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  1. Tinea capitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tinea capitis. A special test that uses a lamp called a Wood's lamp can help diagnose a fungal scalp infection. Your ... Ringworm - scalp Images Ringworm of the scalp Wood's lamp test - of the scalp Ringworm, tinea capitis - close- ...

  2. Tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Summerbell, R C

    2000-08-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp in children. Dermatophytes are classified into three genera; tinea capitis is caused predominantly by Trichophyton or Microsporum species. On the basis of host preference and natural habitat, dermatophytes are also classified as anthropophilic, geophilic and zoophilic. The etiological agents of tinea capitis usually fall in the first and last categories. In North America, tinea capitis is now predominantly due to Trichophyton tonsurans. During the past 100 years the most common North American organism for tinea capitis was initially Microsporum canis followed later by M. audouinii. In other parts of the world the epidemiology varies. Tinea capitis is generally observed in children over the age of 6 years and before puberty, with African Americans being the most affected group. Clinical presentations are seborrheic-like scale, 'black dot' pattern, inflammatory tinea capitis with kerion and tiny pustules in the scalp. The clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by mycological examination. Wood's light examination was of value in diagnosing tinea capitis due to M. canis and M. audouinii; however, it is not helpful in T. tonsurans tinea capitis. Asymptomatic carriers may be a significant reservoir of infection and spread of spores may also involve inanimate objects. Carriers may benefit from shampooing their hair. Treatment of tinea capitis requires an oral antifungal agent. The data from the use of terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole are promising and suggest that these agents have an efficacy similar to griseofulvin while shortening the duration of therapy. Both griseofulvin and the newer antimycotics have a favorable adverse-effect profile and are associated with high compliance.

  3. [Tinea capitis].

    PubMed

    Rebollo, N; López-Barcenas, A P; Arenas, R

    2008-03-01

    Tinea capitis is a widespread scalp infection in children caused by dermatophytes. In fact, it is the most common cutaneous mycosis in children but is uncommon in adults. The disease has been major public health concern for decades. Some factors implicated in infection include poor personal hygiene, crowded living conditions, and low socioeconomic status. It can be caused by any pathogenic dermatophyte except for Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton concentricum. Trichophyton rubrum, the most commonly isolated dermatophyte worldwide, is rarely the causative agent of this infection. Tinea capitis is a classic example of the changing geographic patterns of dermatophytosis. In developed countries, Trichophyton tonsurans is the most common causative agent, whereas in developing countries such as Mexico, the most common agent is Microsporum canis followed by Trichophyton tonsurans. The increasing incidence of tinea capitis warranted a review of the current literature and treatment strategies.

  4. Tinea capitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Auchus, Isabella C; Ward, Kimberley M; Brodell, Robert T; Brents, Melissa J; Jackson, Jeremy D

    2016-03-16

    Tinea capitis is caused by dermatophyte fungi that utilize keratin as a nutrient source.  Scalp erythema, scaling, andcrusting are typical signs of this disease.  Although most commonly seen in prepubescent children, tinea capitis can occur in adults. Endothrix tinea capitis owing to Trichophyton tonsurans commonly produces generalized scaling and localized perifollicular inflammation reminiscent of lichen planopilaris. Ectothrix tinea capitis owing to Microsporum sp. produces well- demarcated erythematous plaques suggestive of psoriasis. H&E stained biopsy specimens, KOH preparations or fungal cultures will confirm the diagnosis. Because of a low index of suspicion for tinea capitis in adults with scaling and alopecia, diagnosis and appropriate treatment are often delayed. Resistance to treatment for seborrheic dermatitis or psoriasis should prompt a KOH, fungal culture orbiopsy to confirm the diagnosis of tinea capitis and initiate systemic antifungal agents.

  5. Tinea capitis in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Moore, M K; Suite, M

    1993-12-01

    Characteristics of clinically diagnosed cases of tinea capitis from Trinidad are described. Tinea capitis comprised 29.5% of all dermatophytoses seen at one general hospital out-patient dermatology clinic during a one-year period. Males were more often affected than females and there was a predominance of patients of African descent. Among the dermatophytes cultured Trichophyton tonsurans was the most prevalent (52.9%), followed by Microsporum canis (20.0%) and M. audouinii (18.6%). Less frequent isolates included M. gypseum (1.9%), T. mentagrophytes var granulare (1.4%) and T. rubrum (1.4%).

  6. Pediculosis capitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Madke, Bhushan; Khopkar, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Head louse infestation, or pediculosis capitis, caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis, is a common health concern in pediatric age group. An itching of the scalp is the chief symptom, whereas presence of viable nits confirms the diagnosis of head louse infestation. Secondary bacterial infection with impetignization with cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy can complicate the clinical scenario with physician misdiagnosing pediculosis to a primary bacterial infection. Screening and treatment of all close contacts is necessary for an adequate management of pediculosis. Medical management of head louse infestation requires proper application of topical pediculicidal agents', chiefly permethrin lotion and wet combing with a fine toothcomb. Severe cases with high parasitic load justify the use of either oral cotrimoxazole or Ivermectin. Other described technique involves a single application of hot air for 30 minutes. Radical but culturally unacceptable method would be shaving of scalp in resistant cases. Environmental fogging with insecticides is neither necessary nor recommended.

  7. Tinea Capitis: Current Status.

    PubMed

    Hay, R J

    2017-02-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common childhood infection in many parts of the world. Yet knowledge of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and the development of effective immunity have shown striking advances, and new methods of diagnosis ranging from dermoscopy to molecular laboratory tests have been developed even though they have not been assimilated into routine practice in many centres. Treatment is effective although it needs to be given for at least 1 month. What is missing, however, is a systematic approach to control through case ascertainment and therapy.

  8. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  9. Spinosad: in pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2011-10-01

    Spinosad 0.9% suspension is a topical treatment for head-lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) that has been approved in the US as a prescription medicine. Spinosad is a natural mixture of the pediculicidal tetracyclic macrolides spinosyn A and spinosyn D. Spinosad 0.9% mainly interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in insects, thereby producing neuronal excitation that results in paralysis of lice from neuromuscular fatigue after extended periods of hyperexcitation. Spinosad 0.9% kills both permethrin-susceptible and permethrin-resistant populations of lice. It is also ovicidal, killing both eggs (nits) and lice. Systemic absorption was not detectable after a single topical application of spinosad 1.8% for 10 minutes in children. In randomized, evaluator-blind, multicenter clinical trials, topical spinosad 0.9% without nit combing was significantly more effective than permethrin 1% with nit combing in the eradication of head lice assessed 14 days after one or two treatments. The majority of subjects treated with spinosad 0.9% without nit combing required only a single treatment to eradicate head lice, while the majority of those treated with permethrin 1% with nit combing required two treatments. Spinosad was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with no severe or serious adverse events. Cutaneous and ocular irritation were the most common adverse events.

  10. Treatment of pediculosis capitis with topical albendazole.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Nakhlé; Maatouk, Ismaël; Merhy, Martin; Tomb, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice infestation, caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, is a common and ubiquitous health concern. Increasing resistance and treatment failures are reported with available topical pediculicides and may prove challenging to manage. Recent data indicate that the oral anti-helmintic agents thiabendazole and albendazole could represent new therapeutic options against pediculosis capitis. We report a novel treatment modality in four patients with head lice who were successfully treated with a topical application of albendazole.

  11. [Pediculosis capitis, a permanent and renewed problem].

    PubMed

    Schenonel, H; Lobos, M

    1997-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is still a world-wide public health problem. Pediculus humanus capitis, the agent, is a permanent and specific human blood-sucking ectoparasite extended throughout the world. By the end of sixties and begin of seventies an important increase of prevalence of this parasitose was observed in many countries and lice infestation throughout the world was estimated to run into hundreds of millions. Decline of personal hygiene, increased promiscuity and long hairstyle, particularly in adolescents and young people seemed to mark the beginning of this new situation. At present pediculosis capitis not only affects low socio-economic groups, but middle and high level groups. Several observations have shown a clear relationship between long hair and pediculosis capitis. Prevention of pediculosis capitis is supported by community health education, stressing the personal hygiene, the use of reasonable short hair and frequent washing of head.

  12. Tinea capitis: diagnostic criteria and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

    2009-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection involving the hair shaft of the scalp. It is commonly referred to as ringworm and occurs primarily in children. Treatment with a systemic anti-fungal rather than topical treatment is required. Currently, two medications, griseofulvin (Grifulvin) and terbinafine (Lamisil Granules), are FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis. Treatment with griseofulvin is usually 6 to 8 weeks, while treatment with terbinafine requires 6 weeks. There are other medications currently not FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis that have similar cure rates and shorter durations of treatment for tinea capitis, and as a result, are being used off-label. This article reviews the research-based literature related to the treatment of tinea capitis with various pharmacologic agents.

  13. An epidemic of pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Slonka, G F; Fleissner, M L; Berlin, J; Puleo, J; Harrod, E K; Schultz, M G

    1977-04-01

    An epidemic due to Pediculus humanus capitis occurred in the public schools of Buffalo, New York, in the winter of 1973. A survey at one elementary school showed that 20% of whites and no blacks were infested, and a city-wide prevalence survey during the academic year September 1972 to May 1973 showed that 7.2% of all pupils were infested. An epidemiological investigation showed that sex, age, race, socioeconomic status, crowding, method of closeting garments, and family size influenced the distribution of pediculosis but that hair length apparently was not a factor. Poverty and ignorance appeared to contribute to the persistence of infestation.

  14. Tinea capitis mimicking folliculitis decalvans.

    PubMed

    Tangjaturonrusamee, C; Piraccini, B M; Vincenzi, C; Starace, M; Tosti, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on an adult patient with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis, who presented with diffuse alopecia and follicular pustules, mimicking folliculitis decalvans. Examination of the scalp showed severe alopecia with prominent involvement of the frontal and vertex scalp: the skin was markedly erythematous with pustules and brownish crusts. Videodermoscopy revealed visible follicular ostia, numerous pustular lesions and several comma hairs. Fluconazole 150 mg a week for 8 weeks associated with ketoconazole shampoo cleared the inflammatory lesions and produced complete hair regrowth. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Clinical Practice Update: Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Brittany; Evetts, Jessica; McClain, Kymberli; Rosenauer, Amanda; Stellitano, Emily

    2015-01-01

    A review of the current evidence on primary treatment modalities of head lice demonstrates increasing resistance to current regimens. New and alternative therapies are now available. A treatment algorithm was created to address safety and efficacy of treatments, as well as to guide clinicians through navigation of the regimens. Through an online journal search, 59 articles were selected for the review. Literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Ebsco Host, and CINAHL, with key search words of "Pediculosis capitis" and "head lice" in the title, abstract, and index. Meta-analyses and controlled clinical trials were viewed with greater weight if they had a large sample size, were statistically significant, and did not allude to bias. When resistant infestations are well-documented in a locality, changes to the treatment regimen are indicated, and alternative treatments should be considered. Recent studies and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals have changed the available treatment options for Pediculosis capitis, including benzyl alcohol, topical ivermectin, spinosad, and the LouseBuster. Further, environmental management and prevention measures should be taken to avoid reinfestation and to prevent the spread of head lice. Continued study is recommended to establish long-term safety of new and alternative agents.

  16. Staphylococcus capitis isolated from prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Tevell, S; Hellmark, B; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Å; Söderquist, B

    2017-01-01

    Further knowledge about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by different coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may facilitate interpretation of microbiological findings and improve treatment algorithms. Staphylococcus capitis is a CoNS with documented potential for both human disease and nosocomial spread. As data on orthopaedic infections are scarce, our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PJIs caused by S. capitis. This retrospective cohort study included three centres and 21 patients with significant growth of S. capitis during revision surgery for PJI between 2005 and 2014. Clinical data were extracted and further microbiological characterisation of the S. capitis isolates was performed. Multidrug-resistant (≥3 antibiotic groups) S. capitis was detected in 28.6 % of isolates, methicillin resistance in 38.1 % and fluoroquinolone resistance in 14.3 %; no isolates were rifampin-resistant. Heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate resistance was detected in 38.1 %. Biofilm-forming ability was common. All episodes were either early post-interventional or chronic, and there were no haematogenous infections. Ten patients experienced monomicrobial infections. Among patients available for evaluation, 86 % of chronic infections and 70 % of early post-interventional infections achieved clinical cure; 90 % of monomicrobial infections remained infection-free. Genetic fingerprinting with repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab®) displayed clustering of isolates, suggesting that nosocomial spread might be present. Staphylococcus capitis has the potential to cause PJIs, with infection most likely being contracted during surgery or in the early postoperative period. As S. capitis might be an emerging nosocomial pathogen, surveillance of the prevalence of PJIs caused by S. capitis could be recommended.

  17. [Scalp ringworm tinea capitis in Tunisian infants].

    PubMed

    Meziou, T J; Dammak, A; Zaz, T; Mseddi, M; Boudaya, S; Bouzid, L; Akrout, F; Maalej, S; Ayadi, A; Turki, H

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to specify the epidemiological, clinical, and mycological particularities of tinea capitis in infants. We retrospectively collected data from the files of 245 infants presenting with tinea capitis, followed in the Hedi-Chaker hospital dermatology department and in two mycology laboratories of the Sfax hospital, between January 1995 and December 2006. We collected the epidemiological, clinical, and mycological data for each patient. We included 137 boys and 108 girls with trichophytic tinea in 62 % of cases and microsporic tinea in 34 % of cases. Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum canis were identified by culture respectively in 51 and 37 % of cases. Tinea capitis is frequent observed in our region, Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum canis are the most frequent mycological agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral ivermectin for treatment of pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Mahreen; Arenas, Roberto; Villanueva-Reyes, Janeth; Ruiz-Esmenjaud, Julieta; Millar, Daniel; Domínguez-Dueñas, Francisca; Haddad-Angulo, Alexandra; Rodríguez-Alvarez, Mauricio

    2010-11-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a highly transmissible infestation prevalent worldwide. It is an important public health problem mainly affecting children. The emergence of drug resistance and high rates of treatment failure with several topical agents makes ivermectin, an antiparasitic drug, an attractive therapeutic option for lice control. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin in the treatment of a pediatric population with pediculosis capitis. Children with pediculosis capitis from the ages of 6 to 15 years were recruited from an indigenous community in Mexico, and were treated with a single dose of oral ivermectin at 200 μg/kg. They were treated with a second dose of ivermectin 1 week later if there was evidence of persistent infestation. Forty-four children (mean age, 9.8 years) with active infestation were treated. A single approximately 200-μg/kg dose of ivermectin eradicated adult lice in all children. Forty-one percent (n = 18) required a second dose because of the presence of viable nits. At the third visit, 2 weeks after commencement of treatment there was no evidence of viable nits, and there was complete resolution of excoriations in all children and minimal or no symptoms of pruritus were reported in 93% (n = 41). There were no significant adverse effects due to ivermectin administration. Ivermectin demonstrates high efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of pediculosis capitis in children. A significant number of children required a second dose to ensure complete eradication.

  19. [Tinea capitis. Dermoscopic findings in 37 patients].

    PubMed

    Arrazola-Guerrero, Jisel; Isa-Isa, Rafael; Torres-Guerrero, Edoardo; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common fungal infection in children. Diagnosis is confirmed by mycological study, including direct examination of the samples with potassium hydroxide/chlorazol black and culture. Previous studies have reported the presence of "comma hairs" and "corkscrew hairs", as well as short hairs and black dots. To describe the dermoscopic patterns in the trichoscopic examination in patients with tinea capitis. A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 patients with tinea capitis, studied during May, 2012, at Dr. Manuel Gea González General Hospital in Mexico, and the Instituto Dermatológico y Cirugía de Piel Dr. Huberto Bogaert Díaz, in the Dominican Republic. Clinical, mycological and dermoscopic evaluations were performed. Of the 37 patients included, 28 were of mixed race from Dominican Republic and 9 mixed race cases from Mexico. Seventy six percent were male and 24% female, and 94% were children. The following dermoscopic patterns were confirmed: "comma hairs" (41%), "corkscrew hairs" (22%), short hairs (49%), and black dots (33%). The presence of scales (89%), peripilar casts (46%), alopecia (65%), pustules (8%), and meliceric crusts (16%), were also observed. Dermoscopy in tinea capitis showed the presence of "comma hairs", and "corkscrew hairs". Scales, peripilar casts and alopecia were also found. It would be desirable to establish this diagnostic tool, particularly when an optical microscope or a mycology reference laboratory are not available. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Tinea capitis favosa misdiagnosed as tinea amiantacea

    PubMed Central

    Anane, Sonia; Chtourou, Olfa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Favus of the scalp or tinea capitis favosa is a chronic dermatophyte infection of the scalp. In almost cases, favus is caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii, anthropophilic dermatophyte. It is characterized by the presence of scutula and severe alopecia. Besides the classic clinical type of tinea capitis favosa, there are many variant of clinical form which may persist undiagnosed for many years. In this work, we report an atypical form of favus to Trichophyton schoenleinii which was misdiagnosed as tinea amiantacea. Case-report An 11-year old girl came to the outpatient department of dermatology (day 0) with history of tinea amiantacea treated unsuccessfully with keratolytic shampoo (day – 730). She presented a diffuse scaling of the scalp with thick scaly patches and without scutula or alopecia. A diagnosis of tinea favosa by T. schoenleinii was made by mycological examination. She was treated with griseofulvin and ketoconazole in the form of foaming gel for twelve weeks. Despite treatment, clinical evolution was marked by appearance of permanent alopecia patches. The follow-up mycological examination was negative. Conclusion Because of ultimate evolution of favus into alopecia, we emphasize the importance of mycological examination in case of diffuse scaling. PMID:24432210

  1. Tinea capitis favosa misdiagnosed as tinea amiantacea.

    PubMed

    Anane, Sonia; Chtourou, Olfa

    2012-12-28

    Favus of the scalp or tinea capitis favosa is a chronic dermatophyte infection of the scalp. In almost cases, favus is caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii, anthropophilic dermatophyte. It is characterized by the presence of scutula and severe alopecia. Besides the classic clinical type of tinea capitis favosa, there are many variant of clinical form which may persist undiagnosed for many years. In this work, we report an atypical form of favus to Trichophyton schoenleinii which was misdiagnosed as tinea amiantacea. An 11-year old girl came to the outpatient department of dermatology (day 0) with history of tinea amiantacea treated unsuccessfully with keratolytic shampoo (day - 730). She presented a diffuse scaling of the scalp with thick scaly patches and without scutula or alopecia. A diagnosis of tinea favosa by T. schoenleinii was made by mycological examination. She was treated with griseofulvin and ketoconazole in the form of foaming gel for twelve weeks. Despite treatment, clinical evolution was marked by appearance of permanent alopecia patches. The follow-up mycological examination was negative. Because of ultimate evolution of favus into alopecia, we emphasize the importance of mycological examination in case of diffuse scaling.

  2. A pediculid case: autosensitization dermatitis caused by pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Takcı, Zennure; Tekin, Ozlem; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis ectoparasite that only lives on the hairs of the scalp. As a result of severe itching excoriation, secondary bacterial infection, cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy are seen frequently where, sometimes bite reaction, viral exanthema mimicking hypersensitivity eruption and conjunctivitis may occur. Hereby, with the presentation of a quite rarely seen pediculid case, characterized with common autosensitization dermatitis as an -id reaction to pediculosis capitis, the importance of exploring the source of the infection and/or infestation on the patients who have presented with generalized pruritic maculopapular eruption, is emphasized.

  3. White piedra and pediculosis capitis in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Camargo, Rosângela Maria Pires de

    2012-01-01

    White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by the genus Trichosporon. It is characterized by nodules on the hair shaft. Pediculosis capitis is caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis of the suborder Anoplura. Whereas pediculosis is a common infestation, clinical reports of white piedra are rare. Molecular biology procedures identified T. inkin as the agent of white piedra in this case report. The authors present associations between the two diseases in the same patient in order to highlight their clinical differences.

  4. Inflammatory tinea capitis: kerion, dermatophytic granuloma, and mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Isa-Isa, Rafael; Arenas, Roberto; Isa, Mariel

    2010-03-04

    Inflammatory tinea capitis is the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to a dermatophytic infection. The usual forms are favus, kerion celsi, dermatophytic Majocchi granuloma, and mycetoma. Inflammatory tinea capitis can be caused by Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T tonsurans, T rubrum, and M gypseum. Histopathologic findings include a spectrum from mild suppurative folliculitis to dense granulomatous infiltrates. In mycetoma, grains must be present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spinalis capitis, or an accessory paraspinous muscle?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A

    1994-01-01

    A unilateral muscle, the location and dimensions of which do not exactly conform to existing descriptions, was found during dissection of the suboccipital region. The muscle in question extended from the spine and transverse process of the 6th cervical vertebra to the base of the skull. At its rostral attachment it blended with the insertion of the left rectus capitis posterior minor muscle on the inferior nuchal line. The caudal attachment arched over the semispinalis cervicis, separated from that muscle by an extensive venous complex. Medially, along the length of the muscle, weak fascial attachments to the ligamentum nuchae were present. Arterial branches from the occipital artery entered the muscle near its rostral end and nerve fibres and vascular channels from the lower cervical region entered the deep surface of the muscle. Images Figs 1-3 Fig. 4 PMID:7559114

  6. Changing face of tinea capitis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fuller, L Claire

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this review is to update the latest epidemiological situation in Europe, explore recent issues in recognition and emerging opportunities in diagnosis and look at progressions in treatment. Papers reviewed have, in the main, been published within the last 2 years. The predominantly responsible organism varies with country. Trichophyton tonsurans accounts for 50-90% of cases in the UK, Microsporum canis is commonest in Central and Southern Europe and T. violaceum in Greece and Belgium. Confirming the diagnosis of tinea capitis is best undertaken with more than one sampling method to include scraping of scalp, and either scalp massage brush, toothbrush, moistened cotton gauze swab or cytobrush to increase sensitivity. Advances in the speed of species identification is offered by the novel PCR-based detection/identification scheme, and although not yet commercially available, with potential turnaround times of <24 h this will offer a significant advance in the speed of diagnosis, allowing treatment to be organism tailored. Although griseofulvin remains the only licensed treatment in the UK and a meta-analysis confirms it is effective against the major tinea capitis pathogens, a new granule formulation of terbinafine has been shown to be more effective against T. tonsurans. With the evolving organism profile across Europe, obtaining an accurate diagnosis and species identification is crucial. Using more than one sampling method followed by rapid species identification techniques will facilitate this. Although there are no changes in specific product license to include children, the production of a child-friendly formulation of terbinafine will contribute to improved compliance.

  7. Increasing tinea capitis prevalence in Stockholm reflects immigration.

    PubMed

    Hällgren, Jenny; Petrini, Björn; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to describe the mycological and clinical data in children diagnosed with tinea capitis in a hospital setting in Stockholm. Information concerning demography, symptoms, mycology and treatment were obtained, retrospectively, from medical records of all children up to 15 years of age diagnosed with tinea capitis during two 3-year periods, 1989--1991 and 1999--2001, at the Pediatric Dermatology Unit of the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm. Between 1989 and 1991, five children were diagnosed with tinea capitis. Between 1999 and 2001, there were 92 children, the vast majority (86%) being of foreign extraction, mostly African (83%). Trichophyton violaceum was the most prevalent pathogen, affecting 68% of the children. Of the anthropophilic infections, 62% were linked to relatives. In 71% of all positive cultures, microscopy was positive. The most common clinical findings were scaling of the scalp (80%), itching (54%) and patches of alopecia (52%). The treatment consisted of the oral antimycotics terbinafine (n = 48) or griseofulvin (n = 49). During the last decade there has been an increase in tinea capitis in Stockholm, most commonly caused by Trichophyton violaceum, corresponding with the increased immigration from Africa. Spread within the family seems to be of importance, and family members are preferably screened in an effort to prevent continued transmission. It is important to bear the diagnosis of tinea capitis in mind, especially as, untreated, some cases can develop permanent alopecia and may also cause further spreading of this infection.

  8. Insights on virulence from the complete genome of Staphylococcus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, David R.; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Hassan, Karl A.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Tuck, Kellie L.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Peleg, Anton Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis is an opportunistic pathogen of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). Functional genomic studies of S. capitis have thus far been limited by a lack of available complete genome sequences. Here, we determined the closed S. capitis genome and methylome using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The strain, AYP1020, harbors a single circular chromosome of 2.44 Mb encoding 2304 predicted proteins, which is the smallest of all complete staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date. AYP1020 harbors two large mobile genetic elements; a plasmid designated pAYP1020 (59.6 Kb) and a prophage, ΦAYP1020 (48.5 Kb). Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation across the genome involving two distinct methylation motifs (1972 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues identified). Putative adenine methyltransferases were also identified. Comparative analysis of AYP1020 and the closely related CoNS, S. epidermidis RP62a, revealed a host of virulence factors that likely contribute to S. capitis pathogenicity, most notably genes important for biofilm formation and a suite of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs); the expression/production of these factors were corroborated by functional assays. The complete S. capitis genome will aid future studies on the evolution and pathogenesis of the coagulase negative staphylococci. PMID:26441910

  9. Management of tinea capitis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive. PMID:21437064

  10. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among Korean children.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong-Min; Lee, In Yong; Lee, Won-Ja; Seo, Min; Park, Sol-Ah; Lee, Seung Hyun; Seo, Jang Hoon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Soon-Jung; Shin, Myeong Heon; Pai, Ki-Soo; Yu, Jae-Ran; Sim, Seobo

    2010-11-01

    Pediculus humanus capitis is an ectoparasite, which causes scalp pruritus particularly among children. A total of 15,373 children including 8,018 boys and 7,355 girls from 26 primary schools and 15 kindergartens attached to the primary schools and a total of 33 children from an orphanage were examined for head lice infestation (HLI). The overall prevalence of HLI in this study was 4.1% including 3.7% of the urban areas and 4.7% of the rural areas. Head lice were found more frequently in girls than in boys with prevalence of 6.5% and 1.9%, respectively. The infestation rate by school grade was 3.2%, 4.7%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 4.9%, 3.8%, and 2.1% for kindergarten, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, respectively. The infestation rate of the children in an orphanage was 66.7%. The prevalence of HLI has decreased especially in the rural areas. However, HLI is a still health problem of kindergarteners and primary schoolchildren in Korea.

  11. Management of tinea capitis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon

    2010-07-14

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive.

  12. Tinea capitis in adults in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Oumari, Kamel E L; Ghariani, Najet; Mili, Akila Fathallah; Belajouza, Colandane; Nouira, Rafiaa; Denguezli, Mohamed; Ben Said, Moncef

    2010-05-01

    To determine the pattern of infectious agents causing tinea capitis (TC) in adult patients in the center of Tunisia. From January 1990 to December 2005, we have retrospectively collected all cases of adult TC, confirmed by the mycological examination. Sixty patients (18 male, 42 female) with a mean age of 34.5 years were diagnosed as having adult TC among a total number of 1137 cases of TC (5.27%). Clinical features were polymorphic and diagnosis was made on mycological examination. Culture identified Trichophyton violaceum in 36 cases (60%), Microsporum canis in 12 cases (20%), Trichophyton schoenleini in 7 cases (12%), Trichophyton verrucosum in two cases (3.5%), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum in one case (each 1.77%). Culture was negative in one case (1.77%). Treatment consisted of administration of Griseofulvin(20–25 mg/kg/d) during 6–8 weeks associated with antifungal topics. A complete recovery was noted in 55 cases (92%) and a relapse occurred in two patients (3.5%). A scary alopecia was observed in one patient (1.77%) and two patients were lost to follow-up. Trichophyton violaceum remains the most common etiological agent of adult TC in Tunisia. Microsporum canis is rising rapidly most notably due to the high frequency of asymptomatic carriage by domestic animals [corrected].

  13. [Tinea capitis: Main mycosis child. Epidemiological study on 10years].

    PubMed

    Kallel, A; Hdider, A; Fakhfakh, N; Belhadj, S; Belhadj-Salah, N; Bada, N; Chouchen, A; Ennigrou, S; Kallel, K

    2017-09-01

    Despite the changes in their epidemiology, and the improving level of hygiene of the population, tinea capitis is still considered a public health problem in our country, and is the most common type of dermatophytosis in our country. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and mycological features of tinea capitis in children encountered in the Tunis region. A retrospective study concerned 1600 children aged 6 months to 15 years suspected to have tinea capitis was conducted in Parasitology-Mycology laboratory, Rabta hospital, over a 10-years period (2005-2014). Dermatophyte infections were confirmed using scalp scrapings examinated with direct microscopy using potash at 30% and/or culture on Sabouraud medium agar. Tinea capitis diagnosis was confirmed in 947 cases (59.18%). The sex ratio was 2.61 and the average age of 6.28 years with predominance in the age group of 4 to 8 years (52.27%). The most common clinical presentation was ringworm (87.65%). Ringworm large plaque was predominant (65.9%). Direct examination was positive in 884 cases (93.35%). Microsporic tinea was the most frequent (63.25%) followed by trichophytic tinea (29.78%). Positive cultures of dermatophytes were obtained in 912 cases (96.30%). The following dermatophyte species were isolated: Microsporum canis (67%), Trichophyton violaceum (31.68%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.66%), Microsporum audouinii (0.22%), Trichophyton schoenleinii (0.22%) and Microsporum gypseum (0.22%). M. canis is currently the most frequently incriminated species in tinea capitis in Tunisia. This change is related to a change in behavior of our population, in fact the cat; main reservoir of M. canis cohabiting increasingly with Tunisian families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Tinea capitis in the University Hospital of Constantine (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Benmezdad, A; Moulahem, T; Benyezzar, M; Djaballah, M; Beldjoudi, W; Fendri, A H

    2012-12-01

    Although benign, tinea capitis are a public health problem and a frequent complaint in children. In Algeria, these disorders have long been known; their high frequency was related to unfavorable social conditions of people both in cities than in rural areas. Our aim is the study of tinea capitis diagnosed in the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology of the University Hospital of Constantine through a retrospective review of 15 consecutive years from 1997 to 2011. Currently the clinical and biological differ from those described by ancient authors; dermatophytic flora has evolved significantly and favus, once quite common in our country, is hardly ever found. In addition, we are witnessing a resurgence of zoophilic tinea particularly those caused by Microsporum canis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Pediculus humanus capitis on children in Mahé, Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Grainger, C R

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in pre-school and schoolchildren in Mahé, Seychelles, was investigated. High infestation rates were discovered, particularly in urban schoolchildren at district schools. Infestation in pre-schoolchildren increased with age. Girls were more infested than boys. Control of infestation will not be possible using only the child health service and the school health service. A combined approach is necessary based on the family unit.

  16. Pediculosis capitis: new insights into epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H

    2012-09-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease caused by Pediculus humanus capitis. Head lice are highly specialised parasites which can propagate only on human scalp and hair. Transmission occurs by direct head-to-head contact. Head lice are vectors of important bacterial pathogens. Pediculosis capitis usually occurs in small epidemics in play groups, kindergartens and schools. Population-based studies in European countries show highly diverging prevalences, ranging from 1% to 20%. The diagnosis of head lice infestation is made through the visual inspection of hair and scalp or dry/wet combing. The optimal method for the diagnosis of active head lice infestation is dry/wet combing. Topical application of a pediculicide is the most common treatment. Compounds with a neurotoxic mode of action are widely used but are becoming less effective due to resistant parasite populations. Besides, their use is restricted by safety concerns. Dimeticones, silicone oils with a low surface tension and the propensity to perfectly coat surfaces, have a purely physical mode of action. This group of compounds is highly effective and safe, and there is no risk that head lice become resistant. The control of epidemics requires active contact tracing and synchronised treatment with an effective and safe pediculicide.

  17. Cytobrush-culture method to diagnose tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Isa-Isa, Rafael; Araiza, Javier; Cruz, Cecilia; Hernández, Marco A; Ponce, Rosa Maria

    2007-06-01

    This is a comparative study to isolate the dermatophytes of tinea capitis using the cytobrush and comparing it versus the standard method. A prospective, observational, comparative trial of 178 probable cases of tinea capitis was conducted in two dermatological centers. Each patient underwent mycological tests that included direct exam with KOH and cultures with either of two methods: scraping the scalp to remove hair and cell debris, and the cytobrush. A total of 135 clinically and mycologically proven cases of tinea capitis were included; 119 were non-inflammatory and 16 inflammatory tinea. A total of 131 had a positive direct exam and subsequent primary isolation cultures were obtained in 135 cases. The main dermatophytes isolated were Microsporum canis (68%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (20%). A total of 115/135 (85.1%), were detected with the traditional method, with an average of 11.2 days until positive, while the number detected with the cytobrush was 132/135 (97.7%) with an average of 8.5 days until positive. The chi-square statistical method showed that the cytobrush culture was superior to the standard one with a chi-square of 5.078 (P = 0.025), with a statistically significant difference versus the standard method.

  18. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable.

  19. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Butin, Marine; Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone.

  20. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone. PMID:28221122

  1. Circumscribed alopecia: an unusual manifestation of pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Rebecca R; McMichael, Amy J

    2012-01-01

    A healthy 10-year-old girl was referred for evaluation of patchy hair loss on the scalp of longer than 6 months duration. She had been diagnosed and treated for head lice approximately 1 month before onset of the hair loss. Examination of the scalp showed discrete ovoid patches of hair loss at the vertex scalp. A scrape of the area of hair loss was performed, and a nit was visible on microscopic examination. Focal hair loss may represent an atypical manifestation of ongoing pediculosis capitis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Epidemiology of Tinea capitis in the suburbs of Tipasa, Algeria].

    PubMed

    Bendjaballah-Laliam, A; Djazer, H

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis represent a public health problem in Algeria, despite improvement of living conditions. We conducted a retrospective study of cases diagnosed in the hospital Hadjout (Tipasa), Algeria, during 3 years (January 2010-January 2013). Among a total of 213 hair samples, 133 were positive (direct examination or culture). Incidence average was 44 cases per year. Patients were under 12 years of age in 91%. Three species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton violaceum (66%), Microsporum canis (32.5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.5%). No favus was diagnosed during the study period. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Pediculosis capitis is a growing neglected infestation due to migration in southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Fadime; Basaran, Ümit; Kürklü, Cennet Gizem; Yüceer, Mervenur; Yalcıntürk, Rabia Gül; Tanrıverdi, Mustafa; Daglı, Eda Icbay; Koltas, Ismail Soner

    2016-06-01

    Demographic, socio-economical, and environmental changes affecting prevalence of Pediculosis capitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. capitis and external factors affecting the distribution of P. capitis. A total of 6004 primary-school students between 5 and 11 years were screened for P. capitis at 28 different primary-schools in Gaziantep, located in southeastern of Turkey, during different two education terms (First education term is in September 2013 to May 2014, second education term is in September 2014 and May 2015). The prevalence of P. capitis was found to be positive 1.5 % (90/6004) and 6.9 % (415/6004) in first education term and in second education term, respectively. In this study shown that the rate of P. capitis's prevalence was increased 5.4 % in Gaziantep. P. capitis is a neglected infestation and it has re-emerged in Gaziantep, located in the southeastern of Turkey. Health staff member must improve health education programs in primary-school students especially girl students.

  4. Effects of erythromycin on the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm expression in two clinical Staphylococcus capitis subspecies and a functional analysis of Ica proteins in S. capitis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2015-06-01

    The ica operon encoding polysaccharide intercellular adhesion, which facilitates biofilm formation in staphylococci, has been extensively studied in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Based on in silico analysis, we suggest the following functional model for Ica proteins in S. capitis. IcaA is responsible for polysaccharide synthesis. IcaA and IcaD complete transferring the growing sugar chain to the cell surface; IcaB is a deacetylase, with the same function as IcaB of S. epidermidis. IcaC mainly modifies the synthesized glucan by acetylation. We also examined the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin on phenotypic biofilm expression and transcription of biofilm-related genes, using isolates representing the two subspecies of Staphylococcus capitis and different biofilm and resistance phenotypes. On induction with erythromycin, biofilm density was strongly elevated in two erythromycin-resistant S. capitis, but not in three susceptible isolates. In the representative erythromycin-resistant S. capitis subsp. urealyticus, there were significant upregulations of the icaA gene and its positive regulator sarA on transition to the stationary phase without erythromycin induction. There were also significant increases in the transcription levels of icaA, rsbU and sigB corresponding to a very strong biofilm phenotype in the stationary phase on erythromycin stress. In contrast, the representative erythromycin-susceptible S. capitis subsp. capitis displayed upregulation only of altE on entry into the stationary phase with erythromycin induction, but this change was not associated with enhancement of biofilm production. These findings suggest that the two subspecies of S. capitis adopt different pathogenesis and survival strategies to adapt to a hostile environment.

  5. Forward Head Posture and Activation of Rectus Capitis Posterior Muscles.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Richard C; Pierce, Steven J; Sharma, Dhruv B; Rowan, Jacob J

    2017-01-01

    Rectus capitis posterior (RCP) muscles have physical attachments to the pain-sensitive spinal dura. Atrophy of these muscles is associated with chronic headache in some patients. The authors suspect that the significance of atrophy in the RCP muscles has been undervalued because the functional role of these muscles is not well defined. To determine whether a statistically significant change in normalized levels of electromyographic activity in RCP muscles occurs when the head is voluntarily moved from a self-selected neutral head position to a protruded head position. Fine wire, intramuscular electrodes were used to collect electromyographic data as asymptomatic participants moved their head from a neutral head position into a forward head position and back into the neutral head position. This sequence was repeated 4 times. Normalized levels of electromyographic activity were quantified using a 2-head position × 2 sides of the body repeated measures design that incorporated mixed-effects β regression models. Twenty participants were studied. Electromyographic activity collected from RCP muscles was found to increase as the head was voluntarily moved from a self-selected neutral head position (11% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC] in RCP minor, 14% of MVIC in RCP major) into a protruded head position (35% of MVIC in RCP minor, 39% of MVIC in RCP major) (P<.001). Rectus capitis posterior muscles may contribute to segmental stabilization of the occipitoatlantal and atlantoaxial joints by helping to maintain joint congruency during movement of the head.

  6. Epidemiological profile of tinea capitis in São Paulo City*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Mayor, Silvia Assumpção Soutto; Zaitz, Clarisse; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi; Serrano, Juliane Agarinakamura

    2017-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common fungal infection in children. The identification of the etiologic agent helps clinicians make their therapeutic choice. Studies conducted in different countries show a changing pattern of the main etiological agents according to their regions. We performed a retrospective study in the tertiary public service in São Paulo, analyzing the isolated etiological agents in patients with tinea capitis from March 2013 to May 2015. Microsporum canis was the main agent (56.6%), followed by Trichophyton tonsurans (36.6%). Despite recent migratory movements in the city, we observed no change in the causative agent of tinea capitis. PMID:28538903

  7. Adaptation to vancomycin pressure of multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A involved in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Butin, M; Martins-Simões, P; Picaud, J C; Kearns, A; Claris, O; Vandenesch, F; Laurent, F; Rasigade, J P

    2015-11-01

    The Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a frequent cause of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in pre-term neonates worldwide. Representatives of this clone exhibit non-susceptibility to vancomycin, the first-line agent used in LOS. Cases of prolonged S. capitis LOS despite vancomycin treatment have been reported. We investigated whether NRCS-A strains exhibit faster adaptation to vancomycin pressure as compared with other staphylococci. Strains of S. capitis NRCS-A, S. capitis non-NRCS-A and Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 2 each, all with vancomycin MICs ≤2 mg/L) and the prototype vancomycin-heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus Mu3 were subcultured daily for 15 days with 0.25-32 mg/L vancomycin. Regression coefficients of daily log2 MICs on time were used to estimate the kinetics of resistance development. Changes in bacterial cell-wall thickness were measured by transmission electron microscopy. To assess the stability of resistance and the emergence of cross-resistance, vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid MICs were measured before and after vancomycin treatment, as well as after nine additional subcultures without antibiotics. All strains developed a stable resistance to vancomycin, but this occurred significantly faster in S. capitis NRCS-A than in S. capitis non-NRCS-A (P < 0.001) and other species (P < 0.0001). Vancomycin resistance in S. capitis NRCS-A was associated with significant cell-wall thickening and an increase in MICs of daptomycin and teicoplanin, but not linezolid. S. capitis NRCS-A rapidly adapts to vancomycin pressure as compared with potential niche competitors, a feature that might contribute to its success in neonatal ICUs where vancomycin is widely prescribed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Clinical study of Tinea capitis in Northern Karnataka: A three-year experience at a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj V.; Hanumanthayya, Keloji; Tophakhane, Raghavendra S.; Nandihal, Namrata W.; Kikkeri, Narayan Shetty Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the hair follicle of scalp. Most of the dermatophytosis do not have such age propensity as tinea capitis which almost invariably involves the paediatric age group. The exact incidence of tinea capitis is not known. This study is done in order to isolate the species variation in an area, to know the changing patterns of occurrence of different species and their association with clinical pattern Materials and Methods: All clinically diagnosed cases of tinea capitis which presented to our out patient department over a period of one year were included in the study. Results: 70 cases of Tinea capitis were studied. Discussion: Tinea capitis is a disease of prepubertal children with common in age group of 5- 15 years. The incidence varies from 0.5% to 10%. Most common presenting feature was alopecia. PMID:23439970

  9. [Trichophyton violaceum : Main cause of tinea capitis in children at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda].

    PubMed

    Wiegand, C; Mugisha, P; Mulyowa, G K; Elsner, P; Hipler, U C; Gräser, Y; Uhrlaß, S; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    Tinea capitis is caused by anthropophilic, zoophilic or geophilic dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum or Trichophyton. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation of tinea capitis among children in western Uganda. From February to June 2012, skin and hair samples were obtained from 115 patients aged from 1 to 16 years presenting at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MUSC) with clinically suspected tinea capitis. Conventional mycological diagnostics comprised Blancophor preparation and cultivation of fungi for species identification. Tinea capitis among the children included in the MUSC study was mainly noninflammatory showing mostly a seborrhoeic pattern or "black dot" and "gray patch" form and highly inflammatory kerion celsi. Blancophor preparation identified 82.6 % positive and 17.4 % negative samples. Cultural species differentiation showed Trichophyton (T.) violaceum as the causative agent for tinea capitis in 56.6 % of the patients. In 13 %, Microsporum (M.) audouinii was isolated followed by T. soudanense (2.6 %), and T. rubrum (1.7 %). In addition, moulds (contamination?) such as Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum were found as well as mixed infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte T. violaceum represents the most frequent cause of tinea capitis in western Uganda. For successful management oral antifungal therapy is necessary together with supportive topical treatment.

  10. [Tinea capitis in children from Goiânia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias, Tatiana; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fátima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Passos, Xisto Sena; Costa, Milce; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    During the period January 1999 to July 2002 a total de 164 cases of Tinea capitis were diagnosed by mycological examination in Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública of the Universidade Federal de Goiás. Of the 164 patients 94 (57.3%) were males, with an age of 3 months to 13 years. Laboratory studies were performed by direct examination with 20% KOH and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar medium and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The following species were identified: Microsporum canis (71.3%), Trichophyton tonsurans (11%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (7.9%), Trichophyton rubrum (6.7%), and Microsporum gypseum (3%). Our study showed that the most frequent rise of scalp infection was a zoophylic fungi, called Microsporum canis.

  11. [Tinea capitis etiology in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Zeroual, Z; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2012-09-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a contagious infection that affects mainly children and teenagers. A retrospective study was realized at the mycology-parasitology department of the Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat, Morocco. The study includes 125 cases of TC. The mean age is 12.73 ± 11.61 year. The isolation of TC is dominated by two species Trichophyton violaceum 76 (60.8%) and Microsporum canis 27 (21.6%). Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated only in male and all of rural origin. In adults over 18 years, the most isolated species is T. violaceum (six cases) in females. For the last thirty years, the epidemiological profile of TC remains almost the same in Morocco.

  12. Tinea capitis in schoolchildren in southern Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Fulgence, Kassi Kondo; Abibatou, Konate; Vincent, Djohan; Henriette, Vanga; Etienne, Angora Kpongbo; Kiki-Barro, Pulchérie Christiane; Yavo, William; Koné, Moussa; Hervé Menan, Eby Ignace

    2013-04-01

    Fungal infections of the scalp commonly affect the pediatric population. These infections are caused by dermatophytes that are able to invade the keratinized structures of skin, hair, and nails. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of fungal scalp infections in southern Ivory Coast during 2008-2009. From October 2008 to July 2009, 17,745 children ranging in age from 4-16 years, attending urban and rural primary schools in seven towns in Ivory Coast, were examined clinically for tinea capitis. Hair stumps and scales were collected from children who showed symptoms suggestive of scalp ringworm. Samples were exposed to direct microscopic examination using 30% potassium hydroxide solution and cultivation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with or without actidione. Of the 17,745 children who were clinically examined, a total of 2645 exhibited symptoms suggestive of scalp ringworm. Positive cultures for fungi were found in 2458, yielding an overall prevalence of tinea capitis of 13.9%. The majority of infections occurred in males (74.0%). The most commonly affected age group involved children ranging from 9-12 years (n = 1335, 54.3%), followed by those in the range of 4-8 years (n = 936, 38.1%). Trichophyton soudanense, Microsporum langeronii, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most prevalent etiologic agents (56.7%, 21.4% and 19.7%, respectively). Other species were occasionally isolated, including Trichophyton violaceum (1.4%) and Trichophyton rubrum (0.8%). Epidemiological surveys are an essential tool for developing strategies for infection control. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  14. Tinea capitis among primary school children in some parts of central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayanbimpe, Grace M; Taghir, Henry; Diya, Abigail; Wapwera, Samuel

    2008-07-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common superficial mycosis in children of school age. Although it is of public health importance, it is not a reportable or notifiable disease; therefore, actual prevalence figures are unknown in many endemic areas. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school children in two states in central Nigeria, highlighting the main aetiological agents of the infection and possible predisposing factors. A total of 28 505 primary school children aged between 3 and 16 years were recruited for the study, from 12 primary schools in two local government areas of Benue and Plateau States of Nigeria. Of them, 796 had lesions, which were clinically suggestive of tinea capitis out of which 248 (31.2%) were confirmed positive by microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was more frequent in males, 194 (78.2%) than in females, 54 (21.8%). Children aged 10-14 years, followed by 5-9 years were predominantly infected, with 106 (42.7%) and 100 (40.3%) respectively. There was a significant correlation between age group and occurrence of tinea capitis in the study population at 95% confidence level (P = 0.004). Tinea capitis was significantly more frequent in Jos State (44.6%) than in Gboko State (23.2%) (t = .659; 95% confidence level). The prevalence of tinea capitis was influenced by social and cultural habits of the areas rather than by population density. The aetiological agent of tinea capitis in the study population was Trichophyton soudanense, 76 (30.6%), followed by Microsporum ferrugineum, 19 (7.7%) and Microsporum audouinii, 19 (7.7%). Differences in aetiology were observed for Gboko and Jos, except for T. soudanense, which predominated in both areas. The high prevalence of tinea capitis in the areas studied may be attributed to frequent interaction with soil and animals and low level of health education on personal and environmental hygiene. Aetiological agents varied from one geographical area to another.

  15. Changing in the Epidemiology of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Naglaa A.; Abd El Raheem, Talal A.; Mohammed, Basma H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tinea capitis remains a prevalent health problem among school-aged children. Objective To estimate the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school students, in Fayoum, Egypt with identification of etiological agents in both public and private primary schools. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in twelve primary schools. The students were selected from different grades with a total number of 12,128 students. Hair and scalp were clinically examined for any lesions that may suspect tinea capitis and mycological samples were collected for direct microscopy and culture. Results The prevalence of tinea capitis in the study group was 0.4% and higher in public than private schools (73.5% versus 26.5% respectively). Boys were more affected than girls with boy to girls' ratio 5:1. Intrafamily history of infection was present in 40.8% of tested group while 51% showed low social standard profile. Mycological culture revealed that Microsporum canis was the predominant isolated organism followed by M. audouinii (52% and 36% respectively). Conclusion M. canis is replacing Trichophyton violaceum as an etiology for tinea capitis in Egypt with lower prevalence rate than reported previously. PMID:28223741

  16. Prevalence of Tinea capitis in school going children in Kolkata, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, D.; Mandal, L.; Sen, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years the incidence of Tinea capitis, infection of scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in United Kingdom and North America. The trend may be similar in India. The objective of this study is to find the prevalence of Tinea capitis in school going urban children in Kolkata, West Bengal state. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional study conducted in a government higher primary school in Kolkata. Results: Totally 505 students were screened and 52 were diagnosed to have Tinea capitis by clinical examination, giving a prevalence rate of 10% among school children. Prevalence rates among the age groups of 6–8, 9–11 and 12–14 years were almost the same, ranging from 9 to 11%. The prevalence rate was significantly high among the boys (14%). There was no significant difference in prevalence of infection among coconut oil users and castor oil users. Measures of general hygiene were similar among those who were infected with Tinea capitis and those who were not. The commonest clinical type of infection found was dull grey patches. Itching with hair loss was the major symptom and most of the infected children had cervical lymphadenopathy. The potassium hydroxide studies revealed endothrix spores in majority of samples. Conclusion: Tinea capitis in prevalent in school going urban children in Kolkata, West Bengal state and necessary measures must be undertaken to curtail this incidence. PMID:23225977

  17. Factors in Etiology and Predisposition of Adult Tinea Capitis and Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Vahedi, Ghasem

    2016-06-01

    Tinea capitis is a common fungal infection in children but is less frequently encountered in adults, especially in immunocompromised individuals. To determine the incidence of tinea capitis in adults, the predisposing factors and causative species. A retrospective study was conducted over a period of 5 years, from 2010 to 2015, on cases of tinea capitis diagnosed in the Department of Dermatology and Mycology Research Center in Tehran, Iran. The information was collected from the patients including age, gender, location of the lesions, results of direct examination and culture, cause of immunosuppression and the prescribed treatment. Twenty-five (20.6 %) patients (10 men and 15 women) with a mean age of 45.28 years were affected by tinea capitis among a total number of 121 positive cases. Most of these adults (80 %) had a grade of immunodeficiency due to the underlying syndromes or diseases, and the rest were immunocompetent. Trichophyton species were isolated from 84 % of these adult patients, indicating Trichophyton violaceum (T. violaceum) as the most common fungal agent. Treatment with oral terbinafine or itraconazole was successful in all these cases. The results showed that most cases affecting the adult population were caused by species of the genus Trichophyton. T. violaceum was the most common dermatophyte of adult patients. Thus, it is important to consider tinea capitis as a differential diagnosis in immunocompromised adults, even though it is considered to be rare in adults.

