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Sample records for capitata larvae diptera

  1. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco.

  2. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  3. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Steck, Gary J; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis.

  4. Selection of a Bacillus pumilus strain highly active against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) larvae.

    PubMed

    Molina, C Alfonso; Caña-Roca, Juan F; Osuna, Antonio; Vilchez, Susana

    2010-03-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The medfly is a polyphagous species that causes losses in many crops, which leads to huge economic losses. Entomopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus have been proven to be safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective tools to control pest populations. As no control method for C. capitata based on these bacteria has been developed, isolation of novel strains is needed. Here, we report the isolation of 115 bacterial strains and the results of toxicity screening with adults and larvae of C. capitata. As a result of this analysis, we obtained a novel Bacillus pumilus strain, strain 15.1, that is highly toxic to C. capitata larvae. The toxicity of this strain for C. capitata was related to the sporulation process and was observed only when cultures were incubated at low temperatures before they were used in a bioassay. The mortality rate for C. capitata larvae ranged from 68 to 94% depending on the conditions under which the culture was kept before the bioassay. Toxicity was proven to be a special characteristic of the newly isolated strain, since other B. pumilus strains did not have a toxic effect on C. capitata larvae. The results of the present study suggest that B. pumilus 15.1 could be considered a strong candidate for developing strategies for biological control of C. capitata.

  5. Insecticidal activity of a Moroccan strain of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes LD-37 on larvae, pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Samri, S E; Baz, M; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Zitouni, A; El Meziane, A; Barakate, M

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.

  6. Characterisation of novel Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephridae).

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 μg cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae.

  7. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-01-12

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco.

  8. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.

  9. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  10. The preimaginal phases and development of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D; Fernández, Severiano

    2009-10-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae) using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is granulated, and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The labrum of the first instar larva does not have sensilla, and the second to fourth instar larvae have setae on the head. The mature larva is characterized by the position and number of the integumental differentiations (sensilla and setae). On completion of larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. As for the adult, the mandibles of the pupae are toothed. Five larval instars are recorded, based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles in combination with characters such as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was 18-20 days for males and 21-23 days for females at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 relative humidity, and a 16L:8D photoperiod. The results show that the eggs and different larval instars of this parasitoid can be unambiguously identified only by scanning electron microscope.

  11. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  12. The preimaginal stages and development of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D

    2009-01-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae), using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is smooth and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The immature larvae are similar to the mature larva, differing mainly in the size of the head capsule and mandibles. The mature larva displays tubercules on the body segments as well as a pleurostoma and superior and inferior mandibular processes. On completion of its larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. The mandibles of the pupa, as for the adult, are toothed. Three larval instars are recorded based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles and head capsules, in combination with such characters as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. There are significant positive correlations between mandible length and width of larval head capsule with the number of instars, thus indicating that the mandible length and width of larval capsule are good predictors of the number of instars in this parasitoid. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was approximately 33-34 days for females and approximately 28-29 days for males at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 RH and a L16:D8 photoperiod. Our results show that the eggs and different instars of S. cameroni can be unambiguously identified only by SEM. Therefore, characterization of the immature stages of Spalangia species using SEM should be done before subsequent routine identifications using a binocular microscope or stereomicroscope.

  13. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  14. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) specific recombinant monoclonal phage display antibodies for prey detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators.

  15. One Metarhizium brunneum Strain, Two Uses to Control Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Yousef, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-10-01

    We determined the virulence and insecticidal activity of the hypocrealean fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain EAMb 09/01-Su and its crude extract against Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) and we evaluated the combined use of the fungus with its crude extract. We also determined the effect of fermentation time, temperature, and initial pH of the M. brunneum culture medium on the insecticidal activity of the crude extract. When C. capitata adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension, the strain EAMb 09/01-Su caused 100% mortality with a mean lethal time (LT50) of 5.6 d and mean lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.84 f#x2013; 10(7) conidia per milliliter. Fermentation time significantly affected the lethality of the crude extract when it was provided to C. capitata per os. The highest level of mortality (73.3%) and the shortest median survival time (25.5 h) was obtained from 15-d-old cultures. The crude extract was demonstrated to be thermostable, given that the mortality was >50% at 48 h when the extract had been heated to 100°C for 3 h. Lastly, the optimum initial pH for maximum crude extract activity in terms of mortality ranged between 7 and 9. Additivity was observed for all M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain crude extract combinations tested, indicating compatibility between products. We concluded that the M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain is a promising tool for medfly control alone or in combination with its crude extract.

  16. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison with existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; El-Wakkad, Mokhtar F; Tadrous, Meshil D; Jessup, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Phytosanitary cold treatments were tested for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) using comparisons with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late third instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold tolerant for all three species. Results show that B. invadens is not more cold tolerant than C. capitata and B. zonata at 1.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C and lend support to the use of C. capitata cold treatment schedules for B. invadens. It cannot be concluded that B. zonata is not more cold tolerant than C. capitata.

  17. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Epsky, Nancy D; Espinoza, Hernán R; Kendra, Paul E; Abernathy, Robert; Midgarden, David; Heath, Robert R

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.),mango (Mangifera indica L.),and orthanique (Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was approximately 30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and approximately 40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be approximately 28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was approximately 15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems.

  18. Photosensitizing effect of hematoporphyrin IX on immature stages of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Massaldi, Ana; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Immature stages of Ceratitis capitata were tested as a model for hematoporphyrin IX (HP IX) phototoxicity. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) of HP IX in the food was determined during postembryonic development until adult emergence as 0.173 mm (95% CI: 0.138-0.209). The corresponding HP IX LC(50) during the dispersal period alone was 0.536 mm (95% CI: 0.450-0.633). HP IX toxicity was compared against Phloxine B (PhB) (0.5 mm). HP IX elicited a mortality of 90.87%, which was mainly concentrated during prepupal and early pupal stages. PhB mortality was much lower (56.88%) and occurred mainly during the adult pharate stage. A direct correlation between light-dependent HP IX mortality, evidence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) was established in C. capitata larvae. ROS were found to be very significant in both the brain and in the gut.

  19. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil with different pesticides.

    PubMed

    Mochi, Dinalva A; Monteiro, Antonio C; De Bortoli, Sergio A; Dória, Háyda O S; Barbosa, José C

    2006-01-01

    This research intended to investigate if the presence of pesticides in the soil could affect the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae Metsch. (Sorokin) for Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and assess the effect of conidia application as suspension or dry conidia. The fungicides chlorothalonyl and tebuconazol, the acaricide abamectin, the insecticide trichlorfon, and the herbicide ametrin were applied at the manufacturer-recommended doses. Soil samples were placed in glass flasks and were given the fungus as conidial suspension or dry. After pesticide application, 20 3rd-instar larvae were placed in the soil. The flasks were sealed with voile fabric and incubated at 27 +/- 0.5 masculineC for nine days, until adult emergence; incubation continued for four more days at room temperature. The total insect survival was significantly affected and pathogenic activity was detected from the pupa stage on. Pupa survival was reduced (P<0.05); the same occurred during the adult phase. No effect was observed at the larval stage. The pesticides applied to the soil affected the activity of M. anisopliae slightly: only in the dry conidia assay the fungicides chlorothalonyl and tebuconazole reduced (86.2% and 82.5%, respectively) the survival period of C. capitata compared to the control (95.0%). The techniques used for conidia application did not influence the total insect survival rate, but conidial suspension applied on soil surface reduced survival during the pupae and adult phases.

  20. The distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal phenology of Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Villiers, Marelize; Manrakhan, Aruna; Addison, Pia; Hattingh, Vaughan

    2013-10-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) are fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance in South Africa. These pests cause direct damage to a number of commercially produced fruit and are of phytosanitary concern. A study was conducted to determine the distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal occurrence of the three species in different climatic regions of South Africa. The relative abundance and seasonal phenology of C. capitata and C. rosa were also compared between production areas and home gardens in Stellenbosch, Western Cape. Yellow bucket traps baited with Biolure were used to trap the flies over a 2-yr period in the different sampling areas. Different fruit types were sampled in Stellenbosch to determine fruit fly infestation. C. capitata was found to have a widespread distribution in South Africa, whereas C. rosa were absent from or only present in low numbers in the drier regions. C. cosyra was restricted to the North East and East coast, following a similar pattern to the distribution of marula, Sclerocarrya birrea, an important wild host. Fruit in home gardens provided a breeding ground for C. capitata and C. rosa and a source for infestation of orchards when fruit started to mature, highlighting the need for an area-wide strategy for the control of fruit flies.

  1. Hot-water phytosanitary treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Ataulfo' mangoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Emilio; Rivera, Pedro; Bravo, Bigail; Toledo, Jorge; Caro-Corrales, José; Montoya, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    We determined the thermal death rate constants and mortality curves for the eggs and different instars of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Wiedemann) submerged in isolation in water at 44, 46, and 48 degrees C and submerged within fruits of Mangifera indica (mango) (L.) in water at 43.1, 44.1, 45.1, and 46.1 degrees C. The first instar was the most tolerant to this treatment, with estimated times for achieving 99.9968% mortality of 103.28, 92.73, and 92.49 min at temperatures of 43.1, 44.1, and 45.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of the study indicate that 'Ataulfo' mangoes weighing < 329 +/- 2.11 g and at risk immature Mediterranean fruit fly infestation should be immersed for 95 min at 46.1-47 degrees C to ensure that the fruit pulp remains at this temperature for 10 min. An efficacy test was conducted that involved treating 730 mangoes, with an average weight of 326 +/- 2.11 g (mean +/- SE) and infested with 84 +/- 1.15 first instars. In this test, none of the 61,720 larvae treated survived. The confirmatory test was performed using commercial equipment in which 1,112 infested mango fruit weighing an average of 329 +/- 2.11 g were treated. Each fruit was previously infested with an average of 59 +/- 0.61 first instars (= 65,825 total larvae) of which none survived. The data collected on mango quality indicate that hot water immersion for 95 min at 46.1-47 degrees C can produce a more uniform fruit-color and positively modify the pH (producing more palatable fruits), but can also produce a loss of firmness and weight (5%). Taking all factors into consideration, we conclude that this treatment is sufficient to meet quarantine restrictions against C. capitata while maintaining market quality at least for 15 d.

  2. Selection of a Bacillus pumilus Strain Highly Active against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Larvae▿

    PubMed Central

    Molina, C. Alfonso; Caña-Roca, Juan F.; Osuna, Antonio; Vilchez, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The medfly is a polyphagous species that causes losses in many crops, which leads to huge economic losses. Entomopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus have been proven to be safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective tools to control pest populations. As no control method for C. capitata based on these bacteria has been developed, isolation of novel strains is needed. Here, we report the isolation of 115 bacterial strains and the results of toxicity screening with adults and larvae of C. capitata. As a result of this analysis, we obtained a novel Bacillus pumilus strain, strain 15.1, that is highly toxic to C. capitata larvae. The toxicity of this strain for C. capitata was related to the sporulation process and was observed only when cultures were incubated at low temperatures before they were used in a bioassay. The mortality rate for C. capitata larvae ranged from 68 to 94% depending on the conditions under which the culture was kept before the bioassay. Toxicity was proven to be a special characteristic of the newly isolated strain, since other B. pumilus strains did not have a toxic effect on C. capitata larvae. The results of the present study suggest that B. pumilus 15.1 could be considered a strong candidate for developing strategies for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:20038689

  3. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  4. The influence of host fruit and temperature on the body size of adult Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Campos, C; Martínez-Ferrer, M T; Campos, J M; Fibla, J M; Alcaide, J; Bargues, L; Marzal, C; Garcia-Marí, F

    2011-08-01

    The adult body size of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), varies in natural conditions. Body size is an important fitness indicator in the Mediterranean fruit fly; larger individuals are more competitive at mating and have a greater dispersion capacity and fertility. Both temperature during larval development and host fruit quality have been cited as possible causes for this variation. We studied the influence of host fruit and temperature during larval development on adult body size (wing area) in the laboratory, and determined body size variation in field populations of the Mediterannean fruit fly in eastern Spain. Field flies measured had two origins: 1) flies periodically collected throughout the year in field traps from 32 citrus groves, during the period 2003-2007; and 2) flies evolved from different fruit species collected between June and December in 2003 and 2004. In the lab, wing area of male and female adults varied significantly with temperature during larval development, being larger at the lowest temperature. Adult size also was significantly different depending on the host fruit in which larvae developed. The size of the flies captured at the field, either from traps or from fruits, varied seasonally showing a gradual pattern of change along the year. The largest individuals were obtained during winter and early spring and the smallest during late summer. In field conditions, the size of the adult Mediterannean fruit fly seems apparently more related with air temperature than with host fruit. The implications of this adult size pattern on the biology of C. capitata and on the application of the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  5. A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Mosquito Sys tematics VOL. 8(2) 1976 205 A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite oflMosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) John F. Rein& Department of...aegypt; (Linnaeus) by Hochman and Reinert (1974). The ventromedian cervical sclerite has a frag- mented appearance in a number of species of the...Dyar and Knab and dupreei (Coquillett)). Seventy-four species in 19 subgenera of Aedes examined possessed a ven- tromedian cervical sclerite. These

  6. Host status of avocado ('Hass') to Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, J

    2009-08-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are pests potentially associated with avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in South Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the host status of 'Hass' avocado to these tephritid pests over 4 yr. Unpunctured harvested avocado was exposed to fruit flies in the laboratory under no-choice conditions for 24 h. In field studies, each species was exposed for 48 h under no-choice conditions to avocado attached to the tree. Fruit was harvested immediately, 4, 8 and 18 d after exposure. In all the experiments, the fruit was incubated at 25 degrees C for 49 d after harvest. Hass avocado fruit was sourced from pack-houses throughout the avocado production areas and inspected for any internal pests. Similar inspections were done from 2005 to 2008 at arrival in Europe following standard export procedures. Analysis indicated that Hass avocado is a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and a poor but potential host for C. rosa and C. cosyra. No requirement for a risk mitigation treatment for C. capitata on South African Hass avocado was found. Fruit sampling data did not produce any infested fruit, suggesting that natural conditions and/or existing procedures functioning in a systems approach are likely to mitigate the quarantine risks of C. rosa and C. cosyra on Hass avocado in South Africa.

  7. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.

  8. Field Efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae-Based Attractant-Contaminant Device to Control Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Ayala, I; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Moya, P

    2015-08-01

    Biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using entomopathogenic fungi is being studied as a viable control strategy. The efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)-based attractant-contaminant device (ACD) to control C. capitata was evaluated in a medium-scale (40 ha) 2-yr field trial using a density of 24 ACD per ha. Results showed that this density was adequate to efficiently reduce fruitfly populations and that the inoculation dishes (IDs) needed replacing mid-season to provide protection for the entire season. In this study, fungal treatment was even more effective than conventional chemical treatment. Population dynamics in fungus-treated fields along with the infectivity study of field-aged IDs in the laboratory found that the ACD remained effective for at least 3 mo. The results suggest M. anisopliae-based ACD can be used to control C. capitata in the field. The implications of its use, especially as a tool in an integrated pest management program, are discussed.

  9. Sperm-less males modulate female behaviour in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Di Cosimo, Alessandro; Savini, Grazia; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2016-12-01

    In the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae), mating has a strong impact on female biology, leading to a decrease in sexual receptivity and increased oviposition and fecundity. Previous studies suggest that sperm transfer may play a role in inducing these behavioural changes. Here we report the identification of a medfly innexin gene, Cc-inx5, whose expression is limited to the germ-line of both sexes. Through RNA interference of this gene, we generated males without testes and, consequently, sperm, but apparently retaining all the other reproductive organs intact. These sperm-less males were able to mate and, like their wild-type counterparts, to induce in their partners increased oviposition rates and refractoriness to remating. Interestingly, matings to sperm-less males results in oviposition rates higher than those induced by copulation with control males. In addition, the observed female post-mating behavioural changes were congruent with changes in transcript abundance of genes known to be regulated by mating in this species. Our results suggest that sperm transfer is not necessary to reduce female sexual receptivity and to increase oviposition and fecundity. These data pave the way to a better understanding of the role/s of seminal components in modulating female post-mating responses. In the long term, this knowledge will be the basis for the development of novel approaches for the manipulation of female fertility, and, consequently, innovative tools to be applied to medfly control strategies in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Export of commercial 'Hass' avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quarantine restrictions due to the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), prevent Argentina from exporting avocados, Persea americana Miller, cv. Hass, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata, which cou...

  11. Digestive enzymes during development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) and effects of SBTI on its digestive serine proteinase targets.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fátima C B L; Alcazar, Alonso; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Macedo, Francisco P; Abreu, Luiz R D; Santos, Elizeu A; Sales, Mauricio P

    2006-07-01

    The digestive system of Ceratitis capitata was characterized during its larval development and in the insect stage. Disaccharidases against maltose and sucrose were more evident in the 2nd and 3rd day of larval development and in the adult stage, respectively. Glycosil-hydrolyses with higher specific alpha-galactosidasic and beta-galactosidasic activities were detected in the 2nd and 3rd day of the larval stage, respectively. Specific proteolytic activities against azocasein showed an increase in the 4th and 5th day of the larval stage and in the adult stage. Specific hemoglobin activities were constant between 2nd and 6th day of the larval stage. The larvae used mainly serine proteinases, such as trypsin/chymotrypsin, and the adult insects only chymotrypsin-like enzymes in their digestive process. Two serine proteinases were separated from zymogram between the 4th and 5th day of larval development and in the adult stage. Effect of soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI, a serine proteinase inhibitor) on development of C. capitata was examined by bioassay. C. capitata was susceptible to SBTI which affected larval mass at ED50 3.01%.

  12. Undescribed Setae in Larvae of Culicidae (Diptera)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-03-01

    ABSTRACT. An unnamed pair of setae (two pairs in some species groups) on the larval cervical membrane in all genera of Culicidae examined is des- cribed...ventrolat- era1 seta was noted on the cervical membrane by the senior author. Further research confirmed its presence in all culicid genera for...referred to them as cervical hairs and recorded their length and branching in third and fourth stage larvae of the four Aedes species he studied

  13. Biology and Thermal Requirements of Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared on Ceratitis capitata Eggs (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Groth, M Z; Loeck, A E; Nornberg, S D; Bernardi, D; Nava, D E

    2017-05-04

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is a solitary parasitoid of eggs and the first instar larvae of Tephritidae. Due to the occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in various regions and under several climatic conditions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different temperatures on the embryonic development (egg-adult) and determine thermal requirements and the number of annual generations F. arisanus on eggs of C. capitata. In the laboratory, eggs of C. capitata (24 h) were submitted to parasitism of F. arisanus during 6 h. Later, the eggs were placed in plastic containers (50 mL) (50 eggs/container) on a layer of artificial diet and packed in chambers at temperatures 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 12 h. The largest number of offspring, emergence rate, and weight of adults of F. arisanus were observed at 25°C. The highest sex ratios (sr > 0.75) were recorded at 15 and 18°C, being statistically higher than the temperatures 20°C (0.65), 22°C (0.64), 25°C (0.65), 28°C (0.49), and 30°C (0.47). At 32°C, there was no embryonic development of F. arisanus. The egg-adult period was inversely proportional to temperature. Based on the development of the biological cycle (egg-adult), the temperature threshold (T t) was 10.3°C and thermal constant (K) of 488.34 degree-days, being the number of generations/year directly proportional to the temperature increase. The data show the ability of F. arisanus to adapt to different thermal conditions, which is important for biological control programs of C. capitata.

  14. Oviposition deterrents for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) from fly faeces extracts.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F

    2006-02-01

    After oviposition, females of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann deposit a host-marking pheromone on the fruit surface that deters oviposition by conspecifics. Methanolic extracts of fruit fly faeces elicit a similar deterrent effect. The results of laboratory and field experiments using raw methanolic extracts of C. capitata faeces as an oviposition deterrent are reported. Laboratory bioassays revealed a significant positive relationship between concentration of faeces and the inhibition of oviposition responses by C. capitata. Treatment of halves of coffee bushes with methanolic extracts containing 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg faeces ml(-1) resulted in a significant reduction of infestation only at the highest concentration (P=0.03). Treatment of blocks of coffee bushes with an extract of 10 mg faeces ml(-1) resulted in an 84% reduction in infestation by C. capitata in sprayed plants and a 56% reduction in adjacent untreated coffee bushes surrounding treated plots, probably due to the deterrent effect of host-marking pheromone on fly oviposition. We conclude that faeces contain oviposition deterrent substances that effectively reduce fruit infestations by C. capitata, suggesting a clear potential for the use of this infochemical in integrated management programmes targeted at this pest.

  15. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine sampling range for female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for pest tephritid fruit flies. Field studies were conducted in shaded coffee and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were captured. Traps (38 traps ...

  16. Chemosterilants as control agents of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in field trials.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Sanchis, J; Primo-Millo, J; Primo-Yúfera, E

    2007-08-01

    Lufenuron is a chitin synthesis inhibitor, which is able to impede Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), reproduction. In laboratory trials, following ingestion of lufenuron, the eggs laid by female Ceratitis capitata were prevented from hatching. In field trials in Valencia, Spain, lufenuron showed its effectiveness by reducing C. capitata wild populations and its continuous application to several generations of fruit fly resulted in increased pest control. This field trial was conducted in an isolated valley some 80 ha in size, over a continuous four-year period. In order to maintain the sterilizing effect in the field throughout the whole year, a new lufenuron bait gel was developed. This bait gel was introduced in to delta traps suspended in trees at a density of 24 traps ha-1, and these traps were replaced once a year during the field trial. Monitoring of the adult C. capitata population was conducted to assess the effects of the chemosterilant treatment. In the first year of treatment with sterilizing traps, a reduction of the C. capitata population was observed, indicating that the traps reduce the population right from the first generation. In the second, third and fourth years, a continuous and progressive reduction of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly population was observed. Therefore, the successive application of chemosterilization treatment has a cumulative effect on reducing the fly population year after year. Aerial treatment using malathion does not produce this cumulative effect, and consequently every year it is necessary to start again with the same number of flies as the year before. The possibility of using the chemosterilant method alone or combined with the sterile insect technique is discussed.

  17. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  18. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Galarza, Lourdes; Follett, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment on various life stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, oriental fruit fly; and Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, melon fly, in petri dishes and in papaya, Carica papaya L., fruit. In some experiments, the ethanol vapor phase was withheld to separate the effects of the physical (low pressure/ambient pressure cycles) and chemical (ethanol vapor plus low pressure) phases of treatment. In the experiments with tephritid fruit fly larvae and adults in petri dishes, mortality was generally high when insects were exposed to ethanol and low when ethanol was withheld during MSDD treatment, suggesting that ethanol vapor is highly lethal but that fruit flies are quite tolerant of short periods of low pressure treatment alone. When papaya fruit infested with fruit fly eggs or larvae were treated by MSDD, they produced fewer pupae than untreated control fruit, but a substantial number of individuals developed nonetheless. This suggests that internally feeding insects in fruit may be partially protected from the toxic effects of the ethanol because the vapor does not easily penetrate the fruit pericarp and pulp. MSDD treatment using the atmospheric conditions tested has limited potential as a disinfestation treatment for internal-feeding quarantine pests such as fruit flies infesting perishable commodities.

  19. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays.

  20. Description of the Terrestrial Larva of Parosca latipalpis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tabanidae) from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Llanos, L; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, M

    2016-10-01

    The terrestrial larva of the austral horsefly, Parosca latipalpis (Macquart), identified by molecular techniques, is described. The larva of P. latipalpis resembles Scaptia auriflua (Donovan), Copidapha vicina (Taylor), Myioscaptia muscula (English), and Osca lata (Guérin-Meneville) in many morphological characters, as well as in their terrestrial habitats. Some characters that are shared between these species are unique among Tabanidae and provide evidence of their monophyletic origin, suggesting a typical Gondwanaland group. Larvae of P. latipalpis were found 2-3 cm below of the soil surface and associated with larvae of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera in southern Chile.

  1. Insecticidal Activity of a Destruxin-Containing Extract of Metarhizium brunneum Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lozano-Tovar, M D; Garrido-Jurado, I; Lafont, F; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2015-04-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests that limit fruit production around the world; they cause important damages, increasing directly and indirectly annual costs, and their management is predominately based on the use of chemical insecticides. This research investigated the insecticidal activity of the crude extract obtained of Metarhizium brunneum Petch EAMb 09/01-Su strain and its capacity to secrete secondary metabolites including destruxins (dtx). Dtx A and A2 had insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) when administered per os. The crude extract of seven Metarhizium and one Beauveria isolates were evaluated per os against medfly adults. The crude extracts of the isolate EAMb 09/01-Su resulted in mortality ranging between 95 and 100% at 48 h. The high-pressure liquid chromatography profile showed two active peaks (F5B and F6 subfractions) related with dtx A2 and dtx A, which caused 70 and 100% mortality on C. capitata at 48 h postfeeding, respectively. The LC50 was 104.92 ppm of dtx A, contained in the F6 subfraction, and the LT50 was 4.16 h at a concentration of 400 ppm of dtx A contained in the F6 subfraction. Moreover, the average survival time of adults exposed to this subfraction was 12.6 h with only 1 h of exposure. The insecticide metabolites of the F6 subfraction of the EAMb 09/01-Su isolate retained >90% of its insecticidal activity after exposure to 60°C for 2 h and 120°C for 20 min. These results highlight the potential of this strain as a source of new insecticidal compounds of natural origin for fruit fly control.

  2. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species.

  3. Response of female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad bait and polymer matrix mixture with extended residual effect in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Gomez, Luis E; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of foliar applications of protein baits against pestiferous fruit flies (Tephritidae) can be adversely affected by a rapid loss of attractive volatile compounds and by rainfall due to the high water solubility of the baits. In a large coffee, Coffea arabica L., plantation in Hawaii with high and low populations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the relative attractiveness of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait as either a 40% (vol:vol) spray solution (= GF-120 NF) or as a formulated proprietary amorphous polymer matrix (= GF-120 APM) was compared. The GF-120 APM formulations contained either, 25, 50, or 75% of GF-120 NF (wt:wt). All baits were tested in association with visually attractive yellow bait stations as a way of standardizing the evaluations. With both high and low C. capitata populations, significantly more females were attracted to the fresh sprayed GF-120 NF than to any of the three fresh GF-120 APM formulations. The attractiveness of GF-120 sprayed decreased significantly after 1 wk, whereas 1-wk-old GF-120 APM formulations were as attractive as similar fresh formulations. GF-120 APM 75% aged for 3 wk outperformed similarly-aged sprayed GF-120 NF with comparatively high C. capitata populations. With low populations, both GF-120 APM 75% and GF-120 APM 50% aged for 2 wk outperformed the similarly aged sprayed GF-120 NF. Combined findings indicate that APM mixed with either 50 or 75% GF-120 applied to bait stations can be attractive to female C. capitata for up to 3 wk longer than the standard sprayed GF-120 NF.

  4. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  5. Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis (Diptera: Culicidae) morphological description including pupa and fourth-stage larva previously unknown.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo C; Stein, Marina; Almirón, Walter R

    2008-05-01

    Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) is redescribed in the adult stage. Pupa and fourth-stage larva are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about distribution, bionomics, and taxonomy also is included. Adults of Ps. varinervis can be separated from the closely related species Ps. (Gra.) discolor (Coquillett) on the basis of the wing characters, and the larva by the siphon and antenna characters.

  6. Effects of new dietary ingredients used in artificial diet for screwworm larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...

  7. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente

  8. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author) [Spanish] Los resultados de estudios previos que muestran que al exponer machos criados en masa de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) al aceite de la raiz del jengibre ('aromaterapia') aumento la probabilidad del apareamiento con hembras naturales fueron confirmados. El aumento en el exito de los machos puede ser debido a las respuestas de las hembras a los cambios en el comportamiento o feromonas de los machos. No hubo una diferencia significativa en la clase de los movimientos del cortejo ejecutados por los machos con y sin la aromaterapia. La duracion de los movimientos tampoco fue diferente cuando los machos

  9. Fluorescent sperm marking to improve the fight against the pest insect Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesca; Schetelig, Marc F; Bertin, Sabrina; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2008-06-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) involving area-wide release of mass-reared and sterilized pest insects has proven successful to reduce, control and eradicate economically important pest species, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly). For the efficient application, effective monitoring to assess the number and mating success of the released medflies is essential. Here, we report sperm-specific marking systems based on the spermatogenesis-specific Ceratitis capitata beta2-tubulin (Ccbeta2t) promoter. Fluorescent sperm can be isolated from testes or spermathecae. The marking does not cause general disadvantages in preliminary laboratory competitiveness assays. Therefore, transgenic sperm marking could serve as a major improvement for monitoring medfly SIT programs. The use of such harmless transgenic markers will serve as an ideal initial condition to transfer insect transgenesis technology from the laboratory to field applications. Moreover, effective and easily recognizable sperm marking will make novel studies possible on medfly reproductive biology which will help to further improve SIT programs.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of nanos in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    The gene nanos (nos) is a maternal-effect gene that plays an important role in posterior patterning and germ cell development in early stage embryos. nos is known from several diverse insect species, but has so far not been described for any Tephritid fruit fly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and expression pattern of the nos orthologous gene, Ccnos, in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, which is a destructive pest of high agricultural importance. CcNOS contains 398 amino acids and has a C-terminal region with two conserved CCHC zinc-binding motifs known to be essential for NOS function. Transcripts of Ccnos were confirmed by in situ hybridization to be maternally-derived and localized to the posterior pole of early stage embryos. Regulatory regions of nos have been employed in genetic engineering in some dipterans such as Drosophila and mosquitoes. Given the similarity in spatial and temporal expression between Ccnos and nos orthologs from other dipterans, its regulatory regions will be valuable to generate additional genetic tools that can be applied for engineering purposes to improve the fight against this devastating pest.

  11. Infectivity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Relation to Environmental Factors and Their Effects on the Biochemistry of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shaurub, E H; Soliman, N A; Hashem, A G; Abdel-Rahman, A M

    2015-12-01

    Late third instars of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), migrate from the host fruit into the soil and leaf litter beneath host trees, where they may become a target for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, temperature, soil type (texture), and soil moisture level on infectivity of the four tested EPNs Heterorhabditis bacteriophora AS1, H. bacteriophora HP88, Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, and Steinernema riobrave ML29 to late third instars of C. capitata were evaluated. Biochemical alterations induced by the most virulent nematodes were quantified. The nematode infectivity decreased with increase in exposure time to UV light, whereas it increased with increase in temperature. Infectivity increased in sandy soil, whereas it decreased in silt and clay soils. Soils with high moisture levels decreased infectivity. Based on the 50% lethal concentration (LC50), H. bacteriophora AS1 and S. carpocapsae ALL were the most virulent heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes, respectively, with the highest virulence for H. bacteriophora AS1. The nematodes caused significant decline in total protein and cholesterol content of larvae and caused reduced activity of transaminases and phosphatases. In contrast, they significantly enhanced total glucose content. It can be concluded that the most optimum environmental conditions of the tested nematodes to elicit their infectivity against late third instars of C. capitata were sandy soil with 10% moisture level, ambient temperature of 25°C, and no exposure to UV. The EPNs tested can affect late third instars of C. capitata by targeting different biochemical molecules in different metabolic pathways. The interaction between them and the host larvae appears to be primarily nutritional.

  12. Interspecific Competition Between Ceratitis capitata and Two Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) Evaluated via Adult Behavioral Interference Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Can; Hou, Bo-Hua; Ou-Yang, Ge-Cheng; Ma, Jun

    2017-03-15

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the most invasive tephritid species. It has spread and established populations successfully throughout many of the tropical temperate regions, partially owing to the increase in global trading activity that facilitates diffusion of species. However, C. capitata has never been detected in China, even though some areas of the country have favorable climate and ample food resources. Historically, some researchers have hypothesized that the principal reasons for its absence are the defenses mounted by native Bactrocera species against C. capitata. We evaluated the modes and strengths of interspecific competition between C. capitata and two Bactrocera species (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel and Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) by conducting experiments on behavioral interference between the adults of these fruit fly species. Under appropriate conditions, the two Bactrocera species showed a distinct advantage in competition for oviposition, noticeably suppressing C. capitata. Although no mating interference between C. capitata and the two Bactrocera species was observed, the role of interference competition in the prevention of C. capitata invasion is still worthy of being discussed.

  13. Chemical alternatives to malathion for controlling Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), and their side effects on natural enemies in Spanish citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Urbaneja, Alberto; Chueca, Patricia; Montón, Helga; Pascual-Ruiz, Sara; Dembilio, Oscar; Vanaclocha, Pilar; Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Pina, Tatiana; Castañera, Pedro

    2009-02-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. Mediterranean fruit fly control in Spain has been based on organophosphate sprays, especially malathion, mixed with protein baits. However, this insecticide has recently been excluded from annex 1 of the Directive 91/414 CEE, which lists authorized active ingredients for pest control in the European Union. This article reports on the efficacy of four alternative baited insecticides on Mediterranean fruit fly and their side effects on three natural enemies [Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant), Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and Aphidius colemani (Viereck)] relevant for pest control in citrus agroecosystems. A high Mediterranean fruit fly mortality was obtained for all baited insecticides (phosmet and spinosad) except lambdacyhalothrin, which caused the lowest mortality and showed a novel disabling effect on surviving Mediterranean fruit fly adults. Spinosad proved to be the most selective bait treatment for C. montrouzieri and N. californicus, whereas for A. colemani the most selective bait was phosmet and lambda-cyhalothrin. These findings would contribute to a sustainable chemical control of C. capitata populations under an integrated pest management system in Spanish citrus orchards.

  14. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    PubMed

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions.

  15. Analysis of somatic and salivary gland antigens of third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato; Elia, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-01

    Larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) infect nasal and sinus cavities of horses, causing a nasal myiasis characterized by severe respiratory distress. Presently, the diagnosis of horse nasal botfly relies on the observation of clinical signs, on the post mortem retrieval of larvae or on molecular assays performed using pharyngeal swabs. The present study was carried out to characterize larval somatic proteins and salivary glands of Rhinoestrus spp. in a preliminary assessment towards the immunodiagnosis of equine rhinoestrosis. Out of the 212 necropsied horses 13 were positive for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. larvae. The analysis of the sera from the infected animals by Western blotting assay showed the presence of a specific host humoral immune response against Rhinoestrus spp. larvae and proved that the salivary glands are the major immunogens in horse nasal botflies.

  16. Equipment for transporting live black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliiae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.; Adkins, T.R.

    1971-01-01

    In studies relating to the biology and ecology of black flies, live larvae of at least 70 species of Simuliidae have been collected from their natural breeding sites and transported in containers with nonagitated water for short distances to the laboratory. One of us (Tarshis 1966) found, however, that even small numbers of simuliid larvae cannot survive in containers with nonagitated water for more than 6 hr. Additionally, when massive numbers of larvae are introduced into transport containers in which the water is not agitated, the larvae perish because they become entangled within the masses of silken threads they emit whenever disturbed (Tarshis and Neil 1970). Therefore, when transporting larvae long distances or when transporting large numbers of larvae any distance, it is essential to agitate the water in the transport containers.

  17. Capture of Anastrepha suspensa and sterile male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in multilure traps versus phase 4 traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field trials were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of wild Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Multilure traps, which are McPhail-type traps that use an aqueous solution to retain attracted fli...

  18. Field estimates of attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to methyl eugenol in varying environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation and control of invasive pests. Here we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)...

  19. Short range attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males to six commercially available plant essential oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, this includes use of angelica seed oil as long range attractants and ginger root oil as aromatherapy, which is exposure to sterile males to increase mating success. Neither of these plants are hosts f...

  20. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  1. Mature and developing visual system of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae): histochemical evidence of nitric oxide synthase in the wild type and the white eye mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Conforti, E; Torti, C; Malacrida, A R; Bernocchi, G

    1999-10-02

    Nitric oxide (NO) is acknowledged as a messenger molecule in the nervous system. It has a role in the modulation of the chemosensory information and seems implicated also in visual processes and visually guided behaviour of some insects. In the present study, we used two different strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae), a wild type eye colour and a white eye mutant line, as models to clarify the involvement of NO in the mature and developing visual system. The comparison between the pattern of enzyme histochemical localization of NO synthase (NOS), through NADPH diaphorase (NADPHd) staining, in the optic lobes of the two strains revealed for adults a stronger intensity of reaction in all the neuropiles and the sub-retinic monopolar cell layer of the wild type flies, with respect to the white eye mutant correspondent areas. Anti-NOS immunocytochemistry correlated with these results, underlying reactivity both in fine fibres and varicosities and in cell bodies and supporting the idea of presence of NOS also in the retina of the medfly optic lobes. NADPHd reactivity was present in the first developmental stages of the white eye mutant also, but at lower intensity than wild type, and it decreased in some areas during the transition to adult fly stage both in the wild type and in the white eye mutant. All these observations together indicate that changes in the NO system of C. capitata could be related to the visual information processing, when the visual response or discrimination are altered. Furthermore, NO may be involved in the establishment of the retinal projection pattern and in the control of optic lobes morphogenesis.

  2. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  3. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  4. The larvae of Nymphomyiidae (Diptera, Insecta) - ancestral and highly derived?

    PubMed

    Schneeberg, Katharina; Friedrich, Frank; Courtney, Gregory W; Wipfler, Benjamin; Beutel, Rolf G

    2012-05-01

    Larval head structures of Nymphomyia dolichopeza were examined and described in detail. The conditions are compared to those of other dipteran representatives. Our results support the monophyly of Nymphomyiidae. Potential apomorphies are dimorphic crochets on the abdominal prolegs and the complete loss of the tentorium. Possible synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae could be the rows of spatulate macrosetae covering the ventral surface of the labrum-epipharynx, the presence of distinct teeth along the anterior premento-hypopharyngeal margin, the absence of labral microtrichia and some other affinities concerning the life history of the two groups. A clade Blephariceromorpha is also supported by some larval features. Potential synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae, Deuterophlebiidae and Blephariceridae are the vestigial M. labroepipharyngalis, the absence of a movable premandible, crochet-tipped prolegs, the complete loss of spiracles and non-retractable anal papillae. A clade Nymphomyiidae and Chironomidae is only weakly supported by characters of the larval head. The anteriorly serrate and posteriorly fused hypostoma is a potential apomorphic character. Our results support neither phylogenetic affinities between Nymphomyiidae and Axymyiidae nor a sistergroup relationship between Nymphomyiidae and the remaining Diptera. However, a comprehensive cladistic analysis is not presented in our study.

  5. Effects of superparasitism on immature and adult stages of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Nussenbaum, A L; Viscarret, M M; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

    2017-04-06

    The optimal use of available host by parasitoid insects should be favoured by natural selection. For solitary parasitoids, superparasitism (i.e. the egg-laying of several eggs/host) may represent a detrimental phenomenon both in a biological and an applied sense, but under certain circumstances it may be adaptive. Here, we studied the effects of increasing levels of superparasitism (LSPs, number of parasitoid larvae/host) on fitness-related parameters of the immature and adult stages of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a solitary endoparasitoid parasitizing Ceratitis capitata. We investigated the moment when supernumerary parasitoid larvae are eliminated and the effects produced by this process, together with its repercussion on female fecundity, parasitism rate, sex ratio, adult survival, flight ability and body size. Complete elimination of competitors occurred soon after larval hatching, before reaching the second larval stage. Elimination process took longer at higher LSPs, although a normal developmental (egg-adult) time was achieved. For LSPs 1, 2, 3 and 5 the effects on parasitoid emergence were mild, but LSP 10 led to the death of all developing parasitoids. Aside from this, to develop in superparasitized hosts did not significantly affect any of the evaluated parameters, and only a female-biased sex ratio was observed at higher LSPs. However, the effects of superparasitism on the adults may have a different outcome under more variable conditions in the field, once they are released for biological control purposes.

  6. Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.

    PubMed

    Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

    2013-04-01

    Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence.

  7. Age-dependent changes in cuticular hydrocarbons of larvae in Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Xu, Ying; Hu, Cui; Zhu, Guang-Hui

    2014-09-01

    Necrophagous flies, comprising the first wave of insects present in a cadaver, provide a great potential for more accurate determination of the late postmortem interval (PMI) based on their age. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) are a promising age indicator in some insect species, especially for the larvae of necrophagous flies. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize the age-dependent, quantitative changes in CHs of larval Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at 24°C. The majority of low-molecular-weight alkanes (≤C25) and almost all of the alkenes decreased in abundance with larval development. By contrast, the abundance of high-molecular-weight alkanes of chain length greater than C25 gradually increased with age. For several peaks, including peak 28 (pentacosene a), peak 31 (n-C25), peak 43 (n-C27) and peak 68 (n-C31), a highly significant correlation was found between peak ratio (n-C29 divided by each chromatographic peak) and chronological age of the larvae. A mathematical model, derived from multivariate linear regression analysis, was developed for determining age of the larvae based on age-dependent changes in CHs. The estimated larval age based on the CHs had a good linear correlation with the chronological age (R(2)>0.9). These results indicate that CHs has a great potential for determining the age of fly larvae, and concomitantly for the PMI in forensic investigation.

