the resources needed to protect water resources.

  15. 24 CFR 905.120 - Penalties for slow obligation or expenditure of Capital Fund program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... local law; or (iv) Such other factors as HUD determines to be relevant. (2) Extension of obligation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalties for slow obligation or... Capital Fund § 905.120 Penalties for slow obligation or expenditure of Capital Fund program assistance....

  16. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  17. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  18. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due within...

  19. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due within..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due within..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water...

  1. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due within..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water...

  2. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due within..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water...

  3. 18 CFR 367.2270 - Account 227, Obligations under capital lease-Non-current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 227, Obligations under capital lease-Non-current. 367.2270 Section 367.2270 Conservation of Power and Water....2270 Account 227, Obligations under capital lease—Non-current. This account must include the portion...

  4. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    PubMed

    Harris, J; Holm, S

    1995-11-04

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm others by making them ill where this is avoidable, and this obligation not to communicate disease applies as much to relatively trivial diseases like the common cold as it does to HIV disease. The reasonableness of expecting people to live up to this obligation, however, depends on society reciprocating the obligation in the form of providing protection and compensation.

  5. Observer perceptions of moral obligations in groups with a history of victimization.

    PubMed

    Warner, Ruth H; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2012-07-01

    The authors investigated when observers assign contemporary group members moral obligations based on their group's victimization history. In Experiment 1, Americans perceived Israelis as obligated to help Sudanese genocide victims and as guiltworthy for not helping if reminded of the Holocaust and its descendants were linked to this history. In Experiment 2, participants perceived Israelis as more obligated to help and guiltworthy for not helping when the Holocaust was presented as a unique victimization event compared with when genocide was presented as pervasive. Experiments 3 and 4 replicated the effects of Experiment 1 with Cambodians as the victimized group. Experiment 5 demonstrated that participants perceived Cambodians as having more obligations under high just world threat compared with low just world threat. Perceiving victimized groups as incurring obligations is one just world restoration method of providing meaning to collective injustice.

  6. Moral obligations to the not-yet born: the fetus as patient.

    PubMed

    Murray, T H

    1987-06-01

    The fetus destined to be born rather than aborted has become increasingly an object of medical and moral concern. With considerable justification, women view this concern--which they share to a great degree--with suspicion that it will serve as a pretext for denying them social and economic equality with men. This article attempts to show that practical moral judgments about our obligations to not-yet-born children can be made without falling into the abyss of controversy surrounding abortion. By stressing the similarities in fathers' duties to their born children, we can also counter a measure of our historical propensity to view women's moral duties to their not-yet-born children as the overwhelmingly important feature of their moral lives, and resist the temptation to impose coercive public policies.

  7. Education without Moral Worth? Kantian Moral Theory and the Obligation to Educate Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of a Kantian justification of the intrinsic moral worth of education. The author critiques a recent attempt to secure such justification via Kant's notion of the Kingdom of Ends. He gives four reasons why such an account would deny any intrinsic moral worth to education. He concludes with a tentative…

  8. Education without Moral Worth? Kantian Moral Theory and the Obligation to Educate Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of a Kantian justification of the intrinsic moral worth of education. The author critiques a recent attempt to secure such justification via Kant's notion of the Kingdom of Ends. He gives four reasons why such an account would deny any intrinsic moral worth to education. He concludes with a tentative…

  9. Models of occupational medicine practice: an approach to understanding moral conflict in "dual obligation" doctors.

    PubMed

    Tamin, Jacques

    2013-08-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), ethical guidance for doctors assumes a therapeutic setting and a normal doctor-patient relationship. However, doctors with dual obligations may not always operate on the basis of these assumptions in all aspects of their role. In this paper, the situation of UK occupational physicians is described, and a set of models to characterise their different practices is proposed. The interaction between doctor and worker in each of these models is compared with the normal doctor-patient relationship, focusing on the different levels of trust required, the possible power imbalance and the fiduciary obligations that apply. This approach highlights discrepancies between what the UK General Medical Council guidance requires and what is required of a doctor in certain roles or functions. It is suggested that using this modelling approach could also help in clarifying the sources of moral conflict for other doctors with "dual obligations" in their various roles.

  10. [Self endangerment to save life--competing Jewish legal and moral obligations].

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Wygoda, Michael; Rosenzweig, Joshua P; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-11-01

    The obligation to help others often involves personal risk. Consequently, the scope and boundaries of this obligation can present a complex dilemma, which has practical and moral implications, even in the world of medicine. In Jewish medical ethics, the dilemma stems from a confrontation between the duty to help others according to the biblical commandment: "Do not stand idly by your fellow's blood" on the one hand, and between the right and duty of man to defend himself, which is anchored in Jewish law. This article surveys the sources of this quandary in Jewish texts throughout the ages such as the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, and responsa literature in various contexts. The discussion highlights the essential difference between the formal demands of the law, which protects human rights of self-preservation, and the moral requirement to help others even if it may include personal risk. The sources suggest distinguishing between various levels of risk ranging from high-risk to reasonable or low risk. In this way, the classic sources, provide the foundation and the tools for grappling with modern contemporary Halachic questions such as organ transplantation, and generate a Torah value-based framework to deal with new situations that may arise in the future. It is critical to assess the level of risk and the chances for success, along with other subjective considerations, in order to ensure the optimal ethical course of action.

  11. What are the moral obligations of the traveller in relation to vaccination?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus

    2007-03-01

    More and more people each year are involved in international travel for reasons of business and pleasure. Such travel brings great economic and social benefits but it also has serious potential medical costs because it creates greater opportunities for the spread of infectious disease. In this paper, I discuss the ethical issues relating to a traveller's responsibility to be vaccinated against infectious diseases (where such vaccinations exist). What are the relevant moral obligations, in this situation? What are the boundaries of legitimate restrictions that can be placed upon an individual for the sake of protecting others from disease? Do we have extra special obligations to protect others from harm when we choose to travel abroad (beyond those we might have to other people in our own country)? I explore two different arguments suggesting that we do have an obligation to be vaccinated in this case. The first argument is built upon the potential harm to other people that might arise in the case of vaccination-refusal, and the second argument looks at the need to contribute to the preservation of public goods, such as herd protection.

  12. Religion as a resource for positive youth development: religion, social capital, and moral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ebstyne King, Pamela; Furrow, James L

    2004-09-01

    Although existing literature demonstrates that developmental benefits are associated with religion for adolescents, little is understood about the dynamics of this relationship. Drawing on social capital theory, this study tested a conceptual model exploring socially embedded religious influences on moral outcomes. A three-dimensional model of social capital demonstrated how social interaction, trust, and shared vision enable social ties associated with religiousness to influence moral behavior. Structural equation modeling was used with data gathered from 735 urban youths to test a proposed model of the effects of religiousness on moral outcomes. Results suggested that religiously active youths report higher levels of social capital resources and that the influence of adolescent religiousness on moral outcomes was mediated through social capital resources. Suggestions for further research and implications for faith-based youth development organizations are considered. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  13. Social Capital as Exchange: Its Contribution to Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Chan, Raymond Kwok-hong

    2010-01-01

    A way to clarify the measurement of social capital is the differentiation of its bases on opportunity and exchange. Social capital based on opportunity incorporates organizational participation, network strength, trust, helping and continuing relationships, whereas social capital based on exchange consists of the investment and reciprocation of…

  14. Social Capital as Exchange: Its Contribution to Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Chan, Raymond Kwok-hong

    2010-01-01

    A way to clarify the measurement of social capital is the differentiation of its bases on opportunity and exchange. Social capital based on opportunity incorporates organizational participation, network strength, trust, helping and continuing relationships, whereas social capital based on exchange consists of the investment and reciprocation of…

  15. "Moral Ecology" and "Moral Capital": Tools towards a Sociology of Moral Education from a South African Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    Research and pedagogy in the field of morality and moral education has long been dominated by philosophical and psychological disciplines. Although sociological studies and theorising in the field have not been absent, it has been limited and non-systematic. Drawing on a study that investigated the lived morality of a group of young South Africans…

  16. "Moral Ecology" and "Moral Capital": Tools towards a Sociology of Moral Education from a South African Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    Research and pedagogy in the field of morality and moral education has long been dominated by philosophical and psychological disciplines. Although sociological studies and theorising in the field have not been absent, it has been limited and non-systematic. Drawing on a study that investigated the lived morality of a group of young South Africans…

  17. The Role of Individual Negation in Enabling Social Capital, Moral Education, and Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Social capital, moral education, and citizenship education are three big ideas fundamental to the health of any democratic state. Yet exactly what these terms mean is a source of much contention and divergent thinking. Bringing some clarity to the three might help the cause of bolstering their prominence in educational discourse and reform.…

  18. Physician participation in executions, the morality of capital punishment, and the practical implications of their relationship.

    PubMed

    Litton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that some executed prisoners suffered excruciating pain has reinvigorated the ethical debate about physician participation in executions. In widely publicized litigation, death row inmates argue that participation of anesthesiologists in their execution is constitutionally required to minimize the risk of unnecessary suffering. For many years, commentators supported the ethical ban on physician participation reflected in codes of professional medical organizations. However, a recent wave of scholarship concurs with inmate advocates, urging the law to require or permit physician participation. Both the anti- and pro-physician-participation literature share a common premise: the ethics of physician participation should be analyzed independently from the moral status of capital punishment. This considerable literature implausibly divorces the ethics of physician participation from the moral status of the death penalty. Any ethical position on physician involvement requires some judgment about the moral status of capital punishment. The article examines anti- and pro-participation arguments to show that each one either is unpersuasive without discussion of the death penalty's moral status or implicitly assumes a view on the social worth of the death penalty. The article then articulates the practical implications of its arguments for both lawmakers and professional medical organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. What would the world be like without animals for food, fiber, and labor? Are we morally obligated to do without them?

    PubMed

    Davis, S L

    2008-02-01

    Numerous animal rights and animal liberation theorists have concluded that nonhuman animals have moral standing and noninterference rights. Therefore, they say that humans are morally obligated to stop using animals for food, fiber, labor, and research. I disagree with that conclusion for at least 2 reasons. First, it has been suggested that food production models are possible using large herbivores that might actually cause less harm (kill) to animals than a vegan food production model. This is because intensive crop production used to produce food for a vegan diet kills (harms) far more animals of the field than extensive agriculture (pasture production). So, a combined food production system that includes crops and pasture harvested by large herbivores to be used for human food may kill fewer animals than would a vegan-crop model. Second, pragmatically, it is improbable that all peoples of the world could ever be convinced that they must give up animals. In fact, it may be unethical to try to do that, because in poor countries, these animals are essential to the survival of the human populations. But what about the richer nations? Maybe they will or should be convinced to do without animals because of the moral strength of the animal rights and animal liberation theories. However, I believe that there are far too many obstacles for that to happen. What then are we morally obligated to do about animals? I suggest that animals do have moral standing, and that we are morally obligated to recognize their unique species-specific natures and treat them accordingly. That would mean treating animals according to their physical and behavioral needs or telos. That, I believe, is the most likely outcome of the conversation about animal rights.

  20. 24 CFR 905.120 - Penalties for slow obligation or expenditure of Capital Fund program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) The complexity of the capital program of the PHA; (iii) Any limitation on the ability of the PHA to... requirement of paragraph (d)(1) of this section through default remedies up to and including withdrawal of...

  1. Academic freedom and the obligation to ensure morally responsible scholarship in nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2012-06-01

    Academic freedom is generally regarded as being of critical importance to the development, improved understanding, and dissemination of new knowledge in a field. Although of obvious importance to the discipline of nursing, the nature, extent and value of academic freedom and the controversies surrounding it have rarely been considered in the nursing literature. It is a key aim of this paper to redress this oversight by providing a brief examination of: (i) the principle of academic freedom; (ii) the distinction between academic freedom, freedom of speech, and the academic freedom to publish; (iii) the problem of ideological judgments being dressed up as scientific or discipline judgments to supports 'bad' conclusions; and (iv) the standards that might otherwise be appealed to for determining whether maverick manuscripts supporting morally abhorrent conclusions should be accepted for publication. It is suggested that the tenets of academic freedom require robust international debate, with due attention being given to such issues as the development of an international declaration on academic freedom to publish in nursing, how to ensure a robust rebuttal system in nursing journals to counter specious scholarship, and how to better promote the letters pages of nursing journals as a venue for facilitating debate on controversial issues.

  2. Morality.

    PubMed

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is a rapidly growing field with two principle lineages. The main line began with Jean Piaget and includes developmental psychologists who have studied the acquisition of moral concepts and reasoning. The alternative line began in the 1990s with a new synthesis of evolutionary, neurological, and social-psychological research in which the central phenomena are moral emotions and intuitions. In this essay, I show how both of these lines have been shaped by an older debate between two 19th century narratives about modernity: one celebrating the liberation of individuals, the other mourning the loss of community and moral authority. I suggest that both lines of moral psychology have limited themselves to the moral domain prescribed by the liberation narrative, and so one future step for moral psychology should be to study alternative moral perspectives, particularly religious and politically conservative ones in which morality is, in part, about protecting groups, institutions, and souls. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  3. A moral imperative to improve the quality of work-life for nurses: building inclusive social capital capacity.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyer, Anne

    2003-08-01

    The complexity and incessant change in the corporatised health care workplace has influenced nurses' work choices, morale, quality of work-life and the wellbeing of patients. Thus, there is an urgent moral imperative to improve the quality of work-life for nurses. To this end, it is crucial to re-define progress beyond the sole economic markers of success and profit in the health care workplace. This paper argues for the identification of ethical markers and indicators of organisational success based on bridging and linking social capital which could be used to re-organise health care organisations, hence crafting inclusive moral spaces where nurses can safely work and provide quality care for patients. Social and ethical evaluation is well suited to examine current workplace dilemmas from a psychosocial perspective and provide a framework for best practice in building capacity in effective social relations and family friendly, ethical workplaces.

  4. Children Investing in Their Families: The Importance of Child Obligation in Successful Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisner, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews family responsibility, youth's obligations, and the flows of moral and material capital from child to parents as well as parents to children. Suggests that children's competence in assisting others and ability to make civic contributions affect family survival and children's developmental transitions, social behavior, and cognitive…

  5. Children Investing in Their Families: The Importance of Child Obligation in Successful Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisner, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews family responsibility, youth's obligations, and the flows of moral and material capital from child to parents as well as parents to children. Suggests that children's competence in assisting others and ability to make civic contributions affect family survival and children's developmental transitions, social behavior, and cognitive…

  6. Health researchers' ancillary care obligations in low-resource settings: how can we tell what is morally required?

    PubMed

    Merritt, Maria W

    2011-12-01

    Health researchers working in low-resource settings often encounter serious unmet health needs among participants. What is the nature and extent of researchers' obligations to respond to such needs? Competing accounts have been proposed, but there is no independent standard by which to assess them or to guide future inquiry. I propose an independent standard and demonstrate its use. In conclusion I recommend two areas of focus for future inquiry: what makes an account of researchers' obligations reasonable from the standpoint of both participants and researchers and how general duties of rescue apply to researchers' resource-allocation decision making in low-resource settings.

  7. The moderating effect of conformism values on the relations between other personal values, social norms, moral obligation, and single altruistic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Walkowitz, Gari; Wichardt, Philipp; Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

    2009-09-01

    Three studies predicted and found that the individual's conformism values are one determinant of whether behaviour is guided by other personal values or by social norms. In Study 1 (N=50), pro-gay law reform participants were told they were either in a minority or a majority in terms of their attitude towards the law reform. Only participants who were high in conformism values conformed to the group norm on public behaviour intentions. In studies 2 (N=42) and 3 (N=734), participants played multiple choice prisoner's dilemma games with monetary incentives. Only participants who considered conformism values to be relatively unimportant showed the expected connections between universalism values and altruistic behaviour. Study 3 also established that the moderating effect of conformism values on the relation between universalism values and altruistic behaviour was mediated through experienced sense of moral obligation.

  8. EDITORIAL: Deep brain stimulation, deontology and duty: the moral obligation of non-abandonment at the neural interface Deep brain stimulation, deontology and duty: the moral obligation of non-abandonment at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fins, Joseph J.; MD; FACP

    2009-10-01

    intrusions on their bodies and their selves. Previously, I suggested that stimulation parameters for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders might be manipulated by patients one day. I envisioned a degree of patient discretion, within a pre-set safe range determined by physicians, much like patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pumps give patients control over the dosing of opioid analgesia [3]. I am glad that such an advance is evolving as a means to preserve batteries in the treatment of motor disorders [16]. I would encourage the neural engineers to embrace the ethical mandate to develop additional platforms that might enhance patient self-determination and foster a greater degree of functional independence. While the neuromodulation community has every reason to celebrate its accomplishments, it would be better served by appreciating that the insertion of a device into the human brain comes with, if not the penumbra of sacrilege, a moral obligation to step out of the shadows and remain clearly available to patients and families over the long haul. Although neuromodulation has liberated many patients from the shackles of disease, we need to appreciate that the hardware that has made this possible can remain tethering. The challenge for the next generation of innovators is to minimize these burdens at this neural interface. By reducing barriers to care that exist in an unprepared health care system and developing more user-friendly technology, the neuromodulation community can expand its reach and broaden the relief provided by these neuro-palliative interventions [17]. Acknowledgements and Disclosures Dr Fins is the recipient of an Investigator Award in Health Policy Research (Minds Apart: Severe Brain Injury and Health Policy) from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He also gratefully acknowledges grant support from the Buster Foundation (Neuroethics and Disorders of Consciousness). He is an unfunded co-investigator of a study of deep brain stimulation in the minimally

  9. The moral economy of contemporary working-class adolescence: managing symbolic capital in a French public 'Adolescent Centre'.

