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Sample records for capital moral obligation

  1. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that "ought implies can." We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1-3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the "ought implies can" principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a "blame implies can" principle.

  2. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  3. Ethical theory, "common morality," and professional obligations.

    PubMed

    Alexandra, Andrew; Miller, Seumas

    2009-01-01

    We have two aims in this paper. The first is negative: to demonstrate the problems in Bernard Gert's account of common morality, in particular as it applies to professional morality. The second is positive: to suggest a more satisfactory explanation of the moral basis of professional role morality, albeit one that is broadly consistent with Gert's notion of common morality, but corrects and supplements Gert's theory. The paper is in three sections. In the first, we sketch the main features of Gert's account of common morality in general. In the second, we outline Gert's explanation of the source of professional moral rules and demonstrate its inadequacy. In the third section, we provide an account of our own collectivist needs-based view of the source of the role-moral obligations of many professional roles, including those of health care professionals.

  4. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  5. Genetic ignorance, moral obligations and social duties.

    PubMed

    Takala, T; Häyry, M

    2000-02-01

    In a contribution to The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Professor Rosamond Rhodes argues that individuals sometimes have an obligation to know about their genetic disorders, because this is required by their status as autonomous persons. Her analysis, which is based on Kant's concept of autonomy and Aristotle's notion of friendship, is extended here to consequentialist concerns. These are of paramount importance if, as we believe and Professor Rhodes herself implies, the Kantian and Aristotelian doctrines can be helpful only in the sphere of private morality, not in the public realm. Better tools for assessing the right to genetic ignorance as an issue of public policy can, we contend, be found in Mill's ideas concerning liberty and the prevention of harm. Our own conclusion, based on the Millian way of thinking, is that individuals probably do have the right to remain in ignorance in the cases Professor Rhodes presents as examples of a duty to know. PMID:10732878

  6. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  7. To what do we have moral obligations and why? II.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-01

    Following up on his 1 June 1985 article on moral obligations to living human beings versus other sentient beings, Gillon focuses on arguments for and against prohuman "speciesism," the claim that "viability" is a justifiable criterion for differentiating between humans that may be killed and those that may not, and claims that "personhood" is a morally relevant differentiating concept. He discusses the positions taken by Peter Singer and Dame Mary Warnock on "speciesism," and the theories of such philosphers as John Locke, Immanuel Kant, and Michael Tooley regarding the essence of personhood. He sees no solid basis for grounding the scope of moral obligations on simple sentience, membership in the human species, or technical differentia such as viability, and concludes that medical ethics still suffers from the lack of an adequate theory on which to base a right to life.

  8. Taking due care: moral obligations in dual use research.

    PubMed

    Kuhlau, Frida; Eriksson, Stefan; Evers, Kathinka; Höglund, Anna T

    2008-11-01

    In the past decade, the perception of a bioterrorist threat has increased and created a demand on life scientists to consider the potential security implications of dual use research. This article examines a selection of proposed moral obligations for life scientists that have emerged to meet these concerns and the extent to which they can be considered reasonable. It also describes the underlying reasons for the concerns, how they are managed, and their implications for scientific values. Five criteria for what constitutes preventable harm are suggested and a number of proposed obligations for life scientists are considered against these criteria, namely, the obligations to prevent bioterrorism; to engage in response activities; to consider negative implications of research; not to publish or share sensitive information; to oversee and limit access to dangerous material; and to report activities of concern. Although bioterrorism might be perceived as an imminent threat, the analysis illustrates that this is beyond the responsibility of life scientists either to prevent or to respond to. Among the more reasonable obligations are duties to consider potential negative implications of one's research, protect access to sensitive material, technology and knowledge, and report activities of concern. Responsibility, therefore, includes obligations concerned with preventing foreseeable and highly probable harm. A central conclusion is that several of the proposed obligations are reasonable, although not unconditionally. PMID:18959730

  9. Limiting the Scope of Moral Obligations to Help: A Cross-Cultural Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Jonathan; Miller, Joan G.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed U.S. and Indian college students regarding the moral obligation to save someone's life by donating bone marrow. Indians were more likely to consider donation morally required. Both groups limited obligation to help out-group members. Indians regarded donating more highly when it arose from duty. Americans regarded donating more highly…

  10. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  11. The development of moral judgments concerning capital punishment.

    PubMed

    Kohlberg, L; Elfenbein, D

    1975-07-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of the development of moral judgment in American males indicate that the most mature stages evince moral condemnation of the death penalty. The authors conclude that American moral standards are evolving towards a view of execution as unjust punishment. They contend that a theory of punishment based on the highest stage of moral reasoning is more valid than lower-stage justifications for capital punishment, and that it provides a rational basis for asserting the immorality--and unconstitutionality--of capital punishment, irrespective of uncertainties as to the deterrent efficacy of the death penalty.

  12. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    PubMed

    Harris, J; Holm, S

    1995-11-01

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm others by making them ill where this is avoidable, and this obligation not to communicate disease applies as much to relatively trivial diseases like the common cold as it does to HIV disease. The reasonableness of expecting people to live up to this obligation, however, depends on society reciprocating the obligation in the form of providing protection and compensation.

  13. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due...

  14. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due...

  17. 18 CFR 367.2270 - Account 227, Obligations under capital lease-Non-current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 227, Obligations under capital lease-Non-current. 367.2270 Section 367.2270 Conservation of Power and Water....2270 Account 227, Obligations under capital lease—Non-current. This account must include the...

  18. 18 CFR 367.2430 - Account 243, Obligations under capital leases-Current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Obligations under capital leases-Current. 367.2430 Section 367.2430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities § 367.2430 Account 243, Obligations under capital leases—Current. This account must include the portion, due...

  19. 18 CFR 367.2270 - Account 227, Obligations under capital lease-Non-current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 227, Obligations under capital lease-Non-current. 367.2270 Section 367.2270 Conservation of Power and Water....2270 Account 227, Obligations under capital lease—Non-current. This account must include the...

  20. 18 CFR 367.2270 - Account 227, Obligations under capital lease-Non-current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 227, Obligations under capital lease-Non-current. 367.2270 Section 367.2270 Conservation of Power and Water....2270 Account 227, Obligations under capital lease—Non-current. This account must include the...

  1. Observer perceptions of moral obligations in groups with a history of victimization.

    PubMed

    Warner, Ruth H; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2012-07-01

    The authors investigated when observers assign contemporary group members moral obligations based on their group's victimization history. In Experiment 1, Americans perceived Israelis as obligated to help Sudanese genocide victims and as guiltworthy for not helping if reminded of the Holocaust and its descendants were linked to this history. In Experiment 2, participants perceived Israelis as more obligated to help and guiltworthy for not helping when the Holocaust was presented as a unique victimization event compared with when genocide was presented as pervasive. Experiments 3 and 4 replicated the effects of Experiment 1 with Cambodians as the victimized group. Experiment 5 demonstrated that participants perceived Cambodians as having more obligations under high just world threat compared with low just world threat. Perceiving victimized groups as incurring obligations is one just world restoration method of providing meaning to collective injustice.

  2. Observer perceptions of moral obligations in groups with a history of victimization.

    PubMed

    Warner, Ruth H; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2012-07-01

    The authors investigated when observers assign contemporary group members moral obligations based on their group's victimization history. In Experiment 1, Americans perceived Israelis as obligated to help Sudanese genocide victims and as guiltworthy for not helping if reminded of the Holocaust and its descendants were linked to this history. In Experiment 2, participants perceived Israelis as more obligated to help and guiltworthy for not helping when the Holocaust was presented as a unique victimization event compared with when genocide was presented as pervasive. Experiments 3 and 4 replicated the effects of Experiment 1 with Cambodians as the victimized group. Experiment 5 demonstrated that participants perceived Cambodians as having more obligations under high just world threat compared with low just world threat. Perceiving victimized groups as incurring obligations is one just world restoration method of providing meaning to collective injustice. PMID:22427385

  3. Why patients have a moral obligation to give care to clinicians.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Progress is being made in transitioning from clinicians who are torn between caring for patients and populations, to clinicians who are partnering with patients to care for patients as people. However, the focus is still on what patients and others can do for patients, however defined. For clinicians whose interests must be similarly respected for their own sake and because they are integrally related to those of patients, what can and should patients do? Patients can be exempted from some normal social roles but are generally recognized to have moral obligations in health care. One of these obligations is caregiving to clinicians within the limits of each patient's capability. My paper moves this obligation beyond the ceremonial order of etiquette characterizing public statements on how patients should relate to others. It goes beyond a patient-centred ethic that is consumerist in nature, to a person-centred one that recognizes patients typically as moral agents who are dignified by recognizing the obligation to give as well as receive care as sincere benevolence. This obligation derives objective justification from divine command. It is also consistent, however, both with what people, if ignorant of their social role, would objectively produce for a hypothetical social contract, and with virtues constitutive of human nature and a relational and communitarian understanding of what it is to be a person. Including sentiment (intuition) and personal conscience, this relational identity makes caregiving intrinsically meaningful, yet caregiving also has an instrumental value to patients and clinicians. Its self-enforcement by patients will depend on their moral code and on society making caregiving achievable for them. A moral obligation for patient caregiving may then be specified to require patients to reflect on and invest in relationships in which they can feel and show care for others sincerely and respectfully.

  4. Moral obligations to the not-yet born: the fetus as patient.

    PubMed

    Murray, T H

    1987-06-01

    The fetus destined to be born rather than aborted has become increasingly an object of medical and moral concern. With considerable justification, women view this concern--which they share to a great degree--with suspicion that it will serve as a pretext for denying them social and economic equality with men. This article attempts to show that practical moral judgments about our obligations to not-yet-born children can be made without falling into the abyss of controversy surrounding abortion. By stressing the similarities in fathers' duties to their born children, we can also counter a measure of our historical propensity to view women's moral duties to their not-yet-born children as the overwhelmingly important feature of their moral lives, and resist the temptation to impose coercive public policies.

  5. Joint ventures: a risk to the ministry's moral capital?

    PubMed

    McMillan, E

    1987-04-01

    When Catholic health care providers become involved in a joint venture, they put at risk not only their financial and legal resources but also their "moral capital," that is, their tradition of healing in Jesus Christ's name. Since collaborative arrangements may offer the only way to respond to persons in need, organizations that are contemplating joint ventures must assess in moral terms the "return" on such arrangements. The joint ventures fraught with the greatest moral risk are those between hospitals and physicians. In such arrangements, the patient's best interests may be compromised by the economic interests of both the physicians and the provider. Although both the law and the American Medical Association seem reluctant to prohibit entrepreneurial activity that places physicians in conflict-of-interest situations, they have established disclosure requirements to help safeguard patient interests. Moral tensions also are inherent in managed care plans such as health maintenance organizations and preferred provider organizations. The emphasis on gatekeeping to avoid unnecessary medical procedures and the potential for excluding persons in need who cannot afford to participate in such plans are two serious concerns. The patient's right to confidentiality also may be threatened in capitated systems, which rely on complex utilization review procedures that expose the patient's records to a wide circle of people. Each ethical issue will not arise in every potential joint venture. The sooner an organization can name the key values it wants to protect, however, the easier it will be for potential partners to work together and to build into the joint venture safeguards for these values.

  6. [Self endangerment to save life--competing Jewish legal and moral obligations].

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Wygoda, Michael; Rosenzweig, Joshua P; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-11-01

    The obligation to help others often involves personal risk. Consequently, the scope and boundaries of this obligation can present a complex dilemma, which has practical and moral implications, even in the world of medicine. In Jewish medical ethics, the dilemma stems from a confrontation between the duty to help others according to the biblical commandment: "Do not stand idly by your fellow's blood" on the one hand, and between the right and duty of man to defend himself, which is anchored in Jewish law. This article surveys the sources of this quandary in Jewish texts throughout the ages such as the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, and responsa literature in various contexts. The discussion highlights the essential difference between the formal demands of the law, which protects human rights of self-preservation, and the moral requirement to help others even if it may include personal risk. The sources suggest distinguishing between various levels of risk ranging from high-risk to reasonable or low risk. In this way, the classic sources, provide the foundation and the tools for grappling with modern contemporary Halachic questions such as organ transplantation, and generate a Torah value-based framework to deal with new situations that may arise in the future. It is critical to assess the level of risk and the chances for success, along with other subjective considerations, in order to ensure the optimal ethical course of action. PMID:25563020

  7. [Self endangerment to save life--competing Jewish legal and moral obligations].

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Wygoda, Michael; Rosenzweig, Joshua P; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-11-01

    The obligation to help others often involves personal risk. Consequently, the scope and boundaries of this obligation can present a complex dilemma, which has practical and moral implications, even in the world of medicine. In Jewish medical ethics, the dilemma stems from a confrontation between the duty to help others according to the biblical commandment: "Do not stand idly by your fellow's blood" on the one hand, and between the right and duty of man to defend himself, which is anchored in Jewish law. This article surveys the sources of this quandary in Jewish texts throughout the ages such as the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, and responsa literature in various contexts. The discussion highlights the essential difference between the formal demands of the law, which protects human rights of self-preservation, and the moral requirement to help others even if it may include personal risk. The sources suggest distinguishing between various levels of risk ranging from high-risk to reasonable or low risk. In this way, the classic sources, provide the foundation and the tools for grappling with modern contemporary Halachic questions such as organ transplantation, and generate a Torah value-based framework to deal with new situations that may arise in the future. It is critical to assess the level of risk and the chances for success, along with other subjective considerations, in order to ensure the optimal ethical course of action.

  8. The West's moral obligation to assist developing nations in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Samuel H

    2002-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic is increasingly a disease of the disadvantaged, a destroyer of nations, and a threat to global security and well-being. But this need not be so: the world has the scientific knowledge, technological innovations, and financial resources to significantly reduce the spread and suffering caused by the disease. This paper argues that the wealthy nations of the world, led by the United States, have a moral obligation to offer much greater assistance to developing countries where the epidemic is most severe. Using Zimbabwe as a case study, this essay examines the immediate and underlying factors behind the epidemic in order to make realistic and affordable policy recommendations that include new investments in global health care, debt relief, and long-term economic development. By demonstrating our ability to dramatically affect the future course and consequences of this unprecedented epidemic, the paper concludes that greater action is not only in the interest of public health, but is also a moral imperative. By investing the necessary resources to improve public health and to reduce global poverty, we promote and extend the fundamental rights and values that we profess to hold dear. PMID:15971570

  9. Religion as a resource for positive youth development: religion, social capital, and moral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ebstyne King, Pamela; Furrow, James L

    2004-09-01

    Although existing literature demonstrates that developmental benefits are associated with religion for adolescents, little is understood about the dynamics of this relationship. Drawing on social capital theory, this study tested a conceptual model exploring socially embedded religious influences on moral outcomes. A three-dimensional model of social capital demonstrated how social interaction, trust, and shared vision enable social ties associated with religiousness to influence moral behavior. Structural equation modeling was used with data gathered from 735 urban youths to test a proposed model of the effects of religiousness on moral outcomes. Results suggested that religiously active youths report higher levels of social capital resources and that the influence of adolescent religiousness on moral outcomes was mediated through social capital resources. Suggestions for further research and implications for faith-based youth development organizations are considered.

  10. "Moral Ecology" and "Moral Capital": Tools towards a Sociology of Moral Education from a South African Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    Research and pedagogy in the field of morality and moral education has long been dominated by philosophical and psychological disciplines. Although sociological studies and theorising in the field have not been absent, it has been limited and non-systematic. Drawing on a study that investigated the lived morality of a group of young South Africans…

  11. Social Capital as Exchange: Its Contribution to Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Chan, Raymond Kwok-hong

    2010-01-01

    A way to clarify the measurement of social capital is the differentiation of its bases on opportunity and exchange. Social capital based on opportunity incorporates organizational participation, network strength, trust, helping and continuing relationships, whereas social capital based on exchange consists of the investment and reciprocation of…

  12. Capital punishment and professional nursing.

    PubMed

    Carroll, L A

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of capital punishment and whether a professional nurse has the right to choose to participate in it. Capital punishment is an extremely emotional ethical issue, and there is abundant literature to support both viewpoints. Professional nursing upholds values and special moral obligations, as expressed in its code. The American Nurses Association Code for Nurses guides conduct in carrying out nursing responsibilities consistent with the ethical obligations of the profession.

  13. Physician participation in executions, the morality of capital punishment, and the practical implications of their relationship.

    PubMed

    Litton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that some executed prisoners suffered excruciating pain has reinvigorated the ethical debate about physician participation in executions. In widely publicized litigation, death row inmates argue that participation of anesthesiologists in their execution is constitutionally required to minimize the risk of unnecessary suffering. For many years, commentators supported the ethical ban on physician participation reflected in codes of professional medical organizations. However, a recent wave of scholarship concurs with inmate advocates, urging the law to require or permit physician participation. Both the anti- and pro-physician-participation literature share a common premise: the ethics of physician participation should be analyzed independently from the moral status of capital punishment. This considerable literature implausibly divorces the ethics of physician participation from the moral status of the death penalty. Any ethical position on physician involvement requires some judgment about the moral status of capital punishment. The article examines anti- and pro-participation arguments to show that each one either is unpersuasive without discussion of the death penalty's moral status or implicitly assumes a view on the social worth of the death penalty. The article then articulates the practical implications of its arguments for both lawmakers and professional medical organizations.

  14. Physician participation in executions, the morality of capital punishment, and the practical implications of their relationship.

    PubMed

    Litton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that some executed prisoners suffered excruciating pain has reinvigorated the ethical debate about physician participation in executions. In widely publicized litigation, death row inmates argue that participation of anesthesiologists in their execution is constitutionally required to minimize the risk of unnecessary suffering. For many years, commentators supported the ethical ban on physician participation reflected in codes of professional medical organizations. However, a recent wave of scholarship concurs with inmate advocates, urging the law to require or permit physician participation. Both the anti- and pro-physician-participation literature share a common premise: the ethics of physician participation should be analyzed independently from the moral status of capital punishment. This considerable literature implausibly divorces the ethics of physician participation from the moral status of the death penalty. Any ethical position on physician involvement requires some judgment about the moral status of capital punishment. The article examines anti- and pro-participation arguments to show that each one either is unpersuasive without discussion of the death penalty's moral status or implicitly assumes a view on the social worth of the death penalty. The article then articulates the practical implications of its arguments for both lawmakers and professional medical organizations. PMID:23581676

  15. What would the world be like without animals for food, fiber, and labor? Are we morally obligated to do without them?

    PubMed

    Davis, S L

    2008-02-01

    Numerous animal rights and animal liberation theorists have concluded that nonhuman animals have moral standing and noninterference rights. Therefore, they say that humans are morally obligated to stop using animals for food, fiber, labor, and research. I disagree with that conclusion for at least 2 reasons. First, it has been suggested that food production models are possible using large herbivores that might actually cause less harm (kill) to animals than a vegan food production model. This is because intensive crop production used to produce food for a vegan diet kills (harms) far more animals of the field than extensive agriculture (pasture production). So, a combined food production system that includes crops and pasture harvested by large herbivores to be used for human food may kill fewer animals than would a vegan-crop model. Second, pragmatically, it is improbable that all peoples of the world could ever be convinced that they must give up animals. In fact, it may be unethical to try to do that, because in poor countries, these animals are essential to the survival of the human populations. But what about the richer nations? Maybe they will or should be convinced to do without animals because of the moral strength of the animal rights and animal liberation theories. However, I believe that there are far too many obstacles for that to happen. What then are we morally obligated to do about animals? I suggest that animals do have moral standing, and that we are morally obligated to recognize their unique species-specific natures and treat them accordingly. That would mean treating animals according to their physical and behavioral needs or telos. That, I believe, is the most likely outcome of the conversation about animal rights. PMID:18212387

  16. Morality.

    PubMed

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is a rapidly growing field with two principle lineages. The main line began with Jean Piaget and includes developmental psychologists who have studied the acquisition of moral concepts and reasoning. The alternative line began in the 1990s with a new synthesis of evolutionary, neurological, and social-psychological research in which the central phenomena are moral emotions and intuitions. In this essay, I show how both of these lines have been shaped by an older debate between two 19th century narratives about modernity: one celebrating the liberation of individuals, the other mourning the loss of community and moral authority. I suggest that both lines of moral psychology have limited themselves to the moral domain prescribed by the liberation narrative, and so one future step for moral psychology should be to study alternative moral perspectives, particularly religious and politically conservative ones in which morality is, in part, about protecting groups, institutions, and souls.

  17. Morality.

    PubMed

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is a rapidly growing field with two principle lineages. The main line began with Jean Piaget and includes developmental psychologists who have studied the acquisition of moral concepts and reasoning. The alternative line began in the 1990s with a new synthesis of evolutionary, neurological, and social-psychological research in which the central phenomena are moral emotions and intuitions. In this essay, I show how both of these lines have been shaped by an older debate between two 19th century narratives about modernity: one celebrating the liberation of individuals, the other mourning the loss of community and moral authority. I suggest that both lines of moral psychology have limited themselves to the moral domain prescribed by the liberation narrative, and so one future step for moral psychology should be to study alternative moral perspectives, particularly religious and politically conservative ones in which morality is, in part, about protecting groups, institutions, and souls. PMID:26158671

  18. Academic freedom and the obligation to ensure morally responsible scholarship in nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2012-06-01

    Academic freedom is generally regarded as being of critical importance to the development, improved understanding, and dissemination of new knowledge in a field. Although of obvious importance to the discipline of nursing, the nature, extent and value of academic freedom and the controversies surrounding it have rarely been considered in the nursing literature. It is a key aim of this paper to redress this oversight by providing a brief examination of: (i) the principle of academic freedom; (ii) the distinction between academic freedom, freedom of speech, and the academic freedom to publish; (iii) the problem of ideological judgments being dressed up as scientific or discipline judgments to supports 'bad' conclusions; and (iv) the standards that might otherwise be appealed to for determining whether maverick manuscripts supporting morally abhorrent conclusions should be accepted for publication. It is suggested that the tenets of academic freedom require robust international debate, with due attention being given to such issues as the development of an international declaration on academic freedom to publish in nursing, how to ensure a robust rebuttal system in nursing journals to counter specious scholarship, and how to better promote the letters pages of nursing journals as a venue for facilitating debate on controversial issues.