  8. Effects of New Dietary Ingredients Used in Artificial Diet for Screwworm Larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Chen, H; Sagel, A; Skoda, S R

    2015-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of spray-dried blood, research was conducted to identify alternative, locally available, inexpensive, dietary ingredients which could reduce cost of rearing and eliminate concerns of short supply. Experimental diets were prepared without blood component and with various ratios of bovine blood or blood cell product and defatted soy flour. Results indicate that spray-dried bovine blood can be replaced by a readily available and less expensive blood cell product. When the quantity of whole dried blood or blood cell component was reduced or removed completely from the diet, the larvae did not feed adequately, resulting in high mortality. Those larvae that survived produced pupae that were of unacceptable quality. When the milk product was replaced by soy flour, pupae were slightly smaller than those reared using the current diet; however, replacement of egg product with soy flour produced even smaller pupae. Longevity of adult flies that emerged from these small pupae was short and the females deposited few eggs. These results indicate that soy flour cannot replace the blood component from the diet, but can replace the milk product successfully. It is likely that some factor or a combination of factors in the blood act as feeding stimulants, without which larvae are unable to feed normally, resulting in high larval mortality.

  9. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue.

  10. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model.

  11. Solid phase microextraction of volatile emissions of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of fly sex, age, and mating status.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Cristina; Vacas, Sandra; Zarzo, Manuel; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime

    2011-01-12

    Considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the courtship behavior and pheromone communication of medflies; however, the sex pheromone composition is still a controversial subject. The discovery of new components affecting medfly behavior would be of interest for medfly control methods based on semiochemicals. This work describes volatile compounds emitted by Ceratitis capitata collected using solid phase microextraction. The volatile study was conducted according to an experimental design with three factors (sex, age, and mating status) assumed to be relevant for better understanding the chemical communication. Emission data were treated by means of principal component analysis, a statistical methodology not previously applied to the study of volatiles emitted by fruit flies. The characterization of emission patterns could be useful for the selection of compounds to be further investigated in biological assays to improve knowledge of the key semiochemicals involved in medfly behavior.

  12. Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Can Distinguish Sterile, Released Flies from Wild Flies in Various Regions of the World.

    PubMed

    Parubrub, Arlene; Reyes, Ruel; Smallridge, Catherine J; Woods, Bill; Haymer, David

    2015-02-01

    In areas infested with pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), many programs rely heavily on the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a form of biological control. However, when SIT treatments are used both for control of established infestations and for occasional outbreaks, for several reasons, programs are often unable to adequately quantify the success of this approach. Chief among these are difficulties associated with reliably and rapidly determining the strain of origin of males recaptured during and after the SIT program. In this study, we describe the use of a DNA-based marker that can be used to rapidly and reliably distinguish males originating from the two sterile strains that are most widely used in SIT rearing facilities from males originating from wild strains of various regions of the world. This method uses polymerase chain reaction amplification of material from individual specimens to directly analyze DNA sequence variants found within a portion of the mitochondrial ND4 subunit 4 (ND4) gene to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are diagnostic of different strains. Specifically, the SNPs described here reliably distinguish individual flies originating from the Vienna 7 and Vienna 8 strains used for sterile release from wild flies infesting various areas including Western Australia, Guatemala, and Hawaii. The availability of such markers for determination of the strain of origin of specimens, either from whole specimens or body parts (including their sperm), has great potential to improve the ability to monitor and quantify the success of any sterile release program.

  13. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae to Synthetic and Natural Attractants and Repellents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and -1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Expression of AeaHsp26 and AeaHsp83 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae and Pupae in Response to Heat Shock Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    toprotect and enhance survival of Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae . KEY WORDS heat shock, Aedes aegypti, gene expression, larvae, development Temperatures...MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/GENOMICS Expression of AeaHsp26 and AeaHsp83 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae and Pupae in Response to Heat Shock...how heat shock proteins are developmentally expressed in mosquitoes, we subjected Þrst instar larvae, 16-h old pupae and female of Aedes aegypti (L

  15. Extraction of gunshot residues from the larvae of the forensically important blowfly Calliphora dubia (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Roeterdink, Evan M; Dadour, Ian R; Watling, R John

    2004-04-01

    Whole body concentrations of lead (Pb), barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb) were determined in larvae of the blowfly Calliphora dubia (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) removed from a piece of beef shot and contaminated with gunshot residue and compared with the concentrations detected within larvae feeding on a control piece of beef. Whole larvae were taken into solution and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Ba and Sb were detected within the larvae feeding on the shot piece of beef compared with larvae that were feeding on the control piece of beef. Initial results indicate that the concentrations of Pb and Sb within the larvae decrease as the duration of feeding increases, whereas Ba concentrations appear to increase, suggesting a bioaccumulation of Ba within the larvae. The second part of this experiment investigated the depuration of Pb, Ba and Sb from the larvae following removal of the gunshot residue source. A significant reduction in Pb, Ba and Sb concentrations within the larvae was observed following the transfer of larvae from the shot piece of beef to the control piece of beef.

  16. Grazing trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and their paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications for the fossil record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Claps, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were examined in a shallow pond in the floodplain of a braided river in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. Collected specimens were identified as Stratiomys convexa van der Wulp. Simple, irregularly meandering trails were produced across the surface of a muddy-silty substrate. Since soldier fly larvae extend their caudal respiratory tube to the water-air interface, they are restricted to extremely shallow water. The presence of benthic algal remains within the mouthparts of the larvae suggests a feeding habit of algal grazing. If preserved, these trails would be included in the ichnogenus Helminthopsis, a common element in ancient freshwater ichnofaunas. Helminthopsis preserved in pond and lacustrine margin deposits younger than Late Jurassic is regarded as one possible trace fossil analogue of the trails documented herein. Additionally, it is suggested that larvae of many aquatic Diptera with similar ecologic restrictions are potential tracemakers of Helminthopsis and other simple trails in these environments, particularly in post-Paleozoic deposits. Studies of modern shallow aquatic habitats and reexamination of the ichnologic record stress the importance of fly larvae as tracemakers in lake margin and pond ecosystems. Ecologic requirements of soldier fly larvae make them inappropriate analogues of Helminthopsis tracemakers in deeper water, lacustrine settings. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  17. Cold Disinfestation of "Hass" Avocado (Persia americana) of Three Species of Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)-Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; du Toit, C L N

    2017-06-01

    The avocado industry is important in South Africa, but access to certain markets is impeded by the presence of phytosanitary pests. One of the ways of securing entry to these markets is to demonstrate that a mitigating treatment will result in there being a negligible chance of accidental importation. In cold treatment comparative studies at 0 °C and 2 °C of immature stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) in "Hass" avocado, the third instar of C. cosyra was shown to be the most cold tolerant. This larval life stage was used in a large-scale trial to test treatment efficacy at 2 °C, a temperature known to be the better for fruit quality. There were no survivors from the 49,795 individual fruit fly larvae subjected to the cold treatment at 2 °C for 20 d. It is argued that, although this level of assessment falls short of the Probit 9 level normally required for fruit fly, they are rarely found in avocado fruit and that the level of disinfestation obtained is more than sufficient to achieve quarantine security. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.

    1985-12-01

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method.

  19. Risk of introducing exotic fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: Tephritidae), into southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Wu, Jiajiao; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Runjie

    2010-08-01

    Exotic fruit flies (Ceratitis spp.) are often serious agricultural pests. Here, we used, pathway analysis and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the risk of introduction of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch, into southern China with fruit consignments and incoming travelers. Historical data, expert opinions, relevant literature, and archives were used to set appropriate parameters in the pathway analysis. Based on the ongoing quarantine/ inspection strategies of China, as well as the interception records, we estimated the annual number of each fruit fly species entering Guangdong province undetected with commercially imported fruit, and the associated risk. We also estimated the gross number of pests arriving at Guangdong ports with incoming travelers and the associated risk. Sensitivity analysis also was performed to test the impact of parameter changes and to assess how the risk could be reduced. Results showed that the risk of introduction of the three fruit fly species into southern China with fruit consignments, which are mostly transported by ship, exists but is relatively low. In contrast, the risk of introduction with incoming travelers is high and hence deserves intensive attention. Sensitivity analysis indicated that either ensuring all shipments meet current phytosanitary requirements or increasing the proportion of fruit imports sampled for inspection could substantially reduce the risk associated with commercial imports. Sensitivity analysis also provided justification for banning importation of fresh fruit by international travelers. Thus, inspection and quarantine in conjunction with intensive detection were important mitigation measures to reduce the risk of Ceratitis spp. introduced into China.

  20. Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  1. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  2. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  3. Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigations of Third-Instar Larva of Cordylobia rodhaini (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Agent of Furuncular Myiasis.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, M; Cultrera, R; Chicca, M; Leis, M

    2015-05-01

    A scanning electron microscopy study of the third larval instar of Cordylobia rodhaini Gedoelst (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causing obligatory furuncular myiasis, is presented here for the first time. The larvae were collected from a patient exposed to them in the tropical rainforest of Kibale National Park (Uganda). Distinctive features are described in sequence from the anterior region to the posterior region, highlighting the morphological features of antennae, maxillary palps, structures related to mouth opening, sensory structures, thoracic and abdominal spines, and anterior and posterior spiracles. The results are compared with those of other Calyptrata flies, mainly from the family Calliphoridae and, when possible, with Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the only other species of genus Cordylobia investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  4. A cellulose fiber-based diet for screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

    2007-02-01

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent, Aquatain, normally used for bulking and solidifying larval rearing medium of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The absorbent fiber, when mixed with water and dietary ingredients, produced a diet medium of homogeneous texture that supported larval growth and development comparable with the standard gelled diet. Larval and pupal weights from two concentrations of cellulose fiber-based diet were significantly higher than those obtained using gelled diet. The number of pupae per tray, percentage of adult emergence, oviposition, percentage of egg hatch, and adult longevity obtained from the insects reared in the cellulose fiber-based diet were comparable or slightly better than the biological parameters recorded from flies reared in the gelled diet. Moreover, results indicate that a lesser amount of the cellulose fiber-based diet than the normal amount of gelled diet per tray would support normal larval growth. Physical properties and texture of the new diet seem to allow the larvae to move and feed more freely than they do on the semisolid gelled diet, resulting in less wasted diet. The cellulose fiber is biodegradable and inexpensive, whereas the polyacrylate gel polymer is not biodegradable and is relatively expensive. Replacing gel with cellulose fiber in the screwworm larval diet for mass rearing should result in substantial cost savings in material and labor as well as eliminating concern of environmental pollution due to diet waste disposal.

  5. Toxicity of eight metals to Malaysian freshwater midge larvae Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Umirah, Nur Shahirul; Abas, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Fourth instars larvae of freshwater midge Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae) were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) were calculated. LC(50) increased with the decrease in mean exposure times, for all metals. LC(50)s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al and Mn were 0.17, 0.06, 5.57, 0.72, 5.32, 0.62, 1.43 and 5.27 mg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in C. javanus increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to C. javanus, followed by Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Mn, Zn and Ni (Cd > Cu > Fe > Pb > Al > Mn > Zn > Ni). Comparison of LC(50) values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater midges reveals that C. javanus is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested dipteran.

  6. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  7. Incidence of Non-Immunological Defenses of Soil White Grubs on Parasitism Success of Mallophora ruficauda Larva (Diptera: Asilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Castelo, Marcela K.; Crespo, José E.

    2012-01-01

    White grubs are larvae of Coleoptera of the family Scarabaeidae. They are known because of their intensive feeding habits on crop roots. Mallophora ruficauda (Diptera: Asilidae) is a dipteran parasitoid whose larva is a natural enemy for white grubs. This species is a solitary ectoparasitoid, where both female and larva realize different steps in the host location process. Female place its eggs in high grasslands and then, the larva finds and parasitizes the host in the ground. There are nine potential hosts in the area of action of this parasitoid; however a high preference for Cyclocephala signaticollis has been observed (87% of field parasitism). It is known that many insects have developed defensive and immunological mechanisms when attacked by a parasitoid, which can be behavioral, physiological, chemical or genetic. The objectives of this work were to investigate what kind of defense and non-immunological associated mechanisms the white grubs have against this parasitoid and to understand why M. ruficauda have such a high preference for masked chafer grubs or Cyclocephala species. In particular, for each white grub species, we asked: (1) If there is a differential behavioral reaction when a parasitoid attack is simulated; (2) If body attributes of white grubs species have influence on defense behavior, and particularly for the masked chafer C. signaticollis; and (3) Why this species is the most selected by M. ruficauda. It was found that behavioral defenses of white grubs would explain the parasitism pattern of M. ruficauda larvae and its preference for C. signaticollis. PMID:26466623

  8. A Laboratory-Based Study for First Documented Case of Urinary Myiasis Caused by Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Wakid, Majed H.

    2008-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the medically important insects. Maggots from a urine sample of a 5-year-old Saudi girl were examined microscopically for identification. These maggots were cultured to become adult flies. Larvae and adults were identified using standard keys. Protozoan flagellates were obtained from the gut of the larvae. This is the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of urinary human myiasis in Saudi Arabia. PMID:18344675

  9. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  10. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  11. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  12. Attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Nontarget Insects to the Attractant BioLure and its Individual Components in Hawaii.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  13. Purification and partial characterization of thermal hysteresis proteins from overwintering larvae of pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge of Thecodiplosis japonensis is a serious forest pest and overwinters as a 3rd instar larva at soil surface in Korea. The time necessary for killing 50% of larvae at -15 degree C is 160 min. During overwintering period, T. japonensis larvae accumulate relatively high content of trehalose as the main cryoprotectant. In this paper, the proteinaceous cryoprotectants were identified. Two thermal hysteresis proteins (THP-1S and 2S) were purified from overwintering larvae by ethanol fractionation, trichloroacetic acid precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-25) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex G-100). Their molecular weights are 34.9 and 37.8 kD respectively. T. japonensis THPs cannot be stained by periodic acid-Schiffs' reagent, suggesting no carbohydrate in them. The thermal hysteresis activity of THP-2 at the concentration of 50 mg/ml is 11.02 +/- 0.08 degree C (mean +/- SD, n=10), perhaps the highest active insect THP. It is the first report of purified T. japonensis THPs in Diptera.

  14. Comparison of the effects of extracts from three Vitex plant species on Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Nyamoita, Mokua G; Ester, Innocent; Zakaria, Mbwambo H; Wilber, Lwande; Bwire, Ochola J; Ahmed, Hassanali

    2013-09-01

    Acetone and methanol extracts of different parts of three Vitex species (leaves and stem bark of Vitex trifolia, leaves, stem bark and root bark of Vitex schiliebenii and stem and root bark of Vitex payos) were evaluated for their potential to control Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). The extracts gave different levels and rate of mortality of the larvae. Some (methanol extract of V. trifolia leaves, acetone extracts of stem bark and leaves of V. schiliebenii, acetone extract of root bark of V. payos) caused 100% mortality at 100 ppm in 72 h, with those of V. schiliebenii and V. payos showing faster rate of mortality (LT₅₀=8 h) than that of V. trifolia (LT₅₀=14 h). At lower doses of these extracts (≤50 ppm), most of the larvae failed to transform to normal pupae but gave larval-pupal intermediates between 4 and 14 days of exposure. Some pupated normally but the adults that emerged appeared to be weak and died within 48 h. Extracts of the stem bark of V. payos showed interesting effects on the larvae. Initially, the larvae were relatively hyperactive compared to those in control treatments. Later, the ones that did not transform to larval-pupal intermediates became stretched and inactive and died and floated in clusters on the surface. These observations suggest some interesting growth-disrupting constituents in the plants, with possible application in the practical control of mosquito larvae in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trapping Female Medflies (Ceratitis capitata) by Broadcast of Male Calling Song

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    systems for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in seven countries," J. Econ. Entomol. 92, 156-164. 2. Hendrichs, J., Franz, G., and Rendon, P...Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in Israel: Comparison of lures and trap type,". J. Econ. Entomol. 91, 1335-1339. 4. Prokopy, R.J., and...Diptera: Tephritidae )," Fla. Entomol. 83, 411-421. 8. Anderson, J.B., and Mankin, R.W.. (2002). "Comparison of particle velocity and sound pressure

  16. Suppressive effects of Calendula micrantha essential oil and gibberelic acid (PGR) on repro ductive potential of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hussein, Karam T

    2005-08-01

    The volatile oil of Calendula micrtantha plant was extracted and the components were identified by Gc/Ms. Adulticidal efficiency of the volatile oil and gibberelic acid "plant growth promoting hormone" as well as their mixture was assessed against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. The result showed that the two compounds capable have characteristic resembling to insect juvenile hormones and have suppressive effect on reproductive potential. They induced the significant disturbances in the ovarian protein fraction and the amino acids patterns.

  17. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii.

  18. Description of larva and puparium of Oplodontha rubrithorax (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from the Oriental Region.

    PubMed

    Nerudová, Jana; Kovac, Damir; Tóthová, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    This is the first description of larva and puparium of Oplodontha rubrithorax (Macquart, 1838) from the Oriental Region. Larvae were found at a hot spring in North Thailand. The morphological features and cuticular structures of the larva are documented by drawings and SEM micrographs and the main characters are compared with the European O. viridula (Fabricius, 1775), the only described larva of this genus. Differences between larvae of both species were only found in pubescence. The characteristic, somewhat dilated and slightly clavate hairs on the dorsal surface of the body segments of O. viridula larva are apparently lacking in the larva of O. rubrithorax.

  19. Histopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control.

  20. Monthly variations of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae infesting donkeys in Egypt: Morphological and molecular identification of third stage larvae

    PubMed Central

    Hilali, Mosaad A.; Mahdy, Olfat A.; Attia, Marwa M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and monthly intensity of Rhinoestrus (R) spp. among donkeys slaughtered at Giza Zoo abattoir, Egypt. A total of 144 donkeys were examined at postmortem through two visits per month from January 2010 to December 2010. All donkeys were infested with one or more larval stages during all months of the examination period (100%). The 1st and 2nd stage larvae (L1 and L2) were mostly observed in the turbinate bones and seldom in the nasal passages, whereas the 3rd stage larvae (L3) were observed mostly in ethmoid and lamina cribrosa and rarely in nasal passages and pharynx. The highest monthly intensity of infestation with the total number of larval stages was recorded in January and August, while the lowest occurred in September. L1 was observed during all months with two peaks in January and June. L2 occurred from February to April, July, and August. L3 was present from March to May, August, and September. The ranked size of infestation with the total number of the 3 larval stages of Rhinoestrus spp. showed that a total of 107 donkeys had 1–10 larvae; 34 had 11–30 larvae; and 3 harbored 31–50 larvae. The morphology and molecular characterization of the third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. were investigated. Morphologically, two morphotypes (1 and 2) of Rhinoestrus spp. (R. usbekistanicus like and the other R. purpureus like) were reported. Whereas molecular sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase subunit I showed 99% homology with those of R. usbekistanicus. In conclusion, Rhinoestrus spp. present in Egypt is mainly R. usbekistanicus, which includes two morphotypes, R. usbekistanicus like and R. purpureus like. PMID:26644940

  1. Description of male, larva and pupa of Stibasoma theotaenia (Wiedemann) (Diptera-Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    Coscarón, S; Mancebo, O; Coscarón-Arias, C

    1999-01-01

    Unknown male, larva and pupa of Stibasoma theotaenia from northern Argentina are described and illustrated. Larvae were collected from terrestrial Bromeliaceae of Aechnea sp. and maintained in the laboratory through development.

  2. Contribution of natural food sources to reproductive behaviour, fecundity and longevity of Ceratitis cosyra, C. fasciventris and C. capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Manrakhan, A; Lux, S A

    2006-06-01

    The influence of food sources comprising the natural diet on the reproductive behaviour, fecundity and longevity of three African fruit flies Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated. Three natural food sources, varying in protein and sugar content, were evaluated. These included bird droppings (farm chicken), aphid honeydew and guava (Psidium guajava L.) juice. For C. fasciventris and C. capitata, flies fed on a protein-rich diet displayed higher frequency of calling, mating and oviposition than flies fed on a protein-poor diet, whilst for C. cosyra, quality of diet significantly influenced the mating behaviour of the flies, but not the calling and oviposition behaviour. Net fecundity rates were lowest for C. fasciventris and C. capitata when fed only on guava juice (0.1, 2.6 eggs per female, respectively), and higher for those on a diet of honeydew only (9.5, 33.8 eggs per female, respectively) and a combined diet of guava, honeydew and chicken faeces (11.8, 25.8 eggs per female, respectively). For C. cosyra, due to low numbers of eggs collected, no significant differences in fecundity between diets could be detected. All species fed only on a diet of chicken faeces since emergence died within the first three days of adult life without laying eggs, but when carbohydrates were provided by addition of guava juice and honeydew, the longevity of the flies was sustained for more than four weeks after adult emergence. The practical implications of these findings for control purposes are discussed.

  3. Nutritional Limitation on Growth and Development of Horn Fly (Diptera:Muscidae) Larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging of bovine dung for 3-5 yr under refrigeration depleted nutrients required for growth and development of horn fly larvae. Growth of horn fly larvae in mixtures of nutrient-depleted dung and fresh dung resulted in production of larvae and pupae stunted in proportion to the relative amount of ag...

  4. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  5. The moose throat bot fly Cephenemyia ulrichii larvae (Diptera: Oestridae) found developing in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) for the first time

    PubMed Central

    Nilssen, Arne C; Isomursu, Marja; Oksanen, Antti

    2008-01-01

    About fifty larvae of Cephenemyia ulrichii Brauer (Diptera: Oestridae), some of them nearly full-grown third instars, were found in the throat of a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in June 2007 near Helsinki in Finland. The parasite is considered to be host specific, occurring only in the moose (Alces alces), and this paper is apparently the first report of a successful infestation in an aberrant host. PMID:18518973

  6. The moose throat bot fly Cephenemyia ulrichii larvae (Diptera: Oestridae) found developing in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) for the first time.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Arne C; Isomursu, Marja; Oksanen, Antti

    2008-06-02

    About fifty larvae of Cephenemyia ulrichii Brauer (Diptera: Oestridae), some of them nearly full-grown third instars, were found in the throat of a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in June 2007 near Helsinki in Finland. The parasite is considered to be host specific, occurring only in the moose (Alces alces), and this paper is apparently the first report of a successful infestation in an aberrant host.

  7. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    PubMed

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  8. Susceptibility of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Malan, Antoinette P; Manrakhan, Aruna

    2009-01-01

    The potential of entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and Steinernema khoisanae, to infect pupariating larvae, pupae and adults of Ceratitis capitata and Ceratitis rosa was investigated in laboratory bioassays. Pupariating larvae and adult flies were susceptible to nematode infection, with no infection recorded for the pupae. Pupariating larvae of C. capitata were generally more susceptible to infection than those of C. rosa. Significantly more larvae of C. capitata were infected by H. bacteriophora. For C. rosa, highest infectivity of larvae was obtained with H. zealandica. In contrast, adults of both species were highly infected by S. khoisanae.

  9. A case of auricular, anal and umbilical myiasis caused by the larvae of Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in neonatal kittens.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Didem; Pekmezci, Gökmen Zafer; Açıcı, Mustafa; Gökalp, Güvenç; Tütüncü, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of feline myiasis is rare. Massive infestations of dipteran larvae can lead to death if not treated at an early stage. Auricular, anal and umbilical myiasis was detected in three neonatal kittens. The dipteran larvae were collected, fixed in 70% alcohol and clarified with 10% KOH for a few days. Later, larvae were dissected under the stereomicroscope, mounted on slides and then identified as the third instar of the black blowfly, Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), according to their stigmatic and cephaloskeleton structures. Original measurements and figures are presented. Treatment included mechanical removal of larvae and cleansing of the area by applying polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine complex. The presence of P. regina in cats has been reported here for the first time in Turkey.

  10. Human autosomal DNA and X chromosome STR profiles obtained from Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae used as a biological trace.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T C; Santos, A B R; Rabelo, K C N; Souza, C A; Santos, S M; Crovella, S

    2016-11-03

    The use of insects to answer questions in criminal investigations, as well as a combination of forensic genetic techniques to obtain human DNA from the organisms, especially necrophagous dipterians, have gained ground in recent decades among researchers and professionals in this area. The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare two methods of human DNA extraction, commonly used for forensic samples, to obtain human autosomal DNA and X chromosome short tandem repeat profiles from the digestive tract of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae. Immature specimens were collected from corpses at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Pernambuco and raised in bovine ground meat to allow stabilization of the colony. Groups of larvae in the third instar were provided with bovine ground meat plus human blood for 48 h, dissected, and then subjected to DNA extraction. DNA was extracted using two methods: a DNA IQ™ kit and a phenol-chloroform method. Genomic DNA was amplified using AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Plus PCR and Argus-X-12(®) kits, and samples were sequenced to determine if the two extraction techniques generated reliable profiles that were compatible with a reference sample. The existence of comparable profiles from both techniques demonstrates the usefulness of dipteran larvae for obtaining human DNA from corpses, which can be further used to correlate genetic profiles in a crime scene when other traces are not available. However, several variables still require revision; thus, the technique should be further investigated for its validity, security, and, in particular, its reproducibility.

  11. Effects of pesticides used on citrus grown in Spain on the mortality of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Vienna-8 strain sterile males.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, María; Sabatier-Muñoz, Beatriz; Argilés, Rafael; Jacas, Josep A; Ortego, Félix; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Vienna-8 sterile males are currently released in Spain to reduce wild populations of the medfly. Because pesticides are required to maintain populations of some citrus key pests below economic thresholds, there is a need to evaluate the effects of pesticides commonly used in citrus on Vienna-8 males. Males were exposed to differently aged residues of eight pesticides. Abamectin, etofenprox, etoxazole, petroleum spray oil, pymetrozine, and pyriproxyfen resulted harmless to Vienna-8 males. However, fresh residues of chlorpyrifos and spinosad caused high mortalities and had residual effects until 21 and 28 d after treatment, respectively. Following the same method, the lethal effects of chlorpyrifos and spinosad on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) wild-type (wt) males were determined. Surprisingly, these pesticides resulted more toxic for wt than for Vienna-8 males. To determine whether these results could be attributed to intrinsic characteristics of the pesticides or to behavioral differences among Vienna-8 and wt males, a topical application trial was conducted. Vienna-8 males were twice as susceptible to chlorpyrifos as wt males, whereas their susceptibility to spinosad was slightly lower. These results in intrinsic toxicity did not directly explain the differences observed in the extended-laboratory tests with these pesticides. We hypothesize that the lower flight activity ofVienna-8 males relative to wt conspecifics can explain the lower risk observed for Vienna-8 males in the residual tests. Our results should be taken into account when planning area-wide Sterile Insect Technique programs against C. capitata especially in those areas where treatments with chlorpyrifos are approved.

  12. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-02-10

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters. 

  13. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C.

  14. [Assemblages of bloodsucking mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe].

    PubMed

    Belevich, O É; Iurchenko, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    The population structure of bloodsucking mosquito larvae in temporary and constant water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe was investigated. The seasonal dynamics of the population density, the number of species in different types of reservoirs, and average density of each species are given. The productivity of water reservoirs in relation to mosquitoes of the family Culicidae is analyzed. The basic factors affecting the distribution of larvae of dominant species between different water bodies were revealed. The degree of correlation between the structure of bloodsucking mosquito larva assemblages and the type of the reservoir was established.

  15. UV-B radiation-related effects on conidial inactivation and virulence against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera; Tephritidae) of phylloplane and soil Metarhizium sp. strains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bravo, María; Flores-León, Alejandro; Calero-López, Salvador; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Fernando; Valverde-García, Pablo; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of Metarhizium species on the epigeal areas of weeds and woody plants in various Mediterranean ecosystems, and the question arises whether isolates from the phylloplane, which experiences greater exposure to environmental UV-B radiation than soil isolates do, could have better UV-B radiation tolerance. The in vitro response of 18 Metarhizium strains isolated from phylloplane and soil of several Mediterranean ecosystems to UV-B radiation and the in vitro and in vivo effects of UV-B radiation on the viability and virulence of a selected M. brunneum strain against C. capitata were determined. The conidial germination, culturability and colony growth of these strains exposed to 1200mWm(-2) for 2, 4 or 6h were evaluated. Germination rates below 30% and poor conidia recovery rates were observed for all strains. However, no relationship between the Metarhizium species or isolation habitat and the effect of UV-B radiation was found. Strain EAMa 01/58-Su, which showed a high tolerance to UV-B inactivation in terms of relative germination, was subsequently selected to investigate the UV-B related effects on virulence toward C. capitata adults. In a series of bioassays, the virulence and viability was determined using pure dry conidia, which were irradiated with 1200mWm(-2) for 6h prior or after adult flies were inoculated, which resulted in a significant 84.7-86.4% decrease in conidial viability but only a slightly significant reduction of virulence, with 100.0% and 91.4% adult mortality rates and 4.6 and 5.9days average survival time for the no UV-B and UV-B treatments, respectively. A second series of experiments was performed to determine whether the UV-B effects on strain EAMa 01/58-Su were dose- or exposure time-dependent. Adult flies were inoculated with five doses (1.0×10(4)-1.0×10(8)conidiaml(-1)) and then irradiated at 1200mWm(-2) for 6h, and similar LC50 values, 3.8×10(7) and 4.3×10(7)conidiaml(-1), were determined

  16. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    and 9 (cf. Fig. 1), which exhibit toxicity against the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus), have been isolated from E...Simulium vittatum) larvae, adult nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) [8], and adult termites (C. formosanus) [11], while bithiophenes or

  17. Host-seeking behavior in larvae of the robber fly Mallophora ruficauda (Diptera: Asilidae).

    PubMed

    Castelo, Marcela K; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2004-04-01

    The robber fly Mallophora ruficauda is the most important pest of apiculture in the Pampas region of Argentina. Adults prey on honeybees and other insects, while larvae parasitize larvae of scarab beetles, which live underground. Females of M. ruficauda do not search for hosts but instead lay eggs in tall pastures. Once hatched, larvae drop to the ground and burrow underground to search for their hosts. We tested in the laboratory whether larvae of M. ruficauda actively search for their hosts using host and/or host-related chemical cues. We report that M. ruficauda detects its host using chemical cues that originate in the posterior half of the host's body, most likely from an abdominal exocrine structure. This particular host-searching strategy is described for the first time in Asilidae.

  18. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by a Phormia sp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larva in an enucleated patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Soo; Kim, Jong-Wan; Lee, Hye-Jung; Lee, In-Yong; Oh, Sang-Ah; Seo, Min

    2011-06-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis rarely occurs worldwide, and has not been reported in Korea. We present here a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by Phormia sp. fly larva in an enucleated eye of a patient. In June 2010, a 50-year-old man was admitted to Dankook University Hospital for surgical excision of a malignant melanoma located in the right auricular area. He had a clinical history of enucleation of his right eye due to squamous cell carcinoma 5 years ago. During hospitalization, foreign body sensation developed in his right eye, and close examination revealed a fly larva inside the eye, which was evacuated. The larva was proved to be Phormia sp. based on the morphology of the posterior spiracle. Subsequently, no larva was found, and the postoperative course was uneventful without any complaints of further myiasis. This is the first case of ophthalmomyiasis among the literature in Korea, and also the first myiasis case caused by Phormia sp. in Korea.

  19. Identification of Nanopillars on the Cuticle of the Aquatic Larvae of the Drone Fly (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew J; Levine, Timothy P; Wilson, Roger H

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax(L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection.

  20. Identification of Nanopillars on the Cuticle of the Aquatic Larvae of the Drone Fly (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Matthew J.; Levine, Timothy P.; Wilson, Roger H.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax (L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection. PMID:27030395

  1. Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Phormia sp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larva in an Enucleated Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Soo; Kim, Jong-Wan; Lee, Hye-Jung; Lee, In-Yong; Oh, Sang-Ah

    2011-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis rarely occurs worldwide, and has not been reported in Korea. We present here a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by Phormia sp. fly larva in an enucleated eye of a patient. In June 2010, a 50-year-old man was admitted to Dankook University Hospital for surgical excision of a malignant melanoma located in the right auricular area. He had a clinical history of enucleation of his right eye due to squamous cell carcinoma 5 years ago. During hospitalization, foreign body sensation developed in his right eye, and close examination revealed a fly larva inside the eye, which was evacuated. The larva was proved to be Phormia sp. based on the morphology of the posterior spiracle. Subsequently, no larva was found, and the postoperative course was uneventful without any complaints of further myiasis. This is the first case of ophthalmomyiasis among the literature in Korea, and also the first myiasis case caused by Phormia sp. in Korea. PMID:21738274

  2. Notes on facultative predation in Prosimulium larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) in alpine and subalpine streams in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaer, Layla; Pierce, Allison K; Larson, David; Hancock, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Although it is widely accepted that black fly larvae employ filter feeding as their primary mode of nutrient intake, other forms of food acquisition, such as predation, may be more prevalent than previously realized. It has been suggested that environments where particulate matter is low, such as high-elevation seasonal streams, may drive predatory behavior in black fly larvae. Relatively little is known about the frequency at which larvae prey on other organisms or if predation may be obligate in some species. In order to supplement the idea that larval black fly predation may be a common method of feeding under certain conditions, a preliminary survey of predation by Prosimulium larvae was conducted in order to assess predation frequency at high-elevation sites (> 3,200 m) in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Larvae were sampled from alpine and subalpine locations, and their gut content analysis revealed evidence of facultative predation and possible cannibalism. Evidence of predation was observed in all but 1 Prosimulium species collected. Predation frequency was highest in the North Fork Snake River headwater location, a small tributary stream of the Snake River in central Colorado. This survey suggests that further inquiry into predatory behavior of black fly larvae should be conducted to determine the mechanisms, behavior, and ecological impact of this understudied feeding strategy.

  3. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  4. Does biodiversity of macroinvertebrates and genome response of Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) reflect heavy metal pollution in a small pond?

    PubMed

    Michailova, Paraskeva; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elzbieta; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Kownacki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on a small pond situated on a recent mine spoil at Bolesław in the Olkusz region with Zn-Pb ore deposits. Water of the pond had pH 7.2-8.5 and low concentrations of heavy metals. Concentrations of Pb (487 μg g( - 1)) and Zn (1,991 μg g( - 1)) in the sediment were very high and potentially could lead to toxicological effects. In the pond, 48 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to Oligochaeta and water stages of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Megaloptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Diptera (mainly Chironomidae family) were found. The influence of heavy metals on macroinvertebrates diversity was not found. Effect of heavy metal pollution was observed on the appearance of chromosome aberrations in the polytene chromosomes of Chironomidae larvae. It was manifested by two ways: (1) in Kiefferulus tendipediformis and Chironomus sp. chromosome rearrangements in fixed state (tandem fusion and homozygous inversions), indicated intensive process of speciation; (2) in Chironomus sp., K. tendipediformis, Glyptotendipes gripekoveni (Chironomidae) somatic chromosome rearrangements (inversions, deficiencies, specific puffs, polyploidy) affected few cells of every individual. The somatic functional and structural alterations in Chironomidae species are particular suitable as biomarkers-they can be easily identified and used for detecting toxic agents in the environment.

  5. DNA damage and transcriptional changes induced by tributyltin (TBT) after short in vivo exposures of Chironomus riparius (Diptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a widespread environmental contaminant in aquatic systems whose adverse effects in development and reproduction are related to its well-known endocrine-disrupting activity. In this work, the early molecular effects of TBT in Chironomus riparius (Diptera) were evaluated by analyzing its DNA damaging potential and the transcriptional response of different endocrine-related genes. Twenty-four-hour in vivo exposures of the aquatic larvae, at environmentally relevant doses of TBT, revealed genotoxic activity as shown by significant increases in DNA strand breaks quantified with the comet assay. TBT was also able to induce significant increases in transcripts from the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the ultraspiracle gene (usp) (insect ortholog of the retinoid X receptor), the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene and the E74 early ecdysone-inducible gene, as measured by real-time RT-PCR. In contrast, the expression of the vitellogenin (vg) gene remained unaltered, while the hsp70 gene appeared to be down-regulated. The ability of TBT to up-regulate hormonal target genes provides the first evidence, at genomic level, of its endocrine disruptive effects and also suggests a mechanism of action that mimics ecdysteroid hormones in insects. These data reveal for the first time the early genomic effects of TBT on an insect genome.

  6. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Insecticidal effects of various concentrations of selected extractions of Cestrum parqui on adult and immature Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Nelson; Budia, Flor; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar

    2006-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of Cestrum parqui L'Héritier (Solanaceae) were evaluated at different concentrations in several stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). For adults, the study was extended to extracts obtained with several solvents of an increasing degree of polarity. Aqueous extracts from C. parqui showed a high toxicity to neonate larvae when ingested through diet, inhibiting pupation at a concentration above 0.6%. Lower concentrations delayed the larval development and reduced the percentages of pupae formed and adult emergence. An LC50 = 0.9% after 3 d of continuous ingestion of C. parqui aqueous extracts could be calculated, whereas extracts obtained with organic compounds were nearly innocuous except with the use of the solvent methanol/water (80:20), the more polar of those tested, that killed 12.5% of adults. Aqueous extracts were also harmful to adults by diminishing the reproductive potential, which implies a significant effect on the offspring. Egg contact with insecticide or dipping third instars did not cause any adverse effect, supporting the hypothesis that only by means of ingestion can the toxic compounds of C. parqui reach the target. Our results showed that C. parqui components causing C. capitata mortality are mostly dissolved in water and not in organic solvents, which point out their polar character.

  8. Isolation and identification of α-proteobacteria from Culex pipiens (Diptera Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, M C; Riccillo, P M; Rodriguero, M S; García, J J; Micieli, M V

    2012-01-01

    A survey of drainage ditches in suburban areas of La Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina for pathogens of Culex pipiens larvae was conducted from 2003 to 2006. C. pipiens larvae of opaque, white color were found in several of those field collections. When the white larvae were dissected and observed by phase-contrast microscopy in wet-mount preparations, the presence of bacteria, located in the hemocoel, was recorded. Laboratory experiments were performed to elucidate the pathway for transmission of this pathogen. Although approaches involving traditional culturing had failed to reveal the identity of the new microorganism present, molecular techniques to identify the pathogen in the studies reported here were successful. The partial sequence of the 16S-rRNA gene constitutes a powerful tool for the detection of new isolates from the hemocoele of C. pipiens larvae. These bacteria were characterized as belonging to the genus Novispirillum. In spite of the genus's wide distribution in different aquatic environments, information related to the parasitic relationship of Novispirillum spp. to aquatic insects is scarce, and this association has not been described in other mosquito species. This report constitutes the first documentation of Novispirillum spp. as a pathogen for mosquito larvae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose {ge}20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. [The development of the larvae of the sheep nasopharyngeal botfly, oestrus ovis l. (diptera, oestridae)].

    PubMed

    Breev, K A; Sultanov, F R

    1975-01-01

    In order to find out factors affecting the presence of two generations of O. ovis in the southern parts of its distribution area there were conducted regular measurements of the body length of the Ist instar (3718 specimens) and weight of the IInd and IIId instar larvae (1460 specimens). These observations were carried out in two herds of sheep in low-lying and foothill zones of Aserbaijan. Statistical analysis has shown the following: a) the growth inhibition, which is especially distinct in autumn-spring generation, takes place in the Ist instar larvae 1.76-2.20 mm long inhabiting the walls of the nasal cavity and concha (their average body length at hatching is 1.08 plus or minus 0.004 mm); the inhibition is associated with interpopulation relations and apparently does not depend on the date of its beginning and can last from 6 to 7 months; c) after the growth resumption the development continues uninterruptedly up to the moulting; the inhibition is also possible at the beginning of the 2nd instar and then the development proceeds without any intervals up to the complete maturation of larvae. The total number of the Ist instar larvae in the bot fly populations is two times higher than that of the IInd and III-instars. This points to a high mortality of larvae during the Ist instar developmental period.

  11. Characteristics of protein variants in trichlorphon-resistant Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera; Tephritidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Zeng, L; Lin, Y-Y; Lu, Y-Y; Liang, G-W

    2012-08-16

    Functional proteins in larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis, a major fruit pest, play a central role in their resistance to organophosphorus insecticides. Changes in proteins in B. dorsalis larvae after trichlorphon treatment may have a role in the resistance response to trichlorphon. We analyzed 14 protein spots of crude proteins from B. dorsalis larvae post-treatment with trichlorphon in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis through mass spectrometry and protein sequencing. We found functional proteins that are responsible for signal transduction (pkaap and dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase), immunity (hemolectin), synthesis and decomposition (twinstar, cathepsin B, RE66325p), oxidative stress metabolism (glutathione S transferase and CG7320), energy metabolism (Act57B), and cytoskeleton formation (actin). These proteins appear to be involved in the resistance response to trichlorphon.