  18. Outbreak of Tinea capitis and corporis in a primary school in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Carod, Jean-François; Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Raherimandimby, Hasina; Hincky Vitrat, Virginie; Ravaolimalala Andrianaja, Vololomboahangy; Contet-Audonneau, Nelly

    2011-10-13

    Tinea capitis is common among schoolchildren in developing countries but underreported in Madagascar. We report the occurrence of an outbreak of gray patch tinea capitis due to Microsporum langeronii in a public primary school of Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar. Forty-two children were included, 27 (64%) of them presenting with tinea capitis and 32 (76%) with Tinea corporis. Patients were treated with griseofulvin 500 mg and Povidone-iodine 4% and followed up for four weeks. Twenty-five (93%) of the 27 children with tinea capitis presented a gray patch as the main clinical feature. All these cases were fluorescent under Wood's UV light and positive in cultures for M. langeronii. All 27 children reported a contact with infected classmates, and 19 (70%) reported to have infected brothers and sisters at home. After four weeks of treatment, all patients recovered. Appropriate treatment and improved hygienic practices reduced the occurrence of tinea in the studied school and no more cases of tinea capitis or corporis occurred after the outbreak.

  19. Tinea capitis in Siena, Italy. An 18-year survey.

    PubMed

    Romano, C

    1999-01-01

    In the period 1980-1998, 181 cases of tinea capitis out of a total of 1480 cases of dermatophytosis were observed in Siena, Italy; 176 cases were children (mean age 6 years, range 45 days to 14 years; 91 boys, 85 girls) and the other five cases were postmenopausal women. Diagnosis was made on the basis of culture which was positive in 179 cases, and direct microscopic observation which was positive in 155 of 179 cases. In two cases, positive direct microscopic results were not confirmed by the culture. The most frequently isolated mycete was Microsporum canis (162 cases, 90.5%) and the main source of infection was the cat, which was often a healthy carrier. The second most frequent mycete was Trychophyton mentagrophytes. Trichophyton violaceum, a dermatophyte practically absent from our province since the 1960s, was isolated in five patients. All patients were successfully treated. One adult was treated with oral ketoconazole and the other four with oral itraconazole. The children were all treated with griseofulvin and topical antimycotics. Two children, observed in 1997-1998, who did not respond to griseofulvin, achieved clinical and mycological recovery with oral itraconazole.

  20. Histological examination of the human obliquus capitis inferior myodural bridge.

    PubMed

    Pontell, Matthew E; Scali, Frank; Enix, Dennis E; Battaglia, Patrick J; Marshall, Ewarld

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the anatomical relationship between the obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscle and the cervical dura mater at the histological level. Eight human cadavers, with an average age of 65 ± 7.9 years were selected from a convenience sample for suboccipital dissection. Twelve OCI muscle specimens were excised, 100% of which emitted grossly visible soft tissue tracts that inserted into the posterolateral aspect of the cervical dura. These 12 myodural specimens were excised as single, continuous structures and sent for H&E staining. One sample also underwent immuno-peroxidase staining. Microscopic evaluation confirmed a connective tissue bridge emanating from the OCI muscular body and attaching to the posterolateral aspect of the cervical dura mater in 75% of the specimens. Microtome slices of the remaining 25% were not able to capture muscle, connective tissue and dura within the same plane and were therefore unable to be properly analyzed. The sample sent for neuro-analysis stained positively for several neuronal fascicles traveling within, and passing through the OCI myodural bridge. This study histologically confirms the presence of a connective tissue bridge that links the OCI muscle to the dura mater and the presence of neuronal tissue within this connection warrants further examination. This structure may represent a component of normal human anatomy. In addition to its hypothetical role in human homeostasis, it may contribute to certain neuropathological conditions, as well.

  1. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups.

  2. Dermatophytid in tinea capitis: rarely reported common phenomenon with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nancy; Rucker Wright, Dakara; Cohen, Bernard A

    2011-08-01

    Tinea capitis may be associated with a dermatophytid, which appears as a disseminated eczematous eruption. This phenomenon may occur before or after initiation of systemic antifungal drug therapy and is not an indication for stopping medication. We present here a series of cases that involve 5 children with tinea capitis who developed a dermatophytid before or during the course of their management. In each child, the eruption resolved despite continuation of oral antifungal therapy. Our experience suggests that dermatophytid secondary to tinea capitis is much more common than reported. Furthermore, parents and clinicians frequently mistake dermatophytid for drug allergy. Recognition of this phenomenon, distinction of dermatophytid from drug allergy, and continuation of systemic treatment is essential for clearing the infection and dermatophytid.

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Pediculosis Capitis in an Impoverished Urban Community in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lesshafft, Hannah; Baier, Andreas; Guerra, Humberto; Terashima, Angelica; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease associated with intense pruritus of the scalp. In developing countries it frequently affects children and adults, but epidemiological data at the community level are rare. Objectives: To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in a resource-poor community in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods: In total, 736 persons living in 199 households in a circumscribed neighbourhood were examined for head lice and nits by visual inspection. At the same time, socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Variables associated with pediculosis were identified by performing a bivariate analysis, followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 9.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0-11.2 %) in the general population and 19.9% (CI: 15.4-24.4%) in children ≤15 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that pediculosis capitis was significantly associated with age ≤ 15 years (OR: 16.85; CI:7.42-38.24), female sex (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.58-5.12), household size of >4 persons (OR: 1.98; CI: 1.11-3.55), low quality of house construction material (OR:2.22; CI: 1.20-4.12), and presence of animals in the household (OR: 1.94; CI: 1.11-3.39). Conclusion: Pediculosis capitis was a very common disease in the studied community in Lima, Peru. Our logistic regression analysis affirms that young age is the most important risk factor for pediculosis capitis. Moreover, female sex, large household size, living in wooden houses and the presence of animals were identified as being significantly associated with head lice infestation. PMID:24672174

  4. Prevalence and predictors of pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Lye, M S; Tohit, N F; Rampal, L

    2017-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis infestation is endemic in both developing and developed countries leading to various physical, economical and psychological consequences. Our main objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Hulu Langat District, Malaysia. An analytic cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method was carried out in Hulu Langat District, Malaysia. Self-administered pretested questionnaires were used to collect the data. Hair and scalp examination was also carried out. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control for potential confounding and determine the predictors. The overall mean age of the 1,336 respondents was 9.3 years. Majority were males (52.8%), Malays (79.5%) and 81.3% of the fathers had secondary or tertiary education as compared to 77.3% for the mothers. The overall prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 15.3%. The prevalence of pediculosis was significantly higher among females (28.4%) than males (3.7%, p=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age 10 years or more (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.34, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.673 to 3.272), female gender (OR = 10.26, 95% CI = 6.620 to 15.903), history of contact with an infested person (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.506 to 2.960), Indian compared to Chinese (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.282 to 9.860), Malay to Chinese (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = .994 to 6.774) were associated with pediculosis capitis. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among children aged 7 - 12 years in Hulu Langat District was high. There is a need for screening and treatment of pediculosis capitis in primary schools.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in an impoverished urban community in lima, peru.

    PubMed

    Lesshafft, Hannah; Baier, Andreas; Guerra, Humberto; Terashima, Angelica; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-10-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease associated with intense pruritus of the scalp. In developing countries it frequently affects children and adults, but epidemiological data at the community level are rare. To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in a resource-poor community in Lima, Peru. In total, 736 persons living in 199 households in a circumscribed neighbourhood were examined for head lice and nits by visual inspection. At the same time, socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Variables associated with pediculosis were identified by performing a bivariate analysis, followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 9.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0-11.2 %) in the general population and 19.9% (CI: 15.4-24.4%) in children ≤15 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that pediculosis capitis was significantly associated with age ≤ 15 years (OR: 16.85; CI:7.42-38.24), female sex (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.58-5.12), household size of >4 persons (OR: 1.98; CI: 1.11-3.55), low quality of house construction material (OR:2.22; CI: 1.20-4.12), and presence of animals in the household (OR: 1.94; CI: 1.11-3.39). Pediculosis capitis was a very common disease in the studied community in Lima, Peru. Our logistic regression analysis affirms that young age is the most important risk factor for pediculosis capitis. Moreover, female sex, large household size, living in wooden houses and the presence of animals were identified as being significantly associated with head lice infestation.

  6. Emergence and dissemination of a linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone in Europe.

    PubMed

    Butin, M; Martins-Simões, P; Pichon, B; Leyssene, D; Bordes-Couecou, S; Meugnier, H; Rouard, C; Lemaitre, N; Schramm, F; Kearns, A; Spiliopoulou, I; Hyyryläinen, H-L; Dumitrescu, O; Vandenesch, F; Dupieux, C; Laurent, F

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and genetic characteristics of linezolid-resistant (LZR) Staphylococcus capitis isolates from French ICUs, and compared them with LZR S. capitis isolates from other European countries. All LZR isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and the presence of cfr and optrA genes as well as mutations in the 23S rRNA and ribosomal proteins were investigated using specific PCR with sequencing. The genetic relationship between isolates was investigated using PFGE and WGS. Epidemiological data concerning LZR S. capitis were collected retrospectively in French microbiology laboratories. Twenty-one LZR isolates were studied: 9 from France, 11 from Greece and 1 from Finland. All were resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides. In addition, this unusual AST profile was identified in S. capitis isolates from seven French hospitals, and represented up to 12% of the S. capitis isolates in one centre. A G2576T mutation in 23S rRNA was identified in all isolates; cfr and optrA genes were absent. All isolates belonged to the same clone on the basis of their PFGE profiles, whatever their geographical origin. WGS found at most 212 SNPs between core genomes of the LZR isolates. We identified and characterized an LZR S. capitis clone disseminated in three European countries, harbouring the same multiple resistance and a G2576T mutation in the 23S rRNA. The possible unrecognized wider distribution of this clone, belonging to a species classically regarded as a low-virulence skin colonizer, is of major concern not least because of the increasing use of oxazolidinones.

  7. Tinea capitis in adults in southern Spain. A 17-year epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lova-Navarro, Miguel; Gómez-Moyano, Elisabeth; Martínez Pilar, Leandro; Fernandez-Ballesteros, María Dolores; Godoy-Díaz, Daniel Jesus; Vera-Casaño, Angel; Crespo-Erchiga, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Tinea capitis is an infection of the hair due to keratinophilic fungi, known as dermatophytes. Although the disease is common in children, several studies have also shown that it is far from unusual in adults, especially in post-menopausal women and immunocompromised persons. To determine the incidence of tinea capitis in adults in our area, as well as the predisposing factors (gender, immunity), and causative species. A retrospective study was conducted over a period of 17 years, from 1995 to 2011, collecting data on cases of tinea capitis diagnosed in our dermatology department. Information collected for all patients included age, gender, location of the lesions, results of direct examination and culture, immune status, cause of immunosuppression, and the prescribed treatment. Thirty-three cases (11.4%) out of 289 cases of tinea capitis occurred in adults. Most of these adults (72%) were immunocompetent, and the rest were immunocompromised for different reasons. Three of the patients were men and 30 women, with 70% of the latter being post-menopausal. Trichophyton species were isolated in 76% of these adult patients, with Trichophyton violaceum being the most common. Treatment with oral terbinafine was successful in all these cases. Microsporum species were responsible for the other cases, all treated successfully with oral griseofulvin. This series of tinea capitis in adults is one of the largest to date. It shows that tinea capitis is not uncommon among the immunocompetent adult population. In our geographical area, except for prepubescent patients, most cases affecting the adult population were caused by species of the genus Trichophyton. In these cases the treatment of choice was oral terbinafine, which considerably shortened the treatment time, and was associated with fewer side effects than the classical griseofulvin. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Dermatoscopic fi ndings as a complementary tool in the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent of tinea capitis*

    PubMed Central

    Schechtman, Regina Casz; Silva, Nanashara Diane Valgas; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Buçard, Alice Mota; Sodré, Celso Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a scalp infection caused by fungi. In Brazil, the main causative agents are Microsporum canis and the Trichophyton tonsurans. Etiological diagnosis is based on suggestive clinical findings and confirmation depends on the fungus growth in culture. However, it is not always possible to perform this test due to lack of availability. We reveal the dermoscopic findings that enable distinction between the main causative agents of Tinea capitis, M. canis and T. tonsurans. The association of clinical and dermatoscopic findings in suspected Tinea capitis cases may help with the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent, making feasible the precocious, specific treatment. PMID:26312662

  9. A single application of crotamiton lotion in the treatment of patients with pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Karacic, I; Yawalkar, S J

    1982-12-01

    A single application of 10% crotamiton lotion cured 96% of the 49 patients treated for pediculosis capitis. Only two (4%) patients needed a second application. Following crotamiton application, pruritus regressed completely in 98% of the patients. An adverse effect, namely localized skin irritation leading to interruption of the trial treatment, was reported in one patient.

  10. [Effective treatment of a patient infested with pediculus capitis by using 5% Indigofera suffruticosa Mill tincture].

    PubMed

    García Calixto, Tamara; Rodríguez Gonzalez, M Elena; Pinera Wiltshire, M del Carmen; Martínez Monier, M Antonia; Santana Suárez, Yarina; Hernández Contreras, Natividad

    2011-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis was very frequently reported in Cuba since the end of the 90's, particularly in some groups of school children and their relatives. The latter are involved in a chain of transmission of these insects and may play an important role at present as parasite reservoirs. to report on the efficacy of the treatment of one female patient suffering from Pediculus capitis by using 5 % Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (añil cimarrón) tincture. a case of persistent infestation with pediculosis capitis was described in which a 55 years-old patient was firstly treated with 1% permethrin solution and later with 5 % Indigofera suffruticosa Mill tincture. the microscopic identification of adult parasites and pre-adult stages of the parasite confirmed the presence of pediculus capitis. The hair treatment with 1 % permethrin was not effective after two applications. As an alternative, 5 % Indigofera suffruticosa Mill tincture was used and then the population of adult ectoparasites was reduced and the infestation was eliminated after the second application, with the paramedical staff continuously taking the nits out from the patient's hair. the use of this innocuous method may become a therapeutic alternative to treat this illness.

  11. Pediculosis capitis among primary-school children in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    AlBashtawy, M; Hasna, F

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis (head lice infestation) is a worldwide public health concern affecting mostly primary-school children. In a cross-sectional study in 2009/2010, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and some risk factors for infestation were investigated among 1550 randomly selected primary-school children in Mafraq governorate, Jordan. The prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 26.6%. There were significant differences in the prevalence between girls (34.7%) and boys (19.6%), rural (31.2%) and urban (23.5%) residents, and history of infestation in the previous year (57.4%) versus no history (11.5%), as well as between children of different ages, family size and income (P<0.001). Longer hair length, lack of bathing facilities, low frequency of hair-washing and bathing, and sharing of articles (e.g. combs, scarves) were significantly associated with infestation (P<0.001). The prevalence of infestation was higher than reported in previous studies in Jordan (< 14%). Programmes are needed to increase awareness of pediculosis capitis and the importance of good personal hygiene.

  12. Arthropathy associated with cystic acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, and perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens: treatment with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Libow, L F; Friar, D A

    1999-08-01

    A patient with arthropathy associated with cystic acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, and perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens who showed a dramatic response to isotretinoin is described. This, to our knowledge, is the first report documenting effective treatment of this condition, whose nosologic position with respect to other spondyloarthropathies associated with cutaneous disease is considered.

  13. [Prevalence and parasitism intensity by Pediculus humanus capitis in six to eleven-year-old schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Catalá, Silvia; Carrizo, Lorena; Córdoba, Marina; Khairallah, Roxana; Moschella, Fabrizio; Bocca, Julio Nacif; Calvo, Ana Nieto; Torres, Judiht; Tutino, Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine head lice parasitism intensity by Pediculus humanus capitis and its variation, according to both gender and age in 181 school children of a primary school. The intensity was higher among 6 to 8-year-old girls. Pediculosis intensity diminishes significantly between 9 and 11 years of age in both sexes.

  14. Aspergillus niger - a possible new etiopathogenic agent in Tinea capitis? Presentation of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Zisova, Liliya; Chorleva, Kristina; Tchernev, Georgi

    2016-01-01

    Tinea capitis is generally considered as the most frequent fungal infection in childhood, as it accounts for approximately 92% of all mycosis in children. The epidemiology of this disease varies widely ranging from antropophillic, zoophilic, and geophillic dermatophytes, as the main causative agent in different geographic areas, depending on several additional factors. Nowadays, the etiology is considered to vary with age, as well with gender, and general health condition. The former reported extraordinary Tinea capitis case reports have been replaced by original articles and researches dealing with progressively changing patterns in etiology and clinical manifestation of the disease. This fact is indicative that under the umbrella of the well-known disease there are facts still hidden for future revelations. Herein, we present two rare cases of Tinea capitis in children, which totally differ from the recently established pattern, in their clinical presentation, as well as in the etiological aspect, as we discuss this potential new etiological pattern of the disease, focusing on our retrospective and clinical observation. Collected data suggest that pathogenic molds should be considered as a potential source of infection in some geographic regions, which require total rationalization of the former therapeutic conception, regarding the molds' higher antimitotic resistance compared to dermatophytes. Molds-induced Tinea capitis should be also considered in clinically resistant and atypical cases, with further investigations of the antifungal susceptibility of the newest pathogens in the frame of the old disease. Further investigations are still needed to confirm or reject this proposal.

  15. Safety and efficacy of terbinafine in a pediatric Iranian cohort of patients with Tinea capitis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali M.; Mansouri, Parwin; Mohammadi, Mahboobeh

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Tinea capitis is a common infection of the scalp and hair shaft caused by dermatophyte fungi that mainly affects prepubescent children. Systemic therapy is required for treatment and to prevent spread. The aim of present study was to assess the effect of terbinafine for Tinea capitis treatment in children. Methods Thirty Iranian pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of Tinea capitis were enrolled in the study. The Study was conducted in a general and referral teaching hospital (Imam Medical Centre – Tehran, Iran) from 2006 to 2007. Eligible patients with less than 20 kg of body weight were given 62.5 mg terbinafine, and for patients between 20 and 40 kg the dose was 125 mg, on the first visit. All patients had the second clinical visit and second samples for microscopic study were taken. For each patient, direct mycology test (KOH test) and mycological culture were carried out before the study was started and after second, fourth, fifth, sixth and eighth weeks. Probable drug’s adverse effects were also recorded. Results Based on the results of mycological culture of patients’ lesions, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sheonlini were considered as major causes of Tinea capitis in these children. Out of 30 study patients, KOH test of 93% in the 5th week and 100% in the 6th week was negative. All patients healed completely from signs of infection, after six weeks. Also, no severe side effects were seen in any patients. Conclusion According to the results of this study, the use of terbinafine is an effective therapy in Iranian cases of Tinea capitis in children without severe side effects. PMID:23964167

  16. Differences between two clinical Staphylococcus capitis subspecies as revealed by biofilm, antibiotic resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Daley, Andrew J; Deighton, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci have been identified as major causes of late-onset neonatal bacteremia in neonatal intensive care units. Sixty isolates of Staphylococcus capitis obtained from blood cultures of neonates between 2000 and 2005 were examined in this study. Biochemical analysis confirmed that 52 of these isolates belonged to the subsp. urealyticus, and the remaining 8 belonged to the subsp. capitis. Isolates of the predominant subsp. urealyticus clones were characterized by their resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and oxacillin and their biofilm formation ability, whereas subsp. capitis isolates were generally antibiotic susceptible and biofilm negative. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SacII digestion separated the 60 isolates into five major clusters. Sequence analysis showed that, in S. capitis, the ica operon plus the negative regulator icaR was 4,160 bp in length. PCRs demonstrated the presence of the ica operon in all isolates. Further analysis of five isolates (two biofilm-positive subsp. urealyticus, one biofilm-negative subsp. urealyticus, and two biofilm-negative subsp. capitis) revealed that the ica operons were identical in all of the biofilm-positive subsp. urealyticus strains; however, the biofilm-negative isolates showed variations. The distinctive phenotypic and genotypic characteristics revealed by this study may affect the epidemiology of the two subspecies of S. capitis in the clinical setting. These results may provide a better understanding of the contribution of these two species to bloodstream infections in neonates.

  17. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of squalamine ointment for tinea capitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Thera, Mahamadou A; Koné, Abdoulaye K; Siaka, Goïta; Traoré, Pierre; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Brunel, Jean-Michel; Gaudart, Jean; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Ranque, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Novel treatments against for tinea capitis are needed, and the natural aminosterol squalamine is a potential topical antidermatophyte drug candidate. This phase II randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial aimed at testing the efficacy and safety of a three-week squalamine ointment regimen for the treatment of tinea capitis. Males aged 6-15 years presenting with tinea capitis were treated with either topical squalamine ointment or placebo for 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was complete clinical cure. The secondary endpoints were the occurrence of local and/or systemic adverse events, mycological cure, and partial clinical response. Prospective follow-up of clinical adverse events was performed daily. Five patients were treated with 1% squalamine ointment and 15 with placebo. No complete cure was observed. No clinical or biological adverse event was recorded. A significantly (p = 0.03) better hair-growth score, indicating a partial clinical improvement of the tinea capitis lesion, was observed in the patients treated with squalamine compared to those treated with placebo. This three-week squalamine ointment regimen was well tolerated and showed an encouraging partial clinical activity for the treatment of tinea capitis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of topical squalamine alone against tinea corporis or in combination with a systemic antidermatophyte drug against tinea capitis.

  18. Activation of rectus capitis posterior major muscles during voluntary retraction of the head in asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Richard C; Rowan, Jacob J; Bai, Peng; Pierce, Steven J; Shafer-Crane, Gail A; Prokop, Lawrence L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess levels of electromyographic activity measured from rectus capitis posterior major (RCPM) muscles of asymptomatic subjects as their heads moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial research design was used. Disposable, intramuscular electrodes were used to collect electromyographic data from asymptomatic subjects between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. Data analysis was performed using mixed effects β regression models. Activation of RCPM muscles was found to significantly increase (P < .0001) as the head moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. Rectus capitis posterior major muscle activation levels, measured as a function of head position, have not been previously reported. The findings from this study showed that RCPM muscle activation significantly increases during voluntary retraction of the head. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of pediculosis capitis: a critical appraisal of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, Hermann

    2014-10-01

    Pediculosis capitis is the most common ectoparasitic disease in children in industrialized countries and extremely common in resource-poor communities of the developing world. The extensive use of pediculicides with a neurotoxic mode of action has led to the development and spread of resistant head lice populations all over the world. This triggered the development of compounds with other modes of action. The current literature on treatment approaches of head lice infestation was searched, and published randomized controlled trials were critically analyzed. The following compounds/family of compounds were identified: spinosad, a novel compound with a new neurotoxic mode of action, isopropyl myristate, 1,2-octanediol, ivermectin, plant-based products, and dimeticones. The efficacy and safety of these compounds are reviewed and recommendations for the treatment of pediculosis capitis in individuals as well as the interruption of ongoing epidemics are provided.

  20. An epidemiological survey of tinea capitis in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Prohic, Asja

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and aetiological agents of tinea capitis in Sarajevo area, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during a 10-year period (1997-2006). A total of 707 patients with suspected dermatophyte infections of scalp was analysed. Tinea capitis was determined in 241 (34.1%) of these patients, in whom causative agents were identified in 209 (29.6%). Zoophilic dermatophytes (91.8%) prevailed over anthropophilic (7.2%) and geophilic (1.0%) dermatophytes. Microsporum canis was the most frequent dermatophyte isolated (90.4%), followed by Trichophyton schoenleinii (2.4%) and Trichophyton violaceum (1.9%). The majority of infections occurred in males (56.5%) and in children with age less than 10 years (52.6%).

  1. Patterns of attachment of the myodural bridge by the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Li, Yun-Fei; Chi, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Hai-Bin; Luan, Bing-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Xi; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The myodural bridge was first described by Hack in 1995 and was thought to be related to chronic cervicogenic headaches. For a long time, few studies revealed the patterns of the myodural bridge considering the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. In this study, P45 plastination technology and anatomical dissection were performed on head specimens, and four different terminal region types of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle were observed, including the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace, posterior arch of the atlas and posterior atlanto-axial interspace. We propose that the myodural complex structures in the posterior atlanto-occipital and posterior atlanto-axial interspace have cooperative effects on cerebrospinal fluid and work together. This force might be an important source for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

  2. The potential application of plant essential oils to control Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Werdin-González, Jorge Omar; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Bras, Cristina; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2016-02-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is an ectoparasite confined to the scalp and human hairs. The repeated use of insecticides for the control of head lice during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Natural compounds such as essential oils (EOs) have been suggested as alternative sources for insect control agents. In order to introduce a new pediculicide based on EOs, the effectiveness of the product and their effects on human being must be analyzed. In consequence, the biological activity of EOs from the leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) and the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenacea) were evaluated against the eggs and adults of P. humanus capitis by fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays. Additionally, dermal corrosion/irritation tests were performed on New Zealand albino rabbits. In a fumigant bioassay, EOs from the leaves and fruits of S. areira were the most toxic against P. humanus capitis adults while these EOs and T. vulgaris were the most effective against the eggs. In contact bioassay, the EO from T. vulgaris was the most toxic against both stages. In the corrosion/irritation tests, the EOs did not produce dermal effects. According to the results, the essential oils from the leaves of T. vulgaris would be a valid tool for the management of P. humanus capitis. This EO produces a high knockdown effect in adults (followed by mortality) and toxicity in the eggs when it is applied for 21 min at a low concentration.

  3. [Tinea capitis et corporis due to Microsporum canis in an immunocompromised female adults patient].

    PubMed

    Möhrenschlager, M; Seidl, H P; Holtmann, Christiane; Ring, J; Abeck, D

    2003-01-01

    Tinea capitis as well as tinea corporis in adults may occur under conditions of immunosuppression. If suspected clinically, direct microscopy and examination by culture is indispensable. Therapeutic intervention should start without delay. A proven fungal infection of scalp hairs warrants immediate initiation of systemic treatment. Hereby prevention of disfiguring hair loss, permanent formation of scar tissue, spread of fungal organisms to other cutaneous regions as well as infection of other persons is possible.

  4. [Tinea capitis in the military hospital Avicenna (Morocco): Review of 8 years (2006-2013)].

    PubMed

    El Mezouari, E; Hocar, O; Atarguine, H; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Moutaj, R

    2016-03-01

    Tinea capitis are due to fungal infection by dermatophytes. They are common in developing countries including Morocco. The objective of this study intended to describe the epidemiology, clinical and mycological profile of tinea capitis in Avicenna military hospital of Marrakech. This is a retrospective study over an 8-year period (from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2013). All patients targeted through this study presented to the laboratory with the suspicion of tinea capitis, they were under a detailed investigation with a careful mycological analysis; diagnosis of tinea capitis was established as the direct examination and/or the sampling proved positive. Of the 334 patients investigated, 216 had a TC with an overall prevalence of 64.67%. The average age was 6 years. The M/F sex ratio was 0.55. The isolated dermatophytes were Microsporum canis with 105 cases (63.26%), Trichophyton violaceum in 44 cases (26.51%), T. mentographytes in 8 cases (4.81%), M. langeronii in 5 cases (3.01%), T. verrucosum in 3 cases (1.8%) and T. schoenleinii in 1 case (0.61%). The contact with animals was found in 40% of cases and immunosupression in 3.47% of cases. We verify through our investigation that tineas predominate among school age children with a female predominance. The epidemiological profile of TC in our study is similar to that of other studies in Moroccan and Maghrebian countries investigations. The TC is relatively a mild infection but can be confused with other dermatoses not easy to diagnose. For this reason, their treatment necessitates a mycological analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent updates in oral terbinafine: its use in onychomycosis and tinea capitis in the US.

    PubMed

    Van Duyn Graham, Lauren; Elewski, Boni E

    2011-11-01

    Onychomycosis and tinea capitis are prevalent fungal diseases that are difficult to cure and usually require systemic treatment. Onychomycosis has high recurrence rates and can significantly affect a patient's quality of life. Oral terbinafine has been approved for onychomycosis for 20 years in Europe and 15 years in the United States. Over these past 20 years, numerous studies show that oral terbinafine is a safe and efficacious treatment for onychomycosis. More recently, oral terbinafine also has been approved for tinea capitis. Once difficult to treat, terbinafine has revolutionised treatment of these fungal diseases. It has minimal side effects and its limited drug interactions make it an excellent treatment option for patients with co-morbidities. This review discusses oral terbinafine and new insights into the treatment of onychomycosis and tinea capitis. Recent publications have enhanced our knowledge of the mechanisms of oral terbinafine and its efficacy in treating onychomycosis. Oral terbinafine vs. other antifungal therapeutic options are reviewed. Overall, terbinafine remains a superior treatment for dermatophyte infections because of its safety, fungicidal profile, once daily dosing, and its ability to penetrate the stratum corneum.

  6. The prevalence of pediculus capitis among the middle schoolchildren in Fars Province, southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Rasekhi Kazerouni, Akbar; Rahmati, Hashem; Neirami, Roxana Neirami; Bakhtiary, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infection of children. In this study we assessed the prevalence of head pediculosis among the middle schoolchildren in the urban and rural areas of Fars province, southern Iran. Methods: All middle schoolchildren ages 11-14, in all the urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head lice infestation by examining their hair and scalp. The parents of the infested children were also examined. The study was repeated in the different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, the infested children were treated with permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse. Results: The general prevalence of head lice infestation in middle school students was 0.23% in autumn, 0.27% in winter and 0.11% in spring. In all three seasons, pediculosis capitis prevalence was higher among females and in the rural areas. Treatment with permethrin shampoo was markedly more successful in males from both regions in all months except the urban areas in spring. Conclusion: The results show that pediculus capitis is generally uncommon among Fars Province middle schoolchildren. It is needed that health providers promote heath education programs especially in the rural areas. PMID:24009945

  7. Adamson's Fringe, Horatio George Adamson, and Kligman's Experiments and Observations on Tinea Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Adamson's fringe is located at the upper margin of the keratogenous zone of the hair follicle where the nucleated hair shaft cornifies completely and gets converted to hard anucleated keratin. It marks also the area of complete keratinization of the cuticle and Henle's layer of the inner root sheath and the beginning of the stem of the follicle. In Tinea capitis, dermatophytic infection of the hair shaft is restricted to this zone and the fungi do not penetrate further down the infected hair in the bulb of the follicle. The fungi in Adamson's words form “a fringe of mycelium surrounding the hair shaft and project below the lower margin of the sheath of spores around the root-stem.” Horatio George Adamson (1865--1955), a British dermatologist first described this phenomenon, in 1895, and this article describes Adamson's fringe with a short biography of Adamson and discusses Kligman's experiments and observations on Tinea capitis which validated the observations of Adamson and the concept of Adamson's Fringe and described the pathogenesis in Tinea capitis. PMID:21769230

  8. Pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Alicja; Markowska-Gosik, Dorota; Widomska, Dorota; Kawa, Iwona Monika

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of head pediculosis in the rural and urban environments of Lublin Province (eastern Poland) in 1996-2000 and to examine socioeconomic factors influencing distribution among schoolchildren. A total of 95,153 schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas were examined twice yearly by school nurses. The overall rate of head pediculosis differs significantly between rural (1.59%) and urban (0.48%) schools in eastern Poland. Children between 8 and 12 years old were most frequently infested. Pediculosis was observed most frequently in girls both in the urban (63.5%) and rural (75.3%) schools and this was related with hairstyles. The prevalence of pediculosis decreased with increasing life standards, i.e. with high income, accessibility and consumption of water and better health care systems. Our findings showed that prevalence of pediculosis capitis depends on the age and sex of the schoolchildren and their living conditions. Hygienic controls of schoolchildren by nurses are important in the elimination of Pediculus humanus capitis. Our results confirmed pediculosis capitis is still a problem in different environments, particularly with lower life standards and poorer economic conditions of health care.

  9. Ovicidal and adulticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Han-Young; Choi, Won-Sil; Clark, J M; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-05-05

    The toxic effects of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil-derived monoterpenoids [1,8-cineole, l-phellandrene, (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, trans-pinocarveol, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol] and the known Eucalyptusleaf oil terpenoids (beta-eudesmol and geranyl acetate) on eggs and females of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, were examined using direct contact and fumigation bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum, two commonly used pediculicides. In a filter paper contact bioassay with female P. h. capitis, the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with Eucalyptus leaf oil than with either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum on the basis of LT(50) values (0.125 vs 0.25 mg/cm(2)). 1,8-Cineole was 2.2- and 2.3-fold more toxic than either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum, respectively. The pediculicidal activities of (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and (E)-pinocarveol were comparable to those of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. l-Phellandrene, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol were relatively less active than delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. beta-Eudesmol and geranyl acetate were ineffective. 1-alpha-Terpineol and (E)-pinocaveol were highly effective at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/cm(2), respectively, against P. h. capitis eggs. At 1.0 mg/cm(2), (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and gamma-terpinene exhibited moderate ovicidal activity, whereas little or no ovicidal activity was observed with the other terpenoids and with delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In fumigation tests with female P. h. capitis at 0.25 mg/cm(2), 1,8-cineole, (-)-alpha-pinene, (E)-pinocarveol, and 1-alpha-terpineol were more effective in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the effect of the monoterpenoids was largely due to action in the vapor phase. Neither delta-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Eucalyptus leaf oil, particularly 1,8-cineole, 1-alpha-terpineol, and (E)-pinocaveol, merits further study as potential

  10. Tinea capitis: study of asymptomatic carriers and sick adolescents, adults and elderly who live with children with the disease.

    PubMed

    Bergson, C L; Fernandes, N C

    2001-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years) with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5%) were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8%) had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.

  11. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis Infection Among Primary School Children in a Rural Setting in South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayanlowo, Olusola; Oladele, Rita; Balogun, Mobolanle

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophyte infection is a common skin disorder. Tinea capitis, infection of the scalp and hair shaft, is the most common dermatophytosis in children aged between six months and pre-pubertal age. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, causative agents and to identify predisposing factors among primary school children in a rural community in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Following a physical examination, children with a clinical diagnosis of tinea capitis had scalp and hair scrapings for microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was confirmed in 15.4%. Trichophyton mentagrophyte (51.7%) and Microsporum aoudouinii (20.7%) were the most prevalent organisms in this study. The most common predisposing factors were carrying of objects on the scalp; sharing of hair clippers, scissors, combs, towels and fomites. Low socioeconomic status coupled with overcrowding and poor hygiene was the major determinant of tinea capitis among the children. Tinea capitis remains a common infection among Nigerian school children. Health promotion and health education interventions are recommended to promote good hygiene, better living conditions, early identification and treatment. PMID:28299118

  12. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease.

  13. Administration of Oral Itraconazole Capsule with Whole Milk Shows Enhanced Efficacy As Supported by Scanning Electron Microscopy in a Child with Tinea Capitis Due to Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yalin; Lama, Jebina; Hu, Wenying; Zhang, Chaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Although diagnosis and treatment of tinea capitis in children are not difficult, treatment failures are still somewhat common. We report a case of pediatric tinea capitis cured using oral itraconazole administered with whole milk, after prior treatment failure when oral itraconazole was administered with water. This apparent enhanced efficacy in one individual was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Inflammatory tinea capitis: non-healing plaque on the occiput of a 4-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Ang, Chia Chun; Tay, Yong Kwang

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory tinea capitis is an uncommon condition in Singapore. In this case report we present a patient whom we managed for this condition. A 4-year-old girl presented to us with multiple pustules over the occipital scalp for 6 weeks, associated with painful cervical lymphadenopathy. Her condition did not respond to topical and oral antibiotics. The patient was diagnosed with kerion (inflammatory tinea capitis) and fungal culture of plucked hairs from the kerion grew Microsporum species of dermatophyte. She was treated with a course of oral griseofulvin and topical selenium sulfide shampoo. She was advised to bring her pet cats to the veterinarian for screening, as well as not to share combs with her other siblings. Her condition improved with the antifungal therapy, and there was no residual alopecia. Physicians should consider tinea capitis when they encounter a patient with scalp folliculitis or scarring alopecia in the appropriate clinical context.

  15. [Epidemiological profile of Tinea capitis in Dakar (Senegal). A 6-year retrospective study (2008-2013)].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Diongue, K; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Diallo, M A; Deme, A B; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Diallo, S; Ndoye, N W; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-06-01

    Tinea capitis is considered as a public health problem in Senegal. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the incidence, the mycological and epidemiological aspects of tinea capitis diagnosed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Our work is a retrospective study concerning all scalp samples taken by the parasitology laboratory, over a 6-year period (2008-2013). A total of 1640 specimens were examined. Of these, 566 were positive with direct examination and after culture. We noted the reduction of patients and of the incidence of tineas during 6 years with variations of 147 (46.82%) to 37 (22.02%). The average incidence of the tineas during six years was 34.51%. Patients' age varied between 1 to 83 years with a mean of 27.33 years. Prevalence varied between age groups, with 10.61 % in adults between 20 to 29 years, 7.19% in children between 0 to 9 years, 6.04% between 10 to 19 years, and 5.91% in adults between 30 to 39 years. Women were more infected 469 (82.9%) than men 97 (17.1%). The main dermatophytes isolated were: T. soudanense in 318 cases (56.18%), T. rubrum in 104 cases (18.37%), M. langeronii in 72 cases (12.72%), M. canis in 36 cases (6.36%), and T. mentagrophytes in 26 cases (4.60%). Our study showed a decrease in the annual incidence of tinea capitis over the study period with an evident increase in trichophytic tinea. This study showed that tinea is endemic in Senegal mainly among women between 20 and 29 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Tinea capitis in adults during 1981-95 in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagliotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Chaidemenos, G C; Theodoridou, M; Minas, A

    2001-11-01

    The mycological laboratory of our Hospital examined 31,073 patients between 1981 and 1995. Sex, age, the residence of patients, the clinical type of tinea and contacts with other persons and animals were investigated. All the patients were also examined under Wood's light. Tinea capitis was diagnosed in 35 adults. Trichophyton violaceum was the commonest aetiological agent (54.5%), especially in elderly women. The other anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (8.5%), T. schoenleinii (5.7%) and T. tonsurans (2.8%). The zoophilic fungi Microsporum canis (14.3%), T. terrucosum (8.5%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.7%) were also isolated.

  17. [Tinea unguium with Microsporum langeronii and Trichophyton soudanense revealing tinea capitis with M. langeronii].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Diop, A; Diallo, M A; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Samb, D; Ndiaye, Y D; Ndiaye, D

    2016-12-01

    A Senegalese lady of 17 years old presented right hand tinea unguium on all fingernails except the thumb lasting for 10 years. Mycological analysis showed with the direct examination 20% KOH mount numerous septate hyphae. Culture revealed Microsporum langeronii at a first time. The mycological analysis resumption with sampling scalp revealed a tinea capitis with M. langeronii then culture of nail pieces confirmed in a second time M. langeronii also associated with Trichophyton soudanense in the tinea unguium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The fumigant and repellent activity of aliphatic lactones against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Zerba, Eduardo; Faillaci, Silvina; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-02-01

    New alternative insecticides are necessary for the chemical control of head lice. In this study the fumigant knockdown time 50% (KT50) and repellency index (RI) of three aliphatic lactones was compared with two essential oils and DDVP, against permethrin-resistance Pediculus humanus capitis from Argentina. In the fumigant assay, none of the lactones were effective compared to the highest activity of eucalyptus (KT50 15.53 m). In the repellency test, the three lactones were equally or more effective (RI ranging from 60.50 to 76.68) than the positive control (piperonal). These lactones are promising as head lice repellents.

  19. Tinea capitis and tinea corporis with a severe inflammatory response due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Hryncewicz-Gwóźdź, Anita; Beck-Jendroschek, Vera; Brasch, Jochen; Kalinowska, Katarzyna; Jagielski, Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte, with a worldwide distribution, although its prevalence varies considerably between different geographical regions. Whereas in North America infections due to this fungus are exceptionally common, on the European continent they appear relatively seldom. Although T. tonsurans is primarily associated with tinea capitis, it can also be the cause of tinea corporis and tinea unguium. The course of infection is usually only mildly symptomatic. We describe here two cases of urease-positive T. tonsurans infections with atypically extensive cutaneous lesions and severe inflammatory responses. .

  20. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Hamedan-Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mansour; Saidijam, Massoud

    2007-10-01

    To determine the intensity of Pediculus capitis infestation (abundance) among school children, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 school children (407 girls, 440 boys) between 6 and 12 years, from 12 in public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Province of Hamedan, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p < 0.001), head lice were much more commonly detected in girls than in boys. The obtained results showed that there was significant variations between head lice infestation and the factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family and pediculosis in the studied areas (p > 0.05). Sex and social factor are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

  1. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Hamedan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mansour; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Shobeiri, Fatemeh

    2006-01-01

    Pediculus capitis or head-louse infestation has been a worldwide public-health problem, especially among school-aged children. To determine the intensity of infestation (abundance) among schoolchildren, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 schoolchildren (407 girls, 440 boys) aged 6-12 years, from 12 public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Hamedan Province, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p<0.001), head lice were much more common in girls than boys. The results showed significant variations in head lice infestation, and factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb, and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family, and pediculosis in the studied areas (p>0.05). Sex and social factors are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

  2. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis in two primary schools of Hacılar, Kayseri.

    PubMed

    Çetinkaya, Ülfet; Hamamcı, Berna; Delice, Safiye; Ercal, Barış Derya; Gücüyetmez, Süheyla; Yazar, Süleyman; Şahin, İzzet

    2011-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide public health concern, and today, head lice are seen in all socio-economic levels. The infestation usually occurs by head-to-head contact and children, primarily girls, aged 3-12 years are mostly affected. In the present study a total of 405 pupils (214 boys and 191 girls) from two pre- and primary schools in the Kayseri-Hacılar region were examined for pediculosis capitis during March 2010. Lice and/or eggs were detected by visual examination of the children's hair. Out of 405 children, 44 (10.9%) were infested with head lice. There were significant differences between the schools and the gender while no significant differences could be found between infestation and child's age, education of the parents, income of the family, housing type, source of water, and the presence or absence of a bathroom. Head lice remain a public health problem and more emphasis should be given to the education of parents regarding their biology and control.

  3. Difficulties experienced by families following unsuccessful treatment of Pediculosis capitis: the mothers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ozlem; Sikar-Aktürk, Aysun; Mert, Kader; Bilen, Nilgün; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the psychological and social difficulties faced by primary school children and their families, particularly from the mothers' perspective, when treatment for Pediculosis capitis fails. This descriptive study comprised 14 mothers of 19 children in the primary school in Kocaeli. The children and families were infested with lice and nits and were unsuccessfully treated with pediculicides. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire with in-depth individual interviews with a qualitative approach from mothers. Seven social difficulties were experienced by children and families during treatment from the mothers' perspective, lack of support from other family members; children's exposure to verbal and physical violence; exclusion from the school and society due to stigma; children's refusal to be treated; difficulties in the physical removal of the nits; inability to pay for the pediculicide; and inappropriate physical conditions of the house. Eight psychological difficulties were experienced by children and their families: worry, upheaval, embarrassment/shame, guilt, being overwhelmed, disgust, scorn and despair. Parents and children, whose treatment for Pediculosis capitis failed, experienced many psychological and social difficulties. Further studies should be conducted to determine the relation to pediculosis management and their difficulties of chidren and families from different socio-economic levels.

  4. Prevalence of Tinea capitis in school going children from Mathare, informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Moto, Jedidah Ndunge; Maingi, John Muthini; Nyamache, Anthony Kebira

    2015-06-27

    Tinea capitis is a common infection especially in poor resource settings. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence Tinea capitis in children from selected schools from an urban slum in Nairobi city of Kenya. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 150 school going children during the period between May and September 2013. A questionnaire was administered and cultures of scalps, skin scrapping/hair stubs samples were performed and the etiological agents identified and confirmed. In a total of one hundred and fifty (150) children recruited 89 (59.3%) were males and 61 (40.7%) females aged between 3 and 14 years. The overall prevalence rates in dermatophytes infection was 81.3% (122/150) with etiological agents consisting Trichophyton spp. (61.3%), Microsporum spp. (13.3%) and Epidermophyton spp. (7.3%) infections with infections occurring either singly (56%), duo (38%) or tipple co-infections (6%). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of Tinea infections with Trichophyton tonsurans as the predominant etiological agent in school going children of the urban slums of Nairobi.

  5. [Treatment of pediculosis capitis in children with permethrin 1% shampoo or lotion].

    PubMed

    Schenone, H; Wiedmaier, G; Contreras, L

    1994-01-01

    A clinical and entomological trial was carried out in 88 head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) infested children treated with a single dose of 1% permethrin shampoo or lotion. The sex distribution was 47 males an 41 females with ages ranging between 5 and 14 year olds. In order to assess the efficiency of treatments, search for adult forms, nymphs and eggs (nits) of the parasite was performed in each of the children, before and after treatment (30 minutes, 7 days and 21 days). The entomological evaluations consisted in stereoscopic and microscopic examinations of a mean of 12 hair samples taken from the retroauricular and occipital regions of each of the children, the biological condition of eggs, viable (immature, mature), dead and empty, was recorded. The cure rates--both clinical and entomological--obtained were 91.5% for shampoo and 95.2% for lotion. No adverse reactions with the two formulations used were reported. In conclusion, 1% permethrin shampoo or lotion in an effective and safe treatment for pediculosis capitis.

  6. Comparative study of the claws of Pediculus humanus capitis between archaeological and modern specimens.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Hipólito; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Aravena, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Metric data of the claws of archaeological specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis (dating between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500) and modern lice specimens coming from school children were analyzed and compared. Both sets of samples come from Arica in northern Chile. The overall sample is comprised of 14 archaeological specimens (6 females and 8 males) of Pediculus humanus capitis and 22 modern specimens (13 females and 9 males). All specimens were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uncoated, using variable pressure mode. The objective of this study was to metrically analyze the first couple of clutches of ancient and modern adult lice specimens (width and length of the tibio-tarsal claw and tarsus length) to test if morphological changes have taken place throughout time in these anatomical elements. We found that archaeological male and female specimens presented significant differences in the tibio-tarsal width (right and left). When comparing data between archaeological and modern male specimens, statistically significant differences were found in almost all the parameters studied, except for the right tarsal length. On the other hand, archaeological and modern female specimens showed no statistically significant change in the variables studied. In brief, our data suggest that modern male specimens have undergone a process of claw reduction, but females have maintained the same dimensions.

  7. [Evolution of tinea capitis observed in mycology laboratory of institute Pasteur of Algeria from1995 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Hamroune, Z; Mazouz, A; Benelmouffok, A-B; Kellou, D

    2016-12-01

    Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria.