    PubMed

    Coutant, Isabelle; Eideliman, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-06-01

    Working-class adolescents of French urban peripheries are key figures in a new social debate that reactivates the nineteenth century spectre of 'dangerous' classes to be controlled. Since the 1990s, French social counselling has privileged two modalities of response: taking account of suffering and government by listening and speech. We hypothesize that the contemporary moral economy allows for social interactions that go beyond social control and institutional domination. This is partly because professionals engaged in this moral undertaking may keep a critical distance, and partly because the concerned populations aren't necessarily devoid of resources to advance their interests or incapable of resistance. The concept of moral economy, coupled with the ethnographic method, is heuristic for fully comprehending the complexity of these issues and their stakes. Our fieldwork was centred on a French Adolescent Centre in an impoverished commune in Paris's periphery, from January 2010 through March 2011. These institutions were established in the early 2000s to respond to adolescent 'suffering' by crossing social work and psychiatry. Adolescents, parents, and other institutions (especially schools) solicit the professionally diverse staff for assistance, which in turn may take on cases and/or make referrals to other support institutions. By paying attention to all the scenes upon which the story of a counselled adolescent evolves, and bearing more general social evolutions in mind by applying the concept of moral economy, we can consider the multiplicity of seemingly contradictory processes as a whole. We see the destabilization of parents and their loss of symbolic capital, partly due to the norms of contemporary parenthood and partly due to the stigmatization of working-class adolescence. But we also discern possibilities for expressing sentiments of injustice and humiliation, for increasing symbolic capital, and in some cases a reappropriation of the system

  10. Do we have a moral obligation to synthesize organisms to increase biodiversity? On kinship, awe, and the value of life's diversity.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Joachim

    2013-10-01

    Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined in order to assess this line of thought. At the cost of introducing two separate capacities of human knowledge acquisition, the 'admiration stance' turns out to reject outright the assumption of a synthetic species' intrinsic value and of an imperative to create novel species. The 'kinship stance' by contrast does ascribe value to both synthetic and natural species and organisms. Nonetheless, while from this perspective creating novel species may become an ethical demand under certain conditions, it favours changing organisms by getting in contact with them rather than synthesizing them. It is concluded that neither the admiration nor the kinship stance warrants a supposed general moral obligation to create novel species to increase biodiversity.

  11. The Moral Economy of Lying: Subjectcraft, Narrative Capital, and Uncertainty in the Politics of Asylum.

    PubMed

    Beneduce, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Based on narratives of asylum-seekers from sub-Saharan Africa in northern Italy, in this article I analyze the narrative strategies used by immigrants to meet the eligibility criteria established by asylum law. For many of them, this means "arranging" biographical details within what I call "a moral economy of lying." The first question I discuss is what types of experience and 'subject positions' these narrative strategies reveal or generate. I then examine the arbitrariness and the bureaucratic violence of the asylum evaluation process, and the role of these procedures in the making of nation-language and current technologies of citizenship. Finally, I consider the politics of testification, recognition, and memory these discourses and practices combine to shape. I analyze these issues from an historical point of view of the politics of identity, truth, and falsehood as imposed in a recent past by colonizers onto the colonized.

  12. Local attitudes, moral obligation, customary obedience and other cultural practices: their influence on the process of gaining informed consent for surgery in a tertiary institution in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Irabor, David O; Omonzejele, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The process of obtaining informed consent in a teaching hospital in a developing country (e.g. Nigeria) is shaped by factors which, to the Western world, may be seen to be anti-autonomous: autonomy being one of the pillars of an ideal informed consent. However, the mix of cultural bioethics and local moral obligation in the face of communal tradition ensures a mutually acceptable informed consent process. Paternalism is indeed encouraged by the patients who prefer to see the doctor as all-powerful and all-knowing, and this is buttressed by the cultural practice of customary obedience to those 'above you': either in age or social rank. The local moral obligation reassures the patients that those in authority will always look after others placed in their care without recourse to lengthy discussions or signed documentation, while the communal traditions ensure that the designated head of a family unit has the honor and sole responsibility of assenting and consenting to an operation to be carried out on a younger, or female, member of the family. Indeed it is to only a few educated patients that the informed consent process is deemed a shield against litigation by the doctors. This paper later addresses the need for physicians to update their knowledge on the process of informed consent through the attendance of biomedical ethics courses, which should highlight socio-cultural practices that may make this process different from the Western concept, but perfectly acceptable in this setting.

  13. Moral Resilience: Managing and Preventing Moral Distress and Moral Residue.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Vicki D

    2016-01-01

    Moral resilience is the ability to deal with an ethically adverse situation without lasting effects of moral distress and moral residue. This requires morally courageous action, activating needed supports and doing the right thing. Morally resilient people also have developed self-confidence by confronting such situations so they can maintain their self-esteem, no matter what life delivers. Finally, the ability to adapt to changing circumstances with a sense of humor is at the heart of their flexibility. Morally resilient nurses are not naïve about the price of moral integrity. They know it does not come without pain of dealing with adversity, but they believe the virtue of moral courage is necessary to meet the ethical obligations of their profession (ANA, 2015b).

  14. Children's Moral Relationships with Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; McCoy, Ann

    Two studies of the development of children's moral relationships with nature addressed such questions as: (1) What does it mean to say that we have an obligation not to harm the natural environment? (2) Does the natural environment feel pain? (3) Does it have rights? or (4) Is moral obligation an inappropriate construct by which to understand the…

  15. Cultural Generality of the Integration of Obligation and Other Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jen-Shou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. One is to assess the cultural generality of the information integration rule for moral obligation. The other is to examine how people integrate moral obligation and self-interest. Two studies were implemented following the functional measurement methodology with Chinese samples. Study 1 replicated the…

  16. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    PubMed

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  17. 26 CFR 1.166-10 - Reserve for guaranteed debt obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... obligation. A guaranteed debt obligation is a legal duty of one person as a guarantor, endorser or indemnitor of a second person to pay a third person. It does not include duties based solely on moral or good...

  18. 26 CFR 1.166-10 - Reserve for guaranteed debt obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... obligation. A guaranteed debt obligation is a legal duty of one person as a guarantor, endorser or indemnitor of a second person to pay a third person. It does not include duties based solely on moral or good...

  19. Patients' ethical obligation for their health.

    PubMed Central

    Sider, R C; Clements, C D

    1984-01-01

    In contemporary medical ethics health is rarely acknowledged to be an ethical obligation. This oversight is due to the preoccupation of most bioethicists with a rationalist, contract model for ethics in which moral obligation is limited to truth-telling and promise-keeping. Such an ethics is poorly suited to medicine because it fails to appreciate that medicine's basis as a moral enterprise is oriented towards health values. A naturalistic model for medical ethics is proposed which builds upon biological and medical values. This perspective clarifies ethical obligations to ourselves and to others for life and health. It provides a normative framework for the doctor-patient relationship within which to formulate medical advice and by which to evaluate patient choice. PMID:6502640

  20. Patients' ethical obligation for their health.

    PubMed

    Sider, R C; Clements, C D

    1984-09-01

    In contemporary medical ethics health is rarely acknowledged to be an ethical obligation. This oversight is due to the preoccupation of most bioethicists with a rationalist, contract model for ethics in which moral obligation is limited to truth-telling and promise-keeping. Such an ethics is poorly suited to medicine because it fails to appreciate that medicine's basis as a moral enterprise is oriented towards health values. A naturalistic model for medical ethics is proposed which builds upon biological and medical values. This perspective clarifies ethical obligations to ourselves and to others for life and health. It provides a normative framework for the doctor-patient relationship within which to formulate medical advice and by which to evaluate patient choice.

  1. Moral Obligation and the Military: Collected Essays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    millenial expectations of the second com- ing of the Christ and placed these expectations on earth. The problem to be addressed is how do you change (get rid...the two main Com- munist powers, Russia and China, are still undisguised enemies. The Soviet Union has higher rates of suicide and alcoholism than...the terrorists who conducted suicide bombings of the US Embassy in Beirut, to succumb easily to torture? Our POWs did not have an irrational

  2. Recognizing Moral Identity as a Cultural Construct

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fanli; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Current research on moral identity shows that moral identity predicts moral action in Western cultures but not in non-Western cultures. The present paper argues that this may be due to the fact that the concept of moral identity is culturally biased. In order to remedy this situation, we argue that researchers should broaden their scopes of inquiry by adding a cultural lens to their studies of moral identity. This change is important because although some concept of moral identity likely exists in all cultures, it may function in different ways and at different levels in each place. We propose that moral identity is a context-dependent construct tied to varying social and cultural obligations. We argue that Western moral identity stresses an individually oriented morality, whereas, people from Eastern cultures consider a highly moral person to be societally oriented. We conclude by discussing the implications of this view for future research. PMID:28377737

  3. Moral Intuitions, Moral Expertise and Moral Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Albert W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral judgements. Deliberate and critical reasoning is…

  4. Moral Intuitions, Moral Expertise and Moral Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Albert W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral judgements. Deliberate and critical reasoning is…

  5. Moral alchemy: How love changes norms.

    PubMed

    Magid, Rachel W; Schulz, Laura E

    2017-04-09

    We discuss a process by which non-moral concerns (that is concerns agreed to be non-moral within a particular cultural context) can take on moral content. We refer to this phenomenon as moral alchemy and suggest that it arises because moral obligations of care entail recursively valuing loved ones' values, thus allowing propositions with no moral weight in themselves to become morally charged. Within this framework, we predict that when people believe a loved one cares about a behavior more than they do themselves, the moral imperative to care about the loved one's interests will raise the value of that behavior, such that people will be more likely to infer that third parties will see the behavior as wrong (Experiment 1) and the behavior itself as more morally important (Experiment 2) than when the same behaviors are considered outside the context of a caring relationship. The current study confirmed these predictions.

  6. On Teaching Morality to Law Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Within the limits of law and process, the lawyer's concern must be the client's cause, not his own agenda. Effective legal representation requires objectivity. The lawyer's role is to counsel legality, not morality, and the law school's responsibility is to teach law, not moral obligation. (MSE)

  7. The Development of Moral Responsibility in Friendship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Monika; Edelstein, Wolfgang

    In this study, reasoning about moral responsibilities in friendships on the part of 97 subjects was assessed at the ages of 7, 9, 12, and 15 years. Assessment was undertaken of: (1) general reasoning about the moral obligation of promise keeping; (2) general reasoning about responsibilities in friendship; and (3) situation-specific reasoning about…

  8. Promoting Moral Growth through Pluralism and Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames…

  9. Promoting Moral Growth through Pluralism and Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames…

  10. Measuring Intergenerational Obligations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have defined intergenerational obligations in diverse ways, and they have used many labels and ways of measuring intergenerational obligations. Using vignettes, we compared responses to questions about what family members should do when another family member needed assistance ("normative obligations") with responses to questions about…

  11. Measuring Intergenerational Obligations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have defined intergenerational obligations in diverse ways, and they have used many labels and ways of measuring intergenerational obligations. Using vignettes, we compared responses to questions about what family members should do when another family member needed assistance ("normative obligations") with responses to questions about…

  12. Moral distress and moral disempowerment.

    PubMed

    Carse, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    Moral distress can consist in anxiety or concern about one's capacity to meet challenges to one's integrity; it can also consist in the sense that one has failed to meet these challenges, betraying fundamental moral values or commitments. When the sense of moral failure is compounded by feelings of frustration or impotence, of being constrained or impeded in one's ability to act as one believes one ought, one experiences moral disempowerment. Drawing on narratives of moral distress emerging from work in the clinical context, this essay explores a distinction between cases in which moral distress does, and does not, center around the experience of moral disempowerment. When moral distress is tied to moral disempowerment, the acute personal toll is joined with broader moral costs, for effective moral agency is stymied. If we are to support individuals' resilience and effectiveness in working constructively with moral distress, we need to understand and redress the social, systemic, and institutional factors contributing to moral disempowerment.

  13. 26 CFR 1.453-9 - Gain or loss on disposition of installment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... be recognized to a distributing corporation with respect to the distribution made after November 13...) Installment obligations transmitted at death. Where installment obligations are transmitted at death, see... gains and capital losses of individuals. (g) Disposition of installment obligations to life insurance...

  14. Euthanasia and physicians' moral duties.

    PubMed

    Seay, Gary

    2005-10-01

    Opponents of euthanasia sometimes argue that it is incompatible with the purpose of medicine, since physicians have an unconditional duty never to intentionally cause death. But it is not clear how such a duty could ever actually be unconditional, if due consideration is given to the moral weight of countervailing duties equally fundamental to medicine. Whether physicians' moral duties are understood as correlative with patients' moral rights or construed noncorrelatively, a doctor's obligation to abstain from intentional killing cannot be more than a defeasible duty.

  15. Morality is real, objective, and supernatural.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to briefly introduce and defend the idea that God is the source of our moral obligations. In contrast to Michael Shermer's paper, which defends a naturalistic position about the foundations of morality, this approach is explicitly supernaturalistic. The paper begins by defining how "God" will be understood, and then spells out some of the details of how, on the proposed view, moral obligations are to depend upon God. The third section briefly reviews some of the leading arguments for this view, before the paper concludes with a discussion of the Euthyphro dilemma.

  16. Teaching Morally and Teaching Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…

  17. Moral Psychology Is Relationship Regulation: Moral Motives for Unity, Hierarchy, Equality, and Proportionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral…

  18. Moral Psychology Is Relationship Regulation: Moral Motives for Unity, Hierarchy, Equality, and Proportionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral…

  19. In a moral dilemma, choose the one you love: Impartial actors are seen as less moral than partial ones.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jamie S

    2017-09-01

    Although impartiality and concern for the greater good are lauded by utilitarian philosophies, it was predicted that when values conflict, those who acted impartially rather than partially would be viewed as less moral. Across four studies, using life-or-death scenarios and more mundane ones, support for the idea that relationship obligations are important in moral attribution was found. In Studies 1-3, participants rated an impartial actor as less morally good and his or her action as less moral compared to a partial actor. Experimental and correlational evidence showed the effect was driven by inferences about an actor's capacity for empathy and compassion. In Study 4, the relationship obligation hypothesis was refined. The data suggested that violations of relationship obligations are perceived as moral as long as strong alternative justifications sanction them. Discussion centres on the importance of relationships in understanding moral attributions. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. NCI & Division Obligations

    Cancer.gov

    Displays obligations for grants, contracts, training fellowships, intramural research, and management and support, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percent of the total NCI budget.

  1. Engineering and the problem of moral overload.

    PubMed

    Van den Hoven, Jeroen; Lokhorst, Gert-Jan; Van de Poel, Ibo

    2012-03-01

    When thinking about ethics, technology is often only mentioned as the source of our problems, not as a potential solution to our moral dilemmas. When thinking about technology, ethics is often only mentioned as a constraint on developments, not as a source and spring of innovation. In this paper, we argue that ethics can be the source of technological development rather than just a constraint and technological progress can create moral progress rather than just moral problems. We show this by an analysis of how technology can contribute to the solution of so-called moral overload or moral dilemmas. Such dilemmas typically create a moral residue that is the basis of a second-order principle that tells us to reshape the world so that we can meet all our moral obligations. We can do so, among other things, through guided technological innovation. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

  2. The Emotional Toll of Obligation and Teachers' Disengagement from the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.; Phelan, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Obligation, or the binding responsibility to respond to the other, both lends teaching its moral integrity, but also takes an enormous emotional toll on those who teach. Obligation is of particular importance today given that education is increasingly being restructured by ideologies of the market and managerialism that seek to minimize the moral…

  3. Smoking Policies: An Analysis of School District Obligation and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmeister, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Begins with a brief review of scientific research on adverse health consequences caused by smoking, then examines the school district role in balancing competing interests of smokers and nonsmokers. States that school districts have a financial and moral obligation to reduce potential health risks and legal liabilities (148 references) (MLF)

  4. Encountering Obligation in Qualitative Educational Research: A Postmodern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Hans; Friesen, David; Hicks, Nancy; Leroy, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Stories about qualitative educational research situations point out moral dilemmas related to the meaning and shape of researcher obligation: questions that go beyond research codes of ethics. A postmodern-hermeneutic reading of the stories suggests three themes: the intersubjective and lived aspect of qualitative research, the irreducibility of…

  5. Are moral philosophers moral experts?

    PubMed

    Gesang, Bernward

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I examine the question of whether ethicists are moral experts. I call people moral experts if their moral judgments are correct with high probability and for the right reasons. I defend three theses, while developing a version of the coherence theory of moral justification based on the differences between moral and nonmoral experience: The answer to the question of whether there are moral experts depends on the answer to the question of how to justify moral judgments. Deductivism and the coherence theory both provide some support for the opinion that moral experts exist in some way. I maintain - within the framework of a certain kind of coherence theory - that moral philosophers are 'semi-experts'.

  6. On the Necessary Relation between Moral Development and Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Susana; Delgado, Guillermo Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In this article we elaborate on the relationship between morality, moral development, moral education and capitalism. Based on Narvaez's (EJ1111256) correct critique of the Western way of life, which is destroying the environment and may one day lead to extinction of life on Earth, we argue that this critique should not be stripped of its…

  7. On the Necessary Relation between Moral Development and Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Susana; Delgado, Guillermo Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In this article we elaborate on the relationship between morality, moral development, moral education and capitalism. Based on Narvaez's (EJ1111256) correct critique of the Western way of life, which is destroying the environment and may one day lead to extinction of life on Earth, we argue that this critique should not be stripped of its…

  8. The Duty to Rescue and Investigators' Obligations.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Douglas; Rulli, Tina

    We examine current applications of the moral duty to rescue to justify clinical investigators' duties of ancillary care and standard of care to subjects in resource-poor settings. These applications fail to explain why investigators possess obligations to research participants, in particular, and not to people in need, in general. Further, these applications fail to recognize the normative significance of the institutional role of the investigators. We offer a positive account of the duty to rescue for investigators as institutional agents, with duties to populations rather than merely individuals.

  9. Moral Exclusion, Personal Goal Theory, and Extreme Destructiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Ervin

    1990-01-01

    Describes how certain motives can combine with the exclusion of people from the moral universe, leading to torture, genocide, and mass killing. Personal goal theory is presented as a framework that guides moral conduct. Discusses the psychological bases of exclusion and inclusion. Discusses the power and obligation of bystanders. (JS)

  10. Moral and Ethical Issues in Teacher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    This digest addresses two components in the moral and ethical preparation of teachers: identification and assessment of professional ethical concepts and structures in teacher education, and foundations and specific models for the preservice training of teachers of character. A teacher's first moral obligation is to provide excellent instruction.…

  11. 24 CFR 891.415 - Obligations of the household or family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Project Management § 891.415 Obligations of the household or family. This section shall apply to capital... verification of Social Security Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B, and the signing...