  12. A generic guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Tanytarsini, (Chironomidae:diptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiner, J.W.; Doughman, J.S.; Moore, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Larvae of the tribe Tanytarsini occur in nearly every aquatic habitat in North America where they act as primary consumers in the food chain. This new taxonomic guide overcomes some deficiencies in existing keys to this tribe and the reviewed and updated taxonomy enables identification of the larvae that may be useful as ecological indicators. Over 2,000 specimens from 26 states were examined, identified and measured in this study. The following genera were included: Stempellinell, Zavrelia, Stempellina, Constempellina, Corynocera, Cladotanytarsus,.. Paratanytarsus, Rheotanytarsus,. Micropsectra, Lauterbornia, Nimbocera, Tanytarsus and Neozavrelia. Photographs illustrate mature larvae of these genera with the exception of Zavrelia and Neozavrelia which are not known to exist in North America. The morphological data, Which are summarized in a table of distinctive characteristics and the dichotomous key, enable identification to genus. Notes on range, habitat and food preference are included, and species identifications are presented where applicable.

  13. Postfeeding radial dispersal in larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae): implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Leonardo; Zuben, Claudio José Von

    2005-12-01

    Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral breeding sites for larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, larvae begin dispersing in search of sites to pupate or additional food sources, a process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps, employing a circular arena to allow radial dispersion of larvae from the center. The results showed a positive correlation between burial depth and distance, and a negative correlation between distance and pupal weight. These results can be used in forensic entomology for the postmortem interval estimation of human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  14. Analysis of Seasonal Risk for Importation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), via Air Passenger Traffic Arriving in Florida and California.

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, A M; Leppla, N C; Huang, Z; Tatem, A J

    2016-09-04

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most economically damaging pests in the world and has repeatedly invaded two major agricultural states in the United States, Florida and California, each time requiring costly eradication. The Mediterranean fruit fly gains entry primarily in infested fruit carried by airline passengers and, since Florida and California each receive about 13 million international passengers annually, the risk of Mediterranean fruit fly entering the United States is potentially very high. The risk of passengers bringing the pest into Florida or California from Mediterranean fruit fly-infested countries was determined with two novel models, one estimated seasonal variation in airline passenger number and the other defined the seasonal and spatial variability in Mediterranean fruit fly abundance. These models elucidated relationships among the risk factors for Mediterranean fruit fly introduction, such as amount of passenger traffic, routes traveled, season of travel, abundance of Mediterranean fruit fly in countries where flights departed, and risk of the pest arriving at destination airports. The risk of Mediterranean fruit fly being introduced into Florida was greatest from Colombia, Brazil, Panama, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador during January-August, whereas primarily the risk to California was from Brazil, Panama, Colombia, and Italy in May-August. About three times more Mediterranean fruit flies were intercepted in passenger baggage at airports in Florida than California, although the data were compromised by a lack of systematic sampling and other limitations. Nevertheless, this study achieved the goal of analyzing available data on seasonal passenger flow and Mediterranean fruit fly population levels to determine when surveillance should be intensified at key airports in Florida and California.

  15. Improving the sterile sperm identification method for its implementation in the Area-wide Sterile Insect Technique Program against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, M; Urbaneja, A; San Andrés, V; Castañera, P; Sabater-Muñoz, B

    2013-12-01

    The success of sterile males in area-wide sterile insect technique (aw-SIT) programs against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is currently measured by using indirect methods as the wild:sterile male ratio captured in monitoring traps. In the past decade, molecular techniques have been used to improve these methods. The development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based method to identify the transfer of sterile sperm to wild females, the target of SIT, was considered a significant step in this direction. This method relies on identification of sperm by detecting the presence of Y chromosomes in spermathecae DNA extract complemented by the identification of the genetic origin of this sperm: Vienna-8 males or wild haplotype. However, the application of this protocol to aw-SIT programs is limited by handling time and personnel cost. The objective of this work was to obtain a high-throughput protocol to facilitate the routine measurement in a pest population of sterile sperm presence in wild females. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism markers previously developed were validated in Mediterranean fruit fly samples collected from various locations worldwide. A laboratory protocol previously published was modified to allow for the analysis of more samples at the same time. Preservation methods and preservation times commonly used for Mediterranean fruit fly female samples were assessed for their influence on the correct molecular detection of sterile sperm. This high-throughput methodology, as well as the results of sample management presented here, provide a robust, efficient, fast, and economical sterile sperm identification method ready to be used in all Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs.

  16. Larvae of North American Eukiefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert W.

    "Eukiefferiella" and "Tvetenia" are closely related genera belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae within the Chironomidae, a family of non-biting midges. All known larvae in these genera are aquatic, being found predominantly in running water. Most species prefer cold, swift-flowing, well-oxygenated streams. Although larvae…

  17. Larvae of North American Eukiefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert W.

    "Eukiefferiella" and "Tvetenia" are closely related genera belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae within the Chironomidae, a family of non-biting midges. All known larvae in these genera are aquatic, being found predominantly in running water. Most species prefer cold, swift-flowing, well-oxygenated streams. Although larvae…

  18. Description of third instar larvae of Anastrepha curitis, Anastrepha pickeli and Anastrepha pulchra (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe and illustrate for the first time the third instar larvae of three Anastrepha species, Anastrepha pickeli Lima, Anastrepha pulchra Stone, and Anastrepha curitis Stone, and also the second instar of A. curitis. Internal structures, such as the cephalopharyngeal skeleton and spiracles, and...

  19. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure.

  20. Distribution of container-inhabiting Aedes larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) at a dengue focus in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittayapong, P; Strickman, D

    1993-05-01

    A Thai village with dengue transmission was surveyed for Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) larvae at the end of the rainy season. All containers (1,819) in 186 households were surveyed, recording the presence of larvae, container type, level of water, kind of cover, and location. The number of positive containers was proportional to the total number of containers in a household. Standard water jars (approximately 200 liters) contributed 57% and small water jars (< 100 liters) contributed 16% of the total infested containers. Each of the other 10 container types contributed < or = 10% of the total infested containers and were not statistically different from each other. Containers inside houses were infested significantly more often than were those outdoors, those under elevated houses or roofs, or those in bathrooms. Unexpectedly, standard water jars located outdoors that were covered with commercial metal lids were infested significantly more often than were uncovered jars.

  1. Sensitivity of midge larvae of Chironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera Chironomidae) to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1989-03-01

    The discharge of heavy metals into the natural waters has numerous obvious impacts on physical, chemical and biological parameters of aquatic ecosystem. Bioassay tests are important steps in establishing appropriate water quality criteria and standards for diverse use of ponds, lakes, streams and river waters. Therefore, the acute toxicities of various heavy metals to water flea Daphnia magna, and snail Lymnaea acuminata, and toad tadpoles Bufo mentanostictus have been reported from the authors' laboratory. Chironomid larvae might be particularly useful as indicators of water quality because they are widely distributed in freshwater systems and often from diverse communities within particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of ten heavy metals to the midge larvae Chironomus tentans Fabricius, which forms an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  2. [Description and key to the main species of Calliphoridae (Diptera) larvae of forensic importance from Colombia].

    PubMed

    Florez, Eliana; Wolff, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of 13 blowfly species from Colombia are described and an illustrated key for all them is presented. All larval instars of Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani), Lucilia eximia (Weidemann) are described, but the second and third instars of Compsomyiops verena (Walter), and only the third instar of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou).

  3. [Septicaemia of chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) promoted by Bacillus cereus and B. thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Khodyrev, V P

    2012-01-01

    Natural factors regulating the population of chironomids were studied. The bacteria Bacillus cereus were isolated from chironomids sampled from Kuyalnitskii Firth after epizooty of Chironomus sp., and bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis (Bti) were isolated from dead larva of Chironomus plumosus sampled in the Sea of Azov (3-m depth). Bti were characterized by high insecticide activity on midges Anopheles messeae Fall., Aedes cireneus Mg., and Culex pipiens pipiens f. pipiens L.

  4. Ultrastructure of larvae and puparia of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Paloma Martins; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; De Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2012-07-01

    Chrysomya megacephala is a forensic important fly, and its immature forms also cause myiasis. The adults are the first insects to reach a carcass and can oviposit just a few hours after arrival. Therefore, the knowledge of immature stages of flies is essential for correct identification of the species found on corpses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information on the morphological characters that can help identify the immature forms of flies. The aim of this study is to identify larvae and puparia of C. megacephala using SEM. The larval instar body of C. megacephala is similar at all instars. The integument is smooth with small spines located at the limit of all segments. The cephalic region has a group of robust spines with one or two tips. The puparia are very similar to third instar larvae, except for the cephalic structures that are retracted. The integument shows the wrinkles from the third instar larvae and posterior spiracle disc with three spiracular openings localized on the top of an elevation. In conclusion, SEM provides some characteristics to distinguish among Chrysomya species that could help entomologists to identify immature found on corpses.

  5. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  6. Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity. PMID:22132101

  7. [Attractive properties and physicochemical modifications of water following colonization by Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    PubMed

    Darriet, Frédéric; Corbel, Vincent

    2008-08-01

    The authors investigated in this paper the attractiveness of a water colonized ('positive' breeding site) or not ('negative' breeding site) by larvae of Aedes aegypti on gravid females and then characterized their physicochemical properties to identify and quantify the principal components. The results showed that the water that sheltered several generations of larvae was more attractive to gravid females than water that had never been colonized. The water in a 'positive' breeding site contains 2.5 times more ammonium ions (NH(+)(4)), four times more nitrite ions (NO(-)(2)) and 20 times more nitrate ions (NO(-)(3)) than 'negative' breeding water. The authors suggest that in the 'positive' breeding sites, where the larvae absorb the organic matter, the turbidity of water decreases, which makes it possible for organic nitrogen to be converted into nitrites and nitrates via the nitrifying activity of the bacteria (NH(+)(4)-->NO(-)(2)-->NO(-)(3)). It is likely that chitin, while accumulating and decomposing at the bottom of the breeding site, may increase the percentage of organic carbon and ammonium ions, then reinforcing the nitrification process. Conversely, in the 'negative' breeding site where the conditions of evolution of the nitrifying bacteria are more restrictive, the nitrogen remains primarily in its organic form.

  8. Bacteria associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) larvae and their cactus host Isolatocereus dumortieri.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de Los Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31,079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity.

  9. Natural vertical transmission of ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae.

    PubMed

    Lutomiah, Joel; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the family Togaviridae and genus Alphavirus. In Kenya, the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. NDUV was isolated from two pools of female Culex pipiens mosquitoes, IJR37 (n = 18) and IJR73 (n = 3), which were collected as larvae on 15 April 2013 from two dambos near the village of Marey, Ijara District, Garissa County, Kenya, and reared to adults and identified to species. These results represent the first field evidence of vertical transmission of NDUV among mosquitoes.

  10. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. In this study, the oils of 41 plants were evaluated for their effects against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. At first, the oils were surveyed against A. aegypti using a 50-ppm solution. Thirteen oils from 41 plants (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum and sandalwood) induced 100% mortality after 24 h, or even after shorter periods. The best oils were tested against third-instar larvae of the three mosquito species in concentrations of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 ppm. The lethal concentration 50 values of these oils ranged between 1 and 101.3 ppm against A. aegypti, between 9.7 and 101.4 ppm for A. stephensi and between 1 and 50.2 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus.

  11. Leaf litter decay process and the growth performance of Aedes albopictus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dieng, Hamady; Mwandawiro, Charles; Boots, Michael; Morales, Ronald; Satho, Tomomitsu; Tuno, Nobuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro

    2002-06-01

    Larvae of the mosquito Ae. albopictus typically develop in small aquatic sites such as tree holes and artificial containers. Organic detritus, in particular decaying leaves, is therefore their major carbon source. Here we demonstrate the importance of leaf characteristics, and in particular their rates of decay, in determining the development and survivorship of larvae. We compared the effects of a rapidly decaying leaf, the maple Acer buergerianum (Angiospermae: Aceraceae) and a slowly decaying leaf, the camphor Cinnamomum japonicum (Angiospermae: Lauraceae), on the larval development of Ae. albopictus at different larval densities in laboratory microcosms. Overall, the maple leaves provided a better substrate and the observed growth patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in nutritive and chemical contents of the two leaf types. At the highest population density, the duration of the larval period was much shorter in maple litter microcosms. Larval mortality gradually increased with population density in the camphor treatment. In contrast in the rapidly decaying leaf litter microcosms, mortality remained low even as densities increased. Mean pupal size was greater in the individuals fed on the rapidly decaying leaf litter as well as at lower density. Size is likely to be correlated with fitness in the field. In general, rapidly decaying leaf litter will favor mosquito growth resulting in quicker development and higher population sizes. This work emphasizes the importance of the local environment on the development of vector mosquitoes and has important implications for control.

  12. [Toxic activity of Bacillus Thuringiensis isolates to Aedes Aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Juliana R V; Rossi, Juliana R; Marucci, Suzana C; da C Alves, Eliane C; Volpe, Haroldo X L; Ferraudo, Antonio S; Lemos, Manoel V F; Desidério, Janete A

    2010-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.), the main vector of dengue fever in Brazil, has been controlled with the use of massive chemical products, contributing to the development of resistance and decreasing the insect control efficiency. The control of dipterans with bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis has been satisfactory, due to the production of insecticidal proteins denominated Cry (crystal), Cyt (cytolytic) toxins and Chi (chitinase), and to the synergistic effects among them. The present work aimed to select B. thuringiensis isolates efficient against A. aegypti larvae. A bacterial collection containing 1,073 isolates of B. thuringiensis, obtained from different locations of Brazilian territory, had the DNA isolated and submitted to PCR amplifications using specific primers for cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cry11Ba, cyt1Aa, cyt1Ab, cyt2Aa and chi genes. For the LC50 and LC90 determination, the entomopathogenic isolates were evaluated by selective and quantitative bioassays. Only 45 isolates (4.2%) presented amplicons for the cry and cyt genes. The chi gene sequence was detected in 25 (54.3%) of those isolates. From the 45 isolates submitted to the selective bioassays, 13 caused 100% mortality of A. aegypti larvae. The identification of cry, cyt and chi genes of B. thuringiensis and the toxicity analysis on A. aegypti led to the selection of a set of isolates that have the potential to be used in the formulation of new bioinsecticides.

  13. Delivery of Nucleic Acids through Embryo Microinjection in the Worldwide Agricultural Pest Insect, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny. The advent and the subsequent rapid development of biotechnological tools, together with the availability of the medfly genome sequence, has greatly boosted our understanding of the biology of this species. This favored the proliferation of new strategies for genome manipulation, which can be applied to population control. In this context, embryo microinjection plays a dual role in expanding the toolbox for medfly control. The ability to interfere with the function of genes that regulate key biological processes, indeed, expands our understanding of the molecular machinery underlying medfly invasiveness. Furthermore, the ability to achieve germ-line transformation facilitates the production of multiple transgenic strains that can be tested for future field applications in novel SIT settings. Indeed, genetic manipulation can be used to confer desirable traits that can, for example, be used to monitor sterile male performance in the field, or that can result in early life-stage lethality. Here we describe a method to microinject nucleic acids into medfly embryos to achieve these two main goals.

  14. Use of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to detect the presence of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) larvae in Valencia oranges.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Keith; Briens, Mathilde; Jacobs, Jennifer H; Clark, Suzanne J; Pickett, John A

    2012-08-15

    When fruit deteriorates a characteristic profile of volatile chemicals is produced that is different from that produced by healthy fruits. The identification of such chemicals allows the possibility of monitoring the fruit for early signs of deterioration with biological sensors. The use of honey bees and other insects as biological sensors is well known. This study aimed to identify the volatiles produced by oranges infested with larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly and to test the ability of honey bees, conditioned to this volatile chemical profile, to detect such oranges. Seventeen compounds that were present in higher concentrations in the volatile profiles of infested oranges than in those of insect-free fruits were mixed at the same relative concentrations as those in the collected volatiles of infested oranges. The synthetic mixture was used to train honey bees by classical Pavlovian conditioning and subsequent tests showed that they were then able to discriminate between medfly-infested and uninfested oranges. This study demonstrates an innovative way of detecting, at an early stage, the symptoms of damage to oranges by the Mediterranean fruit fly. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  16. Mechanisms of resistance to malathion in the medfly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Magaña, Cristina; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Brun-Barale, Alexandra; Couso-Ferrer, Francisco; Bride, Jean-Marc; Castañera, Pedro; Feyereisen, René; Ortego, Félix

    2008-08-01

    Target site insensitivity and metabolic resistance mediated by esterases have been previously suggested to be involved in resistance to malathion in a field-derived strain (W) of Ceratitis capitata. In the present study, we have obtained the coding sequence for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene (Ccace) of C. capitata. An allele of Ccace carrying only a point mutation Gly328Ala (Torpedo numbering) adjacent to the glutamate of the catalytic triad was found in individuals of the W strain. Adult flies homozygotes for this mutant allele showed reduced AChE activity and less sensitivity to inhibition by malaoxon, showing that target site insensitivity is one of the factors of malathion resistance. In addition, all individuals from the resistant W strain showed reduced aliesterase activity, which has been associated with specific malathion resistance in higher Diptera. However, the alphaE7 gene (CcalphaE7), sequenced in susceptible and resistant individuals, did not carry any of the mutations associated with organophosphorus insecticide resistance in other Diptera. Another esterase mechanism, perhaps a carboxylesterase selective for malathion, in addition to mutant AChE, thus contributes to malathion resistance in C. capitata.

  17. The putative-farnesoic acid O-methyl transferase (FAMeT) gene of Ceratitis capitata: characterization and pre-imaginal life expression.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Laura; Ciolfi, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Panti, Cristina; Frati, Francesco; Dallai, Romano

    2010-02-01

    Farnesoic acid O-methyl transferase (FAMeT) is the enzyme involved in the penultimate step of insect juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis and is thus a key regulator in insect development and reproduction. We report the characterization of the putative-FAMeT in the medfly or Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. This gene was identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization and completely sequenced by the screening of a medfly cDNA library. The obtained sequence was analyzed for conserved protein domain identification and its expression profile was evaluated by quantitative Real-Time PCR in medfly pre-imaginal life. The tissue expression of the isolated gene was verified by in situ hybridization on third instar larvae sections. The characterization of the isolated gene pointed out several typical features of methyl transferase genes. The pre-imaginal putative-FAMeT expression levels were consistent with JH titer change in Diptera. As recognized in some crustaceans, this gene seems to be widely expressed in the medfly as well. Ceratitis capitata is one of the most relevant agricultural pests against which insecticides and the sterile insect technique (SIT) are extensively used in spite of the well-known limitations of these approaches. Although results are not conclusive for the physiological role of the isolated gene, they suggest the characterization of a new gene in the Mediterranean fruit fly potentially involved in JH biosynthesis and may, therefore, have implications for pest control.

  18. Distribution of the larvae of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at Doi Inthanon National Park, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuvangkadilok, C; Boonkemtong, C; Phayuhasena, S

    1999-06-01

    The larvae of seventeen Simulium species consisting of thirteen known species, three unnamed species and one new species were distributed in various localities with different habitats at 400-2,460 meters above sea level in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Simulium caudisclerum, S. sp G and S. sp H were restricted to the high altitude of 2,460 m at the cool Ang Kha habitat of the summit of Doi Inthanon. On the other hand, S. nakhonense and S. rudnicki occurred only at low altitudes from 400 m-700 m. Some Simulium species such as S. fenestratum, S. asakoae, S. inthanonense and S. sp J were found in the warmer localities at 1,010 m-1,280 m altitudes. Moreover, S. feuerborni and S. rufibasis were widely distributed species at different altitudes from 700 m-2,460 m and 1,010 m-2,300 m respectively. Therefore, the distribution and abundance of Simulium species seem to correlate with altitudes as well as micro-habitat factors such as water temperature and water velocity.

  19. Transcriptional changes induced by in vivo exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Chironomus riparius (Diptera) aquatic larvae.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Martín, Raquel; Planelló, Rosario; Urien, Josune; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2014-12-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been extensively used worldwide as a pesticide and biocide and is frequently detected in the aquatic environment. In the present work, the toxicity of PCP was investigated in Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae. The effects following short- and long-term exposures were evaluated at the molecular level by analyzing changes in the transcriptional profile of different endocrine genes, as well as in genes involved in the stress response and detoxification. Interestingly, although no differences were found after 12- and 24-h treatments, at 96-h exposures PCP was able to induce significant increases in transcripts from the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the early ecdysone-inducible E74 gene, the estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR), the Hsp70 gene and the CYP4G gene. In contrast, the Hsp27 gene appeared to be downregulated, while the ultraspiracle gene (usp) (insect ortholog of the retinoid X receptor) was not altered in any of the conditions assayed. Moreover, Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) activity was not affected. The results obtained show the ability of PCP to modulate transcription of different biomarker genes from important cellular metabolic activities, which could be useful in genomic approaches to monitoring. In particular, the significant upregulation of hormonal genes represents the first evidence at the genomic level of the potential endocrine disruptive effects of PCP on aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kook; Lee, Youn Yeop; Park, Kwan Ho; Sim, Jeonggu; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2014-01-01

    A novel, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, motile and short rod-shaped bacterium, strain KBL006(T) was isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens, Black soldier fly. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL006(T) showed 96.4 % similarity to that of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica S5(T). Strain KBL006(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were positive. The major fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c, C14:0, and C16:0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol, and two phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 45.2 mol%. Based on these polyphasic data, strain KBL006(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Wohlfahrtiimonas, for which the name Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KBL006(T) (= KACC 16839(T) = JCM 18424(T)).

  1. The vortex wake of the free-swimming larva and pupa of Culex pipiens (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Brackenbury, J

    2001-06-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of free-swimming pupal and larval (final-instar) culicids were investigated using videography and a simple wake-visualisation technique (dyes). In both cases, swimming is based on a technique of high-amplitude, side-to-side (larva) or up-and-down (pupa) bending of the body. The pupa possesses a pair of plate-like abdominal paddles; the larval abdominal paddle consists of a fan of closely spaced bristles which, at the Reynolds numbers involved, behaves like a continuous surface. Wake visualisation showed that each half-stroke of the swimming cycle produces a discrete ring vortex that is convected away from the body. Consecutive vortices are produced first to one side then to the other of the mean swimming path, the convection axis being inclined at approximately 25 degrees away from dead aft. Pupal and larval culicids therefore resemble fish in using the momentum injected into the water to generate thrust. Preliminary calculations for the pupa suggest that each vortex contains sufficient momentum to account for that added to the body with each half-stroke. The possibility is discussed that the side-to-side flexural technique may allow an interaction between body and tail flows in the production of vorticity.

  2. Investigating the potential of fluorescent fingerprint powders as a marker for blow fly larvae (Diptera: calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Rosati, Jennifer Y; Robinson, Scott D; Devine, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Four fluorescent fingerprint powders (RedWop(™) , GreenWop(™) , Basic Yellow(™) , and Yellow Powder(™) ) were evaluated as a marker for blow fly larvae. Administration methods included ingestion (high vs. low concentration) or topical. Ingestion of high concentrations of Basic Yellow(™) and RedWop(™) caused higher larval mortality. Basic Yellow(™) delayed development and adult emergence while RedWop(™) and Yellow Powder(™) had a significant effect on particular stages of development, however, emergence time was not altered. Optimal administration is through ingestion at low concentration levels (<10%) or topically, with GreenWop(™) demonstrating minimal adverse effects. Optimum wavelength for discrimination between powders was 450 nm. This research can aid in investigative training to increase visibility of larval and pupal blow flies. It can also be used in entomological studies to differentiate between larval blow flies (or other dipteran) species or individuals to further understand complex interactions and behavior during larval development. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County.

    PubMed

    Verna, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species.

  4. Larvicidal activity of Copaifera sp. (Leguminosae) oleoresin microcapsules against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Vieira, Edna da Silva; Nascimento, Mariane Pires do; Zepon, Karine Modolon; Kulkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Silva, Onilda Santos da

    2012-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated the potential of Copaifera sp. oleoresin to control Aedes aegypti proliferation. However, the low water solubility is a factor that limits its applicability. Thus, the micro- or nanoencapsulation could be an alternative to allow its use in larval breeding places. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if achievable lethal concentrations could be obtained from Copaifera sp. oleoresin incorporated into polymers (synthetic or natural) and, mainly, if it can be sustained in the residual activity compared to the pure oil when tested against the A. aegypti larvae. Microcapsules were prepared by the process of emulsification/precipitation using the polymers of cellulose acetate (CA) and poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (PEMA), yielding four types of microcapsules: MicPEMA₁ and MicPEMA₂, and MicCA₁ and MicCA₂. When using only Copaifera sp. oleoresin, the larvicidal activity was observed at concentrations of LC₅₀ = 48 mg/L and LC₉₉ = 149 mg/L. For MicPEMA₁, the LC₅₀ and LC₉₉ were 78 and 389 mg/L, respectively. Using MicPEMA₂, the LC₅₀ was 120 mg/L and LC₉₉ > 500 mg/L. For microcapsules MicCA₁ and MicCA₂, the LC₅₀ and LC₉₉ were 42, 164, 140, and 398 mg/L, respectively. For a dose of 150 mg/L of pure oleoresin, the residual activity remained above 20% for 10 days, while the dose of 400 mg/L remained above 40% for 21 days. The MicPEMA₁ microcapsules showed a loss in residual activity up to the first day; however, it remained in activity above 40% for 17 days. The microcapsules of MicCA₁ showed similar LC₅₀ of pure oil with 150 mg/L.

  5. Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

    2014-07-01

    Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50 = 17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50 = 20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50 = 40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50 = 42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50 = 52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50 = 53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50 = 65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50 = 66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50 = 71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50 = 123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial + neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity.

  6. Effect of Continuous and Cyclic Exposure to a Cold Environment on the Development of Larvae of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Different Sized Larval Masses.

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Dadour, Ian R

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of forensic practice in many countries prevents the pathologist performing an immediate autopsy. During the period prior to autopsy, the corpse and the insects possibly associated with it are stored in a mortuary with temperatures ∼4°C. When a corpse is found in a late stage of decay, fly immatures may be present as small or large larval masses. The purpose of refrigeration at 4°C is to slow down the decomposition of the corpse as well as the temporary disruption of the activity and development of the bacteria and the necrophagous insects associated with the corpse. The aim of this research is to investigate the growth and development of different larval masses of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) when stored in a cold environment (4°C). The research was divided into experimental sessions comprising different storage conditions (continuous or cyclic exposure to a cold environment) for immature stages (second and third instar) and included four different sizes of larval mass (∼100, 500, 1,000, and 5,000 larvae) feeding on 4 kg of beef liver and replicated three times. Results show that if the larval mass has a size of ∼5,000 larvae, and the larvae have already reached third instar, then when they are exposed to a cold environment, their development continues. The storage condition at 4°C does not disrupt the development of such larvae. The number of larvae and their instar that make up the larval mass are essential data for the subsequent estimation of a correct minimum postmortem interval. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Changes in amount of bacteria during gut passage of leaf litter and during coprophagy in three species of Bibionidae (Diptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Frouz, J; Kristůfek, V; Li, X; Santrůcková, H; Sustr, V; Brune, A

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the interaction between bacteria and saprophagous Diptera larvae, the amounts of bacteria in leaf litter, individual gut compartments, and feces of three species of Bibionidae (Bibio pomonae, Bibio marci, and Penthetria holosericea), feeding either directly on leaf litter or on fecal pellets produced from leaf litter by larvae of the same species, were assessed by determining total direct counts and viable counts on solid media at different pH. In P. holosericea, the effect of various cultivation temperatures on direct counts of bacteria in individual compartments was also demonstrated. In all species, the amount of bacteria in the anterior mesenteron was lower than in the consumed food, regardless of whether the larvae were feeding on leaf litter or feces, and increased again in the posterior part of the gut. The amount of bacteria in these compartments was generally higher in larvae feeding on feces than in those feeding on leaf litter, whereas the amount of bacteria found in the ceca varied. In B. marci, the amount of bacteria in the mesenteron sections able to grow on alkaline medium (pH 9) was higher than that of bacteria able to grow on slightly acidic medium (pH 5.5) during both the first and the second gut passage. In B. pomonae and P. holosericea, this increase was observed only during the second gut passage. The effect of gut passage in P. holosericea on changes in direct counts of bacteria was more pronounced when the larvae were fed at 5 degrees C as compared to 20 degrees C. Radiolabeled bacteria were digested in the gut and utilized as a source of energy and nutrients by the larvae; digested bacteria represented up to 10% of the material assimilated by the larvae. Lysozyme activity in whole-gut extracts of P. holosericea had a pH optimum of at pH 7, indicating a low in situ activity in the alkaline mesenteron. Proteinase activity, however, had an optimum at pH > 12, suggesting that the digestion of bacteria in the bibionid gut is caused

  8. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases.

  9. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  10. New Agar Technique Compared with Sand Flotation for Obtaining Salt Marsh Culicoides mississippiensis Hoffman (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Larvae,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-26

    compared with 1% and 2% (wt/v) agar formulations for extracting Culicoides ndisaiooippiensis Hoffman larvae from marsh soil samples. The 1% agar formula...been used to recover larvae of biting midges (CuZ.,o;1aa spp .) from salt marsh substrate (soil) samples. They are: (1) sieve-flotation (Kettle and Lawson...Kettle et al., (1975) in which tabanid and culicoid larvae were successfully reared in agar media, we decided that one possibility was to replace the

  11. [Contribution to the study of the biology of soil-dwelling dipteran larvae (Insecta, Diptera) of the desert zone].

    PubMed

    Krivosheina, N P

    2012-01-01

    The composition of seven dipteran families from the complex of larvae dwelling in sandy soils of the southeastern Karakum Desert, represented by both free-living soil forms and endobionts ecologically dependent mainly on herbaceous plants, is analyzed. In the surface horizons of the soil, at a depth of up to 20 cm, free-living soil-dwellers form a stable complex, which includes saprophagous coleopteran larvae and their constant companions, the obligatorily predaceous dipteran larvae. Previously unknown data on the lifestyle of the larvae of five therevid genera are given.

  12. Comparison of fatty acid contents and composition in major lipid classes of larvae and adults of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a steppe region.

    PubMed

    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Yurchenko, Yuri A; Gladyshev, Michail I; Belevich, Olga E; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Angelika A

    2013-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects, including mosquitoes, are known to transfer to terrestrial ecosystems specific essential biochemicals, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We studied fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of dominant mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, Anopheles messeae, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. flavescens, Oc. euedes, Oc. subdiversus, Oc. cataphylla, and Aedes cinereus, inhabited a steppe wetland of a temperate climate zone to fill up the gap in their lipid knowledge. The polar lipid and triacylglycerol fractions of larvae and adults were compared. In most studied mosquito species, we first found and identified a number of short-chain PUFA, for example, prominent 14:2n-6 and 14:3n-3, which were not earlier documented in living organisms. These PUFA, although occurred in low levels in adult mosquitoes, can be potentially used as markers of mosquito biomass in terrestrial food webs. We hypothesize that these acids might be synthesized (or retroconverted) by the mosquitoes. Using FA trophic markers accumulated in triacylglycerols, trophic relations of the mosquitoes were accessed. The larval diet comprised green algae, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates and provided the mosquitoes with essential n-3 PUFA, linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. As a result, both larvae and adults of the studied mosquitoes had comparatively high content of the essential PUFA. Comparison of FA proportions in polar lipids versus storage lipids shown that during mosquito metamorphosis transfer of essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from the reserve in storage lipids of larvae to functional polar lipids in adults occurred. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Predation on pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by parasitoid, Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Ophyra spinigera larva (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Omar, Baharudin; Dhang, Chen Chee; Weng, Lau Koon; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.

  14. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae) larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Quézia Ribeiro; de Moura Sarquis, Maria Inez; Hamada, Neusa; Alencar, Yamile Benaion

    2008-01-01

    The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi. PMID:24031217

  15. Ecdysis Triggering Hormone Signaling (ETH/ETHR-A) Is Required for the Larva-Larva Ecdysis in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Pei, Yu-Xia; Xu, Li; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insects must undergo ecdysis for successful development and growth, and the ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), released by the Inka cells, is a master hormone in this process. In this study, we determined the sequence of the ETH precursor and receptors in an agriculturally important pest insect, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). We identified two functionally distinct splice receptor isoforms: BdETH-R-A and BdETH-R-B, and when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-WTA11) cells, they exhibited a high sensitivity to the two mature peptides BdETH1 and BdETH2. The BdETH transcript was detected in the tracheal tissue of the larvae. Inka cells were identified with immunohistochemical antibody staining against Drosophila melanogaster ETH1, and in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes. Selective RNA silencing of BdETH or BdETH-R-A, but not of BdETH-R-B, caused developmental failure at ecdysis. The dsRNA-treated larvae displayed tracheal defects and could not shed the old cuticle followed by death. Our results demonstrated that BdETH, via activation of BdETH-R-A but not ETH-R-B, plays an essential role in regulating the process of larva-larva ecdysis in B. dorsalis. PMID:28878684

  16. Ecdysis Triggering Hormone Signaling (ETH/ETHR-A) Is Required for the Larva-Larva Ecdysis in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Pei, Yu-Xia; Xu, Li; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insects must undergo ecdysis for successful development and growth, and the ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), released by the Inka cells, is a master hormone in this process. In this study, we determined the sequence of the ETH precursor and receptors in an agriculturally important pest insect, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). We identified two functionally distinct splice receptor isoforms: BdETH-R-A and BdETH-R-B, and when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-WTA11) cells, they exhibited a high sensitivity to the two mature peptides BdETH1 and BdETH2. The BdETH transcript was detected in the tracheal tissue of the larvae. Inka cells were identified with immunohistochemical antibody staining against Drosophila melanogaster ETH1, and in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes. Selective RNA silencing of BdETH or BdETH-R-A, but not of BdETH-R-B, caused developmental failure at ecdysis. The dsRNA-treated larvae displayed tracheal defects and could not shed the old cuticle followed by death. Our results demonstrated that BdETH, via activation of BdETH-R-A but not ETH-R-B, plays an essential role in regulating the process of larva-larva ecdysis in B. dorsalis.

  17. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source.

  18. Expression of heat shock protein and hemoglobin genes in Chironomus tentans (Diptera, chironomidae) larvae exposed to various environmental pollutants: a potential biomarker of freshwater monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon-Mi; Lee, Se-Bum; Park, Chul-Hwi; Choi, Jinhee

    2006-11-01

    To identify a sensitive biomarker of freshwater monitoring, we evaluated pollutant-induced expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and hemoglobins (Hbs) genes in the larvae of the aquatic midge Chironomus tentans (Diptera, Chironomidae). As pollutants, we examined nonylphenol, bisphenol-A, 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, endosulfan, paraquat dichloride, chloropyriphos, fenitrothion, cadmium chloride, lead nitrate, potassium dichromate, benzo[a]pyrene and carbon tetrachloride. We also investigated larval growth as a physiological descriptor by measuring changes in the body fresh weight and dry weight after chemical exposure. The response of the HSPs gene expression by chemical exposure was rapid and sensitive to low chemical concentrations but it was not stressor specific. Interestingly, an increase in the expression of HSPs genes was observed not only in a stress inducible form (HSP70), but also in a constitutively (HSC70) expressed form. The expression of Hb genes showed chemical-specific responses: that is, alkyl phenolic compounds increased the expression of hemoglobin genes, whereas pesticides decreased the expression. As expected, molecular-level markers were more sensitive than physiological endpoints, suggesting that gene expression could be developed as an early warning biomarker in this animal. The overall results suggest that the expression of HSP and Hb genes in Chironomus could give useful information for diagnosing general health conditions in fresh water ecosystem. The expression of Hb genes, in particular, seems to be a promising biomarker, especially in view of the potential of Chironomus larvae as a biomonitoring species and of the physiological particularities of their respiratory pigments.

  19. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lahuatte, Paola F.; Lincango, M. P.; Heimpel, G. E.; Causton, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer’s yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer’s yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  20. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial clustering and longitudinal variation of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in a river of the Amazon: the importance of the forest fringe and of obstructions to flow in frontier malaria.

    PubMed

    Barros, F S M; Arruda, M E; Gurgel, H C; Honório, N A

    2011-12-01

    Deforestation has been linked to a rise in malaria prevalence. In this paper, we studied longitudinally 20 spots, including forested and deforested portions of a temporary river in a malarigenous frontier zone. Larval habitat parameters influencing distribution of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were studied. We observed that larvae were clustered in forested-deforested transitions. For the first time in the literature, it was verified that parameters determining larval distribution varied from deforested to forested areas. The proximity to human dwellings was also a significant factor determining distribution, but larvae was most importantly associated with a previously undescribed parameter, the presence of small obstructions to river flow, such as tree trunks within the river channel, which caused pooling of water during the dry season ('microdams'). In deforested areas, the most important factor determining distribution of larvae was shade (reduced luminance). Larvae were absent in the entire studied area during the wet season and present in most sites during the dry season. During the wet-dry transition, larvae were found sooner in areas with microdams, than in other areas, suggesting that flow obstruction prolongs the breeding season of An. darlingi. Adult mosquito densities and malaria incidence were higher during the dry season. Our data correlate well with the published literature, including the distribution of malaria cases near the forest fringes, and has permitted the creation of a model of An. darlingi breeding, where preference for sites with reduced luminance, human presence and microdams would interact to determine larval distribution.

  2. Heating rate and induced thermotolerance in Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, a quarantine pest of citrus and mangoes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D B; Shellie, K C

    2000-08-01

    A bioassay and graduated temperature water baths were used to document the induction of thermotolerance in third-instar Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). The 99% lethal time dose for larvae exposed to 44 degrees C core temperatures in artificial fruit is 61.5 min when a slow heating rate (120 min ramp) is applied, but only 41.9 min when a fast heating rate (15 min ramp) is applied. In electrophoretic profiles a heat inducible protein of molecular weight 32 kDa was detected in 76% of the larvae exposed to the slow ramp treatment, but only 42% of the larvae in the fast ramp treatment. Results from this research demonstrate that thermotolerance can be induced under conditions used to commercially disinfest fresh produce and highlight the necessity for specifying heating rates in quarantine treatment schedules.

  3. Mortality Patterns of Simulium vittatum Larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) Following Exposure to Insecticidal Proteins Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Iburg, Joseph P; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Products containing insecticidal crystalline proteins (ICPs) produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti ICPs) are used to suppress vector and nuisance populations of black flies. The efficacy of an application of these products is often determined by a posttreatment evaluation of larval mortality. Larvae are typically removed from the substrate at some point in time after application of the product and mortality is determined. The time necessary for the effects of Bti ICPs to cause morality in exposed larvae can vary, and there is little consensus on how long operators should wait before evaluating larval mortality. This study was conducted to provide more information to larvicide applicators when performing posttreatment evaluations. Simulium vittatum larvae were exposed to Bti ICPs under controlled conditions and the mortality was monitored over time. Larvae exposed to operational concentrations of ICPs exhibited maximum mortality, approximately 87%, after 4 h. Exposure of larvae to 1/3 of that concentration resulted in similar mortality; however, the maximum mortality was not reached until 8 h postexposure. Additional experiments revealed that maximum mortality and time to maximum mortality can also be affected by components in the larval medium. Larval mortality was compared between larvae exposed to Bti ICPs in moderately hard water, medium containing 50 parts per million (ppm) of kaolinite, and medium containing 50 ppm of cellulose. The clay material had no significant effect on larval mortality or time to achieve maximum mortality. When cellulose was present in the medium, the time to maximum mortality was increased 50% and overall mortality was reduced by more than 40%.

  4. Larvae of Chironomids (Insecta, Diptera) Encountered in the Mantle Cavity of Zebra Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia, Dreissenidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Samoilenko, Vera M.

    2005-02-01

    The paper includes data on species composition of chironomid larvae which were encountered in the mantle cavity of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within 7 waterbodies in the Republic of Belarus. All were found to be free-living species commonly present in periphyton and/or benthos. A long-term study of the seasonal dynamics of these larvae in Dreissena did not reveal any typical pattern. Our data suppose that chironomids do not have an obligate association with zebra mussels and possibly enter their mantle cavity inadvertently.

  5. Inoculating poultry manure with companion bacteria influences growth and development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohui; Cheng, Ping; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Yongjian; Yang, Zihong; Chen, Yuanfeng; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-02-01

    The growth and development of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed chicken manure inoculated with bacteria isolated from black soldier fly larvae and associated larval feed was evaluated. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated. B. subtilis strains S15, S16, S19, were isolated from the gut of black soldier fly larvae. B. natto strain D1 was isolated from the diet fed to black soldier fly larvae. These bacteria were added individually into nonsterile 200 g fresh hen manure at 10(6) cfu/g and homogenized. Treated manure was then inoculated with 4-d old black soldier fly larvae. Prepupal weight ranged from 0.0606 g in the control to 0.0946 g in manure treated with the S15 strain. Larval survivorship to the prepupal stage in all treatments ranged from 98.00 ± 2.65% to 99.33 ± 1.15%. Prepupal survivorship to the pupal stage ranged from 91.92 ± 1.87% to 97.95 ± 1.03%. Adult emergence from the pupal stage did not significantly (P < 0.05) differ across treatments and ranged from 98.95 ± 1.82% to 100.00 ± 0.00%. Adult body length resulting from the larvae in each of the treatments was significantly greater than those from the control. Longevity of adults did not differ significantly between treatments. Time from hatching to the development of the first pupa did not differ significantly across treatments; however, development time from hatching to 90% reaching the prepupual stage was significantly different between treatments and ranged from 29.00 ± 1.00 d to 34.33 ± 3.51 d. Development time from hatching to 90% reaching the adult stages was significantly different between treatments. Our results demonstrate that inoculating poultry manure with bacteria from black soldier fly larvae influences the growth and development of conspecific larvae feeding on the manure. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  6. Description of male, pupa and larva of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli and redescription of the female (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Stein, Marina; Carlos Rossi, Gustavo; Ricardo Almirón, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The female of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli Paterson & Shannon is redescribed, and the pupa, fourth-instar larva and male genitalia are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about the distribution, bionomics and taxonomy is also included. Adults of Ps. paulli can be separated from the other species of the genus and subgenus by its small size. The larva of Ps. paulli is similar to that of Ps. varinervis Edwards and Ps. discolor (Coquillett) but can be separated based on the development of setae 1-X and 5-VIII, the length of the anal papillae and the comb on a sclerotized area.