  19. A moral imperative to improve the quality of work-life for nurses: building inclusive social capital capacity.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyer, Anne

    2003-08-01

    The complexity and incessant change in the corporatised health care workplace has influenced nurses' work choices, morale, quality of work-life and the wellbeing of patients. Thus, there is an urgent moral imperative to improve the quality of work-life for nurses. To this end, it is crucial to re-define progress beyond the sole economic markers of success and profit in the health care workplace. This paper argues for the identification of ethical markers and indicators of organisational success based on bridging and linking social capital which could be used to re-organise health care organisations, hence crafting inclusive moral spaces where nurses can safely work and provide quality care for patients. Social and ethical evaluation is well suited to examine current workplace dilemmas from a psychosocial perspective and provide a framework for best practice in building capacity in effective social relations and family friendly, ethical workplaces.

  20. A moral imperative to improve the quality of work-life for nurses: building inclusive social capital capacity.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyer, Anne

    2003-08-01

    The complexity and incessant change in the corporatised health care workplace has influenced nurses' work choices, morale, quality of work-life and the wellbeing of patients. Thus, there is an urgent moral imperative to improve the quality of work-life for nurses. To this end, it is crucial to re-define progress beyond the sole economic markers of success and profit in the health care workplace. This paper argues for the identification of ethical markers and indicators of organisational success based on bridging and linking social capital which could be used to re-organise health care organisations, hence crafting inclusive moral spaces where nurses can safely work and provide quality care for patients. Social and ethical evaluation is well suited to examine current workplace dilemmas from a psychosocial perspective and provide a framework for best practice in building capacity in effective social relations and family friendly, ethical workplaces. PMID:14649504

  1. 26 CFR 1.1287-1 - Denial of capital gains treatment for gains on registration-required obligations not in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... described in § 1.163-5(c)(1), the holder of such an obligation shall be required to treat the gain on the... obligation originally issued after September 21, 1984, the term registered form has the meaning given that... time or at any time until its maturity by any means not described in § 5f.103-1(c). An obligation...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1287-1 - Denial of capital gains treatment for gains on registration-required obligations not in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... described in § 1.163-5(c)(1), the holder of such an obligation shall be required to treat the gain on the... obligation originally issued after September 21, 1984, the term registered form has the meaning given that... time or at any time until its maturity by any means not described in § 5f.103-1(c). An obligation...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1287-1 - Denial of capital gains treatment for gains on registration-required obligations not in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... described in § 1.163-5(c)(1), the holder of such an obligation shall be required to treat the gain on the... obligation originally issued after September 21, 1984, the term registered form has the meaning given that... time or at any time until its maturity by any means not described in § 5f.103-1(c). An obligation...

  4. Children Investing in Their Families: The Importance of Child Obligation in Successful Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisner, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews family responsibility, youth's obligations, and the flows of moral and material capital from child to parents as well as parents to children. Suggests that children's competence in assisting others and ability to make civic contributions affect family survival and children's developmental transitions, social behavior, and cognitive…

  5. The moderating effect of conformism values on the relations between other personal values, social norms, moral obligation, and single altruistic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Walkowitz, Gari; Wichardt, Philipp; Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

    2009-09-01

    Three studies predicted and found that the individual's conformism values are one determinant of whether behaviour is guided by other personal values or by social norms. In Study 1 (N=50), pro-gay law reform participants were told they were either in a minority or a majority in terms of their attitude towards the law reform. Only participants who were high in conformism values conformed to the group norm on public behaviour intentions. In studies 2 (N=42) and 3 (N=734), participants played multiple choice prisoner's dilemma games with monetary incentives. Only participants who considered conformism values to be relatively unimportant showed the expected connections between universalism values and altruistic behaviour. Study 3 also established that the moderating effect of conformism values on the relation between universalism values and altruistic behaviour was mediated through experienced sense of moral obligation.

  6. EDITORIAL: Deep brain stimulation, deontology and duty: the moral obligation of non-abandonment at the neural interface Deep brain stimulation, deontology and duty: the moral obligation of non-abandonment at the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fins, Joseph J.; MD; FACP

    2009-10-01

    intrusions on their bodies and their selves. Previously, I suggested that stimulation parameters for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders might be manipulated by patients one day. I envisioned a degree of patient discretion, within a pre-set safe range determined by physicians, much like patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pumps give patients control over the dosing of opioid analgesia [3]. I am glad that such an advance is evolving as a means to preserve batteries in the treatment of motor disorders [16]. I would encourage the neural engineers to embrace the ethical mandate to develop additional platforms that might enhance patient self-determination and foster a greater degree of functional independence. While the neuromodulation community has every reason to celebrate its accomplishments, it would be better served by appreciating that the insertion of a device into the human brain comes with, if not the penumbra of sacrilege, a moral obligation to step out of the shadows and remain clearly available to patients and families over the long haul. Although neuromodulation has liberated many patients from the shackles of disease, we need to appreciate that the hardware that has made this possible can remain tethering. The challenge for the next generation of innovators is to minimize these burdens at this neural interface. By reducing barriers to care that exist in an unprepared health care system and developing more user-friendly technology, the neuromodulation community can expand its reach and broaden the relief provided by these neuro-palliative interventions [17]. Acknowledgements and Disclosures Dr Fins is the recipient of an Investigator Award in Health Policy Research (Minds Apart: Severe Brain Injury and Health Policy) from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He also gratefully acknowledges grant support from the Buster Foundation (Neuroethics and Disorders of Consciousness). He is an unfunded co-investigator of a study of deep brain stimulation in the minimally

  7. The moral economy of contemporary working-class adolescence: managing symbolic capital in a French public 'Adolescent Centre'.

    PubMed

    Coutant, Isabelle; Eideliman, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-06-01

    Working-class adolescents of French urban peripheries are key figures in a new social debate that reactivates the nineteenth century spectre of 'dangerous' classes to be controlled. Since the 1990s, French social counselling has privileged two modalities of response: taking account of suffering and government by listening and speech. We hypothesize that the contemporary moral economy allows for social interactions that go beyond social control and institutional domination. This is partly because professionals engaged in this moral undertaking may keep a critical distance, and partly because the concerned populations aren't necessarily devoid of resources to advance their interests or incapable of resistance. The concept of moral economy, coupled with the ethnographic method, is heuristic for fully comprehending the complexity of these issues and their stakes. Our fieldwork was centred on a French Adolescent Centre in an impoverished commune in Paris's periphery, from January 2010 through March 2011. These institutions were established in the early 2000s to respond to adolescent 'suffering' by crossing social work and psychiatry. Adolescents, parents, and other institutions (especially schools) solicit the professionally diverse staff for assistance, which in turn may take on cases and/or make referrals to other support institutions. By paying attention to all the scenes upon which the story of a counselled adolescent evolves, and bearing more general social evolutions in mind by applying the concept of moral economy, we can consider the multiplicity of seemingly contradictory processes as a whole. We see the destabilization of parents and their loss of symbolic capital, partly due to the norms of contemporary parenthood and partly due to the stigmatization of working-class adolescence. But we also discern possibilities for expressing sentiments of injustice and humiliation, for increasing symbolic capital, and in some cases a reappropriation of the system

  8. The Moral Economy of Lying: Subjectcraft, Narrative Capital, and Uncertainty in the Politics of Asylum.

    PubMed

    Beneduce, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Based on narratives of asylum-seekers from sub-Saharan Africa in northern Italy, in this article I analyze the narrative strategies used by immigrants to meet the eligibility criteria established by asylum law. For many of them, this means "arranging" biographical details within what I call "a moral economy of lying." The first question I discuss is what types of experience and 'subject positions' these narrative strategies reveal or generate. I then examine the arbitrariness and the bureaucratic violence of the asylum evaluation process, and the role of these procedures in the making of nation-language and current technologies of citizenship. Finally, I consider the politics of testification, recognition, and memory these discourses and practices combine to shape. I analyze these issues from an historical point of view of the politics of identity, truth, and falsehood as imposed in a recent past by colonizers onto the colonized. PMID:26258605

  9. The Moral Economy of Lying: Subjectcraft, Narrative Capital, and Uncertainty in the Politics of Asylum.

    PubMed

    Beneduce, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Based on narratives of asylum-seekers from sub-Saharan Africa in northern Italy, in this article I analyze the narrative strategies used by immigrants to meet the eligibility criteria established by asylum law. For many of them, this means "arranging" biographical details within what I call "a moral economy of lying." The first question I discuss is what types of experience and 'subject positions' these narrative strategies reveal or generate. I then examine the arbitrariness and the bureaucratic violence of the asylum evaluation process, and the role of these procedures in the making of nation-language and current technologies of citizenship. Finally, I consider the politics of testification, recognition, and memory these discourses and practices combine to shape. I analyze these issues from an historical point of view of the politics of identity, truth, and falsehood as imposed in a recent past by colonizers onto the colonized.

  10. Moral Resilience: Managing and Preventing Moral Distress and Moral Residue.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Vicki D

    2016-01-01

    Moral resilience is the ability to deal with an ethically adverse situation without lasting effects of moral distress and moral residue. This requires morally courageous action, activating needed supports and doing the right thing. Morally resilient people also have developed self-confidence by confronting such situations so they can maintain their self-esteem, no matter what life delivers. Finally, the ability to adapt to changing circumstances with a sense of humor is at the heart of their flexibility. Morally resilient nurses are not naïve about the price of moral integrity. They know it does not come without pain of dealing with adversity, but they believe the virtue of moral courage is necessary to meet the ethical obligations of their profession (ANA, 2015b). PMID:27323473

  11. Children's Moral Relationships with Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; McCoy, Ann

    Two studies of the development of children's moral relationships with nature addressed such questions as: (1) What does it mean to say that we have an obligation not to harm the natural environment? (2) Does the natural environment feel pain? (3) Does it have rights? or (4) Is moral obligation an inappropriate construct by which to understand the…

  12. Cultural Generality of the Integration of Obligation and Other Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jen-Shou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. One is to assess the cultural generality of the information integration rule for moral obligation. The other is to examine how people integrate moral obligation and self-interest. Two studies were implemented following the functional measurement methodology with Chinese samples. Study 1 replicated the…

  13. Morality and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Nathan; Wildman, Louis

    1975-01-01

    Both the ethics of the profession and state school law require teachers to model in the conduct of education the behavior they expect of their students. Examples of the disparity between practice and creed imply a need for educators to face up to the moral obligations of their profession. (Author)

  14. Whistleblowing and the bioethicist's public obligations.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2014-10-01

    Bioethicists are sometimes thought to have heightened obligations by virtue of the fact that their professional role addresses ethics or morals. For this reason it has been argued that bioethicists ought to "whistleblow"--that is, publicly expose the wrongful or potentially harmful activities of their employer--more often than do other kinds of employees. This article argues that bioethicists do indeed have a heightened obligation to whistleblow, but not because bioethicists have heightened moral obligations in general. Rather, the special duties of bioethicists to act as whistleblowers are best understood by examining the nature of the ethical dilemma typically encountered by private employees and showing why bioethicists do not encounter this dilemma in the same way. Whistleblowing is usually understood as a moral dilemma involving conflicting duties to two parties: the public and a private employer. However, this article argues that this way of understanding whistleblowing has the implication that professions whose members identify their employer as the public-such as government employees or public servants--cannot consider whistleblowing a moral dilemma, because obligations are ultimately owed to only one party: the public. The article contends that bioethicists--even when privately employed--are similar to government employees in the sense that they do not have obligations to defer to the judgments of those with private interests. Consequently, bioethicists may be considered to have a special duty to whistleblow, although for different reasons than those usually cited. PMID:25045940

  15. Moral Intuitions, Moral Expertise and Moral Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Albert W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral judgements. Deliberate and critical reasoning is…

  16. Reflections on Obligation, Professionalism and the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, James J.

    A moral order exists that imposes on human beings an obligation toward other human beings, both present and future. This obligation includes making sure that the environment is maintained in a way that will provide for the basic human needs of future generations; accepting the responsibilities of professionalism, including the maintenance of…

  17. Moral Teachers, Moral Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Rick

    2003-01-01

    Argues that schools will largely fail in their efforts to improve the moral and emotional growth of students if they do not attend to the moral and ethical development of teachers, especially urban teachers, who suffer from depression and disillusionment, the two primary causes of which are isolation and stress induced by problem students.…

  18. Bishops and the bomb: the morality of nuclear deterrrence

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    Roman Catholic bishops in the US are now discussing a Pastoral Letter on the morality of nuclear defense. Since a nuclear war would be an unprecedented horror, nations have a moral obligation to make such a war less likely. That, in turn, implies a moral obligation to think clearly and cogently on the best strategies for nuclear defense. The author argues that the US has a moral obligation to safeguard peace with a revised, strengthened nuclear deterrent. He contends that ideology and irresponsible international behavior, not weapons, cause war.

  19. Teaching Morally and Teaching Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…

  20. The Development of Moral Responsibility in Friendship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Monika; Edelstein, Wolfgang

    In this study, reasoning about moral responsibilities in friendships on the part of 97 subjects was assessed at the ages of 7, 9, 12, and 15 years. Assessment was undertaken of: (1) general reasoning about the moral obligation of promise keeping; (2) general reasoning about responsibilities in friendship; and (3) situation-specific reasoning about…

  1. Autonomy: a moral good, not a moral obsession.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1984-10-01

    While acknowledging the value of respect for autonomy as a means of establishing moral independence for the individual, Callahan sees a danger in making autonomy the moral goal of a society or of a system of medical care. He discusses its shortcomings as a form of subjectivism that may end up being used as a justification for selfishness. Accordingly, autonomy should be considered a necessary but not a sufficient condition for a moral life; what is needed as well is a broader ethic that incorporates obligations to others and builds bonds of community. PMID:6500918

  2. Promoting Moral Growth through Pluralism and Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames…

  3. Health care for veterans: the limits of obligation.

    PubMed

    Levinsky, N G

    1986-08-01

    The federal government has a generally unquestioned obligation to provide health care to veterans for diseases or disabilities acquired during military service. Much argued, however, is the government's obligation to offer care for nonservice-connected disorders. The Reagan administration has sharpened the debate recently by attempting to impose a means test on veterans over sixty-five who are seeking such care. But the controversy focuses on the wrong issue. Society has a moral obligation to provide adequate health care to all citizens but has no special obligation to care for nonservice-connected health problems of veterans. PMID:3528051

  4. Moral Psychology Is Relationship Regulation: Moral Motives for Unity, Hierarchy, Equality, and Proportionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral…

  5. Engineering and the problem of moral overload.

    PubMed

    Van den Hoven, Jeroen; Lokhorst, Gert-Jan; Van de Poel, Ibo

    2012-03-01

    When thinking about ethics, technology is often only mentioned as the source of our problems, not as a potential solution to our moral dilemmas. When thinking about technology, ethics is often only mentioned as a constraint on developments, not as a source and spring of innovation. In this paper, we argue that ethics can be the source of technological development rather than just a constraint and technological progress can create moral progress rather than just moral problems. We show this by an analysis of how technology can contribute to the solution of so-called moral overload or moral dilemmas. Such dilemmas typically create a moral residue that is the basis of a second-order principle that tells us to reshape the world so that we can meet all our moral obligations. We can do so, among other things, through guided technological innovation. PMID:21533834

  6. Measuring Intergenerational Obligations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have defined intergenerational obligations in diverse ways, and they have used many labels and ways of measuring intergenerational obligations. Using vignettes, we compared responses to questions about what family members should do when another family member needed assistance ("normative obligations") with responses to questions about…

  7. A Kantian moral duty for the soon-to-be demented to commit suicide.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Dennis R

    2007-06-01

    It has been argued that, on Kantian grounds, pedophiles, rapists and murderers are morally obligated to take their own lives prior to committing a violent action that will end their moral agency. That is, to avoid destroying the agent's moral life by performing a morally suicidal action, the agent, while he still is a moral agent, should end his body's life. Although the cases of dementia and the morally reprehensible are vastly different, this Kantian interpretation might be useful in the debate on the permissibility of suicide for those facing dementia's effects. If moral agents have a duty to act as moral agents, then those who will lose their moral identity as moral agents have an obligation to themselves to end their physical lives prior to losing their dignity as persons. PMID:17558991

  8. Common morality and moral reform.

    PubMed

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  9. On the Necessary Relation between Moral Development and Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Susana; Delgado, Guillermo Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In this article we elaborate on the relationship between morality, moral development, moral education and capitalism. Based on Narvaez's (EJ1111256) correct critique of the Western way of life, which is destroying the environment and may one day lead to extinction of life on Earth, we argue that this critique should not be stripped of its…

  10. NCI & Division Obligations

    Cancer.gov

    Displays obligations for grants, contracts, training fellowships, intramural research, and management and support, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percent of the total NCI budget.

  11. Moral Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Opponents of biomedical enhancement often claim that, even if such enhancement would benefit the enhanced, it would harm others. But this objection looks unpersuasive when the enhancement in question is a moral enhancement — an enhancement that will expectably leave the enhanced person with morally better motives than she had previously. In this article I (1) describe one type of psychological alteration that would plausibly qualify as a moral enhancement, (2) argue that we will, in the medium-term future, probably be able to induce such alterations via biomedical intervention, and (3) defend future engagement in such moral enhancements against possible objections. My aim is to present this kind of moral enhancement as a counter-example to the view that biomedical enhancement is always morally impermissible. PMID:19132138

  12. Smoking Policies: An Analysis of School District Obligation and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmeister, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Begins with a brief review of scientific research on adverse health consequences caused by smoking, then examines the school district role in balancing competing interests of smokers and nonsmokers. States that school districts have a financial and moral obligation to reduce potential health risks and legal liabilities (148 references) (MLF)

  13. Medicine, Morality, and Mortality: The Challenges of Moral Diversity.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    This issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy assesses the deep and abiding tensions that exist among the competing epistemic perspectives that bear on medicine and morality. Concepts of health and disease, as well as the theoretical framing of medical ethics and health care policy, intersect with an overlapping set of culturally situated communities (scientific, political, moral, and religious), striving to understand and manipulate the world in ways that each finds explanatory, appropriate, or otherwise befitting. The articles explore the complexities of framing public health care policy to guide bioethical decision making in the face of the plurality of ethical viewpoints and moral rationalities--including health enhancing supplements, continuous sedation until death, medical futility, the protection of vulnerable populations, and competing professional obligations.

  14. Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J.

    2011-01-01

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced “self-conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or “collective” experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process—other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797

  15. Competitive morality.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-02-01

    Baumard et al. argue that partner choice leads to fairness and mutualism, which then form the basis for morality. I comment that mutualism takes us only so far, and I apply the theory of competitive altruism in arguing how strategic investment in behaviours which make one a desirable partner may drive moral conduct.

  16. Personal conscience and the problem of moral certitude.

    PubMed

    Vaiani, Cheryl Ellis

    2009-12-01

    The moral practice of nursing requires the difficult work of discerning the best response to an ethical quandary. Determining the right course of action can rarely be discovered by assuming that one value, one theory, one point of view will always and reliably identify the morality of an action. Thus, the role of a nurse is an inherently moral activity that is at the heart and soul of health care. Practitioners who move too quickly to a state of moral certainty about a decision may be missing essential components of the enactment of moral agency. Personal integrity and professional integrity, patient interests, society's expectation of a profession, the balance between rights and obligations within the nurse-patient relationship, acting according to one's conscience, power, control, and moral certainty are a few of the topics that enrich thinking about the moral richness of nursing practice, and will encourage readers to know, to reason, and to act in ways that demonstrate reflective moral judgment.

  17. Moral Chivalry

    PubMed Central

    Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Navrady, Lauren; Tedeschi, Ellen; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Moral perceptions of harm and fairness are instrumental in guiding how an individual navigates moral challenges. Classic research documents that the gender of a target can affect how people deploy these perceptions of harm and fairness. Across multiple studies, we explore the effect of an individual’s moral orientations (their considerations of harm and justice) and a target’s gender on altruistic behavior. Results reveal that a target’s gender can bias one’s readiness to engage in harmful actions and that a decider’s considerations of harm—but not fairness concerns—modulate costly altruism. Together, these data illustrate that moral choices are conditional on the social nature of the moral dyad: Even under the same moral constraints, a target’s gender and a decider’s gender can shift an individual’s choice to be more or less altruistic, suggesting that gender bias and harm considerations play a significant role in moral cognition. PMID:27478541

  18. The Moral Universes of Libertarian Press Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuliger, Gregory T.

    1991-01-01

    Uses Kantian logic to analyze the statement of Libertarian press theory "Truth beats falsehood in a free marketplace of ideas" as a definition, an observation, and a universal truth. Notes three corresponding moral universes, with differing ethical obligations. Discusses strengths and weaknesses of each. Cautions media ethics analysts against…

  19. Moral transhumanism.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2010-12-01

    In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens. Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens. In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research and therapy should make humans in the biological sense more human in the moral sense, even if they cease to be human in the biological sense. This serves valuable biomedical ends like the promotion of health and well-being, for if humans do not become more moral, civilization is threatened. It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens.