  8. Genome Analysis of Staphylococcus capitis TE8 Reveals Repertoire of Antimicrobial Peptides and Adaptation Strategies for Growth on Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Jangir, Pramod Kumar; Das, Jhumki; Taneja, Bhupesh; Sharma, Rakesh

    2017-09-05

    Staphylococcus capitis TE8 was isolated from skin surface of a healthy human foot, and exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. Whole genome sequence of S. capitis TE8 was obtained by shotgun and paired-end pyrosequencing with a coverage of 109-fold. The draft genome contains 2,516,639 bp in 8 scaffolds with 209 total contigs. The genome contains 2319 protein coding sequences, 58 tRNA and 3 rRNA. Genome sequence analysis revealed 4 distinct gene loci with the ability to encode antimicrobial peptides: (i) an epidermicin gene cluster; (ii) a gallidermin gene cluster; (iii) a gene cluster encoding six phenol soluble modulin (PSM) β-type peptides (PSMβ1-β6) and (iv) an additional gene that belonged to PSMβ family and encoded a 44 residues long peptide, HTP2388. Synthetic peptides with sequence identical to seven PSMβ-like peptides i.e. PSMβ1-β6 and peptide HTP2388 showed antibacterial activity. Genome sequence also revealed genes for adhesins, intracellular adhesins, osmoadaptation, oxidative and acid stress tolerance possibly responsible for initial attachment, colonization and survival of S. capitis TE8 on human skin. Comparative genome analysis revealed presence of a gamut of genes in S. capitis strains in comparison to Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus caprae indicating towards their possible role in better adaptation and survival on human skin.

  9. Selection of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in Staphylococcus capitis during growth under erythromycin stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and reproducible measurement of gene transcription requires appropriate reference genes, which are stably expressed under different experimental conditions to provide normalization. Staphylococcus capitis is a human pathogen that produces biofilm under stress, such as imposed by antimicrobial agents. In this study, a set of five commonly used staphylococcal reference genes (gyrB, sodA, recA, tuf and rpoB) were systematically evaluated in two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis (S. capitis subspecies urealyticus and capitis, respectively) under erythromycin stress in mid-log and stationary phases. Two public software programs (geNorm and NormFinder) and two manual calculation methods, reference residue normalization (RRN) and relative quantitative (RQ), were applied. The potential reference genes selected by the four algorithms were further validated by comparing the expression of a well-studied biofilm gene (icaA) with phenotypic biofilm formation in S. capitis under four different experimental conditions. The four methods differed considerably in their ability to predict the most suitable reference gene or gene combination for comparing icaA expression under different conditions. Under the conditions used here, the RQ method provided better selection of reference genes than the other three algorithms; however, this finding needs to be confirmed with a larger number of isolates. This study reinforces the need to assess the stability of reference genes for analysis of target gene expression under different conditions and the use of more than one algorithm in such studies. Although this work was conducted using a specific human pathogen, it emphasizes the importance of selecting suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression more generally.

  10. Clinicoepidemiological and Mycological Study of Tinea Capitis in the Pediatric Population of Kashmir Valley: A Study from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Zeerak, Sumaya; Kanth, Farhat; Yaseen, Atiya; Hassan, Iffat; Hakak, Rubina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection that predominantly affects the pediatric population. The etiological factors vary from region to region, and the exact incidence remains obscure. The clinicoepidemiological and mycological aspects of this dermatophytosis were studied in a tertiary care centre in Kashmir valley. Aim: To determine the clinicoepidemiological aspects and mycological findings of dermatophytes involved in tinea capitis cases in Kashmir valley. Materials and Methods: Wood's lamp examination, KOH examination, and fungal culture were performed in one hundred fifty clinically diagnosed cases of tinea capitis with patients’ age upto 14 years over a period of 6 months. The epidemiological factors associated with the disease were also evaluated. Results: Tinea capitis was predominant in the 3–6 and 6–9 years age groups with a male preponderance. Grey patch tinea capitis was the most common variant. KOH positivity was 76%, and Trichophyton tonsurans was the most common fungal isolate. Conclusion: Tinea capitis is a very common fungal infection in our setting. Early detection and diagnosis is mandatory to prevent its spread in the community as well as the development of scarring alopecia in the affected individual. PMID:28405548

  11. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis and determination of risk factors in primary-school children in Kerman.

    PubMed

    Kamiabi, F; Nakhaei, F Hosain

    2005-01-01

    This descriptive, analytical study was carried out in 2003 to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and some risk factors among primary-school pupils in Kerman. We selected 1200 pupils (53% girls) from 50 primary schools by multistage, systematic random sampling. Their hair was examined for head louse infestation: 45 (3.8%) were infected with lice, 43 (95.5%) girls and 2 (4.5%) boys. The highest rate of infestation was in 9-year-olds. There was a significant relationship between head louse infestation and sex (P < 0.0001), age (P < 0.05), parents' education (P < 0.0001), father's job (P < 0.01), family size (P < 0.01), length of hair (P < 0.0001) and having separate bathing facilities in the house (P < 0.0001).

  12. Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of monoterpenoids against permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Toloza, A C; Vassena, C; Picollo, M I

    2008-12-01

    The improper use of pediculicides containing permethrin has led to the development of resistance. Thus, new alternatives for control are needed. Plant-derived insecticides are attractive alternatives to common chemical insecticides because most of them are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to mammals. The toxic activity of 23 monoterpenoids belonging to several chemical classes was tested against the eggs of permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Significant differences in ovicidal action were observed among the tested substances. The most effective chemicals were hydrocarbons and ethers, followed by ketones, alcohols, phenols and esters. A linear relationship between egg mortality and knockdown time (KT(50)) on adults by the tested components revealed that most of the components were effective on both egg and adult stages. The monoterpenoids described herein are good candidates as effective pediculicides.

  13. Geographic distributions and origins of human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) based on mitochondrial data.

    PubMed

    Light, Jessica E; Allen, Julie M; Long, Lauren M; Carter, Tamar E; Barrow, Lisa; Suren, Ganbold; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L

    2008-12-01

    Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are subdivided into 3 deeply divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades A, B, and C), each having unique geographical distributions. Determining the evolutionary history and geographic distribution of these mitochondrial clades can elucidate the evolutionary history of the lice as well as their human hosts. Previous data suggest that lice belonging to mitochondrial Clade B may have originated in North America or Asia; however, geographic sampling and sample sizes have been limited. With newly collected lice, we calculate the relative frequency, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of louse mitochondrial clades to determine the geographic origin of lice belonging to Clade B. In agreement with previous studies, genetic diversity data support a North American origin of Clade B lice. It is likely that lice belonging to this mitochondrial clade recently migrated to other geographic localities, e.g., Europe and Australia, and, if not already present, may disperse further to occupy all geographic regions.

  14. The ligamentum capitis femoris: anatomic, magnetic resonance and computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carro, Luis; Golano, Pau; Vega, Jordi; Escajadillo, Natalia F; Rubin, Carlos G; Cerezal, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the normal anatomy of the ligamentum capitis femoris and to determine the neurovascular structures potentially at risk during its reconstruction. Ten cadaveric specimens of the ligamentum capitis femoris (LCF) were dissected and photographed. Magnetic resonance (MR) and Computed tomography (CT) arthrography evaluation of the anatomy of the LCF in 30 hips were performed to measure length of the ligament and to study the proximity of neurovascular structures. The anatomical study showed that the LCF has a pyramidal structure and a banded appearance. The thickness of the medial wall of the acetabulum 3 mm superior to the inferior acetabular boundary was found to be 6.7 mm (4-9 mm) at point 1 (anterior), 4.1 mm (3-7 mm) at point 2 (central), and 6.5 mm (4-9 mm) at point 3 (posterior). Central anchors or screws were found to lie within 1.7 cm (1.6-1.9 cm) of the external iliac vein and artery. Angulation of anchors in the anterior and posterior columns in the axial plane with respect to acetabular fossa floor (the Optimal Angulation Angle or OAA), is safer (0 to 45º the safest optimal angles). The sagittal angulation created by the safe pathway in the anterior and posterior columns with respect to the plane of the facies lunata in this area was also measured and termed the Optimal Angle of Penetration (OAP) with normal values being: 110º (102-123º) for the posterior column and 90º (85-94º) for the anterior column. Our results suggest that reconstruction of the LCF can be safely performed if these guidelines are followed.

  15. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Catalá, Silvia; Junco, Luis; Vaporaky, Rita

    2005-06-01

    To determine the intensity of Pediculus capitis infestation (abundance) among Argentinean schoolchildren. Children's sex and social stratum were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence and degree of parasitism. The study included 1,370 schoolchildren (692 girls, 678 boys) from 26 schools of the province of La Rioja (21 public schools, five private schools). Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. Moreover, five degrees of parasitism were classified: 0) children with no signs of pediculosis; 0+) children with evidence of past infestation; 1) children with a recent infestation and low probability of active parasitism; 2) children with a recent infestation and high probability of active parasitism; 3) children with mobile lice (active pediculosis). The general prevalence was 61.4% (girls: 79%; boys: 44%, p<0.001). Private schools showed lower prevalence than public schools (p=0.02), especially due to the low prevalence in boys. Fifty percent of children were classified in classes 0 and 0+, 22% in class 1; and 28% in grades 2 and 3. The proportion of children in grade 3 was higher in public schools than in private schools. There were significant sexual differences in the intensity of parasitism for grades 2 and 3, where girls' rates exceeded twice those of boys'. Sex and social stratum are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

  16. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  17. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use

    PubMed Central

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  18. A ghost covered in lice: a case of severe blood loss with long-standing heavy pediculosis capitis infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Veronica; Muhi-Iddin, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old child presented with poor school attendance, and signs and symptoms of severe anaemia. He was heavily covered in lice. He was investigated for other causes of anaemia. Following treatment for head lice and also iron supplementation, he was back in full-time education. This case highlights the link between head lice (pediculosis capitis) infestation and iron-deficiency anaemia. PMID:25527684

  19. A ghost covered in lice: a case of severe blood loss with long-standing heavy pediculosis capitis infestation.

    PubMed

    Hau, Veronica; Muhi-Iddin, Nadia

    2014-12-19

    An 11-year-old child presented with poor school attendance, and signs and symptoms of severe anaemia. He was heavily covered in lice. He was investigated for other causes of anaemia. Following treatment for head lice and also iron supplementation, he was back in full-time education. This case highlights the link between head lice (pediculosis capitis) infestation and iron-deficiency anaemia. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Inflammatory tinea capitis mimicking dissecting cellulitis in a postpubertal male: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stein, Loretta L; Adams, Erin G; Holcomb, Katherine Z

    2013-09-01

    Tinea capitis in postpubertal patients is unusual and may be misdiagnosed as dissecting cellulitis. We report a case of a healthy 19-year-old Hispanic male presenting with a 2-month history of a large, painful subcutaneous boggy plaque on the scalp with patchy alopecia, erythematous papules, cysts and pustules. Although initially diagnosed as dissecting cellulitis, potassium hydroxide evaluation (KOH preparation) of the hair from the affected region was positive. A punch biopsy of the scalp demonstrated endothrix consistent with tinea capitis, but with a brisk, deep mixed inflammatory infiltrate as can be seen with chronic dissecting cellulitis. Fungal culture revealed Trichophyton tonsurans, and a diagnosis of inflammatory tinea capitis was made. The patient was treated over the course of 17 months with multiple systemic and topical antifungal medications, with slow, but demonstrable clinical and histopathological improvement. A rare diagnosis in adults, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this condition in an adult with an inflammatory scalp disorder not classic for dissecting cellulitis or with a recalcitrant dissecting cellulitis. Prompt, appropriate diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent the long-term complications of scarring alopecia. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. [Pediculus capitis in schoolchildren of the urban area of Nuevo León, México: Analyses of associated factors].

    PubMed

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia J; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2017-09-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a recurring problem affecting 6 to 12 millions of children annually; there are no epidemiological data on this subject in the state of Nuevo León, and there are few in México. Therefore, new contributions are needed to design control strategies based on factors that may predispose to head lice infestation. To determine the prevalence of Pediculus capitis in primary school children and to evaluate risk factors and individual or socioeconomic characteristics statistically associated with infestation. We included 840 schoolchildren from six municipalities after parents and children signed an informed consent. Ectoparasites were collected from infested children using a finetoothed comb. Participants were interviewed using a questionnaire on individual and socioeconomic variables including age, gender, education, hair characteristics, overcrowding, and siblings with pediculosis, among others. The overall prevalence of head lice in schoolchildren was 28% (235/840), the highest prevalence was among girls (33.7%, 140/417), and children from the fifth grade (10-11 years old) were the most affected (6.2%; 52/840). Female gender, long hair and the father's education level were significantly associated with P. capitis. Our results showed that the P. capitis prevalence in Nuevo León is one of the highest in Mexico, that it constitutes a real public health problem, and that there is need to establish prevention programs at home and school to decrease or to control P. capitis with the support of public health authorities.

  2. Genetic diversity of the human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, among primary school girls in Saudi Arabia, with reference to their prevalence.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahrani, Sarah A; Alajmi, Reem A; Ayaad, Tahany H; Al-Shahrani, Mohammed A; Shaurub, El-Sayed H

    2017-08-13

    The present work aimed at investigating the genetic diversity of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (P. humanus capitis) among infested primary school girls at Bisha governorate, Saudi Arabia, based on the sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt b) gene of 121 P. humanus capitis adults. Additionally, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis was surveyed. The results of sequencing were compared with the sequence of human head lice that are genotyped previously. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed the presence of 100% identity (n = 26) of louse specimens with clade A (prevalent worldwide) of the GenBank data base. Louse individuals (n = 50) showed 99.8% similarity with the same clade A reference having a single base pair difference. Also, a number of 22 louse individuals revealed 99.8% identity with clade B reference (prevalent in North and Central Americas, Europe, and Australia) with individual diversity in two base pairs. Moreover, 14 louse individual sequences revealed 99.4% identity with three base pair differences. It was concluded that moderate pediculosis (~13%) prevailed among the female students of the primary schools. It was age-and hair texture (straight or curly)-dependent. P. humanus capitis prevalence diversity is of clades A and B genotyping.

  3. Pediculosis capitis and relevant factors in secondary school students of Hamadan, west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Afsar; Khodaveisi, Masoud; Moghimbeigi, Abas; Mohammadi, Nahid; Amini, Roya

    2013-09-17

    Pediculosis capitis is a problem in children and has worldwide distribution. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of pediculosis degree and its relevant factors in the secondary schools in Hamadan west of Iran. The study was carried out in two phases. A cross-sectional procedure was used to determine the prevalence of pediculosis, and the case study was done to identify the relevant factors to the infestation. Totally, 10841 secondary students were chosen and classified in accordance with the clustering sample. The prevalence of pediculosis was 1.05%. It was 1.27% among the urban student; whereas 0.05% among the rural students. About 2.3% belonged to female students, and 0.11% was pertained to the male students. The greatest amount of infestation prevalence was reported from the schools of urban areas particularly in the public schools of suburbia. Furthermore, the prevalence of infestation was more where some individuals had pediculosis previous history and suffered from head inching. It turned out to be a significant relationship between pediculosis, head itching (P<0.001) and previous history of pediculosis (P<0.001). The prevalence of pediculosis in Hamadan is low, but is more in the areas which are deprived of the access to health facilities. Therefore, there is a need for educational campaigns about danger of infection and regular mass screening at school.

  4. Bioactivity of Argentinean essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT(50) values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed.

  5. [Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis) capitis in an infant: Microbiological, dermoscopic and ultrastructural features].

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Ricarte, Ixchel; Rodríguez-Leviz, Alejandra; Hernández, Marco A; Mena, Carlos; Valencia, Adriana

    2017-04-01

    Trichomycosis is a superficial infection caused by Corynebacterium flavescens, which regularly affects axillary, and to a a lesser extent, pubic, scrotal and intergluteal, and exceptionally, head hairs or trichomycosis capitis (TC). This condition is characterised by the formation of bacterial nodules. Clinically, it can be confused with white piedra or pediculosis. The diagnosis is made by microscopic and dermoscopic observation and confirmed by culture. To present a case of TC in an infant and illustrate the microscopic, dermoscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics. A 6 month-old boy, otherwise healthy, with multiple yellowish concretions on the hairs of the head. TC was confirmed by yellow fluorescence with Wood’s light; white-yellowish beads, like “rosaries of crystalline stones’’ were observed on dermoscopy, direct examination showed bacterial masses, and Corynebacterium flavescens was identified by culture. A superficial infection, without perforation of the hairs, was confirmed by electron microscopy. Treatment with fusidic acid for 3 weeks achieved a clinical and microbiological cure. TC is a rare condition that affects children, and tends to be mistaken for other diseases of the hair, such as pediculosis and mycotic infections.

  6. Age-related decrease of the phosphorus content in the ligamentum capitis femoris of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Oishi, Takao; Minami, Takeshi; Khanpetch, Pongsak; Azuma, Cho; Quiggins, Ranida

    2014-10-01

    To elucidate compositional changes of the ligament with aging, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements in the ligamentum capitis femoris (LCF) of monkeys with a wide range of ages by direct chemical analysis. Used rhesus and Japanese monkeys consisted of 9 males and 22 females, ranging in age from newborn to 31 years (average age = 10.4 ± 10.9 years). After incineration with nitric acid and perchloric acid, element contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. It was found that the P content decreased significantly in the LCFs of monkeys with aging, but other six element contents, Ca, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na, did not change significantly with aging. Assuming that the P content indicated the active cell density and the S content indicated the protein amount, an age-related change of the mass ratio of P/S was examined in the LCFs. The mass ratio of P/S decreased significantly in the LCFs in childhood. Regarding the relationships among elements, significant direct correlations were found among the Ca, P, S, and Mg contents in the LCFs. It was suggested that the active cell density of the connective tissue cells might decrease significantly in the LCF in childhood.

  7. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations.

  8. Epidemiologic trends in pediatric tinea capitis: a population-based study from Kaiser Permanente Northern California.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi; Tucker, Lue-Yen

    2013-12-01

    Epidemic levels of tinea capitis (TC) have previously been reported in children. We sought to determine new epidemiologic trends for TC among northern California children from 1998 through 2007. Annual incidence of TC was based on diagnosis code or first-time antifungal prescriptions in all children up to age 15 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. An average of 672,373 children/y met the inclusion criteria. Trend analyses showed decreases in TC by diagnosis code and by prescriptions (73.7% and 23.7%, respectively). Girls had lower incidence rates than boys by diagnosis (111.9 vs 146.4, P < .001 for 1998, and 27.9 vs 39.9, P < .001 for 2007). African Americans had the highest incidence rates by diagnosis (447.3 in 1998 and 184.1 in 2007) compared with other ethnic groups. Trichophyton tonsurans was the predominant organism (89.4% of all positive fungal cultures in 1998 and 91.8% in 2007). Prescriptions for griseofulvin declined, whereas the prescriptions for other antifungals increased. This was a retrospective study. In this cohort, there was a significant decrease in incidence of TC over the study period. Trichophyton tonsurans continued to be the predominant organism. These trends may be a result of improved education, recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of TC and increased use of new oral antifungals. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioactivity of Argentinean Essential Oils Against Permethrin-Resistant Head Lice, Pediculus humanus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT50 values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed. PMID:21062140

  10. Electron Microscopic Alterations in Pediculus humanus capitis Exposed to Some Pediculicidal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Akkad, Dina M. H. El; El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M.; Yousof, Hebat-Allah Salah A.; Ismail, Mousa A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, infestation is an important public health problem in Egypt. Inadequate application of topical pediculicides and the increasing resistance to the commonly used pediculicides made the urgent need for the development of new agents able to induce irreversible changes in the exposed lice leading to their mortality. The aim of the present work is to evaluate pediculicidal efficacy of some natural products such as olive oil, tea tree oil, lemon juice, and ivermectin separately in comparison with tetramethrin-piperonyl butoxide (licid), as a standard pediculicide commonly used in Egypt. The effects of these products were evaluated by direct observation using dissecting and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Results showed that after 1 hr exposure time in vitro, absolute (100%) mortalities were recorded after exposure to 1% ivermectin and fresh concentrate lemon juice. The mortalities were decreased to 96.7% after exposure to tea tree oil. Very low percentage of mortality (23.3%) was recorded after 1 hr of exposure to extra virgin olive oil. On the other hand, the reference pediculicide (licid) revealed only mortality rate of 93.3%. On the contrary, no mortalities were recorded in the control group exposed to distilled water. By SEM examination, control lice preserved outer smooth architecture, eyes, antenna, respiratory spiracles, sensory hairs, and legs with hook-like claws. In contrast, dead lice which had been exposed to pediculicidal products showed damage of outer smooth architecture, sensory hairs, respiratory spiracles and/or clinching claws according to pediculicidal products used. PMID:27658606

  11. Epidemiology of tinea capitis among school-age children in Meiganga, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kechia, F A; Kouoto, E A; Nkoa, T; Nweze, E I; Fokoua, D C M; Fosso, S; Somo, M R

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) commonly called scalp ringworm is a worldwide concern and a public health problem in Africa. This study aimed at determining the epidemiologic profile of TC among school-aged children in the savanna zone of Cameroon. All children present at school during this study period, August 2011-July 2012, were examined for signs suggestive of TC. Children not registered at school were excluded from the study. Pathologic specimens were taken from suspected head lesions and cultured. Amongst the 4601 children, average age 10.7±0.16 years, 377 presented with suggestive TC lesions giving a prevalence of 8.1%. The proportion of boys with TC was (63.7%) higher than in girls (36.3%) (P≤0.05). TC manifestations varied; small plaques of alopecia 59.26% were the most frequent. Communal living was the most incriminated risk factor. Three hundred and thirty six isolates were obtained in culture. The prevalence was significantly higher (P<0.05) in age range between 8 and 12 years, followed by that between 13 and 15. The most prevalent isolate was T. soudannense 56.8%, followed by T. rubrum 29.2%. Only 6.0% of the isolates belonged to the genus Microsporum.

  12. Susceptibility of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) to pediculicides in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J A; Barker, S C

    2003-08-01

    Infestation with head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, is a worldwide problem, especially among primary (elementary) school children. Although studies in many different countries indicate lower levels of susceptibility to certain insecticides than expected ("resistance"), there is no empirical data from Australia. Data on the susceptibility of head lice to malathion, pyrethrums and permethrin were collected from four schools in Brisbane and one school in northern Queensland. Since no completely susceptible strain of head lice was available and head lice are difficult to keep in culture, a completely susceptible strain of body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, was used for reference. All five groups of head lice were less susceptible to malathion, pyrethrums and permethrin than were lice from the reference strain. Moreover, the degree of susceptibility to these insecticides varied substantially among schools. Thus, a pediculicide that controlled lice at one school in Brisbane would not necessarily control head lice at another school in the same city. These preliminary data indicate that detailed information on the susceptibility of the different populations of head lice in Queensland to the different insecticides available is needed to maximize the chance of effective control of these increasingly common parasites.

  13. Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

    2013-10-01

    We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream.

  14. Tinea capitis outbreak among paediatric refugee population, an evolving healthcare challenge.

    PubMed

    Mashiah, Jacob; Kutz, Ana; Ben Ami, Ronen; Savion, Mihal; Goldberg, Ilan; Gan Or, Tamar; Zidan, Omri; Sprecher, Eli; Harel, Avikam

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of tinea capitis (TC) represent a major medical and economic burden. Population migrations have become a phenomenon of increasing relevance for medical conditions management. Given the recent massive arrival of immigrants, we sought to determine epidemiologic trends for TC among paediatric populations at the Tel Aviv Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of all TC cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 in a paediatric dermatology unit of a tertiary medical centre, serving as a referral centre for the paediatric refugee population from the great Tel Aviv area. Epidemiologic, clinical and treatment data including effectiveness and safety were reviewed. In all, 145 children met the inclusion criteria. Trend analyses showed increases in TC rates over the study period. Incidence rates were higher in boys than in girls. Children of African origin had the highest TC incidence rates as compared with other ethnic groups. Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum audouinii were the predominant causative organisms. Treatment with griseofulvin was satisfactory in all cases. There was a significant increase in TC incidence rates in the Tel Aviv area over the study period. TV and MA were the predominant organisms. These trends may be a result of poor living conditions and crowded school premises.

  15. Evidence of pyrethroid resistance in eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Zerba, Eduardo Nicolás; Picollo, María Inés

    2008-07-01

    Insecticide resistance in Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer 1778 (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from different countries has been well documented in the last years. Otherwise, little research has been reported about insecticide resistance in insect embryos and none in human louse embryos. In this work, we studied insecticide resistance in eggs of three head lice populations whose pyrethroid resistance was shown in adults and nymphs compared with a susceptible laboratory body louse strain. All head louse populations showed high permethrin resistance in eggs. Levels of permethrin resistance (LCRs) assessed in eggs by immersion technique were higher than those previously reported for the corresponding populations of adults by topical application. Comparison of LCR values for different populations showed that there was a direct relationship between the resistance levels assessed in eggs and those in adults. All permethrin-resistant eggs showed high resistance to d-phenothrin and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and low resistance to carbaryl, which is in common with the resistance profile established for adults and nymphs. The results concerning the high resistance to pyrethroid (permethrin and d-phenothrin) and the cross-resistance to DDT and carbaryl detected in head louse eggs and adults suggested similar resistance mechanisms in eggs and adults of head louse populations from adults.

  16. Effectiveness of lotions based on essential oils from aromatic plants against permethrin resistant Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Vassena, Claudia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María

    2007-10-01

    In Argentina, field populations of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) have developed resistance to permethrin and other pyrethroids. Thus, the aim of this work was the development of a lotion containing essential oils from plants and an alcoholic coadjuvant to improve biological effect. Ethanol + isopropanol (1 + 1 in volume) 50% in water and ethanol 96% were taken as bases for preparation of experimental lotions containing essential oils from plants. We found that experimental lotions containing lavender, peppermint and eucalyptus oils in a 5% composition and the combination of eucalyptus and peppermint in a total concentration of 10%, dissolved in 50% ethanol + isopropanol (1 + 1) in water, showed the best knockdown effect. On the other side, lotion containing peppermint oil and eucalyptus oil (1 + 1) 10%, dissolved in ethanol 96%, showed to be as effective as the best commercial lotion now available in Argentina. Furthermore, addition of 1-dodecanol in all cases increased the effectiveness of all the experimental lotions. This difference is significantly important for 1-dodecanol concentration of 10%, reaching a toxic activity compared to the best commercial lotion available in the market.

  17. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis in elementary schools of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Gallardo, Anabella; González-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés

    2009-06-01

    The infestation with the human obligate ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is a common public health problem affecting mainly schoolchildren worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infestation levels of head lice in elementary schools from Buenos Aires with resistant levels to permethrin >100. A total of 1,856 children aged 3-13 years old from eight selected elementary schools were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was observed in all the studied schools. The overall infestation rate was 29.7%. Girls were statistically significant more infested than boys, with infestation rate values of 36.1% and 26.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 42 of the infested girls (12%) and 23 of the infested boys (11.4%) had >10 lice on their hair. The proportions of infested children-both girls and boys-in each age group were not found to differ significantly from one another. The infestation rate among schools varied from 19.12% to 42.74%. This indicated that pediculosis is relatively common in elementary schools from Buenos Aires, and those levels are of epidemic importance. The differences of pediculosis among the studied schools could be explained by the different control strategies applied by parents or advisors to eradicate head lice.

  18. Electron Microscopic Alterations in Pediculus humanus capitis Exposed to Some Pediculicidal Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Akkad, Dina M H El; El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Yousof, Hebat-Allah Salah A; Ismail, Mousa A M

    2016-08-01

    Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, infestation is an important public health problem in Egypt. Inadequate application of topical pediculicides and the increasing resistance to the commonly used pediculicides made the urgent need for the development of new agents able to induce irreversible changes in the exposed lice leading to their mortality. The aim of the present work is to evaluate pediculicidal efficacy of some natural products such as olive oil, tea tree oil, lemon juice, and ivermectin separately in comparison with tetramethrin-piperonyl butoxide (licid), as a standard pediculicide commonly used in Egypt. The effects of these products were evaluated by direct observation using dissecting and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Results showed that after 1 hr exposure time in vitro, absolute (100%) mortalities were recorded after exposure to 1% ivermectin and fresh concentrate lemon juice. The mortalities were decreased to 96.7% after exposure to tea tree oil. Very low percentage of mortality (23.3%) was recorded after 1 hr of exposure to extra virgin olive oil. On the other hand, the reference pediculicide (licid) revealed only mortality rate of 93.3%. On the contrary, no mortalities were recorded in the control group exposed to distilled water. By SEM examination, control lice preserved outer smooth architecture, eyes, antenna, respiratory spiracles, sensory hairs, and legs with hook-like claws. In contrast, dead lice which had been exposed to pediculicidal products showed damage of outer smooth architecture, sensory hairs, respiratory spiracles and/or clinching claws according to pediculicidal products used.

  19. Increased monooxygenase activity associated with resistance to permethrin in Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    González Audino, P; Barrios, S; Vassena, C; Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E; Picollo, M I

    2005-05-01

    We studied the profile of permethrin resistance in populations of head lice infesting children 6-12 yr old in schools and their homes in and around Buenos Aires, Argentina. Five permethrin-resistant populations with different levels of resistance were collected: Hogar Loyola (HL), Republica de Turquia (RT), Hogar Mitre (HM), Guardia de Honor (GH), and Ricardo Guiraldes (RG). One susceptible population, Bandera Argentina (BA), also was collected. Their level of resistance was evaluated, and results showed resistance ratios of 13 for HL, 16 for RT, 22 for HM, 61 for GH, and 69 for RG. To elucidate the possible involvement of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in conferring permethrin resistance, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity was measured in abdomens of individual third instars and adults by using a fluorometric assay. The ECOD activity was lower in the susceptible BA population (4.7 ng per louse) than in the resistant ones (13.7 ng per louse for RG, 12.3 ng per louse for GH, 8.6 ng per louse for RT, and 8.2 ng per louse for HL). ECOD activity was significantly correlated with the level of resistance in the field populations (r = 0.97, P = 0.0009), suggesting a role for cytochrome monooxygenase P450 system in permethrin resistance by head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer.

  20. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Catherine; Koch, Laine H; Dice, James E; Dempsey, Kimberly K; Moskowitz, Alan B; Barnes-Eley, Myra L; Hubbard, Thomas W; Williams, Judith V

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Forty children aged 1-11 years with clinically diagnosed tinea capitis were randomized to receive selenium sulfide shampoo 1% or ciclopirox shampoo 1% twice a week as adjuncts to an 8-week course of ultramicronized griseofulvin dosed at 10-12 mg/kg/day. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, subjects returned to the clinic for evaluation and scalp cultures. Subjects then returned for follow-up visits 4 weeks after completing treatment. Overall, by 8 weeks, 30 of 33 (90.9%) treated children demonstrated mycological cure. Selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% were equally effective as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children in our study.

  1. [The Distribution of Pediculus humanus capitis Among Primary School Pupils of the Turkish Chamber of Commerce and Stock Exchange Organisation in Van].

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Selver; Yılmaz, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    This study was performed in order to study the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis (P. h. capitis). The study was carried out on pupils between 5-15 years old in a school and kindergarden belonging to the Turkish Chamber of Commerce and Stock Exchange Organization in Van City between November-December 2007. The hair of 863 pupils (especially the neck and the back of head areas), 385 girls and 478 boys, were examined for eggs, nymphs and adults of P. h. capitis. A questionnaire was given to the pupils, which was collected the following day. Lice and their eggs/nits, which were removed from the head of children were transferred to a bottle containing 5% glycerin in 70% ethyl alcohol. Later they were sent to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital of Yüzüncü Yıl University. Eggs/nits were found in 164 (42.6%) of the girls and in 34 (7.1%) of the boys (overall 198 (22.9%) infested pupils). The prevalence of P. h. capitis was high, especially in girls. The infestation rates observed and the evaluation of the questionnaire showed that there is a statistically significant relationships between pediculosis capitis and sex, level of family income, education level of the mother, number of baths taken per weekly, number of family members living in the same home, room number per capita, and hair length (p<0.001). However, there was no significant relationship between pediculosis capitis and cleaning materials used to wash the head (p>0.05).

  2. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing particular doses of griseofulvin and terbinafine for the treatment of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Drummond-Main, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Two oral antifungal agents, griseofulvin and terbinafine, have regulatory approval in the United States, but it is unknown whether one has superior overall efficacy. Genus-specific differences in efficacy are believed to exist for the two agents. It is not clear at what doses and durations of treatment these differences apply. The goals of this meta-analysis were to determine whether a statistically significant difference in efficacy exists between these agents at a given dose and duration of each in tinea capitis infections overall and to determine whether a genus-specific difference in efficacy exists for these two treatments at a given dose and duration of each. We performed a literature search for clinically and methodologically similar randomized controlled trials comparing 8 weeks of griseofulvin (6.25-12.5 mg/kg/day) to 4 weeks of terbinafine (3.125-6.25 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of tinea capitis. A meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model; results were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials did not show a significant difference in the overall efficacy of the two drugs at the doses specified, but specific efficacy differences were observed based on the infectious species. For tinea capitis caused by Microsporum spp., griseofulvin is superior (p = 0.04), whereas terbinafine is superior for Trichophyton spp. infection (p = 0.04). Our results support species-specific differences in treatment efficacy between griseofulvin and terbinafine and provide a clinical context in which this knowledge may be applied.

  3. Pediculosis capitis: prevalence and its associated factors in primary school children living in rural and urban areas in Kayseri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gulgun, Mustafa; Balci, Elçin; Karaoğlu, Abdülbaki; Babacan, Oğuzhan; Türker, Türker

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of pediculosis capitis in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas in Kayseri, a city located in central Anatolia in Turkey. This cross-sectional school-based study was performed in 24 randomly selected public schools. A total of 8,122 schoolchildren aged 5-16 years, from kindergarten to eighth grade, were examined for the presence of pediculosis capitis. A child was defined as being infested by the presence of live or dead lice or eggs/nits. The results were analyzed using the chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 13.1%. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (25.2%) than in boys (0.86%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence was lower in children aged 5-8 years than in those aged 9-11 or 12-16 years (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analyses, the variables demonstrating statistically significant association with pediculosis were: being a girl (OR = 40.93; 95% Cl = 29.06-57.66), being 9-11 years old (OR = 1.54; 95% Cl = 1.25-1.89), residing with > or = 3 siblings (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl = 1.57-2.50), having a mother with no education (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.29-2.33), having a father with no education (OR = 1.45; 95% Cl = 1.08-1.94), living in a rural area (OR = 2.34; 95% Cl = 2.02-2.71) and living in a one-room house (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.41-4.08). Pediculosis capitis remains a health problem in schoolchildren in Kayseri, Turkey. In addition to improvement in socioeconomic status, collaborative and participation efforts among physicians, nurses, teachers, and parents are necessary to maintain effective epidemiological surveillance and provide treatment.

  4. Wide geographical dissemination of the multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A clone in neonatal intensive-care units.

    PubMed

    Butin, M; Rasigade, J-P; Martins-Simões, P; Meugnier, H; Lemriss, H; Goering, R V; Kearns, A; Deighton, M A; Denis, O; Ibrahimi, A; Claris, O; Vandenesch, F; Picaud, J-C; Laurent, F

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial late-onset sepsis represents a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates. The Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has been previously described as an emerging cause of nosocomial bacteraemia in French neonatal intensive-care units (NICUs). In this study, we aimed to explore the possible unrecognized dissemination of this clone on a larger geographical scale. One hundred methicillin-resistant S. capitis strains isolated from neonates (n = 86) and adult patients (n = 14) between 2000 and 2013 in four different countries (France, Belgium, the UK, and Australia) were analysed with SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and dru typing. The vast majority of NICU strains showed the NRCS-A pulsotype and the dt11c type (96%). We then randomly selected 14 isolates (from neonates, n = 12, three per country; from adult patients, n = 2), considered to be a subset of representative isolates, and performed further molecular typing (SacII PFGE, SCCmec typing, and multilocus sequence typing-like analysis), confirming the clonality of the S. capitis strains isolated from neonates, despite their distant geographical origin. Whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis of five NICU isolates (from the different countries) attested to high genetic relatedness within the NRCS-A clone. Finally, all of the NRCS-A strains showed multidrug resistance (e.g. methicillin and aminoglycoside resistance, and decreased vancomycin susceptibility), with potential therapeutic implications for infected neonates. In conclusion, this study represents the first report of clonal dissemination of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus clone on a large geographical scale. Questions remain regarding the origin and means of international spread, and the reasons for this clone's apparent predilection for neonates. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. TINEA CAPITIS DUE TO TRICHOPHYTON TONSURANS—Incidence, Diagnosis and Epidemiology in the San Francisco Bay Region

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Herbert L.; Halde, Carlyn

    1955-01-01

    Eighty-five cases of tinea capitis due to T. tonsurans were observed in the San Francisco Bay area during the five years 1950-54. This disease, unlike the common microsporum infections, sometimes affects adults and adolescents. Hairs infected with T. tonsurans do not fluoresce under the Wood's light. Diagnosis is a laboratory procedure in which the fungus is isolated from the hair. There are three clinical varieties of the disease. The course is prolonged and treatment is unsatisfactory. The disease apparently has spread from Mexico, through the Southwest and Southern California. Control is difficult. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4. PMID:13260935

  6. Late-onset sepsis due to Staphylococcus capitis 'neonatalis' in low-birthweight infants: a new entity?

    PubMed

    Ben Said, M; Hays, S; Bonfils, M; Jourdes, E; Rasigade, J-P; Laurent, F; Picaud, J-C

    2016-09-01

    During hospitalization, sepsis occurs in one of every five very-low-birthweight infants. The emergence of Staphylococcus capitis (SC)-related sepsis in preterm infants was observed recently. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical severity of SC-related sepsis in preterm infants. Of the 105 infants who presented with sepsis related to coagulase-negative staphylococci, 74 were SC. Severe morbidity was more common in the SC group (55.4%) than in the non-SC coagulase-negative staphylococci group (32.0%) (P=0.03). Multi-variate analysis identified SC-related sepsis as an independent risk factor for severe morbidity.

  7. Chemical composition and efficacy of some selected plant oils against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yones, Doaa A; Bakir, Hanaa Y; Bayoumi, Soad A L

    2016-08-01

    Natural compounds have been suggested as alternative sources for pediculosis capitis control. We aimed to investigate the chemical composition and evaluate the pediculicidal activity of spearmint, clove, cassia, thyme, eucalyptus, and anise essential oils in addition to sesame oil against human head lice in vitro. A filter paper contact bioassay method was used by applying 0.25 and 0.5 mg/cm(2) of each tested oil to filter paper in Petri dishes with 15 females head lice and another with ten nits. The lice mortalities were reported every 5 min for 180 min. The percentage of inhibition of hatch (PIH) was used to calculate ovicidal activity by daily microscopic inspections 5 days after the hatching of controls. Comparison with the widely used pediculicide (malathion) was performed. The most effective essential oil was spearmint followed by cassia and clove with KT50 values of 4.06, 7.62, and 12.12 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 8.84, 11.38, and 19.73 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thyme, eucalyptus, and anise were also effective adulticides with KT50 values of 18.61, 32.65, and 37.34 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 29.92, 43.16, and 45.37 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Essential oils were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence. Spearmint oil was the most effective, with a complete inhibition of emergence at 0.5 mg/cm(2). Sesame fixed oil did not show any adulticidal or ovicidal activity against head lice in vitro. The observed insecticidal activity was comparable to malathion. The results herein described the effectiveness of these essential oils as potential pediculicides for head lice control. Incorporation of essential oils in pediculicide formulations needs proper formulation and clinical trials.

  8. Purification and molecular characterization of glycylglycine endopeptidase produced by Staphylococcus capitis EPK1.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Akiyama, T; Ohara, M; Komatsuzawa, H; Inoue, S; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    A novel staphylolytic enzyme, ALE-1, acting on Staphylococcus aureus, was purified from a Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 culture supernatant. The optimal pH range for staphylolytic activity was 7 to 9. ALE-1 contains one Zn2+ atom per molecule. Analysis of peptidoglycan fragments released by ALE-1 indicated that the enzyme is a glycylglycine endopeptidase. The effects of various modulators were determined, and we found that o-phenanthroline, iodoacetic acid, diethylpyrocarbonate, and Cu2+ reduced the staphylolytic activity of ALE-1. beta-Casein, elastin, and pentaglycine were poor substrates for ALE-1. Molecular cloning data revealed that ALE-1 is composed of 362 amino acid residues and is synthesized as a precursor protein which is cleaved after Ala at position 35, thus producing a mature ALE-1 of 35.6 kDa. The primary structure of mature ALE-1 is very similar to the proenzyme form of lysostaphin. It has the modular design of an N-terminal domain of tandem repeats of a 13-amino-acid sequence fused to the active site containing C-terminal domain. Unlike lysostaphin, ALE-1 does not undergo processing of the N-terminal repeat domain in broth culture. ale-1 is encoded on the plasmid. Protein homology search suggested that ALE-1 and lysostaphin are members of the novel Zn2+ protease family with a homologous 38-amino-acid-long motif, Tyr-X-His-X(11)-Val-X(12/20)-Gly-X(5-6)-His. PMID:9023202

  9. Enhancing DNA electro-transformation efficiency on a clinical Staphylococcus capitis isolate.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2015-02-01

    Clinical staphylococcus isolates possess a stronger restriction-modification (RM) barrier than laboratory strains. Clinical isolates are therefore more resistant to acceptance of foreign genetic material than laboratory strains, as their restriction systems more readily recognize and destroy foreign DNA. This stronger barrier consequently restricts genetic studies to a small number of domestic strains that are capable of accepting foreign DNA. In this study, an isolate of Staphylococcus capitis, obtained from the blood of a very low birth-weight baby, was transformed with a shuttle vector, pBT2. Optimal conditions for electro-transformation were as follows: cells were harvested at mid-log phase, electro-competent cells were prepared; cells were pre-treated at 55°C for 1min; 3μg of plasmid DNA was mixed with 70-80μL of competent cells (3-4×10(10)cells/mL) at 20°C in 0.5M sucrose, 10% glycerol; and electroporation was conducted using 2.1kV/cm field strength with a 0.1cm gap. Compared to the conventional method, which involves DNA electroporation of Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 as an intermediate strain to overcome the restriction barrier, our proposed approach exhibits a higher level (3 log10 units) of transformation efficiency. Heat treatment was used to temporarily inactivate the recipient RM barrier. Other important parameters contributing to improved electro-transformation efficiency were growth stage for cell harvesting, the quantity of DNA, the transformation temperature and field strength. The approach described here may facilitate genetic manipulations of this opportunistic pathogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Splenius capitis is a reliable target for measuring cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in adults.

    PubMed

    Camp, Aaron J; Gu, Chao; Cushing, Sharon L; Gordon, Karen A; Corneil, Brian D

    2017-02-08

    The cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a common and simple test of vestibulospinal reflex patency. In the clinic, cVEMPs are measured in response to loud sounds from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) on the ventral neck, as subjects maintain an uncomfortable head posture needed to recruit SCM. Here we characterize the cVEMP in a dorsal neck turner (splenius capitis; SPL), and compare it with the SCM cVEMP. cVEMPs were recorded simultaneously via surface electromyography from SCM and SPL from 17 healthy subjects in a variety of postures, including head-turned postures adopted while either seated or standing, and the clinical posture. Like the SCM cVEMP recorded ipsilateral to the side of sound stimulation, the cVEMP on the contralateral SPL (synergistic with ipsilateral SCM) was characterized by a biphasic wave of muscle activity that began at ~ 13 ms. cVEMP reliability was higher on SPL vs. SCM in standing postures (chi-squared; P < 0.05), and equivalent results were obtained from SPL in a standing or seated posture. In 9 of the 17 subjects, we also obtained bilateral intramuscular (IM) recordings from SPL at the same time as the surface recordings. In these subjects, the initial surface response in SPL was associated with a consistent decrease in multi-unit IM SPL activity. Overall, these results demonstrate that SPL recordings offer a complimentary target for cVEMP assessments. The expression of SPL cVEMPs in simple head-turned postures may also improve the utility of cVEMP testing for vestibular assessment in children, the elderly, or non-compliant.

  11. Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Infested Cases with Pediculus capitis and P. corporis in Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran.

    PubMed

    Riabi, H Ramezani Awal; Atarodi, Ar

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi.

  12. [Deliberate use of several products for Pediculus capitis (De Geer, 1778) control by parents or tutors of elementary school children].

    PubMed

    Hernández Contreras, Natividad; Chang Camero, Yalina; Santana Suárez, Yarina; Machado Martínez, Elizabeth; Martinez Izquierdo, Alicia M; Pui Vazquez, Lourdes de la C

    2010-01-01

    self-medication and use of several products as peliculicides seem to be common procedures for those persons living with schoolchildren, in order to eliminate head lice. to analyze the deliberate use of several products by the people living with elementary school children, so as to control their pediculosis capitis. a questionnaire- and exchange of opinion-based survey on the products used to control or eliminate head lice was administered to 896 people who lived with children aged 5 to 10 years. These children studied in 19 elementary schools in urban and suburban areas located in the western, central and eastern provinces of Cuba. the surveyed population mentioned more than 40 products. Among the most reported substances were alcohol, DDT and lindano which were previously rejected owing to their toxicity and ineffectiveness. There were also reports on products from agricultural, public health and veterinary medicine, including those devoted to plague control such as temephos, steladon, malathion, parathion, baytex; also oil derivatives like brake fluid, kerosene and gasoline. the paper mentioned a number of toxic substances used in treating Pediculus capitis in children, the risks of which outweighted the expected benefits. The percentage of persons who manually remove lice from the head as the only treatment is low; however, this is the less harmful and more effective method.

  13. Pediculosis capitis among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Tappeh, K Hazrati; Chavshin, Ar; Hajipirloo, H Mohammadzadeh; Khashaveh, S; Hanifian, H; Bozorgomid, A; Mohammadi, M; Gharabag, D Jabbari; Azizi, H

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psychological effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010. 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls) were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive. Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test. Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suitable warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys) are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups. There was no significant relation between parent's education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation. The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school children.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem.

  14. Tinea Capitis: Mixed or Consecutive Infection with White and Violet Strains of Trichophyton violaceum: A Diagnostic or Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Roma

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting scalp and hair of pre-pubertal children. With introduction of Griseofulvin in 1958, there has been considerable improvement in the treatment of tinea capitis. A seven-year-old male child was brought to the dermatology clinic. He presented with diffuse white scaly patches of alopecia on scalp of one-year duration. The child was sent to the microbiology section of the National Health laboratory, Botswana for the collection of the samples. The samples consisted of scalp scrapings and few plucked hairs from the suspicious areas, which were collected by swab and scalpel blade methods. Potassium hydroxide (10% KOH) mounts were prepared for scales and hair samples. Scales were positive for fungal elements and endothrix type of perforation was seen in hair. Cultures on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) and Derm agar were incubated at 25°C, which yielded white variant of Trichophyton violaceum after two weeks of incubation. T. vioaceum (white variant) grew in all the plates. After six weeks of treatment with griseofulvin, the repeat culture grew only T. violaceum (violet strain). The child showed a definite clinical improvement. PMID:26814801

  15. Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Infested Cases with Pediculus capitis and P. corporis in Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Riabi, H Ramezani Awal; Atarodi, AR

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. Methods In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. Results The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Conclusion Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi. PMID:23133477

  16. Antifungal activity of Cleome gynandra L. aerial parts for topical treatment of Tinea capitis: an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Imanirampa, Lawrence; Alele, Paul E

    2016-07-08

    Cleome gynandra L. (Capparaceae) is an edible weed used in Uganda topically for its presumed antifungal activity against Tinea capitis. The goal of this study was to determine if this plant possesses antifungal activity in vitro, since T. capitis is a pervasive infection among especially rural children. Antifungal activity assay was performed by Broth dilution method, and testing done on clinical isolates of three common Tinea capitis-causing fungal strains. Evaluation of in vitro antifungal activity of the ethanol and water extracts of C. gynandra was done to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the extracts. The MIC of C. gynandra ethanol extract ranged from 0.0313 to 0.0625 mg/ml for Trichophyton rubrum, and from 0.25 to 0.5 mg/ml for both Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The MICs of C. gynandra aqueous extract ranged between 0.125 to 0.25 mg/ml for T. rubrum, and 0.25 to 0.5 mg/ml for both M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. T. rubrum was more sensitive than M. canis (p < 0.002) and more sensitive than T. mentagrophytes (p < 0.035) to the antifungal activity of C. gynandra. T. rubrum was 6.9 times (95 % CL: 1.15 - 41.6) more likely to have a better outcome (more sensitive) than T. mentagrophytes. Cleome gynandra aqueous extract had MFC of ≥0.0313 mg/ml for M. canis, ≥0.0156 mg/ml for T. mentagropyhtes, and ≥0.0625 mg/ml for T. rubrum. Cleome gynandra ethanol extract showed MFCs of ≥0.5 mg/ml for M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, and ≥0.125 mg/ml for T. rubrum. Both plant extracts demonstrated antifungal activity, shown by the MIC and MFC for the different extracts, which varied with the type of organism of the clinical fungal isolates. The ethanol extract exhibited comparable antifungal activity to the aqueous extract indicated by the MIC values seen. Conversely, after subculturing the fungal isolates, MFCs were lower for the aqueous than for the

  17. Acute poisoning in a child following topical treatment of head lice (pediculosis capitis) with an organophosphate pesticide.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Muddathir H; Adeel, Ahmed Awad; Alhaboob, Ali Abdu N; Ashri, Ahmed M; Salih, Mustafa A

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft). The patient was hospitalized for seven days and discharged after full recovery. The case highlights the importance of raising the awareness of health workers and the community about the danger of misusing pesticides for the treatment of head lice.