  7. First record of Neoempheria Osten Sacken (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) biology in the Neotropical region, with associations between its larvae and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Albertoni, Fabiano Fabian; Borkent, Christopher James; Amorim, Dalton S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus. Their biology is relatively well known in the Palaearctic, though other regions are poorly known, and there are no associations recorded between mycetophilid immatures and fungi in the Neotropical region. Here we report the first association between a mycetophilid—Neoempheria puncticoxa Edwards—and fungi in this region. Immatures of N. puncticoxa were collected on fungi and some were reared in the laboratory until adult emergence. The immature stages and adult of N. puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given. New information We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region. PMID:26175610

  8. Development and reproduction of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) with fungus gnat larvae (Diptera: Sciaridae), potworms (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Acari: Acaridae) as the sole food source.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

    2005-01-01

    Stratiolaelaps (=Hypoaspis) miles (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is a polyphagous soil-dwelling predatory mite that is widely marketed for use in greenhouse production systems to manage populations of dark-winged fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) and for supplemental control of thrips. The suggestion by Walter and Campbell (2003, Biol. Control 26: 253-269) that North American commercial cultures of S. miles may actually be S. scimitus was confirmed. The development and reproduction at 21-23 degrees C of S. scimitus provided ad libidum with one of three different prey--the fungus gnat Bradysia aff. coprophila (Lintner), potworms (Enchytraeidae), or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Zachvatkin, 1937) (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae)--were compared. Developmental duration of the egg and non-feeding larval stages were 2.47 and 1.11 days, respectively; mortalities were 8.3 and 5.5%. Stratiolaelaps scimitus failed to develop beyond the protonymphal stage when provided with S. aff. sphaerogaster alone, although some feeding was observed. Development and reproduction of S. scimitus was successful on both fungus gnat larvae and enchytraeids, with no influence of prey on protonymphal duration (4.70 days) and mortality (8.3%), or on deutonymphal duration (4.61 days) and mortality (6.1%). Adult female S. scimitus feeding on potworms, compared to those feeding on fungus gnat larvae, had a significantly shorter pre-oviposition period (2.69 vs. 4.59 days). However, diet did not influence other adult female developmental or reproductive characteristics (oviposition period, 18.6 days; post-oviposition period, 6.2 days; total adult longevity, 27.3 days; total number of eggs, 26.5). S. scimitus reared on potworms tended (p = 0.06) to have a higher intrinsic rate of increase, a higher finite rate of increase and a shorter doubling time (rm = 0.142 day(-1), lambda = 1.153, Dt = 4.85 days) than those reared on fungus gnat larvae (rm = 0.105 day(-1), lambda = 1

  9. Larval development sites of the main Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in northern Europe and distribution of coprophilic species larvae in Belgian pastures.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Brostaux, Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2014-10-15

    Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of substrates suitable for Culicoides larval development is important, particularly for the main vector temperate species. This study, realized during two years, aimed to highlight the larval development sites of these biting midge species in the immediate surroundings of ten Belgian cattle farms. Moreover, spatial distribution of the coprophilic Culicoides larvae (C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi) within pastures was studied with increasing distance from farms along linear transects (farm-pasture-woodland). A total of 4347 adult specimens belonging to 13 Culicoides species were obtained by incubation of 2131 soil samples belonging to 102 different substrates; 18 of these substrates were suitable for larval development. The Obsoletus complex (formed by two species) was observed in a wide range of substrates, including silage residues, components of a chicken coop, dung adhering to walls inside stables, leftover feed along the feed bunk, a compost pile of sugar beet residues, soil of a livestock trampling area, and decaying wood, while the following served as substrates for the other specimens: C. chiopterus, mainly cow dung; C. dewulfi, cow dung and molehill soil; C. circumscriptus, algae; C. festivipennis, algae and soil in stagnant water; C. nubeculosus, algae and silt specifically from the edge of a pond; C. punctatus, mainly wet soil between silage reserves; C. salinarius, algae; and C. stigma, algae and wet soil between silage reserves. We also recorded significantly higher densities of coprophilic larvae within pastures in cow dung located near forests, which is likely due to the localization of

  10. Field distribution of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) adults, larvae, pupae, and parasitoids and evaluation of monitoring trap designs in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberry gall midge (BGM), Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson), is a pest of cultivated blueberries throughout the world. Larvae of this tiny fly feed and develop in leaf buds, and also in flower buds of rabbiteye blueberries, which causes buds to fall the plant. These injuries can cause up to 80% yiel...

  11. A Video-Tracking Analysis-Based Behavioral Assay for Larvae of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; Alvarez Costa, Agustín; Masuh, Héctor M

    2017-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue, yellow fever, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, whereas Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobald) is the principal vector for malaria in Latin America. The larval stage of these mosquitoes occurs in very different development habitats, and the study of their respective behaviors could give us valuable information to improve larval control. The aim of this study was to set up a bioassay to study basic larval behaviors using a video-tracking software. Larvae of An. pseudopunctipennis came from two localities in Salta Province, Argentina, while Ae. aegypti larvae were of the Rockefeller laboratory strain. Behaviors of individual fourth-instar larvae were documented in an experimental petri dish arena using EthoVision XT10.1 video-tracking software. The overall level of movement of larval An. pseudopunctipennis was lower than that for Ae. aegypti, and, while moving, larval An. pseudopunctipennis spent significantly more time swimming near the wall of the arena (thigmotaxis). This is the first study that analyzes the behavior of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae. The experimental system described here may be useful for future studies on the effect of physiological, toxicological, and chemosensory stimuli on larval behaviors. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Mosquito Dunks against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Fansiri, Thanyalak; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Krasaesub, Somporn; Sithiprasasna, Ratana

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays and semi-field studies were conducted on the efficacy and longevity of Mosquito Dunks (7,000 ITU/mg Bti) in order to determine the concentration-response relationship and the effectiveness on the potency of the Bti product against Aedes mosquito species based on the WHO protocol standard methods and to determine the longevity of release for this product against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae in water storage containers. This bio-potency study with the late 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was carried out according to WHO standard protocols. The six concentrations of the Bti product used in each test were replicated 4 times with 25 mosquito larvae. Probit analysis was then used to determine the LC50 and LC95 which was equated with dosages of 1.02 and 1.86 ppm for Ae. aegypti; and 0.39 and 0.84 ppm for Ae. albopictus, which reveals a potency of 382.95 and 303.74 ITU/mg, respectively. The semi-field evaluation of this product in 200-liter earthen jars against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti showed satisfactory control of greater than 80% at 11 weeks post-treatment.

  13. Toxicity of Sulfide and Ammonium to Aedes triseriatus Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Water-Filled Tree Holes and Tires.

    PubMed

    Walker, Edward D

    2016-05-01

    Ammonium and sulfide in water of tree hole and tire habitats of Aedes triseriatus Say larvae could accumulate to toxic levels, limiting growth and production of larvae and adults. Both ions were detected in water samples taken in longitudinal series over 11 dates from 10 habitats of each type during the larval growth season, at concentrations suggestive of reducing conditions in these habitats. Ammonium was more concentrated overall in water of both habitat types, while sulfide was more concentrated in tires than in tree holes. Water of tree holes was more acidic, whereas water in tires tended to be more basic, an important difference relative to the tendency of ammonium to form the more toxic ammonia moiety under basic conditions. Oxygen saturation was low in both habitat types, indicative of hypoxic conditions such that aerobic respiration would be limited. First-and fourth-instar larvae were sensitive to ammonium and sulfide in acute dose-response assays, but LC50 values were above maximum concentrations observed under field conditions, suggesting that toxic effects of ammonium and sulfide on larvae are not acute, but could be chronic. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A compound produced by Fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determi...

  15. A full-scale house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae bioconversion system for value-added swine manure reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Zhang, Zhijian; Czapar, George F; Winkler, Mari K H; Zheng, JianGuo

    2013-02-01

    Manure produced from confined animal farms can threaten public and environmental health if not managed properly. Herein, a full-scale commercial bioconversion operation in DeQing County, China for value-added swine manure reduction using house fly, Musca domestica L., larvae is reported. The greenhouse-assisted larvae bioreactor had a maximum daily treatment capacity of 35 m(3) fresh raw manure per day. The bioconversion process produced a fresh larvae yield of 95-120 kg m(3) fresh raw manure. This process provided an alternative animal foodstuff (having 56.9 and 23.8% protein and total fat as dry matter, respectively), as well as captured nutrients for agricultural re-utilization. Bioconversion reduced odour emission (characterized by 3-methylindole) and the Escherichia coli (E. coli) index by 94.5 and 92.0%, respectively, and reductions in total weight, moisture and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in solids were over 67.2, 80.0 and 76.0%, respectively. Yearly profit under this trial period ranged from US$33.4-46.1 per m(3). It is concluded that swine manure larvae bioconversion technology with subsequent production of value-added bio-products can be a promising avenue when considering a programme to reduce waste products in an intensive animal production system.

  16. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter; Morse, Joseph G; Stark, John D

    2012-10-01

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were measured in traps as potential detection and male annihilation technique (MAT) devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure and insecticide formulations, 2) solid cones and plugs with an insecticidal strip, and 3) solid single and double lure wafers with DDVP for captures of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel; and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett. Bucket and Jackson traps were tested in a coffee plantation near Eleele, Kauai Island, HI (trials at high populations) and avocado orchards near Kona, HI Island, HI (trials at low populations). Captures of all three species with Mallet TMR were not different from Mallet CMR; therefore, subsequent experiments did not include Mallet CMR because of higher production costs. In MAT trials near Eleele, HI captures in AWPM traps with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to any other solid lure (single or double) except the Mallet ME wafer. In survey trials near Kona, captures of C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. dorsalis with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to those for the standard TML, ME, and C-L traps used in FL and CA. A solid Mallet TMR wafer is safer, more convenient to handle, and may be used in place of several individual lure and trap systems, potentially reducing costs of large survey and detection programs in Florida and California, and MAT programs in Hawaii.

  17. Morphology and histology of secretory setae in terrestrial larvae of biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Richert, Malwina; Giłka, Wojciech; Szadziewski, Ryszard

    2011-11-01

    Apneustic larvae of the genus Forcipomyia possess unique secretory setae located on the dorsal surface along the body in two rows, one pair on each thoracic and abdominal segment and two pairs on the head. Morphological and histological studies of secretory setae in fourth instar larvae of Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) and Forcipomyia nigrans Remm indicate they are modified mechanoreceptors (sensilla trichodea) in which the trichogen cell is a glandular cell producing a hygroscopic secretion. The cytoplasm of the glandular trichogen cell fills the lumen of a secretory seta, which shows one or more pores on the apex. The cytoplasm contains numerous microtubules responsible for transportation of proteinaceous vesicles, and an extremely large polyploid nucleus typical of gland cells. The main role of the hygroscopic secretion is to moist the body and thus facilitate cuticular respiration.

  18. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md. Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = −0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae. PMID:27241953

  19. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  20. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered.

  1. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = -0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae.

  2. The role of pH in structuring communities of Maine wetland macrophytes and chironomid larvae (Diptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodcock, T.S.; Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Mingo, T.M.; Bennatti, C.R.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Aquatic vascular plants, or macrophytes, are an important habitat component for many wetland organisms, and larvae of chironomid midges are ubiquitous components of wetland fauna. Many chironomids are primary consumers of algae and detritus and form an essential energetic link between allochthonous and autochthonous primary production and higher trophic levels, while others are predators and feed on smaller invertebrates. Live macrophytes serve mostly as habitat, whereas plant detritus serves as both habitat and as a food source. Assemblages of macrophytes and chironomid larvae were surveyed in ten Maine wetlands, five with low pH (5.5), and explained in terms of physical and chemical habitat variables. Macrophyte richness was significantly greater, and richness of chironomid larvae was lower, in low pH wetlands. There was no difference in chironomid abundance related to pH. However, community structure was related to pH, suggesting that competitive dominance of a few taxa was responsible for lower richness in low pH wetlands, whereas competition was weaker in high pH wetlands, making coexistence of more chironomid taxa possible. An examination of individual chironomid taxa by stepwise multiple regression showed that distribution of most taxa was controlled by water chemistry variables and macrophyte habit (i.e., floating, submergent).

  3. First report of Coelomomyces santabrancae sp. nov. (Blastocladiomycetes: Blastocladiales) infecting mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Páramo, M E; Montalva, C; Arruda, W; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C; Humber, R A

    2017-10-01

    A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO). Collections during May-April of 2016 and February 2017 yielded a few dead mosquito larvae of an undetermined Onirion sp. (Culicidae: Sabethini) whose hemocoels contained many ovoid, thick-walled, yellow-golden to golden-brown, ovoid thick-walled resistant sporangia, 38.3±4×22.8±2.3µm, decorated by numerous, closely and randomly spaced punctations of variable size and shape. These were the first indisputable collections from Brazil of any Coelomomyces species. Comparisons of the morphology of these sporangia with those of other species of Coelomomyces, confirmed that this Brazilian fungus represented a new species that is described here as Coelomomyces santabrancae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

    2008-06-01

    We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight.

  5. Evaluation of temephos and chlorpyrifos-methyl against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Kocak, O; Cilek, J E

    2006-11-01

    The larvicidal activity of chlorpyrifos-methyl and temephos was evaluated against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Pyrifos MT 25 emulsifiable concentrate [EC] ) was evaluated at application rates of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg active ingredient (AI)/liter, and temephos (Temeguard 50 EC) was evaluated at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg (AI)/liter during a 21-d study. Generally, overall larval reduction in septic tanks from single- and multifamily dwellings treated with either larvicide was significantly greater than pretreatment levels and control tanks for the duration of the study. At 14 d posttreatment, duration of control was greatest in multifamily tanks treated with chlorpyrifos-methyl at the highest application rate with similar levels of control through 21 d for single-family dwellings (range 97-100%). Septic tanks from both types of family dwellings treated at the highest application rate of temephos resulted in >90% reduction through day 21 (range 91-100%). Laboratory bioassays of septic tank water treated at field application rates, without daily dilution, revealed that complete larval mortality was achieved for 21 d at each application rate and formulation. It is thought that daily addition of water and organic matter to the septic tanks in the single and multifamily dwellings influenced the duration of effectiveness of the larvicides.

  6. Histopathological effects of cypermethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on midgut of Chironomus calligraphus larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Lavarías, Sabrina; Arrighetti, Florencia; Siri, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    Pesticides are extensively used for the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors, but they also affect non-target organisms. Cypermethrin (CYP) is a synthetic pyrethroid used worldwide. Otherwise, bioinsecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) have received great attention as an environmentally benign and desirable alternative. In order to evaluate the toxicity of those pesticides, Chironomus calligraphus was selected due to its high sensitivity to some toxicants. Third and fourth instars larvae were exposed to serial dilutions of CYP and Bti to determine LC50 values. In order to evaluate the potentially histopathological alterations as biomarkers, after 96-h of exposure, live larvae were fixed for histological analysis of the mid region of digestive tract. The 96-h LC50 values were 0.52 and 1.506μg/L for CYP and Bti, respectively. Midgut histological structure of the control group showed a single layer of cubical cells with microvilli in their apical surface and a big central nucleus. The midgut epithelium of larvae exposed to a low concentration of CYP (0.037μg/L) showed secretion activity and vacuolization while at high concentration (0.3μg/L) cells showed a greater disorganization and a more developed fat body. On the other hand, Bti caused progressive histological damage in this tissue. Chironomus calligraphus is sensitive to Bti and CYP toxicity like other Chironomus species. The histopathological alterations could be a valuable tool to assess toxicity mechanism of different pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacteria Associated with the Ectoperitrophic Space in the Midgut of the Larva of the Midge Xylotopus par (Diptera: Chironomidae) †

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Michael G.; Pankratz, H. Stuart; Klug, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    An ectoperitrophic association of bacteria with the midgut of Xylotopus par larvae was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bacteria attached to the epithelium as a well-defined band in the posterior midgut. They were morphotypically uniform and formed short filaments with endosporelike structures. The consistent presence and well-defined location of the bacteria in a region of the insect digestive tract usually void of microbes indicates a highly evolved symbiotic association, the nature of which is unknown at present. Images PMID:16347026

  8. Haemonchus contortus egg excretion and female length reduction in sheep previously infected with Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Terefe, G; Yacob, H T; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Dumas, E; Bergeaud, J P; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H; Jacquiet, P

    2005-03-31

    Mixed parasitic infection of animals is a common phenomenon in nature. The existence of one species often positively or negatively influences the survival of the other. Our experimental study was started with the objectives to demonstrate the interaction of Haemonchus contortus and Oestrus ovis in relation to cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep. Twenty-two sheep of Tarasconnais breed (France) were divided into four groups (O, OH, H and C) of five or six animals. Group O and OH received 5 weekly consecutive inoculations with O. ovis L1 larvae (total = 82 L1) in the first phase of the experiment between days 0 and 28. On the second phase, groups OH and H received 5000 L3 of H. contortus on day 48 while group C served as our control throughout the experimental period. Parasitological, haematological, serological and histopathological examinations were made according to standard procedures and all animals were slaughtered at day 95. There was no significant variation in the number and degree of development of O. ovis larvae between the two infected groups. Furthermore, in tissues examined in the upper respiratory tract (nasal septum, turbinate, ethmoide and sinus), group O and OH has responded similarly on the basis of cellular inflammatory responses (blood and tissue eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes (GL)) and serum antibody responses against the nasal bots. This may indicate that the presence of H. contortus in the abomasa of group OH had no marked influence over the development of O. ovis larvae in the upper respiratory tract. On the other hand, we have observed a significantly lower H. contortus female worm length, fecal egg count (FEC) and in utero egg count in animals harbouring the nasal bot (OH) than in the mono-infected group (H). This was significantly associated with higher blood eosinophilia, higher packed cell volume (PCV) and increased number of tissue eosinophils and globule leucocytes. We conclude that, the establishment of O

  9. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Nelson A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex. PMID:26798253

  10. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Canal, Nelson A; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex.

  11. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

  12. A biodegradable device for the controlled release of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) standardized extract to control Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Kauê Muller; Oliveira, Joice Guilherme de; Moterle, Diego; Zepon, Karine Modolon; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Kanis, Luiz Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h) and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm) showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.

  13. Synthesis and Functional Characterization of MAF-1A Peptide Derived From the Larvae of Housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Kong, Lina; Fang, Nainai; Mao, Bin; Ai, Hui

    2016-11-01

    The Musca domestica antifungal peptide-1A (MAF-1A peptide) from housefly larvae was synthesized by solid-phase synthesis technique, and antiviral, antioxidant, and antifungal properties were evaluated in this study. Present results indicated that it could significantly inhibit the infection of influenza virus H1N1, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), and Bombyx mori nuclear polyhydrosis virus (BmNPV), which displayed excellent virucidal activities. Antioxidant results demonstrated that the MAF-1A peptide had effective scavenging activity for hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, which were similar to that of ascorbic acid. Besides, antifungal results showed that it can also significantly inhibit the growth of four fungi, and the half inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values were ∼59.3, 84.2, 144.9, and 48.5 μg/ml, respectively, highlighting an important role of MAF-1A peptide in the defense of M domestica against pathogenic microorganisms. These results revealed that the MAF-1A peptide from housefly larvae has great potential as a natural ingredient for the exploitation of antiviral and antifungal therapeutic agents, avoiding abuse of chemical agents and environmental pollution. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Stomach content analyses of Simulium perflavum Roubaud 1906 (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae from streams in Central Amazônia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Y B; Ludwig, T A; Soares, C C; Hamada, N

    2001-05-01

    Stomach contents of Simulium perflavum Roubaud larvae were analyzed and compared with plankton and periphyton collected in five streams, in Central Amazonia (Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo counties), in Sep./Oct.1996 (dry season) and Feb./Mar. 1997 (rainy season). A total of 1,400 last-instar larvae were dissected; the stomach contents were analyzed using different methods: fresh and after oxidation. A total of 87 taxa (algae, diatoms and rotifers) were found in the stomach contents. In each stream, qualitative samples of plankton and periphyton were collected; these were mounted between slides and cover slips. A total of 94 taxa of plankton and 54 taxa of periphyton were collected. One species of Rotifera was present in the stomach contents, plankton and periphyton. Cluster analysis based on species composition of the organisms present in the stomach contents grouped the streams into two major groups, each belonging to a different drainage area. Correlations based on presence/absence of species of microalgae in the stomach contents, plankton and periphyton indicated significant associations (p<0.05) between stomach contents and plankton and between plankton and periphyton (z test); the Sorensen coefficient and cluster analysis corroborate the same associations.

  15. A guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Diamesinae (Diptera; Chironomidae), the genera Boreoheptagyia, Protanypus, Diamesa, and Pseudokiefferiella

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doughman, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subfamily Diamesinae consists of the monogeneric tribes Boreoheptagnini and Parotanypini and the diverse tribe Diamesini with seven genera. These midges are prevalent in clean, cool arctic-alpine waters, but less abundant in the lowlands. Keys and descriptions herein to the known species of these nine genera may prove valuable in the biomonitoring of these cool aquatic habitats. The larvae of Protanypus saetheri Wiederholm is described for the first time. Identification is based upon the absence of other species in the collection area. Examination of a series of larval D. incallida Walker collected in Wyoming and a review of pertinent literature shows that there is considerable variation in the procerus and the labral armature. Because these characters are often used in keys, this variability can lead to misidentification of less recognizable species of Diamesa. (USGS)

  16. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Simone A; Paula, Adriano R; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O P; Santos, Jonathan W A B; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2015-12-30

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1%. Larval survival rates were monitored over a 7 day period following exposure to neem. The virulence of the fungus M. anisopliae was confirmed using five conidial concentrations (1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1)) and survival monitored over 7 days. Two concentrations of fungal conidia were then tested together with neem (0.001%). Survival curve comparisons were carried out using the Log-rank test and end-point survival rates were compared using one-way ANOVA. 1% neem was toxic to A. aegypti larvae reducing survival to 18% with S50 of 2 days. Neem had no effect on conidial germination or fungal vegetative growth in vitro. Larval survival rates were reduced to 24% (S50 = 3 days) when using 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1). Using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), 30% survival (S50 = 3 days) was observed. We tested a "sub-lethal" neem concentration (0.001%) together with these concentrations of conidia. For combinations of neem + fungus, the survival rates were significantly lower than the survival rates seen for fungus alone or for neem alone. Using a combination of 1 × 10(7) conidia mL(-1) + neem (0.001%), the survival rates were 36%, whereas exposure to the fungus alone resulted in 74% survival and exposure to neem alone resulted in 78% survival. When using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), the survival curves were modified, with a combination of the fungus + neem resulting in 12% survival, whilst the fungus alone at this concentration also

  17. Morphology of the larvae, male genitalia and DNA sequences of Anopheles (Kerteszia) pholidotus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Ruiz, Fredy; Harrison, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Since 1984, Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus has been considered a mosquito species that is involved in the transmission of malaria in Colombia, after having been incriminated as such with epidemiological evidence from a malaria outbreak in Cunday-Villarrica, Tolima. Subsequent morphological analyses of females captured in the same place and at the time of the outbreak showed that the species responsible for the transmission was not An. lepidotus, but rather Anopheles pholidotus. However, the associated morphological stages and DNA sequences of An. pholidotus from the foci of Cunday-Villarrica had not been analysed. Using samples that were caught recently from the outbreak region, the purpose of this study was to provide updated and additional information by analysing the morphology of female mosquitoes, the genitalia of male mosquitoes and fourth instar larvae of An. pholidotus, which was confirmed with DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase I and rDNA internal transcribed spacer. A total of 1,596 adult females were collected in addition to 37 larval collections in bromeliads. Furthermore, 141 adult females, which were captured from the same area in the years 1981-1982, were analysed morphologically. Ninety-five DNA sequences were analysed for this study. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that the species present in this region corresponds to An. pholidotus. Given the absence of An. lepidotus, even in recent years, we consider that the species of mosquitoes that was previously incriminated as the malaria vector during the outbreak was indeed An. pholidotus, thus ending the controversy. PMID:25075785

  18. Conversion of Solid Organic Wastes into Oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Larvae and Optimization of Parameters for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sen; Li, Qing; Zeng, Qinglan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-01-01

    The feedstocks for biodiesel production are predominantly from edible oils and the high cost of the feedstocks prevents its large scale application. In this study, we evaluated the oil extracted from Boettcherisca peregrine larvae (BPL) grown on solid organic wastes for biodiesel production. The oil contents detected in the BPL converted from swine manure, fermentation residue and the degreased food waste, were 21.7%, 19.5% and 31.1%, respectively. The acid value of the oil is 19.02 mg KOH/g requiring a two-step transesterification process. The optimized process of 12∶1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1.5% H2SO4 reacted at 70°C for 120 min resulted in a 90.8% conversion rate of free fatty acid (FFA) by esterification, and a 92.3% conversion rate of triglycerides into esters by alkaline transesterification. Properties of the BPL oil-based biodiesel are within the specifications of ASTM D6751, suggesting that the solid organic waste-grown BPL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23029331

  19. Characterization of the molecular features and expression patterns of two serine proteases in Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wontae; Bae, Sungwoo; Kim, Ayoung; Park, Kwanho; Lee, Sangbeom; Choi, Youngcheol; Han, Sangmi; Park, Younghan; Koh, Youngho

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the molecular scavenging capabilities of the larvae of Hermetia illucens, two serine proteases (SPs) were cloned and characterized. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of Hi-SP1 and Hi-SP2 were suggested that Hi-SP1 may be a chymotrypsin- and Hi-SP2 may be a trypsin-like protease. Hi-SP1 and Hi-SP2 3-D homology models revealed that a catalytic triad, three disulfide bonds, and a substrate-binding pocket were highly conserved, as would be expected of a SP. E. coli expressed Hi-SP1 and Hi-SP2 showed chymotrypsin or trypsin activities, respectively. Hi-SP2 mRNAs were consistently expressed during larval development. In contrast, the expression of Hi-SP1 mRNA fluctuated between feeding and molting stages and disappeared at the pupal stages. These expression pattern differences suggest that Hi-SP1 may be a larval specific chymotrypsin-like protease involved with food digestion, while Hi-SP2 may be a trypsin-like protease with diverse functions at different stages.

  20. Environmental factors associated with spatial and temporal distribution of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Bangs, Michael J; Sukowati, Supratman

    2007-07-01

    A 12-mo ecological study of the spatial-temporal distribution of immature stages of Anopheles species was conducted in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia. The study characterized 1,600 sites from a contiguous coastal and hill zone (0-800-m elevation) of which 64% contained Anopheles larvae. Principal component and multiple logistic regression analyses identified ecological parameters associated with presence of nine [Anopheles aconitus Doenitz, Anopheles annularis Van de Wulp, Anopheles barbirostris Van der Wulp, Anopheles flavirostris (Ludlow), Anopheles insulaeflorum (Swellengrebel and Swellengrebel de Graaf), Anopheles kochi Doenitz, Anopheles maculatus Theobald, Anopheles sundaicus (Rodenwaldt), and Anopheles vagus Doenitz] of 15 Anopheles species collected. Combined data for all nine species showed increased Anopheles presence associated with wet season periods and higher elevation habitats exhibiting reduced tree canopy coverage, higher water temperatures, and shallower water depths. Habitat variables measured included topography (elevation), water conditions (temperature, pH, salinity depth, and velocity), habitat characteristics (substrate and canopy cover), density and type of aquatic vegetation coverage (riparian, floating, and emergent), and distance from nearest human habitation. Significant relationships were found for nine species when using all habitats in the analysis. Habitat characteristics for three species were refined. An. aconitus and An. barbirostris were associated with higher elevation rice, Oryza savita L., paddies with relatively shallow water depths, higher water temperatures, higher acidity and salinity concentrations, and a greater average distance from human habitation. An. vagus presence in rice paddies was associated with lower elevation fields, deeper and cooler water, less acidic and saline conditions, and habitats closer to human dwellings. Overall, the distribution of Anopheles species in Sukabumi was found to be nonrandom

  1. Remotely-sensed land use patterns and the presence of Anopheles larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Rachmat, Agus; Elyazar, Iqbal F; Sukowati, Supratman

    2008-06-01

    Land use patterns and the occurrence of Anopheles species larvae were studied in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia, from October 2004 to September 2005. Two land use maps derived using remote sensing were used. One map derived from Quickbird satellite images of 150 km2 of the Simpenan and Ciemas subdistricts (106 degrees 27' 53"-106 degrees 38' 38" E and 6 degrees 59' 59"-7 degrees 8' 46" S) in Sukabumi and one using ASTER images covering 4,000 km2 of Sukabumi District from 106 degrees 22' 15"-107 degrees 4' 1" E and 6 degrees 42' 50" - 7 degrees 26' 13" S. There was a total of 11 Anopheles spp. collected from 209 sampling locations in the area covered by the Quickbird image and a total of 15 Anopheles spp. collected from 1,600 sampling locations in the area covered by the ASTER map. For the area covered by the land use maps, ten species were found to have statistically positive relationships between land use class and species presence: Anopheles aconitus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris. An. flavirostris, An. insulaeflorum, An. kochi, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, and An. vagus. Quickbird and ASTER satellite images both produced land maps that were adequate for predicting species presence in an area. The land use classes associated with malaria vector breeding were rice paddy (An. aconitus, An. subpictus), plantation located near or adjacent to human settlements (An. maculatus), bush/shrub (An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus), bare land, and water body land use on the coast located < or = 250 m of the beach (An. sundaicus). Understanding the associations of habitat and species in one area, predictions of species presence or absence can be made prior to a ground survey allowing for accurate vector survey and control planning.

  2. Developmental ecdysteroid titers and DNA puffs in larvae of two sciarid species, Rhynchosciara americana and Rhynchosciara milleri (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Soares, M A M; Hartfelder, K; Tesserolli de Souza, J M; Stocker, A J

    2015-10-01

    Ecdysteroid titers, developmental landmarks and the presence of prominent amplifying regions (DNA puffs) have been compared during late larval to pupal development in four groups of Rhynchosciara americana larvae and in R. americana and Rhynchosciara milleri. Three prominent DNA puffs (B2, C3 and C8) expand and regress sequentially on the rising phase of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titer in R. americana as a firm, cellular cocoon is being constructed. A sharp rise in 20E coincides with the regression of these puffs. The shape of the 20E curve is similar in R. milleri, a species that does not construct a massive cocoon, but the behavior of certain DNA puffs and their temporal relationship to the curve differs. Regions corresponding to B2 and C3 can be identified in R. milleri by banding pattern similarity with R. americana chromosomes and, in the case of B2, by hybridization to an R. americana probe. A B2 puff appears in R. milleri as the 20E titer rises but remains small in all gland regions. A puff similar to the R. americana C3 puff occurs in posterior gland cells of R. milleri (C3(Rm)) after the B2 puff, but this site did not hybridize to R. americana C3 probes. C3(Rm) incorporated (3)H-thymidine above background, but showed less post-puff DNA accumulation than C3 of R. americana. R. americana C8 probes hybridized to a more distal region of the R. milleri C chromosome that did not appear to amplify or form a large puff. These differences can be related to developmental differences, in particular differences in cocoon construction between the two species.

  3. Toxic effect of citrus peel constituents on Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann immature stages.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María J; Juárez, María L; Alzogaray, Raúl A; Arrighi, Federico; Arroyo, Lorena; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo; Bardón, Alicia del Valle; Vera, Teresa

    2014-10-15

    The toxicity of essential oils from the citrus peel has been proposed as the major resistance mechanism offered by citrus to fruit fly infestation. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of the ether extracts from the lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfadyen) peel as well as from limonene and citral against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) immature stages. We also evaluated the toxicity of the extracts at two ripening stages. Extracts proved toxic to A. fraterculus egg and larvae. The lemon and grapefruit extracts showed the same toxicity in both fruit fly species. For A. fraterculus eggs, citral was more toxic than limonene; for larvae, they showed equal toxicity. Anastrepha fraterculus eggs were more sensitive than C. capitata eggs. In conclusion, we provide evidence of chemical resistance mechanisms that could account for the nonhost condition of lemon for A. fraterculus.

  4. Effects of Toxic Compounds in Montipora capitata on Exogenous and Endogenous Zooxanthellae Performance and Fertilization Success

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia; Zuchowicz, Nikolas; Johnston, Erika; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline; Gunasekera, Sarath; Paul, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Studies have identified chemicals within the stony coral genus Montipora that have significant biological activities. For example, Montiporic acids A and B and other compounds have been isolated from the adult tissue and eggs of Montipora spp. and have displayed antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in cultured cells. The ecological role of these toxic compounds is currently unclear. This study examines the role these toxins play in reproduction. Toxins were found in the eggs and larvae of the coral Montipora capitata. Releasing these toxins by crushing both the eggs and larvae resulted in irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis in endogenous and exogenous zooxanthellae within minutes. Moreover, these toxins were stable, as frozen storage of eggs and larvae did not affect toxicity. Photosynthetic competency of Porites compressa zooxanthellae treated with either frozen or fresh, crushed eggs was inhibited similarly (P > 0.05, ANCOVA). Addition of toxic eggs plugs to live P. compressa fragments caused complete tissue necrosis under the exposed area on the fragments within 1 week. Small volumes of M. capitata crushed eggs added to sperm suspensions reduced in vitro fertilization success by killing the sperm. After 30 min, untreated sperm maintained 90 ± 1.9% SEM motility while those treated with crushed eggs were rendered immotile, 4 ± 1.4% SEM. Flow cytometry indicated membrane disruption of the immotile sperm. Fertilization success using untreated sperm was 79 ± 4% SEM, whereas the success rate dropped significantly after exposure to the crushed eggs, 1.3 ± 0% SEM. Unlike the eggs and the larvae, M. capitata sperm did not reduce the photosynthetic competency of P. compressa zooxanthellae, suggesting the sperm was nontoxic. The identity of the toxins, cellular mechanism of action, advantage of the toxins for M. capitata and their role on the reef are still unknown. PMID:25714606

  5. Effects of toxic compounds in Montipora capitata on exogenous and endogenous zooxanthellae performance and fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia; Zuchowicz, Nikolas; Johnston, Erika; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline; Gunasekera, Sarath; Paul, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Studies have identified chemicals within the stony coral genus Montipora that have significant biological activities. For example, Montiporic acids A and B and other compounds have been isolated from the adult tissue and eggs of Montipora spp. and have displayed antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in cultured cells. The ecological role of these toxic compounds is currently unclear. This study examines the role these toxins play in reproduction. Toxins were found in the eggs and larvae of the coral Montipora capitata. Releasing these toxins by crushing both the eggs and larvae resulted in irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis in endogenous and exogenous zooxanthellae within minutes. Moreover, these toxins were stable, as frozen storage of eggs and larvae did not affect toxicity. Photosynthetic competency of Porites compressa zooxanthellae treated with either frozen or fresh, crushed eggs was inhibited similarly (P > 0.05, ANCOVA). Addition of toxic eggs plugs to live P. compressa fragments caused complete tissue necrosis under the exposed area on the fragments within 1 week. Small volumes of M. capitata crushed eggs added to sperm suspensions reduced in vitro fertilization success by killing the sperm. After 30 min, untreated sperm maintained 90 ± 1.9% SEM motility while those treated with crushed eggs were rendered immotile, 4 ± 1.4% SEM. Flow cytometry indicated membrane disruption of the immotile sperm. Fertilization success using untreated sperm was 79 ± 4% SEM, whereas the success rate dropped significantly after exposure to the crushed eggs, 1.3 ± 0% SEM. Unlike the eggs and the larvae, M. capitata sperm did not reduce the photosynthetic competency of P. compressa zooxanthellae, suggesting the sperm was nontoxic. The identity of the toxins, cellular mechanism of action, advantage of the toxins for M. capitata and their role on the reef are still unknown.

  6. Wound repair in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    We documented the microscopic morphology of tissue healing in Montipora capitata. Fragments from two healthy coral colonies were traumatized by scraping tissue and skeleton and monitored in flow-through seawater tables every 2-4. days for 40. days for gross and cellular changes. Grossly, corals appeared healed and repigmented by Day 40. Histologically, traumatized issues were undistinguishable from intact untraumatized tissues by Day 12. We suspect that the calicoblastic epidermis of basal body wall is pluripotential and can develop into surface epidermis when needed. ?? 2010.

  7. First record in South Asia of deer throat bot fly larvae Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Oesteridae) from Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), a new host record.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Radhakrishnan; Ajithkumar, K G; Reghu, Ravindran; Kavitha, Rajagopal

    2012-06-01

    The Bot fly larvae, identified to be the third instars of the deer throat bot fly Pharyngomyia picta were recovered from the lumen of trachea and secondary bronchi during the necropsy of a female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, India. This forms the first report of P. picta from India and the whole of South Asia. Sambar deer is a new host record for the larvae of this fly. Morphological description of the third stage larvae with supporting figures are presented.

  8. Larva of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Chironomidae, Diptera)-morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), karyotype, and biology in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva

    2016-09-21

    Larvae belonging to the family Chironomidae are difficult to identify. The aim of the present study was to describe the larval morphology of G. (G.) glaucus with the aid of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the karyotype and biology based on materials obtained from laboratory culture. Describing the morphology of larvae, special attention was paid to rarely or never described structures like the maxilla (lacinia and maxillary palp), the long plate situated below the ventromental plate, and plate X situated between lacinia and mentum. The use of SEM allowed also to obtain better images of labrum and ventromental plate. Morphological features of this species have been supplemented by karyotype and biology of larvae in laboratory conditions. Under controlled experimental conditions we found non-synchronous development of G. (G.) glaucus larvae hatched from one egg mass reflected in different lengths of larvae and emerged imagoes.

  9. The Neotropical tanyderid Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) (Diptera, Tanyderidae), with description of the egg, larva and pupa, redescription of adults, and notes on natural history.

    PubMed

    Madriz, R Isaí; Courtney, Gregory W

    2016-08-30

    Larvae, pupae and adults of Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) were collected during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013 and January 2014. Eggs were obtained from females that oviposited in captivity. Association of all life stages is based on co-occurrence and rearing of individual larvae to adults. A diagnosis for the genus and species is provided. Descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa and redescriptions of the male and female are completed. Eggs of A. gloriosus are the first described for Tanyderidae. Natural history characteristics for this species, including microhabitat, copulatory behavior and oviposition, are discussed.

  10. Description of male, pupa and larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, with keys to identify four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, W; Takaoka, H; Saeung, A

    2015-09-01

    The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  11. A New Species of Culex (Eumelanomyia) from India with Descriptions of Pupae and Larvae of Cx. pluvialis Barraud and Cx. iphis Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    Mosquito Systematics Vol. 9(4) 1977 537 A New Species of Cukex (EwneZanomyiaJ from India with Descriptions of Pupae and Larvae of Cx. @via...pZuviaZis Barraud from Sri Lanka and and illustrated. (EumeZanomyiaJ mo&czni new species ftom the hitherto unknown pupae and larvae of Cx. CX. ~$his...Barraud from India are described INTRODUCTION Since publication of a revisionary study by Sirivanakarn (1972), additional material of a number of

  12. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeling of enterobacteria associated with fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and persistence in their natural host Rhagoletis completa Cresson.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Savio, Claudia; Mazzon, Luca; Girolami, Vincenzo; Ciolfi, Silvia; Marri, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a highly successful, widespread group of insects that cause economic damage in agriculture. Data available so far on the composition of the bacterial community associated with their digestive tract indicate that members of Enterobacteriaceae are the species most often isolated. Bacteria naturally occurring in insect guts may be engineered and used to study the spatial and functional interactions of microbes within the insect system and offer one route to meet the demand for novel insect pest management strategies. With this aim we introduced by conjugation the gfp gene carried by the suicide plasmid pTn5gfpmut1 into Klebsiella oxytoca and Raoultella (formerly Klebsiella ) spp. strains isolated from the oesophageal bulb of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Rhagoletis completa Cresson, respectively. The GFP-encoding gene was stably maintained in two tested transgenic strains, both originally isolated from R. completa. In one case, GFP-labeled bacterial cells were used to feed larvae and adults of the original host. Genetically modified bacteria were able to colonize the gut of larvae and persisted through all larval instars to pupal stage.