  20. Moral Communities and Moral Leadership.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership.

  1. Moral Communities and Moral Leadership.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership. PMID:27159969

  2. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result.

  3. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result. PMID:26652336

  4. Kant's assessment of motivation in the fulfillment of social obligations.

    PubMed

    Knupp, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the motivations of physicians who promote the health of their communities through the fulfillment of social obligations beyond the boundaries of their own patients. Based on the assumption that physicians do not have social obligations, this paper looks at the normative, motivational question, namely "How should physicians be motivated to fulfill social obligations?" The paper traces the Kantian view of morality and motivation. The distinctions between required, merely permissible, and forbidden actions is drawn. Furthermore, Kant's view that required actions done in accordance with duty are of no moral worth is critiqued from three stand points. First, it is argued that just because motivations outside of Kantian-based duty are not as good, it does not follow that these motivations are of no moral worth. Second, it is argued that there are some motivations behind required actions that are clearly better than other motivations. Third, it is argued that required actions done in accordance with duty are clearly better than those actions done without relevance to duty. The paper concludes that many required actions done in accordance with duty are performed from motivations that do have moral worth. PMID:17146908

  5. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them.

  6. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them. PMID:23013271

  7. Moral conflict and collaborative mode as moral conflict resolution in health care.

    PubMed

    Jormsri, Pantip

    2004-09-01

    Moral conflict as a complex moral issue in health care has emerged from several causes that are related to different values, beliefs and opinions. Moral conflict can occur when duties and obligations of health care providers or general guiding ethical principles are unclear. Health care providers and institutions or agencies need to resolve or initiate appropriate methods for professional staff so they can recognize, discuss and resolve moral conflicts in the health care delivery system. Collaborative mode is a useful method for moral conflict resolution, because patient care is a complex phenomenon that results from the integrated knowledge and work of individuals with different professional training. In the process of collaborative practice, all members need to respect each other's opinions, values and responsibilities regarding patient care. PMID:15291770

  8. Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper 'Is it good to make happy people?', Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that Rachels' view is exposed to very serious objections, and secondly, that his arguments in support of his position involve a crucial assumption, which cannot be sustained, concerning the relation between, on the one hand, propositions about good-making and bad-making properties, and, on the other, propositions about right-making and wrong-making ones. I shall then argue that there is a very plausible position concerning the conditions under which an action can be morally wrong which entails the following asymmetry: there is a prima facie obligation not to bring into existence individuals whose lives are not worth living, but there is no corresponding obligation to create additional individuals whose lives would be worth living.

  9. GRANDPARENTS' ENTITLEMENTS AND OBLIGATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In this article, it is argued that grandparents' obligations originate from parental obligations (i.e from the relationship they have with their children, the parents of their grandchildren) and not from the role of grandparent per se, and any entitlements flow from the extent to which these obligations are met. The position defended is, therefore, that grandparents qua grandparents are not entitled to form or continue relationships with their grandchildren. A continuation of grandparent-grandchildren relationships may be in the interests of children, but the grandparental nature of the relationship is not decisive. What counts is the extent to which relationships children have with any adults who are not their parents are is significant to them. Sometimes, however, grandparents become parents or co-parents of their grandchildren. They then gain parental rights, and as such are as entitled, ceteris parius, as any parent to expect their relationship with the child to continue. The issue of grandparents' entitlements can come to the fore when parents separate, and grandparents are unhappy with the access they have to their grandchildren. Grandparents' obligations may become a particular issue when parents die, struggle, or fail to care for their children. This article focuses particularly on these kinds of circumstances. PMID:23718643

  10. On public obligation.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Gene R

    2012-01-01

    Poverty has a potent and provable impact on health, education, opportunity, safety, dignity, and overall quality of life for Americans. This article argues that our obligations to ameliorate poverty are not only private, religious, and charitable, they are public and governmental as well. PMID:23189436

  11. Grounding Moralism: Moral Flaws and Aesthetic Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smuts, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Can moral flaws lessen an artwork's aesthetic value? Answering yes to this question requires both that artworks can be morally flawed and that moral flaws within a work of art can have an aesthetic impact. For present purposes, the author will assume that artworks can be morally flawed by such means as endorsing immoral perspectives, culpably…

  12. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  13. Moral Realism Revisited: On Achievable Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ternasky, P. Lance

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses moral education in public schools. It proposes a realist model of moral realism derived from the work of Richard Boyd and Peter Railton, arguing that it offers relief from skepticism faced by moral educators and a foundation for teachable, achievable morality. (SM)

  14. Virtual Morality: Transitioning from Moral Judgment to Moral Action?

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Kathryn B.; Howard, Charles; Howard, Ian S.; Gummerum, Michaela; Ganis, Giorgio; Anderson, Grace; Terbeck, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses–killing one in order to save many others–when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts. Heart rate in virtual moral dilemmas was significantly increased when compared to both judgment counterparts and control virtual tasks. Our research suggests that moral action may be viewed as an independent construct to moral judgment, with VR methods delivering new prospects for investigating and assessing moral behaviour. PMID:27723826

  15. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  16. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  17. Moral psychology is relationship regulation: moral motives for unity, hierarchy, equality, and proportionality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity of in-groups by avoiding or eliminating threats of contamination and providing aid and protection based on need or empathic compassion. Hierarchy is the motive to respect rank in social groups where superiors are entitled to deference and respect but must also lead, guide, direct, and protect subordinates. Equality is the motive for balanced, in-kind reciprocity, equal treatment, equal say, and equal opportunity. Proportionality is the motive for rewards and punishments to be proportionate to merit, benefits to be calibrated to contributions, and judgments to be based on a utilitarian calculus of costs and benefits. The 4 moral motives are universal, but cultures, ideologies, and individuals differ in where they activate these motives and how they implement them. Unlike existing theories (Haidt, 2007; Hauser, 2006; Turiel, 1983), relationship regulation theory predicts that any action, including violence, unequal treatment, and "impure" acts, may be perceived as morally correct depending on the moral motive employed and how the relevant social relationship is construed. This approach facilitates clearer understanding of moral perspectives we disagree with and provides a template for how to influence moral motives and practices in the world. PMID:21244187

  18. Moral psychology is relationship regulation: moral motives for unity, hierarchy, equality, and proportionality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity of in-groups by avoiding or eliminating threats of contamination and providing aid and protection based on need or empathic compassion. Hierarchy is the motive to respect rank in social groups where superiors are entitled to deference and respect but must also lead, guide, direct, and protect subordinates. Equality is the motive for balanced, in-kind reciprocity, equal treatment, equal say, and equal opportunity. Proportionality is the motive for rewards and punishments to be proportionate to merit, benefits to be calibrated to contributions, and judgments to be based on a utilitarian calculus of costs and benefits. The 4 moral motives are universal, but cultures, ideologies, and individuals differ in where they activate these motives and how they implement them. Unlike existing theories (Haidt, 2007; Hauser, 2006; Turiel, 1983), relationship regulation theory predicts that any action, including violence, unequal treatment, and "impure" acts, may be perceived as morally correct depending on the moral motive employed and how the relevant social relationship is construed. This approach facilitates clearer understanding of moral perspectives we disagree with and provides a template for how to influence moral motives and practices in the world.

  19. Moral Education's Modest Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    2006-01-01

    When schools react to contemporary events and focus on complex moral problems they commonly fail to make basic distinctions between the morally serious and trivial, the moral and the non-moral, and problems and dilemmas. We need to teach the distinction between moral and other values, and between what is intrinsically good, what is right in…

  20. Moral Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  1. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  2. The Moral Laboratory: On Kant's Notion of Pedagogy as a Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrath, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Following Kant, it is clear "that," but probably not completely "how" we are morally obligated. I will point out that there are three possible ways to struggle for an understanding of how we can be obligated as rational beings and also as "ordinary human beings." There is (a) the argument from rational feeling ("Achtung"), (b) the argument from…

  3. Morality in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wisneski, Daniel C; Brandt, Mark J; Skitka, Linda J

    2014-09-12

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent and manifold. Liberals and conservatives emphasized somewhat different moral dimensions. Religious and nonreligious participants did not differ in the likelihood or quality of committed moral and immoral acts. Being the target of moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on happiness, whereas committing moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on sense of purpose. Analyses of daily dynamics revealed evidence for both moral contagion and moral licensing. In sum, morality science may benefit from a closer look at the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of everyday moral experience.

  4. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    PubMed

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured.

  5. Morality in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wisneski, Daniel C; Brandt, Mark J; Skitka, Linda J

    2014-09-12

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent and manifold. Liberals and conservatives emphasized somewhat different moral dimensions. Religious and nonreligious participants did not differ in the likelihood or quality of committed moral and immoral acts. Being the target of moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on happiness, whereas committing moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on sense of purpose. Analyses of daily dynamics revealed evidence for both moral contagion and moral licensing. In sum, morality science may benefit from a closer look at the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of everyday moral experience. PMID:25214626

  6. Genetic ties: are they morally binding?

    PubMed

    Fuscaldo, Giuliana

    2006-04-01

    Does genetic relatedness define who is a mother or father and who incurs obligations towards or entitlements over children? While once the answer to this question may have been obvious, advances in reproductive technologies have complicated our understanding of what makes a parent. In a recent publication Bayne and Kolers argue for a pluralistic account of parenthood on the basis that genetic derivation, gestation, extended custody and sometimes intention to parent are sufficient (but not necessary) grounds for parenthood. Bayne and Kolers further suggest that definitions of parenthood are underpinned by the assumption that 'being causally implicated in the creation of a child is the key basis for being its parent'. This paper examines the claim that genetic relatedness is sufficient grounds for parenthood based on a causal connection between genetic parents and their offspring. I argue that parental obligations are about moral responsibility and not causal responsibility because we are not morally accountable for every consequence to which we causally contribute. My account includes the conditions generally held to apply to moral responsibility, i.e. freedom and foreseeability. I argue that parental responsibilities are generated whenever the birth of a child is a reasonably foreseeable consequence of voluntary actions. I consider the implications of this account for third parties involved in reproductive technologies. I argue that under some conditions the obligations generated by freely and foreseeably causing a child to exist can be justifiably transferred to others. PMID:16770877

  7. Generation Conservation: Children's Developing Folkbiological and Moral Conceptions of Protecting Endangered Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruckert, Jolina H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated folkbiological concepts that structure children's moral reasoning regarding conservation. Participants (N = 52; 7- and 10-year-olds, gender balanced) were interviewed regarding their values, moral obligations, and rights concerns for endangered and extinct animals. Across the 2 ages, children drew on the…

  8. Children's Moral and Ecological Reasoning about the Prince William Sound Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the moral and ecological reasoning of second, fifth, and eighth graders regarding the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Found that children understood negative effects of the spill, cared that harm occurred to shoreline and marine life, and thought it violated a moral obligation. Fifth and eighth graders used a greater proportion of anthropocentric…

  9. What are the public obligations to AIDS patients?

    PubMed

    Kelley, David

    2002-01-01

    The operating assumption in most discussions of health policy is that government has some responsibility for the health of its citizens and that it may legitimately tax, subsidize, and regulate its citizens in the exercise of that responsibility. On this assumption, public obligations to HIV/AIDS patients are a function of their needs in relationship to other health needs. This paper challenges the operating assumption by arguing that it cannot be grounded in the obligations that individuals have to each other. The paper rests on its own assumption: the moral theory of individualism. On this theory, individuals are ends in themselves who have the right to choose their own actions and uses of their resources; they do not have unchosen obligations to help others. In regard to HIV/AIDS patients, consequently, individuals have no duty to help, nor any other obligation beyond that of respecting their rights; and there is no valid basis for government regulations or subsidies on their behalf. The paper argues against the two approaches commonly used to defend a more expansive view of individual obligations and the role of government. The first is the assumption of welfare rights to goods and services; the second is the assumption that distributive justice requires some redistribution of health care resources.

  10. What are the public obligations to AIDS patients?

    PubMed

    Kelley, David

    2002-01-01

    The operating assumption in most discussions of health policy is that government has some responsibility for the health of its citizens and that it may legitimately tax, subsidize, and regulate its citizens in the exercise of that responsibility. On this assumption, public obligations to HIV/AIDS patients are a function of their needs in relationship to other health needs. This paper challenges the operating assumption by arguing that it cannot be grounded in the obligations that individuals have to each other. The paper rests on its own assumption: the moral theory of individualism. On this theory, individuals are ends in themselves who have the right to choose their own actions and uses of their resources; they do not have unchosen obligations to help others. In regard to HIV/AIDS patients, consequently, individuals have no duty to help, nor any other obligation beyond that of respecting their rights; and there is no valid basis for government regulations or subsidies on their behalf. The paper argues against the two approaches commonly used to defend a more expansive view of individual obligations and the role of government. The first is the assumption of welfare rights to goods and services; the second is the assumption that distributive justice requires some redistribution of health care resources. PMID:15971567

  11. Legally and Morally, What Our Gay Students Must Be Given

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Erica M.

    2004-01-01

    Schools have a legal, ethical, and moral obligation to provide to all students equal access to education and equal protection under the law. For many sexual minority students, however, schools are unsafe and survival, not education, is the priority. Schools typically do not have the information, interest, or comfort level to address the needs of…

  12. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  13. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  14. How to understand a woman's obligations to the fetus in unwanted pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hine, Kristen

    2013-06-01

    Some have challenged Thomson's case of the famous unconscious violinist (UV) by arguing that in cases of consensual sex a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus; since she is partially responsible she ought to assist the fetus, and so abortion is morally wrong. Call this the Responsibility Objection (RO) to UV. In this paper, I briefly criticize one of the most widely discussed objections to RO and then suggest a new way to challenge RO. In so doing, I investigate the plausibility of the moral principle that appears to be driving RO: If a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus, she has a moral obligation to assist the fetus. I argue that this principle is false. I suggest modified versions of this principle but argue that, even on the most plausible version, RO does not persuade.

  15. Bridging Accountability Obligations, Professional Values and (Perceived) Student Needs with Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the tensions between external accountability obligations, educator's professional values, and student needs. Strategic, cognitive, and moral dimensions of this tension are captured with the central category of integrity. Design/methodology/approach: This is a mixed methods study that compares five…

  16. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    PubMed

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  17. Moral imperatives for academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J N

    1997-12-01

    As the health care system becomes dominated by managed care, academic medicine must do more than simply learn how to continue to offer the same level of care with ever-tightening resources and in new practice environments. Three moral imperatives must guide how medicine is practiced and taught: (1) patients' health and well-being must always be foremost, centered in quality of care and respect for life; (2) the emotional and spiritual needs of patients must be considered, not just the physical needs; (3) academic medicine must instill in its trainees discipline, passion, and skills to meet their obligation to be lifelong learners. These imperatives make it more important than ever for medical educators to tackle two crucial questions: What kind of person makes the best possible physician? And what constitutes the best possible training for that person? Taking these questions seriously in the new era of health care may mean that medical educators need to rethink the teaching of medicine. One example of how this might be done is the Curriculum for 2002 Committee recently formed at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine. It is becoming clear that medical educators can do a better and more comprehensive job of helping future physicians uncover and strengthen their own morality and, in the face of managed care's pressures, renew their loyalty to medicine as a service rather than a business. Morally sensitized physicians can better deal with the hard issues of medicine, such as euthanasia and abortion, and can help their students examine these issues. Most important, they can show their students that physicians are members of a moral community dedicated to something other than its own self-interest.

  18. Lay obligations in professional relations.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M

    1985-02-01

    Little has been written recently about the obligations of lay people in professional relationships. Yet the Code of Medical Ethics adopted by the American Medical Association in 1847 included an extensive statement on "Obligations of patients to their physicians'. After critically examining the philosophical foundations of this statement, I provide an alternative account of lay obligations in professional relationships. Based on a hypothetical social contract and included in a full specification of professional as well as lay obligations, this account requires lay people to honor commitments and disclose relevant information. Ethically, the account assumes that all parties in lay-professional relationships should be given equal consideration and respect in determining rights and obligations. Factually, it assumes that the treatment of many illnesses and injuries required collaboration and cooperation among lay persons and health professionals, that medical resources and personnel are limited, and that medicine, nursing, and related health professions, are, in MacIntyre's sense, practices.

  19. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments. PMID:25910382

  20. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments.

  1. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  2. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  3. Enhancing Moral Conformity and Enhancing Moral Worth.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It is plausible that we have moral reasons to become better at conforming to our moral reasons. However, it is not always clear what means to greater moral conformity we should adopt. John Harris has recently argued that we have reason to adopt traditional, deliberative means in preference to means that alter our affective or conative states directly-that is, without engaging our deliberative faculties. One of Harris' concerns about direct means is that they would produce only a superficial kind of moral improvement. Though they might increase our moral conformity, there is some deeper kind of moral improvement that they would fail to produce, or would produce to a lesser degree than more traditional means. I consider whether this concern might be justified by appeal to the concept of moral worth. I assess three attempts to show that, even where they were equally effective at increasing one's moral conformity, direct interventions would be less conducive to moral worth than typical deliberative alternatives. Each of these attempts is inspired by Kant's views on moral worth. Each, I argue, fails.

  4. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    According to Thomas Stewart's book, intellectual capital comprises three broad categories: human, structural, and customer. Structural, or organizational capital, is knowledge that does not leave at night (with workers, or human capital). Developing a "best practices" database using Lotus Notes software would preserve and access schools'…

  5. 12 CFR 987.10 - Obligations of United States with respect to consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consolidated obligations. 987.10 Section 987.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 987.10 Obligations of United States with respect to consolidated obligations. Consolidated obligations are not obligations of the United States...

  6. 12 CFR 987.10 - Obligations of United States with respect to consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consolidated obligations. 987.10 Section 987.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 987.10 Obligations of United States with respect to consolidated obligations. Consolidated obligations are not obligations of the United States...

  7. Institutional Ethics Resources: Creating Moral Spaces.

    PubMed

    Hamric, Ann B; Wocial, Lucia D

    2016-09-01

    Since 1992, institutions accredited by The Joint Commission have been required to have a process in place that allows staff members, patients, and families to address ethical issues or issues prone to conflict. While the commission's expectations clearly have made ethics committees more common, simply having a committee in no way demonstrates its effectiveness in terms of the availability of the service to key constituents, the quality of the processes used, or the outcomes achieved. Beyond meeting baseline accreditation standards, effective ethics resources are requisite for quality care for another reason. The provision of care to the sick is a practice with profound moral dimensions. Clinicians need what Margaret Urban Walker has called "moral spaces," reflective spaces within institutions in which to explore and communicate values and ethical obligations as they undergird goals of care. Walker proposed that ethicists needed to be concerned with the design and maintenance of these moral spaces. Clearly, that concern needs to extend beyond ethicists to institutional leaders. This essay uses Walker's idea of moral space to describe individuals and groups who are actual and potential ethics resources in health care institutions. We focus on four requisite characteristics of effective resources and the challenges to achieving them, and we identify strategies to build them. In our view, such moral spaces are particularly important for nurses and their colleagues on interprofessional teams and need to be expanded and strengthened in most settings.

  8. Institutional Ethics Resources: Creating Moral Spaces.

    PubMed

    Hamric, Ann B; Wocial, Lucia D

    2016-09-01

    Since 1992, institutions accredited by The Joint Commission have been required to have a process in place that allows staff members, patients, and families to address ethical issues or issues prone to conflict. While the commission's expectations clearly have made ethics committees more common, simply having a committee in no way demonstrates its effectiveness in terms of the availability of the service to key constituents, the quality of the processes used, or the outcomes achieved. Beyond meeting baseline accreditation standards, effective ethics resources are requisite for quality care for another reason. The provision of care to the sick is a practice with profound moral dimensions. Clinicians need what Margaret Urban Walker has called "moral spaces," reflective spaces within institutions in which to explore and communicate values and ethical obligations as they undergird goals of care. Walker proposed that ethicists needed to be concerned with the design and maintenance of these moral spaces. Clearly, that concern needs to extend beyond ethicists to institutional leaders. This essay uses Walker's idea of moral space to describe individuals and groups who are actual and potential ethics resources in health care institutions. We focus on four requisite characteristics of effective resources and the challenges to achieving them, and we identify strategies to build them. In our view, such moral spaces are particularly important for nurses and their colleagues on interprofessional teams and need to be expanded and strengthened in most settings. PMID:27649915

  9. Sleep and moral awareness.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Gunia, Brian C; Wagner, David T

    2015-04-01

    The implications of sleep for morality are only starting to be explored. Extending the ethics literature, we contend that because bringing morality to conscious attention requires effort, a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. We test this prediction with three studies. A laboratory study with a manipulation of sleep across 90 participants judging a scenario for moral content indicates that a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. An archival study of Google Trends data across 6 years highlights a national dip in Web searches for moral topics (but not other topics) on the Monday after the Spring time change, which tends to deprive people of sleep. Finally, a diary study of 127 participants indicates that (within participants) nights with a lack of sleep are associated with low moral awareness the next day. Together, these three studies suggest that a lack of sleep leaves people less morally aware, with important implications for the recognition of morality in others.