  12. 24 CFR 891.415 - Obligations of the household or family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Project Management § 891.415 Obligations of the household or family. This section shall apply to capital... verification of Social Security Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B, and the signing...

  13. Moral Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Opponents of biomedical enhancement often claim that, even if such enhancement would benefit the enhanced, it would harm others. But this objection looks unpersuasive when the enhancement in question is a moral enhancement — an enhancement that will expectably leave the enhanced person with morally better motives than she had previously. In this article I (1) describe one type of psychological alteration that would plausibly qualify as a moral enhancement, (2) argue that we will, in the medium-term future, probably be able to induce such alterations via biomedical intervention, and (3) defend future engagement in such moral enhancements against possible objections. My aim is to present this kind of moral enhancement as a counter-example to the view that biomedical enhancement is always morally impermissible. PMID:19132138

  14. 11 CFR 9034.5 - Net outstanding campaign obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Capital assets include items such as computer systems and telecommunications systems, if the equipment is... fair market value. If the candidate receives public funding for the general election, a lower fair... outstanding campaign obligations has been otherwise overstated in relation to committee assets, the...

  15. The Moral Universes of Libertarian Press Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuliger, Gregory T.

    1991-01-01

    Uses Kantian logic to analyze the statement of Libertarian press theory "Truth beats falsehood in a free marketplace of ideas" as a definition, an observation, and a universal truth. Notes three corresponding moral universes, with differing ethical obligations. Discusses strengths and weaknesses of each. Cautions media ethics analysts…

  16. Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J.

    2011-01-01

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced “self-conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or “collective” experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process—other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797

  17. Moral status: what a bad idea!

    PubMed

    Silvers, A

    2012-11-01

    Advocates of people with disabilities sometimes have advanced their cause within a conceptual frame of human exceptionalism, shaped specifically by one or another proposal about a moral property or capacity with which human individuals alone are endowed. This essay is a philosophical reflection about the notion of moral status. Arguments presented here show, however, that framing the pursuit of protection for people with disabilities in terms of humanity's exceptional moral status is more hazardous than helpful. Appeals to moral status do not settle debates about whether there are obligations to provide protection and support for individuals with disabilities because the idea of moral status is as contentious as the disagreements it is invoked to resolve. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper 'Is it good to make happy people?', Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that Rachels' view is exposed to very serious objections, and secondly, that his arguments in support of his position involve a crucial assumption, which cannot be sustained, concerning the relation between, on the one hand, propositions about good-making and bad-making properties, and, on the other, propositions about right-making and wrong-making ones. I shall then argue that there is a very plausible position concerning the conditions under which an action can be morally wrong which entails the following asymmetry: there is a prima facie obligation not to bring into existence individuals whose lives are not worth living, but there is no corresponding obligation to create additional individuals whose lives would be worth living.

  19. Modals of Strong Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews-Bresky, R. J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses regularities and peculiarities in the use of the modal verbs of obligation "must,""need" and "should," also of the non-modals "have (got) to" and "need to." Agreements and differences in the use of the verbs are shown, with examples. Use of the various tense-forms is discussed. (IFS/WGA)

  20. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  1. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  2. Moral Chivalry

    PubMed Central

    Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Navrady, Lauren; Tedeschi, Ellen; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Moral perceptions of harm and fairness are instrumental in guiding how an individual navigates moral challenges. Classic research documents that the gender of a target can affect how people deploy these perceptions of harm and fairness. Across multiple studies, we explore the effect of an individual’s moral orientations (their considerations of harm and justice) and a target’s gender on altruistic behavior. Results reveal that a target’s gender can bias one’s readiness to engage in harmful actions and that a decider’s considerations of harm—but not fairness concerns—modulate costly altruism. Together, these data illustrate that moral choices are conditional on the social nature of the moral dyad: Even under the same moral constraints, a target’s gender and a decider’s gender can shift an individual’s choice to be more or less altruistic, suggesting that gender bias and harm considerations play a significant role in moral cognition. PMID:27478541

  3. Moral communities.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-11-01

    This article explores the twin issues of whether organizations can act as ethical agents and what it means to exert moral influence over others. A discursive perspective is advanced that characterizes ethics as the action of communities based on promises. The received view of ethics as either the universal principles or individual responsibility is criticized as inadequate. Moral influence within community is considered under the various headings of democracy, office, brotherhood, agency, witness, and promise making. Moral influence among communities can include the damaging methods of "the superior position," coercion and misrepresentation, and appeal to third parties and the sound methods of rhetoric and promise making.

  4. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result.

  5. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them.

  6. Moral transhumanism.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2010-12-01

    In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens. Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens. In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research and therapy should make humans in the biological sense more human in the moral sense, even if they cease to be human in the biological sense. This serves valuable biomedical ends like the promotion of health and well-being, for if humans do not become more moral, civilization is threatened. It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens.

  7. The dual moral self: moral centrality and internal moral motivation.

    PubMed

    Krettenauer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between two aspects of the moral self, moral centrality and internal moral motivation, was analyzed. It is argued that these 2 aspects are conceptually distinct but nonetheless empirically related. Based on a cross-sectional study of 205 adolescents (M age = 14.83 years, SD = 2.21 years) it was found that moral centrality and internal moral motivation, even though substantially correlated, interacted in predicting moral emotion expectancies. Even though moral centrality was unrelated to adolescents' age it predicted a longitudinal increase in internal moral motivation over a 1-year interval. Overall, the findings call for a differentiation of moral centrality and internal moral motivation as 2 distinct but interrelated aspects of moral self-development that follow different developmental trajectories and are differentially related to age. At the same time, the study points out that adolescence may be less important for the development of the moral self than commonly assumed.

  8. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  9. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  10. Moral Communities and Moral Leadership.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership.

  11. Thermal adaptation in yeast: obligate psychrophiles are obligate aerobes, and obligate thermophiles are facultative anaerobes.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, K; Arthur, H; Morton, H

    1978-01-01

    The obligate psychrophilic yeasts Torulopsis psychrophila, T. austromarina, Leucosporidium frigidum, L. gelidum, and L. nivalis were obligate aerobes and were unable to grow anaerobically. In contrast, the obligate thermophilic yeasts T. bovina, T. pintolopesii, Candida slooffii, and Saccharomyces telluris were facultative anaerobes. PMID:568620

  12. Moral conflict and collaborative mode as moral conflict resolution in health care.

    PubMed

    Jormsri, Pantip

    2004-09-01

    Moral conflict as a complex moral issue in health care has emerged from several causes that are related to different values, beliefs and opinions. Moral conflict can occur when duties and obligations of health care providers or general guiding ethical principles are unclear. Health care providers and institutions or agencies need to resolve or initiate appropriate methods for professional staff so they can recognize, discuss and resolve moral conflicts in the health care delivery system. Collaborative mode is a useful method for moral conflict resolution, because patient care is a complex phenomenon that results from the integrated knowledge and work of individuals with different professional training. In the process of collaborative practice, all members need to respect each other's opinions, values and responsibilities regarding patient care.

  13. Challenging the moral status of blood donation.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organisation encourages that blood donation becomes voluntary and unremunerated, a system already operated in the UK. Drawing on public documents and videos, this paper argues that blood donation is regarded and presented as altruistic and supererogatory. In advertisements, donation is presented as something undertaken for the benefit of others, a matter attracting considerable gratitude from recipients and the collecting organisation. It is argued that regarding blood donation as an act of supererogation is wrongheaded, and an alternative account of blood donation as moral obligation is presented. Two arguments are offered in support of this position. First, the principle of beneficence, understood in a broad consequentialist framework obliges donation where the benefit to the recipient is large and the cost to the donor relatively small. This argument can be applied, with differing levels of normativity, to various acts of donation. Second, the wrongness of free riding requires individuals to contribute to collective systems from which they benefit. Alone and in combination these arguments present moral reasons for donation, recognised in communication strategies elsewhere. Research is required to evaluate the potential effects on donation of a campaign which presents blood donation as moral obligation, but of wider importance is the recognition that other-regarding considerations in relation to our own as well as others' health result in a range not only of choices but also of obligations.

  14. Human morality and temperament.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical

  15. Moral learning as intuitive theory revision.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Wellman, Henry

    2016-09-06

    We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action. Thus, moral learning involves development and change in each of these theories of the world across childhood, as well as developmental change in how children integrate information from these two intuitive theories. This perspective is supported by a series of research studies on young children's moral reasoning and learning, and compared to other developmental approaches, including more traditional forms of constructivism and more recent nativist perspectives.

  16. Learning from moral inconsistency.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Richmond

    2017-10-01

    Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency. The same psychological process also can function to revise current moral norms when their straightforward applications are morally inconsistent with more basic moral commitments. Through this moral learning and related kinds, people can learn how to identify issues of moral priority when moral norms conflict and, when necessary, how to revise their moral norms. The recent revolution in dominant moral norms around gay sex and gay marriage in Europe and North America provides a possible illustration. When coupled with other modes of moral learning in the context of ambiguous but deeply rooted moral norms, such as those of sanctity and authority, reflection on moral inconsistency can help to justify this large-scale moral change, even among those who find gay sex, by its nature, morally repugnant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. What are the public obligations to AIDS patients?

    PubMed

    Kelley, David

    2002-01-01

    The operating assumption in most discussions of health policy is that government has some responsibility for the health of its citizens and that it may legitimately tax, subsidize, and regulate its citizens in the exercise of that responsibility. On this assumption, public obligations to HIV/AIDS patients are a function of their needs in relationship to other health needs. This paper challenges the operating assumption by arguing that it cannot be grounded in the obligations that individuals have to each other. The paper rests on its own assumption: the moral theory of individualism. On this theory, individuals are ends in themselves who have the right to choose their own actions and uses of their resources; they do not have unchosen obligations to help others. In regard to HIV/AIDS patients, consequently, individuals have no duty to help, nor any other obligation beyond that of respecting their rights; and there is no valid basis for government regulations or subsidies on their behalf. The paper argues against the two approaches commonly used to defend a more expansive view of individual obligations and the role of government. The first is the assumption of welfare rights to goods and services; the second is the assumption that distributive justice requires some redistribution of health care resources.

  18. The Moral Obligation of the Government to Recover POWs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-12

    Freedom by James Rowe, and Surviving Hell by Leo Thorsness, several of a great many primary sources that tell autobiographically of life as a POW. A...from the collective social memory , allowing the government to politically maneuver itself for the next adversarial engagement. The political climate

  19. Citizens' obligation to obey the law: an empirical study of Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shanhe; Wu, Yuning; Wang, Jin

    2013-04-01

    For thousands of years, China primarily used morality for its social control. Since its economic reform starting in 1978, China has moved toward legal control. Two fundamental questions, however, remain understudied in China: (a) the degree to which citizens feel obligated to obey the law and (b) the sources of citizens' perceived obligation to obey the law. This study was intended to answer these questions based on random surveys of 1,196 residents from Guangzhou, China. The study revealed that the vast majority of citizens in Guangzhou felt obligated to obey the law irrespective of their personal feelings. Normative and instrumental perspectives were important sources of Guangzhou citizens' perceived obligation to obey the law. In addition, Guangzhou citizens' perception of obligation to obey the law was related to not only individual-level variables but also neighborhood contextual factors.

  20. Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The 1974 Educational Testing Service (ETS) Measurement Award was presented to J.P. Guilford at the ETS Invitational Conference. Irving Kristol, in "Moral and Ethical Development in a Democratic Society," called for the restoration of authority within our major social institutions, especially schools. Martin Trow examined the effects of the college…

  1. Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahel, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Explains the rationale that there should be a kind of harmony between moral understanding or reasoning on the one hand, and the feeling dispositions on the other hand. Considers the views of Kant and Schopenhauer as they apply to the subject. (Author/RK)

  2. Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahel, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Explains the rationale that there should be a kind of harmony between moral understanding or reasoning on the one hand, and the feeling dispositions on the other hand. Considers the views of Kant and Schopenhauer as they apply to the subject. (Author/RK)

  3. Moral instability: the upsides for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Joan

    2010-04-01

    This article briefly outlines some of the key problems with the way in which the moral realm has traditionally been understood and analysed. I propose two alternative views of what is morally interesting and applicable to nursing practice and I indicate that instability has its upsides. I begin with a moral tale - a 'Good Samaritan' story - which raises fairly usual questions about the nature of morality but also the more philosophically fundamental question about the relationship between subjectivity and moral agency. I then consider this relationship from the perspectives of two twentieth century philosophers: Emmanuel Levinas and Michel Foucault. Levinas' basic point is that the experience of ethical subjectivity is made possible through others: the demand to respond to the existence of others is the basic social structure that precedes individual freedom. If Levinas posits intersubjectivity as a fundamental or primitive feature of the moral realm, Foucault poses an even more basic question: how have moral subjects and relations of obligation been constituted? The aim of ethical inquiry, for Foucault, is to describe the network of discourses, institutions, relations, and practices through which certain kinds of subjects are constituted and constitute themselves, e.g. as a kind of person who can act morally. Finally, I consider some recent research in philosophy of nursing which illustrates how Levinasian and/or Foucauldian perspectives can deepen understanding of nurses' moral practices, specifically, the work of Norwegian public health nurses, Canadian pediatric nurses, and Irish midwives. I suggest that in spite of the instability of morality in general and the particular ethical challenges that face nurses, there are grounds for hope and possible strategies for living in unstable times.

  4. The Moral Laboratory: On Kant's Notion of Pedagogy as a Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrath, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Following Kant, it is clear "that," but probably not completely "how" we are morally obligated. I will point out that there are three possible ways to struggle for an understanding of how we can be obligated as rational beings and also as "ordinary human beings." There is (a) the argument from rational feeling ("Achtung"), (b) the argument from…

  5. The Moral Laboratory: On Kant's Notion of Pedagogy as a Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrath, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Following Kant, it is clear "that," but probably not completely "how" we are morally obligated. I will point out that there are three possible ways to struggle for an understanding of how we can be obligated as rational beings and also as "ordinary human beings." There is (a) the argument from rational feeling ("Achtung"), (b) the argument from…

  6. Moral Realism Revisited: On Achievable Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ternasky, P. Lance

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses moral education in public schools. It proposes a realist model of moral realism derived from the work of Richard Boyd and Peter Railton, arguing that it offers relief from skepticism faced by moral educators and a foundation for teachable, achievable morality. (SM)

  7. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  8. Grounding Moralism: Moral Flaws and Aesthetic Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuts, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Can moral flaws lessen an artwork's aesthetic value? Answering yes to this question requires both that artworks can be morally flawed and that moral flaws within a work of art can have an aesthetic impact. For present purposes, the author will assume that artworks can be morally flawed by such means as endorsing immoral perspectives, culpably…

  9. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  10. Virtual Morality: Transitioning from Moral Judgment to Moral Action?

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Kathryn B.; Howard, Charles; Howard, Ian S.; Gummerum, Michaela; Ganis, Giorgio; Anderson, Grace; Terbeck, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses–killing one in order to save many others–when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts. Heart rate in virtual moral dilemmas was significantly increased when compared to both judgment counterparts and control virtual tasks. Our research suggests that moral action may be viewed as an independent construct to moral judgment, with VR methods delivering new prospects for investigating and assessing moral behaviour. PMID:27723826

  11. Virtual Morality: Transitioning from Moral Judgment to Moral Action?

    PubMed

    Francis, Kathryn B; Howard, Charles; Howard, Ian S; Gummerum, Michaela; Ganis, Giorgio; Anderson, Grace; Terbeck, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses-killing one in order to save many others-when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts. Heart rate in virtual moral dilemmas was significantly increased when compared to both judgment counterparts and control virtual tasks. Our research suggests that moral action may be viewed as an independent construct to moral judgment, with VR methods delivering new prospects for investigating and assessing moral behaviour.

  12. Moral psychology is relationship regulation: moral motives for unity, hierarchy, equality, and proportionality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity of in-groups by avoiding or eliminating threats of contamination and providing aid and protection based on need or empathic compassion. Hierarchy is the motive to respect rank in social groups where superiors are entitled to deference and respect but must also lead, guide, direct, and protect subordinates. Equality is the motive for balanced, in-kind reciprocity, equal treatment, equal say, and equal opportunity. Proportionality is the motive for rewards and punishments to be proportionate to merit, benefits to be calibrated to contributions, and judgments to be based on a utilitarian calculus of costs and benefits. The 4 moral motives are universal, but cultures, ideologies, and individuals differ in where they activate these motives and how they implement them. Unlike existing theories (Haidt, 2007; Hauser, 2006; Turiel, 1983), relationship regulation theory predicts that any action, including violence, unequal treatment, and "impure" acts, may be perceived as morally correct depending on the moral motive employed and how the relevant social relationship is construed. This approach facilitates clearer understanding of moral perspectives we disagree with and provides a template for how to influence moral motives and practices in the world.

  13. The community of nursing: moral friends, moral strangers, moral family.

    PubMed

    Laabs, Carolyn A

    2008-10-01

    Unlike bioethicists who contend that there is a morality common to all, H. Tristan Engelhardt (1996) argues that, in a pluralistic secular society, any morality that does exist is loosely connected, lacks substantive moral content, is based on the principle of permission and, thus, is a morality between moral strangers. This, says Engelhardt, stands in contrast to a substance-full morality that exists between moral friends, a morality in which moral content is based on shared beliefs and values and exists in communities that tend to be closely knit and religiously based. Of what value does Engelhardt's description of ethics as moral friends and moral strangers have for nursing? In this essay, I attempt to show how Engelhardt's description serves to illustrate how the nursing community historically had been one of moral friends but has gradually become one of moral strangers and, hence, at risk of failing to protect patients in their vulnerability and of compromising the integrity of nursing. Building on Engelhardt's concepts, I suggest we might consider modern nursing like a moral family to the extent that members might at times relate to one another as moral strangers but still possess a desire and a need to reconnect with the common thread that binds us as moral friends. Nursing is a practice discipline. Given the challenges of modern bioethics, an applied ethic is needed to give moral direction to clinicians as we strive to conduct ourselves ethically in the practice of our profession. To that end, nursing should reflect upon and seek to reconnect with the content-full morality that is historically and religiously based.