  13. Diagnoses for Nubensia, n. gen. (Diptera, Chironomidae, Chironomini), with the first full descriptions of the adult female and larva of N. nubens (Edwards, 1929).

    PubMed

    Spies, Martin; Dettinger-Klemm, Andreas

    2015-07-30

    A new genus, Nubensia Spies, is proposed for N. nubens (Edwards, 1929), n. comb., based on morphological evaluation of both adult sexes, the pupa and larva. The material studied includes name-bearing syntype specimens and the first reared associations linking three life stages for individual members of this species. The larva represents a unique morphotype previously described incompletely only from studies of subfossil chironomid remains. The problems with placement of the species in any previously established genus are discussed in detail, and various related issues in taxonomy and nomenclature are commented on. The verified distribution of N. nubens ranges from the British Isles and central Europe to the western Mediterranean, including northern Africa, with possible extensions to Turkey and central Asia. Larvae have been found on mostly coarse, variously covered substrates near the shores of lakes and banks of slowly flowing running waters, under both oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of damage caused by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) on larvae of the Dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Stefan; Hernández-Chavarría, Francisco

    2006-09-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease, whose main biological vector is Aedes aegypti. This mosquito colonizes tropical areas where the disease is endemic. The most obvious action against dengue is attacking its vector. Biological control appears to be an alternative approach, using natural enemies of the mosquitoes, such as predatory copepods. Thus, the morphological study of the damage caused by copepods is important to understand its predatory capacity. Twenty-five A. aegypti larvae were exposed to the copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides and the damage caused by the copepods was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae showed damage mainly at the anal segment, the siphon and the abdomen; only three attacks to the head were observed. The size of the siphon might be of importance in determining whether or not a copepod will attack a mosquito larva.

  15. Comparison of brown sugar, hot water, and salt methods for detecting western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in sweet cherry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown sugar or hot water methods have been developed to detect larvae of tephritid fruit flies in post-harvest fruit in order to maintain quarantine security. It would be useful to determine if variations of these methods can yield better results and if less expensive alternatives exist. This stud...

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825

  17. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2016-01-01

    The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina.

  18. Evaluating the effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae-derived haemolymph and fat body extracts on chronic wounds in diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Gaona, María A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds.

  19. Redescription of Chironomus javanus and Chironomus kiiensis (Diptera: Chironomidae) Larvae and Adults Collected from a Rice Field in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Chironomus javanus (Kieffer) and Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga were redescribed from materials collected from a rice field in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The larvae can only be distinguished after careful preparation and examination using a compound microscope, but the pupae were not useful to differentiate C. javanus from C. kiiensis. The adult specimens showed clear body and wing characteristics for rapid and accurate identification. PMID:24575227

  20. A COMPOUND PRODUCED BY FRUIGIVOROUS TEPHRITIDAE (DIPTERA) LARVAE PROMOTES OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR BY THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We co...

  1. Inhibition of the growth and development of mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) treated with extract from leaves of Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Bignonaceae).

    PubMed

    Granados-Echegoyen, Carlos; Pérez-Pacheco, Rafael; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Ruiz-Vega, Jaime; Lagunez-Rivera, Luicita; Alonso-Hernandez, Nancy; Gato-Armas, Rene

    2014-08-01

    To determine larvicidal activity of the essential oil, hydrolat and botanical extracts derived from leaves of Pseudocalymma alliaceum on mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Groups of twenty larvae were used in the larvicidal assays. The mortality, relative growth rate, the larval and pupal duration and viability was estimated. The essential oil was analyzed by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oil at 800 ppm showed larvicidal activity at 24 h with lethal values of LC50 and LC90 of 267.33 and 493.63 ppm. The hydrolat at 20% and 10% on 2nd stage larvae showed 100% effectiveness after 24 h. The aqueous extract at 10% had a relative growth index of 0.58, while the ethanolic and methanolic extract obtained values of 0.76 and 0.70 and control reached 0.99. Larvae treated with 10% of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extract showed a reduction in larval duration of 5.00, 2.20 and 4.35 days; ethanol extract at 1% provoke decrease of 2.40 days in the development and exhibited an increment of 3.30 days when treated with 0.01%. Aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts at 10% reduced in 6.15, 3.42 and 5.57 days pupal development. The main compounds were diallyl disulfide (50.05%), diallyl sulfide (11.77%) and trisulfide di-2-propenyl (10.37%). The study demonstrated for the first time, the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and hydrolat of Pseudocalymma alliaceum; aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts inhibited the normal growth and development of mosquito larvae, prolonging and delaying larval and pupal duration. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The bioefficacy of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the survival and development of myiasis-causing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Jasneet

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a type of parasitosis originating from the invasion of tissues of live humans and other vertebrates by dipteran larvae. The Old World screwworm fly—Chrysomya bezziana—is known worldwide in the tropical regions for causing myiasis among man and domestic animals, thereby leading to health hazards and severe economic losses to the dairy farmers. Management techniques for controlling populations of the fly are needed to minimize these losses. Plant-derived materials have been increasingly evaluated these days in controlling the insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of crude extracts of the plant neem, Azadirachta indica, against C. bezziana. The dried leaves of the plant were extracted successively with four different solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and were evaluated against the third instar larvae of C. bezziana using dipping method and thin film application technique. In the dipping method, larvae were dipped in four different concentrations of plant extracts for 30 s, whereas in the thin film application, they were exposed to a thin film of plant extracts. The results showed that all the extracts had toxic effect on the larvae in both the techniques. In the dipping method, the highest mortalities were recorded in methanol extract followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 values 1.07 g/100 ml, 1.7 g/100 ml, 3.39 g/100 ml and 4.9 g/100 ml, respectively. In the thin film application method, methanol extract showed the highest mortalities followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether with LC50 values 0.4 mg/cm2, 0.6 mg/cm2, 2.1 mg/cm2 and 2.5 mg/cm2. It is concluded that the crude extracts of A. indica can be used in controlling the larvae of C. bezziana by using the dipping as well as thin film application technique.

  3. Inter-Specific Coral Chimerism: Genetically Distinct Multicellular Structures Associated with Tissue Loss in Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabó, Zoltán; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss. PMID:21829541

  4. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  5. Functional Morphology of the Mouthparts of the Adult Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Vijaysegaran, S.; Robinson, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    Food-based attractants incorporating an insecticide are an important component of area-wide control programmes for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This study was carried out to understand the feeding mechanism of adults of this species. Mouthparts of C. capitata are similar in general structure to those of another Tephritid genus, Bactrocera, and have specific structural modifications that determine what adult flies can ingest. The labellum has a series of fine tube-like structures, called pseudotracheae, on its inner surface. Each pseudotrachea leads from the outer margin of the labellum and ends at the prestomum to the oral opening. The pseudotracheae contain fine micropores about 0.5µm in size. During feeding, the oral opening is never exposed to the feeding substrate but the portions of the opposing labellar lobes proximal to the oral opening are flexed against each other and distal portions of the opposing labellar lobes are opened and pressed flat against the feeding substrate or surface. The prestomal spines at the base of each pseudotrachea interlock to form a barrier across the oral opening. Thus entry of large particles directly into the crop and gut through the oral opening is prevented by flexure of the opposing labellar lobes against each other and the interlocking prestomal spines across the oral opening. Only liquids and suspended particles less than 0.5µm in size are sucked through the micropores into the lumen of the pseudotracheae and then pass into the food canal and into the crop and gut. The pseudotracheae of adult C. capitata, particularly along the middle portion of the labellum, have prominent blade-like projections that Bactrocera do not have. These projections are probably an ancestral condition as they were not observed to use them to abrade the plant or feeding surface as has been reported for species in the Tephritid genus, Blepharoneura.

  6. Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in response to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, Ananganallur Nagarajan; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Thamizhmani, Ramanathan

    2017-03-01

    Climatic changes are responsible, to a certain extent for the occurrence and spread of arboviral pathogens world over. Temperature is one of the important abiotic factors influencing the physiological processes of mosquitoes. Several genes of heat shock protein (HSP) families are known to be expressed in mosquitoes, which aid in overcoming stress induced by elevated temperature. In order to understand expression of HSP family genes in the Andaman population of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to examine expression levels of HSPs in response to thermal stress under laboratory and in actual field conditions. HSP genes AeaHsp26, AeaHsp83 and AeaHsc70 were examined by comparing relative transcript expression levels at 31°C, 33°C, 34°C, 37°C and 39°C respectively. Enhanced up-regulation of HSPs was evident in third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with rise in water temperatures (31°C, 33°C, 34°C) in the containers in the nature and thermally stressed (37°C and 39°C) in laboratory conditions. In Ae. albopictus up-regulation of HSPs was observed in field conditions at 34°C only and when thermally treated at 37°C, while down regulation was evident in larvae subjected to thermal stress in laboratory at 39°C. Data on expression levels revealed that larvae of Ae. aegypti was tolerant to thermal stress, while Ae. albopictus larvae was sensitive to heat shock treatment. Statistical analysis indicated that AeaHsp83 genes were significantly up-regulated in Ae. aegypti larvae after 360min exposure to high temperature (39°C). The difference in expression levels of AeaHsp26, AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 genes in Ae. albopictus larvae was statistically significant between different exposure temperatures. All of these genes were significantly up-regulated at 37°C. These results indicate that AeaHsp26, AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 are important markers of stress and perhaps function as proteins conferring protection and

  7. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2013-10-01

    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.

  8. Male-specific phosphorylated SR proteins in adult flies of the Mediterranean fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Giuseppe; Louis, Christos; Zhang, Hongyou; Petrella, Valeria; Di Natale, Manuela; Perri, Maria; Salvemini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a widely used mechanism of gene regulation in sex determination pathways of Insects. In species from orders as distant as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, female differentiation relies on the activities of conserved splicing regulators, TRA and TRA-2, promoting female-specific expression of the global effector doublesex (dsx). Less understood is to what extent post-translational modifications of splicing regulators plays a role in this pathway. In Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylation of TRA, TRA-2 and the general RBP1 factor by the LAMMER kinase doa (darkener of apricot) is required for proper female sex determination. To explore whether this is a general feature of the pathway we examined sex-specific differences in phosphorylation levels of SR splicing factors in the dipteran species D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) and Musca domestica (Housefly). We found a distinct and reproducible pattern of male-specific phosphorylation on protein extracts enriched for SR proteins in C. capitata suggesting that differential phosphorylation may also contribute to the regulation of sex-specific splicing in the Medfly.

  9. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle.

  10. Structural and Genetic Investigation of the Egg and First-Instar Larva of an Egg-Laying Population of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a Species of Forensic Importance.

    PubMed

    Pimsler, Meaghan L; Pape, Thomas; Johnston, J Spencer; Wharton, Robert A; Parrott, Jonathan J; Restuccia, Danielle; Sanford, Michelle R; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M

    2014-11-01

    Flies in the family Sarcophagidae incubate their eggs and are known to be ovoviviparous (i.e., ovolarviparous), but a laboratory-maintained colony of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Wiedemann) deposited clutches of viable eggs over 10 generations. A description of the egg and first-instar larva of this species is provided along with genetic data (genome size and cytochrome oxidase I sequences). The egg is similar to previously described eggs of other Sarcophagidae but differs in the configuration of the micropyle. In the first-instar larva, the oral ridges are much more developed than has been described for other species. B. plinthopyga has forensic importance, and the present descriptive information is critical for proper case management.

  11. Host range and specificity of an Argentinean isolate of the aquatic fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii (Oomycetes: Saprolegniales), a pathogen of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    López Lastra, C C; Scorsetti, A C; Marti, G A; García, J J

    2004-10-01

    An isolate from Argentina of the fungal mosquito pathogen Leptolegnia chapmanii (ARSEF 5499), was tested against 12 species of mosquito larvae and on species of non-target aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates. The mosquito species tested were Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex apicinus, Cx. castroi, Cx. dolosus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. renatoi, Isostomyia paranensis, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Oc. crinifer, Psorophora cyanescens, and P. ferox. Mosquito larvae of 10 species were susceptible, with mortality rates from 10-100%. Two mosquito species Cx. renatoi and I. paranensis were not infected by Leptolegnia. None of the non-target fauna treated was infected by L. chapmanii with exception of members of the Family Chironomidae which were susceptible at low infection rates.

  12. A new species of Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) from north-central Mongolia with first description of the larva for the genus.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Gelhaus, Jon

    2014-06-09

    A new species of Pediciidae, Heterangaeus mongolicus is described from specimens collected during the fieldwork of the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey Project in north-central Mongolia, Tov Aimag (district). Descriptions and illustrations of the distinguishing morphological features are provided. Habitat information is presented. Female ovipositor and larvae of Heterangaeus are described and illustrated for the first time. This discovery of Heterangaeus in Mongolia represents a 1700 kilometer extension of the known distribution for the genus.

  13. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded

    PubMed Central

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  14. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded.

    PubMed

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  15. Volume of Larvae Is the Most Important Single Predictor of Mass Temperatures in the Forensically Important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P

    2017-01-01

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Volume of Larvae Is the Most Important Single Predictor of Mass Temperatures in the Forensically Important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P

    2016-08-22

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Volume of larvae Is the most important single predictor of mass temperatures in the forensically important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval.

  18. Microprofiles of oxygen, redox potential, and pH, and microbial fermentation products in the highly alkaline gut of the saprophagous larva of Penthetria holosericea (Diptera: Bibionidae).

    PubMed

    Šustr, Vladimír; Stingl, Ulrich; Brune, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The saprophagous larvae of bibionid flies harbor bacteria in their alkaline intestinal tracts, but little is known about the contribution of the gut microbiota to the digestion of their recalcitrant diet. In this study, we measured oxygen and hydrogen partial pressure, redox potential and pH in the midgut, gastric caeca and hindgut of larvae of the bibionid fly Penthetria holosericea with Clark-type O2 and H2 microsensors, platinum redox microelectrodes, and LIX-type pH microelectrodes. The center of the midgut lumen was anoxic, whereas gastric caeca and hindgut were hypoxic. However, redox potential profiles indicated oxidizing conditions throughout the gut, with lowest values in the midgut (+20 to +60mV). Hydrogen production was not detected. The midgut was extremely alkaline (pH around 11), whereas hindgut and gastric caeca were neutral to slightly alkaline. While HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of glucose in the midgut (15mM) and gastric caeca (27mM), the concentrations of microbial fermentation products such as lactate (2-4mM), acetate (<1mM) and succinate (<0.5mM) were low in all gut regions, suggesting that the contribution of microorganisms to the digestive process, particularly in the alkaline midgut, is only of minor importance. We conclude that the digestive strategy of the saprophytic larva of P. holosericea, which feeds selectively on decomposed leaves and its own microbe-rich faeces, differs fundamentally from those of detritivorous and humivorous insects, which host a highly active, fermentative microbiota in their alkaline midgut or hindgut compartments.

  19. Third instar larvae of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of forensic importance--critical review of characters and key for European species.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Richet, René; Pape, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Necrophagous Sarcophagidae are among the insects most frequently reported from human corpses. The broad forensic application of flesh flies is restricted by the lack of reliable tools for species identification of larval stages and mass breeding of collected flesh fly larvae to the adult stage, and more recently DNA-based methods are usually recommended for precise species identification. To overcome this situation, the following study was implemented: (1) original larval material was obtained of the European flesh flies of confirmed or potential forensic importance; (2) larval morphology was studied and documented using a combination of standard light microscopy, image-stacking stereomicroscopy and SEM; and (3) larval characters used in previously published keys were critically revised. The taxonomic value of the following characters was considered insignificant: (1) differences in level of sclerotisation of particular parts of the cephaloskeleton, (2) level of sclerotisation of the posterior spiracular peritreme and (3) the shape of posterior spiracular slits. A high taxonomic value was noticed for the general shape of anterior spiracles, pattern of arrangement of their lobes, and distribution and shape of spines/warts on the inter-band area of segments. Two character states-long window in the dorsal cornu of cephaloskeleton and deep spiracular cavity on anal division-are not found in the Miltogramminae and therefore cannot be considered as family-specific for the entire Sarcophagidae. As a comprehensive result of our studies, an identification key is presented for the third instar larvae of European flesh flies of forensic importance. The key is user-friendly and requires no dissections of larvae, as soaking the material in methyl salicylate will allow observation of all diagnostic details of the cephaloskeleton. A simple stereomicroscope (magnification about ×50) is sufficient for the observation of all characters presented in the key. This key may be

  20. Evaluation of histological techniques for the detection of fungal infections caused by Leptolegnia chapmanii (Oomycetes: Saprolegniales) in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Dikgolz, V E; Toledo, A V; Topa, P E; López Lastra, C C

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated which of the fixatives and stains most frequently used for observation of insect tissues were the most appropriate for histopathological visualization of entomopathogenic fungal infections with Leptolegnia chapmanii in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The best contrast between the host tissues and the fungal structures was obtained when using a combination of Camoy fixative with Grocott staining contrasted with light green. Masson trichromic stain combined with 10% formaldehyde-phosphate buffer also provided satisfactory results--a good contrast and clearly distinguishable host tissues and fungal structures.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of a phytosteroid compound of mature leaves of Day Jasmine (Solanaceae: Solanales) against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and nontarget organisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2008-07-01

    Crude mature leaves extract of Day Jasmine, Cestrum diurnum (Solanaceae: Solanales), was investigated for larvicidal activities against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of human filariasis. All the graded concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% v/v) showed significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality, and results of regression equations revealed that the mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the extract (R (2) close to 1). LC(50), LC(95), and LC(99) values were calculated at different time intervals, and the lowest value was recorded at the 72-h bioassay for third-instar larvae. Significant changes in the larval mortality (F < 0.05) was also recorded between the periods of exposure and between instars during t test and single analysis of variance analysis. No mortality was noticed for nontarget organisms, such as Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Chironomid larvae within 72 h of postexposure to 1%, 2%, and 3% crude plant extract under the laboratory condition. Qualitative and chromatographic analysis of the crude extract of C. diurnum revealed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. The bioassay experiment with the third-instar larval form established that the presence of a steroid compound (R (f), 0.67) was responsible for mosquitocidal activity.

  2. Isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes in an apple orchard in Southern Brazil and its virulence to Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Foelkel, E; Voss, M; Monteiro, L B; Nishimura, G

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a promising alternative to integrated control in many fruit pests. Few studies were made on the relationship of Anastrepha fraterculus natural population with native EPNs population and other biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of endemic nematodes in an apple orchard, concerning environmental conditions and technical procedure, and access isolates virulence to A. fraterculus larvae. The experiment was conducted during a year taking monthly soil samples from an apple orchard, with and without fallen fruits just above the soil. Samples were baited with Tenebrium molitor and A. fraterculus larvae in laboratory. Canopy and fallen fruits were sampled to access the pest infestation. Seventy three EPN isolates were captured, in 23.2% soil samples, more with T. molitor than with A. fraterculus baits. From the 20 isolates tested against A. fraterculus, only five were pathogenic, and they were identified as Oscheius sp. The nematodes were captured during all seasons in a similar frequency. Soil and weather conditions, presence of fruit over the orchard soil, and A. fraterculus pupae in the fruits had no significant influence on the capture. As a conclusion, nematodes of the genera Oscheius are found in an apple orchard of Porto Amazonas constantly along the year, independently of fluctuations in A. fraterculus population, climate conditions and presence of fruit over the soil. Some of the isolates are pathogenic to A. fraterculus.

  3. Composition and antimicrobial activity of fatty acids detected in the hygroscopic secretion collected from the secretory setae of larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Stepnowski, Piotr; Boros-Majewska, Joanna; Gabriel, Iwona; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2012-09-01

    The hygroscopic secretion produced by the secretory setae of terrestrial larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The viscous secretion is stored at the top of each seta and absorbs water from moist air. GC-MS analyses (four independent tests) showed that the secretion contained 12 free fatty acids, the most abundant of which were oleic (18:1), palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and linoleic (18:2). Other acids identified were valeric (5:0), enanthic (7:0), caprylic (8:0), pelargonic (9:0), capric (10:0), lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0) and stearic (18:0). Two other compounds, glycerol and pyroglutamic acid, were also found. The antibacterial activity of the fatty acids and pyroglutamic acid was tested using the agar disc diffusion method and targeted Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens). The antifungal activity was tested by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of examined compounds. Fatty acids were tested against enthomopathogenic fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39), Beauveria bassiana (Dv-1/07)). The most effective acids against bacterial and fungal growth were C(9:0), C(10:0) and C(16:1), whereas C(14:0), C(16:0,) C(18:0) and C(18:1) demonstrated rather poor antifungal activity and did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial assay investigated mixtures of fatty and pyroglutamic acids (corresponding to the results of each GC-MS test): they were found to be active against almost all the bacteria except P. fluorescens and also demonstrated certain fungistatic activity against enthomopathogenic fungi. The hygroscopic secretion facilitates cuticular respiration and plays an important role in the

  4. Differences in performance and transcriptome-wide gene expression associated with Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae feeding in alternate host fruit environments.

    PubMed

    Ragland, Gregory J; Almskaar, Kristin; Vertacnik, Kim L; Gough, Harlan M; Feder, Jeffrey L; Hahn, Daniel A; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2015-06-01

    Host race formation, the establishment of new populations using novel resources, is a major hypothesized mechanism of ecological speciation, especially in plant-feeding insects. The initial stages of host race formation will often involve phenotypic plasticity on the novel resource, with subsequent genetically based adaptations enhancing host-associated fitness differences. Several studies have explored the physiology of the plastic responses of insects to novel host environments. However, the mechanisms underlying evolved differences among host races and species remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a reciprocal larval performance difference between two closely related species of Rhagoletis flies, R. pomonella and R. zephyria, specialized for feeding in apple and snowberry fruit, respectively. Microarray analysis of fly larvae feeding in apples versus snowberries revealed patterns of transcriptome-wide differential gene expression consistent with both plastic and evolved responses to the different fruit resources, most notably for detoxification-related genes such as cytochrome p450s. Transcripts exhibiting evolved expression differences between species tended to also demonstrate plastic responses to fruit environment. The observed pattern suggests that Rhagoletis larvae exhibit extensive plasticity in gene expression in response to novel fruit that may potentiate shifts to new hosts. Subsequent selection, particularly selection to suppress initially costly plastic responses, could account for the evolved expression differences observed between R. pomonella and R. zephyria, creating specialized races and new fly species. Thus, genetically based ecological adaptations generating new biodiversity may often evolve from initial plastic responses in gene expression to the challenges posed by novel environments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    PubMed

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  6. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    PubMed Central

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015–2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  7. Morphometric comparison of Simulium perflavum larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) in relation to season and gender in Central Amazônia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Y B; Hamada, N; Magni-Darwich, S

    2001-08-01

    Number of larval instars, age structure and environmental effects on these parameters represent basic information in the study of insect population biology. When species have economic importance, this information is essential in order to choose the best period to apply different control methods and to determine the stages of the life cycle of the insect that are most susceptible to each treatment. The family Simuliidae has many species of medical/veterinary importance in the world, and some studies in the temperate region have suggested that the number of larval instars and the larval size can vary according to the season, gender and some environmental factors, such as temperature and diet. This study, with the zoophilic species Simulium perflavum Roubaud, is the first in the Neotropics observing some of these factors and will serve as a template for other species of medical importance in the region. S. perflavum larvae were collected in five streams in Central Amazônia (Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo counties, State of Amazonas), in Sept./Oct. 1996 (dry season) and Feb./Mar. 1997 (rainy season). These larvae were measured (lateral length of head capsule and width of cephalic apodema) to determine the number of larval instars (n=3985), to compare the larval size between seasons and genders (last and penultimate larval instars, n=200). Seven larval instars were determined for this species using frequency distributions, t-tests and Crosbýs growth rule. Significant differences were not detected (t-test, p>0.05) in larval size between seasons and genders. Our results differ from some found in temperate regions suggesting that in the Neotropical region the larval size in different seasons and different genders remains constant, although some environmental parameters, such as diet, change depending on the season.

  8. Effects of uranium-contaminated sediments on the bioturbation activity of Chironomus riparius larvae (Insecta, Diptera) and Tubifex tubifex worms (Annelida, Tubificidae).

    PubMed

    Lagauzère, S; Boyer, P; Stora, G; Bonzom, J-M

    2009-07-01

    Freshwater sediments represent a compartment for accumulation of toxic substances, notably of metallic pollutants such as uranium. However, they also constitute a privileged habitat for many benthic macro-invertebrate species with important roles in the functioning of these ecosystems, particularly through their bioturbation activities. Uranium accumulation in sediments can thus have harmful effects on these organisms (e.g., developmental delay, malformations, mortality). The present study aimed to evaluate the consequences of these effects on the bioturbation activity of Chironomus riparius larvae and Tubifex tubifex worms. These two species, which are widespread in freshwater ecosystems, are characteristic of two different modes of bioturbation: bioirrigation and upward bioconveying, respectively. By quantifying the burial and redistribution of fluorescent particulate tracers (microspheres), sediment reworking induced by these macro-invertebrates was measured after 12d of exposure. Biodiffusion D(b) and bioadvection W rates, as well as several other parameters, were estimated to assess and compare the bioturbation activity of the two species, separately and in combination, between uncontaminated and uranium-spiked sediments. The results reveal that C. riparius larvae were more sensitive to uranium, but their bioturbation activity, even under uncontaminated conditions, had little effect on sediment reworking. Particle mixing was mainly induced by T. tubifex worms, which were only affected by uranium at high concentrations in the sediment. Finally, bioturbation by T. tubifex led to a high degree of uranium release from sediment to the overlying water, which highlights the crucial role of this mostly dominant species on uranium biogeochemical cycles at concentrations existing in naturally contaminated sites.

  9. Assessment of productivity of Culex spp. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban storm water catch basin system in Wrocław (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Jawień, Piotr; Lonc, Elżbieta; Modelska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    In urban environments, catch basins serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. However, the use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. During seasonal summer investigations on mosquito species composition, their spatial and temporal distribution and the environmental characteristic of the breeding sites in the underground storm drain systems of the Wrocław urban area (SW Poland) were assessed from May to September in 2012-2013. The study was conducted in order to develop a rational strategy to control mosquito populations and prevent the potential human exposure to mosquito-transmitted pathogens. Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected and identified weekly from 100 regularly inspected street catch basins located in the town center. All existing and potential breeding habitats in the study area were recorded using a GPS receiver (Magellan MobileMapper CX) and transferred to the computer database. Collected data on the geographical location of inspected breeding places, water quality parameters in inspected catch basins, daily temperature, and precipitation were imposed on orthophotomap in ArcGIS (ESRI, USA). Water quality parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were measured by standard methods. Chemical water analysis of cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO2 (-), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-)) were carried out using Waters Alliance high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) 2695 with 432 Conductivity Detector and 2998 Photodiode Array Detector, an IC-Pak Anion HR column (glauconate/borate eluent) and IC-Pak Cation M/D column (EDTA/HNO3 eluent). Over two seasonal studies and 3739 samplings in total, 3669 mosquito larvae and 274 pupae/1 dip (from 0 to 110 individuals/dip) were collected by dipper. Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Cx. torrentium (Martini) prevailed at all catch basins

  10. Unique biochemical and molecular biological mechanism of synergistic actions of formamidine compounds on selected pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph F A; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that formamidine pesticides such as amitraz and chlordimeform effectively synergize toxic actions of certain pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in some insect species on the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Here we studied the biochemical basis of the synergistic actions of the formamidines in amplifying the toxicity of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids such as dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, as well as deltamethrin-fenvalerate type of pyrethroids. We tested the hypothesis that their synergistic actions are mediated by the octopamine receptor, and that the major consequence of octopamine receptor activation is induction of trehalase to increase glucose levels in the hemolymph. The results show that formamidines cause a significant up-regulation of the octopamine receptor and trehalase mRNA expressions. Furthermore, formamidines significantly elevate levels of free glucose when co-treated with dinotefuran, deltamethrin and fenvalerate, but not with permethrin or fenitrothion, which showed no synergistic toxic effects with formamidines. These results support the conclusion that the main mode of synergism is based on the ability to activate the octopamine receptor, which is particularly effective with insecticides causing hyperexcitation-induced glucose release and consequently leading to quick energy exhaustion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Muscidae (Diptera) of forensic importance-an identification key to third instar larvae of the western Palaearctic region and a catalogue of the muscid carrion community.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Hall, Martin J R; Pape, Thomas; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2016-12-07

    The Muscidae is one of the main dipteran families recognized as important for medico-legal purposes. Although an association of adult flies with decomposing human and animal bodies is documented for about 200 taxa worldwide, cadavers and carrion represents a breeding habitat for considerably fewer species. Species that do colonize dead human bodies can do so under diverse environmental conditions and, under certain circumstances, Muscidae may be the only colonizers of a body. Because of difficulties in identification, many studies have identified immature and/or adult muscids only to the genus or family level. This lack of detailed species-level identifications hinders detailed investigation of their medico-legal usefulness in carrion succession-oriented experiments. Identification to species level of third instars of Muscidae of forensic importance and the utility of larval morphological characters for taxonomic purposes were subjected to an in-depth revision. A combination of characters allowing for the discrimination of third instar muscids from other forensically important dipterans is proposed. An identification key for third instar larvae, which covers the full set of cadaver-colonising species of Muscidae from the western Palaearctic (Europe, North Africa, Middle East), is provided. This key will facilitate more detailed and species-specific knowledge of the occurrence of Muscidae in forensic entomology experiments and real cases. The carrion-visiting Muscidae worldwide are catalogued, and those species breeding in animal carrion and dead human bodies are briefly discussed with regard to their forensic importance.

  12. Results preliminary attempts to control the larvae of Leptoconops (Holoconops) kerteszi Kieffer, 1908 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in the coastal wetlands of Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, M; Cocchi, M; Raffaelli, I; Guerra, L; Tamburro, A; Fausto, A M

    2010-04-01

    Leptoconops spp. are small midges, members of the family Ceratopogonidae, that are relatively widespread in wetlands with sandy or silty-clay soils, including many tourist sites. Although very few of the species are proven vectors of pathogens, the blood-feeding females attack mammals, including humans, in large swarms and their painful bites may cause severe reactions, especially in children. Although Leptoconops spp. may limit the socio-economic development of an area, there are currently no effective methods for the control of their natural populations, and the repellents and netting used against mosquitoes are ineffective against these midges. The diurnal control of the adults with pesticides may have unacceptable impacts on non-target species, including humans, and be ineffective because the adult females can easily be carried, from untreated areas to treated, on the wind. In the present study, the use of a diflubenzuron-based insecticide against the larvae of Leptoconops (Holoconops) kerteszi Kieffer, 1908 - a sand-reproducing species that is widespread in certain coastal areas of the Italian province of Grosseto - was explored. In Grosseto, in summer, attacks by swarms of adult L. kerteszi create problems for the local people and the many tourists. The encouraging results of preliminary tests are discussed in relation to the potential use of diflubenzuron for the integrated control of L. kerteszi populations.

  13. Impact of Source Reduction on the Spatial Distribution of Larvae and Pupae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Suburban Neighborhoods of a Piedmont Community in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDS, STEPHANIE L.; GHOSH, SUJIT K.; ZEICHNER, BRIAN C.; APPERSON, CHARLES S.

    2008-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a principal nuisance mosquito species and a potential arbovirus vector throughout its geographic range in the United States. This species lays eggs, and progeny complete development in water-filled containers that are discarded in suburban landscapes. Source reduction of containers, achieved through environmental sanitation, was used to experimentally manipulate mosquito production to gain insight into the spatial structure of the population of immature Ae. albopictus. Our studies were conducted in suburban landscapes in Raleigh, NC, during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons. Spatial analyses, using estimates of the mean and total standing crop of pupae and counts of the numbers of mosquito-positive containers, showed that the distribution of mosquito production was not spatially dependent on a neighborhood-wide basis. However, in all neighborhoods, mosquito production was clustered in at least one and often more than one adjacent residence. Point pattern analyses that considered only the presence or absence of pupae showed that pupae-positive residences were dispersed throughout neighborhoods receiving monthly source reduction treatments and clustered throughout control neighborhoods, indicating that source reduction affected the spatial distribution of pupae. Conversely, spatial analyses based on the presence or absence of larvae and pupae showed that mosquito production was randomly distributed among residences in both control and source reduction neighborhoods, showing that Ae. albopictus recolonized containers within several weeks after source reduction was implemented. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of production sites would allow management efforts for Ae. albopictus to be targeted to residences supporting high levels of mosquito production. PMID:18714860

  14. Impact of source reduction on the spatial distribution of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in suburban neighborhoods of a Piedmont community in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ghosh, Sujit K; Zeichner, Brian C; Apperson, Charles S

    2008-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a principal nuisance mosquito species and a potential arbovirus vector throughout its geographic range in the United States. This species lays eggs, and progeny complete development in water-filled containers that are discarded in suburban landscapes. Source reduction of containers, achieved through environmental sanitation, was used to experimentally manipulate mosquito production to gain insight into the spatial structure of the population of immature Ae. albopictus. Our studies were conducted in suburban landscapes in Raleigh, NC, during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons. Spatial analyses, using estimates of the mean and total standing crop of pupae and counts of the numbers of mosquito-positive containers, showed that the distribution of mosquito production was not spatially dependent on a neighborhood-wide basis. However, in all neighborhoods, mosquito production was clustered in at least one and often more than one adjacent residence. Point pattern analyses that considered only the presence or absence of pupae showed that pupae-positive residences were dispersed throughout neighborhoods receiving monthly source reduction treatments and clustered throughout control neighborhoods, indicating that source reduction affected the spatial distribution of pupae. Conversely, spatial analyses based on the presence or absence of larvae and pupae showed that mosquito production was randomly distributed among residences in both control and source reduction neighborhoods, showing that Ae. albopictus recolonized containers within several weeks after source reduction was implemented. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of production sites would allow management efforts for Ae. albopictus to be targeted to residences supporting high levels of mosquito production.

  15. Superparasitism in laboratory rearing of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F

    2012-02-01

    The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions.

  16. Area-Wide Suppression of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, Lester M.; McInnis, Donald O.; Harris, Ernest B.; McQuate, Grant T.; Bautista, Renato C.; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure® traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed. PMID:20883128

  17. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  18. Effect of trypsin inhibitor from Crotalaria pallida seeds on Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Pitanga, Joelma C M; Moura, Fabiano T; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Raniere M; Queiroz, Alexandre F S; Macedo, Francisco P; Andrade, Lúcia B S; Vidal, Márcia S; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-12-01

    A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin-Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had M(r) of 32.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of two subunits with 27.7 and 5.6 kDa linked by disulfide bridges. CpaTI was stable at 50 degrees C and lost 40% of activity at 100 degrees C. CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 degrees C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality. CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodiainterpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Ceratitis capitata to CpaTI was evaluated. C. maculatus and C. capitata enzymes were strongly susceptible, 74.4+/-15.8% and 100.0+/-7.3%, respectively, to CpaTI. When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. maculatus was more susceptible to CpaTI with an LD(50) of 3.0 and ED(50) of 2.17%. C. capitata larvae were more resistant to CpaTI, in disagreement with the in vitro effects. The larvae were more affected at lower concentrations, causing 27% mortality and 44.4% mass decrease. The action was constant at 2-4% (w/w) with 15% mortality and 38% mass decrease.

  19. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes. PMID:25471105

  20. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes.

  1. Identification and expression profiling of Ceratitis capitata genes coding for β-hexosaminidases.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Maria E; Intra, Jari; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Calvenzani, Valentina; Petroni, Katia; Briani, Federica; Perotti, Maria Elisa

    2011-02-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the genes coding for β-N-acetylhexosaminidases in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata, one of the most destructive agricultural pests, belonging to the Tephritidae family, order Diptera. Two dimeric β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, HEXA and HEXB, have been recently identified on Drosophila sperm. These enzymes are involved in egg binding through interactions with complementary carbohydrates on the surface of the egg shell. Three genes, Hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1), Hexosaminidase 2 (Hexo2) and fused lobes (fdl), encode for HEXA and HEXB subunits. The availability of C. capitata EST libraries derived from embryos and adult heads allowed us to identify three sequences homologous to the D. melanogaster Hexo1, Hexo2 and fdl genes. Here, we report the expression profile analysis of CcHexo1, CcHexo2 and Ccfdld in several tissues, organs and stages. Ccfdl expression was highest in heads of both sexes and in whole adult females. In the testis and ovary the three genes showed distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns. All the mRNAs were detectable in early stages of spermatogenesis; CcHexo2 and Ccfdl were also expressed in early elongating spermatid cysts. All three genes are expressed in the ovarian nurse cells. CcHexo1 and Ccfdl are stage specific, since they have been observed in stages 12 and 13 during oocyte growth, when programmed cell death occurs in nurse cells. The expression pattern of the three genes in medfly gonads suggests that, as their Drosophila counterparts, they may encode for proteins involved in gametogenesis and fertilization.

  2. Life table assay of field-caught Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, reveals age bias

    PubMed Central

    Kouloussis, Nikos A.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng; Katsoyannos, Byron I.; Duyck, Pierre-François; Carey, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Though traps are used widely to sample phytophagous insects for research or management purposes, and recently in aging research, possible bias stemming from differential response of individuals of various ages to traps has never been examined. In this paper, we tested the response of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) males and females of four ages (spanning from 1 to 40 days) to McPhail-type traps baited with a synthetic food attractant in field cages and found that the probability of trapping was significantly influenced by age. The type of food on which flies were maintained before testing (sugar or protein) also had a strong effect and interacted with age. In another experiment, we collected wild C. capitata adults of unknown age using 1–3 methods and then reared them in the laboratory until death. The survival schedules of these flies were subsequently used in a life table assay to infer their age at the time of capture. Results showed that on a single sampling date, males captured in traps baited with a food attractant were younger compared with males aspirated from fruiting host trees, or males captured in traps baited with a sex attractant. Likewise, females captured in food-baited traps were younger compared with aspirated females. In addition to providing the first evidence of age-dependent sampling bias for a phytophagous insect species, this paper also provides a novel approach to estimate the differences in the age composition of samples collected with different techniques. These findings are of utmost importance for several categories of insects, medically important groups notwithstanding. PMID:22844133

  3. Cloning, sequence identification and expression profile analysis of α-L-fucosidase gene from the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Intra, Jari; Perotti, Maria-Elisa; Pasini, Maria Enrica

    2011-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive agricultural pests, a polyphagus insect of relevant economic importance and is widespread in many regions around the world. It is the best-studied fruit fly pest at genetic and molecular level and much has been learned on its ecology and behaviour. An α-L-fucosidase has been recently hypothesized to be involved in sperm-egg interactions in Drosophila melanogaster and in other Drosophila species. Here, a complete cDNA encoding a putative α-L-fucosidase of the medfly was amplified using the reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate based on the conserved coding sequence information of several insect α-L-fucosidases, cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession no. FJ177429). The coding region consisted of 1482 bp which encoded a 485-residues protein (named CcFUCA) with a predicted molecular mass of 56.1 kDa. The deduced protein sequence showed 75% amino acid identity to D. melanogaster α-L-fucosidase, and in fact the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that CcFUCA had closer relationships with the α-L-fucosidases of drosophilid species. The tissue expression analysis indicated that CcFuca was expressed in a single transcript in all tissues, suggesting a ubiquitous localization pattern of the encoded protein. Our findings provide novel insights on a gene encoding a protein potentially involved in primary gamete interactions in C. capitata.

  4. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  5. Temperature-Dependent Development and Survival of Brazilian Populations of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, from Tropical, Subtropical and Temperate Regions

    PubMed Central

    Ricalde, Marcelo P.; Nava, Dori E.; Loeck, Alci E.; Donatti, Michele G.

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions. PMID:22963468

  6. Temperature-dependent development and survival of Brazilian populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from tropical, subtropical and temperate regions.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Marcelo P; Nava, Dori E; Loeck, Alci E; Donatti, Michele G

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions.

  7. Effect of constant temperatures on the biology, life table, and thermal requirements of Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), a parasitoid of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R S; Nava, D E; Andreazza, F; Lisbôa, H; Nunes, A M; Grützmacher, A D; Valgas, R A; Maia, A H N; Pazianotto, R A A

    2014-04-01

    Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of larvae of species of the genus Anastrepha and of Ceratitis capitata. It is a candidate for use as a biological control agent, as under field conditions, it may reach a parasitism rate of 62%. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different constant temperatures on biological parameters of A. pelleranoi when parasitizing the larva of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), as well as to determine its thermal requirements. The study was conducted in environmental chambers at 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, and 30 ± 1°C; 70 ± 10% relative humidity; and a 12-h photophase. Females maintained at 18 and 20°C produced more progeny than females at other temperatures tested. The longevity of males and females was inversely proportional to temperature, ranging from 49.1 to 3.73 d for females and from 32.1 to 3.8 d for males at temperatures of 18-30°C, respectively. The duration of the biological cycle (egg-to-adult) was influenced by temperature, and ranged from 69.1 d at 18°C to 30 d at 25°C. No preimaginal development of A. pelleranoi occurred at 28 and 30°C. The relationship between temperature and the demographic parameters of A. pelleranoi showed a linear effect over the temperature range of 18-25°C. The lower temperature threshold and thermal constant were 11.69°C and 391.70 degree days, respectively.