  18. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2012-09-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca.

  19. Acute poisoning in a child following topical treatment of head lice (pediculosis capitis) with an organophosphate pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Adeel, Ahmed Awad; Alhaboob, Ali Abdu N; Ashri, Ahmed M; Salih, Mustafa A

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft). The patient was hospitalized for seven days and discharged after full recovery. The case highlights the importance of raising the awareness of health workers and the community about the danger of misusing pesticides for the treatment of head lice. PMID:27651556

  20. The variation of the strength of neck extensor muscles and semispinalis capitis muscle size with head and neck position.

    PubMed

    Rezasoltani, A; Nasiri, R; Faizei, A M; Zaafari, G; Mirshahvelayati, A S; Bakhshidarabad, L

    2013-04-01

    Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women students voluntarily participated in this study. An ultrasonography apparatus (Hitachi EUB 525) and a system of tension-meter were used to scan the right SECM at the level of third cervical spine and to measure the strength of neck extensor muscles at three head and neck positions. Neck extensor muscles were stronger in neutral than flexion or than extension positions while the size of SECM was larger in extension than neutral or than flexion position. The force generation capacity of the main neck extensor muscle was lower at two head and neck flexion and extension positions than neutral position.

  1. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe)2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Wu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Xiling; Li, Fuguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe)2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  2. Pediculosis capitis among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tappeh, K Hazrati; Chavshin, AR; Hajipirloo, H Mohammadzadeh; Khashaveh, S; Hanifian, H; Bozorgomid, A; Mohammadi, M; Gharabag, D Jabbari; Azizi, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psychological effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010. Methods: 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls) were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive. Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test. Results: Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suitable warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys) are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups. There was no significant relation between parent’s education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation. Conclusion: The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school children.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem. PMID:23293782

  3. Safety, Efficacy, and Physicochemical Characterization of Tinospora crispa Ointment: A Community-Based Formulation against Pediculus humanus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Gerwin Louis Tapan Dela; Ponsaran, Kerstin Mariae Gonzales; de Guzman, Angelica Louise Dela Peña; Manalo, Richelle Ann Mallapre; Arollado, Erna Custodio

    2017-01-01

    The high prevalence of pediculosis capitis, commonly known as head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation, has led to the preparation of a community-based pediculicidal ointment, which is made of common household items and the extract of Tinospora crispa stem. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and physicochemical characteristics of the T. crispa pediculicidal ointment. The physicochemical properties of the ointment were characterized, and safety was determined using acute dermal irritation test (OECD 404), while the efficacy was assessed using an in vitro pediculicidal assay. Furthermore, the chemical compounds present in T. crispa were identified using liquid-liquid extraction followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometric (UPLC-qTOF/MS) analysis. The community-based ointment formulation was light yellow in color, homogeneous, smooth, with distinct aromatic odor and pH of 6.92±0.09. It has spreadability value of 15.04±0.98 g·cm/sec and has thixotropic behavior. It was also found to be non-irritant, with a primary irritation index value of 0.15. Moreover, it was comparable to the pediculicidal activity of the positive control Kwell®, a commercially available 1% permethrin shampoo (P>0.05), and was significantly different to the activity of the negative control ointment, a mixture of palm oil and candle wax (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the community-based T. crispa pediculicidal ointment is safe and effective, having acceptable physicochemical characteristics. Its activity can be attributed to the presence of compounds moupinamide and physalin I. PMID:28877572

  4. Safety, Efficacy, and Physicochemical Characterization of Tinospora crispa Ointment: A Community-Based Formulation against Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Torre, Gerwin Louis Tapan Dela; Ponsaran, Kerstin Mariae Gonzales; de Guzman, Angelica Louise Dela Peña; Manalo, Richelle Ann Mallapre; Arollado, Erna Custodio

    2017-08-01

    The high prevalence of pediculosis capitis, commonly known as head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation, has led to the preparation of a community-based pediculicidal ointment, which is made of common household items and the extract of Tinospora crispa stem. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and physicochemical characteristics of the T. crispa pediculicidal ointment. The physicochemical properties of the ointment were characterized, and safety was determined using acute dermal irritation test (OECD 404), while the efficacy was assessed using an in vitro pediculicidal assay. Furthermore, the chemical compounds present in T. crispa were identified using liquid-liquid extraction followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometric (UPLC-qTOF/MS) analysis. The community-based ointment formulation was light yellow in color, homogeneous, smooth, with distinct aromatic odor and pH of 6.92±0.09. It has spreadability value of 15.04±0.98 g·cm/sec and has thixotropic behavior. It was also found to be non-irritant, with a primary irritation index value of 0.15. Moreover, it was comparable to the pediculicidal activity of the positive control Kwell®, a commercially available 1% permethrin shampoo (P>0.05), and was significantly different to the activity of the negative control ointment, a mixture of palm oil and candle wax (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the community-based T. crispa pediculicidal ointment is safe and effective, having acceptable physicochemical characteristics. Its activity can be attributed to the presence of compounds moupinamide and physalin I.

  5. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe)2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiling; Li, Fuguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe)2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program. PMID:26035817

  6. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2005-12-01

    The toxicity of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of their related compounds, benzyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, as well as two widely used pediculicides, d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay with female lice at 0.25 mg/cm(2), benzaldehyde was 29- and 27-fold more toxic than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively, as judged by median lethal time (LT(50)) values. Salicylaldehyde was nine and eight times more active than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively. Pediculicidal activity of linalool was comparable with that of d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. Cinnamomum bark essential oil was slightly less effective than either d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. Benzyl alcohol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde exhibited moderate pediculicidal activity. After 24h of exposure, no hatching was observed with 0.063 mg/cm(2) salicylaldehyde, 0.125 mg/cm(2) benzaldehyde, 0.5mg/cm(2)Cinnamomum bark essential oil, 1.0 mg/cm(2) (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 1.0 mg/cm(2) benzyl cinnamate. Little or no ovicidal activity was observed with d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. In vapour phase toxicity tests with female lice, benzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde were much more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these compounds was largely due to action in the vapour phase. Neither d-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Cinnamomum bark essential oil and test compounds described merit further study as potential pediculicides or ovicides for the control of P. h. capitis.

  7. Lousicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Lawsonia inermis leaf aqueous extract against Pediculus humanus capitis and Bovicola ovis.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, we describe inexpensive, nontoxic, unreported and simple procedure for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis as eco-friendly reducing and capping agent. The aim of the present study was to assess the lousicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs against human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), and sheep body louse, Bovicola ovis Schrank (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity and impregnated method was used with slight modifications to improve practicality and efficiency of tested materials of synthesized Ag NPs against B. ovis. The synthesized Ag NPs characterized with the UV showing peak at 426 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the silver with lattice constants. XRD analysis showed intense peaks at 2θ values of 38.34°, 44.59°, 65.04°, and 77.77° corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) Bragg's reflection based on the fcc structure of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of Ag NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,422.13, 2,924.12, 2,851.76, 1,631.41, 1,381.60, 1,087.11, and 789.55 cm(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph showed mean size of 59.52 nm and aggregates of spherical shape Ag NPs. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring percent mortality effects of synthesized Ag NPs were 26, 61, 84, and 100 at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. The average percent mortality for synthesized Ag NPs was 33, 84, 91, and 100 at 10, 15, 20, and 35 min, respectively against B. ovis. The maximum activity was observed in the aqueous leaf extract of L. inermis, 1 mM AgNO(3) solution, and synthesized Ag NPs against P. humanus

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, A; Shemshad, K; Sayyadi, M; Biglarian, A; Vahabi, B; Sayyad, S; Shemshad, M; Rafinejad, J

    2012-06-01

    Human head lice, Pediculus (humanus) capitis, infest people worldwide and are most prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice, in relation to socioeconomic status of the family and hygienic practices in the home. The prevalence rate was determined in 27 primary schools that had 810 students in Sanandaj city who were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. A total of 38 students from all grades were infested with different rates of infestations. In addition, standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each student were fulfilled. Children aged 10-11 years were the most frequently affected, there was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family income and parents education level (α=5%). Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world. Pediculosis was found to be more prevalent among children of fathers with lower level of education and socioeconomic status, it is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in this area.

  9. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Insecticidal activity of individual and mixed monoterpenoids of geranium essential oil against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Picollo, M I; González-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G

    2012-03-01

    The major components of geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) oil and their mixtures were tested against female Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed four major constituents: citronellol (38%), geraniol (16%), citronellyl formate (10.4%), and linalool (6.45%) (concentration expressed as percentage of total). Topical application demonstrated that the most potent component was citronellol and geraniol, with LD50 values 9.7 and 12.7 microg/insect, respectively. Linalool and Citronellyl formate were less toxic with LD50 values 24.7 and 38.5 microg/insect, respectively. Toxicity of these four major constituents in the same proportion as the natural oil, was greater than whole oil and each individual component. Removal of any four constituents produced a decreased in effectiveness. The absence of citronellol caused the greatest decrease in toxicity (DL50 from 2.2 to 10.9 microg/insect), leading us to conclude that this constituent is the major contributor to oil toxicity. The knowledge of the role of each constituent in the toxicity of the whole oil gives the possibility to create artificial blends of different constituents for the development of more effective control agents.

  11. Impact of ivermectin drug combinations on Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in primary schoolchildren of south Indian rural villages.

    PubMed

    Munirathinam, Arumugam; Sunish, Ittoop Pulikkottil; Rajendran, Rathinasamy; Tyagi, Brij Kishore

    2009-11-01

    Antifilarial drug combinations including ivermectin provide antifilarial activity with ancillary benefits on intestinal helminths and ectoparasites, such as chiggers and lice. The impact of single oral dose of antifilarial drugs, viz; (1) diethylcarbamazine (DEC) alone, (ii) DEC + albendazole (ALB), (iii) ivermectin (IVR) + DEC and (iv) IVR + ALB, was determined, on the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) in primary school children in a rural community in south India. Primary school children (n = 534) of age 6-10 years from four villages of South India were examined for the presence of head lice before and after single dose of DEC + ivermectin drug combination. The effectiveness and the duration of cure sustained by these drugs were quantified. The head louse was examined by "combing method" during post-treatment periods at 15, 45, 60 and 75 days interval. The antifilarial drug consumption rate was similar (96-98%) in all treatment arms. In pre-treatment survey the prevalence of head lice in children administered with DEC, DEC + ALB, IVR + DEC and IVR + ALB arm was 86%, 80%, 87% and 80%, respectively, with the latter two arms demonstrating significant reduction in louse infestation (P < 0.05) for 60 days. Single dose with IVR combination demonstrates a greater impact in reducing head louse infestation in the endemic rural communities for nearly 60 days. Therefore, in regions such as Africa where ivermectin is part of the antifilariasis campaign, this drug will have an additional benefit in reducing head lice infestation.

  12. [Prevalence of pediculus humanus capitis infestation in schoolchildren at Despeñaderos, Córdoba Province].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Alejandra; Ludueña Almeida, Francisco F; Almirón, Walter R

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 80% of Argentine children have pediculosis, making it imperious to detect the defects in the prevention and control actions for this parasitosis. To study the infestation level by P. h. capitis, its temporal variation, and the association between infestation and host characteristics. A monthly census in children of 6-8 years old from 2 primary schools (state and private) was carried out, recording the parasite stages found, children characteristics (sex, colour and length of hair), and infestation level. Data were analysed by means of contingency tables, difference of proportions, quotient of chances, and rank correlation coefficient. The independence of variables was analysed by c' test. The prevalence and chances of becoming infested were higher at the state school, where also all infestation levels were recorded, which did not occur at the private institute. The frequency of children infested was significantly lower when they had short hair. The correlation among infestation degree and hair length (short-long) was only significant for boys. Pediculosis cases were recorded at the beginning of the school year in both educative institutions, which demonstrated that infestation was acquired not only at school but also at home. Pediculosis is a social problems and the whole community must participate in preventive and control actions, for which sanitary education is essential, and the myth that the school is the only place of contagion must be eradicated.

  13. IL6-174 G>C Polymorphism (rs1800795) Association with Late Effects of Low Dose Radiation Exposure in the Portuguese Tinea Capitis Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Adélia; Costa, Natália Rios; Chora, Inês; Ferreira, Sara; Araújo, Emanuel; Lopes, Pedro; Rosa, Gilberto; Marques, Pedro; Bettencourt, Paulo; Oliveira, Inês; Costa, Francisco; Ramos, Isabel; Teles, Maria José; Guimarães, João Tiago; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancers, and cardiovascular disease have been described as late effects of low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, namely in tinea capitis cohorts. In addition to radiation dose, gender and younger age at exposure, the genetic background might be involved in the susceptibility to LDR late effects. The -174 G>C (rs1800795) SNP in IL6 has been associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, nevertheless this association is still controversial. We assessed the association of the IL6-174 G>C SNP with LDR effects such as thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and carotid atherosclerosis in the Portuguese tinea capitis cohort. The IL6-174 G>C SNP was genotyped in 1269 individuals formerly irradiated for tinea capitis. This sampling group included thyroid cancer (n = 36), basal cell carcinoma (n = 113) and cases without thyroid or basal cell carcinoma (1120). A subgroup was assessed for atherosclerosis by ultrasonography (n = 379) and included matched controls (n = 222). Genotypes were discriminated by real-time PCR using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. In the irradiated group, we observed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with carotid plaque risk, both in the genotypic (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.60–7.95, p-value = 0.002) and in the recessive (OR = 3.02, CI = 1.42–6.42, p-value = 0.004) models. Irradiation alone was not a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis. We did not find a significant association of the IL6-174 C allele with thyroid carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma risk. The IL6-174 CC genotype confers a three-fold risk for carotid atherosclerotic disease suggesting it may represent a genetic susceptibility factor in the LDR context. PMID:27662210

  14. IL6-174 G>C Polymorphism (rs1800795) Association with Late Effects of Low Dose Radiation Exposure in the Portuguese Tinea Capitis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Paula; Durães, Cecília; Mendes, Adélia; Costa, Natália Rios; Chora, Inês; Ferreira, Sara; Araújo, Emanuel; Lopes, Pedro; Rosa, Gilberto; Marques, Pedro; Bettencourt, Paulo; Oliveira, Inês; Costa, Francisco; Ramos, Isabel; Teles, Maria José; Guimarães, João Tiago; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    Head and neck cancers, and cardiovascular disease have been described as late effects of low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, namely in tinea capitis cohorts. In addition to radiation dose, gender and younger age at exposure, the genetic background might be involved in the susceptibility to LDR late effects. The -174 G>C (rs1800795) SNP in IL6 has been associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, nevertheless this association is still controversial. We assessed the association of the IL6-174 G>C SNP with LDR effects such as thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and carotid atherosclerosis in the Portuguese tinea capitis cohort. The IL6-174 G>C SNP was genotyped in 1269 individuals formerly irradiated for tinea capitis. This sampling group included thyroid cancer (n = 36), basal cell carcinoma (n = 113) and cases without thyroid or basal cell carcinoma (1120). A subgroup was assessed for atherosclerosis by ultrasonography (n = 379) and included matched controls (n = 222). Genotypes were discriminated by real-time PCR using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. In the irradiated group, we observed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with carotid plaque risk, both in the genotypic (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.60-7.95, p-value = 0.002) and in the recessive (OR = 3.02, CI = 1.42-6.42, p-value = 0.004) models. Irradiation alone was not a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis. We did not find a significant association of the IL6-174 C allele with thyroid carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma risk. The IL6-174 CC genotype confers a three-fold risk for carotid atherosclerotic disease suggesting it may represent a genetic susceptibility factor in the LDR context.

  15. Thyroid and parathyroid tumours in patients submitted to X-ray scalp epilation during the tinea capitis eradication campaign in the North of Portugal (1950-1963).

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Paula; Pereira, Dina; Mendes, Adélia; Teixeira-Gomes, José; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-10-01

    Tinea capitis attained epidemical proportions in the fifth and sixth decades in Portugal, as in other countries. Before starting the utilization of griseofulvin in 1959, the best approach to treat tinea capitis infection was X-ray scalp epilation combined with topical antimycotic ointments. A long-term side effect of this therapy is thyroid disease, namely thyroid cancer; data on parathyroid lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma) are scarce. We observed clinically 1,375 individuals irradiated in childhood for tinea capitis treatment in the North of Portugal with the main purpose of evaluating thyroid and parathyroid tumours as possible sequelae of the irradiation treatment. For each individual, a cervical ultrasound and a serum calcium measurement were proposed. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suggested whenever ultrasound thyroid nodules presented suspicious features. We observed a 54 % frequency of thyroid nodules and a 2.8 % frequency of thyroid carcinoma (38/1,375). Nineteen of the 38 (50 %) carcinomas were diagnosed by us, whereas the remaining 19 carcinomas had been diagnosed and treated prior to our observation. The carcinomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men. Benign excised lesions were also significantly more frequent in women and in patients irradiated at younger ages. Seven women, considered asymptomatic until our clinical observation, had laboratory signs of hyperparathyroidism. The data we have obtained, namely high thyroid cancer frequency, corroborate previous data from childhood irradiated cohorts and highlight the need for the close follow-up of these populations in order to identify and treat early undiagnosed head and neck lesions. No evidence of increased parathyroid disease was found in this cohort of head and neck X-irradiated patients.

  16. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    PubMed

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (P<0.01). The most effective pediculicide was T. indica extract shampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 values<1.0 min. Our data showed that all herbal shampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  17. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis).

    PubMed

    Barnett, Eric; Palma, Kathleen G; Clayton, Bert; Ballard, Timothy

    2012-09-03

    In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice's cuticular wax. A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5) was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax appears to offer a mechanism for killing lice without the

  18. Use of a poultry model to assess the transfer inhibition effect of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) products.

    PubMed

    Ketzis, Jennifer K; Clements, Kathleen; Honraet, Kris

    2014-05-01

    Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) remain a nuisance, predominantly in school age children. Despite the availability of pediculicidal products, children, after treatment, easily become re-infested if the outbreak has not been controlled on a class or school level. Lice repellents and re-infestation deterrents have been developed to protect children post-treatment. In vitro assays, which are used to evaluate the performance of these products, have limited correlation to in vivo efficacy. In this study, a chicken model was developed as an alternative to in vitro models, more closely mimicking the in vivo situation of children at school. Chickens with natural infestations of Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. were divided into three groups and co-housed for 23 h: Group 1 was treated with a commercial product designed to kill lice and protect from re-infestation (Oystershell Laboratories); group 2 was used to assess lice re-population onto lice-free, untreated chickens; and group 3, the seeder group, consisted of lice-infested chickens. The chickens were examined for lice before and at regular intervals after treatment. The group 1 chickens had an average of 40 lice pre-treatment, 0 lice post-treatment and did not become re-infested during the 23-h period. Lice were slow to re-populate the group 2 chickens but were seen 3 h after co-housing with an average of 6 lice each at the end of the study. Group 3 chickens maintained their lice throughout the study (average of 32 at end of study). Based on this study, chickens can be used as a model to test the performance of lice repellents and re-infestation deterrents.

  19. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5) was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax appears to offer a

  20. Molecular survey of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis in Thailand and its potential role for transmitting Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Sunantaraporn, Sakone; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Pengsakul, Theerakamol; Phumee, Atchara; Boonserm, Rungfar; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2015-02-26

    Head louse infestation, which is caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, occurs throughout the world. With the advent of molecular techniques, head lice have been classified into three clades. Recent reports have demonstrated that pathogenic organisms could be found in head lice. Head lice and their pathogenic bacteria in Thailand have never been investigated. In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of head lice collected from various areas of Thailand and demonstrated the presence of Acinetobacter spp. in head lice. Total DNA was extracted from 275 head louse samples that were collected from several geographic regions of Thailand. PCR was used to amplify the head louse COI gene and for detection of Bartonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. The amplified PCR amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequences were analyzed via the neighbor-joining method using Kimura's 2-parameter model. The phylogenetic tree based on the COI gene revealed that head lice in Thailand are clearly classified into two clades (A and C). Bartonella spp. was not detected in all the samples, whereas Acinetobacter spp. was detected in 10 samples (3.62%), which consisted of A. baumannii (1.45%), A. radioresistens (1.45%), and A. schindleri (0.72%). The relationship of Acinetobacter spp. and the head lice clades showed that Acinetobacter spp. was found in clade A and C. Head lice in Thailand are classified into clade A and B based on the COI gene sequences. Pathogenic Acinetobacter spp. was detected in both clades. The data obtained from the study might assist in the development of effective strategies for head lice control in the future. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in head lice could raise awareness of head lice as a source of nosocomial bacterial infections.

  1. Tumors and other diseases following childhood x-ray treatment for ringworm of the scalp (Tinea capitis).

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E; Moseson, Miriam; Harley, Naomi; Pasternack, Bernard S

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the study is to characterize the risk of tumors from radiation exposure to the head and neck. A cohort of 2,224 children given x-ray treatment and 1,380 given only topical medications for ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis) during 1940-1959 have been followed up for a median of 39 y to determine tumor incidence. Follow-ups were by mail/telephone questionnaire, with 84-88% of the original cohort followed and with medical verification of diseases of interest. Sixteen intracranial tumors [7 brain cancers, 4 meningiomas, and 5 acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas)] occurred in the x-irradiated group following an average brain dose of about 1.4 Gy, compared to 1 acoustic neuroma in the control group. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for brain cancer was 3.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 5.9]. Even though the dose to the thyroid gland was only about 60 mGy, 2 thyroid cancers were found in the irradiated group vs. none among controls, and 11 vs. 1 thyroid adenomas were found in the respective groups. Following an average dose of about 4 Gy to cranial marrow, 8 cases of leukemia (SIR = 3.2, CI: 1.5, 6.1) were observed in the irradiated group and 1 in the control group. There was also a suggestive excess of blood dyscrasias. There was no difference between the groups in the frequency of other cancers of the head and neck (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) or in total mortality.

  2. Sobre la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M Dominik

    2017-07-11

    Las mutaciones en un gran número de genes provocan degeneración de la retina y ceguera sin que exista actualmente cura alguna. En las últimas décadas, la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina ha evolucionado y se ha convertido en un nuevo y prometedor paradigma terapéutico para estas enfermedades poco comunes. Este artículo refleja las ideas y los conceptos que parten de la ciencia básica hacia la aplicabilidad de la terapia génica en el ámbito clínico. Se describen los avances y las reflexiones actuales sobre la eficacia de los ensayos clínicos en la actualidad y se discuten los posibles obstáculos y soluciones de cara al futuro de la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Impact of family ownerships, individual hygiene, and residential environments on the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Salimian, Shahin; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Khayatzadeh, Simin

    2015-11-01

    In the appraisal of head lice outbreak, in addition to socioeconomic factors and availability of health care services, environmental conditions of the households must be taken into account. However, interviewing with children or mailing questionnaires to families may not reflect the actualities. Therefore, in this study, all the inclusive factors which may be associated with head lice outbreak were thoroughly and closely investigated. The data were collected by examining students at schools and surveying patients' households. A questionnaire concerning children's personal hygienic practices, family features, and environmental conditions of the households was filled out during the close assessment of the residential area. The overall prevalence of head lice was obtained as 5.9%, and the difference was not significant within the urban (5.1%) and rural (6.1%) communities. Overall, the number of infested students was more frequent in girls (6.6%) than boys (2.8%), but the difference was not significant. The highest infestation rate was obtained in the examined students whose fathers were unemployed, farmer, and herdsman. Family income showed greater correlation with the prevalence of pediculosis capitis. A high frequency of pediculosis capitis was identified among the students who were sharing individual items with siblings. Assessment of households showed that room flooring material and keeping animals at home were highly correlated with head lice prevalence. Households should be informed that infestations happen, irrespective of socioeconomic status. However, the physical and environmental conditions of living areas and households play an important role in head lice prevention.

  4. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in a woman and Tinea capitis in her 15-day-old baby: molecular evidence of vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, E T M; Borghi, E; Cerri, A; Sciota, R; Morace, G; Menni, S

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman who came under our observation with a 7-year history of a chronic erythematous scaly dermatitis, diagnosed as psoriasis, involving gluteal area and thighs, and treated with topical steroids without benefit. During pregnancy, a progressive worsening of her condition and an extension of cutaneous lesions were observed. Her newborn, a 15-day-old girl, presented a similar scaly and squamous lesion on her scalp. Mycological examination was positive for Trichophyton rubrum in both cases, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed the isogenicity of the two isolates. We performed a diagnosis of T. rubrum tinea corporis and tinea capitis. The case we describe illustrates an unusual clinical presentation of tinea corporis with remarkable extension of cutaneous lesions due to the diagnostic delay and the continuous use of local steroids, together with a rare tinea capitis in the newborn. Our experience highlights the possibility of mother-child transmission and the importance of an early diagnosis.

  5. Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2011-11-01

    The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide, with high prevalence in children. P. humanus capitis has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments, and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance to conventional insecticides. Non-toxic alternative options are hence needed for head lice treatment and/or prevention, and natural products from plants are good candidates for safer control agents that may provide good anti-lice activity. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study carried out the pediculocidal activity using the hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) against P. humanus capitis examined by direct contact and fumigant toxicity (closed- and open-container methods) bioassay. The chemical composition of S. aromaticum flower bud hexane extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent (58.79%) of flower bud hexane extract S. aromaticum was identified as chavibetol (5-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The hexane extract of S. aromaticum was subjected to gas chromatography analysis, and totally 47 compounds were detected, of which chavibetol was predominantly present. The other major constituents present in the hexane extract were eugenol acetate (phenol,2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-,acetate (15.09%), caryophyllene-(I1) (2,6,10,10-tetramethyl bicyclo [7.2.0] undeca-1,6-diene (13.75%), caryophyllene oxide (3.04%), 2,6,6,9-tetramethyl-1,4,8-cycloundecatriene (1.67%), and copaene (1.33%). The filter paper contact bioassay study showed pronounced pediculicidal activity in the flower bud hexane

  6. Terbinafine hydrochloride oral granules versus oral griseofulvin suspension in children with tinea capitis: results of two randomized, investigator-blinded, multicenter, international, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Elewski, Boni E; Cáceres, Hector W; DeLeon, Liberation; El Shimy, Saleh; Hunter, Judy A; Korotkiy, Nicolay; Rachesky, Ingrid Johnson; Sanchez-Bal, Victoria; Todd, Gail; Wraith, LindaAnn; Cai, Bin; Tavakkol, Amir; Bakshi, Rajesh; Nyirady, Judit; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2008-07-01

    Although griseofulvin is currently considered the primary antifungal agent used to treat tinea capitis in many countries, increasingly higher doses and longer durations of treatment are becoming necessary to achieve effective treatment. Alternative antifungal therapies with shorter/simpler treatment regimens may be important to develop for this indication. To compare the efficacy and safety of a new pediatric formulation of terbinafine hydrochloride oral granules with griseofulvin oral suspension in the treatment of tinea capitis. Children (4-12 years of age) with clinically diagnosed and potassium hydroxide microscopy-confirmed tinea capitis were randomized in two identical studies (trial 1, trial 2) to once-daily treatment with terbinafine (5-8 mg/kg; n = 1040) or griseofulvin administered per label (10-20 mg/kg; n = 509) for a period of 6 weeks followed by 4 weeks of follow-up. End-of-study complete cure (negative fungal culture and microscopy with Total Signs and Symptoms Score [TSSS] = 0), and mycologic (negative culture and microscopy) and clinical cure (TSSS = 0) were primary and secondary efficacy variables, respectively. Efficacy analysis was based on pooled data using modified intent-to-treat population (those who received at least one dose of study drug and had positive baseline fungal culture, N = 1286). Safety assessments included monitoring of the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs). Rates of complete cure and mycologic cure were significantly higher for terbinafine than for griseofulvin (45.1% vs 39.2% and 61.5% vs 55.5%, respectively; P < .05). A majority (86.7%) of patients received griseofulvin, 10 to 19.9 mg/kg per day; complete cure rate was not found to be higher among patients who received griseofulvin more than 20 mg/kg per day compared with those who received less than 20 mg/kg per day. Complete cure rate was statistically significantly greater for terbinafine compared to griseofulvin in trial 1 (46.23% vs 34.01%) but not in trial

  7. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to control Pediculus humanus capitis, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Elango, Gandhi; Arora, Pooja; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Manikandan, Sivan; Jose, Sujin

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the antiparasitic efficacies of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Solanum trilobatum against the adult head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed that the particles were in the form of nanocrystals as evidenced by the major peaks at 2θ values of 27.52°, 36.21°, and 54.43° identified as 110, 101, and 211 reflections, respectively. FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,466 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. SEM images displayed NPs that were spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates with an average size of 70 nm. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered a three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The pediculocidal and acaricidal activities of synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the percent mortality of 31, 42, 63, 82, 100; 36, 44, 67, 89, and 100 at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L, respectively, against P. h. capitis and H. a. anatolicum. The average larval percent mortality of synthesized TiO2 NPs was 38, 47, 66, 79, and 100 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/L, respectively, against A. subpictus

  8. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  9. [Randomised clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new pediculicide made with saponified olive oil in the eradication of Pediculus humanus capitis].

    PubMed

    Soler, B; Castellares, C; Viver, S; Díaz, L; Gómez, R; Ruíz, E

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new pediculicide in the eradication of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation. A randomised clinical trial was designed, in which children aged between 5 and 15 years diagnosed with pediculosis were selected. Treatment was administered on days 1 and 7 after selection, and they were evaluated in 4 visits (day 2, 7, 9, and 14). The product under evaluation with saponified olive oil was Inex Pediculicide Soap(®), which was compared with Paranix(®), with a similar mechanism of action. The primary efficacy endpoint was the eradication of the parasite by day 14 (louse-free rate), using an intention to treat analysis. Six paediatricians from 5 Primary Health Care centres in the Community of Madrid (Spain) and one private clinic participated in the study. A total of 45 children were included, of which 75.6% were girls (n=34). The mean age was 7.1 years (95% CI 6.3-7.9). The large majority (80%) were middle class, and 82.2% had a history of previous pediculosis. The efficacy at 14 days was 76.2% (95% CI 52.8-91.8) in the group treated with Inex Pediculicide Soap(®) group, and 79.2% (95% CI 57.9-92.9) in Paranix(®) group (NNT=33.3). No adverse effects were observed with treatment. The 2 products were effective and safe in the eradication therapy Pediculus humanus capitis, with no statistical differences. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy and tolerability of 8 weeks' treatment with terbinafine in children with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis: a comparison of three doses.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T H

    2004-03-01

    Tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis is the most common mycosis of the scalp in preschool and school-aged children in Greece. To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of an 8-week course of oral terbinafine at different doses. Patients received oral terbinafine at doses ranging from 3.3 to 12.5 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks, as follows: group A, terbinafine 3.3 to 6.0 to 7.0 mg/kg/day (23 patients); group C, terbinafine > 7.0 to 12.5 mg/kg/day (37 patients). Fungal microscopy and cultures were performed 4 weeks before the start of the treatment, at the end of the treatment (week 8) and at a follow-up visit at week 16. At week 8 mycological cure was achieved in one patient (2.7%) in group A, in 21 patients (91.3%) in group B and in 34 patients (97.1%) in group C. At week 16 mycological cure was achieved in one patient (2.7%) in group A, in 22 patients (95.7%) in group B and in 35 patients (100%) in group C. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0005) between dose level and efficacy of terbinafine at the end of the treatment period and also at the follow-up visit at week 16. Five patients (three in group A and two in group C) discontinued treatment because of adverse events. The administration of terbinafine at a dose of either 6-7 or 7-12.5 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks is safe and effective for the treatment in children of tinea capitis caused by M. canis.

  11. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  12. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of.

  13. Single-Molecule Sequencing (PacBio) of the Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A Clone Reveals the Basis of Multidrug Resistance and Adaptation to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Environment.

    PubMed

    Simões, Patrícia Martins; Lemriss, Hajar; Dumont, Yann; Lemriss, Sanâa; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Assant-Trouillet, Sophie; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; El Kabbaj, Saâd; Butin, Marine; Laurent, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S. capitis genomes. Our goal was to delineate the uniqueness of the NRCS-A clone with respect to antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and mobile genetic elements. We identified 6 antimicrobial resistance genes, all carried by mobile genetic elements. Previously described virulence genes present in the NRCS-A genomes are shared with the six non-NRCS-A S. capitis genomes. Overall, 63 genes are specific to the NRCS-A lineage, including 28 genes located in the methicillin-resistance cassette SCCmec. Among the 35 remaining genes, 25 are of unknown function, and 9 correspond to an additional type I restriction modification system (n = 3), a cytosine methylation operon (n = 2), and a cluster of genes related to the biosynthesis of teichoic acids (n = 4). Interestingly, a tenth gene corresponds to a resistance determinant for nisin (nsr gene), a bacteriocin secreted by potential NRCS-A strain niche competitors in the gut microbiota. The genomic characteristics presented here emphasize the contribution of mobile genetic elements to the emergence of multidrug resistance in the S. capitis NRCS-A clone. No NRCS-A-specific known virulence determinant was detected, which does not support a role for virulence as a driving force of NRCS-A emergence in NICUs worldwide. However, the presence of a nisin resistance determinant on the NRCS-A chromosome, but not in other S. capitis strains and most coagulase-negative representatives, might confer a competitive advantage to NRCS

  14. Single-Molecule Sequencing (PacBio) of the Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A Clone Reveals the Basis of Multidrug Resistance and Adaptation to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Environment

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Patrícia Martins; Lemriss, Hajar; Dumont, Yann; Lemriss, Sanâa; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Assant-Trouillet, Sophie; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; El Kabbaj, Saâd; Butin, Marine; Laurent, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S. capitis genomes. Our goal was to delineate the uniqueness of the NRCS-A clone with respect to antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and mobile genetic elements. We identified 6 antimicrobial resistance genes, all carried by mobile genetic elements. Previously described virulence genes present in the NRCS-A genomes are shared with the six non-NRCS-A S. capitis genomes. Overall, 63 genes are specific to the NRCS-A lineage, including 28 genes located in the methicillin-resistance cassette SCCmec. Among the 35 remaining genes, 25 are of unknown function, and 9 correspond to an additional type I restriction modification system (n = 3), a cytosine methylation operon (n = 2), and a cluster of genes related to the biosynthesis of teichoic acids (n = 4). Interestingly, a tenth gene corresponds to a resistance determinant for nisin (nsr gene), a bacteriocin secreted by potential NRCS-A strain niche competitors in the gut microbiota. The genomic characteristics presented here emphasize the contribution of mobile genetic elements to the emergence of multidrug resistance in the S. capitis NRCS-A clone. No NRCS-A-specific known virulence determinant was detected, which does not support a role for virulence as a driving force of NRCS-A emergence in NICUs worldwide. However, the presence of a nisin resistance determinant on the NRCS-A chromosome, but not in other S. capitis strains and most coagulase-negative representatives, might confer a competitive advantage to NRCS

  15. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in young children in boarding schools in Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Continuous increase of Trichophyton tonsurans as a cause of tinea capitis in the urban area of Paris, France: a 5-year-long study.

    PubMed

    Gits-Muselli, Maud; Benderdouche, Mazouz; Hamane, Samia; Mingui, Anselme; Feuilhade de Chauvin, Martine; Guigue, Nicolas; Picat, Marie-Quitterie; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Petit, Antoine; Bagot, Martine; Alanio, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-10-14

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33.5%), Trichophyton soudanense (38.3%), or Microsporum audouinii (28.2%)]. When considering one TC case per family, we observed a significant increase of T. tonsurans (P = .018) during these 5 years. The increase was more pronounced (P = .0047) in patients of West-African descent (n = 666), and was at the expense of M. audouinii and T. soudanense On the other hand, the Caribbean patients (n = 85) remained predominantly (72.9%) infected by T. tonsurans Our results show a better virulence of T. tonsurans over other species as already reported. Since T. tonsurans has not been reported in Africa, the infection of patients of West-African descent probably took place in the Paris area by exchanges with Caribbean patients. This increase of TC due to T. tonsurans was observed in the context of griseofulvin being the only licensed paediatric treatment for TC in France, which should deserve reappraisal because terbinafine may be more efficacious.

  17. epr, which encodes glycylglycine endopeptidase resistance, is homologous to femAB and affects serine content of peptidoglycan cross bridges in Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Ohta, K; Komatsuzawa, H; Ohara, M; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 produces a glycylglycine endopeptidase, ALE-1 (M. Sugai, T. Fujiwara, T. Akiyama, M. Ohara, H. Komatsuzawa, S. Inoue, and H. Suginaka, J. Bacteriol. 179:1193-1202, 1997), which hydrolyzes interpeptide pentaglycine chains of cell wall peptidoglycan of S. aureus. Characterizations of the enzyme activity and cloning of ale-1 revealed that ALE-1 is very similar to prolysostaphin produced by S. simulans bv. staphylolyticus. Strain EPK1 is resistant to lysis by ALE-1 and by lysostaphin. A gene that renders the cells resistant to glycylglycine endopeptidase (epr) was found 322 bp upstream of and in the opposite orientation to ale-1. The deduced amino acid sequence of epr showed similarities to FemA and FemB, which have been characterized as factors essential for methicillin resistance of S. aureus. Inactivation of either femA or femB causes decreased resistance to methicillin, increased resistance to lysostaphin, and decreased glycine content in the interpeptide chains of peptidoglycan. Therefore, femAB is suggested to be involved in the addition of glycine to pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor. S. aureus with epr on a multicopy plasmid had phenotypes similar to those of femAB mutants except that it did not alter resistance level to methicillin. These results suggest that epr and femAB belong to the protein family involved in adding amino acids to the pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor and that epr is involved in the addition of serine to the pentapeptide. PMID:9209049

  18. Screening for asymptomatic scalp carriage in household contacts of patients with tinea capitis during 1997-2011: a retrospective hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Papadogeorgaki, Eleni; Athanasopoulou, Vasiliki; Antoniou, Christina; Stratigos, Alexander J

    2014-06-01

    For anthropophilic tinea capitis (TC), household spread and asymptomatic scalp carriage (ASC) is considered an important route of transmission and incomplete clearance. To investigate ASC in household contacts of patients diagnosed with TC in a tertiary hospital in Athens, Greece, we retrospectively reviewed the medical files of household contacts that were screened for ASC from 1997 to 2011. Only 34 household contacts of 15 index cases agreed to come for screening. Thirty-three (97%) household contacts were asymptomatic scalp carriers. The most commonly isolated species was Trichophyton violaceum (59%). There was a statistically significant association of ASC with the isolated dermatophyte species (T. violaceum, P-value: 0.029), and with the age of younger than 16 years old (P-value: 0.005), while there was no association with gender (P-value: 0.672). A small number of household contacts accepted to proceed for screening. ASC was found in nearly all screened household contacts and was associated with T. violaceum and younger age. The low number of household contacts that accepted screening may reflect the ignorance of the general population about the possibility of ASC among household contacts in case of a patient with TC.

  19. Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice) and Pediculus humanus humanus (body lice): response to laboratory temperature and humidity and susceptibility to monoterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Mougabure Cueto, G; Picollo, M I

    2009-07-01

    Human pediculosis is produced by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). Laboratory-reared body lice, susceptible to insecticides, were used as reference in toxicological studies on head lice. In this work, we evaluated the survival of both subspecies at different temperatures and relative humidities and we propose the optimal conditions for comparative bioassays. Moreover, we used these conditions to test the activity of three monoterpenoids against both lice. The results showed differential response to changes in temperature and humidity between both organisms. The survival of body lice ranged between 83% and 100% and was not affected for the tested conditions. The survival of head lice depended on temperature, humidity, and exposure time. The optimal conditions for head lice were 18 masculineC and 97% relative humidity at 18 h of exposition. The insecticidal activity of three monoterpenoids (pulegone, linalool, and 1,8-cineole), evaluated according the selected conditions by topical application, showed no significant differences between males of body and head lice. To conclude, as head lice required more special laboratory conditions than body lice, the optimal head lice conditions should be used in both organisms in comparative bioassays. Body louse is an appropriate organism for testing products against of head louse.

  20. Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens controlled with a combination therapy: systemic antibiosis (metronidazole plus clindamycin), dermatosurgical approach, and high-dose isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, Georgi

    2011-05-01

    Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is a suppurative process that involves the scalp, eventually resulting in extensive scarring and irreversible alopecia. The condition is also known as 'acne necrotica miliaris' or 'Proprionibacterium' folliculitis. Most often the disease affects men of African-American or African-Caribbean descent between 20 and 40 years of age. The clinical picture is determined by fluctuating painful fistule-forming conglomerates of abscesses in the region of the occipital scalp. The cause of scalp folliculitis is not well understood. It is generally considered to be an inflammatory reaction to components of the hair follicle, particularly the micro-organisms. These include: bacteria (especially Propionibacterium acnes, but in severe cases, also Staphylococcus aureus), Yeasts (Malassezia species) and mites (Demodex folliculorum). The initial histopathologic finding is an exclusively neutrophilic infiltration followed by a granulomatous infiltrate. The treatment of the disease is usually difficult and often disappointing. Successful treatment with isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass could be achieved only after regular systematic administration in the course of 3-4 months. Here we describe a patient with eruptive purulent form of the disease, which has been controlled with combination therapy: systemic antibiosis with metronidazole and clindamycin, dermatosurgical removal of single nodular formations, and isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass for 3-5 months.

  1. Treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation: is regular combing alone with a special detection comb effective at all levels?

    PubMed

    Kurt, Özgür; Balcıoğlu, I Cüneyt; Limoncu, M Emin; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Arserim, Süha K; Görgün, Serhan; Oyur, Tuba; Karakuş, Mehmet; Düzyol, Didem; Gökmen, Aysegül Aksoy; Kitapçıoğlu, Gül; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Head lice infestation (HLI) caused by Pediculus humanus capitis has been a public health problem worldwide. Specially designed combs are used to identify head lice, while anti-lice products are applied on the scalp for treatment. In the present study, we aimed to test whether combing only by precision detection comb (PDC) or metal pin comb (MPC) could be effective alternatives to the use of anti-lice products in children. A total of 560 children from two rural schools in Turkey were screened. In the PDC trial, children were combed every second day for 14 days, while in the MPC trial, combing was performed once in every four days for 15 days. Children were divided into two groups (dry combing and wet combing) for both trials and results were compared. The results showed no significant differences between dry and wet combing strategies for both combs for the removal of head lice (p > 0.05). The number of adult head lice declined significantly on each subsequent combing day in both approaches, except on day 15 in the MPC trial. In the end, no louse was found in 54.1 and 48.9% of children in the PDC and MPC trials, respectively. Since family members of infested children were not available, they were not checked for HLI. Four times combing within 2 weeks with MPC combs was found effective for both treatment of low HLI and prevention of heavy HLI. In conclusion, regular combing by special combs decreases HLI level in children and is safely applicable as long-term treatment.

  2. Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Biurrun, Fernando; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-09-01

    The repeated use of permethrin and other insecticides for the control of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Thus, new alternative insecticides are needed for the control of head lice. We studied the fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils from 16 native and exotic plants in Argentina, and 21 chemical components against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. With a direct vapor-exposure bioassay, the most effective oil was from the native Myrcianthes cisplatensis Cambess (Myrtaceae) with a time to 50% knockdown (KT50) of 1.3 min, followed by exotic species, Eucalyptus cinerea F.V. Muell., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill., and Eucalyptus saligna Smith. with KT50 values of 12.0, 14.9, and 17.4 min, respectively. The most effective components were 1,8-cineole and anisole, with KT50 values of 11.1 and 12.7 min, respectively. Regression analysis of KT50 values and vapor pressures and water-partition coefficients for the essential oil components revealed that the most effective fumigants were among the more volatile components. Repellency assays indicated that the essential oil from Mentha pulegium L. and its benzyl alcohol component were the most effective repellents, having repellency indices of 75.5 and 57.8%, respectively. Thus, some Argentinean plants contain essential oils and components that function as fumigants or as repellents and thereby show potential for development of new control products for head lice.

  3. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C

    1981-03-01

    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2.

  4. Dissecting cellulitis (Perifolliculitis Capitis Abscedens et Suffodiens): a comprehensive review focusing on new treatments and findings of the last decade with commentary comparing the therapies and causes of dissecting cellulitis to hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-05-16

    Dissecting cellulitis (DC) also referred to as to as perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (Hoffman) manifests with perifollicular pustules, nodules, abscesses and sinuses that evolve into scarring alopecia. In the U.S., it predominantly occurs in African American men between 20-40 years of age. DC also occurs in other races and women more rarely. DC has been reported worldwide. Older therapies reported effective include: low dose oral zinc, isotretinoin, minocycline, sulfa drugs, tetracycline, prednisone, intralesional triamcinolone, incision and drainage, dapsone, antiandrogens (in women), topical clindamycin, topical isotretinoin, X-ray epilation and ablation, ablative C02 lasers, hair removal lasers (800nm and 694nm), and surgical excision. Newer treatments reported include tumor necrosis factor blockers (TNFB), quinolones, macrolide antibiotics, rifampin, alitretinoin, metronidazole, and high dose zinc sulphate (135-220 mg TID). Isotretinoin seems to provide the best chance at remission, but the number of reports is small, dosing schedules variable, and the long term follow up beyond a year is negligible; treatment failures have been reported. TNFB can succeed when isotretinoin fails, either as monotherapy, or as a bridge to aggressive surgical treatment, but long term data is lacking. Non-medical therapies noted in the last decade include: the 1064 nm laser, ALA-PDT, and modern external beam radiation therapy. Studies that span more than 1 year are lacking. Newer pathologic hair findings include: pigmented casts, black dots, and "3D" yellow dots. Newer associations include: keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome, Crohn disease and pyoderma gangrenosum. Older associations include arthritis and keratitis. DC is likely a reaction pattern, as is shown by its varied therapeutic successes and failures. The etiology of DC remains enigmatic and DC is distinct from hidradenitis suppurativa, which is shown by their varied responses to therapies and their

  5. Ringworm, tinea capitis - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... scaly, inflamed patches. Frequently, there can be temporary hair loss (hair returns when infection clears but if treatment is delayed and scarring results, permanent hair loss can be seen). This is a classical example ...

  6. Le vocabulaire disponible du francais, Tome II. Vocabulaire disponible des enfants acadiens (The Working French Vocabulary, Volume 2. Working Vocabulary of Acadian Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, William F.; And Others

    The second of a two-volume study of the relative accessibility of French vocabulary in French-speaking Acadia, this study presents statistical data concerning the degree of difficulty of recall of vocabulary related to 16 fundamental centers of interest found in normal conversation. The data are derived from responses of 700 students ranging from…

  7. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal and external…

  8. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal and external…

  9. Epidemiological aspects of Pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary-school children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Motovali-Emami, Mohammad; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Fekri, Alireza; Yazdi, Mahbobeh

    2008-01-15

    This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of and epidemiological factors associated with, head lice infections in Iranian primary schools in 2006 and evaluate data on the therapeutic efficacy of lindane shampoo. A total of 40586 children (19774 boys (48.72%) and 20812 girls (51.28%)] from 198 Governmentprimary schools in Kerman, were screened for head lice between March and June 2006. The diagnosis of head lice infestation was confirmed by clinical inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice nymphal stage, or eggs (nit) by line-toothed head lice comb. All children infested with lice were treated with lindane shampoo (1% gamma benzene hexachloride). The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 1.8%. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (2.9%) than in boys (0.6%) (p = 0.000). The infestation rate was greater among pupils who were living in rural areas (4.6%) than in urban areas (1.5%). Of the 721 children with a positive examination result, 424 pupils (58.8%) were reported as having been infested with head lice in the previous 6 months. Mother's education level was a significant risk factor in this model (p < 0.05). At 2 weeks after the primary treatment, the success rates of treatment were 49%. Comprehensive survey in our work showed the better future of the disease and related factors. Education campaigns by health care officials, physicians and teachers are expected to be helpful for head lice control. It is essential that governments should be supported form cooperation between the school authorities and public health centers to successful control head lice infestation in primary school. Also there is an urgent need to identify safe, novel insecticides for proved efficacy.