  10. Moral Particularism and Deontic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Xavier

    The aim of this paper is to strengthen the point made by Horty about the relationship between reason holism and moral particularism. In the literature prima facie obligations have been considered as the only source of reason holism. I strengthen Horty's point in two ways. First, I show that contrary-to-duties provide another independent support for reason holism. Next I outline a formal theory that is able to capture these two sources of holism. While in simple settings the proposed account coincides with Horty's one, this is not true in more complicated or "realistic" settings in which more than two norms collide. My chosen formalism is so-called input/output logic.

  11. Finding a balance between patients' rights, responsibilities and obligations.

    PubMed

    Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2013-09-01

    Patients' rights have developed over recent decades in many countries, resulting in improved access to high quality medical care. The alliance between patients and physicians is a moral obligation, backed up by patient rights. Poor patient compliance with medical recommendations constitutes a public health issue, illustrating the difficulty of obliging patients to comply with treatment. The legal recognition of patients' responsibilities is defined in a few legislative and regulatory texts, but is primarily based on jurisprudence. Patients, who despite being fully aware and informed about the risks adopt a behaviour that is harmful to their health, tend to be considered as being irresponsible. This judicial approach raises a number of questions, as it fails to take into account the complexity of the human factors involved in a behaviour with either positive or negative health effects. PMID:24340484

  12. Curriculum changes and moral issues in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Karseth, Berit

    2004-11-01

    Through history nursing education has strongly advocated the importance of educating students towards moral and ethical responsibility. In today's society however, it has become increasingly difficult to honour this concern. One peephole to capture the ongoing struggle is to look into the curriculum where different stakeholders voice different opinions. Following a social constructive perspective the curriculum texts represent specific interest among stakeholders related to nursing education in a certain historical periods. By analysing the two last versions of the curriculum we get an insight into moral and ethical issues at stake and different ways of addressing these questions. While moral and ethical issues in the curriculum of 1987 follow a disciplinary discourse emphasising the importance of learning ethical concepts and modes of arguments, the curriculum of 2000 places ethical and moral issues within an employability discourse. In this curriculum moral issues are seen as an obligation linked to students practical and technical skills. The 2000 curriculum represents a shift from emphasising the independent and reflective professional to underline the skillful and morally obliged practitioner.

  13. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... If the bank directly or indirectly passes on all or part of the payments to its affiliated... associations and shall not be included in the capital of the bank. After September 27, 2002, no payments of assessments or obligations to pay future assessments may be included in the capital of the bank or association....

  14. Measuring Aspects of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    A group test measuring five aspects of morality in children is presented. The aspects are: resistance to temptation, stage of moral judgment, confession after transgression, reaction of fear or guilt, and severity of punishment for transgression. (Editor)

  15. Participation in biomedical research is an imperfect moral duty: a response to John Harris

    PubMed Central

    Shapshay, Sandra; Pimple, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    In his paper “Scientific research is a moral duty”, John Harris argues that individuals have a moral duty to participate in biomedical research by volunteering as research subjects. He supports his claim with reference to what he calls the principle of beneficence as embodied in the “rule of rescue” (the moral obligation to prevent serious harm), and the principle of fairness embodied in the prohibition on “free riding” (we are obliged to share the sacrifices that make possible social practices from which we benefit). His view that biomedical research is an important social good is agreed upon, but it is argued that Harris succeeds only in showing that such participation and support is a moral good, among many other moral goods, while failing to show that there is a moral duty to participate in biomedical research in particular. The flaws in Harris's arguments are detailed here, and it is shown that the principles of beneficence and fairness yield only a weaker discretionary or imperfect obligation to help others in need and to reciprocate for sacrifices that others have made for the public good. This obligation is discretionary in the sense that the individuals are free to choose when, where, and how to help others in need and reciprocate for earlier sacrifices. That Harris has not succeeded in claiming a special status for biomedical research among all other social goods is shown here. PMID:17601870

  16. Non-mutualistic morality.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Sonya; Iliev, Rumen; Medin, Douglas L

    2013-02-01

    Although mutually advantageous cooperative strategies might be an apt account of some societies, other moral systems might be needed among certain groups and contexts. In particular, in a duty-based moral system, people do not behave morally with an expectation for proportional reward, but rather, as a fulfillment of debt owed to others. In such systems, mutualistic motivations are not necessarily a key component of morality.

  17. Conceptualizing Moral Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuana, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the fundamental elements of moral literacy. Moral literacy involves three basic components: ethics sensitivity; ethical reasoning skills; and moral imagination. It is the contention of the author that though math and reading literacy is highly valued by the American educational…

  18. Sentimentalist Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…

  19. Time and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Renata S.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require…

  20. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

  1. The Moral University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  2. Mapping the Moral Domain

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  3. Character and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Johnnie

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the ways in which children develop character as well as ways to foster moral development in elementary education communities. Includes a brief discussion of Robert Coles' documentation of moral intelligence in children, and lists several ways to aid the moral life of children in Montessori classrooms. (EV)

  4. Are Psychopaths Morally Sensitive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce; Le Sage, Leonie

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical and psychological opinion is divided over whether moral sensitivity, understood as the ability to pick out a situation's morally salient features, necessarily involves emotional engagement. This paper seeks to offer insight into this question. It reasons that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of…

  5. Modifying Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Martin F.

    The application of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981), a general model of social judgment, overcomes shortcomings in the evaluation of moral development by offering a clear distinction between moral values and reasoning. To test the applicability of Anderson's theory to moral development research, two experiments were conducted using…

  6. Moral Education and Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Michael Slote's very interesting work on moral sentimentalism and moral education raises some important questions on the meaning of empathy, the limitations of "inductions", and the development of moral education from the perspective of care ethics. These questions are addressed in this commentary. (Contains 5 notes.)

  7. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  8. Religion, morality, evolution.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  9. Egalitarianism and moral bioenhancement.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A number of philosophers working in applied ethics and bioethics are now earnestly debating the ethics of what they term "moral bioenhancement." I argue that the society-wide program of biological manipulations required to achieve the purported goals of moral bioenhancement would necessarily implicate the state in a controversial moral perfectionism. Moreover, the prospect of being able to reliably identify some people as, by biological constitution, significantly and consistently more moral than others would seem to pose a profound challenge to egalitarian social and political ideals. Even if moral bioenhancement should ultimately prove to be impossible, there is a chance that a bogus science of bioenhancement would lead to arbitrary inequalities in access to political power or facilitate the unjust rule of authoritarians; in the meantime, the debate about the ethics of moral bioenhancement risks reinvigorating dangerous ideas about the extent of natural inequality in the possession of the moral faculties.

  10. 24 CFR 891.415 - Obligations of the household or family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Project Management § 891.415 Obligations of the household or family. This section shall apply to capital... verification of Social Security Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B, and the signing and... Collection Agencies, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B; (3) Allow the Owner (or Borrower, as...

  11. 24 CFR 891.415 - Obligations of the household or family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Project Management § 891.415 Obligations of the household or family. This section shall apply to capital... verification of Social Security Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B, and the signing and... Collection Agencies, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B; (3) Allow the Owner (or Borrower, as...

  12. 24 CFR 891.415 - Obligations of the household or family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Project Management § 891.415 Obligations of the household or family. This section shall apply to capital... verification of Social Security Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B, and the signing and... Collection Agencies, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B; (3) Allow the Owner (or Borrower, as...

  13. 24 CFR 891.415 - Obligations of the household or family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Project Management § 891.415 Obligations of the household or family. This section shall apply to capital... verification of Social Security Numbers, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B, and the signing and... Collection Agencies, as provided by 24 CFR part 5, subpart B; (3) Allow the Owner (or Borrower, as...

  14. Culture and moral judgment: how are conflicts between justice and interpersonal responsibilities resolved?

    PubMed

    Miller, J G; Bersoff, D M

    1992-04-01

    A 2-session study examined Indian and American adults' and children's (N = 140) reasoning about moral dilemmas involving conflicts between interpersonal and justice expectations. Most Indians gave priority to the interpersonal expectations, whereas most Americans gave priority to the justice expectations. Indians tended to categorize their conflict resolutions in moral terms. In contrast, when Americans gave priority to the interpersonal alternatives, they tended to categorize their resolutions in personal terms. Results imply that Indians possess a postconventional moral code in which interpersonal responsibilities are seen in as fully principled terms as justice obligations and may be accorded precedence over justice obligations. Findings also suggest that a personal morality of interpersonal responsiveness and caring is linked to highly rights-oriented cultural views, such as those emphasized in the United States.

  15. Morality and moral development: Traditional Hindu concepts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Chhitij; Dhingra, Vishal; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Srivastava, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Morality (from the Latin word moralitas that means “manner, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and those that are bad (or wrong). It is determined by how one's genetic makeup interacts with the environment. The development of morality has been a subject of investigation for a number of decades, and our understanding of neuro-biological and psychological mechanisms has increased manifolds in the last few decades. Development of morality has been of particular significance to psychiatric literature because of its significant contribution to the development of one's personality and it's aberration in various disorders. Cultures that have been just, equal and moral have been widely accepted and appreciated. In this review, we shall summarize the modern theories of moral development and then look into a part of our past and cultural heritage and review the traditional Hindu concepts of morality and their contribution to development of one's personality and their relevance in the current times. PMID:23858269

  16. Should physicians prepare for war? 3. The moral bases of contingency planning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J T

    1982-04-01

    The author defends the Defense Department's Civilian-Military Contingency Hospital System as a responsible approach to fulfilling the moral obligation to care for noncombatants injured in any war. He argues that wounded military personnel are noncombatants, that wars often have an accidental character similar to that of natural disasters, that the justice or injustice of a particular war is irrelevant to the obligation to care for its victims, and that there is no moral rationale for separating the civilian and military spheres in contingency planning.

  17. Moral reasoning: hints and allegations.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Joseph M; Greene, Joshua D

    2010-07-01

    Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, applying both deontological and utilitarian moral principles, and counteracting automatic tendencies toward bias that would otherwise dominate behavior. We argue that little is known about the psychology of moral reasoning and that it may yet prove to be a potent social force.

  18. Population dynamics of obligate cooperators

    PubMed Central

    Courchamp, F.; Grenfell, B.; Clutton-Brock, T.

    1999-01-01

    Obligate cooperative breeding species demonstrate a high rate of group extinction, which may be due to the existence of a critical number of helpers below which the group cannot subsist. Through a simple model, we study the population dynamics of obligate cooperative breeding species, taking into account the existence of a lower threshold below which the instantaneous growth rate becomes negative. The model successively incorporates (i) a distinction between species that need helpers for reproduction, survival or both, (ii) the existence of a migration rate accounting for dispersal, and (iii) stochastic mortality to simulate the effects of random catastrophic events. Our results suggest that the need for a minimum number of helpers increases the risk of extinction for obligate cooperative breeding species. The constraint imposed by this threshold is higher when helpers are needed for reproduction only or for both reproduction and survival. By driving them below this lower threshold, stochastic mortality of lower amplitude and/or lower frequency than for non-cooperative breeders may be sufficient to cause the extinction of obligate cooperative breeding groups. Migration may have a buffering effect only for groups where immigration is higher than emigration; otherwise (when immigrants from nearby groups are not available) it lowers the difference between actual group size and critical threshold, thereby constituting a higher constraint.

  19. The social responsibility of scientists: moonshine and morals.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, L

    1989-04-01

    Two historical cases are used to explore the nature of the scientist's obligations to society on technological issues. The physicist Leo Szilard is praised as a moral scientist and a moral citizen for contributing to the development of the atomic bomb in the Manhattan Project and then arguing against its testing when the danger that Germany might use the bomb against the United States subsided. On the other hand, the scientists, including physicians, who promoted the views of the eugenics movement in Nazi Germany were immoral in not considering the social implications of their scientific conclusions. Wolpert maintains that, while there are no areas that should not be subject to research, the scientist's obligations are to make the reliability of the research clear and to inform the public about its possible ramifications.

  20. Are You Morally Modified?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Neil; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Terbeck, Sylvia; Cowen, Philip J.; Hewstone, Miles; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects of three widely used drugs or drug types: (i) propranolol, (ii) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and (iii) drugs that effect oxytocin physiology. This evidence suggests that the alterations to moral decision making and behavior caused by these agents may have important and difficult-to-evaluate consequences, at least at the population level. We argue that the moral effects of these and other widely used pharmaceuticals warrant further empirical research and ethical analysis. PMID:25892904

  1. Moral realism in nursing.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Steven D

    2014-04-01

    For more than 15 years Professor Per Nortvedt has been arguing the case for moral realism in nursing and the health-care context more generally. His arguments focus on the clinical contexts of nursing and medicine and are supplemented by a series of persuasive examples. Following a description of moral realism, and the kinds of considerations that support it, criticisms of it are developed that seem persuasive. It is argued that our moral responses are explained by our beliefs as opposed to moral realities. In particular, two key arguments presented by Nortvedt are challenged: the so-called argument from convergence and the argument from clinical sensitivity. Both of these key planks in the case for moral realism are rejected, and an alternative 'social conditioning' account briefly sketched, which, it is claimed, has the same explanatory power as Nortvedt's thesis but does not rest on an appeal to independently existing moral properties.

  2. [Morality and contraception].

    PubMed

    Gakwaya, D

    1988-08-01

    The conflict of morality and natural law come into focus when contraception and procreation are examined despite the religious pronouncements of Charles de Koninck. Man, having mastered nature, confronts interminable new problems in the pursuit of physical, economic, moral, and material happiness. The population explosion in Rwanda make it indispensable that the prevention of undesired pregnancy is the right of a man and a women choosing the appropriate method. Man's morality allows the violation of natural law in order to pursue one's own goal of survival using counterbalancing means whenever under- or overpopulation may threaten its existence or portend extinction. Natural law could be the guiding principle in man's moral development.

  3. Moralized Psychology or Psychologized Morality? Ethics and Psychology in Recent Theorizing about Moral and Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, David

    2007-01-01

    Moral philosophy seems well placed to claim the key role in theorizing about moral education. Indeed, moral philosophers have from antiquity had much to say about psychological and other processes of moral formation. Given this history, it may seem ironic that much systematic latter-day theorizing about moral education has been social scientific,…

  4. 13 CFR 120.398 - America's Recovery Capital (ARC) Loan Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... obligations, capital leases for major equipment and vehicles, notes payable to vendors or suppliers, loans in... depth of management; (3) Strength of the business; (4) Past earnings, current earnings, and...

  5. 38 CFR 61.12 - Threshold requirements for capital grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... support will be available to carry out the project for which the capital grant is sought consistent with... obligation to VA that is in arrears, and does not have an overdue or unsatisfactory response to an audit;...

  6. Moral Guidance, Moral Philosophy, and Moral Issues in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Janet; Long, Tony

    1999-01-01

    A prescriptive moral guidance approach to teaching nursing ethics is unacceptable. Students should be introduced to philosophical methods to learn autonomous analysis and decision making. Case-study material based on personal experiences enhances the integration of ethical reasoning and clinical practice. (SK)

  7. Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS?

    PubMed Central

    Angoff, N. R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper responds to the question: Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)? First, the social and political milieu in which this question arises is sampled. Here physicians as well as other members of the community are found declaring an unwillingness to be exposed to people with AIDS. Next, laws, regulations, ethical codes and principles, and the history of the practice of medicine are examined, and the literature as it pertains to these areas is reviewed. The obligation to care for patients with AIDS, however, cannot be located in an orientation to morality defined in rules and codes and an appeal to legalistic fairness. By turning to the orientation to morality that emerges naturally from connection and is defined in caring, the physicians' ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS is found. Through an exploration of the writings of modern medical ethicists, it is clear that the purpose of the practice of medicine is healing, which can only be accomplished in relationship to the patient. It is in relationship to patients that the physician has the opportunity for self-realization. In fact, the physician is physician in relationship to patients and only to the extent that he or she acts virtuously by being morally responsible for and to those patients. Not to do so diminishes the physician's ethical ideal, a vision of the physician as good physician, which has consequences for the physician's capacity to care and for the practice of medicine. PMID:1788990

  8. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either.

  9. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  10. Moral Education versus Indoctrination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, David

    2016-01-01

    Moral education is open to worries about indoctrination given the controversies there are about a wide range of ethical matters. I argue, however, that moral education is no more liable to being "indoctrinal" than education in history or science. I begin by proposing an account of what indoctrination involves. I then note that moral…

  11. Gender and Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathryn P.

    Because of widespread acceptance of Kohlberg's theory of moral development other aspects of moral thinking and behavior linked with the feminine voice have not received attention. Four areas of Kohlberg's theory relevant to the gender issue are critiqued, and work by Carol Gilligan, suggesting alternative theories for thinking and behavior, is…

  12. Handbook of Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The psychological study of moral development has expanded greatly, both in terms of the diversity of theoretical perspectives that are represented in the field, as well as in the range of topics that have been studied. This "Handbook of Moral Development" represents the diversity and multidisciplinary influences on current theorizing about the…

  13. Are we born moral?

    PubMed

    Gray, John

    2007-05-10

    Reviews of: Hauser, Marc D. Moral minds: how nature designed our universal sense of right and wrong. (New York: Ecco, 2006); and Waal, F.B.M. de. Primates and philosophers: how morality evolved. (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 2006).

  14. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. PMID:24602097

  15. Moral implications of obstetric technologies for pregnancy and motherhood.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Drawing on sociological and anthropological studies, the aim of this article is to reconstruct how obstetric technologies contribute to a moral conception of pregnancy and motherhood, and to evaluate that conception from a normative point of view. Obstetrics and midwifery, so the assumption, are value-laden, value-producing and value-reproducing practices, values that shape the social perception of what it means to be a "good" pregnant woman and to be a "good" (future) mother. Activities in the medical field of reproduction contribute to "kinning", that is the making of particular social relationships marked by closeness and special moral obligations. Three technologies, which belong to standard procedures in prenatal care in postmodern societies, are presently investigated: (1) informed consent in prenatal care, (2) obstetric sonogram, and (3) birth plan. Their widespread application is supposed to serve the moral (and legal) goal of effecting patient autonomy (and patient right). A reconstruction of the actual moral implications of these technologies, however, reveals that this goal is missed in multiple ways. Informed consent situations are marked by involuntariness and blindness to social dimensions of decision-making; obstetric sonograms construct moral subjectivity and agency in a way that attribute inconsistent and unreasonable moral responsibilities to the pregnant woman; and birth plans obscure the need for a healthcare environment that reflects a shared-decision-making model, rather than a rational-choice-framework.

  16. Moral decision-making among assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers' situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients' personal autonomy. The case managers' reasoning emphasised situational awareness, but there was a risk of supporting paternalistic interventions and denying the clients' right to autonomy. PMID:26440868

  17. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.

  18. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  19. Children's Moral Emotions and Moral Cognition: Towards an Integrative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…

  20. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  1. Moral Reasoning and Moral Behavior in Conventional Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Dennis; Rosenwald, Alli

    1977-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between moral reasoning and moral behavior in 31 average adults. Subjects were placed in a situation demanding low-key moral conflict. The study examined subjects' decisions and the relationship between their moral reasoning (revealed by verbal responses to Kohlberg's hypothetical dilemmas) and their behavior.…

  2. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  3. Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…

  4. The Media: Moral Lessons and Moral Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Sue

    1993-01-01

    A lesson on female stereotypes in advertising begins a discussion of the mass media's role in the lives of young women. It is suggested that conventional moral wisdom about media education for children does not reflect the complexity of the media's influence but is narrow and ethnocentric. (MSE)

  5. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    PubMed

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views.

  6. Religion and morality.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality.

  7. Capital Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    "Social capital" describes the strength of community as measured by the connections and levels of trust among its members. These connections are both formal and informal and the benefits include better health and better academic achievement. In this article, the author proposes two types of experiments to determine whether the relationship between…

  8. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  9. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  10. Another Prospect on Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemming, James

    1980-01-01

    The author critiques John Wilson's view of moral education for being too linear, ignoring the complexity of moral development. He proposes a more generalized moral education, with greater emphasis on affect and social context. For Wilson's article, see "Journal of Moral Education," p3-9, Oct 1979 (EJ220532). (SJL)

  11. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  12. Moral Functioning as Mediated Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappan, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that it is quite useful, both theoretically and empirically, to adopt a socio-cultural approach to the study of moral development. This entails viewing "moral functioning" as a form of mediated action, and moral development as the process by which persons gradually appropriate a variety of "moral mediational means". Mediated…

  13. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  14. Moral distress and the contemporary plight of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    Once a term used primarily by moral philosophers, "moral distress" is increasingly used by health professionals to name experiences of frustration and failure in fulfilling moral obligations inherent to their fiduciary relationship with the public. Although such challenges have always been present, as has discord regarding the right thing to do in particular situations, there is a radical change in the degree and intensity of moral distress being expressed. Has the plight of professionals in healthcare practice changed? "Plight" encompasses not only the act of pledging, but that of predicament and peril. The author claims that health professionals are increasingly put in peril by healthcare reform that undermines their efficacy and jeopardizes ethical engagement with those in their care. The re-engineering of healthcare to give precedence to corporate and commercial values and strategies of commodification, service rationing, streamlining, and measuring of "efficiency," is literally demoralizing health professionals. Healthcare practice needs to be grounded in a capacity for compassion and empathy, as is evident in standards of practice and codes of ethics, and in the understanding of what it means to be a professional. Such grounding allows for humane response to the availability of unprecedented advances in biotechnological treatments, for genuine dialogue and the raising of difficult, necessary ethical questions, and for the mutual support of health professionals themselves. If healthcare environments are not understood as moral communities but rather as simulated marketplaces, then health professionals' moral agency is diminished and their vulnerability to moral distress is exacerbated. Research in moral distress and relational ethics is used to support this claim. PMID:22441996

  15. Moral distress and the contemporary plight of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    Once a term used primarily by moral philosophers, "moral distress" is increasingly used by health professionals to name experiences of frustration and failure in fulfilling moral obligations inherent to their fiduciary relationship with the public. Although such challenges have always been present, as has discord regarding the right thing to do in particular situations, there is a radical change in the degree and intensity of moral distress being expressed. Has the plight of professionals in healthcare practice changed? "Plight" encompasses not only the act of pledging, but that of predicament and peril. The author claims that health professionals are increasingly put in peril by healthcare reform that undermines their efficacy and jeopardizes ethical engagement with those in their care. The re-engineering of healthcare to give precedence to corporate and commercial values and strategies of commodification, service rationing, streamlining, and measuring of "efficiency," is literally demoralizing health professionals. Healthcare practice needs to be grounded in a capacity for compassion and empathy, as is evident in standards of practice and codes of ethics, and in the understanding of what it means to be a professional. Such grounding allows for humane response to the availability of unprecedented advances in biotechnological treatments, for genuine dialogue and the raising of difficult, necessary ethical questions, and for the mutual support of health professionals themselves. If healthcare environments are not understood as moral communities but rather as simulated marketplaces, then health professionals' moral agency is diminished and their vulnerability to moral distress is exacerbated. Research in moral distress and relational ethics is used to support this claim.