  8. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  9. Osmoregulatory Organs of Immature Culicodes Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The water saturated soils and wet feces in livestock feed lots support a variety of Diptera including Musca spp. and Culicoides spp. Aquatic insects that must regulate the ion concentrations of their haemolymph; and fresh water insects tend to loose ions to their aquatic environment. The larvae of C...

  10. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops to Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Cartea, M E; Francisco, M; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Velasco, P

    2010-10-01

    Twenty-one cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) varieties, including 16 local varieties and five commercial hybrids, were screened for resistance to the moth Mamestra brassicae L. under natural and artificial conditions in northwestern Spain. Resistance was assessed as the proportion of damaged plants and damaged leaves, leaf feeding injury, and number of larvae present. Correlation coefficients among damage traits showed that a visual scale (general appearance rating) should be a useful indicator of resistance. Most local varieties were highly susceptible to M. brassicae, whereas the commercial hybrids tested were resistant in terms of head foliage consumption and number of larvae per plant. Performance of varieties was similar under natural and artificial infestation although some of them performed differently at each year. Three local varieties (MBG-BRS0057, MBG-BRS0074, and MBG-BRS0452) were highly susceptible at both natural and artificial infestation conditions being MBG-BRS0074 the most damaged variety. Two local varieties (MBG-BRS0402 and MBG-BRS0535) and commercial hybrids were identified as resistant or moderately resistant to M. brassicae. Among them, 'Corazón de Buey' and 'Cabeza negra' were the most resistant and produced compact heads. These varieties could be useful sources of resistance to obtain resistant varieties to M. brassicae or as donors of resistance to other Brassica crops. The possible role of leaf traits, head compactness, and leaf glucosinolate content in relation to M. brassicae resistance is discussed.

  11. [Larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  12. Phytosanitary Treatments Against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae): Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W

    2016-12-27

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem.

  13. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, P.; He, X.L.; Woodcock, C.; Pickett, J.A.; Field, L.M.; Birkett, M.A.; Kalinova, B.; Gomulski, L.M.; Scolari, F.; Gasperi, G.; Malacrida, A.R.; Zhou, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of agriculture worldwide, displaying a very wide larval host range with more than 250 different species of fruit and vegetables. Olfaction plays a key role in the invasive potential of this species. Unfortunately, the pheromone communication system of the medfly is complex and still not well established. In this study, we report the isolation of chemicals emitted by sexually mature individuals during the “calling” period and the electrophysiological responses that these compounds elicit on the antennae of male and female flies. Fifteen compounds with electrophysiological activity were isolated and identified in male emissions by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography (GC–EAG). Within the group of 15 identified compounds, 11 elicited a response in antennae of both sexes, whilst 4 elicited a response only in female antennae. The binding affinity of these compounds, plus 4 additional compounds known to be behaviourally active from other studies, was measured using C. capitata OBP, CcapOBP83a-2. This OBP has a high homology to Drosophila melanogaster OBPs OS-E and OS-F, which are associated with trichoid sensilla and co-expressed with the well-studied Drosophila pheromone binding protein LUSH. The results provide evidence of involvement of CcapOBP83a-2 in the medfly's odorant perception and its wider specificity for (E,E)-α-farnesene, one of the five major compounds in medfly male pheromone emission. This represents the first step in the clarification of the C. capitata and pheromone reception pathway, and a starting point for further studies aimed towards the creation of new powerful attractants or repellents applicable in the actual control strategies. PMID:24607850

  14. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, P; He, X L; Woodcock, C; Pickett, J A; Field, L M; Birkett, M A; Kalinova, B; Gomulski, L M; Scolari, F; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Zhou, J J

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of agriculture worldwide, displaying a very wide larval host range with more than 250 different species of fruit and vegetables. Olfaction plays a key role in the invasive potential of this species. Unfortunately, the pheromone communication system of the medfly is complex and still not well established. In this study, we report the isolation of chemicals emitted by sexually mature individuals during the "calling" period and the electrophysiological responses that these compounds elicit on the antennae of male and female flies. Fifteen compounds with electrophysiological activity were isolated and identified in male emissions by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography (GC-EAG). Within the group of 15 identified compounds, 11 elicited a response in antennae of both sexes, whilst 4 elicited a response only in female antennae. The binding affinity of these compounds, plus 4 additional compounds known to be behaviourally active from other studies, was measured using C. capitata OBP, CcapOBP83a-2. This OBP has a high homology to Drosophila melanogaster OBPs OS-E and OS-F, which are associated with trichoid sensilla and co-expressed with the well-studied Drosophila pheromone binding protein LUSH. The results provide evidence of involvement of CcapOBP83a-2 in the medfly's odorant perception and its wider specificity for (E,E)-α-farnesene, one of the five major compounds in medfly male pheromone emission. This represents the first step in the clarification of the C. capitata and pheromone reception pathway, and a starting point for further studies aimed towards the creation of new powerful attractants or repellents applicable in the actual control strategies.

  15. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.

  16. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families.

  17. The Significance of Genetic Polymorphisms within and between Founder Populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alicia; Martinez, Laura; Manso, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae) is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms. A comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility. Conclusions The genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics. PMID:19252742

  18. Chironomidae bloodworms larvae as aquatic amphibian food.

    PubMed

    Fard, Mojdeh Sharifian; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Laing, Gijs Du; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Different species of chironomids larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) so-called bloodworms are widely distributed in the sediments of all types of freshwater habitats and considered as an important food source for amphibians. In our study, three species of Chironomidae (Baeotendipes noctivagus, Benthalia dissidens, and Chironomus riparius) were identified in 23 samples of larvae from Belgium, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine provided by a distributor in Belgium. We evaluated the suitability of these samples as amphibian food based on four different aspects: the likelihood of amphibian pathogens spreading, risk of heavy metal accumulation in amphibians, nutritive value, and risk of spreading of zoonotic bacteria (Salmonella, Campylobacter, and ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae). We found neither zoonotic bacteria nor the amphibian pathogens Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in these samples. Our data showed that among the five heavy metals tested (Hg, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn), the excess level of Pb in two samples and low content of Zn in four samples implicated potential risk of Pb accumulation and Zn inadequacy. Proximate nutritional analysis revealed that, chironomidae larvae are consistently high in protein but more variable in lipid content. Accordingly, variations in the lipid: protein ratio can affect the amount and pathway of energy supply to the amphibians. Our study indicated although environmentally-collected chironomids larvae may not be vectors of specific pathogens, they can be associated with nutritional imbalances and may also result in Pb bioaccumulation and Zn inadequacy in amphibians. Chironomidae larvae may thus not be recommended as single diet item for amphibians.

  19. Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi, a New Species from Panama (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Galindo 3 ABSTRACT. The adults of both sexes, pupa and 4th stage larva of CuZex (MeZanoconion) adamesi, a new species from Panama are described...Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) and several other arboviruses from wild caught adults of Culex (MeZanoconion) taeniopus Dyar and Knab and related species at...00-00-1980 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi, a New Species from Panama (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  20. Thermotolerance and HSP70 expression in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Kalosaka, Katerina; Soumaka, Elisavet; Politis, Nikos; Mintzas, Anastassios C

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance has been well documented in Drosophila melanogaster. However, there is limited information on this relationship in other insect species. In this report we describe the Hsp70-thermotolerance relationship in one of the major fruit fly pests, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance were assayed at a range of temperatures in several stages of medfly development. The most thermotolerant stage was found to be the late larval stage (100% survival at 41 degrees C) followed by adult flies and late embryos (100% survival at 39 degrees C). These three stages showed a positive relationship between Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance. Mid-larval and mid-embryonic stages were found less thermotolerant and the Hsp70-thermotolerance relationship was not evident. Early embryos did not express Hsp70 at any temperature and exhibited the lowest thermotolerance. The relationship between Hsp70 and inducible thermotolerance was also studied in late larvae. A pretreatment at 37-39 degrees C increased thermotolerance at higher temperatures by approximately 1 degrees C. In parallel, the pretreatment increased Hsp70 expression suggesting a close link between Hsp70 expression and inducible thermotolerance. The increased Hsp70 levels after pretreatment were found to be due to the increased levels of the hsp70 RNA.

  1. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  2. Behavioral effects of plant essential oils on Ceratitis capitata males – risk versus reward

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, these roles include male-targeted attractants for traps and aromatherapy exposure for increased mating success. Essential oils that affect C. capitata behavior may be from either host or non-host pl...

  3. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this research is the development of a sperm marking system for Ceratitis capitata, which is based on the use of the Ceratitis capitata spermatogenesis-specific Beta 2t promoter driving a fluorescent marker. The testes-specific Beta 2-tubulin gene was isolated by a degenerate PCR approach,...

  4. Irradiation of mangoes as a postharvest quarantine treatment for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bustos, María E; Enkerlin, Walther; Reyes, Jesús; Toledo, Jorge

    2004-04-01

    Mangoes infested with third instar larvae were irradiated using Co-60 gamma rays and a dose interval of 2-250 Gy to assess the irradiation dose required to prevent adult emergence of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), the West Indies fruit fly (A. obliqua), the sapote fruit fly (A. serpentina), and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Doses of 76.9, 87.3, 91.4 and 112.7 Gy, were estimated to inhibit 99.9968% (probit 9) of adult emergence forA. obliqua, A. serpentina, A. ludens, and C. capitata, respectively. Using mangoes infested with a total of 100,000 larvae of each species, the results obtained in the laboratory were confirmed using a dose of 100 Gy for the Anastrepha species and 150 Gy for C. capitata. No adult emergence was observed for any of the four species compared with approximately 80% emergence in the controls. A dose of 150 Gy is recommended as a generic quarantine treatment against potential infestation of these species in exported mangoes. A minor decrease in the ascorbic acid content was the only adverse effects observed in irradiated mangoes.

  5. Morphological deformities in Chironomus spp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae as a tool for impact assessment of anthropogenic and environmental stresses on three rivers in the Juru river system, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman; Rawi, Che Salmah M; Nor, Siti Azizah M; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Ali, Arshad

    2010-02-01

    Morphological deformities in parts of the head capsule of Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers (Permatang Rawa [PRR], Pasir [PR], and Kilang Ubi [KUR]) in the Juru River Basin, northeastern peninsular Malaysia, were studied. Samples of the fourth-instar larvae at one location in each river were collected monthly from November 2007 to March 2008 and examined for deformities of the mentum, antenna, mandible, and epipharyngis. At each sample location, in situ measurements of water depth, river width, water pH, dissolved oxygen, and water temperature were made. Samples of river water and benthic sediments were also collected monthly from each larval sample location in each river and taken to the laboratory for appropriate analysis. Total suspended solids (TSSs), ammonium-N, nitrate-N, phosphate-P, chloride, sulfate, and aluminum content in water were analyzed. Total organic matter and nonresidual metals in the sediment samples were also analyzed. Among the three rivers, the highest mean deformity (47.17%) was recorded in larvae collected from KUR that received industrial discharges from surrounding garment and rubber factories, followed by PRR (33.71%) receiving primarily residues of fertilizers and pesticides from adjacent rice fields, and PR (30.34%) contaminated primarily by anthropogenic wastes from the surrounding residential areas. Among the various head capsule structures, deformity of the mentum was strongly reflective of environmental stress and amounted to 27.9, 20.87, and 30.19% in the PRR, PR, and KUR, respectively. Calculated Lenat's toxic score index satisfactorily explained the influence of prevailing environmental variables on the severity of mentum deformities. Redundancy analysis and forward selection selected TSSs, sediment Zn, Mn, Cu, and Ni, and water pH, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, total organic matter, nitrate-N, chloride, phosphate-P, ammonium-N, sulfate, and aluminum as parameters that significantly affected some

  6. Human infestation with rodent botfly larvae: a new route of entry?

    PubMed

    Goddard, J

    1997-02-01

    A 3-year-old child was infested with two larvae of the rodent botfly (insect order Diptera, genus Cuterebra), one on the back and one on the neck. Both larvae produced tracklike lesions in the skin. After week 1, the back lesion did not develop further, but the neck lesion continued to enlarge and formed a boil-like lesion. Despite examination by several physicians, the case was not recognized as myiasis for more than 3 weeks. Details of the case are presented and discussed, including the possibility that infestation resulted from direct deposition of eggs or larvae on the patient.

  7. Chemosterilant bait stations coupled with sterile insect technique: an integrated strategy to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C

    2011-10-01

    During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels.

  8. Do thermal tolerances and rapid thermal responses contribute to the invasion potential of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Welma; Terblanche, John S; Addison, Pia

    2017-04-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has shown remarkable range expansion over the past 10years and invaded several new continents including Africa. Here we report results of a detailed assessment of acute high and low temperature survival ability and the plasticity thereof, to test the hypothesis that traits of the thermal niche have contributed to the species' invasion ability. We also assess life-stage-related variation of thermal tolerances to determine potential stage-related environmental sensitivity. The temperatures at which c. 20% of the population survived of B. dorsalis were determined to be -6.5°C and 42.7°C, respectively, when using 2h exposures. Further, four life stages of B. dorsalis (egg, 3rd instar larvae, pupae and adults) were exposed to high and low discriminating temperatures to compare their thermal survival rates. The egg stage was found to be the most resistant life stage to both high and low temperatures, since 44±2.3% survived the low and 60±4.2% survived the high discriminating temperature treatments respectively. Finally, the potential for adult hardening responses to mediate tolerance of extremes was also considered using a diverse range of acute conditions (using 2h exposures to 15°C, 10°C and 5°C and 30°C, 35°C, 37°C and 39°C as hardening temperatures, and some treatments with and without recovery periods between hardening and discriminating temperature treatment). These showed that although some significant hardening responses could be detected in certain treatments (e.g. after exposure to 37°C and 39°C), the magnitude of this plasticity was generally low compared to two other wide-spread and more geographically-range-restricted con-familial species, Ceratitis capitata and C. rosa. In other words, Bactrocera dorsalis adults were unable to rapidly heat- or cold-harden to the same extent as the other Ceratitis species examined to date. These results suggest a narrower thermal niche in B. dorsalis compared

  9. Effect of Dietary Components on Larval Life History Characteristics in the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata: Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nash, William J.; Chapman, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to respond to heterogenous nutritional resources is an important factor in the adaptive radiation of insects such as the highly polyphagous Medfly. Here we examined the breadth of the Medfly’s capacity to respond to different developmental conditions, by experimentally altering diet components as a proxy for host quality and novelty. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested responses of larval life history to diets containing protein and carbohydrate components found in and outside the natural host range of this species. A 40% reduction in the quantity of protein caused a significant increase in egg to adult mortality by 26.5%±6% in comparison to the standard baseline diet. Proteins and carbohydrates had differential effects on larval versus pupal development and survival. Addition of a novel protein source, casein (i.e. milk protein), to the diet increased larval mortality by 19.4%±3% and also lengthened the duration of larval development by 1.93±0.5 days in comparison to the standard diet. Alteration of dietary carbohydrate, by replacing the baseline starch with simple sugars, increased mortality specifically within the pupal stage (by 28.2%±8% and 26.2%±9% for glucose and maltose diets, respectively). Development in the presence of the novel carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar) was successful, though on this diet there was a decrease of 29.8±1.6 µg in mean pupal weight in comparison to pupae reared on the baseline diet. Conclusions The results confirm that laboratory reared Medfly retain the ability to survive development through a wide range of fluctuations in the nutritional environment. We highlight new facets of the responses of different stages of holometabolous life histories to key dietary components. The results are relevant to colonisation scenarios and key to the biology of this highly invasive species. PMID:24465851

  10. Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Szyniszewska, Anna M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  11. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in...

  12. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  13. Life History and Cost Analysis for Rearing Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in a Liquid Diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A liquid diet for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis was developed. Three hydrolyzed yeast (LS65, FNI200, FNI210), a glutamine enriched yeast (G, Fermaid SuperRelax, GSH), RDA500 (R, an enriched high vitamins yeast), Korea yeast, and their yeast products (FNI200+G, FNI200+R, FNI200+G+R, LS65 +G, LS65+R, L...

  14. Using genetic diversity information to establish core collections of Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Garcia, Melissa Oliveira; de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Sassaki, Rodrigo Possidonio; Ferreira, Thais Helena; Resende, Rosângela Maria Simeão; Chiari, Lucimara; Karia, Cláudio Takao; Carvalho, Marcelo Ayres; Faleiro, Fábio Gelape; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Stylosanthes species are important forage legumes in tropical and subtropical areas. S. macrocephala and S. capitata germplasm collections that consist of 134 and 192 accessions, respectively, are maintained at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Cerrados (Embrapa-Cerrados). Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure with the aim to assemble a core collection. The mean values of HO and HE for S. macrocephala were 0.08 and 0.36, respectively, whereas the means for S. capitata were 0.48 and 0.50, respectively. Roger’s genetic distance varied from 0 to 0.83 for S. macrocephala and from 0 to 0.85 for S. capitata. Analysis with STRUCTURE software distinguished five groups among the S. macrocephala accessions and four groups among those of S. capitata. Nei’s genetic diversity was 27% in S. macrocephala and 11% in S. capitata. Core collections were assembled for both species. For S. macrocephala, all of the allelic diversity was represented by 23 accessions, whereas only 13 accessions were necessary to represent all allelic diversity for S. capitata. The data presented herein evidence the population structure present in the Embrapa-Cerrados germplasm collections of S. macrocephala and S. capitata, which may be useful for breeding programs and germplasm conservation. PMID:23271947

  15. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval.

  16. Limonia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija

    2017-02-09

    The Korean species of Limonia Meigen, 1803 crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) are taxonomically revised. Species L. annulata Lackschewitz, 1940 (Lackschewitz, Pagast, 1940), L. bidens Savchenko, 1979, L. episema Alexander, 1924, L. fusciceps fusciceps Alexander, 1924, L. juvenca Alexander, 1935, L. messaurea messaurea Mendl, 1971, L. nemoralis Savchenko, 1983 are new records for the Korean peninsula and L. pia n. sp. is described. Synonymy of L. venerabilis Alexander, 1938 with L. macrostigma (Schummel, 1829) is confirmed. L. tanakai (Alexander, 1921) is not confirmed for the Korean Peninsula. An identification key, redescriptions and illustrations of all species and both sexes of adults, if they were found in Korea, are presented. Descriptions, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larva and pupa of L. parvipennis Alexander, 1940. Distinguishing morphological characters of the last instar larvae of Korean Limonia are discussed. Keys to the known Korean Limonia larvae and pupae are compiled.

  17. Efficacy of lufenuron as chemosterilant against Ceratitis capitata in field trials.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Sanchis-Cabanes, Juan; Ayala, Ildefonso; Casaña-Giner, Victor; Primo-Yüfera, Eduardo

    2004-09-01

    Two field trials in citrus orchards in Turis (Valencia, Spain) and Denia (Alicante, Spain) were performed in order to test the sterilant effect of the insect growth regulator lufenuron against wild medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) populations. Two application methods for lufenuron were tested: spraying, in spots, an emulsion of lufenuron in a protein bait, and hanging delta traps that contained a proteinaceous gel with lufenuron (solid bait). The sterilant effect was measured as medfly population reduction, reduction of fruit damage in treated fields, and the number of eggs hatching in punctured fruits. In order to assess the efficacy of lufenuron treatments, we recorded results obtained from two different zones in both trial fields: an outer zone, close to untreated fields, and an inner zone, in the centre of lufenuron treated fields. We observed a minimum sterilant effect in the outer zone and a maximum sterilant effect in the inner one. The maximum sterilant effect was in the inner zone, where a reduction of medfly population of 80.4% in the sprayed field and a reduction of 77.6% in the solid bait field was observed. In addition, the greater the distance from the untreated zones of the treated orchard (inwards), the lower the fruit damage and medfly population level. In this inner zone, fruit punctured by medfly developed significantly fewer larvae (38.8%) than punctured fruits from the outer zone (68.6%). In addition, we recorded the decline in the activity of the lufenuron treatments with time. Lufenuron activity persisted in field for at least 2 weeks with spray applications, and for 3 months with bait gels.

  18. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    RASTI, Sima; DEHGHANI, Rouhullah; KHALEDI, Hassan NAEIMI; TAKHTFIROOZEH, Sayed Mahdi; CHIMEHI, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies’ larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis. PMID:28127350

  19. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rasti, Sima; Dehghani, Rouhullah; Khaledi, Hassan Naeimi; Takhtfiroozeh, Sayed Mahdi; Chimehi, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies' larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  20. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  1. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae) that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae), digging a mine near...

  2. The preparation of the rice coral Montipora capitata nubbins for application in coral-reef ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Vijayavel, K; Richmond, R H

    2012-04-01

    Securing adequate and appropriate source material for coral-reef ecotoxicology studies is a significant impediment to conducting various experiments supporting the goal of conserving coral-reef ecosystems. Collecting colonies from wild stocks may be counter to protecting coral reef populations. To address this issue the rice coral Montipora capitata was used to generate sufficient genetically identical nubbins for research purposes. Growth and survival rates of these laboratory-prepared M. capitata nubbins were studied over a period of 90 days. The resulting data support the conclusion that the laboratory-prepared M. capitata nubbins showed successful growth and survival rates and are the best solution to solve the source material issue for lab experimentation. This paper describes the laboratory method used for the preparation and maintenance of these M. capitata nubbins and discusses the benefits and difficulties of using these nubbins in ecotoxicity studies.

  3. An unusual case of urinary tract infection caused by Saprochaete capitata under anidulafungin treatment.

    PubMed

    Hazirolan, G; Aypak, A; Aksu, N

    2017-09-01

    Saprochaete capitata may cause uncommon severe infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by S. capitata in a chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus patient, which occur during anidulafungin therapy. Mycological examinations of urine were positive to S. capitata identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed by ITS sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolate for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and, anidulafungin were 2, 16, 1, 1, and 8μg/mL, respectively. Presence of S. capitata infection was not known. Clinicians should be aware about these rare opportunistic fungal pathogens, particularly those with intrinsic or variable resistance to antifungals including echinocandins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in tropical forage Stylosanthes capitata Vogel.

    PubMed

    Santos, M O; Sassaki, R P; Chiari, L; Resende, R M S; DE Souza, A P

    2009-01-01

    Stylosanthes capitata is an important tropical pasture legume. Knowledge of genetic diversity and structure of S. capitata populations is of great importance for the conservation and germplasm management of this species. Thus, eight microsatellite markers were developed from an S. capitata-enriched library. They were characterized in 20 accessions from the germplasm collection of the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.16 to 0.85 and from 0.40 to 0.85, respectively. These microsatellites are the first set of molecular markers from this species and will contribute towards studies of genetic diversity, conservation and breeding of S. capitata.

  5. Effects of within-generation thermal history on the flight performance of Ceratitis capitata: colder is better.

    PubMed

    Esterhuizen, Nanike; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; van Daalen, Corne E; Schoombie, Ruben E; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2014-10-01

    The influence of thermal history on temperature-dependent flight performance was investigated in an invasive agricultural pest insect, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flies were exposed to one of four developmental acclimation temperatures (Tacc: 15, 20, 25, 30°C) during their pupal stage and tested at these temperatures (Ttest) as adults using a full-factorial study design. Major factors influencing flight performance included sex, body mass, Ttest and the interaction between Ttest and Tacc. Successful flight performance increased with increasing Ttest across all acclimation groups (from 10% at 15°C to 77% at 30°C). Although Tacc did not affect flight performance independently, it did have a significant interaction effect with Ttest. Multiple comparisons showed that flies which had been acclimated to 15°C and 20°C performed better than those acclimated to 25°C and 30°C when tested at cold temperatures, but warm-acclimated flies did not outperform cold-acclimated flies at warmer temperatures. This provides partial support for the 'colder is better' hypothesis. To explain these results, several flight-related traits were examined to determine whether Tacc influenced flight performance as a consequence of changes in body or wing morphology, whole-animal metabolic rate or cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity. Although significant effects of Tacc could be detected in several of the traits examined, with an emphasis on sex-related differences, increased flight performance could not be explained solely on the basis of changes in any of these traits. Overall, these results are important for understanding dispersal physiology despite the fact that the mechanisms of acclimation-related changes in flight performance remain unresolved.

  6. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  7. Hosts and parasitoids of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) in the State of Tocantins, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Darcy A; Uchôa-Fernandes, Manoel A; Bragança, Marcos A L

    2007-01-01

    Fruit flies were obtained from 13 species of naturally infested fruits in the central region of Tocantins State, from January to October 2005. A total of 1,753 female flies were collected that belong to 11 species: Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, A. fraterculus (Wied.), A. mucronota Stone, A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. turpiniae Stone, A. zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sp., Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and Neosilba sp. Also six species of parasitoids were associated to Anastrepha larvae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti), Doryctobracon sp., Opius bellus Gahan, Opius sp. and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck).

  8. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  9. Glycosidases in the plasma membrane of Ceratitis capitata spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Intra, Jari; De Caro, Daniela; Perotti, Maria-Elisa; Pasini, Maria Enrica

    2011-02-01

    Fruit flies in the family Tephritidae are rated among the world's most destructive agricultural pests. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is emerging as a model organism to study the fertilization in Insects. Three integral proteins with glycosidase activity are present in the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. The glycosidases have been purified and characterized. We have demonstrated the presence of three enzymes, a β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, an α-mannosidase and an α-l-fucosidase. The molecular mass of the native enzymes estimated by gel filtration was 160 kDa for β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, 310 kDa for α-mannosidase and 140 kDa for α-l-fucosidase. SDS-PAGE showed that β-N-acetylhexosaminidase is a dimer of a single protein of 73 kDa, α-mannosidase consists of six subunits with different molecular weights and α-l-fucosidase is a dimer made up by two different monomers. Characterization of the purified enzymes included glycosylation pattern, pI, optimal pH, substrate preference, kinetic properties and thermal stability. Soluble forms similar to the sperm associated glycosidases are present. Polyclonal antibodies raised against synthetic peptides designed from the predicted products of the Drosophila melanogaster genes encoding β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and α-l-fucosidase were used. Immunofluorescence labelling of spermatozoa showed that the enzymes are present in the sperm plasma membrane overlying the acrosome and the tail. This work represents the first report on the characterization in C. capitata of sperm proteins that are potentially involved in primary gamete recognition.

  10. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  12. From Parent to Gamete: Vertical Transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 Sequence Assemblages in the Reef Building Coral Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Pochon, Xavier; Bird, Christopher; Concepcion, Gregory T.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring. PMID:22701642

  13. Pathogenicity and characterization of a novel Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate toxic to the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, Luca; Falchi, Giovanni; Floris, Ignazio; Marche, Maria Giovanna; Mura, Maria Elena; Satta, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The lethal and sub-lethal effects of sporulated cultures of a novel Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain lacking detectable cry genes and identified through morphological and genetic analyses, have been studied on the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. The lethal effects on young larvae were concentration dependent, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.48 × 10(8)spores/g of diet. Sporulated cultures of this strain significantly extended development time and reduced immature survival, and the size of emerging fly adults. Besides spores, the toxicity has been associated to the insoluble extra-spore fraction characterized through a proteomic approach. The profile of the extra-spore protein fraction (ES) showed major protein bands within the 35-65 kDa range. The results of mass spectrometry analysis highlighted the presence of putative virulence factors, including members of protein families previously associated to the insecticidal action of other microbial entomopathogens. These proteins include metalloproteases, peptidases and other enzymes.

  14. From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Pochon, Xavier; Bird, Christopher; Concepcion, Gregory T; Gates, Ruth D

    2012-01-01

    Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

  15. Are all eggs created equal? A case study from the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Barshis, Daniel J.; Alamaru, Ada; Hédouin, Laetitia; Hernández-Pech, Xavier; Kandel, Frederique; Leon Soon, Sherril; Roth, Melissa S.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.; Grottoli, Andrea G.; Portocarrero, Claudia; Wagenhauser, Stephanie A.; Buttler, Fenina; Gates, Ruth D.

    2013-03-01

    Parental effects have been largely unexplored in marine organisms and may play a significant role in dictating the phenotypic range of traits in coral offspring, influencing their ability to survive environmental challenges. This study explored parental effects and life-stage differences in the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata from different environments by examining the biochemical composition of mature coral colonies and their eggs. Our results indicate that there are large biochemical differences between adults and eggs, with the latter containing higher concentration of lipids (mostly wax esters), ubiquitinated proteins (which may indicate high turnover rate of proteins) and antioxidants (e.g., manganese superoxide dismutase). Adults displayed high phenotypic plasticity, with corals from a high-light environment having more wax esters, lighter tissue δ13C signatures and higher Symbiodinium densities than adults from the low-light environment who had higher content of accessory pigments. A green-algal pigment (α-carotene) and powerful antioxidant was present in eggs; it is unclear whether this pigment is acquired from heterotrophic food sources or from endolithic green algae living in the adult coral skeletons. Despite the broad phenotypic plasticity displayed by adults, parental investment in the context of provisioning of energy reserves and antioxidant defense was the same in eggs from the different sites. Such equality in investment maximizes the capacity of all embryos and larvae to cope with challenging conditions associated with floating at the surface and to disperse successfully until an appropriate habitat for settlement is found.

  16. Patient with Tracheostomy Parasitized in Hospital by Larvae of the Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    PubMed Central

    Batista-da-Silva, José A.; Borja, Gonzalo E. M.; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of living vertebrates by fly larvae that feed for at least part of their development on the host's dead or living tissues, body substances, or ingested food. The occurrences of traumatic myiasis in humans and animals in urban and rural environments represent serious economic and public health concerns. This study reports a 49-year-old tracheostomized man undergoing chemotherapy treatment who was parasitized in the hospital in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by larvae of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the thoracic cavity. PMID:22243525

  17. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  18. Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Bo; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Xiaoting; Rust, Jes

    2014-06-24

    The reconstruction of ancient insect ectoparasitism is challenging, mostly because of the extreme scarcity of fossils with obvious ectoparasitic features such as sucking-piercing mouthparts and specialized attachment organs. Here we describe a bizarre fly larva (Diptera), Qiyia jurassica gen. et sp. nov., from the Jurassic of China, that represents a stem group of the tabanomorph family Athericidae. Q. jurassica exhibits adaptations to an aquatic habitat. More importantly, it preserves an unusual combination of features including a thoracic sucker with six radial ridges, unique in insects, piercing-sucking mouthparts for fluid feeding, and crocheted ventral prolegs with upward directed bristles for anchoring and movement while submerged. We demonstrate that Q. jurassica was an aquatic ectoparasitic insect, probably feeding on the blood of salamanders. The finding reveals an extreme morphological specialization of fly larvae, and broadens our understanding of the diversity of ectoparasitism in Mesozoic insects.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02844.001.

  19. Morphological and molecular identification of nasopharyngeal bot fly larvae infesting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Austria.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Natascha; Schwarzmann, Laurin; Zittra, Carina; Palmieri, Nicola; Eigner, Barbara; Otranto, Domenico; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiases are caused by larvae of bot flies (Diptera: Oestridae), which have evolved a high specificity for their hosts. Bot flies (n = 916) were collected from 137 (57.6 %) out of 238 red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted in Vorarlberg and Tyrol (Western Austria). After being stored in 75 % ethanol, larvae were identified to species level and developmental stage using morphological and morphometric keys. Larvae were also molecularly characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Morphological and molecular analysis allowed identification of larvae as Cephenemyia auribarbis and Pharyngomyia picta. Genetic variations were also examined within the specimens collected in both geographical locations.

  20. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Early Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8–10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae. PMID:25474564

  1. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata early embryos.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8-10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae.

  2. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  3. Use of deer models to study larviposition by wild nasopharyngeal bot flies (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1989-05-01

    Deer models baited with CO2 and with CO2 plus 1-octen-3-ol and Deer Trail Scent attracted and induced female Cephenemyia apicata Bennett & Sabrosky and C. jellisoni Townsend to larviposit on them. Larvae were not deposited on unbaited models. Females of both species were seen at baited models, and an insect trapping adhesive applied to the nostrials, muzzle, and lips of models revealed that all larvae were stuck to the lips and bottom part of the muzzle. The models also attracted and caught most other parasitic Diptera known to attack California black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson), in the study area.

  4. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  5. A new species, new immature stages, and new synonymy in Australian Dasybasis flies (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2015-04-09

    Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.

  6. Medical Entomology Studies - XII. A Revision of the Aedes Scutellaris Group of Tonga (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 17, Number 3, 1980)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Contributions of the American EntomoIogicaI Institute Volume 1’7, Number 3, 1980 MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY STUDIES - XII. A REVISION OF THE AEDES...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Medical Entomology Studies - XII. A Revision of the Aedes Scutellaris Group of Tonga (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Terminalia ........................ Pupae .............................. Fourth Stage Larvae ...................... DESCRIPTIONS, BIONOMICS, AND

  7. External morphology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent ante...

  8. Effects of antinutrient proteins on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One strategy to enhance the durability of Hessian fly resistance (R) genes in wheat is to combine them with transgenes for resistance. To identify potential transgenes for resistance a protocol for rapidly screening the proteins they encode for efficacy toward resistance is required. However, the ...

  9. Working with dauer larvae.

    PubMed

    Karp, Xantha

    2016-07-14

    Dauer diapause is a stress-resistant, developmentally quiescent, and long-lived larval stage adopted by Caenorhabditis elegans when conditions are unfavorable for growth and reproduction. This chapter contains methods to induce dauer larva formation, to isolate dauer larvae, and to study pre- and post-dauer stages.

  10. Divergent evolutionary histories of DNA markers in a Hawaiian population of the coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Hollie M; Adams, Diane K; Zelzion, Ehud; Wagner, Nicole E; Qiu, Huan; Mass, Tali; Falkowski, Paul G; Gates, Ruth D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2017-01-01

    We investigated intra- and inter-colony sequence variation in a population of the dominant Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by analyzing marker gene and genomic data. Ribosomal ITS1 regions showed evidence of a reticulate history among the colonies, suggesting incomplete rDNA repeat homogenization. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome identified a major (M. capitata) and a minor (M. flabellata) haplotype in single polyp-derived sperm bundle DNA with some colonies containing 2-3 different mtDNA haplotypes. In contrast, Pax-C and newly identified single-copy nuclear genes showed either no sequence differences or minor variations in SNP frequencies segregating among the colonies. Our data suggest past mitochondrial introgression in M. capitata, whereas nuclear single-copy loci show limited variation, highlighting the divergent evolutionary histories of these coral DNA markers.

  11. Thymbra capitata essential oil as potential therapeutic agent against Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm-related infections.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniela; Gaspar, Carlos; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Cerca, Nuno

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil and its main compound, carvacrol, against Gardnerella vaginalis grown planktonically and as biofilms, and its effect of vaginal lactobacilli. Minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal lethal concentration determination and flow cytometry analysis were used to assess the antibacterial effect against planktonic cells. Antibiofilm activity was measured through quantification of biomass and visualization of biofilm structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy. T. capitata essential oil and carvacrol exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against G. vaginalis cells. Antibiofilm activity was more evident with the essential oil than carvacrol. Furthermore, vaginal lactobacilli were significantly more tolerant to the essential oil. T. capitata essential oil stands up as a promising therapeutic agent against G. vaginalis biofilm-related infections.

  12. Evolutionary Conservation of Ceratitis capitata transformer Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Attilio; De Simone, Annamaria; Saccone, Giuseppe; Polito, Catello

    2005-01-01

    Transformer functions as a binary switch gene in the sex determination and sexual differentiation of Drosophila melanogaster and Ceratitis capitata, two insect species that separated nearly 100 million years ago. The TRA protein is required for female differentiation of XX individuals, while XY individuals express smaller, presumably nonfunctional TRA peptides and consequently develop into adult males. In both species, tra confers female sexual identity through a well-conserved double-sex gene. However, unlike Drosophila tra, which is regulated by the upstream Sex-lethal gene, Ceratitis tra itself is likely to control a feedback loop that ensures the maintenance of the female sexual state. The putative CcTRA protein shares a very low degree of sequence identity with the TRA proteins from Drosophila species. However, in this study we show that a female-specific Ceratitis Cctra cDNA encoding the putative full-length CcTRA protein is able to support the female somatic and germline sexual differentiation of D. melanogaster XX; tra mutant adults. Although highly divergent, CcTRA can functionally substitute for DmTRA and induce the female-specific expression of both Dmdsx and Dmfru genes. These data demonstrate the unusual plasticity of the TRA protein that retains a conserved function despite the high evolutionary rate. We suggest that transformer plays an important role in providing a molecular basis for the variety of sex-determining systems seen among insects. PMID:15998727

  13. Growth and survival of blowfly Lucilia sericata larvae under simulated wound conditions: implications for maggot debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Čičková, H; Kozánek, M; Takáč, P

    2015-12-01

    Maggot debridement therapy has become a well-established method of wound debridement. Despite its success, little information is available about the optimum duration of the treatment cycle and larval growth in wounds. This study examines the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae under two containment conditions (bagged and free range) under simulated wound conditions and assesses the impact of transport and further storage of larvae on their survival and growth. There was no significant difference in size between bagged and free-range larvae over the 72-h experimental period. Larvae grew fastest 8-24 h after inoculation and completed their growth at 40-48 h. Mortality rates were similar (0.12-0.23% per hour) in both containment conditions and did not differ significantly (P = 0.3212). Survival of free-range larvae was on average 16% lower than survival of bagged larvae. Refrigeration of larvae upon simulated delivery for > 1 day reduced their survival to < 50% and caused a reduction in growth of up to 30% at 12 h, but not at 48 h, of incubation. Therefore, it is recommended that free-range larvae are left in the wound for a maximum of 40-48 h, and bagged larvae for 48-72 h. Larvae should be used within 24 h of delivery to avoid high mortality caused by prolonged refrigeration.

  14. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  15. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae.

  16. Effects of latex from "Amapazeiro"Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae) on blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) post-embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Paloma M; Lima, Mariana G; Albuquerque, Luis R M; Carvalho, Mario G; Queiroz, Margareth M C

    2011-06-10

    Nowadays, insect control is usually carried out using chemical insecticides, but insect resistance and other negative side effects have prompted the search for alternatives. Biopesticides provide a positive alternative to synthetic pesticides because they have low impact on the environmental, low toxicity to humans and low costs among other advantages. This research was carried out to evaluate the activity of Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) lyophilized latex on the post embryonic development of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Larvae treated with 1.0% latex showed a shorter post embryonic development period (larval, pupal and newly hatched larvae to adult); whereas larvae treated with 3.0% latex provoked a prolongation of these periods. Viability (53%) was also very low at the newly hatched larvae to adult period for larvae treated with 3.0% latex, indicating that latex from P. amapa at high concentrations could change C. megacephala post embryonic development.

  17. Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    MedlinePlus

    ... burrowing of larvae. People who are exposed to soil and sand are most likely to be infected. ... Truth 12/19/2013 Osteopathic Training Statement Online Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in 1958 ...

  18. Invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a young patient with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo de Carvalho; Rolim, Pedro José; da Silva, Carolina Maria; Domingos, Igor de Farias; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Leite, Edinalva Pereira; de Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; de Lima, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a patient with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy treatment and empiric antifungal therapy with caspofungin. Although severely immunocompromised the patient survived been treated with amphotericin B lipid complex associated with voriconazole. PMID:26273269

  19. Cryopreservation of embryos of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and e...

  20. Phytochemical and biological studies of Butia capitata Becc. leaves cultivated in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Nagwa Mohamed; Hefnawy, Mohammed Said; Al-Okbi, Sahar Youssef; Mohamed, Doha Abdou; El-Sayed, Nabil Khamis; El-Anssary, Amira Ahmed; Mabry, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Butia capitata (B. capitata) leaf extracts along with phytochemical analysis of the proposed bioactive constituents. Methods Different successive extracts of B. capitata Becc. leaves were prepared with selective organic solvents and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in tested animals and in-vitro antioxidant effect. An extensive phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts through paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), high pressure liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. GC-Mass, ultraviolet, hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization-mass spectrometry, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation were carried out. Results Results showed that different extracts possess promising antioxidant effect and significant anti-inflammatory activity with variable degrees. The results of the phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts revealed the presence of volatile substances, lipoidal matter, α-tocopherol, free sugars, polysaccharides and flavonoidal compounds. Conclusions B. capitata leaf extracts were shown to possess variable antioxidant effect, the most promising was methanol extract. Both polar and non polar extracts were proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, the non polar extract was superior in this respect. The bioactivity of the extracts was ascribed to the presence of flavonoids, sterols and α-tocopherol. PMID:25182947

  1. An agent-based simulation of extirpation of Ceratitis capitata applied to invasions in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe and validate an Agent-Based Simulation(ABS) of invasive insects and use it to investigate the time to extirpation of Ceratitis capitata using data from seven outbreaks that occurred in California from 2008-2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed ...

  2. Laboratory evaluation of the chemosterilant lufenuron against Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuorn incorporated in an agar adult diet and a liquid larval diet. No significant mortality o...