  10. Epidemiology of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of infestation with head lice in primary schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand. Methods The present study was to determine the head lice infestation (Pediculosis) levels in primary schoolchildren, during May, 2011 to July, 2011, A total of 3 747 schoolchildren aged 5-12 years old from 12 selected primary school of Ladkrabang district, the eastern area of Bangkok were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was defined as the presence of at least on living adult, nymph and viable egg. Results The overall head lice infestation rate was 23.32% and infestation rate was higher in girls (47.12%) than in boys (0%). The infestation rate among schoolchildren varied from 12.62% to 29.76%. The infestation rate among girls varied from 26.07% (12 years old group) to 55.89% (8 years old group). Conclusions Pediculosis is a common public health problem affecting primary schoolchildren in eastern area of Bangkok and those levels are epidemic importance. PMID:23569868

  11. Epidemiology of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2012-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of infestation with head lice in primary schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand. The present study was to determine the head lice infestation (Pediculosis) levels in primary schoolchildren, during May, 2011 to July, 2011, A total of 3 747 schoolchildren aged 5-12 years old from 12 selected primary school of Ladkrabang district, the eastern area of Bangkok were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was defined as the presence of at least on living adult, nymph and viable egg. The overall head lice infestation rate was 23.32% and infestation rate was higher in girls (47.12%) than in boys (0%). The infestation rate among schoolchildren varied from 12.62% to 29.76%. The infestation rate among girls varied from 26.07% (12 years old group) to 55.89% (8 years old group). Pediculosis is a common public health problem affecting primary schoolchildren in eastern area of Bangkok and those levels are epidemic importance.

  12. Comparative efficacy of new commercial pediculicides against adults and eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2012-05-01

    The use of pyrethroids to control head louse infestations have suffered considerable loss of efficacy due to the development of resistance. In the last past years, several new alternative products to synthetic pyrethroids have been developed and are sold in the Argentinean market against head lice. The present study investigated the efficacy of two new Argentinean products Nopucid Qubit® and Nopucid Bio Citrus® and its comparison with two reference products Nyda® and Hedrin®. Nopucid Qubit® is a two-phase lotion containing geraniol and citronellol (phase 1) and ciclopentaxiloxane (phase 2); while Nopucid Bio Citrus® contains dimethicone, ciclopentaxiloxane, and bergamot essential oil. These products are physically acting compounds. The sensitivity of two laboratory assays for testing insecticide activity of new formulations was also compared. Mortality (100%) of motile forms occurred after they were exposed to any product for 1 and 2 min, either by in vitro or ex vivo test. Concerning ovicidal activity, the most effective pediculicides were Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nyda®, followed by Hedrin® and Nopucid Qubit®. The present study revealed, for the first time, the efficacy of over-the-counter commercial pediculicides available in Argentine (Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nopucid Qubit®) on either motile stages or eggs against head lice.

  13. PREHISTORICAL Pediculus humanus capitis INFESTATION: QUANTITATIVE DATA AND LOW VACUUM SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Juliana M.F.; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  14. Epidemiological comparative study of pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Fayoum and Minofiya governorates, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El Raheem, Talal A; El Sherbiny, Naglaa A; Elgameel, Alkasseem; El-Sayed, Ghada A; Moustafa, Nada; Shahen, Sally

    2015-04-01

    Pediculosis is a frequent public health problem. The pattern and prevalence of Pediculosis is dependent on many socio-demographic and economic factors. It is common in schoolchildren especially primary level; it may affect their learning performance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head louse among primary students, in Fayoum and Bagor districts, and explore the predisposing factors of head louse infestation in both public and private schools. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in two governorates: Fayoum and Minofiya governorates which represent upper and lower Egypt respectively during the academic year of 2012-2013. The students were selected from different grades with a total of 10,935 students. The prevalence of head lice in the study group was 16.7 %. The incidence was higher in public schools 20.7 % than private schools 9.04 % and in girls 25.8 % more than boys, especially covered hair girls 6.2 %. There was a socio-demographic influence of louse infestation on residence, presence of water supply, number of house rooms, and number of family member. It is concluded that head lice are a common childhood problem related to poor hygiene and socioeconomic status. There is a need for collaboration effort between family, school, community, and media, to create an environment that establishes healthy behaviors and health promotion.

  15. Efficacy of products to remove eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from the human hair.

    PubMed

    Lapeere, Hilde; Brochez, Lieve; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Stichele, Robert H Vander; Remon, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Jo; Leybaert, Luc

    2014-03-01

    Head lice infestations are very common in children aged between 3 and 12 yr old. The eggs of the head louse are difficult to remove and remain firmly attached to the hair even after any head louse treatment. Solid in vitro and in vivo evidence to support the use of any of the proposed products to facilitate nit removal is scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of several products to remove eggshells from human hair using an objective measurement procedure. Water and ordinary hair conditioner significantly facilitated the removal of nits in vitro. We found no difference between ordinary conditioner and products specifically marketed for the purpose of nit removal. Other products such as formic acid solution and almond oil did not have a beneficial effect.

  16. Comparative efficacy of commercial combs in removing head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

    2013-03-01

    The use of a fine comb for removing lice from the head of the human host is a relevant tool both in the diagnosis of infestations and as part of an integrated control strategy of head lice. The effectiveness of a fine comb depends, in part, on the design and material they are built. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of metal and plastic combs that are currently used in the removal of head lice and eggs worldwide. The space between comb teeth and the length was 0.23 and 13 mm in KSL® plastic, 0.3 and 10.7 mm in NOPUCID® plastic, 0.15 and 31 mm in KSL® metal and 0.09 and 37 mm in ASSY® metal. The assays were performed comparing the combs in pairs: (a) KSL® vs. NOPUCID® plastic combs, (b) KSL® vs. ASSY® metal combs and (c) KSL® plastic comb vs. ASSY® metal comb. The most effective plastic comb was KSL®, removing a higher number of individuals of all stages. The most effective metal comb was ASSY®, removing more insects of all stages (except adults). The comparative test between KSL® plastic and ASSY® metal showed that ASSY® was the most effective in removing head lice and their eggs.

  17. [The Prevalence and Management of Pediculosis Capitis in Turkey: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Özkan, Özlem; Hamzaoğlu, Onur; Yavuz, Melike

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to examine scientific articles performed in Turkey on the prevalence and management of PK (diagnosis, contagion, prevention, treatment) from a critical perspective. The population of the systematic review consisted of total 63 published and unpublished theses or dissertations and peer-reviewed articles published in Turkish or English in national or foreign scientific journals from studies performed in Turkey between 1982 and 2012 years. It reached 578,938 people in 63 studies. Seventy-eight percent of the studies were related to the prevalence of PK and/or associated factors. The number of the studies was limited regarding diagnosis, prevention, contagion, treatment compliance, difficulties and causes of failure. Of the studies, 90.5% had been performed in public schools, almost exclusively elementary schools. The prevalence of PK was 0.3-34.1%, 0-35.4%, and it was 0.3-34.1% in elementary school children. It increased with years of education. It was double that of the boys in the girls (p<0.05). The prevalence among the subjects with low economic status were 1.9-42.3%, and it increased with worsening economic status (p<0.05). The prevalence reached up to 44.1% among children with illiterate mother. Basic recommendations include increasing the number of studies on the diagnosis, prevention, contagion, treatment compliance and efficacy, treatment failures and difficulties; public health workers also should prioritize investigation of head lice infestation.

  18. Influence of the formulations in removing eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Picollo, María Inés; Vassena, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Head lice lay eggs in human head hairs in order to reproduce. There is a difficulty associated to the process of detaching these eggs: they are tightly gripped to the hair by a secretion produced by female head lice. The physical removal of eggs has become an important part of treatment of louse infestations. The finding of new products to loosen the eggs is necessary to avoid mistaken diagnosis or reinfestations. This work aimed to compare different kinds of pediculicide formulations in order to find if their presentations represented differences in the egg remover effect. We also wanted to present a new device to test the efficacy of the egg remover formulations. Products with creamy presentations (Bio infant lice and egg remover and hair conditioner) and one containing dimethicone (Nyda) showed the lower mean forces compared with the control (lower mean forces represented best removal activity). Whereas, the Biferdil egg remover (gel) and Nopucid Tribit (hydroalcoholic lotion) had no egg removal effect, presenting the highest mean forces (177.82 and 189.99 mN, respectively) compared with the control. Additionally, we proposed a removal index (RI) to compare the efficacy of different products on the egg removal activity (RI > 0, good performance). The higher index values were for Bio infant lice and egg remover (0.72) and Biferdil hair conditioner (0.58). The lowest index values were for Biferdil egg remover (-0.26) and Nopucid Tribit (-0.35).The formulation of over the counter pediculicides in the egg remover effect was discussed.

  19. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis in children from a rural school in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Jorge C; Herrera Herrera, Roodeth; Gómez-Ruiz, Pilar; Pilger, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an analytical cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with active head lice infestation. In total 140 children, aged 6 to 16-years, from a public school in rural Yucatan, Mexico, were examined by wet-combing. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on individuals and the conditions in the surrounding environment. Head lice infestation was found in 19 out of the 140 children tested (13.6%) and this was associated with both lower income (OR 9.9, 95% CI 2.15-45.79, p = 0.003) and a higher frequency of hair washing (OR 8, 95% CI 1.58-50, p = 0.012). Intersectoral control programs that take into account the socioeconomic differences of children should be implemented.

  20. Prehistorical Pediculus humanus capitis infestation: quantitative data and low vacuum scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Juliana M F; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; Souza, Wanderley de; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Souza, Sheila Mendonça de; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits.

  1. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children.

  2. Prevalence and treatment of Pediculus capitis infestation among aboriginal school children in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Fan, C K; Huang, P; Yen, C W

    1999-04-01

    In the present study, pediculosis was investigated among a total of 2,725 children from 35 primary schools in Hsiulin District of Hualien County, Jenai District of Nantou County, Wulai District of Taipei County, Chienshih District of Hsinchu County, Fushing District of Taoyuan County, and Nanao District of Ilan County. The overall infestation rate was 12.8%. The rates by districts were 19.7%, 17.3%, 16.7%, 15.1%, 7.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The pediculicides including Nix (permethrin 1%) 56 gm/tube, Para aerosol (bioallethrin 0.66%) 90 gm/tube, and Perioderm (malathion 1%) cream shampoo 40 gm/tube were used to treat the head louse infestation in 83, 91, and 103 children; the cure rates were 97.3%, 94.1%, and 93.4%, respectively. No significant differences were found in these rates. The reactions were slight and transitory. A total of 636 lice was collected from the hair using fine-toothed combs before treatment and from the used towels after treatment of children in Wulai, Chienshih, Hsiulin, and Jenai Districts. Each child was found infested with a mean of 7.7 lice. The mean intensity of infestation was highest in Jenai (9.3) and Chienshih (8.7) came next. Wulai (3.7) and Hsiulin (3.6) had lower intensities.

  3. Potential role of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, as vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Leo, N; Prociv, P; Barker, S C

    2003-06-01

    Since the pioneering work of Charles Nicolle in 1909 [see Gross (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:10539-10540] most medical officers and scientists have assumed that body lice are the sole vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii, the aetiological agent of louse-borne epidemic typhus (LBET). Here we review the evidence for the axiom that head lice are not involved in epidemics of LBET. Laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of head lice to transmit R. prowazekii, but evidence for this in the field has not been reported. However, the assumption that head lice do not transmit R. prowazekii has meant that head lice have not been examined for R. prowazekii during epidemics of LBET. The strong association between obvious (high) infestations of body lice and LBET has contributed to this perception, but this association does not preclude head lice as vectors of R. prowazekii. Indeed, where the prevalence and intensity of body louse infections may be high (e.g. during epidemics of LBET), the prevalence and intensity of head louse infestations is generally high as well. This review of the epidemiology of head louse and body louse infestations, and of LBET, indicates that head lice are potential vectors of R. prowazekii in the field. Simple observations in the field would reveal whether or not head lice are natural vectors of this major human pathogen.

  4. A 21-day-old boy with an annular eruption. Tinea faciei / Tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Berry, Adam; Abramovici, Gil; Chamlin, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    A healthy 21-day-old black male was referred to pediatric dermatology for evaluation of a facial and scalp eruption that had been present for less than 1 week. The child's parents had applied a topical corticosteroid cream for several days without any improvement noted. The child was otherwise well and thriving. Review of systems was negative. Family history was unremarkable for autoimmune or infectious skin diseases. On physical examination the patient was alert, active, and vigorous. He had multiple 1 to 2.5-cm erythematous annular, scaly plaques with pustules on the periphery on his upper cheeks, forehead, and anterior scalp (Figures 1-2). No alopecia was noted. Occipital and neck lymph nodes were not palpable. A potassium hydroxide skin preparation was negative for fungal elements and a fungal culture was performed. Serum laboratory testing was also performed.

  5. The mode of action of dimeticone 4% lotion against head lice, Pediculus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment of head lice using physically acting preparations based on silicones is currently replacing insecticide use due to widespread resistance to neurotoxic agents. It has been postulated that some products act by asphyxiation, although the limited experimental evidence and the anatomy of the louse respiratory system suggest this is unlikely. Results Observation over several hours of lice treated using 4% high molecular weight dimeticone in a volatile silicone base showed that, although rapidly immobilised initially, the insects still exhibited small movements of extremities and death was delayed. One common effect of treatment is inhibition of the louse's ability to excrete water by transpiration through the spiracles. Inability to excrete water that is ingested as part of the louse blood meal appears to subject the louse gut to osmotic stress resulting in rupture. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray microanalysis to detect silicon showed dimeticone lotion is deposited in the spiracles and distal region of the tracheae of lice and in some cases blocks the lumen or opening entirely. Conclusion This work raises doubts that lice treated using dimeticone preparations die from anoxia despite blockage of the outer respiratory tract because movements can be observed for hours after exposure. However, the blockage inhibits water excretion, which causes physiological stress that leads to death either through prolonged immobilisation or, in some cases, disruption of internal organs such as the gut. PMID:19232080

  6. [Pediculosis capitis: a questionnaire survey in 4 schools of the Bordeaux Academy 1990-1991].

    PubMed

    Courtiade, C; Labrèze, C; Fontan, I; Taïeb, A; Maleville, J

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of head lice treatment was conducted in four schools--each including a nursery and an elementary school--in the Bordeaux area. Two schools were situated in the centre of the city, one in a suburban area and one in a rural area (50 km from the city). Four-page questionnaires were filled in anonymously by the parents in April 1991; 840 answers were obtained (80 p. 100 response rate). Between January 1990 and March 1991, 48.7 p. 100 of children had at least one episode of head lice infestation (infestation rates varied from 38.8 to 62.6 p. 100 depending on the schools); 30.5 p. 100 of children were contaminated for the first time during that period. Lice were detected by the parents in 95 p. 100 of the cases. The prevalence of lice was higher in females (60 p. 100) than in males (40 p. 100). The highest prevalence was noted in the suburban school where 17 p. 100 of the parents were unemployed at the time of the survey. The peak age for head lice was 7, but 19.4 p. 100 of nursery school children aged 2-4 years had been contaminated at least once. Impetigo was rare (1.2 p. 100), and pruritus was noted in only 14.2 p. 100 of the cases. Most children had been contaminated at school. Curative treatment was counselled by a chemist in 87 p. 100 of the cases. Pyrethrins were used in 81 p. 100, and the shampoo (Hegor) plus spray (Paraspecial Poux) association was the most frequent, totalling two-thirds of prescriptions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Chronically recurrent and disseminated tinea faciei/corporis--autoinoculation from asymptomatic tinea capitis carriage.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ikegami, Michiko; Takase, Takako; Otsuka, Fujio

    2010-01-01

    We report clinical findings in a 12-year-old girl with long-term recurrent and disseminated multiple eruptions of tinea faciei and tinea corporis, which persisted for 10 years. Mycological examination revealed the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans in both scale samples from the body lesions and in brushing samples from her asymptomatic scalp, suggesting that she was an asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier on the scalp, and autoinoculation of the dermatophyte was responsible for the recurrent and disseminated tinea faciei/corporis.

  8. Ex vivo effectiveness of French over-the-counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Toubate, Berthine; Veirron, Emilie; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is still a public health problem worldwide, with an intracountry and intercountry prevalence variation of 0.7 to 59%. There is a large variety of over-the-counter anti-louse products, but their efficacy is not always well assessed. Our objective was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of 21 over-the-counter head louse products, available in France during the period of 2008 to 2012. We tested children living in Tours City in central France and visiting preschools, primary schools, kindergarten, camps, and child care facilities, as well as children in their family houses, and were examined for the presence of lice. The products were collected from randomly selected pharmacies by covert investigators and then tested in the laboratory on an ex vivo sample of head lice and their eggs, collected from the hair of infested children. Living lice and unharmed eggs were collected from the scalps of 3-12 years old. The laboratory conditions for ex vivo testing mimicked the manufacturers' instructions for exposure time and application method. In 21 runs, 3919 living lice and 4321 undamaged living eggs were collected from the scalp of over 400 children. The 21 products were classified in three groups: 6 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity and potentially 100% ovicidal activity, 8 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity but insufficient ovicidal activity (including 2 products with claims of single application treatment), and 7 products in a group of insufficient pediculicidal activity and ovicidal activity. The pharmaceutical market for head lice products in France is swamped with poorly tested and ineffective products. Rigorous efficacy testing preregistration and periodic screening and testing of effectiveness in the post-registration period should be endorsed by the health authorities.

  9. A Study of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Ban, Maryam; Motaghi, Minoo

    2014-01-01

    Head lice contamination has a global distribution and it is regarded as a main health problem throughout the world. Given the importance of physical health of students and head lice prevalence at school age, we aimed to examine the rate of head lice contamination among primary school students in the villages of Abadan in 2012. In this descriptive study, 624 students were randomly selected from primary schools. The hair of all students under the study was examined by the researcher (community health nurse) and the result was registered in the checklist confidentially. Moreover, one questionnaire including personal and family information was filled out for each student. The obtained data were later analyzed in SPSS software, version 18, using statistical test Chi-square and central qualitative and distribution statistics. The frequency of lice contamination was 27 cases (4.33%) in total, all of whom were girls. Although the difference between the head lice contamination and gender was statistically significant (P=0.00), the difference between this contamination type and grade of students and their parents’ education and fathers’ occupation was not significance. The highest rate of contamination (6.73%) was, however, observed in fifth graders. All contaminations were seen in girls, which could be due to their longer hair or wearing scarf as compared with boys. Unfavorable health condition and regional hot weather can be effective as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide the students, especially girls, with health training. PMID:25349862

  10. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Doroodgar, Abbas; Sadr, Fakhraddin; Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein; Sayyah, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of head louse infestation among elementary students, and examine the associated factors with infection in the city of Aran and Bidgol. Methods A total of 19 boys' and girls' primary schools were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. Overall, 3 590 students were examined for head lice infestation in urban areas of Aran and Bidgol during 2008. The diagnosis was based on live louse or nit on the scalp of students. The students were screened by standard questionnaire and demographic data in addition to related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results The mean age of students was (8.68±1.58) years ranging between 6-12 years. The total prevalence of head louse infestation was 0.47%. This rate was 0.42% and 0.05% in female and male, respectively. There was a significant association between pediculosis and sex, father's job, mother's education, access to bathroom in home, prior infection, drug use and nationality, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The results showed that pediculosis was not a major health priority among primary school in city of Aran and Bidgol. However, enhancing the knowledge of students about head lice infestation and the existence of health teachers in schools can play a significant role in disease control.

  11. Comparing the Efficacy of Commercially Available Insecticide and Dimeticone based Solutions on Head Lice, Pediculus capitis: in vitro Trials.

    PubMed

    Balcıoğlu, I Cüneyt; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Limoncu, M Emin; Töz, Seray; Baştemur, Serkan; Öncel, Koray; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    Head lice infestation is a public health and social problem for almost all countries worldwide. For its treatment, insecticide and dimeticone-based solutions are currently available in the markets in many countries. We aimed to compare the efficacy of commercially available anti-head lice shampoos containing insecticide and physically effective products with different percentages of dimeticone using an in vitro technique. Head lice specimens were collected from primary school children using special plastic and metal combs. Anti-head lice products were commercially purchased and used directly. The specimens were placed one by one in 5-cm Petri dishes containing a slightly wet filter paper and were kept in a plastic cage at 28±2°C and 50%±20% relative humidity. A standardized protocol was used for testing all the products, and mortality data were obtained after 24 h. Two control tests were performed with each batch of trials. For each product and control, 10-20 head lice specimens were used, and the results were statistically analyzed. Our study demonstrated that among all the tested products, two products containing mineral oils [5.5% dimeticone & silicone (patented product) and dimeticone (no percentage mentioned in the prospectus) & cyclopentasiloxane] were found to be more effective for killing head lice in vitro. Physically effective products can be repetitively used because they are non-toxic and resistance to them is not expected. To control the infestation at a public level, the use of these products needs to be encouraged with respect to their cost price.

  12. A Study of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Ban, Maryam; Motaghi, Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Head lice contamination has a global distribution and it is regarded as a main health problem throughout the world. Given the importance of physical health of students and head lice prevalence at school age, we aimed to examine the rate of head lice contamination among primary school students in the villages of Abadan in 2012. In this descriptive study, 624 students were randomly selected from primary schools. The hair of all students under the study was examined by the researcher (community health nurse) and the result was registered in the checklist confidentially. Moreover, one questionnaire including personal and family information was filled out for each student. The obtained data were later analyzed in SPSS software, version 18, using statistical test Chi-square and central qualitative and distribution statistics. The frequency of lice contamination was 27 cases (4.33%) in total, all of whom were girls. Although the difference between the head lice contamination and gender was statistically significant (P=0.00), the difference between this contamination type and grade of students and their parents' education and fathers' occupation was not significance. The highest rate of contamination (6.73%) was, however, observed in fifth graders. All contaminations were seen in girls, which could be due to their longer hair or wearing scarf as compared with boys. Unfavorable health condition and regional hot weather can be effective as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide the students, especially girls, with health training.

  13. Determination, mechanism and monitoring of knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Permethrin resistance has been reported worldwide and clinical failures to commercial pediculicides containing permethrin have likewise occurred. Permethrin resistance in head lice populations from the U.S. is widespread but is not yet uniform and the level of resistance is relatively low (~4–8 fold). Permethrin-resistant lice are cross-resistant to pyrethrins, PBO-synergized pyrethrins and to DDT. Nix®, when applied to human hair tufts following manufacture’s instructions, did not provide 100% control when assessed by the hair tuft bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system. Resistance to permethrin is due to knockdown resistance (kdr), which is the result of three point mutations within the α-subunit gene of the voltage-gated sodium channel that causes amino acid substitutions, leading to nerve insensitivity. A three-tiered resistance monitoring system has been established based on molecular resistance detection techniques. Quantitative sequencing (QS) has been developed to predict the kdr allele frequency in head lice at a population level. The speed, simplicity and accuracy of QS made it an ideal candidate for a routine primary resistance monitoring tool to screen a large number of louse populations as an alternative to conventional bioassay. As a secondary monitoring method, real-time PASA (rtPASA) has been devised for a more precise determination of low resistance allele frequencies. To obtain more detailed information on resistance allele zygosity, as well as allele frequency, serial invasive signal amplification reaction (SISAR) has been developed as an individual genotyping method. Our approach of using three tiers of molecular resistance detection should facilitate large-scale routine resistance monitoring of permethrin resistance in head lice using field-collected samples. PMID:20161186

  14. Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs.

    PubMed

    Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Delli Pizzi, Patricia; Di Giulio, Mara; Grande, Rossella; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-11-01

    Head lice infestation is an emerging social problem in undeveloped and developed countries. Because of louse resistance increasing, several long-used insecticidal compounds have lost their efficacy, and alternatives, such as essential oils, have been proposed to treat this parasitic infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of two natural substances: tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) against lice and its eggs. Products were used alone and in combination (ratio 1:1 and 1:2) from 8 % dilution. The in vitro effect of natural substances at different concentrations were evaluated against 69 head lice (adults and nymphs) and 187 louse eggs collected from school children in Chieti-Pescara (Central Italy) over a 6-month period. The lice mortality was evaluated for 24 h by a stereo light microscope. The ovicidal activity was monitored by microscopic inspections for 15 days. Tea tree oil was more effective than nerolidol against head lice with 100 % mortality at 30 min and 1 % concentration. On the contrary, nerolidol expressed a more pronounced ovicidal activity inducing the failure of 50 % of the eggs to hatch at 1 % concentration after 4 days; the same effect was achieved by using a twice concentration of tea tree oil. The association of the two substances both in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 combined efficaciously their insecticidal and ovicidal effect; in particular, the ratio 1:2 (tea tree oil 0.5 % plus nerolidol 1 %) acted producing both the death of all head lice at 30 min and the abortive effect of louse eggs after 5 days. These results offer new potential application of natural compounds and display a promising scenario in the treatment of pediculosis resistant cases. The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation.

  15. The infected hairs of tinea capitis due to Microsporum canis: demonstration of uniqueness of the hair cuticle by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D; Burmeister, V

    1987-02-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies were done on scalp hairs of four patients infected with ectothrix Microsporum canis. Both freeze fracture and cross-sectioning of hairs revealed a thick sheath of fungal spores encircling the hair shaft beneath an intact cuticle. These spores were not visible on surface inspection but became apparent only where the cuticle had been rubbed off or broken. Daily selenium sulfide shampoos removed all of the spores from these sites. The cuticle is viewed as being an effective barrier to the penetration of fungi, so that the hair is vulnerable to fungus infection only deep within the hair follicle below the level of the mature cuticle. Once the fungus enters the hair cortex just above the hair bulb, it produces myriads of spores that remain trapped and hidden beneath the cuticle for the length of the intact hair.

  16. The clinical trials supporting benzyl alcohol lotion 5% (Ulesfia): a safe and effective topical treatment for head lice (pediculosis humanus capitis).

    PubMed

    Meinking, Terri L; Villar, Maria E; Vicaria, Maureen; Eyerdam, Debbie H; Paquet, Diane; Mertz-Rivera, Kamara; Rivera, Hector F; Hiriart, Javier; Reyna, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Benzyl alcohol lotion 5% (BAL 5%) is a non-neurotoxic topical head lice treatment that is safe and effective in children as young as 6 months of age. The safety and efficacy of this pediculicide has been studied in 695 (confirm number) subjects in all phases of clinical development. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) demonstrated that the active agent appears to stun the breathing spiracles open, enabling the vehicle to penetrate the respiratory mechanism (spiracles), therefore asphyxiating the lice. Initial phase II trials compared this novel product to RID using identical volumes of treatment (4 oz/application) and yielding, almost, identical efficacy. This outcome pointed to the significant importance of completely saturating the hair with the product in order to achieve maximum treatment success. A second phase II trial, which allowed the use of sufficient product to saturate the hair, resulted in 100% efficacy after both 10 and 30 minute treatments. A third phase II trial verified an effective dose. Phase III trials compared BAL 5% to vehicle placebo for two 10-minute applications. It proved to be safe and effective (p < 0.001) for treatment of head lice and is the first FDA-approved non-neurotoxic lice treatment, now available in the United States as Ulesfia lotion.

  17. Clinical efficacy and safety in head lice infection by Pediculus humanis capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae) of a capillary spray containing a silicon-oil complex.

    PubMed

    Izri, A; Uzzan, B; Maigret, M; Gordon, M S; Bouges-Michel, C

    2010-12-01

    Head lice are endemic worldwide. Resistance to permethrin and doubts about the safety of pesticides promoted the use of physical therapies (wet-combing, dry-on suffocation). The aim of our study was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal effects of one application of a silicon-oil complex composed of dimethiconol and castor oil. The study was a prospective cohort of 108 infested patients (11 males, 97 females; 58 children, 50 adults), in Sri-Lanka. Pediculicidal efficacy was evaluated as the percentage of patients free of live lice one hour after the application of the treatment and at day 1 (wet combing). Ovicidal efficacy was calculated as the proportion of subjects without larval stages at days 1 and 7 among subjects followed up all over the study. In normal conditions of use, in this open cohort, a pediculicidal effect of a dimethiconol-castor-oil lotion was.shown one hour after application in 99/108 (91.7%) treated subjects and at day 1 in 86/99 (87%) subjects and an ovicidal effect at day 7 in 79/108 (73.2%) treated subjects. A second application of the same product was necessary to increase the cure rate to 79.6% (86/108) at day 8. In our study, the second application of the same product was performed seven days later, but the best time for additional applications should be defined in further studies. However, the efficacy of this safe physical treatment was similar to that of chemical pediculicides (malathion, permethrin).

  18. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to head lice and showed 0% of cure rate after the first and the second treatments. Our data showed that three herbal shampoos of native plants in Thailand in this study are suitable to be used as pediculicides for Thai children since it is safe for children and there is no side-effect after application.

  19. Chemotherapy of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation gamma benzene hexachloride (gamma-BHC) among school children in Szu-Hu District, Yunlin County, Central West Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chao, D; Lee, K M; Chan, C H; Liu, H Y

    1991-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of 1% gamma-BHC emulsion against head louse infestation, 1,527 school children were examined using observation by ocular and combing methods were used and infested children were treated with three regimes of 1% gamma-BHC emulsion. An overall infestation rate of 40% was found. The infestation rate was highest in Tung-Kuang Primary School (59%) and lowest in Chien-Hua Primary Schools (7%). The rate was highest among school children grade 2 (45%) and lowest in grade 3 (35%). The rate of girls (65%) was much higher than that of boys (9%). A total of 443 lice were collected from 78 infested school girls: 56 males, 59 females, and 328 nymph. The average number of head lice in each infested girl was 5.7. Follow-up examination was conducted one week after treatment. The cure rates for dosages of 10.0 ml, 5.0 ml, and 2.5 ml 1% gamma-BHC emulsion were 96%, 88%, 68% for girls and 100%, 92%, and 33% for boys, respectively. Only mild and transient itching and burn sensation of scalp were reported by a few children. The overall infestation rate 5 months (April-September 1981) after treatment was 23% (286/1,245). The rate of girls decreased from 65% to 40% and that of boys from 9% to 3%. Results of the present study indicates that 1% gamma-BHC emulsion is an effective pediculicide at a dosage of 5 ml or 10 ml. However, the overall infestation rate remained high (23%) 5 months after treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of head louse infestation must be conducted continuously.

  20. Home remedies to control head lice: assessment of home remedies to control the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Takano-Lee, Miwa; Edman, John D; Mullens, Bradley A; Clark, John M

    2004-12-01

    As the frequency and level of pediculicide resistance increases throughout the world, the need for novel solutions to control pediculosis has intensified. The development and registration of new pesticides has become so costly that many chemical companies are unwilling to pursue it and health-care providers now face a serious lack of new commercial pediculicides. Many infested people resort to using "home-remedy" approaches that have not been scientifically tested. In this article, we examined the potential value of six purportedly effective "home remedies" (vinegar, isopropyl alcohol, olive oil, mayonnaise, melted butter, and petroleum jelly) to treat head louse infestations and the likelihood of drowning lice by water submersion. Results indicated that only the application of petroleum jelly caused significant louse mortality but no treatment prevented lice from laying eggs. Most home remedy products did little to kill eggs, despite prolonged exposure. Petroleum jelly caused the greatest egg mortality, allowing only 6% to hatch. It was extremely difficult to drown lice, despite extended periods (i.e., 8 hr) of water submersion, suggesting that killing lice by depriving them of oxygen is inefficient. None of the home remedy products we surveyed was an effective means of louse control. This suggests that when treatment failure occurs, an increased amount of time and effort should be focused on alternative chemical pediculicides and/or manual louse removal (i.e., combing) rather than using any of these products.

  1. Activity of increased specific and non-specific esterases and glutathione transferases associated with resistance to permethrin in pediculus humanus capitis (phthiraptera: pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Silvia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, Maria I; Audino, Paola Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced metabolism by oxidative enzymes is a major cause of pyrethroid resistance in insects. In this work, we evaluated the role of specific and non-specific esterases in head louse populations from Buenos Aires with different levels of resistance to permethrin. As esterase activity is substrate-dependent, four different esters were used as unspecific substrates in order to obtain a better characterization of the possible role of these enzymes in the resistance phenomenon. The unspecific substrates were phenylthioacetate, 1- and 2-naphtyl-acetate, and p-nitrophenyl acetate. A 7-coumaryl permethrate was synthesized and used as a specific substrate to measure pyrethroid esterases by a very sensitive microfluorometric method. The results on pyrethroid esterase activity obtained with this substrate showed that these enzymes contribute to the detoxifying activity in resistant populations, although no correlation was found between pyrethroid esterase activity and resistance ratios. In this study, we established that the activity of esterase against specific and non-specific substrates is increased in pyrethroid-resistant populations of head lice from Buenos Aires. Also, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance values demonstrated that there is a DDT cross-resistance phenomenon in pyrethroid-resistant head louse populations and suggested that an alteration in the receptor of the nervous system (kdr gen) is a key factor of the resistance phenomena in these head louse populations.

  2. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of 12 Antifungal Drugs against 55 Trichophyton schoenleinii Isolates from Tinea Capitis Favosa Patients in Iran, Turkey, and China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuwen; Ansari, Saham; Ilkit, Macit; Rafati, Haleh; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mojtaba; Nasrollahi-Omran, Ayatollah; Tolooe, Ali; Zhan, Ping; Liao, Wanqing; van der Lee, Henrich A; Verweij, Paul E; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2017-02-01

    Trichophyton schoenleinii is an anthropophilic dermatophyte mainly causing tinea favosa of the scalp in certain regions of the world, especially Africa and Asia. We investigated the in vitro susceptibilities of 55 T. schoenleinii isolates collected over the last 30 years from Iran, Turkey, and China to 12 antifungals using the CLSI broth microdilution method. Our results revealed that terbinafine and ketoconazole were the most potent antifungal agents among those tested, independently of the geographic regions where strains were isolated.

  3. Viper NHEXS Program: A Viper Pilot Neck Health & Conditioning Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical Research Dept 2510 Fifth St. Wright...units, which include the contralateral sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae , scalenus, splenius capitis, and ipsilateral splenius capitis [6]. Neck

  4. Hormonalna terapia zastępcza a choroby układu sercowo-naczyniowego.

    PubMed

    Lesiak, Maciej; Mariola, Ropacka-Lesiak; Podkowa, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The results of large randomized trials such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), Heart and Estrogen / Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) or Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis Study (ERAS) as well as the Million Women Study (MWS) which does not meet criteria RCT, concerning, among others the impact of HRT on breast cancer risk, thromboembolism, or the aging processes in the central nervous system caused the recent big confusion in the medical community , causing distrust about the safety and advisability of HRT in menopausal women. The paper presents an overview of the available, current literature on HRT. It was found that HRT should not be used in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease Great expectations was associated with an earlier initiation of therapy, before the advent of atherosclerosis - but there is currently no conclusive data about its role in the primary prevention of coronary disease. Oral HRT increases the risk of thromboembolic events - that is why you should prefer the form of a transdermal. HRT may increase the risk of ischemic stroke (but early initiation of therapy does not increase the risk of stroke) and should not be used in the primary prevention of stroke.

  5. Le vocabulaire disponible du francais, Tome 1. Le vocabulaire concret usuel des enfants francais et acadiens: Etude temoin (The Working French Vocabulary, Volume 1. Common Generic Terms Used by French and Acadian Children: A Field Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, William F.; And Others

    The first of a two-volume study of the relative accessibility of French vocabulary in French-speaking Canada presents statistical data concerning the frequency, distribution, valence, and accessibility of vocabulary related to 16 fundamental centers of interest found in normal conversation. The scope, procedures, and results of the study are…

  6. [Dapagliflozin, a novel oral antidiabetic with an uncertain future].

    PubMed

    Escudero Vilaplana, Belén; Almodóvar Carretón, María José; Herrero Hernández, Silvia

    2014-11-03

    Objetivo: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es uno de los principales problemas sociosanitarios a nivel mundial, para la que existen multitud de tratamientos. Recientemente, se ha aprobado el primer farmaco de una nueva familia de antidiabeticos orales (ADO): la dapagliflozina. Nuestro objetivo es revisar la evidencia cientifica disponible sobre la dapagliflozina, con el fin de analizar su eficacia, seguridad y coste y poder estimar su papel en la farmacoterapia actual de la DM2. Métodos: La eficacia y seguridad de la dapagliflozina se analizaron mediante una evaluacion de la evidencia cientifica. El coste de los diferentes ADO se calculo en base a sus dosis diarias definidas (DDD) y al precio de venta del laboratorio. Resultados: Se identificaron 7 ensayos clinicos aleatorizados: 2 en monoterapia (840 pacientes) y 5 en terapia combinada con otros antidiabeticos (3184 pacientes). En los 7 ensayos, la dapagliflozina redujo la concentracion de HbA1c; en todos se comparo con placebo, salvo en un estudio en terapia combinada que se comparo frente a farmaco activo (glipizida). Entre los efectos adversos mas frecuentes se detectaron infecciones genitourinarias e hipotension, aunque se debe prestar especial atencion al incremento del cancer de vejiga. Junto con los inhibidores de la DPP-4, la dapagliflozina es uno de los ADO de mayor coste (coste anual de DDD=729,3 euros). Conclusiones: La dapagliflozina no aporta ventajas respecto a la farmacoterapia de la DM2 ya existente. Su falta de experiencia de uso, la ausencia de importantes beneficios clinicos y su elevado coste hacen necesario restringir su utilizacion.

  7. NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT FOR FULMINANT HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Ramos Figueira, Estela Regina; Rocha Filho, Joel Avancini; Souto Nacif, Lucas; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz; Linetzky Waitzberg, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la hepatitis fulminante se asocia a un exacerbado hipercatabolismo, la hipoglicemia y la hiperamonemia están acompañadas por la liberación de citocinas proinflamatorias y hormonas catabólicas en la circulación sistémica, empeorando la condición clínica del paciente. El apoyo nutricional es un elemento crucial para la recuperación de estos pacientes. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta revisión es actualizar el apoyo nutricional para la hepatitis fulminante. Métodos: la revisión se llevó a cabo mediante la búsqueda electrónica en Medline-PubMed, utilizando malla de términos. Resultados y discusión: no hay muchos datos disponibles sobre el apoyo nutricional para lahepatitis fulminante o fallo hepático agudo. Las estrategias de intervención nutricional inicial se centran en el control de los trastornos metabólicos de la hepatitis fulminante descritos anteriormente, que deben ser individualizadas de acuerdo a la gravedad de la situación clínica del paciente. Energía y proteína se pueden proporcionar en cantidades de 25‑40 kcal / kg / día y 0,8-1,2 g / kg / día, respectivamente. La terapia nutricional enteral está indicada en pacientes con encefalopatía avanzada o para aquellos que no pueden ser adecuadamente alimentados por vía oral. Se debe obtener una euglicemia y la ingesta de proteínas puede estar basada en fórmulas de BCAA. Los lípidos se pueden administrar como suplemento energético con precaución. Una terapia nutricional adecuada puede potencialmente reducir la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los pacientes con hepatitis fulminante.

  8. Heart and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  9. Alzheimer's Disease and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  10. Mental Health Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  11. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  12. Anesthesia & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  13. Down Syndrome: Education

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  14. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  15. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  16. Dual Diagnosis of Down Syndrome & Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  17. Speech & Language Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Especialdades Consideraciones de Medicamentos y Prescripciones Terapias y Desarrollo Intervención Temprana Terapia Ocupacional y Síndrome de Down Fisioterapia y Síndrome de Down Terapia del Habla y del Lenguaje Terapias Alternativas Entrenamiento para Usar el Inodoro Bienestar ...

  18. [Guidelines in RA treatment: concepts on safety and recommendations using anti-TNF-alpha inhibitors. Grupo de Estudio de Nuevas Terapias de Enfermedades reumáticas (GENTE)].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Jouanen, Efraín; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto; Medrano-Ramírez, Gabriel; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Orozco-Alcalá, José Javier; Pacheco-Tena, César Francisco; Pineda, Carlos; Pozos-Espíndola, Juan Carlos; Ramos-Niembro, Francisco; Robles-San-Román, Manuel; Santana-Sahagún, Jesús Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Recommendations for the use of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARD) with both conventional and biological agents in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) must be based on their safety profile, adverse effects, risks, and advantages. With the purpose of presenting the most updated information about the safety of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antagonists, in this article we summarize the literature published during the last three years about this sort of biological agents in specific clinical situations, such as risk of developing infections, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmunity; as well as their administration to patients who will undergo surgical procedures, pregnant and/or breast-feeding women, and patients who need immunizations. Likewise, in this analysis we offer specific recommendations, based on evidence, for the best anti-TNF-alfa management.

  19. [Use of leflunomide in a cytomegalovirus infection resistant: a report of a case].

    PubMed

    Gómez Valbuena, Isabel; Alioto, Daniel; Serrano Garrote, Olga; Ferrari Piquero, Jose Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la infección por citomegalovirus (CMV) es una de las complicaciones más habituales en pacientes trasplantados, que puede desembocar en un fallo multiorgánico. El 80-90% de los pacientes se cura con el tratamiento estándar intravenoso (ganciclovir), o su profármaco oral (valganciclovir). En caso de no responder a ellos existe como alternativa otro antivírico, foscarnet. Un pequeño número de pacientes tampoco responden a este, teniendo un mal pronóstico. Objetivo: describir el caso de una paciente con trasplante bipulmonar por fibrosis quística y recidiva de infección por CMV en la cual el uso de leflunomida consigue disminuir e incluso llegar a niveles indetectables de la carga viral. Descripción del caso: mujer de 22 años, trasplantada bipulmonar por fibrosis quística en marzo del 2014. Las serologías de CMV realizadas fueron positivas en el donante y negativas en el receptor. Los controles de la carga viral durante la profilaxis con valganciclovir fueron negativos en el receptor hasta el sexto mes después del trasplante, momento en el que se detectó carga viral en los controles (2.090 UI/ml). La paciente ingresó en nuestro hospital para recibir tratamiento intravenoso con ganciclovir, persistiendo la carga viral positiva (42.400 UI/ml) al mes del inicio con esta terapia intravenosa. Un estudio de resistencias mostró que era resistente a ganciclovir, y por ello se inició tratamiento con foscarnet intravenoso. Con este fármaco se consiguió negativizar la carga viral, por lo que se suspendió el tratamiento, continuándose con controles quincenales de la carga viral. A los dos meses sin tratamiento se observó un aumento de la carga viral hasta 13.665 UI/ml, motivo por el cual se solicitó al Servicio de Farmacia el uso fuera de ficha técnica de leflunomida, con la intención de que la paciente recibiera terapia oral en lugar de intravenosa. La paciente fue tratada con valganciclovir hasta disponer de la autorización de uso de

  20. Echoes from the anatomical theater of Padua: Fabrici on the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zanchin, Giorgio; Panetto, Monica; Dalla Francesca, Elisabetta Hellman

    2015-06-01

    Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente, never published a systematic description nor an iconographic record of the nervous system except for the series of 21 pictures, entitled De Anatomia Capitis Cerebri Nervorum, stored in the Biblioteca Marciana of Venice.

  1. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, you may be prescribed an ...

  2. Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... gen_info/faqs.html. Accessed March 10, 2015. Goldstein AO, et al. Pediculosis capitis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 10, 2015. Goldstein AO, et al. Pediculosis pubis and pediculosis ciliaris. ...

  3. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging study of the morphometry of cervical extensor muscles in chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Bueno, A; Ferrando, J; Elliott, J M; Cuadrado, M L; Pareja, J A

    2007-04-01

    This study analyses the differences in the relative cross-sectional area (rCSA) of several cervical extensor muscles, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), between patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and healthy controls. MRI of the cervical spine was performed on 15 CTTH females and 15 matched controls. The rCSA values for the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin), rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj), semispinalis capitis and splenius capitis muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images using axial MR slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to substantiate the diagnosis and record the pain history. CTTH patients showed reduced rCSA for both RCPmin and RCPmaj muscles (P < 0.01), but not for semispinalis and splenius capitis muscles, compared with controls. Headache intensity, duration or frequency and rCSA in both RCPmin and RCPmaj muscles were negatively correlated (P < 0.05): the greater the headache intensity, duration or frequency, the smaller the rCSA in the RCPmin and RCPmaj muscles. CTTH patients demonstrate muscle atrophy of the rectus capitis posterior muscles. Whether this selective muscle atrophy is a primary or secondary phenomenon remains unclear. In any case, muscle atrophy could possibly account for a reduction of proprioceptive output from these muscles, and thus contribute to the perpetuation of pain.

  5. Dermatophytosis among Schoolchildren in Three Eco-climatic Zones of Mali.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Goïta, Siaka; Gaudart, Jean; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Thera, Mahamadou A; Ranque, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Dermatophytosis, and particularly the subtype tinea capitis, is common among African children; however, the risk factors associated with this condition are poorly understood. To describe the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in distinct eco-climatic zones, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in public primary schools located in the Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zones in Mali. Among 590 children (average age 9.7 years) the overall clinical prevalence of tinea capitis was 39.3%. Tinea capitis prevalence was 59.5% in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 41.6% in the Sudanian zone and 17% in the Sahelian eco-climatic zone. Microsporum audouinii was isolated primarily from large and/or microsporic lesions. Trichophyton soudanense was primarily isolated from trichophytic lesions. Based on the multivariate analysis, tinea capitis was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.51, 95%CI [1.74-3.61], P<10(-4)) and residing in the Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zone (OR = 7.45, 95%CI [4.63-11.99], P<10(-4)). Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii, were the most frequent species associated with tinea capitis among primary schoolchildren in Mali. Tinea capitis risk increased with increasing climate humidity in this relatively homogenous schoolchild population in Mali, which suggests a significant role of climatic factors in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis.

  6. Muscle pain induces task-dependent changes in cervical agonist/antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Falla, D; Farina, D; Dahl, M Kanstrup; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the effect of experimental neck muscle pain on the EMG-force relationship of cervical agonist and antagonist muscles. Surface EMG signals were detected from the sternomastoid, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius muscles bilaterally from 14 healthy subjects during cervical flexion and extension contractions of linearly increasing force from 0 to 60% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Measurements were performed before and after injection of 0.5 ml hypertonic and isotonic saline into either the sternomastoid or splenius capitis in two experimental sessions. EMG average rectified value (ARV) of the sternomastoid, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius muscles and the muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) of the sternomastoid muscle were estimated at 5% MVC force increments. During cervical flexion with injection of hypertonic saline in sternomastoid, ARV of sternomastoid was lower on the side of pain in the force range 25-60% MVC (P < 0.05) and was associated with a bilateral reduction of splenius capitis and upper trapezius ARV (P < 0.01). During cervical extension, injection of hypertonic saline in splenius capitis resulted in lower estimates of splenius capitis ARV on the painful side from 45 to 60% MVC (P < 0.05), which was associated with a bilateral increase in upper trapezius ARV estimates from 50 to 60% MVC (P < 0.001). However, no significant change was identified for estimates of sternomastoid ARV. Experimentally induced neck muscle pain resulted in task-dependent changes in cervical agonist/antagonist activity without modifications in muscle fiber CV.

  7. Dermatophytosis among Schoolchildren in Three Eco-climatic Zones of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Goïta, Siaka; Gaudart, Jean; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatophytosis, and particularly the subtype tinea capitis, is common among African children; however, the risk factors associated with this condition are poorly understood. To describe the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in distinct eco-climatic zones, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in public primary schools located in the Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zones in Mali. Principal Findings Among 590 children (average age 9.7 years) the overall clinical prevalence of tinea capitis was 39.3%. Tinea capitis prevalence was 59.5% in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 41.6% in the Sudanian zone and 17% in the Sahelian eco-climatic zone. Microsporum audouinii was isolated primarily from large and/or microsporic lesions. Trichophyton soudanense was primarily isolated from trichophytic lesions. Based on the multivariate analysis, tinea capitis was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.51, 95%CI [1.74–3.61], P<10−4) and residing in the Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zone (OR = 7.45, 95%CI [4.63–11.99], P<10−4). Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii, were the most frequent species associated with tinea capitis among primary schoolchildren in Mali. Conclusions Tinea capitis risk increased with increasing climate humidity in this relatively homogenous schoolchild population in Mali, which suggests a significant role of climatic factors in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis. PMID:27124571

  8. [Pharmacoeconomic study of the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vivancos-Matellano, F; Garcia-Ruiz, A J; Garcia-Agua Soler, N

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. Cuando el tratamiento farmacologico oral o transdermico de la enfermedad de Parkinson pierde eficacia, se dispone de tres terapias mediante dispositivos asistidos que pueden reducir las complicaciones motoras y no motoras: la apomorfina en infusion subcutanea (ASBI), la bomba de infusion duodenal continua de levodopa/carbidopa (IDL) y la estimulacion cerebral profunda (ECP). Objetivo. Efectuar un analisis farmacoeconomico comparativo del uso de ASBI con IDL y ECP; como objetivo secundario, discutir el perfil del candidato ideal para cada una de las tecnicas. Pacientes y metodos. Se extrajo informacion sobre datos de años de vida ganados y años de vida ganados ajustados por calidad (AVAC) segun la escala de Hoehn y Yahr, e informacion sobre costes y consumo de recursos para cada alternativa. La perspectiva del analisis fue la del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y el horizonte temporal fue de cinco años para los costes y toda la vida del paciente para las utilidades. Las medidas de resultado utilizadas fueron los años de vida ganados y AVAC, y en su comparacion se uso la ratio coste-utilidad incremental. Resultados. El coste-utilidad obtenido para cada opcion fue: 31.956 euros/AVAC para la ECP, 38.249 euros/AVAC para la ASBI y 75.206 euros/AVAC para la IDL. Conclusiones. Los resultados permiten evaluar la efectividad y utilidad de los diferentes tratamientos para la enfermedad de Parkinson avanzada, pues se presentan en ganancias de años vividos en plena salud. Los datos obtenidos contribuyen a la toma de decisiones que determinen la planificacion y gestion de cada caso, sin olvidar las preferencias del paciente y del neurologo, asi como las limitaciones presupuestarias.