  16. Infanticide and moral consistency.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this essay is to show that there are no easy options for those who are disturbed by the suggestion that infanticide may on occasion be morally permissible. The belief that infanticide is always wrong is doubtfully compatible with a range of widely shared moral beliefs that underlie various commonly accepted practices. Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive.

  17. Meat, morals, and masculinity.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J

    2011-04-01

    Much research has demonstrated that people perceive consumers of "good," low-fat foods as more moral, intelligent, and attractive, and perceive consumers of "bad," high-fat foods as less intelligent, less moral, and less attractive. Little research has contrasted perceptions of omnivores and vegetarians, particularly with respect to morality and gender characteristics. In two between-subject studies, we investigated people's perceptions of others who follow omnivorous and vegetarian diets, controlling for the perceived healthiness of the diets in question. In both studies, omnivorous and vegetarian participants rated vegetarian targets as more virtuous and less masculine than omnivorous targets.

  18. Moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in Iranian nurses.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Fariba; Keshtgar, Mohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are often faced with serious situations that require high levels of legal and ethical knowledge, and should therefore be sensitive to the moral issues in their profession in the decision making process. Some studies have investigated nurses' moral self-concept as an effective factor in moral sensitivity, but there is not sufficient evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between moral sensitivity and moral self-concept in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to study the relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Chang's Moral Self-Concept Questionnaire and Lutzen's Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. A total of 188 nurses participated in this study. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity (P < 0.05). Based on our findings, an individual's attention to moral issues can lead to greater sensitivity and result in morally responsible behavior at the time of decision making. Consequently, promotion of moral self-concept through personal effort or education can increase moral sensitivity, which in turn leads to behavioral manifestations of ethical knowledge.

  19. Moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in Iranian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Fariba; Keshtgar, Mohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are often faced with serious situations that require high levels of legal and ethical knowledge, and should therefore be sensitive to the moral issues in their profession in the decision making process. Some studies have investigated nurses’ moral self-concept as an effective factor in moral sensitivity, but there is not sufficient evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between moral sensitivity and moral self-concept in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to study the relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity in nurses employed in the teaching hospitals affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Chang’s Moral Self-Concept Questionnaire and Lutzen’s Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. A total of 188 nurses participated in this study. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between moral self-concept and moral sensitivity (P < 0.05). Based on our findings, an individual's attention to moral issues can lead to greater sensitivity and result in morally responsible behavior at the time of decision making. Consequently, promotion of moral self-concept through personal effort or education can increase moral sensitivity, which in turn leads to behavioral manifestations of ethical knowledge. PMID:26839678

  20. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert.

  1. Fostering Nurses' Moral Agency and Moral Identity: The Importance of Moral Community.

    PubMed

    Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency.

  2. Conflict and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A conflict procedure in which reliance on adult values was opposed to reliance on damage as a measure of blame was found to facilitate second-grade children's use of intention in making moral judgments of story pairs. (ST)

  3. Moral reckoning in nursing.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Alvita K

    2006-06-01

    Analysis of qualitative data resulted in an original substantive grounded theory of moral reckoning in nursing, a three-stage process. After a novice period, the nurse experiences a stage of ease in which there is comfort in the workplace and congruence of internal and external values. Unexpectedly, a situational bind occurs in which the nurse's core beliefs come into irreconcilable conflict with external forces. This compels the nurse into the stage of resolution, in which he or she either gives up or makes a stand. The nurse then moves into the stage of reflection in which he or she lives with the consequences and iteratively examines beliefs, values, and actions. The nurse tries to make sense of experiences through remembering, telling the story, and examining conflicts. This study sets the stage for further investigation of moral distress. The theory of moral reckoning challenges nurses to tell their stories, examine conflicts, and participate as partners in moral decision making. PMID:16672631

  4. Humanistic Psychology and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders Richards, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)

  5. Explaining moral religions.

    PubMed

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality.

  6. Explaining moral religions.

    PubMed

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality. PMID:23664451

  7. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties. PMID:27292845

  8. [About moral enhancement].

    PubMed

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    First, a short summary of the moral enhancement debate is drawn up. Then an argument first put forward by J. Harris is explored: this argument is directly related to I. Perrson's and J. Savulescu's conception of moral life. To conclude, it is suggested that they advocate a naïve idea of technology, conceived as a neutral means for value loaded ends. PMID:26238765

  9. Rethinking Moral Expertise.

    PubMed

    Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers. PMID:25103422

  10. Neural basis of moral verdict and moral deliberation

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Jana Schaich; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2011-01-01

    How people judge something to be morally right or wrong is a fundamental question of both the sciences and the humanities. Here we aim to identify the neural processes that underlie the specific conclusion that something is morally wrong. To do this, we introduce a novel distinction between “moral deliberation,” or the weighing of moral considerations, and the formation of a “moral verdict,” or the commitment to one moral conclusion. We predict and identify hemodynamic activity in the bilateral anterior insula and basal ganglia that correlates with committing to the moral verdict “this is morally wrong” as opposed to “this is morally not wrong,” a finding that is consistent with research from economic decision-making. Using comparisons of deliberation-locked vs. verdict-locked analyses, we also demonstrate that hemodynamic activity in high-level cortical regions previously implicated in morality—including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and temporoparietal junction—correlates primarily with moral deliberation as opposed to moral verdicts. These findings provide new insights into what types of processes comprise the enterprise of moral judgment, and in doing so point to a framework for resolving why some clinical patients, including psychopaths, may have intact moral judgment but impaired moral behavior. PMID:21590588

  11. Moral status, justice, and the common morality: challenges for the principlist account of moral change.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Kevin E; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2013-09-01

    The theory of principlism elaborated by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics has become extremely influential in bioethics. The theory employs the idea of the common morality as a foundation for the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. According to this account, the content of the common morality is universal and constant, while variability in morals is due to the fact that the issue of who is included within the scope of moral status evolves over time. This suggests that issues of moral status are not part of the common morality at all, and this presents a conundrum: questions of moral status seem central to any substantive account of justice, and any conception of the common morality that excludes moral status therefore seems inadequate for supporting a robust principle of justice. We argue that proponents of common morality theory are left with four options: (1) making moral status a part of the objective common morality and ignoring evidence that views about moral status do seem to vary over time and place; (2) excluding justice from the substantive content of the common morality; (3) taking common morality to be an imperfect approximation of an independently justified and universal foundationalist ethic against which the common morality is judged; or (4) weakening claims about the universality of common morality, thereby allowing the common morality to support a variety of principles of justice applicable only within particular communities that have specified the scope of moral status. We suspect that proponents of common morality theory will not view any of these options favorably, which raises questions about the ultimate contribution of that account.

  12. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  13. Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199

  14. Moral reasoning: hints and allegations.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Joseph M; Greene, Joshua D

    2010-07-01

    Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, applying both deontological and utilitarian moral principles, and counteracting automatic tendencies toward bias that would otherwise dominate behavior. We argue that little is known about the psychology of moral reasoning and that it may yet prove to be a potent social force. PMID:25163874

  15. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes. PMID:23895167

  16. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes.

  17. Proscriptive versus prescriptive morality: two faces of moral regulation.

    PubMed

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Sheikh, Sana; Hepp, Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    A distinction is made between two forms of morality on the basis of approach-avoidance differences in self-regulation. Prescriptive morality is sensitive to positive outcomes, activation-based, and focused on what we should do. Proscriptive morality is sensitive to negative outcomes, inhibition-based, and focused on what we should not do. Seven studies profile these two faces of morality, support their distinct motivational underpinnings, and provide evidence of moral asymmetry. Both are well-represented in individuals' moral repertoire and equivalent in terms of moral weight, but proscriptive morality is condemnatory and strict, whereas prescriptive morality is commendatory and not strict. More specifically, in these studies proscriptive morality was perceived as concrete, mandatory, and duty-based, whereas prescriptive morality was perceived as more abstract, discretionary, and based in duty or desire; proscriptive immorality resulted in greater blame, whereas prescriptive morality resulted in greater moral credit. Implications for broader social regulation, including cross-cultural differences and political orientation, are discussed.

  18. Collectivizing rescue obligations in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    Bioethicists invoke a duty to rescue in a wide range of cases. Indeed, arguably, there exists an entire medical paradigm whereby vast numbers of medical encounters are treated as rescue cases. The intuitive power of the rescue paradigm is considerable, but much of this power stems from the problematic way that rescue cases are conceptualized-namely, as random, unanticipated, unavoidable, interpersonal events for which context is irrelevant and beneficence is the paramount value. In this article, I critique the basic assumptions of the rescue paradigm, reframe the ethical landscape in which rescue obligations are understood, and defend the necessity and value of a wider social and institutional view. Along the way, I move back and forth between ethical theory and a concrete case where the duty to rescue has been problematically applied: the purported duty to regularly return incidental findings and individual research results in genomic and genetic research.

  19. 76 FR 16438 - Reallocation of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Capital Funds-Capital Fund Grant Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Grant Program Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act) included a $4 billion appropriation of Capital Funds for public... competitive process. HUD obligated approximately $2.985 million in formula funds to PHAs on March 18, 2009....

  20. [Orbitofrontal cortex and morality].

    PubMed

    Funayama, Michitaka; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    Research on the neural substrates of morality is a recently emerging field in neuroscience. The anatomical structures implicated to play a role in morality include the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. In particular, the orbitofrontal or ventromedial prefrontal areas are thought to be involved in decision-making, and damage to these areas is likely to cause decision-making deficits and/or problems in impulsive control, which may lead to antisocial and less moral behaviors. In this article, we focus on case presentation and theory development with regard to moral judgment. First, we discuss notable cases and syndromes developing after orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal damage, such as the famous cases of Gage and EVR, cases of childhood orbitofrontal damage, forced collectionism, squalor syndrome, and hypermoral syndrome. We then review the proposed theories and neuropsychological mechanisms underlying decision-making deficits following orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal damage, including the somatic-marker hypothesis, reversal learning, preference judgment, theory of mind, and moral dilemma.

  1. Religion and Morality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose “religion” and “morality” into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts—in particular, sanitized conceptions of “prosocial” behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories “religion” and “morality” must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PMID:25528346

  2. MORAL ENHANCEMENT AND FREEDOM

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978

  3. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.5 General...

  4. 5 CFR 724.203 - Training obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training obligations. 724.203 Section 724... RETALIATION ACT OF 2002 Notification of Rights and Protections and Training § 724.203 Training obligations. (a) Each agency must develop a written plan to train all of its employees (including supervisors...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting obligations. 27.1340 Section 27.1340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27.1340 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting obligations. 27.1340 Section 27.1340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27.1340 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700...

  7. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation....

  8. 43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mitigation obligations. 10005.8 Section... MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING THE COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation obligations. While the Act authorizes...

  9. 43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mitigation obligations. 10005.8 Section... MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING THE COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation obligations. While the Act authorizes...

  10. 43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mitigation obligations. 10005.8 Section... MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING THE COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation obligations. While the Act authorizes...

  11. 43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mitigation obligations. 10005.8 Section... MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING THE COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation obligations. While the Act authorizes...

  12. 19 CFR 10.805 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.805 Section 10.805... Agreement Import Requirements § 10.805 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who makes a claim for... information. (b) Information provided by exporter or producer. The fact that the importer has made a claim...

  13. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412... Agreement Import Requirements § 10.412 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who makes a... subpart, the importer: (1) Must have records that explain how the importer came to the conclusion that...

  14. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585...-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.585 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who makes a claim for preferential tariff treatment under § 10.583(b) of this subpart: (1) Will...

  15. 19 CFR 10.849 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.849 Section 10.849... through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2006 § 10.849 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who... importer has made a claim for duty-free treatment or prepared a declaration of compliance based...

  16. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765... Agreement Import Requirements § 10.765 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who makes a claim for... information. (b) Information provided by exporter or producer. The fact that the importer has made a claim...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting obligations. 27.1340 Section 27.1340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership § 27.1340 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700...

  18. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies,...

  19. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation....

  20. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation. (a) Time limits. An employee is to be...

  1. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation....

  2. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.908 Agency obligation....

  3. 12 CFR 966.2 - Issuance of consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of consolidated obligations. 966.2... CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.2 Issuance of consolidated obligations. (a) Consolidated obligations issued by the Finance Board. The Finance Board may issue consolidated obligations under section 11(c) of the...

  4. Kohlberg and the Resolution of Moral Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressler, Marvin

    1976-01-01

    Author challenged Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development with its conjoint moral standards. One's knowledge of the principle of moral justice, he said, does not offer him directives for dealing with specific moral conflicts. (Editor/RK)

  5. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  6. Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…

  7. Moral philosophers are moral experts! A reply to David Archard.

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In his article 'Why Moral Philosophers Are Not and Should Not Be Moral Experts' David Archard attempts to show that his argument from common-sense morality is more convincing than other competing arguments in the debate. I examine his main line of argumentation and eventually refute his main argument in my reply.

  8. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  9. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  10. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  11. John Dewey's Eloquent Citizen: Communication, Judgment, and Postmodern Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ronald Walter

    2003-01-01

    Notes that John Dewey offers rhetorical studies a philosophical modernization of the eloquent citizen. Proposes that in so doing, an aesthetic-moral theory of communication emerges at the core of human subjectivity. Concludes that to better account for the role of communication in postmodern capitalism, rhetorical studies needs an…

  12. Identity as a Source of Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Theory and research regarding moral motivation has focused for decades on the roles of moral reasoning and, to some extent, moral emotion. Recently, however, several models of morality have positioned identity as an additional important source of moral motivation. An individual has a moral identity to the extent that he or she has constructed his…

  13. Indigenous Moral Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obidi, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    Nigerian children experience moral education from the family, neighborhood adults, peer groups, and the community through direct instruction, observation, and unconscious absorption of moral lessons. They learn that gods and ancestors are sources of human morality. The introduction of Western religion and education encourages the young to pursue…

  14. Race, Culture and Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  15. A Moral Epistemology of Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Hugh

    1989-01-01

    Examines criteria for a moral epistemology of practice in teaching. Requirements include a view of meaning and truth; a comprehensive scope; a flexible view of rationality; morality; a common language of description, explanation, and justification; and sensitivity to objectivity. The moral issues of care, courage, and deceit are discussed. (SM)

  16. A Model of Moral Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Don Collins

    2008-01-01

    The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in…

  17. A Moral Cathechesis for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates four approaches to helping Catholic adolescents in their moral growth: using case studies to build knowledge of values and morality; providing moral models with whom young people can identify; presenting a positive ideology; and helping students recognize and respond to God's presence in their lives. (AYC)

  18. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  19. Philosophy, Casuistry, and Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…

  20. Public Spaces and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    The questions of how and where to do moral education have been with us since antiquity. But, over the past couple of hundred years we have sent moral education to the margins within higher education. Using the historical analysis of Julie Reuben, the moral psychological work of Augusto Blasi, and the educational philosophical work of John Dewey, I…

  1. Implications of a Moral Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Robert E.

    A research memorandum presents the results of an on-going study into the implications of a moral science. Adopting a moral stance in scientific investigation would entail the abandonment of analytic modes of inquiry for more holistic, open-ended ones. The basic premise of a moral science is that it is possible for men to reach agreement on what is…

  2. Education for Critical Moral Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustakova-Possardt, Elena

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a lifespan developmental model of critical moral consciousness and examines its implications for education in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Mature moral consciousness, central to negotiating the challenges of the 21st century, is characterized by a deepening lifelong integration of moral motivation, agency and critical…

  3. Developing Moral Agency through Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…

  4. Theological ethics, moral philosophy, and public moral discourse.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, Albert R

    1994-03-01

    The advent and growth of bioethics in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s precipitated an era of public moral discourse, that is, the deliberate attempt to analyze and formulate moral argument for use in public policy. The language for rational discussion of moral matters evolved from the parent disciplines of moral philosophy and theological ethics, as well as from the idioms of a secular, pluralistic world that was searching for policy answers to difficult bioethical questions. This article explores the basis and content of the unique contributions of both theological and philosophical ethics to the development of public moral discourse.

  5. Surveying the moral landscape: moral motives and group-based moralities.

    PubMed

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2013-08-01

    We present a new six-cell Model of Moral Motives that applies a fundamental motivational distinction in psychology to the moral domain. In addition to moral motives focused on the self or another, we propose two group-based moralities, both communal in orientation, but reflecting distinct moral motives (Social Order/Communal Solidarity vs. Social Justice/Communal Responsibility) as well as differences in construals of group entitativity. The two group-based moralities have implications for intragroup homogeneity as well as intergroup conflict. Our model challenges the conclusions of Haidt and colleagues that only conservatives (not liberals) are group oriented and embrace a binding morality. We explore the implications of this new model for politics in particular and for the self-regulation versus social regulation of morality more generally. PMID:23504824

  6. Moral knowledge: some reflections on moral controversies, incompatible moral epistemologies, and the culture wars.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2004-01-01

    An authentic Christian bioethical account of abortion must take into consideration the conflicting epistemologies that separate Christian moral theology from secular moral philosophy. Moral epistemologies directed to the issue of abortion that fail to appreciate the orientation of morality to God will also fail adequately to appreciate the moral issues at stake. Christian accounts of the bioethics of abortion that reduce moral-theological considerations to moral-philosophical considerations will not only fail to appreciate fully the offense of abortion, but morally mislead. This article locates the bioethics of abortion within the theology of the Church of the first millennium, emphasizing that abortion was prohibited, whether or not one considered the embryo or fetus to be ensouled.

  7. Secretome of obligate intracellular Rickettsia

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, although others (e.g. josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared toward understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial ‘life on the inside’. PMID:25168200

  8. Moral panic, moral regulation, and the civilizing process.

    PubMed

    Hier, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This article compares two analytical frameworks ostensibly formulated to widen the focus of moral panic studies. The comparative analysis suggests that attempts to conceptualize moral panics in terms of decivilizing processes have neither substantively supplemented the explanatory gains made by conceptualizing moral panic as a form of moral regulation nor provided a viable alternative framework that better explains the dynamics of contemporary moral panics. The article concludes that Elias's meta-theory of the civilizing process potentially provides explanatory resources to investigate a possible historical-structural shift towards the so-called age of (a)moral panic; the analytical demands of such a project, however, require a sufficiently different line of inquiry than the one encouraged by both the regulatory and decivilizing perspectives on moral panic. PMID:27444132

  9. Fostering Nurses' Moral Agency and Moral Identity: The Importance of Moral Community.

    PubMed

    Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency. PMID:27649913

  10. Mysteries of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeScioli, Peter; Kurzban, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of morality, beginning with Darwin, have focused on explanations for altruism. More generally, these accounts have concentrated on conscience (self-regulatory mechanisms) to the neglect of condemnation (mechanisms for punishing others). As a result, few theoretical tools are available for understanding the rapidly…

  11. Philosophy and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  12. Predictors of Morale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchley, Robert C.

    Path analysis was used on survey responses of 1106 persons age 50 or over. Stage one variables were recent retirement, recent widowhood or divorce, age, and sex. Stage two variables included self-rated health, functional health, health trend, and self-rated income adequacy. It was expected that these variables might directly affect morale or…

  13. The Morality of Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

  14. Confidentiality and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Thomas R.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems faced when the constraints of confidentiality conflict with one's perceived duty to make the truth known to those whose interests may be affected. Suggests a "due process of moral decision" when such a choice is faced. (JMF)

  15. Ethics, Morality, and Mores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    It is possible to approach, but not to achieve, the goal of perfection. To the three traditional philosophical values of truth, goodness, and beauty it is appropriate to append the important values of wisdom, humanness, and grace. Among the resources available toward the perfection of behavior are ethics, morality, and mores. The first chapter of…

  16. A Morally Deep World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lawrence E.

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Johnson advocates a major change in our attitude toward the nonhuman world. He argues that nonhuman animals, and ecosystems themselves, are morally significant beings with interests and rights. The author considers recent work in environmental ethics in the introduction and then presents his case with the utmost precision and clarity.