  3. Baylisascaris larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Kazacos, Kevin R; Jelicks, Linda A; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2013-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the tissues, epidemiological history, serology, and imaging of the central nervous system. Treatment is with albendazole and steroids, although the prognosis is generally poor. This parasite can also cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) which usually presents as diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). The ocular diagnosis can be made by visualizing the larva in the eye and by serology. Intraocular larvae can be destroyed by photocoagulation although albendazole and steroids may also be used. However, once visual disturbance is established the prognosis for improved vision is poor. Related Baylisascaris species occur in skunks, badgers, and certain other carnivores, although most cases of NLM are caused by B. procyonis. Baylisascaris procyonis has also been found in kinkajous in the USA and South America and may also occur in related procyonids (coatis, olingos, etc.). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana to control Ceratitis capitata in semi field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ali; Sermann, Helga; Lerche, Sandra; Büttner, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a highly polyphagous pest of economic importance cultures in Syria, as in many other parts of the world. The potential of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiona BALS (VUIL.) strain 412 against adults of Mediterranean fruit fly C. capitata was evaluated in semi field conditions during the summer. Soil (5-7 cm high) was filled into plastic container (27 cm x 32 cm). In one container 75 pupae, two days before emergency, were spread uniformly on the soil. Then the pupae were covered with soil (4-5 cm layer). After that, 30 ml suspension of fungal spores (4 x 10(8) spores/ml) was applied to the soil surface using a dash bottle. This corresponded to a spore density of 1.3 x 10(7) spores/cm2 on soil. Water and food (1:4 yeast, sucrose) were placed in the cages for the emerged flies. The semi-field evaluation of B. bassiana revealed a fly mortality of about 46% compared to 16% in the control. In addition 72% of dead flies were moulded in the treatment. These results indicated that the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana was pathogen against the adults of C. capitata not only in the laboratory condition but also under field condition. That means B. bassiana could decrease the offspring of C. capitata. Therefore B. bassiana could be an effective factor to control C. capitata in combination with other control methods, used in IPM program in the field.

  5. Diet-induced over-expression of flightless-I protein and its relation to flightlessness in Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il Kyu; Chang, Chiou Ling; Li, Qing X

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is among the most economically important pests worldwide. Understanding nutritional requirement helps rearing healthy medfly for biocontrol of its population in fields. Flight ability is a high priority criterion. Two groups of medfly larvae were reared with two identical component diets except one with fatty acids (diet A) and another without it (diet B). Adults from larvae reared on diet B demonstrated 20±8% of normal flight ability, whereas those from larvae reared on diet A displayed full flight ability of 97±1%. Proteomes were profiled to compare two groups of medfly pupae using shotgun proteomics to study dietary effects on flight ability. When proteins detected in pupae A were compared with those in pupae B, 233 and 239 proteins were, respectively, under- and over-expressed in pupae B, while 167 proteins were overlapped in both pupae A and B. Differential protein profiles indicate that nutritional deficiency induced over-expression of flightless-I protein (fli-I) in medfly. All proteins were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to create 13 biological networks and 17 pathways of interacting protein clusters in human ortholog. Fli-I, leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing G protein-coupled receptor 2, LRR protein soc-2 and protein wings apart-like were over-expressed in pupae B. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, protocadherin-like wing polarity protein stan and several Wnt pathway proteins were under-expressed in pupae B. These results suggest down-regulation of the Wnt/wingless signaling pathway, which consequently may result in flightlessness in pupae B. The fli-I gene is known to be located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) region on chromosome 17, and thus, we speculate that nutritional deficiency might induce over-expression of fli-I (or fli-I gene) and be associated with human SMS. However, more evidence would be needed to confirm our speculation.

  6. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 3.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), causes direct damage to fruits and vegetables through oviposition and larval feeding. Rigorous quarantine procedures are currently enforced to prevent domestic and transnational spread of Medfly. Accessible and reliable informatio...

  7. Descriptions of Zavortinkius, a New Subgenus of Aedes, and the Eleven Included Species from the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    entomology studies -XVII. Biosystematics of Kenknightia, a new subgenus of the mosquito genus Aedes Meigen from the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae...subgenus, Zavortinkius, in genus Aedes is described and includes 11 species of which four are new (Ae. brunhesi, Ae. geofioyi, Ae. huangae and Ae...Brygooi, Longipalpis and Monetus) based on features of the adults, female and male genitalia, pupae and fourth-instar larvae. Keys to adults, pupae

  8. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  9. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    PubMed

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass.

  10. First record of the avian ectoparasite Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, L; Antoniazzi, L R; Couri, M S; Monje, L D; Beldomenico, P M

    2011-10-01

    Species of Philornis Meinert, 1890 (Diptera, Muscidae) are Neotropical dipterans that include species with parasitic larvae which feed on nestling birds. To date, all Philornis species that have been recorded from Argentina have parasitic subcutaneous larvae. Here, for the first time for Argentina, we report the finding of Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968, a fly with a nest-dwelling, semi-haematophagous larva. This record, from the humid Chaco ecoregion of Argentina in the nest of a saffron finch Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Sclater, substantially extends the known distribution of this species. We also report the consensus sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of three of the specimens for future reference and comparison. Further investigation is needed to determine whether Argentina is part of the historical range of P. downsi or, alternatively, represents a recent expansion of its range, perhaps due to climatic changes or other factors of global environmental variation.

  11. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  12. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thua Thien Hue and Lam Dong Provinces, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2015-05-21

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  13. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): A flesh fly species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sanit, Sangob; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom

    2014-04-01

    Although tropical climate of Thailand is suitably endowed with biodiversity of insects, flies of medical importance is not well investigated. Using information from literature search, fly survey approach and specialist's experience, we review database of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux Thomson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), one of the priorities flesh fly species of medical importance in Thailand. This review deals with morphology, bionomics and medical involvement. Important morphological characteristics of egg, larva, puparia and adult were highlighted with illustration and/or micrographs. Search pertaining to molecular analysis used for fly identification and developmental rate of larvae were included. Medical involvement of larvae was not only myiasis-producing agent in humans and animals, but associated with human death investigations. This information will enable us to accurate identify this species and to emphasis the increase medically important scene in Thailand.

  14. Pathogenesis of Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) in susceptible noctuid larvae.

    PubMed

    Bläske-Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Boucias, Drion G

    2005-11-01

    Helicosporidium sp. is a unique, achlorophyllous green alga that has been reported to infect various insect orders, including Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera. The infectious cyst stage is ingested by the host, ruptures in the midgut lumen, and releases a filamentous cell. Histopathological examinations using larvae of a susceptible noctuid host, Spodoptera exigua, showed both cysts and filamentous cells affiliated with the microvillar lining of the midgut epithelium. A considerable proportion of the ingested cysts (22-39%) were recovered in feces collected 24 h after ingestion. A small number of filamentous cells passed the midgut epithelium and entered the hemocoel within 4-24 h after cyst ingestion. After 48 h, vegetative cell stages were detected in the hemolymph, followed by a 4- to 5-day period of increasing multiplication. Cyst differentiation in the colonized hemolymph began 6-7 days after the treatment.

  15. Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine.

  16. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Biological Activities of Extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prá, Valéria; Dolwitsch, Carolina Bolssoni; Lima, Fernanda Oliveira; Amaro de Carvalho, Camilo; Viana, Carine; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this work, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Brassica oleracea var. capitata extracts obtained through ultrasound-assisted extraction are evaluated. The extracts obtained using the best extraction conditions were subjected to different hydrolysis conditions before their use in the biological tests. The crude and hydrolysed extracts were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with a mass detector. The use of ultrasound at 30 °C with 60% (by volume) solvent enabled obtaining a richer extract. All extracts had antioxidant activities against DPPH (13.0–80.0%), superoxide (35.2–63.2%) and peroxyl (89.3–99.5%) radicals, but the use of hydrolysed extracts considerably improved the antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activities only of the hydrolysed extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata were detected. It was confirmed that antioxidant activity of vegetable extracts can be considerably increased when hydrolysis is applied as a pretreatment to their extraction. PMID:27904339

  18. Efficacy of Posaconazole in a Murine Model of Systemic Infection by Saprochaete capitata

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Pamela; Guarro, Josep; Mayayo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Saprochaete capitata causes opportunistic human infections, mainly in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. The best therapy for this severe infection is still unknown. We evaluated the in vitro killing activity and the in vivo efficacy of posaconazole at 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg twice a day (BID) in a murine neutropenic model of systemic infection with S. capitata by testing a set of six clinical isolates. Posaconazole showed fungistatic activity against all of the isolates tested. The different doses of the drug, especially the highest one, showed good efficacy, measured by prolonged survival, reduction of (1-3)-β-d-glucan levels in serum, tissue burden reduction, and histopathology. PMID:26392490

  19. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  20. Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.

    PubMed

    Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth

    2015-01-19

    During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera

  1. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment o...

  2. Improving male mating competitiveness and survival in the field for medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) SIT programs.

    PubMed

    McInnis, D O; Shelly, T E; Komatsu, J

    2002-09-01

    The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon mating between released sterilized males and wild females. In Hawaii, improvements in the efficiency of sterile males were attempted on two separate fronts--mating enhancement and survival improvement. In the former, two methods have been investigated--selective breeding and aromatherapy. In the latter, flies which survived in field cages for several days were selected and bred to produce progeny with enhanced survival ability compared to control flies. Regarding mating selection, standard laboratory-reared males that successfully mated with wild females in field cages were allowed to breed. F1 offspring were inbred, then the selection procedure was repeated for four additional cycles. In the aromatherapy procedure, laboratory-reared males were exposed to ginger root oil for several hours 1 day prior to testing in field cages. Compared to controls, the selected flies improved the mating competitiveness of male flies ca. 3-fold, irradiation reduced this increase to ca. 2.5-fold. Exposing the selected, hybrid strain raised the fitness of the lab males to ca. 9-fold that of wild males. In the ongoing survival selection study, we have obtained lines in which the selected males survived ca. 2-fold better than laboratory control males over several days in an outdoor field cage, with food and water provided. The goal is to combine the traits of higher survival and mating ability into a single strain for SIT release.

  3. Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; Jessup, Andrew J; Islam, Amirul

    2011-02-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) is spreading throughout central Africa attacking a variety of fruit; quarantines are placed on fruit from this region that are considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation treatment for all Tephritidae at 150 Gy. The development of other treatments, such as heat, cold, or fumigation, usually requires testing tens of thousands of insects at a dose that provides efficacy and may take several years. It may be possible to shorten the time required to develop treatments by comparing tolerance of a new quarantine pest to tolerances of pests with similar behaviors and modes of infestation for which treatment schedules are available. Cold and heat tolerance ofB. invadens was compared with tolerance of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in vitro. Third-instar B. invadens was no more cold tolerant than the other species when treated in diet at 0.94 +/- 0.65 degrees C and no more heat tolerant than C. capitata when immersed in vials in water at 44.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The data at 0.94 +/- 0.65 degrees C was used to include B. invadens in a USDA cold treatment schedule for citrus fruit from Africa so that trade would not be interrupted while protecting U.S. agriculture from this invasive pest.

  4. Ramalina capitata (Ach.) Nyl. acetone extract: HPLC analysis, genotoxicity, cholinesterase, antioxidant and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Zrnzevic, Ivana; Stankovic, Miroslava; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna; Mitic, Violeta; Dordevic, Aleksandra; Zlatanovic, Ivana; Stojanovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, effects of Ramalina capitata acetone extract on micronucleus distribution on human lymphocytes, on cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity (by the CUPRAC method) were examined, for the first time as well as its HPLC profile. Additionally, total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant properties (estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays) and antibacterial activity were determined. The predominant phenolic compounds in this extract were evernic, everninic and obtusatic acids. Acetone extract of R. capitata at concentration of 2 μg mL-1 decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN) for 14.8 %. The extract reduces the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals for 21.2 and 36.1 % (respectively). Values for total reducing power (TRP) and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC) were 0.4624 ± 0.1064 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) per mg of dry extract, and 6.1176 ± 0.2964 μg Trolox equivalents (TE) per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 670.6376 ± 66.554 μg galic acid equivalents (GAE) per mg of dry extract. Tested extract at concentration of 2 mg mL-1 exhibited inhibition effect (5.2 %) on pooled human serum cholinesterase. The antimicrobial assay showed that acetone extract had inhibition effect towards Gram-positive strains. The results of manifested antioxidant activity, reducing the number of micronuclei in human lymphocytes, and antibacterial activity recommends R. capitata extract for further in vivo studies. PMID:28827984

  5. Is polyandry a common event among wild populations of the pest Ceratitis capitata?

    PubMed

    Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Mossinson, Sigalit; Guglielmino, Carmela R; Malacrida, Anna R; Yuval, Boaz; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2006-08-01

    In many insect species, females can mate more than once and store sperm from more than one male. An assessment and understanding of polyandry in the field can be important for pest species with a high colonization potential, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), which is also highly polyphagous and among the most destructive agricultural insects. The use of polymorphic microsatellite markers, combined with different statistical approaches, provides evidence that polyandry occurs in two C. capitata natural populations, one population from the Greek island of Chios and one population from Rehovot, in Israel. The observed different level of polyandry is discussed in relation to the genetic diversity, seasonality, and demography of the two populations. When polyandry is present, paternity analysis also indicates that one male, presumably the last, tends to sire most of the progeny. Polyandry and paternity skew may have important implications for the evolution of the species, in terms of maintenance of the genetic variability. Moreover, these aspects of the mating behavior, i.e., remating frequency and paternity skew, may locally affect the sterile insect technique, the most commonly applied control strategy against C. capitata.

  6. Histopathology of Growth Anomaly Affecting the Coral, Montipora capitata: Implications on Biological Functions and Population Viability

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John H. R.; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1–93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8–67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2–29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8–46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7–49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  7. Demystifying the Capitella capitata complex (Annelida, Capitellidae) diversity by morphological and molecular data along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila F; Seixas, Victor C; Barroso, Rômulo; Di Domenico, Maikon; Amaral, Antonia C Z; Paiva, Paulo C

    2017-01-01

    The sibling species of Capitella capitata are globally known for their tolerance to disturbed habitats and the C. capitata complex is often used as an ecological indicator. A recent re-description proposed that C. capitata, originally described in Greenland is restricted to the Artic and Subarctic regions. Given their ecological relevance, we conducted a morphological and molecular analyses based on mtDNA sequences to investigate the diversity and distribution of the C. capitata complex along the Brazilian coast. Our morphological and molecular data were congruent and revealed the existence of four new species distinct from C. capitata, collected from the type locality. This study is the first characterization of the biodiversity and distribution of Capitella species made along the Brazilian coast and yielded a set of morphological characters corroborated by the mtDNA sequences for species identification. Our results increase the biodiversity of the genus along the Brazilian coast by describing four new species (Capitella aracaensis sp. n., Capitella biota sp. n., Capitella neoaciculata sp. n. and Capitella nonatoi sp. n.). One species was collected from only one sampling site, while the others are distributed along the coast.

  8. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; Taret, Gustavo; Fontenot, Emily A; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2013-12-01

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the United States. Phytosanitary treatments may be required to export fruit hosts of this insect from countries where it is endemic to countries where it is absent but could become established. This research describes comparative studies to determine if B. zonata could be phytosanitarily controlled by cold treatment schedules existing for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the development of a cold treatment of 18 d at 1.7 degrees C for B. zonata infesting oranges. Fruit were infested by puncturing holes in oranges and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late third instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold-tolerant. B. zonata was not found to be confidently as or less cold tolerant than C. capitata; therefore, treatment schedules for the latter are not supported by this research for the former. B. zonata was found to be more susceptible to 1.7 degrees C than A. ludens; therefore, the use of treatment schedules for A. ludens is supported by this research for B. zonata. However, the treatment for A. ludens requires 22 d. A shorter treatment was verified for B. zonata when 36,820 third instars reared from the eggs in oranges were stored at 1.7 degrees C for 18 d with no larvae moving on examination 24 h after removal from the cold treatment chamber.

  9. In vitro effects of household products on Calliphoridae larvae development: implication for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier; Charabidze, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Several parameters can delay the first arrival of flies on a corpse and the subsequent development of the larvae. This study focuses on the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Meigen, 1826) on household chemical-contaminated substrates. bleach, perfume, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, insecticide, mosquito repellent, and gasoline in quantities consistent with an amount that could possibly be spilled on a corpse were mixed with beef liver to simulate contaminated fleshes. Larvae were bred at 25 °C on these media until emergence. Four developmental parameters were followed: survival rates, development times, sex ratios, and adult sizes. Hydrochloric acid, insecticide, and gasoline killed all larvae. In low quantities, caustic soda and mosquito repellent increased the development time and decreased the adult size. However, high quantities of these chemicals killed all larvae. Lastly, bleach and perfume did not affect the survival rate and barely impacted the development time or adult size. These results demonstrate common household products spilled on a corpse can strongly affect the development of Calliphoridae larvae. The effects of such products should be considered in forensic entomology cases.

  10. Impact of experimental flooding on larvae and pupae of dung-breeding Culicoides.

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kiel, E

    2016-10-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) spend the greatest part of their life in the larval stage. However, knowledge on the immature stages and the impact of abiotic factors on their development is still poor. Therefore, we investigated the effect of flooding on the larvae and pupae of Culicoides chiopterus (Meigen, 1830) and C. dewulfi Goetghebuer, 1936. In water, the larvae of both species showed head-to-tail flexions and sinuous flexions, at slow rates, but were not able to swim. Flooding of larvae for 24 h did not affect the number of emerging adults; flooding of pupae significantly reduced the emergence rate of C. chiopterus, compared to the control group, while C. dewulfi was not affected. Pupae were not able to float and no pupae survived flooding for 10 days. After flooding of larvae for 10 days, 50 % of C. chiopterus and 4 % of C. dewulfi completed the pre-adult development. During this treatment, 84 % of C. chiopterus and 48 % of C. dewulfi larvae pupated in water.

  11. Anatomical modifications, viviparous reproduction and hydraulic expulsion of larvae by Cephenemyia nasopharyngeal bot flies of deer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    2013-12-01

    Several specialized adaptations of the reproductive and respiratory systems associated with the retention and expulsion of larvae in ovoviviparous Cephenemyia species (Diptera: Oestridae) are described and illustrated. In these flies the anterior section of the common oviduct is modified into a large sac-like uterus that contains larvae, and the posterior section is modified into a larvipositor with a central tubular vagina. During larviposition, contraction of abdominal muscles forces haemolymph into a perivaginal sinus, causing a hydraulically driven exsertion of the larvipositor. A group of larvae and uterine fluid sealed off within the lumen of the vagina are then expelled from the vulva via hydraulic pressure as the stretched vagina is compressed. A one-way, non-return valve between the uterus and vagina prevents a reflux of larvae upward into the uterus during larviposition. All mutually dependent actions associated with larviposition occur almost simultaneously. All species have evolved a similar mechanism of expelling their larvae, but the shape of the non-return valve is different in each species studied.

  12. Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)--from a hygiene aspect.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Diener, Stefan; Magri, Maria Elisa; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lindström, Anders; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-08-01

    Inadequate and lacking sanitation and wastewater treatment systems can lead to the spreading of diarrhoeal diseases. One contributing factor in the lack of such treatment systems is the lack of economic incentives for stakeholders throughout the service chain. However, the organic fraction of the waste is high in valuable plant nutrients and could be reused in agriculture and as animal feed. For example, grown larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), make an excellent protein source in animal feed, while the feeding activity of the larvae substantially reduces the dry mass of the treated material. This study examined the effect of black soldier fly larvae on the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in human faeces and found a 6 log10 reduction in Salmonella spp. in human faeces in eight days, compared with a <2 log10 reduction in the control. No increased reduction was observed for Enterococcus spp., bacteriophage ΦX174 or Ascaris suum ova.

  13. Prevalence of Harpellales from Chironomidae larvae in phytotelmata from punta Lara Forest, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Siri, Augusto; Marti, Gerardo A; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2008-01-01

    Harpellales (Zygomycota: Trichomycetes) fungi are cosmopolitan obligate inhabitants of the gut of immature insects. A biweekly survey of gut fungi associated with chironomid (Chironomidae: Diptera) larvae living in the impounded water from Eryngium cabrerae (Apiaceae) phytotelmata from Punta Lara forest, Argentina, was done Jan 2003-Dec 2004. Two species of Harpellales were associated with chironomid larvae, Smittium phytotelmatum in the hindgut of Polypedilum sp. and Stachylina lentica in the midgut of both Polypedilum sp. and Metriocnemus eryngiotelmatus. No statistically significant differences were recorded in the prevalence of these Harpellales between seasons. Environmental variables (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity), impounded water volume, pH and chironomid larval density did not have an effect on the prevalence of the Trichomycetes.

  14. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver.

  15. Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Bo; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Xiaoting; Rust, Jes

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of ancient insect ectoparasitism is challenging, mostly because of the extreme scarcity of fossils with obvious ectoparasitic features such as sucking-piercing mouthparts and specialized attachment organs. Here we describe a bizarre fly larva (Diptera), Qiyia jurassica gen. et sp. nov., from the Jurassic of China, that represents a stem group of the tabanomorph family Athericidae. Q. jurassica exhibits adaptations to an aquatic habitat. More importantly, it preserves an unusual combination of features including a thoracic sucker with six radial ridges, unique in insects, piercing-sucking mouthparts for fluid feeding, and crocheted ventral prolegs with upward directed bristles for anchoring and movement while submerged. We demonstrate that Q. jurassica was an aquatic ectoparasitic insect, probably feeding on the blood of salamanders. The finding reveals an extreme morphological specialization of fly larvae, and broadens our understanding of the diversity of ectoparasitism in Mesozoic insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02844.001 PMID:24963142

  16. Survival and energetic costs of repeated cold exposure in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica: a comparison between frozen and supercooled larvae.

    PubMed

    Teets, Nicholas M; Kawarasaki, Yuta; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of repeated cold exposure (RCE) on the survival, energy content and stress protein expression of larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae). Additionally, we compared results between larvae that were frozen at -5°C in the presence of water during RCE and those that were supercooled at -5°C in a dry environment. Although >95% of larvae survived a single 12 h bout of freezing at -5°C, after five cycles of RCE survival of frozen larvae dropped below 70%. Meanwhile, the survival of control and supercooled larvae was unchanged, remaining around 90% for the duration of the study. At the tissue level, frozen larvae had higher rates of cell mortality in the midgut than control and supercooled larvae. Furthermore, larvae that were frozen during RCE experienced a dramatic reduction in energy reserves; after five cycles, frozen larvae had 25% less lipid, 30% less glycogen and nearly 40% less trehalose than supercooled larvae. Finally, larvae that were frozen during RCE had higher expression of hsp70 than those that were supercooled, indicating a higher degree of protein damage in the frozen group. Results were similar between larvae that had accumulated 60 h of freezing at -5°C over five cycles of RCE and those that were frozen continuously for 60 h, suggesting that the total time spent frozen determines the physiological response. Our results suggest that it is preferable, both from a survival and energetic standpoint, for larvae to seek dry microhabitats where they can avoid inoculative freezing and remain unfrozen during RCE.

  17. Evaluation of lufenuron as a chemosterilant against fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Moya, Pilar; Flores, Salvador; Ayala, Ildefonso; Sanchis, Juan; Montoya, Pablo; Primo, Jaime

    2010-06-01

    Chemosterilisation with lufenuron bait stations is a recently developed technique that is being implemented for Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemosterilising effect of lufenuron against four economically important Latin American fruit flies species: Anastrepha ludens (Loew.), A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wiedemann and A. striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in order to design a similar strategy for their control. Sexually mature adults were treated by ingestion with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 30.0 mg g(-1) of lufenuron in the diet. In addition, conspecific crosses with only one of the sexes being treated (30.0 mg g(-1)) were performed in order to appraise the contribution of each sex to the sterilising effect. In all cases, fecundity was not affected by the treatments, as opposed to fertility where all Anastrepha species studied were significantly affected, although to different extents. The conspecific crosses showed that treated males of A. ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina were not able to transmit the sterility to their respective untreated females. Only in the case of A. striata did crossing treated males with untreated females significantly reduced egg hatch. Although further investigations are required, the present results demonstrate that the use of lufenuron for controlling A. striata could be potentially viable.

  18. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  19. Infectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) to Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Alia; Soliman, Mustafa M; El-Shazly, Mohamed M

    2013-07-01

    Susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Ma79) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) was evaluated at two different temperatures. The ability of the fungus to reinfect healthy sand flies was followed up for approximately 20 wk and the effect of in vivo repassage on the enhancement of its virulence was assessed. The fungus reduced the adult emergence at 26 +/- 1 degrees C when applied to larval diet. Six spore concentrations were used in the bioassays ranging from 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(8) spores/ml. Mortality decreased significantly when the temperature was raised to 31 +/- 1 degrees C at all tested concentrations. Fungus-treated vials were assayed against sand fly larvae at different time lapses without additional reapplication of the fungus in the media to determine whether the level of inocula persisting in the media was sufficient to reinfect healthy sand flies. Twenty weeks postapplication, there were still enough infectious propagules of Ma79 to infect 40% of P. papatasi larvae. A comparison between the infectivity of 10 subsequent in vitro cultures and the host-passed inocula of the fungus against sand fly larvae was conducted. Mortalities of P. papatasi larvae changed significantly when exposed to inocula passed through different insects. Presented data can provide vector control decision makers and end users with fundamental information for the introduction and application of M. anisopliae as an effective control agent against the main cutaneous leishmaniasis old-world vector P. papatasi.

  20. Bacteria and Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Tree Hollows From the Iberian Mediterranean Forest.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Galván, I R; Ferrer, J; Galante, E; Marcos-García, M A

    2017-02-01

    Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollows in Mediterranean forests depend on a combination of physical characteristics and interactions occurring between community member species. Despite the need to preserve these organisms, little is known about their interrelationships, in particular those relationships between saproxylic insects and microbiota occurring in these microhabitats. In tree hollows of Quercus rotundifolia Lamark that hold water and contain dead leaves, abundant microbial populations can be found. Developing on them are the larvae of Mallota dusmeti Andréu, 1926 (Diptera: Syrphidae), a vulnerable species (IUCN category: Marcos-García and Quinto 2011). This study provides the first data on the microbiota living inside the gut of the larvae of M. dusmeti, as well as the microbiota in the hollow where these larvae develop. Bacteria were identified by amplification and partial sequencing of the V1-V3 regions and the complete nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes. We found eight species of bacteria living in tree hollows and three species in the gut of M. dusmeti larvae: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus toyonensis, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The filter-feeding mechanism characteristic of M. dusmeti larvae is selective in enabling ingestion of bacteria only above 2.1 µm in diameter. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Nearctic Diptera: Twenty years later

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An overview of our knowledge of the Diptera of Nearctic America is presented. About two-thirds of all the flies estimated to occur in Nearctic America have been named and documented. Unfortunately, less than one percent of these flies are treated comprehensively in monographs and less than a quart...

  2. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  3. [Cutaneous myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico].

    PubMed

    de la Ossa, Napoleón; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Visbal, Lila; Santos, Ana María; Díaz, Esther; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M E

    2009-03-01

    Human myiasis is the parasitism of human tissues by fly larvae. Diagnoses are based on clinical pattern of tissue damage and presence of insect stages. Herein, a case myiasis is described in a seven-year-old female child. She presented with fever associated with abscessed scalp lesions containing exposed larvae. Severe pediculosis was also observed. The patient was hospitalized and treated with clindamycin, gentamicin (for bacterial secondary infections) and ivermectin (treatment for lice) after which the patient showed clinical improvement and was discharged four days later. Since human myiasis can be caused by a number of different species, larvae were collected from the patient and identified as those of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Because other cases of coinfestation of flies and lice are on record, health workers are to be alerted about the possible pediculosis-myasis risk.

  4. Cephenemyia stimulator (Diptera) infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Kraków area, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Kowal, Jerzy; Wajdzik, Marek; Nosal, Paweł; Wojtaszek, Magdalena; Basiaga, Marta

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae infection in roe deer populations (Capreolus capreolus) in the Kraków area on the basis of necropsy and questionnaire surveys. Hunters were surveyed about the age and sex of hunted animals, and the origin of their habitat. All parasite specimens were identified to species in the laboratory. The parasites were found in the nasal cavities, esophagus, and larynx of male roe deer aged 3-8 years, living in forest habitats. The level of infection was relatively low (13%), with the intensity ranging from 1 to 10 larvae per host. Although no fly larvae were found during the dissection of roe deer carcasses, the parasites received from the hunters were identified as Cephenemyia stimulator botflies. These findings are supported by the evidence drawn from the questionnaires completed by the hunters. parasites, Cephenemyia stimulator, Capreolus capreolus, necropsy, questionnaire study, Poland.

  5. An evaluation of alternative insecticides to diazinon for control of tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger

    2009-02-01

    Diazinon has been used extensively in the past as part of California eradication programs for tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a soil drench, but it is being phased out for this purpose in the United States. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of Platinum, Force, Admire, Regent, and Warrior was estimated after application to sand and soil as drenches for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Hawaii. Susceptibility of each species differed. In sand, the order of toxicity at LC50 based on the 95% confidence limit overlap approach for C. capitata from most toxic to least toxic was diazinon > Force = Warrior > Admire = Platinum > Regent. The order of toxicity for B. dorsalis was diazinon > Platinum = Warrior = Force > Regent = Admire. The order of toxicity for B. cucurbitae was Warrior = diazinon > Force = Regent = Platinum = Admire. Based on the dose ratio method, Warrior was not significantly different at LC50 than diazinon for B. cucurbitae only. All other insecticides were significantly different from diazinon at LC50. Studies in sand were followed by an evaluation of specific concentrations of Warrior and Force in soil collected from two sites on the island of Kauai. Average concentrations that caused at least 95% mortality in soil in all three fruit fly species were 121 g active ingredient (AI)/ha for Force and 363 g (AI)/ha for Warrior compared with 182 g (AI)/ha for diazinon. These results indicate that Force and Warrior could be used as soil treatments for control of tephritid fruit flies.

  6. Human Cutaneous Myiasis by the Australian Sheep Blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Ahadizadeh, Emily N; Ketchum, Heather R; Wheeler, Russell

    2015-07-01

    This case report describes an incident of myiasis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Paramedics treated a 53-year-old man in the field when he suffered cardiac arrest. He was intubated by the paramedics and transported to an emergency room, where he received two stents and a balloon pump. He was found to have a GCS of three and remained in the hospital for 7 days before passing away. After his death, the breathing tube was removed, revealing the presence of several maggots. On closer inspection, the dipteran larvae were found in both the oral and nasal cavities. Four of these larvae were reared to adulthood and identified as Lucilia cuprina (Weidemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), commonly known as the Australian sheep blowfly, by the Biology Department of the University of Oklahoma. Based on the fly's life cycle and rate of development, the infestation is suspected to be hospital acquired. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

    2014-04-01

    Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest.

  8. Intra- and interspecific competition and host race formation in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Feder, Jeffrey L; Reynolds, Katherine; Go, Wesley; Wang, Emma C

    1995-04-01

    Intra- and interspecific resource competition are potentially important factors affecting host plant use by phytophagous insects. In particular, escape from competitors could mediate a successful host shift by compensating for decreased feeding performance on a new plant. Here, we examine the question of host plant-dependent competition for apple (Malus pumila)- and hawthorn (Crataegus mollis)-infesting larvae of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) at a field site near Grant, Michigan, USA. Interspecific competition from tortricid (Cydia pomonella, Grapholita prunivora, and Grapholita packardi) and agonoxenid (subfamily Blastodacninae) caterpillars and a curculionid weevil (Conotrachelus crataegi) was much stronger for R. pomonella larvae infesting the ancestral host hawthorn than the derived host apple. Egg to pupal survivorship was estimated as 52.8% for fly larvae infesting hawthorn fruit without caterpillars and weevils compared to only 27.3% for larvae in harthorns with interspecific insects. Survivorship was essentially the same between fly larvae infesting apples in the presence (44.8%) or absence (42.6%) of interspecific insects. Intraspecific competition among maggots was also stronger in hawthorns than apples. The order or time that a larva exited a hawthorn fruit was a significant determinant of its pupal mass, with earlier emerging larvae being heavier than later emerging larvae. This was not the case for larvae in apples, as the order or time that a larva exited an apple fruit had relatively little influence on its pupal mass. Our findings suggest that decreased performance related to host plant chemistry/nutrition may restrict host range expansion and race formation in R. pomonella to those plants where biotic/ecological factors (i.e. escape from competitors and parasitoids) adequately balance the survivorship equation. This balance permits stable fly populations to persist on novel plants, setting the stage for the

  9. Diet-Induced Over-Expression of Flightless-I Protein and Its Relation to Flightlessness in Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Il Kyu; Chang, Chiou Ling; Li, Qing X.

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is among the most economically important pests worldwide. Understanding nutritional requirement helps rearing healthy medfly for biocontrol of its population in fields. Flight ability is a high priority criterion. Two groups of medfly larvae were reared with two identical component diets except one with fatty acids (diet A) and another without it (diet B). Adults from larvae reared on diet B demonstrated 20±8% of normal flight ability, whereas those from larvae reared on diet A displayed full flight ability of 97±1%. Proteomes were profiled to compare two groups of medfly pupae using shotgun proteomics to study dietary effects on flight ability. When proteins detected in pupae A were compared with those in pupae B, 233 and 239 proteins were, respectively, under- and over-expressed in pupae B, while 167 proteins were overlapped in both pupae A and B. Differential protein profiles indicate that nutritional deficiency induced over-expression of flightless-I protein (fli-I) in medfly. All proteins were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to create 13 biological networks and 17 pathways of interacting protein clusters in human ortholog. Fli-I, leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing G protein-coupled receptor 2, LRR protein soc-2 and protein wings apart-like were over-expressed in pupae B. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, protocadherin-like wing polarity protein stan and several Wnt pathway proteins were under-expressed in pupae B. These results suggest down-regulation of the Wnt/wingless signaling pathway, which consequently may result in flightlessness in pupae B. The fli-I gene is known to be located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) region on chromosome 17, and thus, we speculate that nutritional deficiency might induce over-expression of fli-I (or fli-I gene) and be associated with human SMS. However, more evidence would be needed to confirm our speculation. PMID:24312525

  10. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sandra Maria; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  11. Sex and the single embryo: early deveiopment in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Falaguerra, Andrea; Siciliano, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Scolari, Francesca; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2010-01-26

    In embryos the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MTZ) integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal transcripts with transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are being clarified in Drosophila melanogaster, little is know about the embryogenic processes in other insect species. The recent publication of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryos of the global pest species Ceratitis capitata (medfly) has enabled the investigation of embryogenesis in this species and has allowed a comparison of the embryogenic processes in these two related dipteran species, C. capitata and D. melanogaster, that shared a common ancestor 80-100 mya. Using a novel PCR-based sexing method, which takes advantage of a putative LTR retrotransposon MITE insertion on the medfly Y chromosome, the transcriptomes of individual early male and female embryos were analysed using RT-PCR. This study is focused on two crucial aspects of the onset of embryonic development: sex determination and cellular blastoderm formation. Together with the three known medfly genes (Cctransformer, Cctransformer2 and Ccdoublesex), the expression patterns of other medfly genes that are similar to the D. melanogaster sex-determination genes (sisterlessA, groucho, deadpan, Sex-lethal, female lethal d, sans fille and intersex) and four cellular blastoderm formation genes (Rho1, spaghetti squash, slow-as-molasses and serendipity-alpha) were analyzed, allowing us to sketch a preliminary outline of the embryonic process in the medfly. Furthermore, a putative homologue of the Zelda gene has been considered, which in D. melanogaster encodes a DNA-binding factor responsible for the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Our novel sexing method facilitates the study of i) when the MTZ transition occurs in males and females of C. capitata, ii) when and how the maternal information of "female-development" is reprogrammed in the embryos and iii) similarities and

  12. The protective effect of rapid cold-hardening develops more quickly in frozen versus supercooled larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kawarasaki, Yuta; Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L; Lee, Richard E

    2013-10-15

    During the austral summer, larvae of the terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae) experience highly variable and often unpredictable thermal conditions. In addition to remaining freeze tolerant year-round, larvae are capable of swiftly increasing their cold tolerance through the rapid cold-hardening (RCH) response. The present study compared the induction of RCH in frozen versus supercooled larvae. At the same induction temperature, RCH occurred more rapidly and conferred a greater level of cryoprotection in frozen versus supercooled larvae. Furthermore, RCH in frozen larvae could be induced at temperatures as low as -12°C, which is the lowest temperature reported to induce RCH. Remarkably, as little as 15 min at -5°C significantly enhanced larval cold tolerance. Not only is protection from RCH acquired swiftly, but it is also quickly lost after thawing for 2 h at 2°C. Because the primary difference between frozen and supercooled larvae is cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration of body fluids, we also compared the effects of acclimation in dehydrated versus frozen larvae. Because slow dehydration without chilling significantly increased larval survival to a subsequent cold exposure, we hypothesize that cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration promotes the rapid acquisition of cold tolerance in frozen larvae.

  13. Overview: Pyraloidea larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The larvae of pyraloid or snout moths are pests to many crops and stored products and rank as among the most destructive pests to graminaceous crops such as corn, sugarcane, and rice. On the other hand, some larvae have been investigated and used for the biological control of noxious terrestrial a...

  14. Influence of previous experience on the preference, food utilization and performance of Ascia monuste orseis wild larvae (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) for three different hosts.

    PubMed

    Santana, A F K; Zucoloto, F S

    2011-01-01

    The exhaustion of food resources which occurs during the ontogenetic growth of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) results in the dispersion of older larvae to nearby plants in order to complete their development, which might expose these animals to the nutritional variation of the hosts found. This study aimed to verify whether the food ingested in the beginning of the development influences the larvae host preference and whether the shift to a new host can affect the digestion and performance of A. monuste orseis, using two natural hosts: kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and rocket (Eruca sativa), or kale and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata). Larvae were reared throughout their larval development on a single host or on two different hosts. When a host change was tested, larvae were reared for four instars on a host, and offered the other host plant in the fifth instar. Development time, percentage of pupation and emergence, pupal weight, fecundity and digestive indices were evaluated. The change in feeding preference for kale and for rocket in the fourth instar, when those were the original hosts, respectively, shows that prior experience plays a major role in food preference of immature A. monuste orseis. The shift can be beneficial for larval development, depending on the order of the hosts; in general, larvae fed on kale at the end of the development showed better performance. Our results presented strong evidence of a considerable phenotypic plasticity in A. monuste orseis for host preferences.

  15. Rediscovery and reclassification of the dipteran taxon Nothomicrodon Wheeler, an exclusive endoparasitoid of gyne ant larvae.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Jahyny, Benoit J B; Ståhls, Gunilla; Rotheray, Graham; Delabie, Jacques H C; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-31

    The myrmecophile larva of the dipteran taxon Nothomicrodon Wheeler is rediscovered, almost a century after its original description and unique report. The systematic position of this dipteran has remained enigmatic due to the absence of reared imagos to confirm indentity. We also failed to rear imagos, but we scrutinized entire nests of the Brazilian arboreal dolichoderine ant Azteca chartifex which, combined with morphological and molecular studies, enabled us to establish beyond doubt that Nothomicrodon belongs to the Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera), not the Syrphidae where it was first placed, and that the species we studied is an endoparasitoid of the larvae of A. chartifex, exclusively attacking sexual female (gyne) larvae. Northomicrodon parasitism can exert high fitness costs to a host colony. Our discovery adds one more case to the growing number of phorid taxa known to parasitize ant larvae and suggests that many others remain to be discovered. Our findings and literature review confirm that the Phoridae is the only taxon known that parasitizes both adults and the immature stages of different castes of ants, thus threatening ants on all fronts.

  16. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture.

  17. Rediscovery and reclassification of the dipteran taxon Nothomicrodon Wheeler, an exclusive endoparasitoid of gyne ant larvae

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Jahyny, Benoit J. B.; Ståhls, Gunilla; Rotheray, Graham; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    The myrmecophile larva of the dipteran taxon Nothomicrodon Wheeler is rediscovered, almost a century after its original description and unique report. The systematic position of this dipteran has remained enigmatic due to the absence of reared imagos to confirm indentity. We also failed to rear imagos, but we scrutinized entire nests of the Brazilian arboreal dolichoderine ant Azteca chartifex which, combined with morphological and molecular studies, enabled us to establish beyond doubt that Nothomicrodon belongs to the Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera), not the Syrphidae where it was first placed, and that the species we studied is an endoparasitoid of the larvae of A. chartifex, exclusively attacking sexual female (gyne) larvae. Northomicrodon parasitism can exert high fitness costs to a host colony. Our discovery adds one more case to the growing number of phorid taxa known to parasitize ant larvae and suggests that many others remain to be discovered. Our findings and literature review confirm that the Phoridae is the only taxon known that parasitizes both adults and the immature stages of different castes of ants, thus threatening ants on all fronts. PMID:28361946

  18. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  19. Attraction and Electroantennography responses of the male Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, to natural essential oils and synthetic blends.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field experiments and long range bioassays were used to understand the difference in attractiveness among various natural essential oils for the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata. Using electroantennography, we have selected various antennally active chemicals and tested their role in the ...