  9. Treatment of retroauricular keloids: Revision of cases treated at the ENT service of HC/UFPR.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bettina; Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Ribeiro, Talita Beithum; Cavichiolo, Juliana Benthien; Ballin, Carlos Roberto; Mocellin, Marcos

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: Queloides são tumores benignos resultantes de cicatrização anômala da pele, sendo que existem diversos procedimentos disponíveis para o seu tratamento.Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os resultados de pacientes submetidos a tratamento de queloides retroauriculares após cirurgias otorrinológicas em nosso serviço.Método: Estudo retrospectivo e prospectivo, através de análise de prontuários, dos pacientes submetidos a tratamento de queloides retroauriculares em nosso serviço.Resultados: Nove pacientes foram avaliados, sendo que 6 foram submetidos a ressecção e betaterapia adjuvante, 2 foram submetidos a ressecção mais aplicação de corticoide local, 1 foi submetido apenas a ressecção sem terapia adjuvante. Não houve recidiva nos casos tratados com betaterapia no pós-operatório precoce, 1 paciente apresentou recidiva mesmo com corticoterapia e betaterapia tardia.Discussão: diversas técnicas tem sido utilizadas para tratamento dos queloides retroauriculares, sendo que a betaterapia é considerada a com melhores resultados, seguida pela utilização de corticoides intralesionais.Conclusão: o tratamento dos queloides retroauriculares continua um desafio. Enquanto novas técnicas não são desenvolvidas, a ressecção seguida de betaterapia precoce ainda é a melhor opção.

  10. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids.

  11. A Systematic Review of the Soft-Tissue Connections Between Neck Muscles and Dura Mater: The Myodural Bridge.

    PubMed

    Palomeque-Del-Cerro, Luis; Arráez-Aybar, Luis A; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Guzmán-García, Rafael; Menendez-Aparicio, Mar; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Systematic review. To elucidate the existence of soft tissue connections between the neck muscles and cervical dura mater. Several studies discuss the existence of a cervical myodural bridge; however, conflicting data have been reported. Searches were conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and PEDro databases. Studies reporting original data regarding the continuity of non-post-surgical soft tissue between the cervical muscles and dura mater were reviewed. Two reviewers independently selected articles, and a third one resolved disagreements. Another two researchers extracted the methodology of the study, the anatomical findings, and evaluated the quality of the studies using Quality Appraisal for Cadaveric Studies Scale. A different third researcher resolved disagreements. Twenty-six studies were included. A soft tissue connection between the rectus capitis posterior minor, the rectus capitis posterior major, and the obliquus capitis inferior muscles seems to be proved with a strong level of evidence for each one of them. Controversy exists about the possible communication between the dura mater and the upper trapezius, rhomboideus minor, serratus posterior superior, and splenius capitis by means of the ligamentum nuchae. Finally, there is limited evidence about the existence of a soft tissue connection between rectus capitis anterior muscle and the dura mater. There is a continuity of soft tissue between the cervical musculature and the cervical dura mater; this might have physiological, pathophysiological, and therapeutic implications, and going some way to explaining the effect of some therapies in craniocervical disorders. N/A.

  12. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  13. Absence of accelerated atherosclerotic disease progression after intracoronary infusion of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction--angiographic and intravascular ultrasound--results from the TErapia Celular Aplicada al Miocardio Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Roman; Villa, Adolfo; Gutiérrez, Hipólito; Sánchez, Pedro L; Gimeno, Federico; Fernández, Maria E; Gutiérrez, Oliver; Mota, Pedro; Sánchez, Ana; García-Frade, Javier; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; San Román, Jose A

    2010-06-01

    We tried to evaluate a putative negative effect on coronary atherosclerosis in patients receiving intracoronary infusion of unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) following an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or enriched CD133(+) BMMC have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis of the distal segment of the infarct related artery (IRA). Thirty-seven patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction from the TECAM pilot study underwent intracoronary infusion of autologous BMMC 9 +/- 3.1 days after onset of symptoms. We compared angiographic changes from baseline to 9 months of follow-up in the distal non-stented segment of the IRA, as well as in the contralateral coronary artery, with a matched control group. A subgroup of 15 treated patients underwent additional IVUS within the distal segment of the IRA. No difference between stem cell and control group were found regarding changes in minimum lumen diameter (0.006 +/- 0.42 vs 0.06 +/- 0.41 mm, P = ns) and the percentage of stenosis (-2.68 +/- 12.33% vs -1.78 +/- 8.75%, P = ns) at follow-up. Likewise, no differences were seen regarding changes in the contralateral artery (minimum lumen diameter -0.004 +/- 0.54 mm vs -0.06 +/- 0.35 mm, P = ns). In the intravascular ultrasound substudy, no changes were demonstrated comparing baseline versus follow-up in maximum area stenosis and plaque volume. In this pilot study, analysis of a subgroup of patients found that intracoronary injection of unfractionated BMMC in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was not associated with accelerated atherosclerosis progression at mid term. Prospective, randomised studies in large cohorts with long-term angiographic and intravascular ultrasound follow-up are necessary to determine the safety of this therapy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Multicenter study on the treatment and outcome of patients admitted to intensive care units in Italy. Presentation of the research project and the study protocol. GiViTI (Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva)].

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Brazzi, L; Pesce, C

    1992-12-01

    Although Intensive Care Units (ICU) are present in most of the Italian Hospitals for acute patients, the heterogeneity of the patients case-mix and the large variation in structural, organizational and staffing arrangements have limited the feasibility and precision of evaluation studies aimed at assessing the quality of health care delivered and its impact on patients outcomes. To our knowledge there has been no nationwide study aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of the delivered care in samples of ICUs and patients that are representative of the source populations. To study the effects of variations in health care practices on the outcome of the patients admitted in ICU, we designed a multicentric observational study involving 120 ICUs within the country. The present study is the first part of a project involving a network of Intensive Care Units gathered under the name of GiViTI-Italian Group for the Evaluation of the Interventions in Intensive Care-that is representative of the national Italian reality in the field. The idea of a large collaborative group acting in the field of Intensive Care stands in line with several quality, effectiveness and resource utilization studies that are ongoing in other European countries and is also the result of a series of smaller-scale experiences carried out by other Italian groups eventually emboied in the GiViTI project. In the framework of the ongoing long term, multisite, and multidisciplinary project, the present study calls for the recruitment of all consecutive patients seen at the participant centers during a two months period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The performance of SAPS II in a cohort of patients admitted to 99 Italian ICUs: results from GiViTI. Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva.

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Bertolini, G; D'Amico, R; Iapichino, G; Cattaneo, A; De Salvo, G; Melotti, R M

    1996-12-01

    To assess the validity of SAPS II (new Simplified Acute Physiology Score) in a cohort of patients admitted to a large sample of Italian intensive care units (ICU). The ability of the SAPS II scoring system to predict the probability of hospital mortality was assessed with calibration and discrimination measures obtained using published coefficients. A new logistic regression equation was then developed and further formal calibration and discrimination measures were estimated for the customized model. From the 2202 consecutive patients recruited during a 1-month period in 99 ICUs, a total of 1393 patients were included in this validation study. When the parameters based on the standard model were applied, the expected probability of mortality did not fit those actually observed in the cohort (p < 0.001), although it showed satisfactory discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.80). Such lack of fit yields an overall under prediction of mortality (observed/expected ratio = 1.14) that reflects a uniform pattern across a preselected set of subgroups. Customization allowed new mortality estimates to be calculated, with satisfactory calibration (p = 0.82) and a more uniform pattern across subgroups. SAPS II maintained its validity in an independent sample of patients recruited in a large network of Italian ICUs only after appropriate adaptation (first-level customization). Whether the determinants of this relatively poor performance are related to differences in unmeasured case-mix, methods of application, or quality of care delivered is a matter for discussion that cannot be solved with the data presently available. However, these findings suggest that caution is warranted before implementing the standard SAPS II scoring system parameters outside formal research projects.

  16. Manual de Adiestramiento sobre Terapia de Rehidratacion Oral y Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas (Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mari; And Others

    This Spanish-language manual was developed to train Peace Corps volunteers and other community health workers in Spanish-speaking countries in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the control of diarrheal diseases. Using a competency-based format, the manual contains three training modules (organized in seven sessions) that focus on interrelated…

  17. Kerion Celsi due to Microsporum canis with a Dermatophytid Reaction.

    PubMed

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Starčević, Lidija; Husar, Karmela; Halasz, Mirna

    2017-07-01

    Microsporum (M.) canis is the most common fungus to cause tinea capitis in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean region and South and Central Europe. Fungal scalp infections caused by M. canis tend to be non-inflammatory. Recently, a growing number of cases of tinea capitis characterized by inflammatory infection caused by M. canis and M. gypseum have been registered. We present a case of highly inflammatory tinea capitis, also known as kerion celsi, caused by M. canis in a 6-year-old-patient. Scalp infections due to M. canis are a growing problem in dermatological practice. Changes in epidemiology, etiology, and clinical patterns of fungal infections due to M. canis are significant. Greater awareness of this problem is needed in order to establish proper diagnosis and successful treatment strategy for these patients.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging study of cross-sectional area of the cervical extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J M; Jull, G A; Noteboom, J T; Durbridge, G L; Gibbon, W W

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be regarded as the gold standard for muscle imaging; however there is little knowledge about in vivo morphometric features of neck extensor muscles in healthy subjects and how muscle size alters across vertebral segments. It is not known how body size and activity levels may influence neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) or if the muscles differ from left and right. The purpose of this study was to establish relative CSA (rCSA) data for the cervical extensor musculature with a reliable MRI measure in asymptomatic females within a defined age range and to determine if side-side and vertebral level differences exist. MRI of the cervical spine was performed on 42 asymptomatic female subjects within the age range of 18-45. The rCSA values for the cervical extensor muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images. We found significant side-side rCSA differences for the rectus capitis posterior minor, major (P < 0.001), multifidus (P = 0.002), and the semispinalis cervicis/capitis (P = 0.001, P < 0.001). There were significant vertebral level differences in rCSA of the semispinalis cervicis/capitis, multifidus, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius (P < 0.001). Activity levels were shown to impact on the size of semispinalis cervicis (P = 0.027), semispinalis capitis (P = 0.003), and the splenius capitis (P = 0.004). In conclusion, measuring differences in neck extensor muscle rCSA with MRI in an asymptomatic population provides the basis for future study investigating relationships between muscular atrophy and symptoms in patients suffering from persistent neck pain. Clin.

  19. Neonatal kerion Celsi: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Larralde, Margarita; Gomar, Begoña; Boggio, Paula; Abad, María Eugenia; Pagotto, Betina

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection caused by dermatophytes, frequent in children but uncommon in the neonatal period. Kerion Celsi is the inflammatory manifestation of tinea capitis secondary to host immunologic responses and its occurrence in newborns is extremely infrequent. We describe three neonates with the diagnosis of kerion Celsi. The isolated dermatophytes were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes in two patients and Trichophyton rubrum in the third. Both patients with T. mentagrophytes referred an indirect contact with rabbits and were successfully treated with systemic antifungal (griseofulvin and fluconazole). The patient with T. rubrum had a father with a tinea manuum and both received just topical antimycotic treatment.

  20. Tinea caput medusa: an unusual presentation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes on the scalp.

    PubMed

    Houck, H E; Cooley, J E; Lowitt, M H; Kao, G F

    1996-07-01

    Tinea capitis has a wide variety of clinical presentations in adolescents and adults. However, the occurrence of fingerlike projections in the scalp has not been previously described. A 14-year-old girl presented with a one-year history of a painful scalp mass. Debridement of this mass revealed slender papillomatous growths resembling those seen in elephantiasis nostras verrucosa. A fungal culture grew Trichophyton mentagrophytes. We describe the first case of this unusual clinical variant of tinea capitis and hypothesize on its pathophysiological basis.

  1. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Trichophyton rubrum CMCC(F)T1i and Trichophyton violaceum CMCC(F)T3l by Illumina 2000 and Pacific Biosciences

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ping; de Hoog, Sybren

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT One strain of Trichophyton rubrum CMCC(F)T1i (=CBS 139224) isolated from onychomycosis and one strain of Trichophyton violaceum CMCC(F)T3l (=CBS 141829) isolated from tinea capitis in China were whole-genome sequenced by Illumina/Solexa, while the former was also sequenced by Pacific Biosciences sequencing in parallel. PMID:28963202

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Trichophyton rubrum CMCC(F)T1i and Trichophyton violaceum CMCC(F)T3l by Illumina 2000 and Pacific Biosciences.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; de Hoog, Sybren; Liu, Weida

    2017-09-28

    One strain of Trichophyton rubrum CMCC(F)T1i (=CBS 139224) isolated from onychomycosis and one strain of Trichophyton violaceum CMCC(F)T3l (=CBS 141829) isolated from tinea capitis in China were whole-genome sequenced by Illumina/Solexa, while the former was also sequenced by Pacific Biosciences sequencing in parallel. Copyright © 2017 Zhan et al.

  4. Prevalence and monthly distribution of head lice using two diagnostic procedures in several age groups in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raquel; Silva, Juliana J; Rodrigues, Rosângela M; Mendes, Júlio

    2007-01-01

    Some epidemiological characteristics of head lice, Pediculus capitis, were studied using two procedures: cut hair analysis and head inspection. Higher prevalence rates were observed in the middle and at the end of the school terms. Both procedures indicated that children were the main reservoir for this type of pediculosis in Uberlândia.

  5. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections.

    PubMed

    Ely, John W; Rosenfeld, Sandra; Seabury Stone, Mary

    2014-11-15

    Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). The clinical diagnosis can be unreliable because tinea infections have many mimics, which can manifest identical lesions. For example, tinea corporis can be confused with eczema, tinea capitis can be confused with alopecia areata, and onychomycosis can be confused with dystrophic toenails from repeated low-level trauma. Physicians should confirm suspected onychomycosis and tinea capitis with a potassium hydroxide preparation or culture. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis generally respond to inexpensive topical agents such as terbinafine cream or butenafine cream, but oral antifungal agents may be indicated for extensive disease, failed topical treatment, immunocompromised patients, or severe moccasin-type tinea pedis. Oral terbinafine is first-line therapy for tinea capitis and onychomycosis because of its tolerability, high cure rate, and low cost. However, kerion should be treated with griseofulvin unless Trichophyton has been documented as the pathogen. Failure to treat kerion promptly can lead to scarring and permanent hair loss.

  6. Medical Services: Preventive Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-15

    through direct contact or by fomites such as towels, combs, clippers, or razors. Skin dis- eases of concern include scalp ringworm (Tinea capitis... ringworm of the bearded area of face and neck (Tinea barbae), and impetigo and staphylococcal infections. 41AR 40–5 • 15 October 1990 D–2. Employee

  7. Very late-onset lead-associated endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Lead-associated endocarditis is a serious complication due to device implantation. The present article reports on a case involving a 57-year-old man with microbiologically and pathologically confirmed lead-associated endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus capitis. Transesophageal echocardiography is essential for diagnosis, and treatment usually requires appropriate antibiotics and removal of the lead. PMID:23205027

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critically-ill patients: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Nuria; De Antonio-Cuscó, Marta; Echeverría-Esnal, Daniel; Luque, Sonia; Salas, Esther; Grau, Santiago

    2017-03-01

    Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) está relacionada con unas tasas elevadas de morbi-mortalidad. A pesar de que Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) se ha relacionado frecuentemente con la neumonía nosocomial, algunos pacientes con NAC por este microorganismo revisten la suficiente gravedad como para precisar su ingreso en la UCI.Objetivos: Efectuar una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre el tratamiento antibiótico de la NAC por SARM en pacientes críticos.Material y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos sobre NAC por SARM en el paciente crítico. Se identificaron las publicaciones pertinentes en PUBMED, BestPractice database, UpTo-Date database y Cochrane Plus Library para artículos publicados en inglés desde diciembre del 2001 hasta abril del 2016. Resultados: Se encontraron 70 publicaciones, incluyendo 13 (18,8%) y excluyendo 57 (81,4%). Predominaron los estudios de cohortes con un total de 6 (20,7%), frente a una única publicación en forma de estudio transversal (3,5%). Conclusiones: La experiencia en el tratamiento de la NAC por SARM en pacientes que precisen ingreso en la UCI es muy limitada. La vancomicina o el linezolid parecen ser las terapias en las que se dispone de una mayor experiencia, aunque no existe ninguna recomendación específica al respecto. Puede ser útil la utilización de vías alternativas como la nebulizada, administración en perfusión continua o en asociación con otros antibióticos.

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Baladia, Eduard; Frutos Pérez-Surio, Alberto; Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo

    2016-06-30

    Objetivos: dar a conocer las recomendaciones relacionadas con la Nutrición Humana y Dietética (NHyD) de la Guía de Práctica Clínica para el manejo de la enfermedad de Parkinson del Sistema Nacional de Salud (GPC-EP/SNS) y favorecer su difusión e implementación en la práctica. El objetivo secundario es presentar la implicación de los profesionales de la NHyD en la elaboración de la guía.Material y métodos: siguiendo el Manual Metodológico de Elaboración de Guías de Práctica Clínica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud, se formularon las preguntas clínicas, se realizó una búsqueda sistemática para cada pregunta en bases de datos (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CRD, LILACS, IBECS y ClinicalTrials), se definieron los criterios de elegibilidad, al menos dos investigadores seleccionaron los estudios, se realizó lectura crítica de la literatura se resumió en tablas de síntesis de evidencia y se establecieron las recomendaciones.Resultados: se propusieron 14 preguntas relacionadas directamente con NHyD-Parkinson, de las cuales solamente 3 pudieron incluirse. Se formuló una pregunta relacionada con la terapia de logopedia aplicada en personas con EP que presentan problemas de deglución, tratamiento donde se imbrican los profesionales de la NHyD. De 642 artículos localizados, únicamente 2 pudieron ser incluidos para contestar las correspondientes preguntas. De las evidencias halladas, se derivaron 11 recomendaciones directa o indirectamente relacionados con la NHyD.Conclusiones: la implicación de profesionales sanitarios en equipos multidisciplinares mejora el resultado final de las guías y la atención sanitaria de los pacientes. Es necesario que los profesionales sanitarios de la NHyD (los/las dietistas-nutricionistas) se impliquen en iniciativas basadas en la mejor evidencia científica disponible y que formen parte de los equipos de trabajo multidisciplinares.

  10. [Juvenile Pompe disease: retrospective clinical study].

    PubMed

    Loureiro Neves, Filipa; Garcia, Paula Cristina; Madureira, Núria; Araújo, Henriqueta; Rodrigues, Fidjy; Estêvão, Maria Helena; Lacerda, Lúcia; Diogo Matos, Luísa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A doença de Pompe ou glicogenose tipo II é uma doença autossómica recessiva por deficiência de maltase ácida. É uma entidade rara, com prevalência de 1/40.000 nas populações holandesa e afro-americana e 1/46000 na população australiana. Embora se distingam três formas de apresentação (infantil, juvenil e do adulto), observa-se um amplo espectro clínico. Em Portugal está disponível terapêutica enzimática de substituição desde 2006.Material e Métodos: Fez-se o estudo retrospetivo de quatro doentes (duas das quais irmãs), baseado na revisão dos processos clínicos.Resultados: Em todas, a doença manifestou-se no segundo ano de vida. O tempo até ao diagnóstico variou entre dois e onze anos. Aquando do diagnóstico, todas apresentavam miopatia com atraso de aquisições motoras e em duas havia hipertrofia miocárdica. A suspeita clínica surgiu por insuficiência respiratória em contexto infeccioso em duas doentes. Em todas havia elevação da creatina quinase e das aminotransferases. Todas evoluíram com insuficiência respiratória crónica por síndrome restritiva. O diagnóstico foi baseado na diminuição da atividade da maltase ácida em fibroblastos (0 a 1,5% do limite inferior do normal). Na biópsia muscular, realizada em três doentes, demonstrou-se acumulação lisossómica de glicogénio. Todas apresentavam a mutação c.1064T > C no exão 6 do gene GAA (glucosidase-alpha-acid), em homozigotia numa delas, associada às mutações c.1666A > G no exão 12 e c.2065G > A no exão 15 nas duas irmãs e à mutação c.380G > T no exão 2 na doente mais nova. Todas iniciaram terapia enzimática de substituiçãologo que disponível, com boa tolerância. A doente mais jovem faleceu pouco depois. As outras mantêm medidas de suporteventilatório e fisioterapia, deslocando-se a mais velha, em cadeira de rodas, mantendo a irmã marcha independente e necessitando a mais nova de andarilho.Conclusão: Os nossos casos incluem

  11. Reliability of thickness measurements of the dorsal muscles of the upper cervical spine: an ultrasonographic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Jung; Chai, Huei-Ming; Wang, Shwu-Fen

    2009-12-01

    Clinical measurement, reliability. To examine the intraday intrarater reliability of measuring thickness of the upper dorsal neck muscles at rest, as well as at 50% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), for upper cervical extension. Methodology for measuring the thickness of the lower dorsal neck muscles, including semispinalis capitis and multifidus muscles, during contraction using ultrasonography has been established. Thickness measurements for the upper dorsal neck muscles have not been documented. Ten subjects (21 to 30 years of age) without neck pain and headache were recruited. Their upper dorsal neck muscles were measured both at rest and during 50% MVIC for upper cervical extension in sitting position using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Muscles measured included the rectus capitis posterior major, oblique capitis superior, semispinalis capitis, and splenius capitis. All measurements were repeated after 10 minutes of rest, on the same day, by the same rater. Descriptive statistics were supplemented by calculations of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1), standard error of measurement (SEM), within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw), and minimal detectable change (MDC). ICC3,1 results ranged from 0.87 to 0.99 for thickness measurements made at rest and from 0.90 to 0.98 for thickness measurements made with a 50% MVIC. The SEMs for thickness measurements at rest and at 50% MVIC ranged from 0.11 to 0.46 mm and 0.23 to 0.52 mm, while the CVws ranged from 3.5% to 6.1% and 3.7% to 6.4%, and MDC95 ranged from 0.35 to 1.46 mm and 0.73 to 1.65 mm, respectively. The thickness of all upper dorsal neck muscles measured during a 50% MVIC was greater than when measured at rest (P<.029). Thickness measurements of the upper dorsal neck muscles using RUSI were reliable both at rest and during a 50% effort isometric contraction.

  12. What Are Islet Cells?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basal/Bolus Terapia de Insulina y Cuenta de Carbohidratos Continuous Glucose Monitoring Diabetes Made Simple Domine La Diabetes Insulin Pump Therapy ... Basal/Bolus Terapia de Insulina y Cuenta de Carbohidratos Continuous Glucose Monitoring Diabetes Made Simple Domine La Diabetes Insulin Pump Therapy ...

  13. Pharmaceutical interventions in medications prescribed for administration via enteral tubes in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carolina Justus Buhrer; Plodek, Caroline Koga; Soares, Franciny Kossemba; Andrade, Rayza Assis de; Teleginski, Fernanda; Rocha, Maria Dagmar da

    2016-01-01

    administração para 294 medicamentos via sondas enterais; fluxograma decisório; procedimentos operacionais-padrão de diluição e unitarização de formas farmacêuticas orais e de administração de medicamentos via sondas enterais. Na Fase 2 investigou-se, retrospectivamente, erros em 872 medicamentos prescritos via sondas enterais, em 293 prescrições de pacientes internados de março a junho. Seguiu-se capacitação das equipes sobre diretrizes estabelecidas. Na Fase 3 investigou-se, prospectivamente, erros e intervenções farmacêuticas em 945 medicamentos prescritos via sondas enterais, em 292 prescrições de pacientes internados de agosto a setembro. Dados coletados, em formulário estruturado, foram compilados no programa Microsoft Office Excel(r) e calculadas as frequências. foram observados 786 erros, 63,9% (502) na Fase 2 e 36,1% (284) na Fase 3. Na Fase 3 verificou-se redução na frequência de prescrição de medicamentos, via sondas enterais, contraindicados e sem informações disponíveis. diretrizes e intervenções farmacêuticas foram determinantes na prevenção dos erros de medicamentos via sondas enterais. analizar el impacto de directrices sobre errores en medicamentos prescritos para administración vía sondas enterales. estudio cuantitativo, en tres fases, realizado en una clínica médica-neurología y en unidad de terapia intensiva de un hospital general universitario. En la Fase 1 se elaboró: protocolo de dilución, reenvasado - transformación y administración para 294 medicamentos vía sondas enterales; diagrama de flujo de decisión; procedimientos operacionales estándar de dilución y reenvasado - transformación de formas farmacéuticas orales y de administración de medicamentos vía sondas enterales. En la Fase 2 se investigó, retrospectivamente, errores en 872 medicamentos prescritos vía sondas enterales, en 293 prescripciones de pacientes internados de marzo a junio. La continuación, capacitación de los equipos sobre

  14. Adherence to immunosuppressive therapy following liver transplantation: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ramon Antônio; Turrini, Ruth Natália Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2016-08-29

    diferentes bases, até a data limite de 10 de fevereiro de 2015, empregando-se os descritores controlados e não controlados: liver transplantation, hepatic transplantation, liver orthotopic transplantation, medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance e patient compliance. foram localizadas 191 investigações, das quais 10 atenderam aos objetivos do estudo e foram agrupadas em quatro categorias, a saber: processo educativo e ocorrência de não adesão; não adesão relacionada ao número de doses diárias dos medicamentos imunossupressores; métodos de detecção da não adesão e efeitos colaterais da terapêutica. verificou-se a existência de fatores de risco relacionados ao serviço de saúde, como controle e redução do número de doses; relacionados ao indivíduo, como ser do sexo masculino, divorciado, usuário de álcool ou outras substâncias, expostos a menor suporte social e portadores de transtorno mental. investigar la evidencia disponible en la literatura sobre la falta de adherencia a la terapia inmunosupresora en los pacientes sometidos a trasplante hepático. revisión integradora de la literatura, que incluye investigaciones cuya muestra estaba constituida por pacientes mayores de 18 años sometidos a trasplante hepático. Se excluyeron aquellos que tenían pacientes sometidos a trasplantes de varios órganos. Para la selección de los artículos fueron consultadas las bases Medline / Pubmed, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus y Embase. El período de búsqueda determinado correspondió a la fecha inicial de indexación de las diferentes bases, con fecha límite de 10 de febrero de 2015, usándose descriptores controlados y no controlados: liver transplantation, hepatic transplantation, liver orthotopic transplantation, medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance e patient compliance. se localizaron 191 investigaciones, de los cuales 10 cumplieron con los objetivos del estudio y se agruparon en cuatro categor

  15. Human head lice and pubic lice reveal the presence of several Acinetobacter species in Algiers, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Mana, Nassima; Louni, Meriem; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2017-08-01

    There are two majorspecies of medically important lice that parasitize humans: Phthirus pubis, found in pubic hair, and Pediculus humanus. Pediculus humanus consists of two eco types that live in specific niches on the human host: body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), found on the human body and clothing, and head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis), found on the scalp. To date, only body lice are known to be vectors of human disease; however, it has recently been reported that the DNA of several bacterial agents has been detected in head lice, raising questions about their role in the transmission of pathogens. This issue caught our attention, in addition to the fact that the pathogenic bacteria associated with P. pubis and P. humanus capitis have never been investigated in Algeria. To investigate this,molecular techniques (real-time PCR) were used to screen for the presence of Acinetobacter spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia prowazekii DNA from P. humanus capitis (64 lice) collected from schoolchildren,and P. pubis (4 lice),collected from one adultman living in Algiers. Positive samples for Acinetobacter spp.were identified by sequencing therpoBgene. Conventional PCR targeting the partial Cytb gene was used to determine the phylogenetic clade of the collected lice. Of the 64 samples collected, Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in 17/64 (27%) of head lice, identified as: A. baumannii (14%), A. johnsonii (11%) and A. variabilis (2%). Of the four P. pubissamples, 2(50%) were positive for A. johnsonii. The phylogenetic tree based on the Cytb gene revealed that P. humanus capitis were grouped into clades A and B. In this study, we report andidentify for the first time Acinetobacter spp.in Algerian P. pubis and P. humanus capitis. The detection of the genus Acinetobacter in lice should not be underestimated, especially in P. humanus capitis, which is distributed worldwide. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine if human lice

  16. [Epidemiological study of Pediculosis in elementary schools of Arica, northern Chile].

    PubMed

    Gazmuri B, Paola; Arriaza T, Bernardo; Castro S, Francisco; González N, Pablo; Maripan V, Karina; Saavedra R, Iván

    2014-06-01

    Pediculosis is an ectoparasitosis infestation that has not received much attention in northern Chile despite it is a common reoccurring condition among school-age children. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in elementary schools of Arica. A group of 665 elementary school students from the Province of Arica were screened between August and November 2010; 467 children who met the inclusion criteria were selected. After parents and students signed an informed consent, the diagnosis was carried out through examination of the head with naked eye in each participating school, recording the presence of Pediculus humanus capitis, infestation level and parasite stage. 40.3% (188) of the children presented Pediculosis; the six schools studied were affected. Pediculosis infestation in girls reached 55.2% (138/250) and 23% (50/217) in boys. The school population of Arica is significantly affected by Pediculosis and its prevalence is similar to other regions.

  17. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  18. The cervical myodural bridge, a review of literature and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Enix, Dennis E; Scali, Frank; Pontell, Matthew E

    2014-06-01

    The role of posterior cervical musculature in sensorimotor control, cervicocephalic pain, and stabilization of the spinal cord has been recently described. Anatomical soft tissue connections which cross the cervical epidural space link suboccipital muscle fascia and dura. These myodural bridges provide passive and active anchoring of the spinal cord. They may also be involved in a dural tension monitoring system to prevent dural infolding, and maintain patency of the spinal cord. Modulation of dural tension may be initiated via a sensory reflex to muscular contractile tissues. Unanticipated movements such as hyperflexion extension injuries stimulate deep suboccipital muscles and transmit tensile forces through the bridge to the cervical dura. Due to its larger cross sectional area, the rectus capitis posterior major myodural bridge may exert greater mechanical traction on the dura than the rectus capitis posterior minor. University ethics committee approval and anatomical donor consent was obtained for this study.

  19. Radiation-induced cerebral meningioma: a recognizable entity.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, A B; Shalit, M N; Cohen, M L; Zandbank, U; Reichenthal, E

    1984-11-01

    The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological findings in 201 patients with intracranial meningiomas operated on in the period 1978 to 1982. Forty-three of the patients (21.4%) had at some previous time received radiation treatment to their scalp, the majority for tinea capitis. The findings in these 43 irradiated patients were compared with those in the 158 non-irradiated patients. Several distinctive clinical and histological features were identified in the irradiated group, which suggest that radiation-induced meningiomas can be defined as a separate nosological subgroup. The use of irradiation in large numbers of children with tinea capitis in the era prior to the availability of griseofulvin may be responsible for a significantly increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas.

  20. [Drug treatment of alopecia].

    PubMed

    Wolff, H

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia is the term used to describe hairless areas of the scalp. They can follow a specific pattern, be diffuse or circumscript. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) follows a pattern: in men thinning of temples and vertex up to total baldness; in women thinning of the midline or parietal area. Lack of iron or cytostatic drugs cause diffuse alopecia, while in autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata or lichen planus bizarre shapes of hairless areas are observed. For therapy, the following medications are used: topical minoxidil solution for AGA of men and women; systemic finasteride 1 mg for men with AGA; topical diphencyprone immunotherapy for alopecia areata; systemic antimycotic agents for tinea capitis; antibiotics such as clindamycin and rifampicin for folliculitis decalvans; systemic corticosteroids and isotretinoin for folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens; topical corticosteroids for lichen planus and Kossard's frontal fibrosing alopecia.

  1. Common tinea infections in children.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Mark D; Burns, Marianthe

    2008-05-15

    The common dermatophyte genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton are major causes of superficial fungal infections in children. These infections (e.g., tinea corporis, pedis, cruris, and unguium) are typically acquired directly from contact with infected humans or animals or indirectly from exposure to contaminated soil or fomites. A diagnosis usually can be made with a focused history, physical examination, and potassium hydroxide microscopy. Occasionally, Wood's lamp examination, fungal culture, or histologic tissue examination is required. Most tinea infections can be managed with topical therapies; oral treatment is reserved for tinea capitis, severe tinea pedis, and tinea unguium. Topical therapy with fungicidal allylamines may have slightly higher cure rates and shorter treatment courses than with fungistatic azoles. Although oral griseofulvin has been the standard treatment for tinea capitis, newer oral antifungal agents such as terbinafine, itraconazole, and fluconazole are effective, safe, and have shorter treatment courses.

  2. Abnormal distribution of the histocompatibility antigens (HLA) in lousy patients.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Alalfy, M S; Sabry, A H; Fikry, A A; El Sharkawy, I M

    1996-04-01

    The histocompatibility antigens have important functions in the development of the immune response, in the development of immunologic tolerance and in the resistance and susceptibility to diseases. In the present study, the frequency of the human leucocytic antigens (HLA) were studied in 31 lousy children with Pediculus h. capitis (head lice) and 14 adults with Phthirus pubis (pubic lice) to evaluate the immune response in their pathogenesis. The patients (children and adults) were parasite-free as indicated by urine, stool and blood analysis and clinical examination. A significant increase was found between HLA-A11 and, -B5 and lousy children with P. h. capitis and between HLA,-A11, -B5 and -B27 and lousy adults with P. pubis. The association between HLA antigens and parasitic infection was discussed.

  3. Identification and enumeration of staphylococci from the eye during soft contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Leitch, E C; Harmis, N Y; Corrigan, K M; Willcox, M D

    1998-04-01

    An extensive study was conducted to identify and enumerate staphylococcal microbiota found on ocular sites during asymptomatic soft contact lens (SCL) wear. A biochemical identification system separately grouped the eight clinically relevant staphylococci. Total counts and isolation frequencies from SCLs and ocular sites were evaluated. The epidermidis group was the most numerous isolate from extended wear (EW) lenses; the capitis/warneri group was the most numerous (p < 0.05) from daily wear (DW) lenses. In both DW and EW, the greatest isolation frequency (p < 0.05) was recorded for the capitis/warneri group. The remaining six groups were isolated infrequently and in low numbers. These results show that, in addition to Staphylococcus epidermidis, other staphylococcal species may be important members of the normal microbiota of the ocular surface during SCL wear. Furthermore, an increase and a shift in staphylococcal microbiota between DW and EW regimes was highlighted.

  4. High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view.

  5. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation.

  6. Predicting outcome in the intensive care unit using scoring systems: is new better? A comparison of SAPS and SAPS II in a cohort of 1,393 patients. GiViTi Investigators (Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva). Simplified Acute Physiology Score.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, G; D'Amico, R; Apolone, G; Cattaneo, A; Ravizza, A; Iapichino, G; Brazzi, L; Melotti, R M

    1998-09-01

    This study sought to compare the performance of the old and new versions of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SAPS and SAPS II, in classifying patients according to the risk of hospital mortality. To compare the performance of the two systems, measures of association between the scores and observed mortality were adopted, together with discrimination (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve) and calibration (goodness-of-fit statistics) estimates. Subjects were 1,393 eligible patients recruited during 1 month in 1994. The outcome measure was vital status at hospital discharge. SAPS II was associated more strongly with hospital mortality than the earlier version. SAPS II also had better discrimination ability than SAPS (area under Receiver Operating Characteristics curve 0.80 versus 0.74) and predicted an overall number of deaths (416.5) closer to the observed figure (475) than SAPS (267.7). Conversely, neither SAPS nor SAPS II fitted our data. Both P values derived from goodness-of-fit statistics were lower than 0.05. SAPS II offers a real improvement compared with SAPS in its ability to explain hospital mortality, but its standard parameters do not fit our data from Italy. The role and impact of potential determinants of this lack of fit, such as random errors and confounders related to casemix and/or quality of care should be clarified before this scoring system be used outside formal research projects. Special caution is suggested when SAPS II is adopted to predict mortality to compare intensive care unit performance across different countries and systems of care.

  7. GIVIO-SITAC 01: A randomized trial of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid administered to patients with colon carcinoma--long term results and evaluation of the indicators of health-related quality of life. Gruppo Italiano Valutazione Interventi in Oncologia. Studio Italiano Terapia Adiuvante Colon.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, A; Labianca, R; Marsoni, S; Torri, V; Mosconi, P; Grilli, R; Apolone, G; Cifani, S; Tinazzi, A

    1998-06-01

    In 1989, the authors began a randomized trial to determine whether 5-fluorouracil and high dose folinic acid (HD-FUFA) would increase the event free and overall survival of patients with resectable Dukes B and C (AJCC/UICC Stage II and Stage III) colon carcinoma, and to assess the toxicity of the treatment and its impact on selected health-related quality-of-life indicators. Early results were published as a part of an international multicenter pooled analysis (IMPACT) in 1995. The purpose of this report is to update the survival data for patients enrolled in the trial and describe their reported perceptions of their own health and quality of life. The trial involved multiple treatment centers, with a centralized randomization between surgery alone and surgery with chemotherapy. The HD-FUFA regimen employed consisted of 5-fluorouracil (370 mg/m2) plus folinic acid (200 mg/m2) administered daily for 5 days every 4 weeks for 6 cycles. Patients' perceptions of their own health status were obtained by means of 3 self-administered questionnaires, which were completed by patients at the time of discharge from the treatment center and at 6 and 24 months after randomization. Overall, 888 patients with resected Dukes B2 and C colon carcinoma were enrolled in the trial. HD-FUFA significantly reduced mortality by 25% (95% confidence interval, 5-41%; P=0.02) and events by 31% (95% confidence interval, 14-45%; P < or = 0.001). Compliance with treatment was good; more than 80% of patients completed the planned therapy. Toxicity was mild, and oral mucositis was the main side effect. None of the health-related quality-of-life parameters investigated (emotional status, worry about the future, changes in social life, impact of the disease, follow-up, and global quality of life) seemed to be affected by the treatment to which patients were allocated. A positive trend in the evolution of patients' psychologic status was observed. Long term results of this SITAC study confirm that HD-FUFA is a well-tolerated, effective 6-month adjuvant regimen for patients with colon carcinoma that has no detrimental effect on their quality of life.

  8. [The consultation with the candidate couple for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). The experience of the MATRIS (Medici Associati per la Terapia e la Ricerca dell'Infertilità e Sterilità) center of Milan].

    PubMed

    Magro, B; Magro, S

    1998-04-01

    The authors examine the relationship between doctor and patient during the consultation for the therapeutic decision for those couples who have to undergo a medical procreation, especially the ICSI by MESA and TESA. The couple's psycho-emotional involvement and the medical terminology hinder the real possibility of communication between doctor and patient. The data relating to a study of 80 couples done by the authors are presented. They show the need to improve the quality of communication between doctor and patient during the consultation. For this purpose, on the basis of the research conducted, modification of the language used and the support of audio-visual media are suggested during the consultation in order to reduce the percentage of the couple's doubts and uncertainties.

  9. Retirada do leito após a descontinuação da ventilação mecânica: há repercussão na mortalidade e no tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva?

    PubMed

    Soares, Thiago Rios; Avena, Kátia de Miranda; Olivieri, Flávia Milholo; Feijó, Luciana Ferreira; Mendes, Kristine Menezes Barberino; Souza Filho, Sydney Agareno de; Gomes, André Mansur de Carvalho Guanaes

    2010-03-01

    To describe the withdrawal of the bed frequency in mechanic ventilation patients and its impact on mortality and length of stay in the intensive care unit. This was a retrospective cohort study in mechanical ventilation patients. Clinical and epidemiological variables, withdrawal of bed related motor therapy, intensive care unit length of stay and mortality were evaluated. We studied 91 patients, mean age of 62.5± 18.8 years, predominantly female (52%) and mean intensive care unit length of stay of 07 days (95% CI, 8-13 days). Considering the withdrawal of the bed or not, no difference was observed between groups regarding length of stay in intensive care unit. Patients who were withdrawn of bed had a lower clinical severity. Their mortality rate was 29.7%. The not withdrawn of bed group had higher both actual and expected mortality. Patients withdrawn of bed following mechanical ventilation discontinuation showed lower mortality. It is suggested that early intensive care unit mobilization and withdrawal of bed should be stimulated.

  10. Pharmacological management of pediatric Kerion celsi.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, G; Muscianese, M; Grimaldi, M; Tuzi, M; Pranteda, G; Fidanza, L; Tamburi, F; Bottoni, U; Nisticò, S

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of severe tinea capitis, treated successfully with griseofulvin. In our opinion, the treatment of this severe dermatophytosis with griseofulvin is safe and effective. Other treatments, such as itraconazole pulsed therapy, failed, despite an initial improvement, leading to an aggressive recurrence of the lesion. We chose griseofulvin for its well-known large spectrum activity, also against uncommon species, like Microsporum Gypseum, which are responsible for the most severe cases.

  11. Dynamic spatial tuning of cervical muscle reflexes to multidirectional seated perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Brolin, Karin; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2015-02-15

    Human volunteers were exposed experimentally to multidirectional seated perturbations. To determine the activation patterns, spatial distribution and preferred directions of reflexively activated cervical muscles for human model development and validation. Models of the human head and neck are used to predict occupant kinematics and injuries in motor vehicle collisions. Because of a dearth of relevant experimental data, few models use activation schemes based on in vivo recordings of muscle activation and instead assume uniform activation levels for all muscles within presumed agonist or antagonist groups. Data recorded from individual cervical muscles are needed to validate or refute this assumption. Eight subjects (6 males, 2 females) were exposed to seated perturbations in 8 directions. Electromyography was measured with wire electrodes inserted into the sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, levator scapulae, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus muscles. Surface electrodes were used to measure sternohyoid activity. Muscle activity evoked by the perturbations was normalized with recordings from maximum voluntary contractions. The multidirectional perturbations produced activation patterns that varied with direction within and between muscles. Sternocleidomastoid and sternohyoid activated similarly in forward and forward oblique directions. The semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus exhibited similar spatial patterns and preferred directions, but varied in activation levels. Levator scapulae and trapezius activity generally remained low, and splenius capitis activity varied widely between subjects. All muscles showed muscle- and direction-specific contraction levels. Models should implement muscle- and direction-specific activation schemes during simulations of the head and neck responses to omnidirectional horizontal perturbations where muscle forces influence kinematics, such as during emergency maneuvers

  12. Red face revisited: Disorders of hair growth and the pilosebaceous unit.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Pirmez, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on the diseases of the hair and pilosebaceous unit that may cause a red face. We discuss the epidemiology, clinicals, pathogenesis, and therapy of lichen planopilaris with its variants, discoid lupus erythematosus, folliculitis decalvans, dissecting folliculitis, acne keloidalis nuchae, pseudofolliculitis barbae, tinea capitis, tinea barbae, folliculitis of diverse causative factors and inflammatory follicular keratotic syndromes, ulerythema ophryogenes, atrophoderma vermiculatum, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and folliculitis spinulosa decalvans.

  13. Are Ultrasonographic Measures of Cervical Flexor Muscles Correlated With Flexion Endurance in Chronic Neck Pain and Asymptomatic Participants?

    PubMed

    Ghamkhar, Leila; Kahlaee, Amir Hossein

    2017-06-21

    This study compared the relationship between some clinical factors and the size of neck flexors in participants with or without chronic neck pain. In this case-control study, the correlation between flexor endurance capacity as well as thickness, cross-section area, and shape ratio of longus colli/capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles were examined in 30 patients with chronic neck pain and 30 asymptomatic participants. The patients showed lower flexor endurance (P = 0.02), smaller thickness (P = 0.03), and cross-section area (P < 0.01) of longus colli as compared with controls. Longus capitis and sternocleidomastoid size were not different between the two groups. The flexor endurance showed a negative correlation with longus colli shape ratio (r = -0.38, P = 0.03) and a positive correlation with longus capitis cross-section area (r = 0.38, P = 0.03) in the patients with chronic neck pain. In the control group, flexor endurance was negatively correlated with longus colli shape ratio (r = -0.45, P = 0.01) but positively correlated with longus capitis thickness (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and cross-section area (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). Neck disability and pain intensity indices were not significantly correlated with either flexor muscles endurance or size. The ultrasonographic measures of the deep neck flexor muscles and the flexor endurance test, being associated with each other, could successfully differentiate patients with chronic neck pain from asymptomatic participants. However, the endurance test scores were not correlated with self-reported disability or pain intensity indices.

  14. Craniovertebral junction 360°: A combined microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    Jhawar, Sukhdeep Singh; Nunez, Maximiliano; Pacca, Paolo; Voscoboinik, Daniel Seclen; Truong, Huy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) can be approached from various corridors depending on the location and extent of disease. A three-dimensional understanding of anatomy of CVJ is paramount for safe surgery in this region. Aim of this cadaveric study is to elucidate combined microscopic and endoscopic anatomy of critical neurovascular structures in this area in relation to bony and muscular landmarks. Materials and Methods: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric heads injected with color silicon were used for this study. A stepwise dissection was done from anterior, posterior, and lateral sides with reference to bony and muscular landmarks. Anterior approach was done endonasal endoscopically. Posterior and lateral approaches were done with a microscope. In two specimens, both anterior and posterior approaches were done to delineate the course of vertebral artery and lower cranial nerves from ventral and dorsal aspects. Results: CVJ can be accessed through three corridors, namely, anterior, posterior, and lateral. Access to clivus, foreman magnum, occipital cervical joint, odontoid, and atlantoaxial joint was studied anteriorly with an endoscope. Superior and inferior clival lines, supracondylar groove, hypoglossal canal, arch of atlas and body of axis, and occipitocervical joint act as useful bony landmarks whereas longus capitis and rectus capitis anterior are related muscles to this approach. In posterior approach, spinous process of axis, arch of atlas, C2 ganglion, and transverse process of atlas and axis are bony landmarks. Rectus capitis posterior major, superior oblique, inferior oblique, and rectus capitis lateralis (RCLa) are muscles related to this approach. Occipital condyles, transverse process of atlas, and jugular tubercle are main bony landmarks in lateral corridor whereas RCLa and posterior belly of digastric muscle are the main muscular landmarks. Conclusion: With advances in endoscopic and microscopic techniques, access to lesions and bony anomalies

  15. [Epidemiology of communicable skin diseases in school children of a rural area in North Ethiopia].

    PubMed

    Dagnew, M B; Günther, E

    1990-01-01

    The pupils of 5 elementary schools in the Dembia-District in Northethiopia were inspected in serial examinations. The transmissible skin diseases head lice infestation, tinea capitis, impetigo contagiosa and verrucae vulgares are very common among the unselected children (5 to 15 years old). Only 16% of all children had not any infectious skin disease. The investigations showed the unfortunate conditions of the poor hygiene those are existing in the rural areas of a developing country in the tropics.

  16. Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All CoNS hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.

  17. Parasitic Skin Infections for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Dadabhoy, Irfan; Butts, Jessica F

    2015-12-01

    The 2 epidermal parasitic skin infections most commonly encountered by primary care physicians in developed countries are scabies and pediculosis. Pediculosis can be further subdivided into pediculosis capitis, corporis, and pubis. This article presents a summary of information and a review of the literature on clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of these commonly encountered parasitic skin infestations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice.

  19. [Phylogeny of lice (Insecta: Anoplura) of the Old World Monkey (Catarrhina)].

    PubMed

    Retana Salazar, A P

    1994-12-01

    The genera Pediculus and Pthirus were studied cladistically, although the genus Pedicinus was also taken into account. Morphological characters from the literature, and some established through direct study were analyzed. Using five methods of cladistic analysis, one most parsimonious tree with a c.i. = 0.84 and a length of 38 was obtained ((Pedicinus)+(Paenipediculus+(Parapediculus+(Pedicu lus humanus capitis+Pediculus humanus humanus). A novelty of this study is the inclusion of the subgenus.

  20. [Pediculosis capita in childhood: epidemiological and socio-medical results from screening of school beginners].