  17. The New Moral Darwinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for working. (LHW)

  18. The Disappearing Moral Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Compares the stated educational philosophy of several colleges and universities in 1896-97 with the contemporary version, focusing on the role of moral values in the curriculum. Institutions discussed include the University of Maine, University of North Dakota, Washington State University, Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania), Stetson University…

  19. Sex, Technology and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Verna; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of the course "Sex, Technology, and Morality" which focuses on the human reproductive process and examines the advances in reproductive technology. The course emphasizes the social, political, and ethical implications of actual and possible technologies associated with human reproduction. (ML)

  20. Communication and Moral Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Sally A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Notes that responses to moral conflict often lead to reciprocated diatribe and the use of violence. Describes a potentially more constructive approach, called transcendent eloquence, in which interveners or the conflicting parties themselves develop a new framework for understanding and comparing such conflicts. Discusses a number of case studies,…

  1. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  2. 48 CFR 217.7404-4 - Limitations on obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Undefinitized Contract Actions 217.7404-4 Limitations on obligations. (a) The Government shall not obligate...

  3. 48 CFR 217.7404-4 - Limitations on obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Undefinitized Contract Actions 217.7404-4 Limitations on obligations. (a) The Government shall not obligate...

  4. 48 CFR 217.7404-4 - Limitations on obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Undefinitized Contract Actions 217.7404-4 Limitations on obligations. (a) The Government shall not obligate...

  5. 48 CFR 217.7404-4 - Limitations on obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Undefinitized Contract Actions 217.7404-4 Limitations on obligations. (a) The Government shall not obligate...

  6. 48 CFR 217.7404-4 - Limitations on obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Undefinitized Contract Actions 217.7404-4 Limitations on obligations. (a) The Government shall not obligate...

  7. Involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill as a moral issue.

    PubMed

    Chodoff, P

    1984-03-01

    Conflict exists between medical model and civil liberties approaches to involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The amassing and analysis of data will not resolve this conflict because the two sides view the problem from differing moral vantage points. Medical model adherents are influenced chiefly by utilitarian or consequentialist considerations, while the civil libertarians take more of a deontological or absolutist position. Opinions about such issues as hospitalization criteria of dangerousness versus medical necessity and the relative role of rights versus obligations and of autonomy versus paternalism can be seen largely to depend on such underlying value judgments. Neither side has a monopoly on truth or right in the question of involuntary hospitalization.

  8. Defining Features of Moral Sensitivity and Moral Motivation: Pathways to Moral Reasoning in Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kelly R.; Worthley, Joanna S.; Testerman, John K.; Mahoney, Marita L.

    2006-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development explores the roles of cognition and emotion but focuses primarily on cognition. Contemporary post-formal theories lead to the conclusion that skills resulting from cognitive-affective integration facilitate consistency between moral judgement and moral behaviour. Rest's four-component model of moral…

  9. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  10. Moral reasoning and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mudrack, Peter E

    2006-06-01

    Moral reasoning should not be clearly associated with measures of personality traits. Although this assumption pervades the moral reasoning literature, it may not always be true. This paper provides evidence that moral reasoning, as assessed with P scores of the Defining Issues Test, is indeed positively associated with five traits from the California Psychological Inventory: Achievement via Independence, Intellectual Efficiency, Tolerance, Responsibility, and Capacity for Status. Such relationships make conceptual sense, shed light on the meaning and implications of moral reasoning, call into question prevailing assumptions in the literature, and may encourage investigators to broaden the types of research questions asked in the context of moral reasoning.

  11. Losing the Whole Child? A National Survey of Primary Education Training Provision for Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, K.; Monahan, J.; Wills, R.

    2015-01-01

    International concerns about the performativity agenda in schools gives rise to concerns about the neglect of a holistic approach to teaching and learning. Whilst schools in England and Wales are legally obliged to promote the spiritual, moral, social and cultural (SMSC) development of children, little is known about how initial teacher training…

  12. Human embryo research and the language of moral uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, William P

    2004-01-01

    In bioethics as in the sciences, enormous discussions often concern the very small. Central to public debate over emerging reproductive and regenerative biotechnologies is the question of the moral status of the human embryo. Because news media have played a prominent role in framing the vocabulary of the debate, this study surveyed the use of language reporting on human embryo research in news articles spanning a two-year period. Terminology that devalued moral status-for example, the descriptors things, property, tissue, or experimental material -was found to outnumber fivefold those that affirmed any degree of moral status above that of inanimate cellular matter; for example, living, human life, or human being. A quarter of the articles failed to note that the embryos under discussion were human. These findings confirm that even among scientific and philosophical experts a diversity of opinion exists on society's moral obligations to nascent human life. The skewed linguistic distribution also indicates a distinct bias. Concerned readers should take notice when any category of humanity becomes subject to prejudicial and disparaging language and the value of vulnerable human life is trivialized alongside sensational assertions of anticipated medical cures. The responsibility for holding the media to a higher standard of truth and fairness falls to us all. PMID:15035916

  13. Moral individualism and elective death.

    PubMed

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. PMID:23845164

  14. The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marco Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral capabilities can be successfully improved by means of moral education, moral persuasion, and fear of punishment. So, without moral enhancement, drastic restrictions on human freedom would become the only alternative to prevent those dramatic potential outcomes. In this article, I will try to show that we still have reason to be less pessimistic and that Persson & Savulescu's arguments are fortunately unconvincing.

  15. The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marco Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral capabilities can be successfully improved by means of moral education, moral persuasion, and fear of punishment. So, without moral enhancement, drastic restrictions on human freedom would become the only alternative to prevent those dramatic potential outcomes. In this article, I will try to show that we still have reason to be less pessimistic and that Persson & Savulescu's arguments are fortunately unconvincing. PMID:27473409

  16. The erosion of moral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Robin

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses two closely related themes: first, the lack of provision of moral education; second, the loss of moral direction in society. The author argues that a proper moral education is one that provides an adequate understanding of the "moral sphere", just as the study of mathematics involves acquiring a grasp of mathematical thinking. While moral norms appear to differ from one culture to another, the author contends that there is a basic commonality at the level of essential moral principles. The paper concludes by arguing against any system where rights — particularly those of "any loosely definable minority" — restrict the freedom of others. The author laments that "justice" has become limited to a political definition of what is just. Thus politics has replaced morality as the arbiter of our behaviour.

  17. 31 CFR 1023.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR BROKERS OR DEALERS IN SECURITIES Reports Required To Be Made By Brokers or Dealers in Securities § 1023.311 Filing obligations. Refer to § 1010.311... securities....

  18. Obligate anaerobes in clinical veterinary practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, D C; Biberstein, E L; Jang, S S

    1979-01-01

    Clinical specimens obtained from domestic animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria and the species represented. Of 3,167 samples cultured anaerobically as well as aerobically, 2,234 were bacteriologically positive. Of these positive samples, 583 (26%) contained species of obligate anaerobic bacteria in a total of 641 isolates. Most positive samples contained anaerobes admixed with aerobic species, although 6% of such samples yielded pure cultures of obligate anaerobes. The most common sites from which anaerobes were isolated were abscesses (32% of abscesses cultured contained species of obligate anaerobes), peritoneal exudates (24%), and pleural effusions (20%). Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Bacteroides ruminicola accounted in the aggregate for approximately 50% of all anaerobic isolates. Bacteroides fragilis accounted for 1% of all the isolates, and members of the genus Clostridium accounted for 8%. PMID:511987

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  4. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  5. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  6. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  7. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  8. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  9. 7 CFR 993.56 - Reserve obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... percentages are in effect for any crop year, the reserve obligation of a handler shall approximate the average... prunes, as well as prunes for consumption as prunes, will be met. The salable prunes permitted to...

  10. 7 CFR 993.56 - Reserve obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... percentages are in effect for any crop year, the reserve obligation of a handler shall approximate the average... prunes, as well as prunes for consumption as prunes, will be met. The salable prunes permitted to...

  11. 47 CFR 6.5 - General obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that the service is compatible with existing peripheral devices or specialized customer premises... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must...

  12. Moral Distress among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Tabatabaei, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses. Methods: This was a descriptive –analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses’ moral distress was assessed using Corley’s 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19. Results: In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was “working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing”. The item with the lowest mean score was “giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it”. Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress. Conclusion: A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses. PMID:26005478

  13. GETTING MORAL ENHANCEMENT RIGHT: THE DESIRABILITY OF MORAL BIOENHANCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We respond to a number of objections raised by John Harris in this journal to our argument that we should pursue genetic and other biological means of morally enhancing human beings (moral bioenhancement). We claim that human beings now have at their disposal means of wiping out life on Earth and that traditional methods of moral education are probably insufficient to achieve the moral enhancement required to ensure that this will not happen. Hence, we argue, moral bioenhancement should be sought and applied. We argue that cognitive enhancement and technological progress raise acute problems because it is easier to harm than to benefit. We address objections to this argument. We also respond to objections that moral bioenhancement: (1) interferes with freedom; (2) cannot be made to target immoral dispositions precisely; (3) is redundant, since cognitive enhancement by itself suffices. PMID:21797913

  14. Moral integrity and moral courage: can you teach it?

    PubMed

    Eby, Ruth A; Hartley, Patricia Lynn; Hodges, Patricia Jeanne; Hoffpauir, Rebecca; Newbanks, Shirlene; Kelley, Jane H

    2013-04-01

    Nursing has been spared the ethical scandal of many other professions, but issues of compromised moral integrity are growing in practice and education. This study was structured to investigate faculty perceptions of the challenges encountered regarding moral integrity in academia and strategies to promote nursing students' moral integrity and moral courage. A content analysis of the responses to questions about challenges and strategies was completed. Themes identified from the data on student and instructor beliefs and behaviors correspond to those found in the literature. The need for instructors to model a high level of integrity and to create high-integrity classrooms and a community of learning were identified as essential. A finding different from other study results is that beliefs drive moral behaviors and must be the focus of strategies for change. A consensus was expressed that mechanisms are urgently needed to further identify and integrate strategies to enhance student moral integrity.

  15. Of Manners and Morals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I explore the role of manners and morals. In particular, what is the connection between emotional demeanor and the inner stuff of virtue? Does the fact that we can pose faces and hide our inner sentiments, i.e., "fake it," detract from or add to our capacity for virtue? I argue, following a line from the Stoics, that it can add to…

  16. 12 CFR 966.4 - Form of consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of consolidated obligations. 966.4 Section 966.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.4 Form of consolidated obligations. (a) All consolidated obligations shall be issued in...

  17. 12 CFR 966.4 - Form of consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of consolidated obligations. 966.4 Section 966.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.4 Form of consolidated obligations. (a) All consolidated obligations shall be issued in...

  18. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  19. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  20. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  1. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  2. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  3. Predictors of Moral Disengagement in Sport.

    PubMed

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have made productive use of Bandura's (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of "bracketed morality" found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.

  4. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  5. Motivational Aspects of Moral Learning and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses a puzzle about moral learning concerning its social context and the potential for moral progress: Won't the social context of moral learning shape moral perceptions, beliefs, and motivation in ways that will inevitably "limit" moral cognition, motivation, and progress? It addresses the relationships between…

  6. Measuring Moral Development: Feeling, Thinking, and Doing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Paul

    This paper examines whether a morally developed person is one who feels strongly about moral issues, or understands moral issues, or acts ethically when dealing with other people. It argues that the meaning of the term "moral" is concerned with how people ought to treat each other and that studies in morality should deal with the actions of people…

  7. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    PubMed

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism.

  8. Disgust as Embodied Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Haidt, Jonathan; Clore, Gerald L.; Jordan, Alexander H.

    2008-01-01

    How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In 4 experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants’ sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance - and specificity - of gut feelings in moral judgments. PMID:18505801

  9. The logic of moral outrage.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis

    2013-02-01

    McCullough et al.’s functionalist model of revenge is highly compatible with the person-centered approach to moral judgment, which emphasizes the adaptive manner in which social perceivers derive character information from moral acts. Evidence includes act–person dissociations in which an act is seen as less immoral than a comparison act, yet as a clearer indicator of poor moral character. PMID:23211645

  10. The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City

    PubMed Central

    Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents. PMID:25067849

  11. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  12. Moral Relativism: A Philosopher's Antidote for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Henry

    1977-01-01

    The author identifies four main sources of moral relativism; defines cultural and ethical relativism, and social and personal moral relativism; and presents three arguments to refute moral relativism. (AV)

  13. Moral Principles and the Life Sciences: Choices about Moral Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David; Brett, William

    2005-01-01

    Today, more than at any other time in human history, biologists are or should be concerned about the morality of biological research and newly developed technologies. Two questions confront any scientist or science student concerned about morality and the life sciences. Is there some theoretical framework that might be used to assist in deciding…

  14. From Moral Exclusion to Moral Inclusion: Theory for Teaching Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opotow, Susan; Gerson, Janet; Woodside, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    This article presents Moral Exclusion Theory as a way to systematize the study of complex issues in peace education and to challenge the thinking that supports oppressive social structures. The authors define its 2 key concepts: moral exclusion, the limited applicability of justice underlying destructive conflicts and difficult social problems;…

  15. Imagining Good Organizations: Moral Orders or Moral Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milley, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Defines the good in organizations; critiques the moral and methodological perspectives in Thomas Greenfield's writing; explains Jurgen Habermas' theory of discourse ethics; distinguishes key similarities and differences between Greenfield's and Habermas' moral theories; discusses substantive and methodological implications for the field of…

  16. Moral character in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  17. Moral character in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment. PMID:25133716

  18. Moral questions, legal answers, and biotechnological advances.

    PubMed

    Godlovitch, G

    1998-03-01

    Moral failing is usually construed as a personal flaw, but there is another construction: where morals fail people, where our moral precepts are silent. The author of this article argues that this happens nowadays where technological advances, such as genetic engineering in medicine, raise moral questions but get legal answers. By responding to the legal issues involved, the moral questions are pre-empted. This results in answers drawn from legal categories, often with commercial perspectives, but misses the larger moral dilemma.

  19. The Physiology of Moral Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemming, James

    1991-01-01

    Discusses an evolutionary approach to human morality. Emphasizes the rapid development of brain weight, neural circuits, and synaptic systems during early childhood. Concludes that the human brain has resources for generating responsible, caring behavior but must be nurtured and educated. Urges that moral training in a proper social climate be…

  20. Moral Reasoning in Genetics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zande, Paul; Brekelmans, Mieke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological research suggests that intuition and emotion play a role in our reasoning when we are confronted with moral dilemmas. Incorporating intuition and emotion into moral reflection is a rather new idea in the educational world, where rational reasoning is preferred. To develop a teaching and learning strategy to address this…

  1. Relativism, Objectivity and Moral Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1979-01-01

    Reaction against the naive moral absolutism of past historical writing has frequently led to unconditional moral and cultural relativism which is equally dangerous. A viable solution is contingent relativism in historical judgments, combining explicit and examinable criteria of human values and concern for contexts of time and place. (Author/SJL)

  2. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  3. Moral Education: Some Philosophical Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, N. C.

    1977-01-01

    Deals primarily with the currently popular notion of "moral education". Points out some of the theoretical problems that must be resolved before adding the prefix "moral" to education as well as the practical difficulties that will be encountered in teaching this confused "subject" in the public schools in a multi-cultural society. (Editor/RK)

  4. Freud's psychoanalysis: a moral cure.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan

    2014-08-01

    That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such. PMID:24720632

  5. Teaching Moral Reasoning through Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches…

  6. John Wilson as Moral Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John L.

    1977-01-01

    The work of John Wilson, now teaching at Oxford University, as moral educator is summarized and evaluated. His rationalist humanistic approach is based on a componential characterization of the morally educated person. The rationale and conceptual status of the components is discussed. His position is compared to that of Peter McPhail, R. S.…

  7. Moral Dilemmas and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piburn, Michael D.

    Stages of moral reasoning through which children develop, as researched by developmental psychologists Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg, are outlined in the introduction of this paper. The six stages are defined and exemplified by the moral issue of the value of human life. The developmental model, as it is argued, is suitable for instruction in…

  8. Freud's psychoanalysis: a moral cure.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan

    2014-08-01

    That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such.

  9. School Discipline in Moral Disarray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joan F.

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that current school disciplinary policies are ineffective instruments for delivering moral messages: they are poorly justified; fail to distinguish moral violations (violence, vandalism, deception) from conventional school-limited violations (attendance, dress codes, eating venues), leaving the impression that dress code violations…

  10. Predicting consumers' intention to consume ready-to-eat meals. The role of moral attitude.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R²) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption.

  11. Predicting consumers' intention to consume ready-to-eat meals. The role of moral attitude.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R²) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption. PMID:20832438

  12. Physicians' obligations to patients infected with Ebola: echoes of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Ecker, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Physicians across the United States are engaged in training in the identification, isolation, and initial care of patients with Ebola. Some will be asked to do more. The issue this viewpoint will address is the moral obligation of physicians to participate in these activities. In order to do so the implicit contract between society and its physicians will be considered, as will many of the arguments that are redolent of those that were litigated 30 years ago when acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was raising public fears to similar levels, and some physicians were publically proclaiming their unwillingness to render care to those individuals. We will build the case that if steps are taken to reduce risks-optimal personal protective equipment and training-to what is essentially the lowest possible level then rendering care should be seen as obligatory. If not, as in the AIDS era there will be an unfair distribution of risk, with those who take their obligations seriously having to go beyond their fair measure of exposure. It would also potentially undermine patients' faith in the altruism of physicians and thereby degrade the esteem in which our profession is held and the trust that underpins the therapeutic relationship. Finally there is an implicit contract with society. Society gives tremendously to us; we encumber a debt from all society does and offers, a debt for which recompense is rarely sought. The mosaic of moral, historical, and professional imperatives to render care to the infected all echoes the words of medicine's moral leaders in the AIDS epidemic. Arnold Relman perhaps put it most succinctly, "the risk of contracting the patient's disease is one of the risks that is inherent in the profession of medicine. Physicians who are not willing to accept that risk…ought not be in the practice of medicine." PMID:25530596

  13. Sexual selection for moral virtues.

    PubMed

    Miller, Geoffrey F

    2007-06-01

    Moral evolution theories have emphasized kinship, reciprocity, group selection, and equilibrium selection. Yet, moral virtues are also sexually attractive. Darwin suggested that sexual attractiveness may explain many aspects of human morality. This paper updates his argument by integrating recent research on mate choice, person perception, individual differences, costly signaling, and virtue ethics. Many human virtues may have evolved in both sexes through mutual mate choice to advertise good genetic quality, parenting abilities, and/or partner traits. Such virtues may include kindness, fidelity, magnanimity, and heroism, as well as quasi-moral traits like conscientiousness, agreeableness, mental health, and intelligence. This theory leads to many testable predictions about the phenotypic features, genetic bases, and social-cognitive responses to human moral virtues.

  14. Cognitive diversity and moral enhancement.

    PubMed

    Gyngell, Chris; Easteal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One debate in contemporary bioethics centers on whether the development of cognitive enhancement technologies (CETs) will hasten the need for moral enhancement. In this article we provide a new argument in favor of pursuing these enhancement technologies together. The widespread availability of CETs will likely increase population-level cognitive diversity. Different people will choose to enhance different aspects of their cognition, and some won't enhance themselves at all. Although this has the potential to be beneficial for society, it could also result in harms as people become more different from one another. Aspects of our moral psychology make it difficult for people to cooperate and coordinate actions with those who are very different from themselves. These moral failings could be targeted by moral enhancement technologies, which may improve cooperation among individuals. Moral enhancement technologies will therefore help society maximize the benefits, and reduce the costs, associated with widespread access to cognitive enhancements.

  15. Teacher Preparation Practices in Kenya and the 21st Century Learning: A Moral Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafwa, Nabwire Opata; Gaudience, Obondo; Kisaka, Sella Terrie

    2015-01-01

    Teacher preparation practices are indices used to measure quality teacher besides other variables. Whereas the current teacher preparation is test scores based inclining to cognitive knowledge, a good teacher preparation practices is a holistic development in nature oriented towards character, skills and knowledge. To embed teacher preparation in…

  16. Ownership of Traditional Information: Moral and Legal Obligations to Compensate for Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Richard J.; McNeil, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that "indigenous" people transferring cultural information to other, more "developed" people should have legal protection from unfair transactions. Presents ethical and legal bases for such protection. Examples involve the knowledge of rain-forest tribes that has been used to produce valuable pharmaceutical products from tropical plants.…

  17. Moral bioenhancement: much ado about nothing?

    PubMed

    de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada; Salles, Arleen

    2015-05-01

    Recently, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution to the serious moral evils that humans face. Seemingly disillusioned with traditional methods of moral education, proponents of bioenhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings. Such proposal has generated a lively debate about the permissibility of moral bioenhancement. We argue here that such debate is specious. The claim that moral bioenhancement is a solution - whether permissible or not - to the serious moral problems that affect human beings is based on several problematic framing assumptions. We evaluate here three of such assumptions: the first rests on a contested understanding of morality, the second consist in a mistaken conception of human moral problems, and the third relates to problematic presuppositions grounding the interpretation of existent scientific evidence presented to defend moral bioenhancement. Once these framing assumptions are identified and critically evaluated, it becomes clear that the moral bioenhancement debate is misguided.