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequences of Lychnis wilfordii and Silene capitata and comparative analyses with other Caryophyllaceae genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong-Soo; Lee, Byoung Yoon; Kwak, Myounghai

    2017-01-01

    The complete chloroplast genomes of Lychnis wilfordii and Silene capitata were determined and compared with ten previously reported Caryophyllaceae chloroplast genomes. The chloroplast genome sequences of L. wilfordii and S. capitata contain 152,320 bp and 150,224 bp, respectively. The gene contents and orders among 12 Caryophyllaceae species are consistent, but several microstructural changes have occurred. Expansion of the inverted repeat (IR) regions at the large single copy (LSC)/IRb and small single copy (SSC)/IR boundaries led to partial or entire gene duplications. Additionally, rearrangements of the LSC region were caused by gene inversions and/or transpositions. The 18 kb inversions, which occurred three times in different lineages of tribe Sileneae, were thought to be facilitated by the intermolecular duplicated sequences. Sequence analyses of the L. wilfordii and S. capitata genomes revealed 39 and 43 repeats, respectively, including forward, palindromic, and reverse repeats. In addition, a total of 67 and 56 simple sequence repeats were discovered in the L. wilfordii and S. capitata chloroplast genomes, respectively. Finally, we constructed phylogenetic trees of the 12 Caryophyllaceae species and two Amaranthaceae species based on 73 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods. PMID:28241056

  1. MEDHOST: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 1.1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This monograph is a compendium of all plant species reported as hosts of C. capitata (or potential hosts based on mere appearance on some lists). There are 353 species (312 have valid genera and species names and 41 have species identified as "sp." or "spp.") included in the monograph; 79 species ha...

  2. Morphology, severity, and distribution of growth anomalies in the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai`ōpae, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Rozet, N. K.; Takabayashi, M.

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the morphology, severity, and distribution of growth anomalies (GAs) in the coral, Montipora capitata, from Wai`ōpae tide pools, southeast Hawai`i Island. A macro-image analysis of skeletal microstructure placed GAs into two definable categories; Type A and Type B. Type A GAs had polyp density reduced by 43.05 ± 0.80% (mean ± SE) compared to healthy M. capitata tissue, with many fused and protrusive tuberculae. Type B GAs had no discernable polyps or calices and fused protuberant coenosteum. The prevalence of Type A and Type B GAs among all M. capitata colonies ( n = 1,093) in 8 tide pools at Wai`ōpae was 22.1% (range 2.8-33.7%) and 8.2% (range 0.0-16.9%), respectively. The proportion of colony surface area occupied by GA (relative GA cover) was quantified to assess the severity of this disease among all surveyed colonies. The relative GA cover was significantly greater on colonies larger than 1 m in diameter than smaller colonies and in the central portion of colonies than in the periphery. Furthermore, relative GA cover was negatively related to water motion ( R 2 = 0.748, P < 0.01). Developing field diagnostic criteria of M. capitata GA allowed for a detailed epizootiological assessment that determined several cofactors associated with disease severity. Such epizootiological analysis is applicable to future studies of GAs elsewhere.

  3. Bleached Porites compressa and Montipora capitata corals catabolize δ13C-enriched lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grottoli, Andréa G.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.

    2011-09-01

    Corals rely on stored energy reserves (i.e., lipids, carbohydrates, and protein) to survive bleaching events. To better understand the physiological implications of coral bleaching on lipid catabolism and/or synthesis, we measured the δ13C of coral total lipids (δ13CTL) in experimentally bleached (treatment) and non-bleached (control) Porites compressa and Montipora capitata corals immediately after bleaching and after 1.5 and 4 months of recovery on the reef. Overall δ13CTL values in treatment corals were significantly lower than in control corals because of a 1.9 and 3.4‰ decrease in δ13CTL immediately after bleaching in P. compressa and M. capitata, respectively. The decrease in δ13CTL coincided with decreases in total lipid concentration, indicating that corals catabolized δ13C-enriched lipids. Since storage lipids are primarily depleted during bleaching, we hypothesize that they are isotopically enriched relative to other lipid classes. This work further helps clarify our understanding of changes to coral metabolism and biogeochemistry when bleached and helps elucidate how lipid classes may influence recovery from bleaching and ultimately coral survival.

  4. Automatic sex detection of individuals of Ceratitis capitata by means of computer vision in a biofactory.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Jose; Gómez-Sanchís, Juan; Gutierrez, Abelardo; Chueca, Patricia; Argilés, Rafael; Moltó, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is acknowledged around the world as an effective method for biological pest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Sterile insects are produced in biofactories where one key issue is the selection of the progenitors that have to transmit specific genetic characteristics. Recombinant individuals must be removed as this colony is renewed. Nowadays, this task is performed manually, in a process that is extremely slow, painstaking and labour intensive, in which the sex of individuals must be identified. The paper explores the possibility of using vision sensors and pattern recognition algorithms for automated detection of recombinants. An automatic system is proposed and tested to inspect individual specimens of C. capitata using machine vision. It includes a backlighting system and image processing algorithms for determining the sex of live flies in five high-resolution images of each insect. The system is capable of identifying the sex of the flies by means of a program that analyses the contour of the abdomen, using fast Fourier transform features, to detect the presence of the ovipositor. Moreover, it can find the characteristic spatulate setae of males. Simulation tests with 1000 insects (5000 images) had 100% success in identifying male flies, with an error rate of 0.6% for female flies. This work establishes the basis for building a machine for the automatic detection and removal of recombinant individuals in the selection of progenitors for biofactories, which would have huge benefits for SIT around the globe.

  5. Wild Thymbra capitata from Western Rif (Morocco): essential oil composition, chemical homogeneity and yield variability.

    PubMed

    Bakhy, Khadija; Benlhabib, Ouafae; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Felix

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils (EO, 15 collective samples and 47 individual samples) of Thymbra capitata collected from Moroccan Western Rif were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with retention indices (RI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-SM) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Twenty components were identified. Carvacrol (68.2%-85.9%) was by far the major component of all the samples, while the content of thymol (0.1-0.3%) was very low. Other components present in appreciable amounts were gamma-terpinene (up to 8.9%), p-cymene (up to 7.1%), linalool (up to 4.4%) and (E)-beta-caryophyllene (up to 4.1%). In contrast, the yield of EO varied drastically from sample to sample (0.5-3.7%). No correlation could be established between yield of EO and altitude, pH, chemical composition and granularity of the soil. Cultivation under controlled conditions is suggested to improve the quantitative characteristics of carvacrol-rich Moroccan T. capitata.

  6. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  7. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-10-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods.

  8. Potential geographical distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Runjie

    2009-10-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to model the distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch in China, but the geographic distributions of these species are of considerable concern in terms of biosecurity. In this study, two different modeling methods (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction [GARP] and maximum entropy species distribution modeling [Maxent]) were used to predict the potential distributions of these three fly species in China, by using distribution records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The results showed that Maxent performed well, compared with modeling by GARP, at each test threshold. For all three species, the results predicted by Maxent agreed with the observed distributions in Africa and in other parts of the world. In China, C. capitata seems to have the highest number of favorable habitat areas, relative to C. cosyra and C. rosa, i.e., Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan and Chongqing, whereas C. cosyra has the smallest range of suitable areas, i.e., Yunnan, some parts of Hainan and Sichuan. The suitable areas for C. rosa are mainly restricted to Yunnan, Hainan, southern Guangdong, and a few areas of Sichuan. The indications are that on the whole, Southwest and South China are the areas with the highest risk for establishment from these three fly species. Jackknife tests reveal that environmental variables associated with temperature have the strongest influence on the potential distributions of all three species relative to other variables.

  9. Morphological characterization of the antennal lobes in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Solari, Paolo; Corda, Valentina; Sollai, Giorgia; Kreissl, Sabine; Galizia, C Giovanni; Crnjar, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The medfly Ceratitis capitata is one of the most important pests for horticulture worldwide. The knowledge about anatomy and function of the medfly olfactory system is still limited. The first brain structure to process olfactory information in insects is the antennal lobe (AL), which is composed of its functional and morphological units, the olfactory glomeruli. Here, we present a morphological three-dimensional reconstruction of AL glomeruli in adult brains. We used unilateral antennal backfills of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) with neural tracers, revealing the AL structure. We recorded confocal stacks acquired from whole-mount specimens, and analyzed them with the software AMIRA. The ALs in C. capitata are organized in glomeruli which are more tightly packed in the anterior part than the posterior one. Axons of ORNs bilaterally connect the ALs through a commissure between the two ALs. This commissure is formed by several distinct fascicles. Contralateral dye transfer suggests the presence of gap junctions connecting ORNs from both antennae. There was no statistical difference between the average volumes of female ALs (204,166 ± 12,554 μm(3)) and of male ALs (190,287 ± 11,823 μm(3)). In most specimens, we counted 53 glomeruli in each AL, seven of which were sexually dimorphic in size.

  10. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  11. Seasonality in calcification response of Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, under climate change projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, K.; Rodgers, K.; Jokiel, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    The response of coral reef communities to future environmental conditions is a topic of enormous concern and considerable debate. However, information is lacking concerning the interaction between local and global stressors on modern reefs. Irradiance and temperature, along with other numerous environmental factors that regulate coral calcification rates and productivity, are predicted to change with future elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Therefore, an experiment was performed in continuous flow mesocosms under full solar radiation to describe the direct and interactive effects of temperature, irradiance, and pCO2 on the calcification of the Hawaiian reef building coral, Montipora capitata across seasonal and temporal scales. Corals were subjected to twelve experimental treatments composed of two pCO2 levels (present day levels, 2X present), two temperature regimes (ambient, heated +2°C), and three conditions of irradiance (ambient, 50% and 90% reduction). Results revealed irradiance and temperature stress have the strongest influence on coral calcification with pCO2 playing a lesser role. The effects of pCO2 also varied among temperature and irradiance regimes. Large decreases in calcification were observed in corals under ambient irradiance levels that were exposed to elevated temperatures and high pCO2 levels. These results suggest the interaction of these environmental parameters may alter optimal growth conditions of M. capitata under future climate change projections.

  12. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  13. Seed shadow, seedling recruitment, and spatial distribution of Buchenavia capitata (Combretaceae) in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, B A; Melo, F P L; Tabarelli, M

    2006-08-01

    Here we describe the seed shadow, seedling recruitment, ontogenetic structure and spatial distribution of Buchenavia capitata (an emergent canopy tree) in a 380-ha fragment of the Atlantic forest in northeast Brazil. In particular, we examine seed distribution around 10 parental trees and both seedling recruitment and mortality, during an 18 month period beneath and around parental trees. Moreover, we describe: (1) B. capitata occurrence within treefall gaps; (2) population structure in terms of ontogenetic stages for the whole site; and (3) spatial distribution of adults within an area of 51 hectares. 99% of seeds were found beneath parent crowns (n = 4,236) and seed density reached 14.6 +/- 29.9 seeds/m2 (0-140 seeds/m2). 49% of all seeds germinated but seedling mortality reached 100% after an 18 month period. In addition, saplings of B. capitata were not found in forest understory and within 30 treefall gaps (94-2,350 m2). The adults showed an average DBH of 69.3 +/- 22.1 cm, were 19.2 +/- 2.9 m tall and presented a clumped spatial distribution. B. capitata matched some of the features presented by shade intolerant trees or large-gap specialists, and we hypothesize that low rates or even lack of long distance seed dispersal events may be reducing the probability of B. capitata seeds reaching suitable habitats for successful seedling recruitment and growth. Because of that (1) seedlings face high levels of early mortality; (2) there is no sapling recruitment at the study site; and (3) local population faces senility and it is threatened by local extinction.

  14. Examination of the migration of first instar larvae of the parasite OEstrus ovis (Linne 1761) [Diptera: OEstridae] in the upper respiratory tract of artificially infected lambs and daily measurements of the kinetics of blood eosinophilia and mucosal inflammatory response associated with repeated infection.

    PubMed

    Yacob, H T; Jacquiet, Ph; Prevot, F; Bergeaud, J P; Bleuart, C; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2004-12-15

    Twelve lambs were divided into two groups: Group C control, non-infected, and Group O infected once a week for 5 weeks with OEstrus ovis L1 through the same nostril. The first objective of this experiment was to check whether larvae moving through a given nostril remain in the same side nasal cavity or might to spread in both nasal cavities. It has been observed that larvae invade and spread through the entire nasal cavities. The only possible passage way between both sides is via the choanae and velum palatinum. The second objective was to follow the kinetics of blood eosinophilia. A primary peak in eosinophil numbers was noted 4 days following infection, with a higher peak following the second infection. After that, no major changes were seen. Nevertheless, the numbers of eosinophils were always higher than in control animals until the end of the follow-up. The third objective of the study was an enumeration of reactive cells (mast cells, globule leucocytes, and eosinophils) in the mucosae of the upper and lower respiratory tract after necropsy of the animals of the two groups. As observed in previous experiments, there was a large accumulation of these cells in mucosae of the upper respiratory tract. It was also worth noting a significant accumulation of eosinophils in the tissues of the trachea, bronchae and lungs even though OE. ovis was not present there. This "distant" eosinophilic reaction may have important consequences on patho-physiology of other parasites living in these locations: eosinophils have the potential to kill them even though these cells are not activated by their specific antigens.

  15. Natural distribution of parasitoids of larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gabriela Murúa, M; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  16. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  17. Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Podophyllum-Based Lignans Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo

    2016-08-25

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae.

  18. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  19. Does Autocthonous Primary Production Influence Oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Container Habitats?

    PubMed Central

    LORENZ, AMANDA R.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues. PMID:23427654

  20. Examination of a Miniaturized Funnel Trap for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larval Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, R.; Kluchinsky, T.; Lewis, M.; Claborn, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Funnel traps are often used to sample for the presence of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in subterranean aquatic habitats. These traps are generally ≥15 cm in diameter, making them impractical for use in subterranean sites that have narrow (10-cm) access ports, such as those in standard-sized septic tanks. Recent research indicates septic tanks may be important habitats for Ae. aegypti in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. To sample mosquito larval populations in these sites, a miniaturized funnel trap was necessary. This project describes the use of a smaller funnel trap for sampling larval populations. The effects of larval instar (third and fourth) and population density on trap efficacy also are examined. The trap detected larval presence 83% of the time at a larval density of 0.011 larvae per cm2 and 100% of the time at densities ≥0.022 larvae per cm2. There was a significant trend of increasing percentage of recaptured larvae with higher larval population densities. Although the miniaturized funnel trap is less sensitive at detecting larval presence in low population densities, it may be useful for sampling aquatic environments with restricted access or shallow water, particularly in domestic septic tanks. PMID:21175077

  1. An adaptive kernel smoothing method for classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) larval instars.

    PubMed

    Cen, Guanjun; Yu, Yonghao; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks' rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby's growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods.

  2. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  3. A Fly in the Ointment: Evaluation of Traditional Use of Plants to Repel and Kill Blowfly Larvae in Fermented Fish

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Vongsombath, Chanda; Käfer, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae) are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit) onto fermenting fish which results in infestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish is common and widespread in Lao PDR. Research Questions How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish? Material and Methods The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical survey throughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality and repellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. Ohashi (Fabaceae), Uraria crinita (L.) Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae) and Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae) were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Results The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, is significantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidal effect combined) for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh material of T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%, and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively. Discussion and Conclusions The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the production of fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars. PMID:22206019

  4. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  5. [Effect of delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis israëlensis on biochemical functional relationships in Diptera Aedes aegypti].

    PubMed

    Bounias, M; Nizeyimana, B; Vago, C

    1986-01-01

    A study of the action of very low doses of the delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis israëlensis on the larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera) gave evidence for peculiar properties of the dose/effect relations based on the variations of the regression slopes of functional relationships between the pairs cysteine/serine and fatty acids/histidine, by contrast with the pair fatty acids/glucose which exhibited a classical shaped relation. This indicates "crypto-toxicological" processes, not lethal by themselves and without pathological symptoms, but able to initiate "pathogen-chaining" mechanisms leading, at the end, to a lethal secondary syndrome.

  6. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture.

  7. Toxic effects on and structure-toxicity relationships of phenylpropanoids, terpenes, and related compounds in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sandra R L; Silva, Viviane B; Melo, Manuela A; Barbosa, Juliana D F; Santos, Roseli L C; de Sousa, Damião P; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-12-01

    In the search for toxic compounds against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, a collection of commercially available aromatic and aliphatic diversely substituted compounds were selected and evaluated. p-Cymene exhibited the highest larvicidal potency LC₅₀ = 51 ppm, whereas 1,8-cineole exhibited the lowest activity value LC₅₀ = 1419 ppm. To aid future work on the search for larvicidal compounds, the structure-toxicity relationships of this collection have been evaluated. The presence of lipophilic groups results in an overall increase in potency. In general, the presence of hydroxyl groups resulted in less potent compounds. However, methylation of such hydroxyls led to an overall increase in potency. The most potent compounds showed comparably good larvicidal activity in A. aegypti larvae as other terpenes, which we assume to be the result of the increased lipophilicity.

  8. Evaluation of larval density Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for therapeutic use in the recovery of tegumentar injuries.

    PubMed

    Nassu, Mariana Prado; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-09-01

    Larval therapy (LT) is the application of carrion flies (Diptera) sterile larvae on chronic or infected wounds to promote or accelerate the healing process. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. This study evaluated the behavior and larval density of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Calliphoridae), one of the most appropriate species for debridement of injuries with necrotic tissue. Tegumentar lesions were induced in Wistar rats by subcutaneously application of 0.2 ml of a 1:4 hydrochloric acid and sterile distilled water in the dorsal region. Five experimental groups were set up: (LT 5) treatment with 5 larvae/cm(2); (LT 15) 15 larvae/cm(2); (LT 25) 25 larvae/cm(2); (DEB) mechanical debridement, and (NUL) animals that did not receive any treatment. In the LT groups, larvae used were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and maintained for 12 h in the lesions. The healing process was assessed qualitatively (macroscopically and microscopically) and quantitatively (time interval to complete healing). It was observed that the immature fed only on necrotic tissue, thus C. macellaria is an excellent candidate for use in LT. There was no significant difference in healing time between experimental groups. However, it was observed that in LT 25, there was greater vascularization in tissues when compared to the other treatments. The mechanisms involved in this process are unknown, but it is evident that the larvae have an important role in modulating the host immune response. It is essential that future applications of larval therapy consider using a higher density of larvae (minimum of 25 larvae/cm(2)) than is currently recommended.

  9. Microsatellite analysis reveals remating by wild Mediterranean fruit fly females, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Bonizzoni, M; Katsoyannos, B I; Marguerie, R; Guglielmino, C R; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A; Chapman, T

    2002-10-01

    Accurate estimates of remating in wild female insects are required for an understanding of the causes of variation in remating between individuals, populations and species. Such estimates are also of profound importance for major economic fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). A major method for the suppression of this pest is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on matings between mass-reared, sterilized males and wild females. Remating by wild females will thus impact negatively on the success of SIT. We used microsatellite markers to determine the level of remating in wild (field-collected) Mediterranean fruit fly females from the Greek Island of Chios. We compared the four locus microsatellite genotypes of these females and their offspring. Our data showed 7.1% of wild females remated. Skewed paternity among progeny arrays provided further evidence for double matings. Our lowest estimate of remating was 3.8% and the highest was 21%.

  10. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  11. Cell death may regulate visual functionality in the retina of adults of the dipteran Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Elena; Barni, Sergio; Pisu, Maria Bonaria; Vaccarone, Rita; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Bernocchi, Graziella

    2002-01-14

    The white eye mutation in the medfly Ceratitis capitata, like the homologous mutation in Drosophila melanogaster, was shown to impair visual function. Light and electron microscopy, combined with the DNA-end labelling histochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) technique), were used to investigate whether programmed cell death may contribute to the morpho-functional differences between the retina of adults from the white eye and wild type strains. Several photoreceptor nuclei in mature white eye flies appeared smaller and showed intensely Toluidine Blue-stained chromatin masses. At the ultrastructural level, they showed different stages of degeneration, resembling apoptotic figures. Positive TUNEL labelling in the white eye retina indicates that apoptosis may be a candidate mechanism for retinal cell degeneration in adult flies, where visual functionality is altered, to achieve the proper cell number. Apoptosis also appears to occur in the wild type retina in early adult life during normal tissue development.

  12. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients.

  13. Sniffing Out Chemosensory Genes from the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Falchetto, Marco; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Field, Linda M.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs). A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs) were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera Bactrocera and

  14. Experimental and DFT studies on the antioxidant activity of a C-glycoside from Rhynchosia capitata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.; Kumaresan, R.; Deepha, V.; Sivakumar, Raman

    2013-02-01

    Rhynchosia capitata (=Glycine capitata) Heyne ex roth, was found to possess polyphenolics including flavonoids, which acts as potential antioxidant. The study of ethanolic extract of roots and leaves reveals that the leaves possess high polyphenolics including flavonoids than roots. This was also confirmed by DPPH radical scavenging activity. Leaf powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents by soxhlet apparatus in the order of increasing polarity. The DPPH scavenging activity of methanol fraction was found to be high compared to the crude extract and other fractions. Nitric oxide scavenging activity was dominant in chloroform fraction compared to methanol fraction. Presence of flavonoids especially vitexin, a C-glycoside in methanol and chloroform fractions were confirmed by high pressure thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The structural and molecular characteristics of naturally occurring flavonoid, vitexin was investigated in gas phase using density functional theory (DFT) approach with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Analysis of bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) reveals that the OH site that requires minimum energy for dissociation is 4'-OH from B-ring. To explore the radical scavenging activity of vitexin, the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index properties were computed and interpreted. The nonvalidity of Koopman's theorem has been verified by the computation of Eo and Ev energy magnitudes. Interestingly, from BDE calculations it was observed that BDE for 4'-OH, 5-OH and 7-OH are comparatively low for vitexin than its aglycone apigenin and this may be due to the presence of C-8 glucoside in vitexin. To substantiate this, plot of frontier molecular orbital and spin density distribution analysis for neutral and the corresponding radical species for the compound vitexin have been presented.

  15. An agent-based simulation of extirpation of Ceratitis capitata applied to invasions in California.

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Hoffman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We present an agent-based simulation (ABS) of Ceratitis capitata ("Medfly") developed for estimating the time to extirpation of this pest in areas where quarantines and eradication treatments were immediately imposed. We use the ABS, implemented in the program MED-FOES, to study seven different outbreaks that occurred in Southern California from 2008 to 2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed by the State, based on a linear developmental model (thermal unit accumulation, or "degree-day"). MED-FOES is a useful tool for invasive species managers as it incorporates more information from the known biology of the Medfly, and includes the important feature of being demographically explicit, providing significant improvements over simple degree-day calculations. While there was general agreement between the length of quarantine by degree-day and the time to extirpation indicated by MED-FOES, the ABS suggests that the margin of safety varies among cases and that in two cases the quarantine may have been excessively long. We also examined changes in the number of individuals over time in MED-FOES and conducted a sensitivity analysis for one of the outbreaks to explore the role of various input parameters on simulation outcomes. While our implementation of the ABS in this work is motivated by C. capitata and takes extirpation as a postulate, the simulation is very flexible and can be used to study a variety of questions on the invasion biology of pest insects and methods proposed to manage or eradicate such species.

  16. Sniffing out chemosensory genes from the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Falchetto, Marco; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Field, Linda M; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs). A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs) were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera Bactrocera and

  17. Response to short term ultraviolet stress in the reef-building coral Pocillopora capitata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Flores-Ramírez, Laura A; Cobo-Díaz, José Francisco; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Olguín-Monroy, Norma O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramís; Tintos-Gómez, Adrián

    2010-03-01

    Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for 32 h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoid pigments (CPs), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in

  18. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and Their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Waseem; Ali-Khan, Hafiz Azhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was evaluated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter. Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01). However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56) followed by A. parthenope (n=47) and B. geminate (n=46). The number of larvae consumed was decreased with increasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume. Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. PMID:27308283

  19. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  20. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color

  1. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  2. A new species of Dasineura Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in flower galls of Camassia (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae) in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Raymond J; Barosh, Theresa; Kephart, Susan

    2014-12-22

    A new species, Dasineura camassiae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described, illustrated and compared to some of its congeners from related hosts and western North America. The new species causes flower galls on Camassia (Agavoideae; Asparagaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Its current known distribution is Oregon and Washington, USA. Larvae develop in spring in flowers of Camassia spp., causing the young ovaries to enlarge prematurely and eventually abort, without forming seeds or mature fruit. Full-grown larvae crawl out of the gall in rapid succession and drop to the soil where they pupate; they remain there until spring of the following year when the adults emerge and lay eggs. The galls they induce in camas lily buds represent the first known association of the cosmopolitan genus Dasineura with the group of plants that includes Agave and its relatives.

  3. Effects of ketamine on the development of forensically important blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its forensic relevance.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhou; Zhai, Xiandun; Zhou, Haimei; Li, Pu; Ma, Jinqi; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yaonan

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated effects of ketamine on the development of Chrysomya Megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at three different temperatures. Larvae of the C. Megacephala were exposed to different concentrations of drugs and temperatures. The larval lengths, weights, and developmental durations of each stage were observed. This study demonstrated that ketamine, low temperature, and their synergistic action significantly suppressed the development of C. Megacephala (p < 0.001). The time that the larvae in all the treatments achieved the maximum length/weight was significantly delayed (p < 0.05), and that resulted in prolonged duration of larval and prepupal stages especially at low temperature. However, no linear correlations were discovered between ketamine concentration and growth rate of larval length/weight.

  4. Behavioural fever in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Moiche, Visila; Boltaña, Sebastian; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (TR at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (TCH: 28-32 °C). Larval thermal preference was assessed under both conditions with or without an immersion challenge, in order to detect the onset of the behavioural fever response. Our results defined the onset of the dsRNA induced behavioural fever at 18-20 days post fertilization (dpf). Significant differences were observed in dsRNA challenged larvae, which prefer higher temperatures (1-4 °C increase) throughout the experimental period as compared to non-challenged larvae. In parallel we measured the abundance of antiviral transcripts; viperin, gig2, irf7, trim25 and Mxb mRNAs in dsRNA challenged larvae under both thermal regimes: TR and TCh. Significant increases in the abundance of all measured transcripts were recorded under thermal choice conditions signifying that thermo-coupling and the resultant enhancement of the immune response to dsRNA challenge occurs from 18 dpf onwards in the zebrafish. The results are of importance as they identify a key developmental stage where the neuro-immune interface matures in the zebrafish likely providing increased resistance to viral infection.

  5. Identification of the forensically important sarcophagid flies Boerttcherisca peregrina, Parasarcophaga albiceps and Parasarcophaga dux (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) based on COII gene in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y D; Cai, J F; Li, X; Xiong, F; Su, R N; Chen, F L; Liu, Q L; Wang, X H; Chang, Y F; Zhong, M; Wang, X; Wen, J F

    2010-12-01

    Accurate species identication is a crucial step in forensic entomology, as the insect collected on a corpse can provide useful information for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The utility of the forensically important Sarcophagidae (Diptera) for crime scene investigation has been severely restricted, as morphological identification is difficult, especially the identification of females and larvae. In this study, a method for using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and phylogenetic analysis was performed to distinguish the three Chinese sarcophagid species: Boerttcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) Parasarcophaga albiceps (Meigen, 1826) and Parasarcophaga dux (Thompson, 1869) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). DNA was extracted and analyzed by a 189 bp fragment of cytochrome coxidase subunit II (COII) gene. The monophyletic branches of the phylogenetic tree reveal that this marker is suitable for discrimination between these species, providing high support for separation on congeneric species. Therefore, the molecular method applied to the sarcophagid species identification is feasible.

  6. Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oils from flower and fruit of Thymbra capitata and Thymus species.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan; Garrido, María; Bote, Maria Elena; Fuentes-Pérez, María C; Espino, Javier; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known as thyme in Spain and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes. Given the economic importance of thyme oils, many thyme species have been studied, and their essential oils (EOs) and other volatile-containing extracts have been chemically characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the phytochemical composition of the EOs from fruits and flowers of T. capitata and Thymus species. High antioxidant capacity has been observed and related to the relative amounts of terpenoid and phenolic with good antioxidant properties. The antioxidant activities decreased as follows: TAC > TZ > TC > TM. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that all tested EOs were active against all tested microbial species, including Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The minimum inhibition concentration values obtained ranged from 0.1 to 0.01 μL/mL. Furthermore, all EOs assayed induced cell death in both human epitheloid cervix carcinoma and histiocytic leukemia cell lines. Overall, the results of this study indicates that the EOs from fruits and flowers of T. capitata and Thymus species posses interesting antioxidant properties and represent a potential source of medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer.

  7. Genomic structure and expression analysis of the RNase kappa family ortholog gene in the insect Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Rampias, Theodoros N; Fragoulis, Emmanuel G; Sideris, Diamantis C

    2008-12-01

    Cc RNase is the founding member of the recently identified RNase kappa family, which is represented by a single ortholog in a wide range of animal taxonomic groups. Although the precise biological role of this protein is still unknown, it has been shown that the recombinant proteins isolated so far from the insect Ceratitis capitata and from human exhibit ribonucleolytic activity. In this work, we report the genomic organization and molecular evolution of the RNase kappa gene from various animal species, as well as expression analysis of the ortholog gene in C. capitata. The high degree of amino acid sequence similarity, in combination with the fact that exon sizes and intronic positions are extremely conserved among RNase kappa orthologs in 15 diverse genomes from sea anemone to human, imply a very significant biological function for this enzyme. In C. capitata, two forms of RNase kappa mRNA (0.9 and 1.5 kb) with various lengths of 3' UTR were identified as alternative products of a single gene, resulting from the use of different polyadenylation signals. Both transcripts are expressed in all insect tissues and developmental stages. Sequence analysis of the extended region of the longer transcript revealed the existence of three mRNA instability motifs (AUUUA) and five poly(U) tracts, whose functional importance in RNase kappa mRNA decay remains to be explored.

  8. Effect of rotenoids from the seeds of Millettia dura on larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Yenesew, Abiy; Derese, Solomon; Midiwo, Jacob O; Heydenreich, Matthias; Peter, Martin G

    2003-10-01

    A crude chloroform extract of seeds of Millettia dura Dunn (Leguminosae) showed high activity (LC50 = 3.5 microg ml(-1) at 24 h) against second-instar larvae of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L (Diptera: Culicidae). The rotenoids, deguelin and tephrosin, isolated from the seeds of this plant also showed potent activities, with LC50 values of 1.6 and 1.4 microg ml(-1) at 24 h, respectively. The related rotenoids millettone and millettosin were inactive at 20 microg ml(-1). Saturation at the B/C ring junction and the presence of methoxy groups at C-2 and/or C-3 in deguelin and tephrosin appear to be important for the observed larvicidal activity.

  9. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    PubMed Central

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  10. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on the

  11. Detritus Type Alters the Outcome of Interspecific Competition Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    MURRELL, EBONY G.; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies of interspecific competition between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae show that Ae. albopictus are superior resource competitors to Ae. aegypti. Single-species studies indicate that growth and survival of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae are affected by the type of detritus present in containers, which presumably affects the amount and quality of microorganisms that the mosquito larvae consume. We tested whether different detritus types alter the intensity of larval competition by raising 10 different density/species combinations of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae under standard laboratory conditions, with one of four detritus types (oak, pine, grass, or insect) provided as a nutrient base. Intraspecific competitive effects on survival were present with all detritus types. Ae. albopictus survivorship was unaffected by interspecific competition in all treatments. Negative interspecific effects on Ae. aegypti survivorship were present with three of four detritus types, but absent with grass. Estimated finite rate of increase (λ’) was lower with pine detritus than with any other detritus type for both species. Furthermore, Ae. aegypti λ’ was negatively affected by high interspecific density in all detritus types except grass. Thus, our experiment confirms competitive asymmetry in favor of Ae. albopictus with oak, pine, or insect detritus, but also demonstrates that certain detritus types may eliminate interspecific competition among the larvae of these species, which may allow for stable coexistence. Such variation in competitive outcome with detritus type may help to account for observed patterns of coexistence/exclusion of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in the field. PMID:18533429

  12. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  13. Detritus type alters the outcome of interspecific competition between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murrell, Ebony G; Juliano, Steven A

    2008-05-01

    Many studies of interspecific competition between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae show that Ae. albopictus are superior resource competitors to Ae. aegypti. Single-species studies indicate that growth and survival of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae are affected by the type of detritus present in containers, which presumably affects the amount and quality of microorganisms that the mosquito larvae consume. We tested whether different detritus types alter the intensity of larval competition by raising 10 different density/species combinations of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae under standard laboratory conditions, with one of four detritus types (oak, pine, grass, or insect) provided as a nutrient base. Intraspecific competitive effects on survival were present with all detritus types. Ae. albopictus survivorship was unaffected by interspecific competition in all treatments. Negative interspecific effects on Ae. aegypti survivorship were present with three of four detritus types, but absent with grass. Estimated finite rate of increase (lambda') was lower with pine detritus than with any other detritus type for both species. Furthermore, Ae. aegypti lambda' was negatively affected by high interspecific density in all detritus types except grass. Thus, our experiment confirms competitive asymmetry in favor of Ae. albopictus with oak, pine, or insect detritus, but also demonstrates that certain detritus types may eliminate interspecific competition among the larvae of these species, which may allow for stable coexistence. Such variation in competitive outcome with detritus type may help to account for observed patterns of coexistence/exclusion of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in the field.

  14. Thermal survival limits of young and mature larvae of a cold stenothermal chironomid from the Alps (Diamesinae: Pseudodiamesa branickii [Nowicki, 1873]).

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Valeria; Bernabò, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The threats posed by climate change make it important to expand knowledge concerning cold and heat tolerance in stenothermal species from habitats potentially threatened by temperature changes. Thermal limits and basal metabolism variations were investigated in Pseudodiamesa branickii (Diptera: Chironomidae) under thermal stress between -20 and 37 °C. Supercooling point (SCP), lower (LLTs) and upper lethal temperatures (ULTs), and oxygen consumption rate were measured in overwintering young (1st and 2nd instar) and mature (3rd and 4th instar) larvae from an Alpine glacier-fed stream. Both young and mature larvae were freezing tolerant (SCPs = -7.1 °C and -6.4 °C, respectively; LLT100 -20 °C) and thermotolerant (ULT50 = 31.7 ± 0.4, 32.5 ± 0.3, respectively). However, ontogenetic differences in acute tolerance were observed. The LLT50 calculated for the young larvae (= -7.4 °C) was almost equal to their SCP (= -7.1 °C) and the overlapping of the proportion of mortality curve with the CPIF curve highlighted that the young larvae are borderline between freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance. Furthermore, a lower ULT100 in the young larvae (of ca. 1 °C), suggests that they are less thermotolerant than mature larvae. Finally, young larvae exhibit a higher oxygen consumption rate (mgO2 /gAFDM/h) at any temperature tested and are overall less resistant to oxygen depletion compared to mature larvae at ≥10 °C. These findings suggest that mature larvae enter into a dormant state by lowering their basal metabolism until environmental conditions improve in order to save energy for life cycle completion during stressful conditions. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of temperature on metabolism of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Benkova, Ivana; Volf, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the most important vector of Leishmania major, and previous experiments revealed that Leishmania development in the sand fly midgut is significantly affected by temperature. Therefore, we maintained blood-fed P. papatasi females at 23 or 28 degrees C to understand the effect of temperature on bloodmeal digestion and developmental times of this sand fly. At the lower temperature, the metabolic processes were slower and developmental times were longer: defecation, oviposition, and egg hatch started later and took longer to complete. Also, the mortality of blood-fed females was significantly lower. The defecation of bloodmeal remains was delayed for 12-36 h at 23 degrees C compared with the group maintained at 28 degrees C. Such delay would provide more time for Leishmania to establish the midgut infection and could partially explain the increased susceptibility of P. papatasi to Leishmania major at 23 degrees C. In both experimental groups, blood-fed females laid similar numbers of eggs (mean 60 and 70, maximum 104 and 115 per female). Egg numbers were positively correlated with the amount of hematin excreted in feces of ovipositing females. In parallel experiments, autogeny was recorded in 8% of females. The autogenous egg batches were smaller (mean, 12; range, 1-39), but they all produced viable larvae.

  17. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics.

  18. Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

  19. Histopathological Changes in Third-Instar and Adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) After in vitro Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  20. Histopathological changes in third-instar and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) after in vitro heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Development of a GC-MS method for methamphetamine detection in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Pacini, Tommaso; Pazzi, Marco; Vincenti, Marco; Dadour, Ian R

    2014-08-01

    Entomotoxicology is the study of using insects for the detection of drugs and other chemical substances in decomposing tissues. One research aspect in particular is the effects of these substances on arthropod development and morphology, and their consequences on the post mortem interval estimation. Since methamphetamine (MA) is becoming commonplace as an illegal recreational drug, a GC-MS method for the detection of MA in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was developed and validated. Furthermore, the effect of MA on the development, growth rates and survival of the blowfly was investigated. Larvae were reared on liver substrates homogeneously spiked with measured amounts of MA (5 ng/g and 10 ng/g) based on typical concentrations found in human tissue in cases of death caused by MA overdose. The experimental results demonstrated that (i) MA produced a significant increase in the developmental time from egg to adult in C. vomitoria, (ii) approximately 60% of larvae exposed to either dose of MA died during the pupation period and (iii) the resultant lengths of larvae and pupae were on average significantly larger than the controls.

  2. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  3. Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheo N; Lee, Yeon-Suk; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2008-02-01

    Plant essential oils from 20 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activity against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity (>90%) against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed Carum carvi (L.)], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 X 10-3 mg/1 air. Among them, caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red essential oils were highly effective against L. ingenua at 20 x 10(-3) mg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 4, 9, 8, and 17 compounds from caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red oils, respectively. These compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua, and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, cuminaldehyde, p-cymen, terpinen-4-ol, and carvone was effective at 10 x 10(-3) mg/l. The insecticidal activity of dichlorvos was 60% at 10 x 10(-3) mg/ml. Effects of four selected plant essential oils on growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, also were investigated.

  4. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  5. How the pilidium larva feeds.

    PubMed

    von Dassow, George; Emlet, Richard B; Maslakova, Svetlana A

    2013-08-09

    The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice - various cultured cryptomonads - attempt to escape their fate. The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium's feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms.

  6. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  7. Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Liliam Dalla; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to the dermis, developing larva migrans in the early phase, and later associated with the typical lesions of larva currens. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of larva in the skin biopsy. PMID:23476820

  8. Oral Delivery of Double-Stranded RNA in Larvae of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Implications for Pest Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aditi D.; Wong, Sylvia; Ryan, Calen P.; Whyard, Steven

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference has already proven itself to be a highly versatile molecular biology tool for understanding gene function in a limited number of insect species, but its widespread use in other species will be dependent on the development of easier methods of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery. This study demonstrates that RNA interference can be induced in the mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) simply by soaking larvae in a solution of dsRNA for two hours. The mRNA transcripts for β-tubulin, chitin synthase-1 and -2, and heat shock protein 83 were reduced between 30 and 50% three days post-dsRNA treatment. The dsRNA was mixed with a visible dye to identify those individuals that fed on the dsRNA, and based on an absence of RNA interference in those individuals that contained no dye within their guts, the primary route of entry of dsRNA is likely through the gut epithelium. RNA interference was systemic in the insects, inducing measurable knock down of gene expression in tissues beyond the gut. Silencing of the β-tubulin and chitin synthase-1 genes resulted in reduced growth and/or mortality of the larvae, demonstrating the utility of dsRNA as a potential mosquito larvicide. Silencing of chitin synthase-2 did not induce mortality in the larvae, and silencing of heat shock protein 83 only induced mortality in the insects if they were subsequently subjected to a heat stress. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) larvae were also soaked in dsRNA designed to specifically target either their own β-tubulin gene, or that of A. aegypti, and significant mortality was only seen in larvae treated with dsRNA targeting their own gene, which suggests that dsRNA pesticides could be designed to be species-limited. PMID:24224468

  9. Hydrosol of Thymbra capitata Is a Highly Efficient Biocide against Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Karampoula, Foteini; Deschamps, Julien; Doulgeraki, Agapi I.; Nychas, George-John E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella is recognized as one of the most significant enteric foodborne bacterial pathogens. In recent years, the resistance of pathogens to biocides and other environmental stresses, especially when they are embedded in biofilm structures, has led to the search for and development of novel antimicrobial strategies capable of displaying both high efficiency and safety. In this direction, the aims of the present work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hydrosol of the Mediterranean spice Thymbra capitata against both planktonic and biofilm cells of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and to compare its action with that of benzalkonium chloride (BC), a commonly used industrial biocide. In order to achieve this, the disinfectant activity following 6-min treatments was comparatively evaluated for both disinfectants by calculating the concentrations needed to achieve the same log reductions against both types of cells. Their bactericidal effect against biofilm cells was also comparatively determined by in situ and real-time visualization of cell inactivation through the use of time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Interestingly, results revealed that hydrosol was almost equally effective against biofilms a