  14. Moral Dilemmas and Moral Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Shaun; Mallon, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Recent work shows an important asymmetry in lay intuitions about moral dilemmas. Most people think it is permissible to divert a train so that it will kill one innocent person instead of five, but most people think that it is not permissible to push a stranger in front of a train to save five innocents. We argue that recent emotion-based…

  15. Bridging Accountability Obligations, Professional Values and (Perceived) Student Needs with Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the tensions between external accountability obligations, educator's professional values, and student needs. Strategic, cognitive, and moral dimensions of this tension are captured with the central category of integrity. Design/methodology/approach: This is a mixed methods study that compares five…

  16. Bridging Accountability Obligations, Professional Values and (Perceived) Student Needs with Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the tensions between external accountability obligations, educator's professional values, and student needs. Strategic, cognitive, and moral dimensions of this tension are captured with the central category of integrity. Design/methodology/approach: This is a mixed methods study that compares five…

  17. Relationship of Prosocial Moral Reasoning to Altruism, Political Liberalism, and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg-Berg, Nancy

    1979-01-01

    Investigates whether several factors (intelligence, political liberalism, and altruistic behavior) previously found to be related to prohibition moral reasoning (about issues involving laws, rules, authorities, and formal obligations) are also associated with level of prosocial moral reasoning. Students in grades 9, 11, and 12 were tested.…

  18. Bayous and Jungle Rivers: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Children's Environmental Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Examines environmental moral reasoning and values in African American children and their parents in Houston and Brazilian children in a large city and in a river village along the Amazon. Finds similarities of moral concerns and obligations to the environment in all three communities, structured by concerns for human welfare, fairness, and rights.…

  19. Generation Conservation: Children's Developing Folkbiological and Moral Conceptions of Protecting Endangered Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruckert, Jolina H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated folkbiological concepts that structure children's moral reasoning regarding conservation. Participants (N = 52; 7- and 10-year-olds, gender balanced) were interviewed regarding their values, moral obligations, and rights concerns for endangered and extinct animals. Across the 2 ages, children drew on the…

  20. Children's Moral and Ecological Reasoning about the Prince William Sound Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the moral and ecological reasoning of second, fifth, and eighth graders regarding the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Found that children understood negative effects of the spill, cared that harm occurred to shoreline and marine life, and thought it violated a moral obligation. Fifth and eighth graders used a greater proportion of anthropocentric…

  1. Generation Conservation: Children's Developing Folkbiological and Moral Conceptions of Protecting Endangered Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruckert, Jolina H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated folkbiological concepts that structure children's moral reasoning regarding conservation. Participants (N = 52; 7- and 10-year-olds, gender balanced) were interviewed regarding their values, moral obligations, and rights concerns for endangered and extinct animals. Across the 2 ages, children drew on the…

  2. Children's Moral and Ecological Reasoning about the Prince William Sound Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the moral and ecological reasoning of second, fifth, and eighth graders regarding the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Found that children understood negative effects of the spill, cared that harm occurred to shoreline and marine life, and thought it violated a moral obligation. Fifth and eighth graders used a greater proportion of anthropocentric…

  3. Bayous and Jungle Rivers: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Children's Environmental Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Examines environmental moral reasoning and values in African American children and their parents in Houston and Brazilian children in a large city and in a river village along the Amazon. Finds similarities of moral concerns and obligations to the environment in all three communities, structured by concerns for human welfare, fairness, and rights.…

  4. How to understand a woman's obligations to the fetus in unwanted pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hine, Kristen

    2013-06-01

    Some have challenged Thomson's case of the famous unconscious violinist (UV) by arguing that in cases of consensual sex a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus; since she is partially responsible she ought to assist the fetus, and so abortion is morally wrong. Call this the Responsibility Objection (RO) to UV. In this paper, I briefly criticize one of the most widely discussed objections to RO and then suggest a new way to challenge RO. In so doing, I investigate the plausibility of the moral principle that appears to be driving RO: If a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus, she has a moral obligation to assist the fetus. I argue that this principle is false. I suggest modified versions of this principle but argue that, even on the most plausible version, RO does not persuade.

  5. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  6. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  7. The Ebola outbreak in Western Africa: ethical obligations for care.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Aminu; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick; Peterson, Kristin; Brown, Brandon

    2016-04-01

    The recent wave of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Western Africa and efforts to control the disease where the health system requires strengthening raises a number of ethical challenges for healthcare workers practicing in these countries. We discuss the implications of weak health systems for controlling EVD and limitations of the ethical obligation to provide care for patients with EVD using Nigeria as a case study. We highlight the right of healthcare workers to protection that should be obligatorily provided by the government. Where the national government cannot meet this obligation, healthcare workers only have a moral and not a professional obligation to provide care to patients with EVD. The national government also has an obligation to adequately compensate healthcare workers that become infected in the course of duty. Institutionalisation of policies that protect healthcare workers are required for effective control of the spread of highly contagious diseases like EVD in a timely manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Grandfathering: is it a fair capital payment transition approach?

    PubMed

    Littell, C L; Dummit, L A

    1987-08-01

    The concept of grandfathering capital obligations was discussed in last year's Congressional debate over capital payment methods for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS). Under grandfathering, hospitals would continue to receive cost-based capital payments for expenditures obligated prior to a threshold date, over a predetermined period of time. While grandfathering protects hospitals that recently invested in major capital projects, it is concluded that grandfathering is an inequitable approach for paying for capital under PPS. It provides payments in excess of cash needs to hospitals that recently invested, at the expense of hospitals that need to invest. An alternative capital payment method based on a straight-line transition, all other things being equal, provides greater protection to a larger number of hospitals.

  9. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    PubMed

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured.

  10. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    PubMed

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  11. Germline engineering: the moral challenges.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2002-03-01

    Not only is the use of germline genetic engineering likely in the long run to be inevitable, there are also no convincing secular moral grounds to forbid this technology in principle. Instead, the general secular moral constraints on the use of germline genetic engineering are either procedural or without predetermined content. Nor can one develop a coherent distinction between eliminating disease and enhancing human abilities. At best, in secular morality one can establish the principle to proceed with care, though the invocation of the precautionary principle argues as much in favor of the development of germline genetic engineering as against its use. Because germline genetic engineering, by eliminating certain genetic defects, offers the prospect of decreasing human suffering and decreasing the use of prenatal diagnosis and abortion, there is an obligation, all else being equal, to change the human genome. In a post-modern world, humans face the challenge of directing their own evolution, although they share no common understanding of human destiny and purpose. Such understandings, though available within religious contexts, are not available to secular bioethics. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Depression, SSRIs, and the supposed obligation to suffer mentally.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J Mark

    2006-09-01

    Within both popular and academic literature, concerns have been expressed about the implications of antidepressant use on character development. In this paper, I identify specific versions of these worries and argue that they are misguided. I begin by arguing that the obligation to suffer if it will bring about a noble character is imagined. Legitimate concerns about character enhancement remain, but they do not count against most antidepressant use. Thus there is no moral prohibition against antidepressant use. Furthermore, some of the calls for caution about antidepressant use, such as those expressed by the President's Council on Bioethics, are overstated.

  13. Legally and Morally, What Our Gay Students Must Be Given

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Erica M.

    2004-01-01

    Schools have a legal, ethical, and moral obligation to provide to all students equal access to education and equal protection under the law. For many sexual minority students, however, schools are unsafe and survival, not education, is the priority. Schools typically do not have the information, interest, or comfort level to address the needs of…

  14. The Moral Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Mary; Hill, Jane

    1973-01-01

    This article defines moral education, gives current examples of classroom experience in moral education, literature and program materials available and lists some problems the idea is encountering. (JA)

  15. Intellectual Capital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    were continuously refined, most notably by Dublin and Lotka, life - insurance executives in the 1930s, who used a complex formula to determine how much... life insurance a man should carry (Wykstra, 1971). The leap from the valuation of human capital to the management of intellectual capital is more...December 2004 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Intellectual Capital 6. AUTHOR( S ) Clint B Fondo

  16. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  17. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  18. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  19. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments.

  20. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Aimee

    2017-08-11

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Moral imperatives for academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J N

    1997-12-01

    As the health care system becomes dominated by managed care, academic medicine must do more than simply learn how to continue to offer the same level of care with ever-tightening resources and in new practice environments. Three moral imperatives must guide how medicine is practiced and taught: (1) patients' health and well-being must always be foremost, centered in quality of care and respect for life; (2) the emotional and spiritual needs of patients must be considered, not just the physical needs; (3) academic medicine must instill in its trainees discipline, passion, and skills to meet their obligation to be lifelong learners. These imperatives make it more important than ever for medical educators to tackle two crucial questions: What kind of person makes the best possible physician? And what constitutes the best possible training for that person? Taking these questions seriously in the new era of health care may mean that medical educators need to rethink the teaching of medicine. One example of how this might be done is the Curriculum for 2002 Committee recently formed at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine. It is becoming clear that medical educators can do a better and more comprehensive job of helping future physicians uncover and strengthen their own morality and, in the face of managed care's pressures, renew their loyalty to medicine as a service rather than a business. Morally sensitized physicians can better deal with the hard issues of medicine, such as euthanasia and abortion, and can help their students examine these issues. Most important, they can show their students that physicians are members of a moral community dedicated to something other than its own self-interest.

  2. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  3. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  4. The Rights of Undocumented Mexicans in the United States after "Plyler v. Doe": A Sketch of Moral and Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia y Griego, Manuel

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes moral and legal obligations the U.S. has toward undocumented Mexicans in the U.S. Reviews past cases and draws implications regarding the nature and extent of such obligations. Discusses several court decisions regarding the rights of undocumented migrants. Provides an overview of trends in Mexican-US migration. (MD)

  5. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  6. Morality and Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korthals, Michiel

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that Piaget's early theory on moral development and moral education can elucidate the discussion about broad or narrow definitions of morality. Explores the connection between interaction and morality, mutual respect, and cooperation. Argues that Piaget's concept of mutual respect is an important educational device for dealing with…

  7. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  8. Institutional Ethics Resources: Creating Moral Spaces.

    PubMed

    Hamric, Ann B; Wocial, Lucia D

    2016-09-01

    Since 1992, institutions accredited by The Joint Commission have been required to have a process in place that allows staff members, patients, and families to address ethical issues or issues prone to conflict. While the commission's expectations clearly have made ethics committees more common, simply having a committee in no way demonstrates its effectiveness in terms of the availability of the service to key constituents, the quality of the processes used, or the outcomes achieved. Beyond meeting baseline accreditation standards, effective ethics resources are requisite for quality care for another reason. The provision of care to the sick is a practice with profound moral dimensions. Clinicians need what Margaret Urban Walker has called "moral spaces," reflective spaces within institutions in which to explore and communicate values and ethical obligations as they undergird goals of care. Walker proposed that ethicists needed to be concerned with the design and maintenance of these moral spaces. Clearly, that concern needs to extend beyond ethicists to institutional leaders. This essay uses Walker's idea of moral space to describe individuals and groups who are actual and potential ethics resources in health care institutions. We focus on four requisite characteristics of effective resources and the challenges to achieving them, and we identify strategies to build them. In our view, such moral spaces are particularly important for nurses and their colleagues on interprofessional teams and need to be expanded and strengthened in most settings. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  9. 46 CFR 390.13 - Failure to fulfill a substantial obligation under the agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to fulfill a substantial obligation under the agreement. 390.13 Section 390.13 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.13 Failure to fulfill a substantial...

  10. 24 CFR 891.415 - Obligations of the household or family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family. 891.415 Section 891.415 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Project Management § 891.415 Obligations of the household or family. This section shall apply to capital... E of this part. (a) Requirements. The household (or family, as applicable) shall: (1) Pay amounts...

  11. When Obligate Partners Melt Down

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect hosts derive benefits from their obligate symbionts, including nutrient supplementation and the ability to colonize otherwise inhospitable niches. But long-term symbionts sometimes also limit the ecological range of their hosts; in particular, they are often more temperature sensitive than the hosts themselves. Even small increases in average temperature, comparable to those occurring under current conditions of climate change, can kill symbionts and, with them, their hosts. In some cases, limitations imposed by obligate symbionts may help to counter the spread of invasive pests, but they also contribute to contractions in populations and geographic ranges of invertebrate species. PMID:27935842

  12. Perceived moral responsibility for attitude-based discrimination.

    PubMed

    Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A

    2016-06-01

    This research investigated judgements of moral responsibility for attitude-based discrimination, testing whether a wrongdoer's mental states - awareness and foresight - are central determinants of culpability. Participants read about and judged a target person who was described as consciously egalitarian, but harbouring negative attitudes that lead him to treat African Americans unfairly. Two studies showed that participants ascribed greater moral responsibility for discrimination when the target was aware of having negative attitudes than when he was unaware. Surprisingly, moral judgements were equally harsh towards a target who was explicitly aware that his bias could influence his behaviour as a target who was not. To explain this result, a second study showed that the path from awareness to moral responsibility was mediated by perceptions that the target had an obligation to foresee his discriminatory behaviour, but not by perceptions of the target's actual foresight. These results suggest that bias awareness influences moral judgements of those who engage in attitude-based discrimination because it obligates them to foresee harmful consequences. The current findings demonstrate that moral judges consider not just descriptive facts, but also normative standards regarding a wrongdoer's mental states.

  13. Curriculum changes and moral issues in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Karseth, Berit

    2004-11-01

    Through history nursing education has strongly advocated the importance of educating students towards moral and ethical responsibility. In today's society however, it has become increasingly difficult to honour this concern. One peephole to capture the ongoing struggle is to look into the curriculum where different stakeholders voice different opinions. Following a social constructive perspective the curriculum texts represent specific interest among stakeholders related to nursing education in a certain historical periods. By analysing the two last versions of the curriculum we get an insight into moral and ethical issues at stake and different ways of addressing these questions. While moral and ethical issues in the curriculum of 1987 follow a disciplinary discourse emphasising the importance of learning ethical concepts and modes of arguments, the curriculum of 2000 places ethical and moral issues within an employability discourse. In this curriculum moral issues are seen as an obligation linked to students practical and technical skills. The 2000 curriculum represents a shift from emphasising the independent and reflective professional to underline the skillful and morally obliged practitioner.

  14. Beneficence and the professional's moral imperative

    PubMed Central

    Kinsinger, Frank Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Objective This article offers a brief discussion of the definition and importance of beneficence in the context of the chiropractic profession. Discussion Beneficence is defined as an act of charity, mercy, and kindness with a strong connotation of doing good to others including moral obligation. All professionals have the foundational moral imperative of doing right. In the context of the professional-client relationship, the professional is obligated to, always and without exception, favor the well-being and interest of the client. In health care, beneficence is one of the fundamental ethics. An integral part of work as a professional is the foundational ethic of beneficence. An understanding of this ethic of care compels the individual health practitioner to consider his or her calling to the high standards of professionalism as a moral imperative; one that advocates for high standards and strives for the greater good. Conclusion Health care professionals have a duty of care that extends to the patient, professional colleagues, and to society as a whole. Any individual professional who neither understands nor accepts this duty is at risk for acting malevolently and violating the fiduciary principle of honoring and protecting the patient. PMID:22693466

  15. Beneficence and the professional's moral imperative.

    PubMed

    Kinsinger, Frank Stuart

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a brief discussion of the definition and importance of beneficence in the context of the chiropractic profession. Beneficence is defined as an act of charity, mercy, and kindness with a strong connotation of doing good to others including moral obligation. All professionals have the foundational moral imperative of doing right. In the context of the professional-client relationship, the professional is obligated to, always and without exception, favor the well-being and interest of the client. In health care, beneficence is one of the fundamental ethics. An integral part of work as a professional is the foundational ethic of beneficence. An understanding of this ethic of care compels the individual health practitioner to consider his or her calling to the high standards of professionalism as a moral imperative; one that advocates for high standards and strives for the greater good. Health care professionals have a duty of care that extends to the patient, professional colleagues, and to society as a whole. Any individual professional who neither understands nor accepts this duty is at risk for acting malevolently and violating the fiduciary principle of honoring and protecting the patient.

  16. H.R. 599: A Bill to provide for the reconstitution of outstanding repayment obligations of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration for the appropriated capital investments in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This bill proposes to give the administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration the rights to refinance certain capital investments in the Federal Columbia River Power System. The act spells out how to distinguish old and new capital investments, how new principal amounts for old investments are calculated, interest rates and repayment dates. It also deals with interest rates for new capital investments during and after construction, appropriations for the Colville Reservation Grand Coulee Dam Settlement Act, and suggested contract provisions regarding future contracts.

  17. Participation in biomedical research is an imperfect moral duty: a response to John Harris

    PubMed Central

    Shapshay, Sandra; Pimple, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    In his paper “Scientific research is a moral duty”, John Harris argues that individuals have a moral duty to participate in biomedical research by volunteering as research subjects. He supports his claim with reference to what he calls the principle of beneficence as embodied in the “rule of rescue” (the moral obligation to prevent serious harm), and the principle of fairness embodied in the prohibition on “free riding” (we are obliged to share the sacrifices that make possible social practices from which we benefit). His view that biomedical research is an important social good is agreed upon, but it is argued that Harris succeeds only in showing that such participation and support is a moral good, among many other moral goods, while failing to show that there is a moral duty to participate in biomedical research in particular. The flaws in Harris's arguments are detailed here, and it is shown that the principles of beneficence and fairness yield only a weaker discretionary or imperfect obligation to help others in need and to reciprocate for sacrifices that others have made for the public good. This obligation is discretionary in the sense that the individuals are free to choose when, where, and how to help others in need and reciprocate for earlier sacrifices. That Harris has not succeeded in claiming a special status for biomedical research among all other social goods is shown here. PMID:17601870

  18. Population dynamics of obligate cooperators

    PubMed Central

    Courchamp, F.; Grenfell, B.; Clutton-Brock, T.

    1999-01-01

    Obligate cooperative breeding species demonstrate a high rate of group extinction, which may be due to the existence of a critical number of helpers below which the group cannot subsist. Through a simple model, we study the population dynamics of obligate cooperative breeding species, taking into account the existence of a lower threshold below which the instantaneous growth rate becomes negative. The model successively incorporates (i) a distinction between species that need helpers for reproduction, survival or both, (ii) the existence of a migration rate accounting for dispersal, and (iii) stochastic mortality to simulate the effects of random catastrophic events. Our results suggest that the need for a minimum number of helpers increases the risk of extinction for obligate cooperative breeding species. The constraint imposed by this threshold is higher when helpers are needed for reproduction only or for both reproduction and survival. By driving them below this lower threshold, stochastic mortality of lower amplitude and/or lower frequency than for non-cooperative breeders may be sufficient to cause the extinction of obligate cooperative breeding groups. Migration may have a buffering effect only for groups where immigration is higher than emigration; otherwise (when immigrants from nearby groups are not available) it lowers the difference between actual group size and critical threshold, thereby constituting a higher constraint.