  18. 43 CFR 3104.1 - Bond obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Bonds § 3104.1 Bond obligations. (a... lease operations after the abandonment or cessation of oil and gas operations on the lease(s) in... certificate shall explicitly indicate on its face that Secretarial approval is required prior to redemption...

  19. 28 CFR 42.204 - Applicants' obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.204 Applicants' obligations. (a) Every application... Equal Employment Opportunity Program (if required to develop one under 28 CFR 42.301, et. seq.) to OJARS... discrimination after a due process hearing, on the ground of race, color, religion, national origin, or...

  20. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  1. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  2. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  3. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  4. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  5. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  6. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  7. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  8. The author’s opportunity and obligation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peer review is a critical component of the scientific method and therefore should be an obligation for everyone who desires to publish their research results in refereed journals. This editorial is written to address a specific problem being encountered by editors of Soil & Tillage Research, but the...

  9. 19 CFR 10.705 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.705 Section 10.705 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  10. 19 CFR 10.705 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.705 Section 10.705 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  11. 19 CFR 10.705 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.705 Section 10.705 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  12. 19 CFR 10.705 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.705 Section 10.705 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  13. 19 CFR 10.705 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.705 Section 10.705 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  14. 75 FR 15610 - Consolidated Returns; Intercompany Obligations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Consolidated Returns; Intercompany Obligations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.1401 to 1.1550), revised as of April...

  15. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  16. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  17. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  18. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  19. 19 CFR 10.512 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.512 Section 10.512 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  20. 31 CFR 1020.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1020.311 Section 1020.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULE FOR BANKS Reports Required To Be Made...

  1. 31 CFR 1020.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1020.311 Section 1020.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULE FOR BANKS Reports Required To Be Made...

  2. 31 CFR 1020.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1020.311 Section 1020.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULE FOR BANKS Reports Required To Be Made...

  3. 31 CFR 1020.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1020.311 Section 1020.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULE FOR BANKS Reports Required To Be Made...

  4. 7 CFR 987.145 - Withholding obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withholding obligation. 987.145 Section 987.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY,...

  5. 21 CFR 26.62 - General obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General obligations. 26.62 Section 26.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT...

  6. 21 CFR 26.62 - General obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General obligations. 26.62 Section 26.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT...

  7. 42 CFR 136.332 - Service obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Scholarship by service in: (a) The Indian Health Service. (b) An urban Indian organization assisted under... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service obligation. 136.332 Section 136.332 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE,...

  8. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  9. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  10. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  11. 31 CFR 1021.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.311 Filing obligations. Each casino shall file a report...) Currency received by a casino for transmittal of funds through wire transfer for a customer; (7)...

  12. 31 CFR 1021.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.311 Filing obligations. Each casino shall file a report...) Currency received by a casino for transmittal of funds through wire transfer for a customer; (7)...

  13. 31 CFR 1021.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.311 Filing obligations. Each casino shall file a report...) Currency received by a casino for transmittal of funds through wire transfer for a customer; (7)...

  14. 31 CFR 1021.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.311 Filing obligations. Each casino shall file a report...) Currency received by a casino for transmittal of funds through wire transfer for a customer; (7)...

  15. 33 CFR 137.5 - Disclosure obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT LAND-OWNER DEFENSE Introduction § 137.5 Disclosure... professionals, must report the incident as required by law if they know or have reason to know of the incident... local law. It is the obligation of each person, including environmental professionals,...

  16. Religiosity, Moral Attitudes and Moral Competence: A Critical Investigation of the Religiosity-Morality Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between the religiosity dimensions which Wulff (1991) described (Exclusion versus Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal versus Symbolic) and both moral attitudes and moral competence. The Post-Critical Belief Scale (Duriez, Fontaine, & Hutseabut, 2000) was used as a measure of Wulff's religiosity…

  17. Criminality of Black Youth in Inner-City Schools: "Moral Panic", Moral Imagination, and Moral Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Schools provide a context or moral space for youth to develop their identity; however, with the racialized ideology, language and practices that promote Black youth criminality, criminalized schools become a racialized, classed, and gendered moral space that feeds into the school-to-prison pipeline. The criminalization of schools refers to a…

  18. Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering—that is, interpersonal harm—even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions. PMID:22754268

  19. Moral opinion polarization and the erosion of trust.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Since Puntam's seminal work on declining levels of social capital, the question of how social trust is formed has reached unprecedented heights of critical enquiry. While most of the current research concentrates on ethnic diversity and income inequality as the main influences driving down generalized trust, we focus on opinion polarization as another potential impact factor on trust. In more detail, we investigate the extent to which polarization over morally charged issues such as homsexuality, abortion and euthanasia affects individuals' likelihood to trust others. We hypothesize that moral issues have a natural tendency to divide societies' opinions into opposing poles and, thus, to challenge social cohesion in modern civil societies. Based on hierarchical analyses of the fifth wave of the World Values Survey (WVS) - comprising a sample of 39 countries - our results reveal that individuals living in countries characterized by more opinion polarization tend to have less trust in other people.

  20. The morally uncomfortable global drug gap.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kohler, J C

    2007-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals are one of the cornerstones of human development as their rational consumption can reduce morbidity and mortality rates and enhance the quality of life. Pharmaceuticals have curative and therapeutic qualities, so they cannot be considered as ordinary products. In line with this, ensuring public policy fosters access to medicines demands thoughtful and careful consideration, as it is often about whether a patient lives or dies. Despite the flow of international aid for pharmaceuticals, particularly used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, there is a morally concerning drug gap globally; the World Health Organization (WHO) notes that one-third of the global population lacks regular access to essential medicines and that in some parts of Asia and Africa these figures are even more severe.(1) But what is troubling is that, despite the knowledge that we live in a world with inequitable access to medicines, we have not examined how we need to put in place policies that not only support drug access but also do not undermine it, which will be addressed later. What is promising, is that slowly, a paradigm shift is taking place. Access to essential medicines is increasingly viewed as a fundamental human right, with international human rights laws placing attendant obligations on states to ensure access.(2, 3) But governments also have to ensure that the policy environment is supportive of access to medicines. And this includes making sure that social policy is not undercut by economic interests.

  1. Bioethics and Moral Agency: On Autonomy and Moral Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Skalko, John; Cherry, Mark J

    2016-10-01

    Two clusters of essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy provide a critical gaze through which to explore central moral, phenomenological, ontological, and political concerns regarding human moral agency and personal responsibility. The first cluster challenges common assumptions in bioethics regarding the voluntariness of human actions. The second set turns the debate towards morally responsible choice within the requirements of distributive justice. The force of their collective analysis leaves us with a well-founded basis critically to approach any account of bioethics or health policy that is insufficiently attentive to the central challenges of human freedom and responsible free choice. PMID:27473410

  2. Bioethics and Moral Agency: On Autonomy and Moral Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Skalko, John; Cherry, Mark J

    2016-10-01

    Two clusters of essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy provide a critical gaze through which to explore central moral, phenomenological, ontological, and political concerns regarding human moral agency and personal responsibility. The first cluster challenges common assumptions in bioethics regarding the voluntariness of human actions. The second set turns the debate towards morally responsible choice within the requirements of distributive justice. The force of their collective analysis leaves us with a well-founded basis critically to approach any account of bioethics or health policy that is insufficiently attentive to the central challenges of human freedom and responsible free choice.

  3. China: moral puzzles.

    PubMed

    Xu, T M

    1990-01-01

    This is the first of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim." The author, vice president of Beijing Medical University and vice chairman of the Beijing Academic Association for Morality, identifies population control, euthanasia, and the allocation of health care resources as bioethical issues of current interest in his country. Population policy in China is grounded in public welfare arguments. The idea of a right to choose one's death is found in Chinese philosophy, although Chinese legal experts believe that euthanasia is not compatible with present criminal, civil, or family law. Allocation of health resources remains a problem in China, even throughout the free medical service that serves a small portion, largely composed of government employees, of the country's population of 1.08 billion.

  4. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    PubMed Central

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). The other dimension specifies the groups of persons involved in the conflict under consideration (for example: the study-population, individuals who may benefit from the results, the researchers and their personnel, the community at large). The model has been applied to the problem of legitimacy of case-register research and to problems in psychiatric health services research as well as epidemiological research. PMID:1460647

  5. China: moral puzzles.

    PubMed

    Xu, T M

    1990-01-01

    This is the first of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim." The author, vice president of Beijing Medical University and vice chairman of the Beijing Academic Association for Morality, identifies population control, euthanasia, and the allocation of health care resources as bioethical issues of current interest in his country. Population policy in China is grounded in public welfare arguments. The idea of a right to choose one's death is found in Chinese philosophy, although Chinese legal experts believe that euthanasia is not compatible with present criminal, civil, or family law. Allocation of health resources remains a problem in China, even throughout the free medical service that serves a small portion, largely composed of government employees, of the country's population of 1.08 billion. PMID:2318623

  6. Neurocomputational model of moral behaviour.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of human morality has dramatically improved in the last decades, thanks to efforts carried out with scientific methods, in addition to the traditional speculative approach. Substantial contributions and relevant empirical data have come from neuroscience, psychology, genetics, comparative ethology, anthropology, and the social sciences. In this fruitful synergy, one useful approach is still missing: computational modeling. More precisely, a neurocomputational model aimed at simulating forms of moral behavior, to our knowledge, has not yet been designed. The purpose of this work is to start filling this gap, proposing MOral Neural Engine (MONE), a model that simulates the emergence of moral cognition. The neural engine in this model is assumed to be based in frontal areas, specifically the orbitofrontal and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in connections to limbic areas involved in emotions and reward, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala. Moral cognition is probably the result of a collection of several different neural processes, activated depending on the type of moral problem, each associated with a variety of emotions. This model, in its first implementation, deals with only a single moral situation: stealing someone's food, a transgression that typically elicits guilt, learned in the model from the angry facial expressions of the victim. PMID:26585964

  7. Moral Understanding in the Psychopath*

    PubMed Central

    Malatesti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A pressing and difficult practical problem concerns the general issue of the right social response to offenders classified as having antisocial personality disorder. This paper approaches this general problem by focusing, from a philosophical perspective, on the still relevant but more approachable question whether psychopathic offenders are morally responsible. In particular, I investigate whether psychopaths possess moral understanding. A plausible way to approach the last question requires a satisfactory philosophical interpretation of the empirical evidence that appears to show that psychopaths fail to draw the distinction between conventional and moral norms. Specifically, I will consider a recent philosophical debate polarized between supporters of rationalist and sentimentalist accounts of moral understanding. These opponents have discussed whether the case of psychopathy offers empirical support for their account and undermine the rival view. I will argue that the available empirical data leave the outcome of this discussion indeterminate. However, this implies that both these principal theories of moral understanding, if independently motivated, would imply that psychopaths have certain deficits that might affect their moral understanding and, consequently, their moral responsibility. PMID:21151766

  8. The rise of moral cognition.

    PubMed

    Greene, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    The field of moral cognition has grown rapidly in recent years thanks in no small part to Cognition. Consistent with its interdisciplinary tradition, Cognition encouraged the growth of this field by supporting empirical research conducted by philosophers as well as research native to neighboring fields such as social psychology, evolutionary game theory, and behavioral economics. This research has been exceptionally diverse both in its content and methodology. I argue that this is because morality is unified at the functional level, but not at the cognitive level, much as vehicles are unified by shared function rather than shared mechanics. Research in moral cognition, then, has progressed by explaining the phenomena that we identify as "moral" (for high-level functional reasons) in terms of diverse cognitive components that are not specific to morality. In light of this, research on moral cognition may continue to flourish, not as the identification and characterization of distinctive moral processes, but as a testing ground for theories of high-level, integrative cognitive function.

  9. Neurocomputational model of moral behaviour.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of human morality has dramatically improved in the last decades, thanks to efforts carried out with scientific methods, in addition to the traditional speculative approach. Substantial contributions and relevant empirical data have come from neuroscience, psychology, genetics, comparative ethology, anthropology, and the social sciences. In this fruitful synergy, one useful approach is still missing: computational modeling. More precisely, a neurocomputational model aimed at simulating forms of moral behavior, to our knowledge, has not yet been designed. The purpose of this work is to start filling this gap, proposing MOral Neural Engine (MONE), a model that simulates the emergence of moral cognition. The neural engine in this model is assumed to be based in frontal areas, specifically the orbitofrontal and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in connections to limbic areas involved in emotions and reward, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala. Moral cognition is probably the result of a collection of several different neural processes, activated depending on the type of moral problem, each associated with a variety of emotions. This model, in its first implementation, deals with only a single moral situation: stealing someone's food, a transgression that typically elicits guilt, learned in the model from the angry facial expressions of the victim.

  10. Moral Education in Time of Global Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2006-01-01

    Conceptions of morality and moral education are in need of reexamination in this time of global transformation. Historical views of morality and moral education are briefly presented, the commonalities and implications of these conceptualizations discussed and their influence on civilization briefly explored. The modern-day conceptions of morality…

  11. Morality and the Schools. Occasional Paper 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Robert S.

    Moral contradictions and cross purposes in society make formal moral training in the schools difficult, if not impossible. Values clarification and school-wide programs of moral education are of questionable merit. Nevertheless, effective moral education is implicit in teaching the subjects that comprise good basic education. A mathematics…

  12. Japanese Moral Education Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Yoshimitsu

    For generations, moral development has been both a conscious aim and a formal process in Japanese education. This book investigates the history and development of Japanese moral education and analyzes and compares current moral education with the concepts of the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890) and the "shushin" moral education of prewar…

  13. Adult Moral Development: Ancient, Medieval, & Modern Paths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.

    1990-01-01

    Traces two accounts of moral maturation--love and reason--from Greek philosophy through Saint Augustine to Kohlberg. Considers that the moral perspective of any age level falls short of an entirely satisfactory conception of morality, allowing the possibility for moral wisdom in both children and adults. (SK)

  14. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  15. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  16. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  17. Values and Moral Development in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Gerald; And Others

    This book is intended to help college professors reexamine their responsibilities toward the moral development of students. Part I deals with the nature of moral development. Essays discuss what is meant by moral development, ways in which contributions from various academic disciplines can be relevant to a study of moral development, Lawrence…

  18. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  19. Moral Education in a Plural Society: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Hena

    1983-01-01

    Designed for non-Muslim pupils, moral education is being phased into the state-approved curriculum in Malaysia. The objective is the development of a morally mature person who will be able to make independent judgments in a moral conflict situation. The moral education program development is described. (Author/RM)

  20. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  1. Moral Reflections on the Columbian Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, James

    1992-01-01

    Restates in moral terms the legacy of Columbus's voyages. Suggests that the conflict and conflict of humans, plants, organisms, institutions, and ideas raises many moral questions. Suggests that imagination is the key to moral understanding. Argues that past societies pass moral judgment on one another through the study of contemporary moral…

  2. The psychiatrist as moral advisor.

    PubMed

    Redmon, R B

    1989-12-01

    This paper is a critique of a paper by Robert Lipkin. Arguments for the following claims are put forward: (1) that what is 'essential' to the psychiatric relationship is what we want it to be for utilitarian reasons; (2) it would not be to our advantage to allow the medicalization of morality; (3) what we should expect from the psychiatrist is prudential advice, not moral advice, and that Lipkin has a confused view about the relationship between these two areas; and (4) we should not allow the psychiatrist to restrict individuals on moral grounds, but only on public safety grounds.

  3. Concern for Close or Distant Others: The Distinction between Moral Identity and Moral Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Research has analyzed the relationship between moral identity--the extent to which people experience their moral character as being central to their self-conception--and the inclusion of other people within one's own moral circle. These studies underline that the higher the moral identity, the larger the moral circle. However, recent studies have…

  4. Moral Law and Moral Education: Defending Kantian Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I examine why Kantian ethics has had such a hard time of it. I look at readings of Kant's moral theory that have had great force in the 20th century and conclude that these have much to do with an ensuing confusion, which has led to charges of rigidity, formality and severity. Then I demonstrate that when we make moral judgements we…

  5. 12 CFR 1010.103 - Developer obligated improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Developer obligated improvements. 1010.103...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.103 Developer obligated improvements. (a) If the developer represents either... obligation shall be clearly stated in the Property Report. While the developer may disclose relevant...

  6. 12 CFR 1010.103 - Developer obligated improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Developer obligated improvements. 1010.103...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.103 Developer obligated improvements. (a) If the developer represents either... obligation shall be clearly stated in the Property Report. While the developer may disclose relevant...

  7. 12 CFR 1010.103 - Developer obligated improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Developer obligated improvements. 1010.103...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.103 Developer obligated improvements. (a) If the developer represents either... obligation shall be clearly stated in the Property Report. While the developer may disclose relevant...

  8. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  9. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  10. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  11. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  12. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.103 - Developer obligated improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting... recreational amenities, it must be contractually obligated to do so (see § 1715.15(f)), and the obligation... completion, the obligation to complete cannot be conditioned, other than as provided for in § 1715.15(f),...

  14. 31 CFR 149.3 - Maximum obligation limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 149.3 Section 149.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM OBLIGATION LIMITATION § 149.3 Maximum obligation...

  15. 12 CFR 966.5 - Transactions in consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., except 31 CFR part 357 regarding book-entry procedure, are hereby incorporated into this part 966, so far... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in consolidated obligations. 966.5... CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.5 Transactions in consolidated obligations. The general regulations of...

  16. 12 CFR 966.5 - Transactions in consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., except 31 CFR part 357 regarding book-entry procedure, are hereby incorporated into this part 966, so far... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transactions in consolidated obligations. 966.5... CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.5 Transactions in consolidated obligations. The general regulations of...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1300 - Payphone compensation obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone compensation obligation. 64.1300... compensation obligation. (a) For purposes of this subpart, a Completing Carrier is a long distance carrier or... parties by contract. (c) The compensation obligation set forth herein shall not apply to calls...

  18. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...

  19. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...

  20. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...

  1. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  2. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  3. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... branch banks shall be liable without regard to risk (1) for payment of bank obligations issued by them or (2) for payment of bank obligations confirmed by them without regard to risk if a requirement for... amount of an obligation issued by its foreign branch. CCC will hold the U.S. bank liable for...

  4. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... branch banks shall be liable without regard to risk (1) for payment of bank obligations issued by them or (2) for payment of bank obligations confirmed by them without regard to risk if a requirement for... amount of an obligation issued by its foreign branch. CCC will hold the U.S. bank liable for...

  5. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of bank obligations. 1488.12 Section 1488.12... Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Bank Obligations and Repayment § 1488.12 Coverage of bank obligations. (a) U.S. banks and branch banks shall...

  6. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of bank obligations. 1488.12 Section 1488.12... Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Bank Obligations and Repayment § 1488.12 Coverage of bank obligations. (a) U.S. banks and branch banks shall...

  7. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of bank obligations. 1488.12 Section 1488.12... Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Bank Obligations and Repayment § 1488.12 Coverage of bank obligations. (a) U.S. banks and branch banks shall...

  8. 39 CFR 931.1 - Compromise of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compromise of obligations. 931.1 Section 931.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING THE COMPROMISE OF OBLIGATIONS § 931.1 Compromise of obligations. Any proposition of compromise shall be submitted in writing, and the amount offered in compromise...

  9. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  10. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family....

  11. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  12. Religion: more money, more morals.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Konika; Bloom, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Between 500 BCE and 300 BCE, religions worldwide underwent a dramatic shift, emphasizing morality and asceticism for the first time. A new study suggests that the emergence of this new type of religion can be explained by increases in prosperity.

  13. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced. PMID:25473861

  14. Transformational leadership and moral reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nick; Barling, Julian; Epitropaki, Olga; Butcher, Vicky; Milner, Caroline

    2002-04-01

    Terms such as moral and ethical leadership are used widely in theory, yet little systematic research has related a sociomoral dimension to leadership in organizations. This study investigated whether managers' moral reasoning (n = 132) was associated with the transformational and transactional leadership behaviors they exhibited as perceived by their subordinates (n = 407). Managers completed the Defining Issues Test (J. R. Rest, 1990), whereas their subordinates completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio, 1995). Analysis of covariance indicated that managers scoring in the highest group of the moral-reasoning distribution exhibited more transformational leadership behaviors than leaders scoring in the lowest group. As expected, there was no relationship between moral-reasoning group and transactional leadership behaviors. Implications for leadership development are discussed.

  15. When Morals Mix with Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    The moral economy is described as that segment of the world's social system in which individuals' decisions and actions are dominated by their image of the general good, even at some cost to their individual economic welfare. (MLW)

  16. The Moral Imperative of Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillbruner, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    Elaborates on the ethical responsibility of the rhetorical critic and teacher. The role that moral values play in the criticism process are examined in the literature, history and philosophy disciplines. (MH)

  17. Are physicians obligated to provide preventive services?

    PubMed

    Belcher, D W

    1990-01-01

    Preventive care is considered a benefit to the patient. Physicians express a positive attitude towards prevention, but their performance of recommended activities is low, as shown in a five-year trial at the Seattle VA Medical Center. The release of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's guide to clinical preventive services has provided physicians with authoritative prevention recommendations. While most physicians are specialists with little interest or skill in preventive care, primary care providers do accept an obligation to provide comprehensive care, including prevention. This paper examines the ethical basis for the idea of obligation. External pressures, legal, economic, and organizational, are affecting the physician-patient relationship in ways that encourage a contract mode of medical practice and limit physicians' ability to provide preventive care. As a profession, medicine needs to speak for the health needs of the public. As practitioners, physicians need to seek the welfare of their patients. PMID:2231049

  18. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stacey B

    2010-01-01

    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections.