    PubMed

    Jahnke, C; Bauer, E; Feldmeier, H

    2008-11-01

    Although pediculosis capitis is the most frequent parasitosis in childhood, reliable data on its epidemiology and morbidity are scarce. In Germany population-based data do not exist. During the routine medical examination of 5-6-year-old pre-school children in Braunschweig city (n=1 890) the children were also examined for the presence of head lice and head lice-associated pathology. Visual inspection of five predilection sites was used to diagnose head lice infestation. Knowledge of careers on head lice infestation and disease perception were analysed using a standardised questionnaire. Socio-demographic variables of the households to which the children belonged were correlated to current or historical head lice infestation. Head lice infestation was diagnosed in 14 out of the 1 890 children (0.7%). Considering the low sensitivity of visual inspection the true prevalence should be higher by a factor 3 to 4. In addition, 5.6% of the children examined had suffered from a head lice infestation in the previous 12 months. This results in an incidence of 598 cases per 10,000 children aged 5 to 6 years per year. Households with a low educational level of the parents and without a background of migration were significantly more often affected by pediculosis capitis during the previous 12 months. The analysis of the questionnaires showed a rather low level of knowledge about pediculosis capitis, a tendency towards polypragmatic therapeutic approaches and partially aberrant reactions such as hysteria. The knowledge about pediculosis capitis was significantly lower in parents with a low educational level. Our study provides for the first time reliable data on the prevalence, incidence and disease perception of head lice infestation as well as concerning the knowledge parents have about this parasitic skin disease.

  1. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton violaceum: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Smriti, C; Anuradha, S; Kamlesh, T; Isampreet, K; Nitin, K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are Fungi which infect keratinized tissues, that is, skin epidermis, hair and nails. Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic, cosmopolitan dermatophyte. It primarily causes tinea capitis and less commonly tinea corporis and tinea unguium. We present a report of two cases of tinea corporis due to T. violaceum in children. Infections due to T. violaceum are important because of its transmissibility within families and community and its potential to spread and establish in new geographical areas.

  2. Muscle restricted vasculitis causing dropped head syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Amy Almaraz; Smith, Benn E; Engel, Andrew G; Bosch, Erich Peter

    2012-03-01

    A 52-year-old man presented with a severe head drop and proximal extremity weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed T2 hyperintensity in cervical paraspinal muscles. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed an axial myopathy isolated to paraspinal muscles. A splenius capitis muscle biopsy confirmed an acute myopathy associated with nonsystemic vasculitis. The patient improved on steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and monthly pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Our case emphasizes that a subgroup of patients with dropped head syndrome have treatable conditions.

  3. Imposters of androgenetic alopecia: diagnostic pearls for the hair restoration surgeon.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole

    2013-08-01

    It is crucial that hair restoration surgeons understand the basic clinical diagnosis and pathologic condition of other hair loss conditions that are not always amenable to successful hair transplantation. In this article nonscarring and scarring mimickers of androgenetic alopecia are discussed. Nonscarring conditions include alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, and tinea capitis. Some of the more common scarring alopecias include lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Less common inflammatory conditions include pseudopelade of Brocq, discoid lupus erythematosus, and folliculitis decalvans.

  4. Measuring neuromuscular fatigue in cervical spinal musculature of military helicopter aircrew.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael F; Neary, J Patrick; Albert, Wayne J; Kuruganti, Usha; Croll, James C; Chancey, V Carol; Bumgardner, Bradley A

    2009-11-01

    Neck pain and muscle function in aircrew have received considerable attention. We hypothesized normalized electromyography (EMG) frequency would provide insight into appropriate methods to assess muscle fatigue in helicopter aircrew. 40 helicopter aircrew performed isometric testing that included maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and 70% MVC endurance protocols of extension, flexion, and left and right lateral flexion for cervical muscles. Bilateral muscle activity in the splenius capitis, sternocleidomastoid, and upper trapezius was monitored with EMG. Normalized mean EMG frequency was calculated for each muscle at the start and end of the 70% MVC trials to determine which muscles fatigued and limited force maintenance during each isometric movement. For extension, the left and right splenius capitis fatigued by approximately 21-22% (p < 0.01); for flexion, the left and right sternocleidomastoid fatigued by approximately 11-14% (p < 0.01); for right flexion, the right sternocleidomastoid fatigued by approximately 15% (p < 0.01); for left flexion, the left spenus capitis and left sternocleidomastoid fatigued by approximately 7.2% (p = 0.02) and approximately 11.2% (p = 0.03), respectively; in no trials did the trapezius muscles display fatigue as measured by EMG. The smaller agonist muscles were the most susceptible to fatigue during submaximal isometric endurance movements in the cervical muscles of helicopter aircrew.

  5. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Prevalence of head lice in some primary schools in Iğdır province].

    PubMed

    Akkaş, Önder; Cengiz, Zeynep Taş

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the prevalence and evaluate risk factors of Pediculus capitis infestation in four primary schools in Iğdır in April and May, 2010. The study was performed on 2222 students (6-15 years old), 1116 female and 1106 male. The hair of the students, especially from the neck and back of the head, were examined for egg, nymph and imago of P. capitis. The samples taken from the students were brought to the Medical Laboratory of Health Services Vocational School of Iğdır University for examination. Each student answered a questionnaire containing some questions related to the infestation. The imago, nymph or eggs of the parasite were encountered in 22.9% of females and in 3.2% of males. Prevalence of infestation in all students was 13.1%. It was determined that there was a significant relation between head louse infestation and gender, socioeconomic status of the schools, hair length, number of people living in the home and the number of rooms in the house. In most comparisons, relations between prevalence of pediculosis capitis and education level, income level and job of the children's father and education level of the children's mother were found significant at different levels.

  7. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Doulgeraki, Artemis; Valari, Manthoula

    2011-06-01

    Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative. We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire. Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38%, and wet combing in parallel was employed by 79% of them. Preventive measures were employed by 66% of the respondents, and 54% applied botanical and synthetic products commercially available for this purpose. There is a trend towards the use of natural oils for either prevention or treatment. More needs to be done to promote public education and rational use of either pediculicides or non-pharmacological agents for pediculosis capitis infestation. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Pyrethroid pediculicide resistance of head lice in Canada evaluated by serial invasive signal amplification reaction.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Danielle; Palma, Kathleen G; Kaul, Nalini; Hodgdon, Hilliary; Van Geest, Andrea; Previte, Dominic J; Abou-Elghar, Gamal Elsayed; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Most people in the United States and Canada with pediculosis will be treated with neurotoxic pediculicides containing pyrethrins or pyrethroids. Their widespread use led to significant resistance reported from various countries. Although treatment failures are frequently observed in Canada, the resistance frequency to pyrethroid pediculicide of human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) has not been determined. To determine the knockdown resistance (kdr) allele frequency in human head louse populations in Canada. Patients infested with Pediculus humanus capitis, aged 4 to 65 years, residents of Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia, were participants. Head lice were collected by combing and picking the enrolled subjects' hair. Lice were analyzed by serial invasive signal amplification reaction (SISAR) for genotyping the T917I mutation of lice indicating permethrin resistance. The permethrin-resistant kdr allele (R allele) frequency could then be evaluated in the head lice collected in Canada. Of the head louse populations analyzed, 133 of 137 (97.1%) had a resistant (R) allele frequency, whereas only 4 of 137 (2.9%) had a susceptible (S) allele frequency. The 97.1% resistant (R) allele frequency in head lice from Canada could explain the treatment failures encountered with pyrethrin and pyrethroid pediculicide treatments in Canadian populations infested with Pediculus humanus capitis as the latter will not be eliminated by those pediculicides.

  9. [Mycological view of dermatophytes in humans.].

    PubMed

    Rubio, M C; Rezusta, A; Gil Tomás, J; Ruesca, R B

    1999-03-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce an infection, dermatophytosis, commonly referred to as ringworm. Dermatophytoses are common of world wide: in the United States, Microsporum audouinii and Microsporum canis, once the major agents of tinea capitis, have been superseded by Trichophyton tonsurans. Since the 1950s, T. tonsuranshas advanced from Mexico and the Caribbean and is now the prevalent cause of tinea capitisin North America. M. canisis the prevalent agent of tinea capitis in many regions of the world, including Spain, at this moment. This could be related to close association of humans with their pets. M. canis is more prevalent in urban areas and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rural ones. The superficial dermatophyte infections of the skin do not represent a single disease, their clinical appearance is dependent largely on the region of the body affected. There are more antifungal preparations available today than at any other time in medical history. Oral antifungals are indicated or required to treat hyperkeratotic areas such as nails, palms, soles and tinea capitis, patients with disabling or extensive disease, patients intolerant to or who have failed topical therapy, tose with chronic infection, those with granulomatous lesions and patients immunosuppressed by disease or by therapy. A successfull eradication of the fungi is now possible with relatively short treatment regimens.

  10. Effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers.

    PubMed

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 38 office workers who were randomly divided into two groups: a manual therapy group of 19 subjects and a shoulder stabilization exercise group of 19 subjects. All subjects underwent evaluation of the pressure pain threshold in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy used in the study was designed to include soft-tissue mobilization, prone thoracic mobilization, prone selected thoracic mobilization, cervical mobilization, and thoracic manipulation. Both groups underwent training of two 40-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly increased pressure pain thresholds in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy group showed greater improvements than did the shoulder stabilization exercise group in the splenius capitis on both sides, left upper trapezius, middle trapezius on both sides, and right lower trapezius. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that manual therapy for shoulder pain is feasible and suitable for office workers and may be useful in clinical rehabilitation.

  11. Comparison of cervical muscle thickness between asymptomatic women with and without forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Bokaee, Fateme; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Manshadi, Farideh D; Naimi, Sedigheh S; Baghban, Alireza A; Azimi, Hadi

    Forward head posture (FHP) is a forward positioning of the head relative to the trunk in the sagittal plane. This posture is one of the most prevalent poor postures in patients with head and neck pain. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) is a reliable method to objectively evaluate muscle thickness and function. To compare thickness of cervical muscles that control both head and neck posture between asymptomatic women with and without FHP. Seventy asymptomatic women aged between 20 and 40 years, with and without FHP (35 in each group), participated in the study. The thickness of the cervical muscles (rectus capitis posterior - RCP, oblique capitis superior - OCS, semispinalis capitis - SSC, sternocleidomastoid - SCM, and longus coli - LCo) was measured using RUSI and the data was compared between the two groups. The comparison of cervical muscle thickness between women with and without FHP revealed significant difference only with regard to the muscle thickness of the SCM muscle (mean difference: 0.7mm, 95% confidence interval of the difference: 0.14, 1.26mm, p value: 0.014). The thickness of this muscle was greater in women with FHP. Tonic contraction of the SCM muscle can lead to greater thickness of this muscle in subjects with FHP. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Linezolid-resistant clinical isolates of meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and Enterococcus faecium from China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia Chang; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Hong Wei; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Seventeen meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), including ten Staphylococcus capitis, four Staphylococcus cohnii, two Staphylococcus haemolyticus and one Staphylococcus sciuri, and an Enterococcus faecium isolate with various levels of linezolid resistance were isolated from intensive care units in a Chinese hospital. PFGE indicated that the four S. cohnii isolates belonged to a clonal strain, and that nine of the S. capitis isolates were indistinguishable (clone A1) and the other one was closely related (clone A2). A G2576T mutation was identified in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene in the E. faecium isolate. Besides the G2576T mutation, a novel C2104T mutation was detected in the nine clone A1 S. capitis isolates. The cfr gene was detected in all the staphylococci except an S. sciuri isolate, whose 23S rRNA gene contained the G2576T mutation. There was a clonal dissemination of linezolid-resistant MRCoNS in intensive care units of our hospital, and this is the first report, to our knowledge, of linezolid-resistant staphylococci and enterococci in China.

  13. Effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 38 office workers who were randomly divided into two groups: a manual therapy group of 19 subjects and a shoulder stabilization exercise group of 19 subjects. All subjects underwent evaluation of the pressure pain threshold in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy used in the study was designed to include soft-tissue mobilization, prone thoracic mobilization, prone selected thoracic mobilization, cervical mobilization, and thoracic manipulation. Both groups underwent training of two 40-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly increased pressure pain thresholds in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy group showed greater improvements than did the shoulder stabilization exercise group in the splenius capitis on both sides, left upper trapezius, middle trapezius on both sides, and right lower trapezius. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that manual therapy for shoulder pain is feasible and suitable for office workers and may be useful in clinical rehabilitation. PMID:27799661

  14. A survey of the etiological agents of scalp and nail dermatophytosis in Yazd, Iran in 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Tafti, H; Falahati, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M; Rashidian, S; Mahmoudi, S; Zaini, F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Tinea capitis and tinea unguium are regarded as global public health concerns. The purpose of the present study was to identify the etiological agents of tinea capitis and tinea unguium in patients, referring to the Central Laboratory of Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during 2014-2015. Skin scraping, scalp hair, and nail clipping specimens were collected from 134 patients (80 males and 54 females) with clinical features suggesting fungal involvement. Direct microscopic examinations were carried out, using potassium hydroxide 10%, while culture studies were performed on Sabouraud dextrose agar, containing chloramphenicol and cycloheximide at 28°C for four weeks. Fungal colonies were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, as well as supplementary diagnostic tests. Results: Among 134 patients, 12 cases showed positive results on direct examination and culture studies. The frequency of infections was equal among male and female subjects. Among 12 affected cases, the frequency of tinea capitis and tinea unguium was 91.6% and 8.4%, respectively. Microsporum canis (50%) was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichophyton verrucosum (25%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (25%). Also, tinea unguium, caused by T. mentagrophytes, was found in a female patient. Conclusion: The etiological agents of scalp and nail dermatophytosis have changed in Yazd over the past 13 years. In the present study, replacement of anthropophilic dermatophytes by zoophilic species was noteworthy, highlighting the necessity of efficient surveillance for the management and prevention of infections. PMID:28680997

  15. [Mirror therapy in hemiplegic patient].

    PubMed

    Lisalde-Rodríguez, María Elena; Garcia-Fernández, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. La terapia de espejo es una intervencion relativamente nueva, cada vez mas utilizada y de facil acceso para el tratamiento rehabilitador del paciente hemiplejico. El paciente moviliza el miembro sano frente a un espejo, de modo que mira el reflejo del movimiento del lado sano como si fuera el lado afectado. Objetivo. Analizar el efecto de la terapia de espejo en el paciente hemiplejico en cuanto a funcion sensitivomotora, heminegligencia y actividades de la vida diaria. Desarrollo. Se definio una estrategia de busqueda bibliografica en Medline, EMBASE, PEDro y Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials de ensayos clinicos aleatorizados llevados a cabo con pacientes hemiplejicos en los que se utilizara como intervencion rehabilitadora principal la terapia de espejo. Siete estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusion con nivel medio-alto de calidad metodologica. La mayoria de los estudios valora el efecto de la terapia de espejo sobre el deficit motor, con mejorias significativas. Se encontraron tres ensayos clinicos aleatorizados que evaluan el efecto de la terapia de espejo sobre la heminegligencia, con beneficios tambien significativos. Conclusiones. La terapia de espejo combinada con una rehabilitacion convencional es efectiva sobre todo en la funcion motora y no tanto en la funcion sensitiva y en la funcionalidad global del paciente hemiplejico. En la heminegligencia se obtienen resultados tambien beneficiosos, aunque se basan en pocos ensayos clinicos aleatorizados y con muestras de pacientes reducidas, por lo que los resultados, aunque prometedores, son poco concluyentes.

  16. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  17. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  18. Comparative study of abdominal cavity temporary closure techniques for damage control.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; Carvalho, Sabrina Marques DE; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery, with emphasis on laparostomy, usually results in shrinkage of the aponeurosis and loss of the ability to close the abdominal wall, leading to the formation of ventral incisional hernias. Currently, various techniques offer greater chances of closing the abdominal cavity with less tension. Thus, this study aims to evaluate three temporary closure techniques of the abdominal cavity: the Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC, the Bogotá Bag and the Vacuum-pack. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting 28 articles published in the last 20 years. The techniques of the bag Bogotá and Vacuum-pack had the advantage of easy access to the material in most centers and low cost, contrary to VAC, which, besides presenting high cost, is not available in most hospitals. On the other hand, the VAC technique was more effective in reducing stress at the edges of lesions, removing stagnant fluids and waste, in addition to acting at the cellular level by increasing proliferation and cell division rates, and showed the highest rates of primary closure of the abdominal cavity. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos, com ênfase em peritoneostomia, geralmente resulta em retração da aponeurose e perda da capacidade de fechar a parede abdominal, levando à formação de hérnias ventrais incisionais. Atualmente, várias técnicas oferecem maiores chances de fechamento da cavidade abdominal, com menor tensão. Deste modo, este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar três técnicas de fechamento temporário da cavidade abdominal: fechamento a vácuo (Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC), Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura com seleção de 28 artigos publicados nos últimos 20 anos. As técnicas de Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack tiveram como vantagem o acesso fácil ao material, na maioria dos centros, e baixo custo, ao contrário do que se observa na terapia a vácuo, VAC, que além de apresentar

  19. [LONG-TERM FULMINANT HEPATIC FAILURE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING GASTRIC BYPASS FOR MORBID OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Mayo Ossorio, M Angeles; Pacheco Garcia, José Manuel; Pérez Gomar, Daniel; Bazán Hinojo, M Del Carmen; Vilchez Lopez, Francisco Javier; Aguilar Diosdad, Manuel; Fernández Serrano, José Luis

    2015-07-01

    La obesidad mórbida es un factor de riesgo para numerosas enfermedades, incluidas las enfermedades hepáticas, siendo la incidencia de esteatosis hepática de un 70 a 80%. Aunque el tratamiento quirúrgico es eficaz en la reducción del peso, sus efectos sobre el hígado no se han establecido convincentemente. Presentamos dos casos de pacientes intervenidas de cirugía bariátrica y que presentaron un fallo hepático fulminante con resultado de muerte. Material y método: caso clínico n.º 1: mujer de 36 años intervenida de obesidad en 1995 con gastroplastia vertical anillada con IMC 52,5 que tras reganancia ponderal posterior se realiza cirugía de revisión en 2009, realizándose by-pass gástrico distal. Caso clínico n.º2: mujer de 42 años intervenida de obesidad en 2009 mediante by-pass gástrico distal con IMC de 51 y colocación de malla profiláctica de composix kugel midline. A los tres años con buena pérdida ponderal presenta absceso de pared por fístula enterocutánea y se interviene quirúrgicamente, extrayendo malla, identificándose dos fístulas en asa alimentaria y común que se extirpan y se realizá nueva anastomosis. Resultados: caso clínico n.º1: a los dos meses de la cirugía de revisión inicia cuadro de vómitos secundarios a estenosis de anastomosis gastroyeyunal que se trata mediante dilatación, y cuadro de ictericia progresiva, ascitis y encefalopatía por fallo hepático fulminante con resultado de muerte. Caso clínico n.º2: en el postoperatorio inmediato inicia incremento del debito del drenaje, así como ascenso de enzimas de citolisis hepática y coagulopatía. Se reinterviene por sospecha de fuga anastomótica y sepsis abdominal, desarrollando fallo hepático fulminante con coagulopatía y encefalopatía que se trata mediante sistema MARS, falleciendo a las cuatro horas de la instauración de la terapia. Conclusiones: si bien las técnicas quirúrgicas actuales de cirugía bariátrica se consideran bastante seguras, se

  20. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis associated to Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Bianca; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Conceição, Gabriel Seixas; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2017-09-21

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common muscle disease found in male children. Currently, there is no effective therapy available for Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Therefore, it is essential to make a prenatal diagnosis and provide genetic counseling to reduce the birth of such boys. We report a case of preimplantation genetic diagnosis associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The couple E.P.R., 38-year-old, symptomatic patient heterozygous for a 2 to 47 exon deletion mutation in DMD gene and G.T.S., 39-year-old, sought genetic counseling about preimplantation genetic diagnosis process. They have had a 6-year-old son who died due to Duchenne muscular dystrophy complications. The couple underwent four cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and eight embryos biopsies were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for specific mutation analysis, followed by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH) for aneuploidy analysis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis revealed that two embryos had inherited the maternal DMD gene mutation, one embryo had a chromosomal alteration and five embryos were normal. One blastocyst was transferred and resulted in successful pregnancy. The other embryos remain vitrified. We concluded that embryo analysis using associated techniques of PCR and array CGH seems to be safe for embryo selection in cases of X-linked disorders, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. RESUMO A distrofia muscular de Duchenne é a doença muscular mais comum observadas em crianças do sexo masculino. Atualmente, não há terapia eficaz disponível para distrofia muscular de Duchenne, portanto, é essencial o diagnóstico pré-natal e o aconselhamento genético para reduzir o nascimento desses meninos. Relatamos um caso de diagnóstico genético pré-implantação associado à distrofia muscular de Duchenne. O casal E.P.R., 38 anos, heterozigota, sintomática para uma mutação de deleção dos éxons 2 a 47 no gene

  1. The effect of a 3-point harness restraint and car seat in whiplash-type lateral impacts.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shrawan; Ferrari, Robert; Narayan, Yogesh; Jones, Troy

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen healthy volunteers were subjected to right and left lateral impacts 5.0, 6.8, 9.2, and 16.8 m/s acceleration while positioned in a Volvo car seat with lap and shoulder seat belt restraint in laboratory setting. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using a standard 3-point lap and shoulder seat belt and Volvo car seat on the response of the cervical muscles to increasing low-velocity lateral impacts. A previous study of lateral impacts in a 5-point harness restraint with head and trunk in neutral posture suggests that the burden of impact is borne primarily by the splenius capitis muscle contralateral to the direction of impact. That study, however, used a nonstandard harness for automobiles, and other studies suggest that a lap-and-shoulder seat belt may increase the risk of whiplash injury. Triaxial accelerometers recorded the acceleration of the 1) sled, 2) torso at the shoulder level, and 3) head of the participant, while bilateral electromyograms of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis were also recorded. For participants experiencing a right or left lateral impact, the muscle responses increased with increasing levels of acceleration (P < 0.05). The time to onset and time to peak electromyogram for most muscles also showed a trend to progressively decrease with increasing levels of acceleration. The peak head accelerations relative to the sled ranged from 2.5 to 10.6 m/s. When the impact was a right lateral impact, at the highest sled acceleration, the left splenius capitis generated 47% of its maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and the left trapezius also 46% of its MVC; the left and right sternocleidomastoid, right splenius capitis, and right trapezius generated 29% or less of their MVC. For the highest level of acceleration in a left lateral impact, the right splenius capitis generated 48% of its MVC and the right trapezius 57% of the MVC, the left and right sternocleidomastoid, left splenius capitis, and

  2. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mosquito Control Contact Us Share Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites Información relacionada disponible en español Using the ... Also see Tips to Prevent Tick Bites. Remove Mosquito Habitats Eliminate standing water in rain gutters, old ...

  3. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  4. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  5. Financial impact of nursing professionals staff required in an Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Thamiris Ricci de; Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Castilho, Valéria; Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi; Laus, Ana Maria

    2016-11-21

    to calculate the cost of the average time of nursing care spent and required by patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the financial expense for the right dimension of staff of nursing professionals. a descriptive, quantitative research, using the case study method, developed in adult ICU patients. We used the workload index - Nursing Activities Score; the average care time spent and required and the amount of professionals required were calculated using equations and from these data, and from the salary composition of professionals and contractual monthly time values, calculated the cost of direct labor of nursing. the monthly cost of the average quantity of available professionals was US$ 35,763.12, corresponding to 29.6 professionals, and the required staff for 24 hours of care is 42.2 nurses, with a monthly cost of US$ 50,995.44. the numerical gap of nursing professionals was 30% and the monthly financial expense for adaptation of the structure is US$ 15,232.32, which corresponds to an increase of 42.59% in the amounts currently paid by the institution. calcular o custo do tempo médio de assistência de enfermagem despendido e requerido pelos pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) e o dispêndio financeiro para adequação do quadro de profissionais de enfermagem. pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa, na modalidade de estudo de caso, desenvolvida na UTI de pacientes adultos. Utilizou-se o índice de carga de trabalho - Nursing Activities Score; o tempo médio de assistência despendido, requerido e o quantitativo de profissionais requerido foram calculados por meio de equações e, a partir desses dados, e de valores da composição salarial dos profissionais e tempo mensal contratual, calculou-se o custo da mão de obra direta de enfermagem. o custo mensal do quantitativo médio de profissionais disponível foi de US$ 35.763,12, correspondendo a 29,6 profissionais, e o requerido para 24 horas de cuidado é de 42,2 profissionais de

  6. Flexion-relaxation ratio in computer workers with and without chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carina Ferreira; dos Santos, Marina Foresti; Chaves, Thais Cristina

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) and flexion-relaxation ratios (FR-ratios) using surface electromyography (sEMG) of the cervical extensor muscles of computer workers with and without chronic neck pain, as well as of healthy subjects who were not computer users. This study comprised 60 subjects 20-45years of age, of which 20 were computer workers with chronic neck pain (CPG), 20 were computer workers without neck pain (NPG), and 20 were control individuals who do not use computers for work and use them less than 4h/day for other purposes (CG). FRP and FR-ratios were analyzed using sEMG of the cervical extensors. Analysis of FR-ratios showed smaller values in the semispinalis capitis muscles of the two groups of workers compared to the control group. The reference FR-ratio (flexion relaxation ratio [FRR], defined as the maximum activity in 1s of the re-extension/full flexion sEMG activity) was significantly higher in the computer workers with neck pain compared to the CG (CPG: 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI95%] 2.50-3.70; NPG: 2.33, CI95% 1.93-2.74; CG: 1.99, CI95% 1.81-2.17; p<0.001). The FR-ratios and FRR of sEMG in this study suggested that computer use could increase recruitment of the semispinalis capitis during neck extension (concentric and eccentric phases), which could explain our results. These results also suggest that the FR-ratios of the semispinalis may be a potential functional predictive neuromuscular marker of asymptomatic neck musculoskeletal disorders since even asymptomatic computer workers showed altered values. On the other hand, the FRR values of the semispinalis capitis demonstrated a good discriminative ability to detect neck pain, and such results suggested that each FR-ratio could have a different application.

  7. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Siegmund, Gunter P; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (± 5 mA, 0-75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼ 25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼ 30-45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization.

  8. [Analysis of 25 cases of microsporum canis infection encountered at a dermatology clinic in Kumamoto during a recent 3-year period].

    PubMed

    Sakae, Hitoko; Noguchi, Hiromitsu; Ichinokawa, Yuko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of dermatophytoses caused by Microsporum canis were encountered during a 3-year period (January 2008-December 2010). Their diagnosis was based on detection of fungal elements by direct microscopy and identification of M. canis by fungal culture. There were 17 women and 8 men ; they ranged in age from 4 to 85 years (mean, 34.6). The affected site was the head (n=5), face (n=8), neck (n=5), arm (n=8), leg (n=5), and trunk (n=5) ; exposed sites were those most often affected. A lone eruption was seen in 13 and multiple eruptions in 12 patients. The disease type was tinea corporis in 21 patients, tinea capitis in 5, and a combination of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in one. The disease showed familial onset in 10 patients (5 pairs), including 2 sibling pairs, 2 mother-child pairs, and 1 grandmother-granddaughter pair. Twenty-four patients had a history of contact with animals, and animals kept at home may have served as the infection source (cats in 23 patients and a dog in one). Hairbrush culture of the pets was positive in 9 patients. The patients with a lone eruption were treated with topical antifungal agents, while those with multiple eruptions of tinea capitis and tinea corporis were treated with oral itraconazole or terbinafine hydrochloride for 2-14 weeks, combined with topical antifungal therapy. Although reports of dermatophytoses caused by M. canis have been decreasing, our experience indicates the necessity of considering possible transmission of this disease from pets such as cats.

  9. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C29H60) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MRI study of the cross-sectional area for the cervical extensor musculature in patients with persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD).

    PubMed

    Elliott, James; Jull, Gwendolen; Noteboom, Jon Timothy; Galloway, Graham

    2008-06-01

    Cervical muscle function is disturbed in patients with persistent pain related to a whiplash associated disorder (WAD) but little is known about neck extensor muscle morphometry in this group. This study used magnetic resonance imaging to measure relative cross-sectional area (rCSA) of the rectus capitis posterior minor and major, multifidus, semispinalis cervicis and capitis, splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles bilaterally at each cervical segment. In total, 113 female subjects (79 WAD, 34 healthy control; 18-45 years, 3 months-3 years post-injury) were recruited for the study. Significant main effects for differences in muscle and segmental level were found between the two groups (P < 0.0001) as well as a significant group * muscle * level interaction (P < 0.0001). The cervical multifidus muscle in the WAD group had significantly larger rCSA at all spinal levels and in contrast, there were variable differences in rCSA measures across levels in the intermediate and superficial extensor muscles when compared to the healthy controls (P < 0.0001). There were occasional weak, although statistically significant relationships between age, body mass index (BMI), duration of symptoms and the size of some muscles in both healthy control and WAD subjects (P < 0.01). It is possible that the consistent pattern of larger rCSA in multifidus at all levels and the variable pattern of rCSA values in the intermediate and superficial muscles in patients with WAD may reflect morphometric change due to fatty infiltrate in the WAD muscles. Future clinical studies are required to investigate the relationships between muscular morphometry, symptoms and function in patients with persistent WAD.

  11. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (±5 mA, 0–75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼30–45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization. PMID:25008409

  12. Effects of suboccipital release with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniocervical alignment and extrinsic cervical muscle activity in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Been; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2016-10-01

    Forward head posture is a head-on-trunk malalignment, which results in musculoskeletal dysfunction and neck pain. To improve forward head posture, both the craniocervical flexion exercise and the suboccipital release technique have been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis during craniocervical flexion exercise in subjects with forward head posture. In total, 19 subjects (7 males, 12 females) with forward head posture were recruited using G-power software. Each subject performed craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise in random order. After one intervention was performed, the subject took a 20min wash out period to minimize any carry-over effect between interventions. Craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were measured. A one-way, repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess differences between the effects of the craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise interventions in the same group. Craniovertebral angle (p<0.05), cervical flexion range of motion (p<0.05), and cervical extension range of motion (p<0.001) were significantly greater after suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise compared to craniocervical flexion exercise alone. The muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were significantly lower during suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise than during craniocervical flexion exercise alone across all craniocervical flexion

  13. [Epidemiological survey of dermatophytosis in Spain (April-June 2001)].

    PubMed

    Monzón de la Torre, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2003-11-01

    A three-month (April-June 2001) cross-sectional study was designed to assess the epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis in Spain. Sixty-two medical centers belonging to 14 different autonomous regions of Spain took part in the survey. A total of 491 strains were sent the Mycology Unit of the National Microbiology Center together with a form containing information on each patient. Isolates were identified by routine methods. The average age of the patients was 38.7 years and 55.6% were men. The most frequent dermatophytoses were tinea unguium (39.1%), tinea corporis (25.1%), tinea pedis (12.6%), and tinea capitis (11.2%). Trichophyton rubrum (43%) was the most prevalent species. T. mentagrophytes (21.2%) and Microsporum canis (9.8%) were the second and third most common species, respectively. Tinea unguium was significantly associated with urban residence, and tinea corporis with rural residence and contact with animals. T. rubrum was related with urban dermatophytosis and T. mentagrophytes with rural cases. Tinea capitis due to T. tonsurans and T. violaceum was related with patients of North African origin. Tinea unguium was the most prevalent infection by autonomous region, except in Castilla-León, Asturias, Andalucía and Aragón, where tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis. Tinea capitis was the most frequent infection in Castilla-La Mancha and Extremadura. T. mentagrophytes was more prevalent than T. rubrum in Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Aragón and Murcia. This cross-sectional study shows regional differences in the clinical and microbiological features of dermatophytosis in Spain. Epidemiological surveys are an essential tool for developing strategies for infection control.

  14. Cross-validated models of the relationships between neck muscle electromyography and three-dimensional head kinematics during gaze behavior.

    PubMed

    Farshadmanesh, Farshad; Byrne, Patrick; Keith, Gerald P; Wang, Hongying; Corneil, Brian D; Crawford, J Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study was to model the relationship between neck electromyography (EMG) and three-dimensional (3-D) head kinematics during gaze behavior. In two monkeys, we recorded 3-D gaze, head orientation, and bilateral EMG activity in the sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, complexus, biventer cervicis, rectus capitis posterior major, and occipital capitis inferior muscles. Head-unrestrained animals fixated and made gaze saccades between targets within a 60° × 60° grid. We performed a stepwise regression in which polynomial model terms were retained/rejected based on their tendency to increase/decrease a cross-validation-based measure of model generalizability. This revealed several results that could not have been predicted from knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. During head holding, EMG activity in most muscles was related to horizontal head orientation, whereas fewer muscles correlated to vertical head orientation and none to small random variations in head torsion. A fourth-order polynomial model, with horizontal head orientation as the only independent variable, generalized nearly as well as higher order models. For head movements, we added time-varying linear and nonlinear perturbations in velocity and acceleration to the previously derived static (head holding) models. The static models still explained most of the EMG variance, but the additional motion terms, which included horizontal, vertical, and torsional contributions, significantly improved the results. Several coordinate systems were used for both static and dynamic analyses, with Fick coordinates showing a marginal (nonsignificant) advantage. Thus, during gaze fixations, recruitment within the neck muscles from which we recorded contributed primarily to position-dependent horizontal orientation terms in our data set, with more complex multidimensional contributions emerging during the head movements that accompany gaze shifts. These are crucial components of the late neuromuscular

  15. Electromyography of superficial and deep neck muscles during isometric, voluntary, and reflex contractions.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Brault, John R; Hedenstierna, Sofia; Inglis, J Timothy

    2007-02-01

    Increasingly complex models of the neck neuromusculature need detailed muscle and kinematic data for proper validation. The goal of this study was to measure the electromyographic activity of superficial and deep neck muscles during tasks involving isometric, voluntary, and reflexively evoked contractions of the neck muscles. Three male subjects (28-41 years) had electromyographic (EMG) fine wires inserted into the left sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, trapezius, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus muscles. Surface electrodes were placed over the left sternohyoid muscle. Subjects then performed: (i) maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in the eight directions (45 deg intervals) from the neutral posture; (ii) 50 N isometric contractions with a slow sweep of the force direction through 720 deg; (iii) voluntary oscillatory head movements in flexion and extension; and (iv) initially relaxed reflex muscle activations to a forward acceleration while seated on a sled. Isometric contractions were performed against an overhead load cell and movement dynamics were measured using six-axis accelerometry on the head and torso. In all three subjects, the two anterior neck muscles had similar preferred activation directions and acted synergistically in both dynamic tasks. With the exception of splenius capitis, the posterior and posterolateral neck muscles also showed consistent activation directions and acted synergistically during the voluntary motions, but not during the sled perturbations. These findings suggest that the common numerical-modeling assumption that all anterior muscles act synergistically as flexors is reasonable, but that the related assumption that all posterior muscles act synergistically as extensors is not. Despite the small number of subjects, the data presented here can be used to inform and validate a neck model at three levels of increasing neuromuscular-kinematic complexity: muscles generating forces

  16. Wet combing for the eradication of head lice.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Manual removal (using conditioner and comb or a wet comb) can be used in the treatment of head lice. Head lice infestation (Pediculosis humanus capitis) is a common problem. It is diagnosed by visualising the lice. As half of people infested with head lice will not scratch, all people in contact with a person affected with head lice should be manually checked for infestations. Wet combing is easily and safely performed at home, but persistence is needed. This article describes the process of head lice removal using a wet comb. It has NHMRC Level 2 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported.

  17. [Dermatophytoses in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Arenas, Roberto

    2002-06-01

    The dermatophytic infections are superficial mycoses common in Mexico, they have an estimated frequency of 5% in dermatological outpatients. In this review we present a global view of these mycoses as well as their etiological agents in tinea capitis, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris and onychomycosis and also uncommon infections such as tinea imbricata and epidermophytosis of the diaper area. We also analyze these infections in diabetic patients, healthy carriers and dermatophytic infections in pets and laboratory animals. The most important publications about dermatophytosis in Mexico in the dermatological, epidemiological or mycological area are reviewed, specially those published in the last ten years.

  18. [Dermatophytes transmitted by pets and cattle].

    PubMed

    Monod, M; Fratti, M; Mignon, B; Baudraz-Rosselet, F

    2014-04-02

    Most inflammatory skin and hair dermatophytoses are caused by one of four zoophilic dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (from cats and dogs), Trichophyton verrucosum (from cattle), Arthroderma benhamiae (from Guinea-pigs) and Arthrodermna vanbreuseghemii (generally from cats and dogs). In cases of highly inflammatory tinea corporis, tinea faciae and tinea capitis in humans, it is important to identify with certainty the precise etiologic agent and to examine pets as the possible source of infection. The recurrence of infections or new infections can be prevented by adequately treating incriminated domestic animals and their environments. Cooperation between the medical and veterinary professions is required in this situation.

  19. Mycology of Cutaneous Fungal Infections in Ambajogai: a Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Damle, A S; Fule, R P; Kaundinya, D V; Patoria, N K; Agarkar, R Y; Bagle, R T

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred and eithteen cases of fungal skin infections were studied. Tinea cruris was most common (34.4%), followed by tinea corporis (23.8%) znd tinea pedis (21.6%). Tinea versicolor (8.7%) tinea manum (4.6%) tinea ungaium (3.7%) and tinea capitis (3.2%) were also seen. The male: female ratio was 4:1. The total isolates were 117. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common isolate (35%). closely followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (31.6%). Trichphyton mentagrophytes (17.9%), Malassezia furfur (13.7%) and Microsporum audouini (1.7%) were the only other isolates.

  20. Dermatophytosis in northern Greece during the decade 1981-1990.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Badillet, G

    1995-01-01

    Dermatophytic infections are very common in Greece. In the Mycological Laboratory of the Venereal and Skin Diseases Hospital in Thessaloniki, 6572 isolates of different dermatophytes were obtained from 17,120 patients examined. It is suggested that 5% of the people who present with skin problems in Greece suffer from dermatophyte infections. They are frequent causative agents of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, tinea capitis and tinea unguium. In this paper, the species, the number and the prevalence of the dermatophytes were studied according to location and sex of the patients. The contribution of dermatophyte infections to the overall incidence of superficial fungal infection over 10 years was also studied.

  1. Identification of Staphylococcus species and subspecies with the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems.

    PubMed Central

    Kloos, W E; George, C G

    1991-01-01

    The accuracies of the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems (Baxter Diagnostic Inc., MicroScan Division, West Sacramento, Calif.) were compared with each other and with the accuracies of conventional methods for the identification of 25 Staphylococcus species and 4 subspecies. Conventional methods included those used in the original descriptions of species and subspecies and DNA-DNA hybridization. The Pos ID panel uses a battery of 18 tests, and the Rapid Pos ID panel uses a battery of 42 tests for the identification of Staphylococcus species. The Pos ID panel has modified conventional and chromogenic tests that can be read after 15 to 48 h of incubation; the Rapid Pos ID panel has tests that use fluorogenic substrates or fluorometric indicators, and test results can be read after 2 h of incubation in the autoSCAN-W/A. Results indicated that both MicroScan systems had a high degree of congruence (greater than or equal to 90%) with conventional methods for the species S. capitis, S. aureus, S. auricularis, S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, S. arlettae, S. carnosus, S. lentus, and S. sciuri and, in particular, the subspecies S. capitis subsp. capitis and S. cohnii subsp. cohnii. The Rapid Pos ID panel system also had greater than or equal to 90% congruence with conventional methods for S. epidermidis, S. caprae, S. warneri subsp. 2, S. xylosus, S. kloosii, and S. caseolyticus. For both MicroScan systems, congruence with conventional methods was 80 to 90% for S. haemolyticus subsp. 1, S. equorum, S. intermedius, and S. hyicus; and in addition, with the Rapid Pos ID panel system congruence was 80 to 89% for S. capitis subsp. ureolyticus, S. warneri subsp. 1, S. hominis, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, and S. simulans. The MicroScan systems identified a lower percentage (50 to 75%) of strains of S. lugdunensis, S. gallinarum, S. schleiferi, and S. chromogenes, although the addition of specific tests to the systems might increase the accuracy of identification

  2. Comparison of growth on mannitol salt agar, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, VITEK(®) 2 with partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Ayeni, Funmilola A; Andersen, Camilla; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Mannitol salt agar (MSA) is often used in resources' limited laboratories for identification of S. aureus however, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) grows and ferments mannitol on MSA. 171 strains of CoNS which have been previously misidentified as S. aureus due to growth on MSA were collected from different locations in Nigeria and two methods for identification of CoNS were compared i.e. ViTEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing as gold standard. Partial tuf gene sequencing was used for contradicting identification. All 171 strains (13 species) grew on MSA and ferments mannitol. All tested strains of S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri, S. sciuri,, S. warneri, S. xylosus, S. capitis were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF while variable identification were observed in S. saprophyticus and S. cohnii (90%, 81%). There was low identification of S. arlettae (14%) while all strains of S. kloosii and S. gallinarum were misidentified. There is absence of S. gallinarum in the MALDI-TOF database at the period of this study. All tested strains of S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri,, S. warneri, S. xylosus and S. capitis were correctly identified by ViTEK while variable identification were observed in S. saprophyticus, S. arlettae, S. cohnii, S. kloosii, (84%, 86%, 75%, 60%) and misidentification of S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used as gold standard for most strains except S. capitis and S. xylosus where the two species were misidentified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA contrary to MALDI-TOF and ViTEK identification. Tuf gene sequencing was used for correct identification. Characteristic growth on MSA for CoNS is also identical to S. aureus growth on the media and therefore, MSA could not differentiate between S. aureus and CoNS. The percentage accuracy of ViTEK was better than MALDI-TOF in identification of CoNS. Although partial sequencing of

  3. Identification of Staphylococcus species and subspecies with the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems.

    PubMed

    Kloos, W E; George, C G

    1991-04-01

    The accuracies of the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems (Baxter Diagnostic Inc., MicroScan Division, West Sacramento, Calif.) were compared with each other and with the accuracies of conventional methods for the identification of 25 Staphylococcus species and 4 subspecies. Conventional methods included those used in the original descriptions of species and subspecies and DNA-DNA hybridization. The Pos ID panel uses a battery of 18 tests, and the Rapid Pos ID panel uses a battery of 42 tests for the identification of Staphylococcus species. The Pos ID panel has modified conventional and chromogenic tests that can be read after 15 to 48 h of incubation; the Rapid Pos ID panel has tests that use fluorogenic substrates or fluorometric indicators, and test results can be read after 2 h of incubation in the autoSCAN-W/A. Results indicated that both MicroScan systems had a high degree of congruence (greater than or equal to 90%) with conventional methods for the species S. capitis, S. aureus, S. auricularis, S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, S. arlettae, S. carnosus, S. lentus, and S. sciuri and, in particular, the subspecies S. capitis subsp. capitis and S. cohnii subsp. cohnii. The Rapid Pos ID panel system also had greater than or equal to 90% congruence with conventional methods for S. epidermidis, S. caprae, S. warneri subsp. 2, S. xylosus, S. kloosii, and S. caseolyticus. For both MicroScan systems, congruence with conventional methods was 80 to 90% for S. haemolyticus subsp. 1, S. equorum, S. intermedius, and S. hyicus; and in addition, with the Rapid Pos ID panel system congruence was 80 to 89% for S. capitis subsp. ureolyticus, S. warneri subsp. 1, S. hominis, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, and S. simulans. The MicroScan systems identified a lower percentage (50 to 75%) of strains of S. lugdunensis, S. gallinarum, S. schleiferi, and S. chromogenes, although the addition of specific tests to the systems might increase the accuracy of identification

  4. Topical application of ivermectin for human ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M Y; Sadaka, H A; Eissa, M M; el-Ariny, A F

    1995-12-01

    Ivermectin is used in veterinary practice against many ectoparasites and endoparasites and is the drug of choice for treatment of human onchocerciasis. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of topical application of this drug against human ectoparasites (Sarcoptes scabiei and Pediculus humanus capitis). Ivernectin was found to have a curative effect on head lice after a single topical application. In patients with scabies, the drug was also found to be effective after a single application. However, in 50% of the cases, another application was needed five days later.

  5. Itraconazole in common dermatophyte infections of the skin: fixed treatment schedules.

    PubMed

    Saul, A; Bonifaz, A

    1990-09-01

    Itraconazole is an effective medication against the most common dermatophytoses. It has been shown to be more active than griseofulvin and ketoconazole. Ease of use, affinity for keratinized tissues, lack of toxicity, continued activity after discontinuation, and the possibility of using fixed schedules are advantages of itraconazole. The fixed schedules indicated by pharmacokinetics and clinical studies are one 100 mg capsule daily for 15 days in cases of tinea corporis and tinea cruris and the same dosage for 30 days in cases of tinea pedis and tinea manuum. These fixed treatments have some limitations, and they are not recommended for treating tinea capitis and tinea unguium. The drug is well tolerated.

  6. An enlarged endocranial venous system in Steneosaurus pictaviensis (Crocodylia: Thalattosuchia) from the Upper Jurassic of LesLourdines, FranceUn système veineux endocrânien volumineux chez Steneosaurus pictaviensis (Crocodylia: Thalattosuchia) du Jurassique supérieur des Lourdines, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, Deborah Susan

    2000-08-01

    Large endocranial features are revealed in a three-dimensionally preserved specimen of the thalattosuchian crocodile Steneosaurus pictaviensis. Structures found on an endocast indicate the presence of the same venous blood system, although much enlarged, as found within the cranial cavity of modern crocodilians. An exceptionally large longitudinal dorsal blood sinus forms an expanded torcular herophili above the junction of the midbrain and hindbrain. The venous canals entering the posterodorsal part of the torcular herophili are the capiti dorsalis, which drain blood from the temporal and occipital musculature, entering the braincase in this region as in many extant and extinct Archosauria.

  7. [Treatment of 2 cases of kerions with griseofulvin and oral steroids].

    PubMed

    Annabel, M; Hubert, L; Jacques, C; Fabienne, L; Emmanuelle, L; Gérard, L

    2009-11-01

    We report on 2 cases of kerions in children: one of them was located on the pubis, an exceptional location; the second one was located on the scalp and presented like multiple abscess of the scalp, for which surgical drainage was performed. In both cases, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was involved. This dermatophyte is zoophilic, contrary to the dermatophytes usually involved in tinea capitis, which could explain the poor adaptation of the dermatophyte to the human host, who would therefore react by generating a severe inflammatory reaction. Antifungal drugs are recommended for the treatment of kerions, especially griseofuline for 6 to 8 weeks. The value of oral steroids and surgery continues to be debated.

  8. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  9. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  10. An outbreak of scalp white piedra in a Brazilian children day care.

    PubMed

    Roselino, Ana Maria; Seixas, Ana Beatriz; Thomazini, José A; Maffei, Claudia M L

    2008-01-01

    White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by Trichosporon spp. that affects the hair shaft of any part of the body. It is presented an outbreak of scalp white piedra seen in 5.8% of the children frequenting a day care in Northeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. Mycological exam and culture identified T. cutaneum in all five cases, and scanning electron microscopy of nodules around hair shaft infected by Trichosporon spp. is demonstrated comparing them with those of black piedra and with nits of Pediculous capitis.

  11. Leeches (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae)--parasites of Antarctic fish from Channichthyidae family.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Aleksander; Rokicka, Magdalena; Ropelewska, Ewa; Dziekońska-Rynko, Janina

    2008-01-01

    There has hitherto been very few research projects focusing on ectoparasites of Antarctic fishes. The presently reported study provides data on the prevalence and the intensity of leeches (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) infecting fishes. The materials were collected in December-February 1986/87 off the Elephant Island, South Georgia, Joinville Island, and South Shetlands. The following leech taxa were recorded in the Antarctic fishes of the family Channichthyidae: Trulliobdella capitis (Brinkmann, 1947); Cryobdella antarctica Epstein, 1970; Nototheniobdella sawyeri Utevsky, 1997; and Cryobdella sp. The above findings constitute new geographic records from off Elephant and Joinville Island and South Georgia.

  12. Tinea faciei in a newborn due to Trichophyton tonsurans

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Meihua; Ge, Yiping; Chen, Wei; Feng, Suying; She, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Weida

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first case of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in mainland China. The mother of the infant had tinea corpris and tinea capitis while the father had tinea incongnito. The infections in the parents were mycologically confirmed to be due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Ttinea faciei in the infant was cured after two-week topical use of amorolfine cream. The mother ceased breastfeeding and took oral terbinafine for 4 weeks. No recurrence was observed in the infant during 12 months of follow-up. PMID:23554797

  13. Tinea corporis purpurica and onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton violaceum.

    PubMed

    Romano, Clara; Massai, Lucia; Strangi, Rosa; Feci, Luca; Miracco, Clelia; Fimiani, Michele

    2011-03-01

    We report two cases of tinea corporis purpurica of the legs, presumably caused by self-inoculation of the mycete from the toenails, in two elderly women (80 and 78 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated from the skin and nails. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen from the leg lesions confirmed the diagnosis. The source of infection was an Ethiopian carer who had tinea capitis in the first case, and was undiagnosed in the second patient. Cases of purpuric variants of tinea corporis are rare and this is the first report of probable self-inoculation of T. violaceum from onychomycosis.