  19. [Between obligation and duty--on deontological codes in medical professions].

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Leszek E

    2006-01-01

    The social role of medical occupations is changing, along with their professional ethics. It could be argued that the role of ethical regulation (ethical codes) in these professions is diminishing. It could be due to ethical standards increasingly taking on character of legal norms. The notion of "moral obligation" is thus subject to transformation, as it progressively denotes legal duty, i.e., coercion. Legal validity of ethical standards is defined by lawyers. The continual tendency of occupational ethics to resemble rules of law may thus question the effect of ethical regulation in medical professions. The latter are performed not only because of official or economical compulsion but also because of moral obligation and the medic's desire to do well. The standing of occupational ethics in the work ofphysician, nurse and pharmacist is a prerequisite for maintaining the high social prestige of these professions.

  20. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.5 General Obligations...

  1. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.5 General Obligations...

  2. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.5 General Obligations...

  3. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.5 General Obligations...

  4. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.5 General Obligations...

  5. 12 CFR 987.10 - Obligations of United States with respect to consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations of United States with respect to consolidated obligations. 987.10 Section 987.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 987.10 Obligations of United States with...

  6. Measuring Aspects of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    A group test measuring five aspects of morality in children is presented. The aspects are: resistance to temptation, stage of moral judgment, confession after transgression, reaction of fear or guilt, and severity of punishment for transgression. (Editor)

  7. Cultivating Moral Resilience.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton

    2017-02-01

    : Decades of research have documented the frequency, sources, and consequences of moral distress. However, few studies have focused on interventions designed to diminish its negative effects. The cultivation of moral resilience-the ability to respond positively to the distress and adversity caused by an ethically complex situation-is proposed as a method to transform moral distress.

  8. Time and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Renata S.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require…

  9. Time and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Renata S.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require…

  10. Compassion and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susky, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Critiquing Skinner's and Kohlberg's moral development theories as inadequate, the author asserts that affective development (compassion, empathy, caring) is necessary to moral action. While saying that schools are limited in their ability to provide moral education, he outlines qualities of an educational environment which could facilitate moral…

  11. Mapping the Moral Domain

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  12. Conceptualizing Moral Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuana, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the fundamental elements of moral literacy. Moral literacy involves three basic components: ethics sensitivity; ethical reasoning skills; and moral imagination. It is the contention of the author that though math and reading literacy is highly valued by the American educational…

  13. Sentimentalist Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…

  14. Mapping the moral domain.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H

    2011-08-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire on the basis of a theoretical model of 5 universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/Care, Fairness/Reciprocity, Ingroup/Loyalty, Authority/Respect, and Purity/Sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so we present new findings about morality: (a) Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a 5-factor structure of moral concerns; (b) convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant; and (c) we establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality.

  15. The Moral University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  16. Are Psychopaths Morally Sensitive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce; Le Sage, Leonie

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical and psychological opinion is divided over whether moral sensitivity, understood as the ability to pick out a situation's morally salient features, necessarily involves emotional engagement. This paper seeks to offer insight into this question. It reasons that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of…

  17. Developing Staff Morale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Marylyn

    1990-01-01

    Low staff morale results from professional lives that have little meaning; from frustration and the inability to change what is happening; and from muddled goals and demands exceeding scarce resources. Schools with high staff morale have very distinctive features, including a sense of community. Factors determining high morale are: (1) input into…

  18. Conceptualizing Moral Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuana, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the fundamental elements of moral literacy. Moral literacy involves three basic components: ethics sensitivity; ethical reasoning skills; and moral imagination. It is the contention of the author that though math and reading literacy is highly valued by the American educational…

  19. Are Psychopaths Morally Sensitive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce; Le Sage, Leonie

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical and psychological opinion is divided over whether moral sensitivity, understood as the ability to pick out a situation's morally salient features, necessarily involves emotional engagement. This paper seeks to offer insight into this question. It reasons that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of…

  20. Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS?

    PubMed Central

    Angoff, N. R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper responds to the question: Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)? First, the social and political milieu in which this question arises is sampled. Here physicians as well as other members of the community are found declaring an unwillingness to be exposed to people with AIDS. Next, laws, regulations, ethical codes and principles, and the history of the practice of medicine are examined, and the literature as it pertains to these areas is reviewed. The obligation to care for patients with AIDS, however, cannot be located in an orientation to morality defined in rules and codes and an appeal to legalistic fairness. By turning to the orientation to morality that emerges naturally from connection and is defined in caring, the physicians' ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS is found. Through an exploration of the writings of modern medical ethicists, it is clear that the purpose of the practice of medicine is healing, which can only be accomplished in relationship to the patient. It is in relationship to patients that the physician has the opportunity for self-realization. In fact, the physician is physician in relationship to patients and only to the extent that he or she acts virtuously by being morally responsible for and to those patients. Not to do so diminishes the physician's ethical ideal, a vision of the physician as good physician, which has consequences for the physician's capacity to care and for the practice of medicine. PMID:1788990

  1. Asperger syndrome and the supposed obligation not to bring disabled lives into the world.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Pat

    2010-09-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is an autistic spectrum condition that shares the range of social impairments associated with classic autism widely regarded as disabling, while also often giving rise to high levels of ability in areas such as maths, science, engineering and music. The nature of this striking duality of disability and ability is examined, along with its implications for our thinking about disability and the relevance of levels and kinds of disability to reproductive choices. In particular, it may be seen as posing a challenge to John Harris's influential position in reproductive ethics relating to disability. The paper argues that if, as Harris maintains, there is a quite general moral obligation to avoid bringing disabled lives into the world regardless of the level of disability, then AS must be seen as having a strong claim to be exempt from such an obligation. However, a broader critique of Harris's position leads to the conclusion that, in fact, this putative obligation does not exist.

  2. In defense of a supernatural foundation to morality: reply to Shermer.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    In my original paper, I claimed that our moral obligations are real, objective, and grounded in the supernatural. In particular, I endorsed the claim that God's will is the basis or source of our moral obligations, where "God" is to be understood as the theistic being who is omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent, who created the universe, and who is still actively involved in the universe after creating it. In his critical article, Michael Shermer has raised a number of important challenges to my view. Here I try to defend the position and respond to at least his most serious objections.

  3. How Moral Perceptions Influence Intergroup Tolerance: Evidence From Lebanon, Morocco, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nadine; Argo, Nichole; Ginges, Jeremy

    2017-03-01

    Intergroup boundaries are often associated with differences in moral codes. How does the perception of similarity and dissimilarity in moral worldviews influence tolerant relationships between members of different groups? We theorized that the relationship between perceived moral similarity and intergroup tolerance is domain specific. Specifically, because people treat autonomy values (e.g., caring for others, being fair) as denoting universal rights and obligations, but binding values (e.g., purity) as denoting rights and obligations that apply preferentially for their own group, perceived similarity on autonomy values should be more relevant than perceived similarity on binding values to intergroup tolerance. Here, we describe correlational and experimental evidence to support these predictions from studies carried out in Lebanon (with sectarian groups), in Morocco (with ethnic groups), and in the United States (with ideological groups). Implications for understanding intergroup relations and theories of morality are discussed.

  4. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  5. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  6. Religion, morality, evolution.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  7. Moral cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jonathan; Langdon, Robyn; Brüne, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Disordered moral behaviour and understanding of moral rules were described early in the literature on schizophrenia; however, moral cognition has received scant attention in spite of a large literature focused on social cognitive impairments and violent behaviour in schizophrenia. We conducted a narrative synthesis of the literature on violence, moral judgement and schizophrenia. Initial empirical research into moral cognition in schizophrenia did not fully account for the basic- and social-cognitive deficits now known to characterise schizophrenia. Importantly, research into moral cognition in autism and psychopathy, disorders in part characterised by social cognitive impairments indicates subtle patterns of difference to the moral cognition of control participants. Recent neuroeconomic studies of moral cognition in schizophrenia have indicated that individuals with schizophrenia display subtle dysfunction in their fairness-related behaviours, but not in their propensity to engage in altruistic punishment. Further research has the potential to broaden our understanding of what is intact and what is impaired in moral cognition in schizophrenia and also to inform our theories of the structures subserving moral judgement in the general population. Furthermore, a more thorough understanding of moral cognitive impairments in schizophrenia may have implications for both legal process and psychosocial rehabilitation.

  8. Egalitarianism and moral bioenhancement.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A number of philosophers working in applied ethics and bioethics are now earnestly debating the ethics of what they term "moral bioenhancement." I argue that the society-wide program of biological manipulations required to achieve the purported goals of moral bioenhancement would necessarily implicate the state in a controversial moral perfectionism. Moreover, the prospect of being able to reliably identify some people as, by biological constitution, significantly and consistently more moral than others would seem to pose a profound challenge to egalitarian social and political ideals. Even if moral bioenhancement should ultimately prove to be impossible, there is a chance that a bogus science of bioenhancement would lead to arbitrary inequalities in access to political power or facilitate the unjust rule of authoritarians; in the meantime, the debate about the ethics of moral bioenhancement risks reinvigorating dangerous ideas about the extent of natural inequality in the possession of the moral faculties.

  9. Addiction Research Ethics and the Belmont Principles: Do Drug Users Have a Different Moral Voice?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study used semi-structured interviews and content analysis to examine moral principles that street drug users apply to three hypothetical addiction research ethical dilemmas. Participants (n = 90) were ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged drug users recruited in New York City in 2009. Participants applied a wide range of contextually sensitive moral precepts, including respect, beneficence, justice, relationality, professional obligations, rules, and pragmatic self-interest. Limitations and implications for future research and the responsible conduct of addiction research are discussed. PMID:21073412

  10. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-03-16

    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think.

  11. The social responsibility of scientists: moonshine and morals.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, L

    1989-04-08

    Two historical cases are used to explore the nature of the scientist's obligations to society on technological issues. The physicist Leo Szilard is praised as a moral scientist and a moral citizen for contributing to the development of the atomic bomb in the Manhattan Project and then arguing against its testing when the danger that Germany might use the bomb against the United States subsided. On the other hand, the scientists, including physicians, who promoted the views of the eugenics movement in Nazi Germany were immoral in not considering the social implications of their scientific conclusions. Wolpert maintains that, while there are no areas that should not be subject to research, the scientist's obligations are to make the reliability of the research clear and to inform the public about its possible ramifications.

  12. Child Health Advice and Parental Obligation: The Case of Safe Sleep Recommendations and Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Monique

    2016-02-01

    This article considers whether there is a parental obligation to comply with child health advice which is aimed at the general population and grounded in population-based research. Drawing upon the concept of role obligations, I argue that there is a temptation to use child health advice as a set of rules to which parents are morally obligated to comply, but that this temptation should be resisted. Using the case of Safe Sleep recommendations, designed to reduce the risk of sleep-related infant deaths, I present three reasons for doubting that parents are obligated, as a matter of course, to comply with child health advice. I suggest that, rather than compliance, deliberation about child health advice is obligatory, and that parents should have reasons for not following credible child health advice.

  13. Children's moral emotions and moral cognition: towards an integrative perspective.

    PubMed

    Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's emerging morality and designing developmentally sensitive moral intervention strategies. The subsequent chapters present promising conceptual approaches and empirical evidence linking children's moral emotions to moral cognition. Examples of integrated educational interventions intended to enhance children's moral development are presented and discussed.

  14. Education in Moral Theory and the Improvement of Moral Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This article questions whether the study of normative moral theory and its application to particular moral problems has a beneficial effect upon someone seeking to improve the quality of their moral thinking. A broad outline of the conception of moral thinking underlying moral theory and applied ethics is considered, particularly the logical…

  15. Morality and moral development: Traditional Hindu concepts.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times.

  16. Morality and moral development: Traditional Hindu concepts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means “manner, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269

  17. The fiduciary obligation of the physician-researcher in phase IV trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this manuscript, we argue that within the context of phase IV, physician-researchers retain their fiduciary obligation to treat the patient-participants. Discussion We first clarify why the perspective that research ethics ought to be differentiated from clinical ethics is not applicable in phase IV, and therefore, why therapeutic orientation is most convivial in this phase. Next, assuming that ethics guidelines may be representative of common morality, we show that ethics guidelines see physician-researchers primarily as physicians and only secondarily as researchers. We then elaborate on what a fiduciary obligation is and how some of the obligations are default duties. Lastly, we look at the fiduciary obligation of the physician-researcher in phase IV interventional trials. Conclusion The fiduciary obligation to treat is not as easily waived as in earlier trials. Assuming the entwinement of research and practice in phase IV, physician-researchers, in collaboration with other researchers, investigators, and research ethics committees, should ensure that in terms of study design, methodology, and research practice, the therapeutic value of the research to the patient-participants is not diminished. PMID:24507449

  18. 12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Lending limits and capital requirements. (a) Acceptances of Edge corporations. (1) Limitations. An Edge... international shipment of goods, and the Edge corporation is: (i) Fully covered by primary obligations to... loans and extensions of credit outstanding to any person by an Edge corporation engaged in banking, and...

  19. 12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Lending limits and capital requirements. (a) Acceptances of Edge corporations. (1) Limitations. An Edge... international shipment of goods, and the Edge corporation is: (i) Fully covered by primary obligations to... loans and extensions of credit outstanding to any person by an Edge corporation engaged in banking, and...

  20. Negotiating Professionalism: The Gendered Social Capital of Flexible Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seron, Carroll; Ferris,Kerry

    1995-01-01

    From a sample of 1,000 New York attorneys, data from 553 men and 129 women suggest that professional autonomy depends on social capital arrangements that assume overtime, open-ended work demands, and release from private obligations. Access to time is qualitatively different for men and women, especially married women with children. (SK)

  1. Are You Morally Modified?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Neil; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Terbeck, Sylvia; Cowen, Philip J.; Hewstone, Miles; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects of three widely used drugs or drug types: (i) propranolol, (ii) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and (iii) drugs that effect oxytocin physiology. This evidence suggests that the alterations to moral decision making and behavior caused by these agents may have important and difficult-to-evaluate consequences, at least at the population level. We argue that the moral effects of these and other widely used pharmaceuticals warrant further empirical research and ethical analysis. PMID:25892904

  2. Moral realism in nursing.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Steven D

    2014-04-01

    For more than 15 years Professor Per Nortvedt has been arguing the case for moral realism in nursing and the health-care context more generally. His arguments focus on the clinical contexts of nursing and medicine and are supplemented by a series of persuasive examples. Following a description of moral realism, and the kinds of considerations that support it, criticisms of it are developed that seem persuasive. It is argued that our moral responses are explained by our beliefs as opposed to moral realities. In particular, two key arguments presented by Nortvedt are challenged: the so-called argument from convergence and the argument from clinical sensitivity. Both of these key planks in the case for moral realism are rejected, and an alternative 'social conditioning' account briefly sketched, which, it is claimed, has the same explanatory power as Nortvedt's thesis but does not rest on an appeal to independently existing moral properties.

  3. 76 FR 16438 - Reallocation of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Capital Funds-Capital Fund Grant Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...-402-8500 (this is not a toll-free number). Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this... recaptured. After award, a number of grantees were subsequently unable to meet the NOFA and Recovery Act... Capital Fund Recovery Grant (CFRG) funds that were unable to meet the obligation deadline were...

  4. Moralized Psychology or Psychologized Morality? Ethics and Psychology in Recent Theorizing about Moral and Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, David

    2007-01-01

    Moral philosophy seems well placed to claim the key role in theorizing about moral education. Indeed, moral philosophers have from antiquity had much to say about psychological and other processes of moral formation. Given this history, it may seem ironic that much systematic latter-day theorizing about moral education has been social scientific,…

  5. Moral Agency, Moral Imagination, and Moral Community: Antidotes to Moral Distress.

    PubMed

    Traudt, Terri; Liaschenko, Joan; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia

    Moral distress has been covered extensively in the nursing literature and increasingly in the literature of other health professions. Cases that cause nurses' moral distress that are mentioned most frequently are those concerned with prolonging the dying process. Given the standard of aggressive treatment that is typical in intensive care units (ICUs), much of the existing moral distress research focuses on the experiences of critical care nurses. However, moral distress does not automatically occur in all end-of-life circumstances, nor does every critical care nurse suffer its damaging effects. What are the practices of these nurses? What specifically do they do to navigate around or through the distressing situations? The nursing literature is lacking an answer to these questions. This article reports a study that used narrative analysis to explore the reported practices of experienced critical care nurses who are skilled at and comfortable working with families and physicians regarding the withdrawal of aggressive treatment. A major finding was that these nurses did not report experiencing the damaging effects of moral distress as described in the nursing literature. The verbal communication and stated practices relevant to this finding are organized under three major themes: (1) moral agency, (2) moral imagination, and (3) moral community. Further, a total of eight subthemes are identified. The practices that constitute these themes and subthemes are further detailed and discussed in this article. Understanding these practices can help mitigate critical care nurses' moral distress. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  6. Moral implications of obstetric technologies for pregnancy and motherhood.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Drawing on sociological and anthropological studies, the aim of this article is to reconstruct how obstetric technologies contribute to a moral conception of pregnancy and motherhood, and to evaluate that conception from a normative point of view. Obstetrics and midwifery, so the assumption, are value-laden, value-producing and value-reproducing practices, values that shape the social perception of what it means to be a "good" pregnant woman and to be a "good" (future) mother. Activities in the medical field of reproduction contribute to "kinning", that is the making of particular social relationships marked by closeness and special moral obligations. Three technologies, which belong to standard procedures in prenatal care in postmodern societies, are presently investigated: (1) informed consent in prenatal care, (2) obstetric sonogram, and (3) birth plan. Their widespread application is supposed to serve the moral (and legal) goal of effecting patient autonomy (and patient right). A reconstruction of the actual moral implications of these technologies, however, reveals that this goal is missed in multiple ways. Informed consent situations are marked by involuntariness and blindness to social dimensions of decision-making; obstetric sonograms construct moral subjectivity and agency in a way that attribute inconsistent and unreasonable moral responsibilities to the pregnant woman; and birth plans obscure the need for a healthcare environment that reflects a shared-decision-making model, rather than a rational-choice-framework.