  19. Why Governments That Fund Elective Abortion Are Obligated to Attempt a Reduction in the Elective Abortion Rate.

    PubMed

    Dumsday, Travis

    2016-03-01

    If elective abortion is publicly funded, then the government is obligated to take active measures designed to reduce its prevalence. I present two arguments for that conclusion. The first argument is directed at those pro-choice thinkers who hold that while some or all elective abortions are morally wrong, they still ought to be legally permitted and publicly subsidized. The second argument is directed at pro-choice thinkers who hold that there is nothing morally wrong with elective abortion and that it should be both legally permitted and publicly subsidized. The second argument employs premises that generalize beyond the abortion debate and that may serve to shed light on broader questions concerning conscience and the requirements of political compromise in a democracy. PMID:26715048

  20. Coroners and the obligation to protect public health: the case of the failed UK vCJD study.

    PubMed

    McGowan, C R; Viens, A M

    2011-04-01

    The Health Protection Agency has recently attempted to create a postmortem tissue archive to determine the prevalence of abnormal prion protein. The success of this archive was prevented because the Health Protection Agency could not convince coroners to support the study's methodology and participate on that basis. The findings of this paper detail and support the view that the Coroners' Society of England and Wales's refusal to participate was misguided and failed to appreciate that coroners have a moral obligation to protect public health. Measures to assist coroners in fulfilling this role are proposed. PMID:21440922

  1. Teaching moral reasoning through gesture.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-11-01

    Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches to moral education are controversial, requiring adults to serve as either direct ('top-down') or indirect ('bottom-up') conduits of information about morality. A common thread weaving throughout these two educational initiatives is the ability to take multiple perspectives - increases in perspective taking ability have been found to precede advances in moral reasoning. We propose gesture as a behavior uniquely situated to augment perspective taking ability. Requiring gesture during spatial tasks has been shown to catalyze the production of more sophisticated problem-solving strategies, allowing children to profit from instruction. Our data demonstrate that requiring gesture during moral reasoning tasks has similar effects, resulting in increased perspective taking ability subsequent to instruction. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v/gAcRIClU_GY.

  2. Utilitarian moral judgment in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kruepke, Michael; Zeier, Joshua; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathic behavior is characteristically amoral, but to date research studies have largely failed to identify any systematic differences in moral judgment capability between psychopaths and non-psychopaths. In this study, we investigate whether significant differences in moral judgment emerge when taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder through a well-validated distinction between psychopathic subtypes. Three groups of incarcerated participants [low-anxious psychopaths (n = 12), high-anxious psychopaths (n = 12) and non-psychopaths (n = 24)] completed a moral judgment test involving hypothetical dilemmas. The moral dilemmas featured ‘personal’ (i.e. involving direct physical harm) or ‘impersonal’ (i.e. involving indirect or remote harm) actions. Compared to non-psychopaths, both groups of psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the impersonal actions. However, only the low-anxious psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the personal harms when commission of the harm would maximize aggregate welfare—the ‘utilitarian’ choice. High-anxious psychopaths and non-psychopaths did not significantly differ in their personal moral judgments. These results provide novel laboratory evidence of abnormal moral judgment in psychopaths, as well as additional support for the importance of considering psychopathic subtypes. PMID:21768207

  3. Utilitarian moral judgment in psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Koenigs, Michael; Kruepke, Michael; Zeier, Joshua; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-08-01

    Psychopathic behavior is characteristically amoral, but to date research studies have largely failed to identify any systematic differences in moral judgment capability between psychopaths and non-psychopaths. In this study, we investigate whether significant differences in moral judgment emerge when taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder through a well-validated distinction between psychopathic subtypes. Three groups of incarcerated participants [low-anxious psychopaths (n = 12), high-anxious psychopaths (n = 12) and non-psychopaths (n = 24)] completed a moral judgment test involving hypothetical dilemmas. The moral dilemmas featured 'personal' (i.e. involving direct physical harm) or 'impersonal' (i.e. involving indirect or remote harm) actions. Compared to non-psychopaths, both groups of psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the impersonal actions. However, only the low-anxious psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the personal harms when commission of the harm would maximize aggregate welfare-the 'utilitarian' choice. High-anxious psychopaths and non-psychopaths did not significantly differ in their personal moral judgments. These results provide novel laboratory evidence of abnormal moral judgment in psychopaths, as well as additional support for the importance of considering psychopathic subtypes. PMID:21768207

  4. Teaching moral reasoning through gesture.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-11-01

    Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches to moral education are controversial, requiring adults to serve as either direct ('top-down') or indirect ('bottom-up') conduits of information about morality. A common thread weaving throughout these two educational initiatives is the ability to take multiple perspectives - increases in perspective taking ability have been found to precede advances in moral reasoning. We propose gesture as a behavior uniquely situated to augment perspective taking ability. Requiring gesture during spatial tasks has been shown to catalyze the production of more sophisticated problem-solving strategies, allowing children to profit from instruction. Our data demonstrate that requiring gesture during moral reasoning tasks has similar effects, resulting in increased perspective taking ability subsequent to instruction. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v/gAcRIClU_GY. PMID:24754707

  5. Choosy Moral Punishers

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, Christine; Tanner, Colby J.; Clément, Fabrice; Chapuisat, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled “universal structure of human morality” or “pure aversion to social betrayal”. Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous. PMID:22720012

  6. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P.; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  7. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    PubMed

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  8. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    PubMed

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  9. Metacognitive aspects of moral reasoning and behavior.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H L; Hill, G

    1993-01-01

    This study explored the notion that the development of moral reasoning and moral behavior may be linked to metacognition. The awareness of moral processes involved in moral reasoning and behavior was examined in 139 adolescents in three age groups. A number of significant moral metacognition-reasoning-behavior correlations were found. Intercorrelations for all dependent measures increased by age. A factor analysis revealed several components of moral metacognition (person, task, and strategy variables), and these were significantly related to increases in moral reasoning and behavior scores. More important, a contingency analysis supported the notion that specific types of metamoral knowledge (e.g., understanding the purpose, scope, and requirements of moral action) are related to high and low moral reasoning and behavior.

  10. Raising healthy children: Moral and political responsibility for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Childhood obesity and chronic disease rates continue to climb, but policy and programme responses are mainly limited to education and awareness activities. These encourage individuals to make responsible lifestyle choices. Regulation and environmental change have a minor role, as they involve more intrusive roles for government, invading traditionally private domains of nutrition and physical activity. But to address children's health needs, today's emphasis on self-management is inappropriate. Children, especially the very young, are dependent and vulnerable. I describe why the current public health strategies, with their political and moral foundations, remain ineffective. The foundations are based primarily upon the traditional liberal understanding of the public/private divide, while neglecting to recognize the legal obligations and implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and theories of justice and citizenship as they apply to children.

  11. Raising healthy children: Moral and political responsibility for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Childhood obesity and chronic disease rates continue to climb, but policy and programme responses are mainly limited to education and awareness activities. These encourage individuals to make responsible lifestyle choices. Regulation and environmental change have a minor role, as they involve more intrusive roles for government, invading traditionally private domains of nutrition and physical activity. But to address children's health needs, today's emphasis on self-management is inappropriate. Children, especially the very young, are dependent and vulnerable. I describe why the current public health strategies, with their political and moral foundations, remain ineffective. The foundations are based primarily upon the traditional liberal understanding of the public/private divide, while neglecting to recognize the legal obligations and implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and theories of justice and citizenship as they apply to children. PMID:21119650

  12. Desperately seeking social approval: Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen and the moral limits of capitalist culture.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Adam Smith and Thorstein Veblen shared much in matters of economic ontology. Both dismissed the very notion of an autonomous economic self and instead investigated the processes through which self and other are mutually constituted under changing cultural traditions of individual aspiration. Their strikingly similar critiques of status-oriented consumption and concern for the moral basis of the market economy are established in this manner. However, the political implications of their analyses point in different directions, with Veblen being the more radical. The Smithian individual can always use spectatorial insights to assert through genuinely praiseworthy behaviour personal moral distance from social norms of status-oriented consumption. The Veblenian individual, by contrast, has no such capacity for elevating abstract moral principles above socially-situated conduct, as mind and environment co-evolve in line with changing material circumstances of life. For Veblen, the rise of status-oriented consumption itself acted as a form of moral self-education that more deeply entrenched the social norms of ownership out of which it arose, thus the impossibility of an autonomous economic self was matched by the impossibility of an autonomous moral self. To his way of thinking, moral degradation in conspicuous consumption was irredeemably inscribed into the whole cultural structure of capitalism. PMID:22950465

  13. Desperately seeking social approval: Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen and the moral limits of capitalist culture.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Adam Smith and Thorstein Veblen shared much in matters of economic ontology. Both dismissed the very notion of an autonomous economic self and instead investigated the processes through which self and other are mutually constituted under changing cultural traditions of individual aspiration. Their strikingly similar critiques of status-oriented consumption and concern for the moral basis of the market economy are established in this manner. However, the political implications of their analyses point in different directions, with Veblen being the more radical. The Smithian individual can always use spectatorial insights to assert through genuinely praiseworthy behaviour personal moral distance from social norms of status-oriented consumption. The Veblenian individual, by contrast, has no such capacity for elevating abstract moral principles above socially-situated conduct, as mind and environment co-evolve in line with changing material circumstances of life. For Veblen, the rise of status-oriented consumption itself acted as a form of moral self-education that more deeply entrenched the social norms of ownership out of which it arose, thus the impossibility of an autonomous economic self was matched by the impossibility of an autonomous moral self. To his way of thinking, moral degradation in conspicuous consumption was irredeemably inscribed into the whole cultural structure of capitalism.

  14. Distributed morality in an information society.

    PubMed

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-09-01

    The phenomenon of distributed knowledge is well-known in epistemic logic. In this paper, a similar phenomenon in ethics, somewhat neglected so far, is investigated, namely distributed morality. The article explains the nature of distributed morality, as a feature of moral agency, and explores the implications of its occurrence in advanced information societies. In the course of the analysis, the concept of infraethics is introduced, in order to refer to the ensemble of moral enablers, which, although morally neutral per se, can significantly facilitate or hinder both positive and negative moral behaviours.

  15. The moral significance of being born.

    PubMed

    Levy, Neil

    2013-05-01

    This paper is a response to Giubilini and Minerva's defence of infanticide. I argue that any account of moral worth or moral rights that depends on the intrinsic properties of individuals alone is committed to agreeing with Giubilini and Minerva that birth cannot by itself make a moral difference to the moral worth of the infant. However, I argue that moral worth need not depend on intrinsic properties alone. It might also depend on relational and social properties. I claim that the in principle availability of neonates to participate in scaffolded interactions with carers might plausibly be seen as contributing to their moral worth. PMID:23637446

  16. Can a Welfarist Approach be Used to Justify a Moral Duty to Cognitively Enhance Children?

    PubMed

    Krutzinna, Jenny

    2016-09-01

    The desire to self-improve is probably as old as humanity: most of us want to be smarter, more athletic, more beautiful, or more talented. However, in the light of an ever increasing array of possibilities to enhance our capacities, clarity about the purpose and goal of such efforts becomes crucial. This is especially true when decisions are made for children, who are exposed to their parents' plans and desires for them under a notion of increasing wellbeing. In recent years, cognitive enhancement has become a popular candidate for the promotion of wellbeing; welfarists even impose a moral duty on parents to cognitively enhance their children for the sake of their wellbeing. In this article, I aim to show that welfarists are mistaken in inferring such a moral obligation from the potential benefit of cognitive enhancement. In support of this, I offer three arguments: (a) the vagueness of wellbeing as a theoretical concept means it becomes impossible to apply in practice; (b) the link between cognition and wellbeing is far from unequivocal; and (c) quantification issues with regard to cognition make a duty impossible to discharge. In conclusion, I reject the welfarist approach as a justification for a parental moral obligation to cognitively enhance children. PMID:26840384

  17. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  18. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  19. Implementing a Capital Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneau, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)

  20. Financing Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffras, Jason; Sawhill, Isabel V.

    This paper examines the government's role in financing human capital investments. It first examines why private investments in education, training, and other forms of human capital are likely to fall short of socially desirable levels. It then reviews past trends in public support for human resource investments. Finally, it discusses current…

  1. Moral expansiveness: Examining variability in the extension of the moral world.

    PubMed

    Crimston, Daniel; Bain, Paul G; Hornsey, Matthew J; Bastian, Brock

    2016-10-01

    The nature of our moral judgments-and the extent to which we treat others with care-depend in part on the distinctions we make between entities deemed worthy or unworthy of moral consideration-our moral boundaries. Philosophers, historians, and social scientists have noted that people's moral boundaries have expanded over the last few centuries, but the notion of moral expansiveness has received limited empirical attention in psychology. This research explores variations in the size of individuals' moral boundaries using the psychological construct of moral expansiveness and introduces the Moral Expansiveness Scale (MES), designed to capture this variation. Across 6 studies, we established the reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity of the MES. Moral expansiveness was related (but not reducible) to existing moral constructs (moral foundations, moral identity, "moral" universalism values), predictors of moral standing (moral patiency and warmth), and other constructs associated with concern for others (empathy, identification with humanity, connectedness to nature, and social responsibility). Importantly, the MES uniquely predicted willingness to engage in prosocial intentions and behaviors at personal cost independently of these established constructs. Specifically, the MES uniquely predicted willingness to prioritize humanitarian and environmental concerns over personal and national self-interest, willingness to sacrifice one's life to save others (ranging from human out-groups to animals and plants), and volunteering behavior. Results demonstrate that moral expansiveness is a distinct and important factor in understanding moral judgments and their consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Moral expansiveness: Examining variability in the extension of the moral world.

    PubMed

    Crimston, Daniel; Bain, Paul G; Hornsey, Matthew J; Bastian, Brock

    2016-10-01

    The nature of our moral judgments-and the extent to which we treat others with care-depend in part on the distinctions we make between entities deemed worthy or unworthy of moral consideration-our moral boundaries. Philosophers, historians, and social scientists have noted that people's moral boundaries have expanded over the last few centuries, but the notion of moral expansiveness has received limited empirical attention in psychology. This research explores variations in the size of individuals' moral boundaries using the psychological construct of moral expansiveness and introduces the Moral Expansiveness Scale (MES), designed to capture this variation. Across 6 studies, we established the reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity of the MES. Moral expansiveness was related (but not reducible) to existing moral constructs (moral foundations, moral identity, "moral" universalism values), predictors of moral standing (moral patiency and warmth), and other constructs associated with concern for others (empathy, identification with humanity, connectedness to nature, and social responsibility). Importantly, the MES uniquely predicted willingness to engage in prosocial intentions and behaviors at personal cost independently of these established constructs. Specifically, the MES uniquely predicted willingness to prioritize humanitarian and environmental concerns over personal and national self-interest, willingness to sacrifice one's life to save others (ranging from human out-groups to animals and plants), and volunteering behavior. Results demonstrate that moral expansiveness is a distinct and important factor in understanding moral judgments and their consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751743

  3. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  4. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts. PMID:23637451

  5. Children's rights, parents' prerogatives, and society's obligations.

    PubMed

    Westman, J C

    1999-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that parents do not need specifically defined rights. They have prerogatives that flow from the right of their children to nurturing and protective parenting. The idea of individual rights springs from the vulnerability of human beings in the face of stronger forces. The most vulnerable individuals are children. For this reason, human rights ought to begin with the rights of children in our society and in their families. This article discusses individual rights, society's expectations of parents and children, parental prerogatives and liabilities, parenthood as a developmental stage in the life cycle, parenthood as the foundation of society, and society's obligation to support parenthood. PMID:10422355

  6. 76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...

  7. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. PMID:26308751

  8. Contra-Kohlberg: A Philosophical Reinterpretation of Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senchuk, Dennis M.

    1981-01-01

    The validity of Lawrence Kohlberg's empirical findings and of his cognitive developmental approach to understanding moral development is questioned. An alternative theory of moral development which emphasizes moral sensibility as well as reasoned moral judgment is proposed. (PP)

  9. Cognitive-Moral Development in the Prison Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventre, Raymond J.

    1982-01-01

    Correctional educators must equip students to handle situations more acceptably by raising their moral levels as well as their cognitive levels. Use of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of cognitive-moral development focuses on moral issues rather than moral values. (JOW)

  10. Your morals depend on language.

    PubMed

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-01-01

    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  11. Your morals depend on language.

    PubMed

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-01-01

    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis. PMID:24760073

  12. "Obligated aliens": recognizing sperm donors' ethical obligation to disclose genetic information.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Sivan

    2013-03-01

    Sperm donors' obligations are typically constrained to the immediate circumstances surrounding the donation and to its time frame. This paper makes the case for recognizing an ongoing ethical obligation that binds sperm donors to disclose, in a timely manner, meaningful genetic information to recipients and donor-conceived children. The paper delineates and conceptualizes the suggested (potentially reciprocal) duty and argues that it is not the genetic link between the donor and the donor-conceived child that binds donors by said duty, but rather social responsibility. Accordingly, an original perception of the donor as an obligated alien is suggested and developed. The main thesis of the paper is supported inter alia by a comparison between transmitting infectious diseases and passing faulty genes on to donor-conceived children. The paper also provides an in-depth analysis of the conflicting interests of the parties generated by such an obligation and proposes a model for embedding this ethical duty in a (legal) contractual framework. PMID:23678628

  13. Morals matter in economic games.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Felix C; Kugler, Katharina G; Reif, Julia A M; Maier, Markus A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, [1]) and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, [2]) it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals' decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic) processes. To test our propositions we developed the 'Dyadic Solidarity Game' and its solitary equivalent, the 'Self-Insurance Game'. Four experiments, in which the moral motives "Unity" and "Proportionality" were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment) and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming) influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule ("treat others how you wish to be treated") could be established. Individuals with a "Unity" motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a "Proportionality" motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making. PMID:24358115

  14. Morals matter in economic games.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Felix C; Kugler, Katharina G; Reif, Julia A M; Maier, Markus A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, [1]) and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, [2]) it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals' decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic) processes. To test our propositions we developed the 'Dyadic Solidarity Game' and its solitary equivalent, the 'Self-Insurance Game'. Four experiments, in which the moral motives "Unity" and "Proportionality" were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment) and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming) influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule ("treat others how you wish to be treated") could be established. Individuals with a "Unity" motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a "Proportionality" motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making.

  15. Morals Matter in Economic Games

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Felix C.; Kugler, Katharina G.; Reif, Julia A. M.; Maier, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, [1]) and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, [2]) it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals’ decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic) processes. To test our propositions we developed the ‘Dyadic Solidarity Game’ and its solitary equivalent, the ‘Self-Insurance Game’. Four experiments, in which the moral motives “Unity” and “Proportionality” were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment) and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming) influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule (“treat others how you wish to be treated”) could be established. Individuals with a “Unity” motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a “Proportionality” motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making. PMID:24358115

  16. Sickness, dreams and moral selfhood among migrant Pakistani Muslims.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Kaveri

    2010-12-01

    This paper draws from two years of fieldwork investigating the social course of illness among Pakistani Muslims in East London, exploring how chronic illness is communicated and negotiated in local worlds disrupted by migrancy. It examines episodic short stories about dreams, premonitions and uncanny coincidences that were prominent within the illness narratives of migrant Pakistani Muslims, recalling and throwing light on complex questions concerning subjective constructions of misfortune, the personal and social meanings of illness and the relationships between narrative and selfhood. The ethnography identifies a strong normative context of communication about ill health and bad news, within which revelation through the mode of the supernatural takes on added significance. Recurrent motifs in the dreams emphasize the connectedness between family members scattered across migratory contexts, and the reawakening of moral obligations in families. Whilst medical anthropology has understood descriptions of dreams and other uncanny experiences as 'subjunctivising tactics' serving to maintain alternative plots about the source and outcome of illness, in the Islamic context the narrating of supernatural encounters can have transformative effects, re-organising praxis and conferring legitimacy to certain forms of moral selfhood. The paper therefore argues that the notion of the 'subjunctive mode' imposes the analysts' own system of logic and that there is a need to understand the interpretive frameworks present in the illness narratives in their own terms.

  17. Northrop Frye's Aestheticism and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    The apparent aestheticism of Northrop Frye's view of literature is scrutinized and the moral and didactic underpinnings brought to light. Special attention is paid to the role of literature and the imagination in the development of human morality. (RJG)

  18. Predicting Compliance Behavior from Moral Judgment Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froming, William J.; Cooper, Robert G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments with college males examined the relationship between moral judgment and compliance in a modified Asch paradigm. Moral judgment was assessed using Kohlberg's dilemmas in one experiment and with Rest's Defining Issues in the second experiment. (Editor/RK)

  19. Emotional Origins of Morality--A Sketch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Anne

    1989-01-01

    Traces the development of the capacity to make moral judgments. States that emotions involve judgments as well as actions. Discusses the susceptibility of moral beings to remorse and explores the nature of sympathy and resentment. (GG)

  20. Moral Education as Grounded in Faith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernhout, Harry

    1989-01-01

    Inquires into grounding moral education in religion and contemplates the ramifications of such an education for a pluralistic society. Discusses Lawrence Kohlberg's theory on moral education and concludes that individuals must be allowed choices that reflect their beliefs. (GG)