  7. Morality and Hebraic Christian Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jason S.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the teachings of the Old and New Testament on moral development. Jews and Christians both believe that God is the ultimate moral authority and that religion and morality are inseparable. (AM)

  8. Collectivizing rescue obligations in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    Bioethicists invoke a duty to rescue in a wide range of cases. Indeed, arguably, there exists an entire medical paradigm whereby vast numbers of medical encounters are treated as rescue cases. The intuitive power of the rescue paradigm is considerable, but much of this power stems from the problematic way that rescue cases are conceptualized-namely, as random, unanticipated, unavoidable, interpersonal events for which context is irrelevant and beneficence is the paramount value. In this article, I critique the basic assumptions of the rescue paradigm, reframe the ethical landscape in which rescue obligations are understood, and defend the necessity and value of a wider social and institutional view. Along the way, I move back and forth between ethical theory and a concrete case where the duty to rescue has been problematically applied: the purported duty to regularly return incidental findings and individual research results in genomic and genetic research.

  9. Moral Guidance, Moral Philosophy, and Moral Issues in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Janet; Long, Tony

    1999-01-01

    A prescriptive moral guidance approach to teaching nursing ethics is unacceptable. Students should be introduced to philosophical methods to learn autonomous analysis and decision making. Case-study material based on personal experiences enhances the integration of ethical reasoning and clinical practice. (SK)

  10. Moral Guidance, Moral Philosophy, and Moral Issues in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Janet; Long, Tony

    1999-01-01

    A prescriptive moral guidance approach to teaching nursing ethics is unacceptable. Students should be introduced to philosophical methods to learn autonomous analysis and decision making. Case-study material based on personal experiences enhances the integration of ethical reasoning and clinical practice. (SK)

  11. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obligated service. 17.607 Section 17.607 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Va Health...) of this section, each participant is obligated to provide service as a Department of Veterans Affairs...

  12. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a...

  14. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Professional Scholarship Program § 17.607 Obligated service. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (d... school year or part thereof for which the participant received a scholarship award under these... obligation. A participant who received a scholarship as a full-time student must be willing to move...

  15. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies,...

  16. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies,...

  17. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies,...

  18. 5 CFR 724.203 - Training obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training obligations. 724.203 Section 724... RETALIATION ACT OF 2002 Notification of Rights and Protections and Training § 724.203 Training obligations. (a) Each agency must develop a written plan to train all of its employees (including supervisors and...

  19. 5 CFR 724.203 - Training obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training obligations. 724.203 Section 724... RETALIATION ACT OF 2002 Notification of Rights and Protections and Training § 724.203 Training obligations. (a) Each agency must develop a written plan to train all of its employees (including supervisors and...

  20. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting obligations. 27.1340 Section 27.1340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27.1340 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700...

  1. 17 CFR 200.55 - Statutory obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statutory obligations. 200.55... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.55 Statutory obligations. In administering the law, members of this Commission should vigorously enforce compliance with the law by...

  2. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... obligations. The members of this Commission have undertaken in their oaths of office to support the Federal... faithfully execute the laws which they are charged with administering. Members shall also carefully...

  3. 5 CFR 724.203 - Training obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training obligations. 724.203 Section 724... RETALIATION ACT OF 2002 Notification of Rights and Protections and Training § 724.203 Training obligations. (a) Each agency must develop a written plan to train all of its employees (including supervisors...

  4. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation. (a...

  5. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation. (a...

  6. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation. (a...

  7. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation. (a...

  8. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation. (a...

  9. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Euthanasia and persistent vegetative state individuals: the role and moral status of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Soifer, E

    1996-01-01

    This paper offers a philosophical consideration and evaluation of several different criteria of moral standing, and discusses their implications for persistent vegetative state (PVS) individuals who were once competent. It is argued that the only criterion PVS individuals meet is that of being human, which is not the best test of moral standing. Accordingly it is, in principle, morally acceptable to perform passive or active euthanasia on PVS individuals or to use their bodies for research or for organ harvest. Nevertheless, the autonomous choices made by the persons the PVS individuals used to be can still impose moral obligations. Indeed, it is argued that the capacity for autonomy is a particularly appealing criterion of moral standing, and that the implications of this standard for PVS individuals confirm that appeal.

  11. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either.

  12. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  13. Handbook of Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The psychological study of moral development has expanded greatly, both in terms of the diversity of theoretical perspectives that are represented in the field, as well as in the range of topics that have been studied. This "Handbook of Moral Development" represents the diversity and multidisciplinary influences on current theorizing about the…

  14. Handbook of Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The psychological study of moral development has expanded greatly, both in terms of the diversity of theoretical perspectives that are represented in the field, as well as in the range of topics that have been studied. This "Handbook of Moral Development" represents the diversity and multidisciplinary influences on current theorizing about the…

  15. Psychotherapy, Postmodernism, and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitwood, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a postmodern ethics based on mutual respect and trust, derived from psychotherapy, and recognizing the primacy of individual subjectivity. Develops the concept of free attention to one another creating moral space. Stresses affect over reason and practice over theory. Sees moral space as fundamental to the social fabric. (CH)

  16. Children's Understanding of Morals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lee C.

    Research efforts in the area of moral development of the child, as based on Piaget's theory, are discussed. Some of the important processes Piaget uses to explain cognitive growth are presented first, followed by his theory of how the individual's capacity for moral judgment evolves. The research discussed tests Piaget's chief underlying…

  17. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  18. Moral Education versus Indoctrination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, David

    2016-01-01

    Moral education is open to worries about indoctrination given the controversies there are about a wide range of ethical matters. I argue, however, that moral education is no more liable to being "indoctrinal" than education in history or science. I begin by proposing an account of what indoctrination involves. I then note that moral…

  19. Moral Education versus Indoctrination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, David

    2016-01-01

    Moral education is open to worries about indoctrination given the controversies there are about a wide range of ethical matters. I argue, however, that moral education is no more liable to being "indoctrinal" than education in history or science. I begin by proposing an account of what indoctrination involves. I then note that moral…

  20. [Moral development in children].

    PubMed

    Malá, E

    1989-08-01

    In child psychiatry the developmental aspect is emphasized. Recognition of normal sequence of development in so-called "normal children" makes it possible to reveal pathological conditions (either retardation or acceleration of development, distortion or atypical development). Change-motion-development are philosophical categories considered a manifestation or life--of psychobiological maturation and growth. When investigating the moral development three theories were applied: the developmental theory (Piaget)--learning (Kohlberg), the dynamic theory (Sandler). Among factors which influence in a certain way the moral behaviour the following were selected: age, sex, temperament, family environment. The author describes three stages of moral development in children: preventional stage (moral heteronomy) up to the age of 8 years, conventional and pst conventional (moral autonomy) in adolescence.

  1. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.

  2. Identity, morals, and taboos: beliefs as assets.

    PubMed

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theory of moral behavior, individual and collective, based on a general model of identity in which people care about “who they are” and infer their own values from past choices. The model sheds light on many empirical puzzles inconsistent with earlier approaches. Identity investments respond nonmonotonically to acts or threats, and taboos on mere thoughts arise to protect beliefs about the “priceless” value of certain social assets. High endowments trigger escalating commitment and a treadmill effect, while competing identities can cause dysfunctional capital destruction. Social interactions induce both social and antisocial norms of contribution, sustained by respectively shunning free riders or do-gooders.

  3. Moral distress and the contemporary plight of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    Once a term used primarily by moral philosophers, "moral distress" is increasingly used by health professionals to name experiences of frustration and failure in fulfilling moral obligations inherent to their fiduciary relationship with the public. Although such challenges have always been present, as has discord regarding the right thing to do in particular situations, there is a radical change in the degree and intensity of moral distress being expressed. Has the plight of professionals in healthcare practice changed? "Plight" encompasses not only the act of pledging, but that of predicament and peril. The author claims that health professionals are increasingly put in peril by healthcare reform that undermines their efficacy and jeopardizes ethical engagement with those in their care. The re-engineering of healthcare to give precedence to corporate and commercial values and strategies of commodification, service rationing, streamlining, and measuring of "efficiency," is literally demoralizing health professionals. Healthcare practice needs to be grounded in a capacity for compassion and empathy, as is evident in standards of practice and codes of ethics, and in the understanding of what it means to be a professional. Such grounding allows for humane response to the availability of unprecedented advances in biotechnological treatments, for genuine dialogue and the raising of difficult, necessary ethical questions, and for the mutual support of health professionals themselves. If healthcare environments are not understood as moral communities but rather as simulated marketplaces, then health professionals' moral agency is diminished and their vulnerability to moral distress is exacerbated. Research in moral distress and relational ethics is used to support this claim.

  4. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  5. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  6. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  7. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  8. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  9. Why Be Moral? Moral Identity Motivation and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Victor, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Moral identity research to date has largely failed to provide evidence for developmental trends in moral identity, presumably because of restrictions in the age range of studies and the use of moral identity measures that are insensitive to age-related change. The present study investigated moral identity motivation across a broad age range (14-65…

  10. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  11. Children's Moral Emotions and Moral Cognition: Towards an Integrative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…

  12. John Dewey's Eloquent Citizen: Communication, Judgment, and Postmodern Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ronald Walter

    2003-01-01

    Notes that John Dewey offers rhetorical studies a philosophical modernization of the eloquent citizen. Proposes that in so doing, an aesthetic-moral theory of communication emerges at the core of human subjectivity. Concludes that to better account for the role of communication in postmodern capitalism, rhetorical studies needs an…

  13. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    PubMed

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views.

  14. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  15. Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…

  16. Formal Moral Education and Individual Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Gary Gene

    This report provides a summarization of a study designed to determine if there is a significant relationship between formal religious education and the moral judgment development of college students, and after controlling for formal religious education, to see if there was also a significant relationship between the educational environment or…

  17. Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…

  18. The Media: Moral Lessons and Moral Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Sue

    1993-01-01

    A lesson on female stereotypes in advertising begins a discussion of the mass media's role in the lives of young women. It is suggested that conventional moral wisdom about media education for children does not reflect the complexity of the media's influence but is narrow and ethnocentric. (MSE)

  19. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  20. Secretome of obligate intracellular Rickettsia

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, although others (e.g. josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared toward understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial ‘life on the inside’. PMID:25168200

  1. Religion and morality.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality.

  2. Revisiting Folk Moral Realism.

    PubMed

    Pölzler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al., Nichols, and Nichols and Folds-Bennett) indeed seem to suggest a tendency towards realism. My aim in this paper is to provide a detailed internal critique of these four studies. I argue that, once interpreted properly, all of them turn out in line with recent research. They suggest that most ordinary people experience morality as "pluralist-" rather than realist-seeming, i.e., that ordinary people have the intuition that realism is true with regard to some moral issues, but variants of anti-realism are true with regard to others. This result means that moral realism may be less well justified than commonly assumed.

  3. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  4. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  5. First Steps in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    1996-01-01

    Defines moral education as an education in morality. Identifies morality as a particular way of life that has its own logic and reason. Recommends looking anew at fundamental concepts of moral education and building approaches and methods out of these new perspectives. Discusses overcoming resistance to this approach. (MJP)

  6. Moral Judgments and Basal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    Contains a brief review of the research on moral themes in basal reading series and their influence on children and summarizes an investigation which explored the frequency of moral decisions in stories in basal readers and identified those characters who posed the moral questions and those who solved moral dilemmas. (Author/RB)

  7. Moral Development of Japanese Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…

  8. Another Prospect on Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemming, James

    1980-01-01

    The author critiques John Wilson's view of moral education for being too linear, ignoring the complexity of moral development. He proposes a more generalized moral education, with greater emphasis on affect and social context. For Wilson's article, see "Journal of Moral Education," p3-9, Oct 1979 (EJ220532). (SJL)

  9. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  10. Moral Development of Japanese Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…

  11. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  12. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  13. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  14. Moral Functioning as Mediated Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappan, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that it is quite useful, both theoretically and empirically, to adopt a socio-cultural approach to the study of moral development. This entails viewing "moral functioning" as a form of mediated action, and moral development as the process by which persons gradually appropriate a variety of "moral mediational means". Mediated…

  15. Moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in Iranian nurses.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Fariba; Keshtgar, Mohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are often faced with serious situations that require high levels of legal and ethical knowledge, and should therefore be sensitive to the moral issues in their profession in the decision making process. Some studies have investigated nurses' moral self-concept as an effective factor in moral sensitivity, but there is not sufficient evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between moral sensitivity and moral self-concept in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to study the relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Chang's Moral Self-Concept Questionnaire and Lutzen's Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. A total of 188 nurses participated in this study. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity (P < 0.05). Based on our findings, an individual's attention to moral issues can lead to greater sensitivity and result in morally responsible behavior at the time of decision making. Consequently, promotion of moral self-concept through personal effort or education can increase moral sensitivity, which in turn leads to behavioral manifestations of ethical knowledge.

  16. Infanticide and moral consistency.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this essay is to show that there are no easy options for those who are disturbed by the suggestion that infanticide may on occasion be morally permissible. The belief that infanticide is always wrong is doubtfully compatible with a range of widely shared moral beliefs that underlie various commonly accepted practices. Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive.

  17. Berkeley's moral philosophy.

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, G

    1990-01-01

    Berkeley held that the moral duty of mankind was to obey God's laws; that--since God was a benevolent Creator--the object of His laws must be to promote the welfare and flourishing of mankind; and that, accordingly, humans could identify their moral duties by asking what system of laws for conduct would in fact tend to promote that object. This position--which is akin to that of 'rule' Utilitarianism--is neither unfamiliar nor manifestly untenable. He was surely mistaken, however, in his further supposition that, if this theory were accepted, the resolution of all (or most) particular moral dilemmas would be simple and straightforward. PMID:2181141

  18. Ancillary care obligations in light of an African bioethic: from entrustment to communion.

    PubMed

    Metz, Thaddeus

    2017-03-16

    Henry Richardson recently published the first book ever devoted to ancillary care obligations, which roughly concern what medical researchers are morally required to provide to participants beyond what safety requires. In it, Richardson notes that he is presenting the 'only fully elaborated view out there' on this topic, which he calls the 'partial-entrustment model'. In this article, I provide a new theory of ancillary care obligations, one that is grounded on ideals of communion salient in the African philosophical tradition and that is intended to rival and surpass Richardson's model, which is a function of Western considerations of autonomy. I argue that the relational approach of the former has several virtues in comparison to the basic individualism of the latter.

  19. Fostering Nurses' Moral Agency and Moral Identity: The Importance of Moral Community.

    PubMed

    Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency.

  20. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27.1239 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service...

  1. 7 CFR 987.145 - Withholding obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... crop year in which the excess disposition occurred and 100 percent of the withholding obligation... excess disposition occurred. All such crediting or accumulation shall be contingent upon the Committee... including souring, mold, fermentation, insect infestation, or foreign material. (g) Substitution....

  2. 5 CFR 724.404 - Agency obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RETALIATION ACT OF 2002 Best Practices § 724.404 Agency obligations. (a) Within 30 working days of issuance of... must be provided within the time limit stated in paragraph (a) of this section to the following: (1...

  3. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.585 Importer obligations. (a) General. An...

  4. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.585 Importer obligations. (a) General. An...

  5. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.585 Importer obligations. (a) General. An...

  6. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.585 Importer obligations. (a) General. An...

  7. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.585 Importer obligations. (a) General. An...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract...

  10. 31 CFR 1023.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR BROKERS OR DEALERS IN SECURITIES Reports Required To Be Made By Brokers or Dealers in Securities § 1023.311 Filing obligations. Refer to § 1010.311... securities....

  11. Notification: Audit of Region 5 Unliquidated Obligations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY12-0306, June 4, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General (OIG) is beginning the fieldwork phase of our Audit of Region 5 Unliquidated Obligations.

  12. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  13. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  14. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  15. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  16. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  17. Before Ethics and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, James W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of sensory deprivation in humans is discussed as well as the need for developing a moral education curriculum designed to rear children in an affectional environment of positive reinforcements. (JB)

  18. Conflict and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A conflict procedure in which reliance on adult values was opposed to reliance on damage as a measure of blame was found to facilitate second-grade children's use of intention in making moral judgments of story pairs. (ST)

  19. Conflict and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A conflict procedure in which reliance on adult values was opposed to reliance on damage as a measure of blame was found to facilitate second-grade children's use of intention in making moral judgments of story pairs. (ST)

  20. Moral reckoning in nursing.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Alvita K

    2006-06-01

    Analysis of qualitative data resulted in an original substantive grounded theory of moral reckoning in nursing, a three-stage process. After a novice period, the nurse experiences a stage of ease in which there is comfort in the workplace and congruence of internal and external values. Unexpectedly, a situational bind occurs in which the nurse's core beliefs come into irreconcilable conflict with external forces. This compels the nurse into the stage of resolution, in which he or she either gives up or makes a stand. The nurse then moves into the stage of reflection in which he or she lives with the consequences and iteratively examines beliefs, values, and actions. The nurse tries to make sense of experiences through remembering, telling the story, and examining conflicts. This study sets the stage for further investigation of moral distress. The theory of moral reckoning challenges nurses to tell their stories, examine conflicts, and participate as partners in moral decision making.

  1. Explaining moral religions.

    PubMed

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality.

  2. [Exists an Obligation to be Healthy? Ethical Limits of Medical Prevention].

    PubMed

    Arntz, K

    2016-02-01

    An obligation to be healthy in the sauce of a categorical imperative "You shall change your life!" (P. Sloterdijk) does not exist. There is however a moral responsibility to shape ones own life in such a way that the resulting potentials for development can be realized within one owns possibilities (I. Kant). The example of predictive medicine illustrates, why the right not to know can be a responsible way of self governance when dealing with the knowledge of modern biomedicine. This allows the setting of limits within prevention, which preserve the quality of life of the exposed as well as enabling the individual the "acceptance of self" (R. Guardini).

  3. [About moral enhancement].

    PubMed

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    First, a short summary of the moral enhancement debate is drawn up. Then an argument first put forward by J. Harris is explored: this argument is directly related to I. Perrson's and J. Savulescu's conception of moral life. To conclude, it is suggested that they advocate a naïve idea of technology, conceived as a neutral means for value loaded ends.

  4. Neural basis of moral verdict and moral deliberation

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Jana Schaich; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2011-01-01

    How people judge something to be morally right or wrong is a fundamental question of both the sciences and the humanities. Here we aim to identify the neural processes that underlie the specific conclusion that something is morally wrong. To do this, we introduce a novel distinction between “moral deliberation,” or the weighing of moral considerations, and the formation of a “moral verdict,” or the commitment to one moral conclusion. We predict and identify hemodynamic activity in the bilateral anterior insula and basal ganglia that correlates with committing to the moral verdict “this is morally wrong” as opposed to “this is morally not wrong,” a finding that is consistent with research from economic decision-making. Using comparisons of deliberation-locked vs. verdict-locked analyses, we also demonstrate that hemodynamic activity in high-level cortical regions previously implicated in morality—including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and temporoparietal junction—correlates primarily with moral deliberation as opposed to moral verdicts. These findings provide new insights into what types of processes comprise the enterprise of moral judgment, and in doing so point to a framework for resolving why some clinical patients, including psychopaths, may have intact moral judgment but impaired moral behavior. PMID:21590588

  5. Rethinking Moral Expertise.

    PubMed

    Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers.

  6. Moral status, justice, and the common morality: challenges for the principlist account of moral change.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Kevin E; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2013-09-01

    The theory of principlism elaborated by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics has become extremely influential in bioethics. The theory employs the idea of the common morality as a foundation for the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. According to this account, the content of the common morality is universal and constant, while variability in morals is due to the fact that the issue of who is included within the scope of moral status evolves over time. This suggests that issues of moral status are not part of the common morality at all, and this presents a conundrum: questions of moral status seem central to any substantive account of justice, and any conception of the common morality that excludes moral status therefore seems inadequate for supporting a robust principle of justice. We argue that proponents of common morality theory are left with four options: (1) making moral status a part of the objective common morality and ignoring evidence that views about moral status do seem to vary over time and place; (2) excluding justice from the substantive content of the common morality; (3) taking common morality to be an imperfect approximation of an independently justified and universal foundationalist ethic against which the common morality is judged; or (4) weakening claims about the universality of common morality, thereby allowing the common morality to support a variety of principles of justice applicable only within particular communities that have specified the scope of moral status. We suspect that proponents of common morality theory will not view any of these options favorably, which raises questions about the ultimate contribution of that account.

  7. CE: Moral Distress: A Catalyst in Building Moral Resilience.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Caldwell, Meredith; Kurtz, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    : Moral distress is a pervasive problem in the nursing profession. An inability to act in alignment with one's moral values is detrimental not only to the nurse's well-being but also to patient care and clinical practice as a whole. Moral distress has typically been seen as characterized by powerlessness and victimization; we offer an alternate view. Ethically complex situations and experiences of moral distress can become opportunities for growth, empowerment, and increased moral resilience. This article outlines the concept and prevalence of moral distress, describes its impact and precipitating factors, and discusses promising practices and interventions.

  8. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  9. Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199

  10. 26 CFR 1.454-1 - Obligations issued at discount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Obligations issued at discount. (a) Certain non-interest-bearing obligations issued at discount—(1) Election to include increase in income currently. If a taxpayer owns— (i) A non-interest-bearing obligation...) Amount of increase in case of non-interest-bearing obligations. In any case in which an election is made...

  11. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in the...

  12. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in the...

  13. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in the...

  14. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in the...

  15. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in the...

  16. 5 CFR 2635.809 - Just financial obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... obligations. Employees shall satisfy in good faith their obligations as citizens, including all just financial obligations, especially those such as Federal, State, or local taxes that are imposed by law. For purposes of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Just financial obligations....

  17. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... retirement obligations. 367.22 Section 367.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset retirement obligation represents a liability for the legal obligation associated with the retirement of...

  18. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retirement obligations. 367.22 Section 367.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset retirement obligation represents a liability for the legal obligation associated with the retirement of...

  19. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... retirement obligations. 367.22 Section 367.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset retirement obligation represents a liability for the legal obligation associated with the retirement of...

  20. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retirement obligations. 367.22 Section 367.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset retirement obligation represents a liability for the legal obligation associated with the retirement of...

  1. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Climate change and moral judgement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Shariff, Azim F.

    2012-04-01

    Converging evidence from the behavioural and brain sciences suggests that the human moral judgement system is not well equipped to identify climate change -- a complex, large-scale and unintentionally caused phenomenon -- as an important moral imperative. As climate change fails to generate strong moral intuitions, it does not motivate an urgent need for action in the way that other moral imperatives do. We review six reasons why climate change poses significant challenges to our moral judgement system and describe six strategies that communicators might use to confront these challenges. Enhancing moral intuitions about climate change may motivate greater support for ameliorative actions and policies.

  3. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units.

  4. Moral enhancement and freedom.

    PubMed

    Harris, John

    2011-02-01

    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically 'ethical' capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. MORAL ENHANCEMENT AND FREEDOM

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978

  6. Religion and Morality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose “religion” and “morality” into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts—in particular, sanitized conceptions of “prosocial” behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories “religion” and “morality” must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PMID:25528346

  7. Moral sensitivity and moral distress in Iranian critical care nurses.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohamadi, Elham; Ghasemi, Erfan; Hoseinabad-Farahani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Moral sensitivity is the foremost prerequisite to ethical performance; a review of literature shows that nurses are sometimes not sensitive enough for a variety of reasons. Moral distress is a frequent phenomenon in nursing, which may result in paradoxes in care, dealing with patients and rendering high-quality care. This may, in turn, hinder the meeting of care objectives, thus affecting social healthcare standards. The present research was conducted to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress of nurses in intensive care units. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. Lutzen's moral sensitivity questionnaire and Corley Moral Distress Questionnaire were used to gather data. Participants and research context: A total of 153 qualified nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected for this study. Subjects were selected by census method. Ethical considerations: After explaining the objectives of the study, all the participants completed and signed the written consent form. To conduct the study, permission was obtained from the selected hospitals. Nurses' average moral sensitivity grade was 68.6 ± 7.8, which shows a moderate level of moral sensitivity. On the other hand, nurses also experienced a moderate level of moral distress (44.8 ± 16.6). Moreover, there was no meaningful statistical relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress (p = 0.26). Although the nurses' moral sensitivity and moral distress were expected to be high in the intensive care units, it was moderate. This finding is consistent with the results of some studies and contradicts with others. As moral sensitivity is a crucial factor in care, it is suggested that necessary training be provided to develop moral sensitivity in nurses in education and practical environments. Furthermore, removing factors that contribute to moral distress may help decrease it in nurses.

  8. Moral philosophers are moral experts! A reply to David Archard.

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In his article 'Why Moral Philosophers Are Not and Should Not Be Moral Experts' David Archard attempts to show that his argument from common-sense morality is more convincing than other competing arguments in the debate. I examine his main line of argumentation and eventually refute his main argument in my reply.

  9. What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…

  10. What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…

  11. Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…

  12. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  13. The Measure of Morality-Rethinking Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vine, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Uses a review of Peter E. Langford's, "Approaches to Moral Reasoning," to posit a broad critique of the moral reasoning theories of Lawrence Kohlberg. Summarizes Jean Piaget's stance on moral reasoning and its contributions to Kohlberg's work. Suggests a series of new approaches for research methodologies and subject matter. (MJP)

  14. Personal Moral Development: Perceptions of 14 Moral Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Nancy; Efinger, Joan; Lacey, Candace H.

    This qualitative study investigated perceptions of 14 contemporary moral leaders regarding primary influences on their moral development. Findings indicated a number of important factors influenced the participants' moral development, including parents, spirituality, education/mentors/friends, and peak experiences. This study has implications for…

  15. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  16. Involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill as a moral issue.

    PubMed

    Chodoff, P

    1984-03-01

    Conflict exists between medical model and civil liberties approaches to involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The amassing and analysis of data will not resolve this conflict because the two sides view the problem from differing moral vantage points. Medical model adherents are influenced chiefly by utilitarian or consequentialist considerations, while the civil libertarians take more of a deontological or absolutist position. Opinions about such issues as hospitalization criteria of dangerousness versus medical necessity and the relative role of rights versus obligations and of autonomy versus paternalism can be seen largely to depend on such underlying value judgments. Neither side has a monopoly on truth or right in the question of involuntary hospitalization.

  17. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  18. Cyborgs and moral identity

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, G

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscience and technological medicine in general increasingly faces us with the imminent reality of cyborgs—integrated part human and part machine complexes. If my brain functions in a way that is supported by and exploits intelligent technology both external and implantable, then how should I be treated and what is my moral status—am I a machine or am I a person? I explore a number of scenarios where the balance between human and humanoid machine shifts, and ask questions about the moral status of the individuals concerned. The position taken is very much in accordance with the Aristotelian idea that our moral behaviour is of a piece with our social and personal skills and forms a reactive and reflective component of those skills. PMID:16446411

  19. Cyborgs and moral identity.

    PubMed

    Gillett, G

    2006-02-01

    Neuroscience and technological medicine in general increasingly faces us with the imminent reality of cyborgs-integrated part human and part machine complexes. If my brain functions in a way that is supported by and exploits intelligent technology both external and implantable, then how should I be treated and what is my moral status-am I a machine or am I a person? I explore a number of scenarios where the balance between human and humanoid machine shifts, and ask questions about the moral status of the individuals concerned. The position taken is very much in accordance with the Aristotelian idea that our moral behaviour is of a piece with our social and personal skills and forms a reactive and reflective component of those skills.

  20. Morals and markets.

    PubMed

    Falk, Armin; Szech, Nora

    2013-05-10

    The possibility that market interaction may erode moral values is a long-standing, but controversial, hypothesis in the social sciences, ethics, and philosophy. To date, empirical evidence on decay of moral values through market interaction has been scarce. We present controlled experimental evidence on how market interaction changes how human subjects value harm and damage done to third parties. In the experiment, subjects decide between either saving the life of a mouse or receiving money. We compare individual decisions to those made in a bilateral and a multilateral market. In both markets, the willingness to kill the mouse is substantially higher than in individual decisions. Furthermore, in the multilateral market, prices for life deteriorate tremendously. In contrast, for morally neutral consumption choices, differences between institutions are small.

  1. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  2. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  3. Moral Bioenhancement, Freedom and Reason.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we reply to the most important objections to our advocacy of moral enhancement by biomedical means - moral bioenhancement - that John Harris advances in his new book How to be Good. These objections are to effect that such moral enhancement undercuts both moral reasoning and freedom. The latter objection is directed more specifically at what we have called the God Machine, a super-duper computer which predicts our decisions and prevents decisions to perpertrate morally atrocious acts. In reply, we argue first that effective moral bioenhancement presupposes moral reasoning rather than undermines it. Secondly, that the God Machine would leave us with extensive freedom and that the restrictions it imposes on it are morally justified by the prevention of harm to victims.

  4. [Employer's obligation of safety and nanomaterials].

    PubMed

    Doucet, Maud

    2011-01-01

    Health and Safety law at work is influenced by the intervention of the European Union. The model of prevention of occupational risks is set by the 1989 framework directive. The question of its applicability to nanomaterials divides the Commission and the European Parliament. This model was welcomed differently by member states. Employers are generally under an obligation to adopt best means to assure workers' safety, while French law imposes an obligation to get results. This obligation concerns each aspect of the employment contract's execution and is analysed as an effective way to esure the prevention of occupational risks. If risks associated with nanomaterials seem to be taken into consideration by our system of worker protection, it seems however that prevention will be difficult to implement.

  5. Models of morality

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.

    2013-01-01

    Moral dilemmas engender conflicts between two traditions: consequentialism, which evaluates actions based on their outcomes, and deontology, which evaluates actions themselves. These strikingly resemble two distinct decision-making architectures: a model-based system that selects actions based on inferences about their consequences; and a model-free system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history. Here, I consider how these systems, along with a Pavlovian system that responds reflexively to rewards and punishments, can illuminate puzzles in moral psychology. PMID:23845564

  6. 26 CFR 1.1232-3A - Inclusion as interest of original issue discount on certain obligations issued after May 27, 1969.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1232-3A Inclusion as interest of original issue discount on certain obligations issued after May 27, 1969. (a) Ratable inclusion as interest—(1) General... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion as interest of original issue discount...

  7. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000972.htm Slipped capital femoral epiphysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball ...

  8. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  9. Moral Education in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, A. Wesley

    1979-01-01

    This article evaluates the position of the Ontario Ministry of Education on moral education, particularly as evidenced in the MacKay Committee report, "Religious Information and Moral Development." Finally, it suggests some reasons why formal moral education should not continue to be part of the public school curriculum. (Author/SJL)

  10. Moral Development through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskin, Donald; Hoskisson, Kenneth

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical importance of the interaction between children and their environment. Discussions of moral dilemmas in children's literature provide a rich source of interaction that could help children clarify the basis for moral development of higher levels of moral reasoning. (Author/SDH)

  11. Philosophy, Casuistry, and Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…

  12. Moral Education for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stengel, Susan R.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an overview of Kohlberg's five stages of moral reasoning and Damon's levels of positive justice. Argues that a conditioning approach to moral development is inadequate, suggesting teaching methods for facilitating moral development based on helping children understand principles and reasons. (RH)

  13. Implications of a Moral Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Robert E.

    A research memorandum presents the results of an on-going study into the implications of a moral science. Adopting a moral stance in scientific investigation would entail the abandonment of analytic modes of inquiry for more holistic, open-ended ones. The basic premise of a moral science is that it is possible for men to reach agreement on what is…

  14. Philosophy, Casuistry, and Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…

  15. Moral Dimensions of Curriculum Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, C. J. B.

    This paper argues that just as subject matter is inherently value-laden, educators should not feel trepidation about morally justifying their criteria for choosing curricula to be taught in the classroom. It recommends that true "moral" choices should be made on the bases of relevance to student experiences; moral propriety of subject matter…

  16. Public Spaces and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    The questions of how and where to do moral education have been with us since antiquity. But, over the past couple of hundred years we have sent moral education to the margins within higher education. Using the historical analysis of Julie Reuben, the moral psychological work of Augusto Blasi, and the educational philosophical work of John Dewey, I…

  17. A Model of Moral Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Don Collins

    2008-01-01

    The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in…

  18. Is There a Moral Skill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of skill, distinguished from habit, is sketched. Moral skill is defined as the skill, born of genetically rooted talent, which masterminds subsidiary skills into moral action (action conforming to certain moral principles). Training this skill is possible, but results will be uneven because talent varies. (IAH)

  19. Public Spaces and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    The questions of how and where to do moral education have been with us since antiquity. But, over the past couple of hundred years we have sent moral education to the margins within higher education. Using the historical analysis of Julie Reuben, the moral psychological work of Augusto Blasi, and the educational philosophical work of John Dewey, I…

  20. Education for Critical Moral Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustakova-Possardt, Elena

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a lifespan developmental model of critical moral consciousness and examines its implications for education in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Mature moral consciousness, central to negotiating the challenges of the 21st century, is characterized by a deepening lifelong integration of moral motivation, agency and critical…

  1. Education for Critical Moral Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustakova-Possardt, Elena

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a lifespan developmental model of critical moral consciousness and examines its implications for education in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Mature moral consciousness, central to negotiating the challenges of the 21st century, is characterized by a deepening lifelong integration of moral motivation, agency and critical…

  2. Race, Culture and Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  3. Computer Conferencing and Moral Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Helen L.; Quinn-Leering, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of responsibility, professional morality, and moral reasoning focuses on the potential that computer conferencing activities have for providing opportunities for moral discourse and expanding prospective teachers' understanding of their professional responsibilities. The form and the content of the discussions have the potential to…

  4. Developing Moral Agency through Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…

  5. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  6. A Model of Moral Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Don Collins

    2008-01-01

    The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in…

  7. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  8. Moral knowledge: some reflections on moral controversies, incompatible moral epistemologies, and the culture wars.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2004-01-01

    An authentic Christian bioethical account of abortion must take into consideration the conflicting epistemologies that separate Christian moral theology from secular moral philosophy. Moral epistemologies directed to the issue of abortion that fail to appreciate the orientation of morality to God will also fail adequately to appreciate the moral issues at stake. Christian accounts of the bioethics of abortion that reduce moral-theological considerations to moral-philosophical considerations will not only fail to appreciate fully the offense of abortion, but morally mislead. This article locates the bioethics of abortion within the theology of the Church of the first millennium, emphasizing that abortion was prohibited, whether or not one considered the embryo or fetus to be ensouled.

  9. [Ethical and moral considerations of refusal of medical treatment by inmate-patients].

    PubMed

    García Guerrero, J

    2008-02-01

    A health care relationship is based on classic premises of autonomy, benefit to the patient, justice and non-maleficence (or the "do no harm" principle). Moral rules are principles that should guide professional conduct, they have no legal power but are self imposed by the group and oblige all professionals to act accordingly. Although the capacity of any imprisoned individual to make decisions about medical treatment is restricted, there are no ethical or moral arguments to justify limitations on the exercise of autonomy where decision making processes that might directly affect him/her are concerned.

  10. Moral panic, moral regulation, and the civilizing process.

    PubMed

    Hier, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This article compares two analytical frameworks ostensibly formulated to widen the focus of moral panic studies. The comparative analysis suggests that attempts to conceptualize moral panics in terms of decivilizing processes have neither substantively supplemented the explanatory gains made by conceptualizing moral panic as a form of moral regulation nor provided a viable alternative framework that better explains the dynamics of contemporary moral panics. The article concludes that Elias's meta-theory of the civilizing process potentially provides explanatory resources to investigate a possible historical-structural shift towards the so-called age of (a)moral panic; the analytical demands of such a project, however, require a sufficiently different line of inquiry than the one encouraged by both the regulatory and decivilizing perspectives on moral panic. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  11. Dehumanization increases instrumental violence, but not moral violence.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tage S; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Graham, Jesse

    2017-08-08

    Across five experiments, we show that dehumanization-the act of perceiving victims as not completely human-increases instrumental, but not moral, violence. In attitude surveys, ascribing reduced capacities for cognitive, experiential, and emotional states to victims predicted support for practices where victims are harmed to achieve instrumental goals, including sweatshop labor, animal experimentation, and drone strikes that result in civilian casualties, but not practices where harm is perceived as morally righteous, including capital punishment, killing in war, and drone strikes that kill terrorists. In vignette experiments, using dehumanizing compared with humanizing language increased participants' willingness to harm strangers for money, but not participants' willingness to harm strangers for their immoral behavior. Participants also spontaneously dehumanized strangers when they imagined harming them for money, but not when they imagined harming them for their immoral behavior. Finally, participants humanized strangers who were low in humanity if they imagined harming them for immoral behavior, but not money, suggesting that morally motivated perpetrators may humanize victims to justify violence against them. Our findings indicate that dehumanization enables violence that perpetrators see as unethical, but instrumentally beneficial. In contrast, dehumanization does not contribute to moral violence because morally motivated perpetrators wish to harm complete human beings who are capable of deserving blame, experiencing suffering, and understanding its meaning.

  12. Philosophy and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  13. The New Moral Darwinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for…

  14. The Morality of Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

  15. The New Moral Darwinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for…

  16. A Morally Deep World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lawrence E.

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Johnson advocates a major change in our attitude toward the nonhuman world. He argues that nonhuman animals, and ecosystems themselves, are morally significant beings with interests and rights. The author considers recent work in environmental ethics in the introduction and then presents his case with the utmost precision and clarity.

  17. Communication and Moral Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Sally A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Notes that responses to moral conflict often lead to reciprocated diatribe and the use of violence. Describes a potentially more constructive approach, called transcendent eloquence, in which interveners or the conflicting parties themselves develop a new framework for understanding and comparing such conflicts. Discusses a number of case studies,…

  18. Hospice: Morality and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Donald E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines hospice concepts and proposals to identify moral problems presented. Particular attention is given to the relationship between the hospice concept's alleged humanitarianism and emphasis on cost-efficiency. Suggests that cost emphasis raises serious questions about the meaning of hospice concepts. (JAC)

  19. Assessing Students' Moral Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, James J. F.; Keith, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The United States Military Academy (USMA) provides cadets with a liberal education designed to develop versatile and critical thinkers who can adapt to the professional and ethical challenges they will confront. Cadets' moral development is integrated throughout their West Point experience, to the point of being included as one of the USMA's…

  20. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  1. Maintaining High Teacher Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    In public education's current environment of high-stakes testing and accountability, principals are constantly engaged in an effort to balance messages to their teachers to achieve ever-higher levels of student learning with appreciation for what they do. As a result, it is not surprising that staff morale is an issue in some schools. The…

  2. Moral Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiratsuka, Masunori

    1980-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of the Japanese nation with respect to the education, character, and spirit of its people. Changes in educational thought in the post-World War II period are discussed and indication made of the active interest in and current provisions for moral education in Japanese schools. (Author/SJL)

  3. Mysteries of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeScioli, Peter; Kurzban, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of morality, beginning with Darwin, have focused on explanations for altruism. More generally, these accounts have concentrated on conscience (self-regulatory mechanisms) to the neglect of condemnation (mechanisms for punishing others). As a result, few theoretical tools are available for understanding the rapidly…

  4. The Moral Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses character and moral education in the classroom, suggesting that schools should reinforce the lessons of the home rather than acting as value-free zones. Modern education has the tendency to present students with a huge set of options with no distinctions made as to each option's pros and cons. Students need guidance in discerning correct…

  5. The Disappearing Moral Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Compares the stated educational philosophy of several colleges and universities in 1896-97 with the contemporary version, focusing on the role of moral values in the curriculum. Institutions discussed include the University of Maine, University of North Dakota, Washington State University, Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania), Stetson University…

  6. The Morality of Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

  7. Mobilizing the Moral Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Robert C.

    The Moral Majority has been more successful in mobilizing conservative Christians than three other evangelical groups--Third Century Publishers, Christian Voice, and the Religious Roundtable. According to the literature on social movements, four possible explanations for the success of such groups are that they have access to financial resources,…

  8. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  9. Moral behavior in sport.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    In this review paper, we provide an overview of recent research on prosocial and antisocial behaviors, in the context of sport, focusing mainly on antecedents and consequences of these behaviors. Motivational variables such as task orientation, mastery climate, autonomous motivation, and autonomy supportive climate are likely to promote prosocial behavior, whereas ego orientation, performance climate, controlled motivation, and controlling climate may lead to antisocial behavior. The effects of some motivational variables (i.e., controlled motivation and controlling climate) on antisocial behavior may be mediated by moral disengagement, which has been consistently linked to antisocial behavior across a number of studies. Two moral variables, moral identity and empathy have been found to inhibit antisocial behavior, and their effects are due to anticipated guilt for acting antisocially. With respect to consequences of teammate behavior, some evidence suggests that prosocial behavior may enhance the recipient's enjoyment, effort, commitment, and performance, whereas antisocial behavior could lead to anger. Finally, the frequency of prosocial and antisocial behaviors varies as a function of context: Student athletes display more antisocial behavior towards their opponents compared to their fellow students but also more prosocial behavior towards their teammates than towards their fellow students. In sum, both motivational and moral variables predict prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport, and these behaviors can have important consequences for the recipient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex, Technology and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Verna; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of the course "Sex, Technology, and Morality" which focuses on the human reproductive process and examines the advances in reproductive technology. The course emphasizes the social, political, and ethical implications of actual and possible technologies associated with human reproduction. (ML)

  11. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  12. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  13. Utilitarian Moral Judgment Exclusively Coheres with Inference from Is to Ought

    PubMed Central

    Elqayam, Shira; Wilkinson, Meredith R.; Thompson, Valerie A.; Over, David E.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.

    2017-01-01

    Faced with moral choice, people either judge according to pre-existing obligations (deontological judgment), or by taking into account the consequences of their actions (utilitarian judgment). We propose that the latter coheres with a more general cognitive mechanism – deontic introduction, the tendency to infer normative (‘deontic’) conclusions from descriptive premises (is-ought inference). Participants were presented with vignettes that allowed either deontological or utilitarian choice, and asked to draw a range of deontic conclusions, as well as judge the overall moral rightness of each choice separately. We predicted and found a selective defeasibility pattern, in which manipulations that suppressed deontic introduction also suppressed utilitarian moral judgment, but had little effect on deontological moral judgment. Thus, deontic introduction coheres with utilitarian moral judgment almost exclusively. We suggest a family of norm-generating informal inferences, in which normative conclusions are drawn from descriptive (although value-laden) premises. This family includes deontic introduction and utilitarian moral judgment as well as other informal inferences. We conclude with a call for greater integration of research in moral judgment and research into deontic reasoning and informal inference. PMID:28690572

  14. Moral reasoning and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mudrack, Peter E

    2006-06-01

    Moral reasoning should not be clearly associated with measures of personality traits. Although this assumption pervades the moral reasoning literature, it may not always be true. This paper provides evidence that moral reasoning, as assessed with P scores of the Defining Issues Test, is indeed positively associated with five traits from the California Psychological Inventory: Achievement via Independence, Intellectual Efficiency, Tolerance, Responsibility, and Capacity for Status. Such relationships make conceptual sense, shed light on the meaning and implications of moral reasoning, call into question prevailing assumptions in the literature, and may encourage investigators to broaden the types of research questions asked in the context of moral reasoning.

  15. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  16. The author’s opportunity and obligation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peer review is a critical component of the scientific method and therefore should be an obligation for everyone who desires to publish their research results in refereed journals. This editorial is written to address a specific problem being encountered by editors of Soil & Tillage Research, but the...

  17. 19 CFR 10.1005 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.1005 Section 10.1005 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade...

  18. 19 CFR 10.1005 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.1005 Section 10.1005 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade...

  19. 19 CFR 10.1005 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.1005 Section 10.1005 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade...

  20. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free...

  1. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appointment date, the Secretary shall notify the participant of the work assignment, its location, and the date work must begin. (2) Obligated service shall begin on the degree completion date for a participant... the number of credit hours carried by the part-time student in any school year bears to the number of...

  2. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appointment date, the Secretary shall notify the participant of the work assignment, its location, and the date work must begin. (2) Obligated service shall begin on the degree completion date for a participant... the number of credit hours carried by the part-time student in any school year bears to the number of...

  3. 47 CFR 90.1440 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 90.1440 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Public Safety Broadband Licensee shall jointly file quarterly...

  4. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27.1340 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Public Safety Broadband Licensee shall jointly file quarterly reports with... requirements of public safety are being met, detailed information on the areas where broadband service has...

  5. 47 CFR 90.1440 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 90.1440 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Public Safety Broadband Licensee shall jointly file quarterly...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27.1340 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Public Safety Broadband Licensee shall jointly file quarterly reports with... requirements of public safety are being met, detailed information on the areas where broadband service has...

  7. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  8. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  9. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  10. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  11. 30 CFR 717.11 - General obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.11 General obligations. (a) Compliance. All underground coal mining and associated reclamation operations conducted on lands where any...

  12. 31 CFR 1022.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1022.311 Section 1022.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MONEY SERVICES BUSINESSES...

  13. 31 CFR 1022.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1022.311 Section 1022.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MONEY SERVICES BUSINESSES...

  14. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade...

  15. 19 CFR 10.3005 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.3005 Section 10.3005 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade...

  16. 19 CFR 10.3005 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.3005 Section 10.3005 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade...

  17. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade...

  18. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade...

  19. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade...

  20. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade...

  1. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  2. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  3. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  4. Higher Education's Cultural Obligations: Views and Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John Y., Ed.

    Perspectives on the cultural obligations of higher education are presented in this collection of papers. Higher education's possible and probable cultural function is addressed from the perspective of business, the arts, education, and religion. Also discussed is the role of institutions of higher education in establishing a system of values,…

  5. 47 CFR 14.20 - Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obligations. 14.20 Section 14.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Implementation Requirements-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 14.20...

  6. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  7. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  8. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  9. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  10. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  11. 21 CFR 26.62 - General obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General obligations. 26.62 Section 26.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS...

  12. 21 CFR 26.62 - General obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General obligations. 26.62 Section 26.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS...

  13. 7 CFR 993.56 - Reserve obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve obligation. 993.56 Section 993.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... program objectives for the crop of a particular season, it may be eliminated for that season by the...

  14. Moral individualism and elective death.

    PubMed

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Modeled Rationales on Moral Behavior, Moral Choice, and Level of Moral Judgment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Potts, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Addresses several issues regarding the impact of models on the child's morality among 72 five- to seven-year-old boys. Moral behavior was recorded, moral judgment was assessed and responses to a hypothesized moral dilemma were obtained. Among the results, the child's moral responses depended, in part, on the level of justification used by the…

  16. The Effect of Modeled Rationales on Moral Behavior, Moral Choice, and Level of Moral Judgment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Potts, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Addresses several issues regarding the impact of models on the child's morality among 72 five- to seven-year-old boys. Moral behavior was recorded, moral judgment was assessed and responses to a hypothesized moral dilemma were obtained. Among the results, the child's moral responses depended, in part, on the level of justification used by the…

  17. The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City.

    PubMed

    Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional "aggravated assaults" in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss's interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents.

  18. The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City

    PubMed Central

    Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents. PMID:25067849

  19. Moral Distress among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Tabatabaei, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses. Methods: This was a descriptive –analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses’ moral distress was assessed using Corley’s 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19. Results: In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was “working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing”. The item with the lowest mean score was “giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it”. Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress. Conclusion: A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses. PMID:26005478

  20. GETTING MORAL ENHANCEMENT RIGHT: THE DESIRABILITY OF MORAL BIOENHANCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We respond to a number of objections raised by John Harris in this journal to our argument that we should pursue genetic and other biological means of morally enhancing human beings (moral bioenhancement). We claim that human beings now have at their disposal means of wiping out life on Earth and that traditional methods of moral education are probably insufficient to achieve the moral enhancement required to ensure that this will not happen. Hence, we argue, moral bioenhancement should be sought and applied. We argue that cognitive enhancement and technological progress raise acute problems because it is easier to harm than to benefit. We address objections to this argument. We also respond to objections that moral bioenhancement: (1) interferes with freedom; (2) cannot be made to target immoral dispositions precisely; (3) is redundant, since cognitive enhancement by itself suffices. PMID:21797913

  1. 26 CFR 1.454-1 - Obligations issued at discount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... series E bond, at which time the stated redemption value was $674.60. A never elected under section 454(a... obligation, in which he retains his investment in a matured series E U.S. savings bond, or (iii) A nontransferable obligation (whether or not a current income obligation) of the United States for which a series E...

  2. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  3. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  4. 10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.20 Maximum DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the...

  5. 10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.20 Maximum DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the...

  6. 10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.20 Maximum DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the...

  7. 28 CFR 811.3 - Notice of obligation to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice of obligation to register. 811.3... COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.3 Notice of obligation to register. (a) Sex offenders may be notified of their obligation to register under various provisions of law. See sections 4, 6 and 8 of...

  8. 28 CFR 811.3 - Notice of obligation to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice of obligation to register. 811.3... COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.3 Notice of obligation to register. (a) Sex offenders may be notified of their obligation to register under various provisions of law. See sections 4, 6 and 8 of...

  9. 28 CFR 811.3 - Notice of obligation to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of obligation to register. 811.3... COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.3 Notice of obligation to register. (a) Sex offenders may be notified of their obligation to register under various provisions of law. See sections 4, 6 and 8 of...

  10. 49 CFR 557.8 - Determination of manufacturer's obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of manufacturer's obligation. 557.8... REMEDY OF DEFECTS § 557.8 Determination of manufacturer's obligation. If the Administrator determines, on..., that the manufacturer has not reasonably met his obligation to notify owners, dealers, and...

  11. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15... Guaranty § 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its obligations... Agent by A.I.D. as a result of such failure or neglect; provided, however, that the Paying Agent is not...

  12. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15... Guaranty § 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its obligations... Agent by A.I.D. as a result of such failure or neglect; provided, however, that the Paying Agent is not...

  13. 22 CFR 233.07 - Fiscal Agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fiscal Agent obligations. 233.07 Section 233.07... CONDITIONS § 233.07 Fiscal Agent obligations. Failure of the Fiscal Agent to perform any of its obligations... may be the subject of action for damages against the Fiscal Agent by USAID as a result of such failure...

  14. 22 CFR 232.07 - Fiscal agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fiscal agent obligations. 232.07 Section 232.07..., PUB. L. 112-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.07 Fiscal agent obligations. Failure of the Fiscal Agent to perform any of its obligations pursuant to the Fiscal Agency Agreement shall not impair any...

  15. 22 CFR 232.07 - Fiscal agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fiscal agent obligations. 232.07 Section 232.07..., PUB. L. 112-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.07 Fiscal agent obligations. Failure of the Fiscal Agent to perform any of its obligations pursuant to the Fiscal Agency Agreement shall not impair any...

  16. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the...

  17. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided in...

  18. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the...

  19. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the...

  20. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided in...

  1. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided in...

  2. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the...

  3. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided in...

  4. 24 CFR 576.203 - Obligation, expenditure, and payment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Obligation, expenditure, and payment... Funds § 576.203 Obligation, expenditure, and payment requirements. (a) Obligation of funds. (1) Funds..., which has designated a department to directly carry out an eligible activity. (b) Expenditures. The...

  5. 24 CFR 576.203 - Obligation, expenditure, and payment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligation, expenditure, and... PROGRAM Award and Use of Funds § 576.203 Obligation, expenditure, and payment requirements. (a) Obligation..., which has designated a department to directly carry out an eligible activity. (b) Expenditures. The...

  6. 24 CFR 576.203 - Obligation, expenditure, and payment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligation, expenditure, and... PROGRAM Award and Use of Funds § 576.203 Obligation, expenditure, and payment requirements. (a) Obligation..., which has designated a department to directly carry out an eligible activity. (b) Expenditures. The...

  7. 28 CFR 42.307 - Obligations of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obligations of recipients. 42.307 Section...; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Equal Employment Opportunity Program Guidelines § 42.307 Obligations of recipients. The obligation of those recipients subject to these guidelines for the maintenance of an...

  8. 45 CFR 1386.3 - Liquidation of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquidation of obligations. 1386.3 Section 1386.3... DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT PROGRAMS Basic Requirements § 1386.3 Liquidation of obligations. (a) All obligations incurred pursuant to a grant made under the Act for a specific Federal fiscal year, must...

  9. 7 CFR 1948.92 - Grant approval and fund obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agency under Public Law 103-354 State Office that funds are not available. The obligation date will be... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Grant approval and fund obligation. 1948.92 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.92 Grant approval and fund obligation. (a) The FmHA or its...

  10. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt § 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the Federal...

  11. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt § 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the Federal...

  12. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt § 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the Federal...

  13. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt § 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the Federal...

  14. 47 CFR 64.1300 - Payphone compensation obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payphone compensation obligation. 64.1300... compensation obligation. (a) For purposes of this subpart, a Completing Carrier is a long distance carrier or... parties by contract. (c) The compensation obligation set forth herein shall not apply to calls...

  15. 47 CFR 64.1300 - Payphone compensation obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone compensation obligation. 64.1300... compensation obligation. (a) For purposes of this subpart, a Completing Carrier is a long distance carrier or... parties by contract. (c) The compensation obligation set forth herein shall not apply to calls...

  16. 22 CFR 221.15 - Fiscal Agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiscal Agent obligations. 221.15 Section 221.15... The Guarantee § 221.15 Fiscal Agent obligations. Failure of the Fiscal Agent to perform any of its obligations pursuant to the Fiscal Agency Agreement shall not impair any Noteholder's rights under...

  17. 22 CFR 230.07 - Fiscal Agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiscal Agent obligations. 230.07 Section 230.07... Fiscal Agent obligations. Failure of the Fiscal Agent to perform any of its obligations pursuant to the Fiscal Agency Agreement shall not impair any Noteholder's rights under this Guarantee, but may be...

  18. 31 CFR 149.3 - Maximum obligation limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 149.3 Section 149.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM OBLIGATION LIMITATION § 149.3 Maximum obligation...

  19. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...

  20. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...