  14. Diagnosis and management of alopecia in children.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Soccio, Leslie

    2014-04-01

    Alopecia in childhood is a source of high concern, frustration, and anxiety. Delineating types of alopecia and those that are chronic or potentially related to underlying medical problems is important. There are 5 common types of hair loss in children: alopecia related to tinea capitis, alopecia areata spectrum/autoimmune alopecia, traction alopecia, telogen effluvium, and trichotillomania/trichotillosis. Hair-cycle anomalies including loose anagen syndrome can lead to sparse-appearing hair. Rarer reasons for alopecia in children include pressure-induced alopecia, alopecia related to nutritional deficiency or toxic ingestion, and androgenetic alopecia. Congenital lesions should be considered for areas of localized alopecia occurring at birth.

  15. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. )

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  16. Microorganisms present on peripheral intravenous needleless connectors in the clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Karen; Cooke, Marie; Whitby, Michael; Fullerton, Fiona; Douglas, Joel; Hay, Jennine; Rickard, Claire

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify culturable microorganisms on needleless connectors (NCs) attached to peripheral intravenous catheters in hospitalized adult medical patients. Half (50%) of 40 NCs were contaminated with microorganisms commonly found on the skin or mouth. Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were most commonly isolated. Emergency department insertion and higher patient dependency were statistically associated with positive NC microorganism growth. These results reaffirm the need for NC decontamination prior to access. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Trends in Google searches on complementary and alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Cevallos-Morales, Alejandro; Málaga, Marco; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este artículo es evaluar el interés de la población en terapias de medicina alternativa y complementaria (MAC), a través de la herramienta Google Trends y en países de habla hispana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional mediante la herramienta Google Trends. Se evaluaron las tendencias de búsqueda de 34 terapias de MAC en español, de manera global y en 21 países de habla hispana. Se evaluó la asociación entre la mediana de búsquedas de las terapias más populares y el producto interno bruto (PIB) per cápita en cada país, mediante la prueba de Spearman. Resultados: se observa una tendencia descendente en el volumen de búsquedas de homeopatía, medicina herbaria, acupuntura y terapias sensoriales; así como una tendencia ascendente de la quiropraxia. Además, al analizar los países se observó una asociación directa entre el PIB per cápita y la mediana de la búsqueda de las terapias de MAC más populares, pero esta no fue significativa (p = 0.432). Conclusiones: el interés de terapias de MAC presenta variaciones temporales y geográficas que deben estudiarse a profundidad. Estos resultados pueden ser de utilidad para establecer una vigilancia internacional al respecto.

  18. Co-activation of jaw and neck muscles during submaximum clenching in the supine position.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, N N; Schindler, H J; Rammelsberg, P; Eberhard, L; Schmitter, M; Hellmann, D

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that jaw clenching induces co-contraction and low-level long-lasting tonic activation (LLTA) of neck muscles in the supine position. Ten healthy subjects developed various feedback-controlled submaximum bite forces in different bite-force directions in supine position. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidi, splenius capitis, levator scapulae, trapezius, sternocleidomastoideus, masseter and infra/supra-hyoidal muscles was recorded. For normalization of EMG data, maximum-effort tasks of the neck muscles were performed. Co-contractions of the posterior neck muscles varied between 2% and 11% of their maximum voluntary contraction. Different bite forces and bite-force directions resulted in significant (p<.05) activity differences between the co-contraction levels of the neck muscles. In addition, LLTA of specific neck muscles, provoked by the jaw clenching tasks, was observed. This study demonstrated for the first time moderate co-contractions of jaw and neck muscles in the supine position under controlled submaximum jaw clenching forces. LLTA of most neck muscles was observed, outlasting clenching episodes and indicating an additional neuromuscular interaction between the two muscle groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microsurgical Anatomy of the Hypoglossal and C1 Nerves: Description of a Previously Undescribed Branch to the Atlanto-Occipital Joint.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Joe; Fisahn, Christian; Alonso, Fernando; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Grunert, Peter; Kline, Matthew T; Watanabe, Koichi; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    Distal branches of the C1 nerve that travel with the hypoglossal nerve have been well investigated but relationships of C1 and the hypoglossal nerve near the skull base have not been described in detail. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate these small branches of the hypoglossal and first cervical nerves by anatomic dissection. Twelve sides from 6 cadaveric specimens were used in this study. To elucidate the relationship among the hypoglossal, vagus, and first and cervical nerve, the mandible was removed and these nerves were dissected under the surgical microscope. A small branch was found to always arise from the dorsal aspect of the hypoglossal nerve at the level of the transverse process of the atlas and joined small branches from the first and second cervical nerves. The hypoglossal and C1 nerves formed a nerve plexus, which gave rise to branches to the rectus capitis anterior and rectus capitis lateralis muscles and the atlanto-occipital joint. Improved knowledge of such articular branches might aid in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pain derived from the atlanto-occipital joint. We believe this to be the first description of a branch of the hypoglossal nerve being involved in the innervation of this joint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin diseases in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Émilie; Nourrisson, Céline; Sciauvaud, Julie; Pascal, Julie; Texier, Charlotte; Corbin, Violaine; Poirier, Véronique; Beytout, Jean; Labbe, André; Lesens, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Internationally adopted children often present diseases contracted in the country of origin. Skin diseases are common in new arrivals, and diagnosis may prove challenging for GPs or even dermatologists if they are inexperienced in the extensive geographic and ethnic diversity of international adoptees. To analyse the frequency and characteristics of skin diseases in international adoptees. In total, 142 adoptees were evaluated for a cross-sectional cohort study. The most frequent diseases observed at arrival were dermatological conditions. Of the adoptees, 70% presented at least one skin disease, of which 57.5% were infectious; Tinea capitis being the most frequent (n = 42). The recovery rate of Tinea capitis was 89% (n = 32/36). Ten cases of scabies were diagnosed. Other diseases included viral skin infection (n = 22), with 16 cases of Molluscum contagiosum and bacterial infection. Skin diseases are very common in internationally adopted children. There is a need for close collaboration between dermatologists and paediatricians to diagnose such infections, as well as clear guidelines to treat them.

  1. Familial keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with woolly hair.

    PubMed

    Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Rossi, Alfredo; Schwartz, Robert A; Micali, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is a rare inherited disorder of keratinization clinically characterized by diffuse follicular hyperkeratosis, progressive scarring alopecia of scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes, corneal dystrophy and photophobia. Woolly hair is a hereditary condition, transmitted as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait, usually seen in Caucasians at birth or shortly after, in which there are curly, thick, often heavily pigmented hairs. We report two cases, a son and his mother, in whom KFSD occurred in association with woolly hair. In addition, various dental anomalies, including agenesis, inclusions and teeth malformations, were present in the child. Interestingly, both patients simultaneously developed an inflammatory tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, the association of KFSD with woolly hair has not been described. The dental anomalies found in the child are intriguing, as they have never been reported previously in patients with KFSD. Finally, the concomitant onset of inflammatory tinea capitis in both patients may be explained by the enhanced susceptibility to fungal infection in keratinizing disorders.

  2. Evaluation of a health education program for head lice infestation in female primary school students in Chabahar City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholamnia Shirvani, Zeinab; Amin Shokravi, Farkhondeh; Ardestani, Mona Sadat

    2013-01-01

    An important health problem in students is pediculosis capitis (head lice infestation) which causes physical, mental, and social complications. Social stigma induces feeling of shame, anger, and embarrassment for families and may prevent people from coming forward. This study was a quasi-experimental (case - control) study which was done during periods of 2008 - 2009. Data collection tools were questionnaire, checklist, and head examination. Two schools were randomly selected among female primary schools in Chabahar, where 153 students were divided into case and control groups. After collecting the data, an educational program was designed and performed in the experimental group and was evaluated after two months. The results showed a significant difference in knowledge, attitude, and practice of the students in the case group, before and after the intervention (P < 0.0001), but  in the control group it was not significant (P > 0.05) .The infestation rate was 69.3% in the case group before the intervention, and 82.1 % in the control group, which decreased to 26.7% in the case group after the education (P < 0.0001), but there was no significant difference in the control group (P < 0.05). The health education program had a positive effect on the reduction of pediculosis capitis among students; thus, it is suggested to perform and evaluate educational programs in students and their parents.

  3. Phthiriasis palpebrarum infection: a concern for child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Matthew F

    2014-06-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infestation, whereas phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon infection due to Phthirus pubis (pubic lice) inoculating the eyelashes and surrounding tissues of the eye. Emergency physicians should recognize the causes of this uncommon disease. Cases of phthiriasis palpebrarum should trigger the clinician to consider the potential for child abuse when suspected or when social history dictates the risk for abuse. A case of a pediculosis capitis and phthiriasis palpebrarum coinfection in a 4-year-old girl is presented, which was suspicious for child abuse given the patient's social history. Diagnosis, treatment, and need for vigilance when encountering cases of phthiriasis palpebrarum, especially in young children, are discussed herein. A 4-year-old girl presented with swelling and redness around her eyes. The girl had recurrent head lice infestations, however, on the day of presentation the mother noted lice appeared on the girl's eyelashes and eyelids. Head lice typically do not infect the eyes, and given the different morphology of the lice on the patient's head and eyes, a diagnosis of phthiriasis palpebrarum was made. Because phthiriasis pubis infection of the eyelids may represent sexual abuse, especially in children, child protective services was notified to ensure patient safety. Pediatric phthiriasis palpebrarum can represent child abuse, and the origins of this infection need to be carefully discerned. A thorough history can provide information to assess whether further action is needed and, if in doubt, social services should be contacted to ensure child safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Head lice infestation in schoolchildren and related factors in Mafraq governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, A L Bashtawy

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of socioeconomic status on the infestation by head lice in schoolchildren in Jordan. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A list of all primary schools in Mafraq governorate was obtained (394 primary schools). Eight primary schools were randomly selected (four male schools and four female schools). Data were collected by five well-trained nurses. Hair was examined for head lice as well as for eggs/nits. Analysis of data was conducted by using SPSS software version 16. The chi-square test was used to assess statistical significance of subgroup differences in the prevalence of infestation, and multivariate logistic regression was used to control for potential confounding. Out of 1550 primary schoolchildren screened, 412 (26.6%) were infected with lice, 163 (19.6%) boys and 249 (34.7%) girls. The results showed significant variations in head lice infestation by factors such as gender, age, and socioeconomic variables (family income, father's education, mother's education, number of rooms, number of siblings younger than 15 years, frequency of hair washing per week, and bathing per week). There was no significant variation in lice infestation with parents' occupation (P > 0.05). Socioeconomic status is a major factor influencing the occurrence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in both sexes. Improving standards of living and personal hygiene might significantly reduce pediculosis capitis in schoolchildren in Jordan. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Frequency and aetiology of dermatophytosis in children age 12 and under in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Ana Cláudia A; de Souza, João Vicente B; Sadahiro, Aya; de Oliveira, José Augusto A

    2012-01-01

    Few scientific studies have evaluated dermatophytosis among children in the state of Amazonas or in the greater northern region of Brazil. The aim of this study was to research the frequency and aetiology of dermatophytosis in children age 12 and under, who were seen between March 1996 and November 2005 at the Mycology Laboratory of the National Institute of Amazonian Research. For mycological diagnoses, epidermal scales and/or hairs were used. A portion of this material was treated with potassium hydroxide for direct examination, and another portion was cultivated in Mycobiotic Agar for the isolation of dermatophytes. Of the 590 samples analysed, 210 showed positive diagnoses by direct examination and cultivation. Tinea capitis (153 cases) was the most frequent type of dermatophytosis, and Trichophyton tonsurans (121 cases) was the most frequently isolated fungal agent. Tinea corporis was observed in 48 cases where the most frequently isolated fungal agent was also T. tonsurans (17 cases), and the corporal regions most affected were the face, arms and trunk. The laboratory confirmed tinea pedis in 6 cases, and the principal fungal agents isolated were Trichophyton rubrum (3) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3). The presence of tinea cruris was confirmed in 3 cases, and T. rubrum, T. tonsurans and Epidermophyton floccosum were isolated from these cases. The children examined were primarily affected by tinea capitis, and the main fungal agent for this dermatophytosis was T. tonsurans. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The course of the greater occipital nerve in the suboccipital region: a proposal for setting landmarks for local anesthesia in patients with occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Natsis, K; Baraliakos, X; Appell, H J; Tsikaras, P; Gigis, I; Koebke, J

    2006-05-01

    The anatomical relationships of the greater occipital nerve (GON) to the semispinalis capitis muscle (SCM) and the trapezius muscle aponeurosis (TMA) were examined to identify topographic landmarks for use in anesthetic blockade of the GON in occipital neuralgia. The course and the diameter of the GON were studied in 40 cadavers (29 females, 11 males), and the points where it pierced the SCM and the TMA were identified. The course of the GON did not differ between males and females. A left-right difference was detected in the site of the GON in the TMA region but not in the SCM region. The nerve became wider towards the periphery. This may be relevant to entrapment of the nerve in the development of occipital neuralgia. In three cases, the GON split into two branches before piercing the TMA and reunited after having passed the TMA, and it pierced the obliquus capitis inferior muscle in another three cases. The GON and the lesser occipital nerve reunited at the level of the occiput in 80% of the specimens. The occiput and the nuchal midline are useful topographic landmarks to guide anesthetic blockade of the GON for diagnosis and therapy of occipital neuralgia. The infiltration is probably best aimed at the site where the SCM is pierced by the GON.

  7. [Distribution of head lice in the Erciş district of Van].

    PubMed

    Dursun, Nahit; Cengiz, Zeynep Taş

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to to detect the prevalence of Pediculus capitis in the Erciş district of Van between May and June, 2007. The study was performed on sixth, seventh and eighth grade schoolchildren between 12 and 15 years old who studied at the Osmangazi Primary School. All of the hair, especially on the neck and the back of the head was examined for the egg, nymph and imago stages of the parasite in 622 schoolchildren (196 females and 426 males) and samples were collected from possibly infected schoolchildren. The questionnaire forms were given to all schoolchildren. The samples taken from schoolchildren were brought to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital, Yüzüncü Yil University. Eggs of the parasite were found in 9.5% of all schoolchildren, in 23% of females and 3.3% of males. A statistically significant relationship was found between the prevalence of P. capitis and gender, educational status of students' mothers (in some groups), the frequency of bathing (p < 0.01), and the fathers' profession (in some groups; p < 0.05). As a result, relation was observed between head lice and socioeconomic status, hygiene rules, crowded families and classrooms at schools.

  8. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Materials and Methods: Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. Results: The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. PMID:26649237

  9. Emergence of cfr-harbouring coagulase-negative staphylococci among patients receiving linezolid therapy in two hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Jing; Chen, Yan; Yang, Qing; Qu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Li-Lin; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song

    2013-06-01

    This study reports on the emergence of cfr-harbouring coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) among patients who received linezolid therapy in two hospitals in Hangzhou, China. The mechanisms of resistance and transmission were analysed for these resistant isolates. Eight Staphylococcus capitis isolates, one Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate and one Staphylococcus hominis isolate, obtained from patients who had received linezolid therapy in two hospitals in Hangzhou, China, were confirmed as linezolid resistant, with MICs ranging from 8 to >256 mg l(-1). The linezolid usage data of the ten patients before isolation of the linezolid-resistant CoNS were collected. PFGE analysis showed that the eight S. capitis isolates from the two hospitals belonged to the same clone. Nine of the linezolid-resistant CoNS isolates carried the cfr gene, which was located on plasmids of a similar size. A 5.3 kb fragment containing the cfr gene, revealing 99 % identity to the sequence of the cfr-harbouring plasmid pSS-01 reported previously, was determined by PCR mapping for all cfr-positive isolates, and the cfr gene was flanked by two copies of IS256-like elements. Thus, these results document the emergence of linezolid-resistant CoNS isolates carrying the cfr gene in Hangzhou, China. Effective nosocomial infection control strategies and the judicious use of antibiotics will be required to prevent further spread of this resistance mechanism.

  10. Historical aspects of dermatomycoses.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Ricardo

    2010-03-04

    Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Beigel reported white piedra in 1856, and Cerqueira, tinea nigra in 1891. The book Les Tiegnes was published by Sabouraud in 1910, and black piedra infection was described by Horta in 1911. In 1927, Nannizzi reported the description of the sexual state of Microsporum gypseum. The current classification of dermatophytes was published by Emmons in 1934, and the taxonomy of yeast fungi was described by Lodder and Kreger-van Rij in 1952. Finally, the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin by Gentles in 1958 saved many patients with tinea capitis from permanent hair loss, a common side effect after treatment with thallium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged.

  12. Berberine enhances the antibacterial activity of selected antibiotics against coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wojtyczka, Robert D; Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kępa, Małgorzata; Kubina, Robert; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Mularz, Tomasz; Idzik, Danuta

    2014-05-22

    Synergistic interactions between commonly used antibiotics and natural bioactive compounds may exhibit therapeutic benefits in a clinical setting. Berberine, an isoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from many kinds of medicinal plants, has proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. The aim of the presented work was to assess the antibacterial activity of berberine chloride in light of the effect exerted by common antibiotics on fourteen reference strains of Staphylococccus spp., and to evaluate the magnitude of interactions of berberine with these antistaphylococcal antibiotics. In our study minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of berberine chloride against CoNS ranged from 16 to 512 µg/mL. The most noticeable effects were observed for S. haemolyticus ATCC 29970, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, S. capitis subsp. capitis ATCC 35661, S. galinarium ATCC 700401, S. hominis subsp. hominis ATCC 27844, S. intermedius ATCC 29663 and S. lugdunensis ATCC 49576. The most significant synergistic effect was noticed for berberine in combination with linezolid, cefoxitin and erythromycin. The synergy between berberine and antibiotics demonstrates the potential application of compound combinations as an efficient, novel therapeutic tool for antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

  13. Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne

    2014-07-01

    In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

  15. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eline; Jahnke, Claudia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in childhood. If not diagnosed and treated rapidly, considerable clinical pathology may develop. The ubiquitous parasitic skin disease is characterized by a lack of sound epidemiological data, and factors which influence disease occurrence are still enigmatic. To investigate whether, in Germany, head lice infestation follows a seasonal pattern, we analyzed the weekly head lice consultations at the Health Department of Braunschweig City, Lower Saxony, for a period of 5 years, and compared the data with the units of pediculocides sold by two wholesalers to German pharmacies during a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively. The number of consultations did not show a clear seasonality, although there was a tendency of fewer consultations during school holidays, and an increase when schools opened again after Christmas, Easter, summer, and autumn holidays. In contrast, the number of packages of pediculocides sold followed a distinct seasonal rhythm with a maximum between calendar week 34 and 40, i.e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn.

  16. A one-year survey of Microsporum audouinii infections in Belgium: epidemiological and genotypic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sacheli, R; Adjetey, C; Darfouf, R; Harag, S; Huynen, P; Meex, C; Descy, J; Melin, P; Arrese, J; Hayette, M-P

    2016-03-01

    During recent years the proportion of tinea capitis infections due to Microsporum audouinii has increased in both Belgium and other European countries. To better understand the emergence of this species, the Belgian National Reference Centre for dermatophytes launched an epidemiological survey on the main anthropophilic dermatophytes causing tinea capitis in Belgium and included the genomic characterization of M. audouinii isolates. In total, 116 strains of M. audouinii were confirmed and characterized by the DiversiLab(®) system (bioMérieux). Six genotypic variants were identified, among which one major group included 90 isolates and the reference strain. Another variant group (11 strains) was exclusively confined to a geographical region in south Belgium. Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of the infected population showed that the main age category was 5- to 9-year-old children with a sex ratio (male/female) of 1.97. Data concerning the geographic origin of the family revealed a majority of Belgian nationality (44.7%), suggesting that the infection originated in Belgium. Other nationalities were primarily African. At this time, no clear correlation has been established between one particular strain and a specific country of origin. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shear wave elastography reveals different degrees of passive and active stiffness of the neck extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Angela V; Andrade, Ricardo J; Le Sant, Guillaume; Falla, Deborah; Petzke, Frank; Hug, François; Nordez, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The neck extensor muscles contribute to spinal support and posture while performing head and neck motion. Muscle stiffness relates to passive elasticity (support) and active tensioning (posture and movement) of muscle. It was hypothesized that support and motion requirements are reflected in the distribution of stiffness between superficial and deep neck extensor muscles. In ten healthy participants, shear modulus (stiffness) of five neck extensor muscles was determined in prone at rest and during isometric head lift at three intensities using shear wave elastography. Shear modulus differed between muscles (P < 0.001), and was larger for the deeper muscles: (median (interquartile range)) trapezius 7.7 kPa (4.4), splenius capitis 6.5 kPa (2.5), semispinalis capitis 8.9 kPa (2.8), semispinalis cervicis 9.5 kPa (2.5), multifidus 14.9 kPa (1.4). Shear modulus differed between the resting condition and head lift (P < 0.001) but not between levels of head lift intensity. Shear wave elastography revealed highest passive and active stiffness of the deep neck extensor muscles most close to the spine. The highest active increase of stiffness during the head lift was found in the semispinalis cervicis muscle. The non-invasive, clinically applicable estimates of muscle stiffness have potential for the assessment of muscular changes associated with neck pain/injury.

  18. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI.

  19. Skin diseases among schoolchildren in Ghana, Gabon, and Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Hogewoning, Arjan; Amoah, Abena; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Boakye, Daniel; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Adegnika, Akim; De Smedt, Stefan; Fonteyne, Yannick; Willemze, Rein; Lavrijsen, Adriana

    2013-05-01

    Skin diseases, especially skin infections, among schoolchildren in Africa can be a major health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalences of skin diseases among children in rural and urban schools in three different African countries and to study the influence of socioeconomic level. Cross-sectional, population-based studies were performed in Ghana, Gabon, and Rwanda. Point prevalences of skin diseases were estimated on the basis of physical examination by at least one dermatologist. A total of 4839 schoolchildren were seen. The overall prevalence of schoolchildren with any skin disease was high and amounted to 34.6% and 42.0% in two Ghanaian studies, 45.8% in Gabon, and 26.7% in Rwanda. In children with skin diseases, skin infections represented the greatest proportion of disease, accounting for 14.7% and 17.6% of skin disease in the Ghanaian studies, and 27.7% and 22.7% in Gabon and Rwanda, respectively. Diseases with the highest prevalence were tinea capitis and bacterial skin infections, especially in rural areas and in schools serving children living at lower socioeconomic levels. The prevalences of skin diseases among African schoolchildren were high. Skin infections such as tinea capitis and pyoderma predominated. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Dystonic neck muscles show a shift in relative autospectral power during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    De Bruijn, E; Nijmeijer, S W R; Forbes, P A; Koelman, J H T M; Van Der Helm, F C T; Tijssen, M A J; Happee, R

    2017-07-17

    To identify effects of a deviant motor drive in the autospectral power of dystonic muscles during voluntary contraction in cervical dystonia patients. Submaximal (20%) isometric head-neck tasks were performed with the head fixed, measuring surface EMG of the sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis and semispinalis capitis in CD patients and controls. Autospectral power of muscle activity, and head forces was analyzed using cumulative distribution functions (CDF). A downward shift between the theta/low alpha-band (3-10Hz) and the high alpha/beta-band (10-30Hz) was detected using the CDF10, defined as the cumulative power from 3 to 10Hz relative to power from 3 to 30Hz. CDF10 was increased in dystonic muscles compared to controls and patient muscles unaffected by dystonia, due to a 3-10Hz power increase and a 10-30Hz decrease. CDF10 also increased in patient head forces. Submaximal isometric contractions with the head fixed provided a well-defined test condition minimizing effects of reflexive feedback and tremor. We associate shifts in autospectral power with prokinetic sensorimotor control. Analysis of autospectral power in isometric tasks with the head fixed is a promising approach in research and diagnostics of cervical dystonia. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alopecia: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lynne J; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia is a disorder that affects all patients, young and old. Many diagnoses, particularly the scarring alopecias, are more common in adults; however, others, such as tinea capitis, are more common in children, and some, such as alopecia areata, often affect both age groups. The approach to, and evaluation of, an alopecia patient is thus highly dependent on his or her age. In adults with diffuse, non-scarring hair loss, a part-width examination can help detect pattern hair loss, the most common cause of diffuse loss in this age group. In children this is much less likely, and a careful evaluation for tinea capitis is in order. The same holds true for patchy alopecia in children, as well as scarring alopecia-tinea needs to always be considered. In adults, patchy alopecia is often due to alopecia areata and sometimes to one of the primary scarring alopecias. A laboratory evaluation, and especially a biopsy, would be a more appropriate undertaking for an adult than a child, and an adult would be more likely to tolerate certain therapeutic regimens such as intralesional injections. In a conversational manner, the authors discuss their individual approaches to the alopecia patient, highlighting the differences in diagnosis, workup, and management that depend on whether the affected individual is an adult or a child.

  2. US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report FY 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    in the latter case. However, most of the more familiar developments in modern pinealology center around the pineal’s ability to respond to light...Bailo P: Contributo alla terapia degli stati ipersessuali medianti ormone epi’isario. Quad Clin Ostet Ginec 10: 629-631, 1959. 3. Barbarossa C

  3. The Effects of Middle Ear Pressure on Hearing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    Hultcrantz et al., 1982; Larsen et al., 1982; Prazma & Rogers , 1982); 3) direct visualization of flow in selected cochlear vessels (Perlman & Kimura, 1955...Plenum Publishers, New York. 4. DeVincetits, I., Bozzi, L. and Pizzichetta, V. 1964. Sulla terapia medica di alcuwe gravi ipoacusie. Valsalua 40:65-79

  4. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... a todos los miembros de la comunidad del síndrome de Down y estamos orgullosos de ofrecer una selección de ... para los hablantes de Español, incluyendo Acerca de Síndrome de Down, Salud, Intervención Temprana, Terapias y Desarrollo, Educación y ...

  5. Extra-anatomic iliac to superior mesenteric artery bypass after bridge endovascular treatment for chronic mesenteric ischemia. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bajardi, Guido; Pakeliani, David; Dinoto, Ettore; Bracale, Umberto M; Pecoraro, Felice

    2015-07-03

    Un uomo di 60 anni con ischemia mesenterica cronica (CMI) è stato trattato con una terapia ‘bridge’ verso una terapia di chirurgia open tradizionale, mediante stenting dell’arteria mesenterica superiore (SMA). Al follow-up a 5 mesi lo stent della SMA è andato incontro ad occlusione. Durante questo periodo ‘bridge’ il paziente ha migliorato le sue condizioni generali e il suo indice di massa corporea (BMI) è incrementato da 18 a 22. Il paziente è stato sottoposto successivamente ad intervento chirurgico di bypass iliaco-SMA in configurazione ‘Cloop’. Al follow-up a 6 mesi il bypass è pervio, il paziente non riferisce sintomatologia di CMI ed il suo BMI è di 25. Il trattamento endovascolare non ha precluso una successiva riparazione chirurgica e può essere impiegato in maniera sicura come terapia ‘bridge’. Un miglioramento delle condizioni cliniche, anche durante un limitato periodo ‘bridge’, può migliorare i risultati della terapia chirurgica tradizionale.

  6. [Analysis of the causes leading to withdrawal of the treatment with triple antiviral therapy for hepatitis C patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ramos, J; Lorente Fernández, L; Gil Gómez, I; Cueto Sola, M; Monte Boquet, E; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar las causas de suspensión de tratamientofrente a Hepatitis C que reciben triple terapia antiviral (peginterferon+ ribavirina + inhibidor de proteasa).Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes queiniciaron triple terapia antiviral entre enero 2012 - marzo 2013y suspendieron el tratamiento antes de completar el mismo.Resultados: De 156 pacientes que iniciaron triple terapia, 41interrumpieron el tratamiento: Diecinueve por toxicidad, siendodermatológica en siete pacientes (36,8%), intolerancia en seis(31,6%) y hematológica en cuatro (15,8%). Dieciséis pacientessuspendieron todo el tratamiento por ineficacia. El grupo depacientes con mayor porcentaje de fracasos por ineficacia fueronlos “no respondedores” (32,3%) mientras que el grupo depacientes “recidivantes” fueron el grupo con mayor porcentajede suspensiones por toxicidad (15,6%). Dos pacientes fallecierondurante el tratamiento por neumonía.Conclusiones: La triple terapia frente a VHC está asociada a unnúmero importante de fracasos terapéuticos tanto por toxicidadcomo por ineficacia.

  7. [Pharmacological strategies to improve the adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Clapé-Laffita, Oneyda

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la adherencia a la terapia antirretroviral es un factor importante para suprimir el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. El propósito de la investigación que se presenta fue aplicar estrategias farmacológicas basadas en medidas farmacocinéticas para facilitar la adherencia a la terapia antirretroviral. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo durante ocho meses, con 75 pacientes positivos al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, con criterios clínicos y sociales para una terapia antirretroviral altamente activa, en Opuwo, Namibia. Se analizaron aspectos farmacológicos como la no existencia de efectos adversos graves ni interacciones medicamentosas riesgosas. El análisis de resultado fue realizado con estadística descriptiva. Resultados: fueron detectados tres efectos adversos leves (dos para efavirenz y uno para nevirapina) y uno grave para estavudina/lamivudina. Se evitaron las interacciones medicamentosas riesgosas aplicando medidas farmacocinéticas con efavirenz, estavudina/ lamivudina y zidovudina; así como entre nevirapina y fluconazol (o ketoconazol). Conclusiones: la adherencia a la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa se facilitó al aplicar las estrategias farmacológicas propuestas y se evitaron efectos adversos e interacciones medicamentosas riesgosas.

  8. Immunological failure of first-line and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in Tanzania: analysis of routinely collected national data

    PubMed Central

    Vanobberghen, Fiona M; Kilama, Bonita; Wringe, Alison; Ramadhani, Angela; Zaba, Basia; Mmbando, Donan; Todd, Jim

    2015-01-01

    benefits of increased coverage. Objectifs Les taux d’échec du traitement de 1ère ligne et les passages au traitement de 2nde ligne sont des indicateurs clés pour les programmes nationaux VIH. Nous avons évalué l’échec immunologique du traitement selon les critères de l’OMS dans le programme national VIH tanzanien. Méthodes Nous avons inclus les adultes entreprenant une thérapie de 1ère ligne entre 2004 et 2011 avec une numération des CD4 prétraitement disponible et un suivi ≥6 mois. Nous avons évalué les rapports en dessous du risque pour l’échec immunologique du traitement et le passage subséquent à la thérapie de 2nde ligne, en utilisant les méthodes de risques concurrents pour tenir compte des décès. Résultats Sur 121.308 adultes, 7% ont connu un échec immunologique du traitement et 2% sont décédés sans observation d’échec immunologique du traitement, sur une médiane de 1,7 ans. La probabilité cumulée d’échec immunologique du traitement sur six ans était de 19,0% (IC95%: 18,5 à 19,7) et 5,1% (4,8 à 5,4) de décès. Les prédicteurs d’échecs immunologiques du traitement comprenaient: l'instauration précoce du traitement (p <0,001), l'initiation dans les établissements de niveau inférieur (SHR = 2,23 [2,03 à 2,45] pour les dispensaires versus les hôpitaux), le sexe masculin (1,27 [1,19 à 1,33]) et l'initiation du traitement à des taux de CD4 faibles ou élevés (par exemple, 1,78 [1,65 à 1,92] et 5,33 [4,65 à 6,10] pour des taux <50 et ≥500 versus des taux compris entre 200 et 349 cellules/mm3, respectivement). Sur 7.382 participants à l'analyse sur le moment du changement de traitement, 6% ont changé de traitement et 5% sont décédés avant le changement. Quatre ans après l’échec immunologique du traitement, la probabilité cumulative du changement de traitement était de 7,3% (6,6 à 8,0) et de 6,8% (6,0 à 7,6) pour les décès. Ceux qui ont connu un échec immunologique dans les dispensaires, les

  9. Evaluation of surgery risk factor associated to antithrombotic therapy in patients who underwent colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Paolo; Sozzi, Francesco; Bertocchi, Elisa; Dell'Abate, Paolo; Perrone, Gennaro; Arcuri, Maria Francesca; Sianesi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    I trattamenti antipiastrinici sono comuni nel mondo occidentale ed il rischio di sanguinamento correlato a procedure chirurgiche o comunque invasive è di conseguenza elevato e pertanto abbiamo volute analizzare la correlazione tra la chirurgia del colon.retto ,la terapia antipiastrinica e le complicanze chirurgiche postoperatorie. Sono stati studiati 176 pazienti operati per tumori del colon-retto considerando i seguenti dati:tipo di intervento xchirurgico,l’indice di massa corporea (BMI), il valore dell’emoglobina (Hb); PT preoperatorio e le trasfusioni di sangue pre epost-operatorie e durante lo stesso intervento chirurgico. L’analisi si è concentrata su due gruppi :pazienti sottoposti a trattamento antipiastrinico (ATterapia antiaggregante) e pazienti non trattati ( NAT: non terapia antiaggregante piastrinica). Nei gruppi di pazienti sottoposti a emicolectomia destra, i valori di emoglobina erano più bassi neri pazienti che hanno ricevuto la terapia antitrombotica rispetto ai pazienti che non hanno ricevuto questa terapia, con una significatività statistica (p <0,05); dati analoghi sono stati osservati nei pazienti sottoposti a emicolectomia sinistra. I pazienti dipeso normale trattati con terapia antiaggregante avevano valori più bassi di emoglobina senza significatività statistica (valore di p non significativo). I pazienti in sovrappeso sottoposti a trattamento antiaggregante hanno presentato valori di Hb inferiori a quelli non trattati (p < 0,05). La percentuale di emotrasfusioneè risultata maggiore nei pazienti sottoposti a trattamento antiaggregante (AT) a prescindere dal tipo di interveno chirurgico rispetto al secondo gruppo con significatività statistica. Tra i pazienti normopeso si è registrata una diversa incidenza di trasfusione di sangue nei pazienti trattati con AT (50%) e quelli non trattati (29%) con un significato statistico (p <0,05), mentre i pazienti in sovrappeso non hanno presenato questa significativa differenza. È stata

  10. [Effect of immune therapy in the prognosis of viral myocarditis in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, Horacio; López-Gallegos, Diana; González-Espinosa, Alicia María Dolores; Zamudio-López, Jonathan Omar; Yáñez-Gutiérrez, Lucelli

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la miocarditis es una inflamación del tejido miocárdico, causada principalmente por infección viral. La miocardiopatía dilatada (MD) es la complicación más grave a largo plazo. La terapia con inmunomoduladores no está validada en este tipo de enfermos, sin embargo parece ofrecer beneficios en el pronóstico de esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto pronóstico de la terapia inmunomoduladora en el desarrollo de MD en enfermos pediátricos con miocarditis viral. Métodos: se integró una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes entre 4 y 17 años con diagnóstico de miocarditis viral. Se consideró como principal exposición al tratamiento, el cual se dividió en dos tipos: habitual e inmunomoduladora. Se midieron variables confusoras como: tiempo entre el diagnóstico y tratamiento, antecedente de asistolia y anticuerpos positivos para enterovirus y adenovirus. El seguimiento fue de 48 meses. La variable de desenlace fue la MD (diámetro diastólico del VI > + 2 Z-score y biopsia positiva). Resultados: se obtuvieron 31 pacientes con una mediana de 5 años (4-15); 6 recibieron la terapia inmunomoduladora y el resto la habitual. La MD se presentó en 17% de los enfermos expuestos a la terapia inmunomoduladora frente al 35% tradicional, con un HR = 0.5 (0.1-0.7). Conclusiones: la terapia inmunoduladora es un factor protector para MD en pacientes con miocarditis viral.

  11. [Early discharge of the healthy newborn from the nursery of the Hospital Español de México].

    PubMed

    Santos Burgoa-Larrañaga, Lorena; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el riesgo-beneficio del alta temprana en neonatos es controversial. No encontramos estudios concluyentes que analicen las variables del neonato y el impacto en su morbilidad al alta temprana. Asociamos estadísticamente variables con alguna terapia adicional que pudiera poner en riesgo al neonato de alta temprana. Métodos: estudio prolectivo observacional en recién nacidos de término desde el nacimiento hasta el alta (de agosto a diciembre de 2013). Se hizo seguimiento telefónico al mes de vida para conocer su estado de salud. Las variables dependientes fueron las horas intrahospitalarias, las terapias adicionales y la atención intrahospitalaria en el primer mes. Resultados: 701 neonatos a término, 41 con terapia adicional, 23 ingresos a UCIN (22 en < 24 horas). Hubo un RR de 12.9 si el Apgar era < 8.8. Hubo 9 veces más riesgo de terapia adicional si había < 38 semanas de gestación. El peso bajo triplicó el riesgo para ingreso a UCIN. Hubo 143 altas tempranas, 58 % seguimiento telefónico, 0 % de reingresos. Las principales variables que influyen en requerir terapia adicional son el Apgar < 8 a los 5 minutos, tener < 38 semanas de gestación y peso bajo.Conclusión: los elementos para el manejo de pacientes con alta temprana son datos de alarma, seguimiento con pediatra a los tres días de vida, vigilancia estrecha si el APGAR es < 8 a los 5 minutos o < 38 semanas de gestación o si hay peso bajo para la edad gestacional.

  12. HELICOBACTER PYLORI (HP) INFECTION IN OBESE PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROUXEN- Y GASTRIC BYPASS; EFFICACY OF TWO DIFFERENT TREATMENT REGIMENS IN HP ERADICATION.

    PubMed

    Cuesta Hernández, Martín; Pérez Peña, Celia; Matía Martín, Pilar; Cabrerizo García, Lucio; Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres García, Antonio; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: las causas implicadas en el aumento de incidencia de úlcera gástrica tras el bypass en Y de Roux no son completamente conocidas. El tratamiento de la infección por HP se recomienda antes de la cirugía en países cuya prevalencia sea elevada, como el caso de España, de cara a disminuir dicha complicación. Sin embargo, las pautas actuales de tratamiento pueden no ser adecuadas dados los elevados índices de resistencia. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de 243 pacientes operados de bypass en Y de Roux. De ellos, 111 pacientes (45%) presentaban infección por HP. Objetivo principal: comparación de la eficacia de dos terapias de erradicación de la infección por HP. Resultados: 70 pacientes recibieron OCA( Omeprazol 20 mg/12 h, Claritromicina 500 mg/12 h y Amoxicilina 1 g/12h durante 10 días), mientras que 41 pacientes recibieron OLA (Omeprazol 20 mg/12 h, Levofloxacino 500 mg/12 h y Amoxicilina 1 g/12 h durante 10 días). En 56/70 pacientes (80%) que recibieron OCA HP fue erradicado, comparado con 37/41 (91%) del grupo que recibió OLA como primera terapia (p = 0,283). La terapia con OLA usada de segunda línea fue eficaz en 13/14 pacientes con HP resistente a la terapia OCA. Conclusión: la resistencia de HP a Claritromicina es significativa en nuestra serie de pacientes, siendo la terapia con OLA una alternativa adecuada en las cepas resistentes.

  13. Spatial and temporal response properties of the vestibulocollic reflex in decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Baker, J; Goldberg, J; Peterson, B

    1985-09-01

    Vestibulocollic reflex responses of several neck muscles in decerebrate cats were studied during angular rotations of the whole body in a large number of vertical and horizontal rotation planes, at frequencies from 0.07 to 1.6 Hz. Vestibulocollic responses were compared to eye muscle and forelimb muscle vestibular responses. Electromyographic activity was recorded by fine wires inserted in biventer cervicis, complexus, longus capitis, obliquus capitis inferior, occipitoscapularis, rectus capitis major, splenius, lateral rectus, and triceps brachii. At frequencies of approximately 0.5 Hz and above, neck muscle electromyographic response gains were sinusoidal functions of stimulus orientation within a set of vertical or horizontal planes, and a muscle's response phase remained constant across rotation planes, or reversed by 180 degrees. Response patterns at high frequencies were consistent with vestibulocollic reflex activation by semicircular canals through brain circuitry that modifies canal dynamics. At frequencies of approximately 0.5 Hz and above, the stimulus orientation in which a given neck muscle's response was maximal remained nearly constant across frequencies. Thus, we used responses to rotations at high frequencies to calculate axes of maximal response of each muscle in three-dimensional space. Lateral rectus, obliquus, and to a lesser extent, splenius and longus capitus were activated predominantly by horizontal rotations. Biventer was activated predominantly by pitch, triceps predominantly by roll, and complexus, occipitoscapularis, and rectus major significantly excited by rotations in all three coordinate planes. In some cases, at frequencies less than 0.5 Hz, neck muscle response phase varied depending on the vertical plane in which the cat was rotated, and the optimal response plane was poorly defined and varied with frequency. These responses indicated that, at some frequencies, neck muscle activity can result from summation of inputs with

  14. [Causative agents of superficial mycoses isolated in Dakar, Senegal: Retrospective study from 2011 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A S; Seck, M C; Diop, A; Ndiaye, Y D; Ndiaye, D

    2016-12-01

    Superficial fungal infections, particularly of the skin, scalp and nails are very common and have been reported worldwide. The most common causative agents of these mycoses are dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. However, these agents vary with time and depend on many factors including the geography. The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of superficial mycoses diagnosed at the Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar (Senegal). The study concerned 1851 outpatients received in the parasitological and mycological laboratory of Le Dantec hospital during the period from January 2011 to December 2015. Every patient benefited from direct examination and mycological culture. Among the 1851 patients, 633 were confirmed with superficial mycoses and the prevalence was 34.2 %. The age of patients ranged from two months to 81 years with a mean age of 31 years. Superficial mycoses were found more in women (70.3 %) than men (29.7 %) and a little more than thirty-nine percent (39.3 %) were adults. The causative agents identified were: dermatophytes (58 %), yeast (36.7 %) and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi (NDFF, 5.3 %). The most isolated species were: Candida albicans (26.9 %), Trichophyton soudanense (24.9 %) and T. rubrum (13.7 %). These fungi were responsible for different clinical aspects, isolated and other associated. Among the isolated clinical aspects, those affecting hair (tinea capitis) were by far the largest with 44.8 %, followed by tinea unguium (34.5 %). Associations were especially type of tinea capitis and tinea manuum (2.4 %) and toenails onychomycosis associated with interdigital tinea pedis (2.7 %). Tinea capitis agents were exclusively dermatophytes and the predominant agent was T. soudanense with 47,8 %. Tinea unguium agents were yeast (79 %), dermatophytes (18 %) or NDFF (3 %) and the most found species was C. albicans (63.9 %). Dermatophytes, yeasts and molds were respectively found more in children and

  15. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head, neck, shoulder, and arm muscles reproduces pain symptoms in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gröbli, Christian; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fischer, Christine Stebler; Boesch, Daniel; Froidevaux, Philippe; Stocker, Lilian; Weissmann, Richard; González-Iglesias, Javier

    2012-07-01

    To describe the prevalence and referred pain area of trigger points (TrPs) in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers, and to analyze if the referred pain pattern elicited from TrPs completely reproduces the overall spontaneous pain pattern. Sixteen (62% women) blue-collar and 19 (75% women) white-collar workers were included in this study. TrPs in the temporalis, masseter, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, oblique capitis inferior, levator scapulae, scalene, pectoralis major, deltoid, infraspinatus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus, extensor digitorum communis, and supinator muscles were examined bilaterally (hyper-sensible tender spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response with snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain pattern with palpation) by experienced assessors blinded to the participants' condition. TrPs were considered active when the local and referred pain reproduced any symptom and the patient recognized the pain as familiar. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomic maps, digitized, and measured. Blue-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 3) active and 10 (SD: 5) latent TrPs, whereas white-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 4) active and 11 (SD: 6) latent TrPs (P>0.548). No significant differences in the distribution of active and latent TrPs in the analyzed muscles between groups were found. Active TrPs in the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, levator scapulae, and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles were the most prevalent in both groups. Significant differences in referred pain areas between muscles (P<0.001) were found; pectoralis major, infraspinatus, upper trapezius, and scalene muscles showed the largest referred pain areas (P<0.01), whereas the temporalis, masseter, and splenius capitis muscles showed the smallest (P<0.05). The combination of the referred pain from TrPs reproduced the overall clinical pain area in all participants. Blue-collar and white-collar workers

  16. Cervical Muscle Strength and Muscle Coactivation During Isometric Contractions in Patients With Migraine: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Florencio, Lidiane Lima; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Carvalho, Gabriela Ferreira; Tolentino, Gabriella de Almeida; Dach, Fabiola; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Bevilaqua Grossi, Débora

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated potential differences in cervical musculature in groups of migraine headaches vs. non-headache controls. Differences in cervical muscle strength and antagonist coactivation during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) were analyzed between individuals with migraine and non-headache subjects and relationships between force with migraine and neck pain clinical aspects. A customized hand-held dynamometer was used to assess cervical flexion, extension, and bilateral lateral flexion strength in subjects with episodic migraine (n=31), chronic migraine (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 31). Surface electromyography (EMG) from sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis muscles were recorded during MIVC to evaluate antagonist coactivation. Comparison of main outcomes among groups was conducted with one-way analysis of covariance with the presence of neck pain as covariable. Correlations between peak force and clinical variables were demonstrated by Spearman's coefficient. Chronic migraine subjects exhibited lower cervical extension force (mean diff. from controls: 4.4 N/kg; mean diff from episodic migraine: 3.7 N/kg; P = .006) and spent significantly more time to generate peak force during cervical flexion (mean diff. from controls: 0.5 seconds; P = .025) and left lateral-flexion (mean diff. from controls: 0.4 seconds; mean diff. from episodic migraine: 0.5 seconds; P = .007). Both migraine groups showed significantly higher antagonist muscle coactivity of the splenius capitis muscle (mean diff. from controls: 20%MIVC, P = .03) during cervical flexion relative to healthy controls. Cervical extension peak force was moderately associated with the migraine frequency (rs: -0.30, P = .034), neck pain frequency (rs: -0.26, P = .020), and neck pain intensity (rs: -0.27, P = .012). Patients with chronic migraine exhibit altered muscle performance, took longer to reach peak of

  17. National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Varias hojas informativas sobre ingredientes específicos de los suplementos dietéticos ahora están disponibles en español. Several consumer ... they work? More En español Muchos adultos toman suplementos dietéticos para adelgazar. Pero de verdad funcionan? More ...

  18. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes the importance of outdoor training adaptation.

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Jara; Dominguez, D; Til, L; González-Gross, M; Drobnic, F

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: En los últimos años, el descubrimiento de receptores musculares para la vitamina D sugiere un papel significativo de esta vitamina en el tejido muscular, adquiriendo una relevancia especial en deportistas. No existen apenas datos disponibles acerca de las concentraciones de vitamina D en deportistas de élite Españoles.

  19. [Analysis of food service and opinion of its users in a Catalan prison].

    PubMed

    Sáiz Izquierdo, María Elena; Fornons Fontdevila, David; Medina Luque, F Xavier; Aguilar Martínez, Alicia

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: Los estudios sobre restauración colectiva se encuentran viviendo un cierto auge en España. Sin embargo, se dispone de muy poca información sobre cómo se organiza este servicio en las instituciones penitenciarias, y mucho menos aún sobre cómo es percibido por sus usuarios.

  20. Causative agents of superficial mycoses in Istanbul, Turkey: retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Fatma; Er, Emine; Samasti, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the percentage of agents, which can give rise to superficial fungal infections in Istanbul, Turkey. Between 2000 and 2007, the clinical samples collected from 8,200 patients attending the outpatient Dermatology Clinic at Mihrimahsultan Medical Center were examined by direct microscopy and culture. Pathogen fungi were detected in 5,722 of the patients. Of the isolates were 4,218 (74%) dermatophytes, 1,196 (21%) Candida sp., 170 (3%) Malassezia furfur, and 138 (2%) Trichosporon sp. Among the dermatophytes, Trichophyton sp. was the most common isolate followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (243) and Microsporum sp. Among the Candida species, C. albicans (549) was also frequently found. Onychomycosis was the most prevalent type of infection, followed by tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, and tinea capitis. In conclusion, our study showed that the most common isolated agents from superficial infections were T. rubrum being Candida sp. the second most prevalent.

  1. A huge Thornwaldt's cyst causing hearing loss in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Bozan, Nazim; Sakin, Yunus Feyyat; Kundi, Pinar; Ari, Muzaffer; Bozkus, Ferhat

    2017-03-01

    Nasopharynx (NP) is anatomically difficult to explore adequately. The pharyngeal bursa (PB) is a recess lined with respiratory epithelium along the posterior wall of the nasopharynx between the longus capitis muscles. If the opening through which the bursa drains into the nasopharynx becomes obstructed, a Thornwaldt's cyst (TC) might develop. Small-sized cysts are mostly asymptomatic, whereas large-sized cysts may lead to various nasal and otologic symptoms depending on their localization. In this report, we present a 71-year-old case with a huge TC who presented to our clinic with the complaints of snoring, nasal obstruction, periodic halitosis, postnasal drip, headache, and hearing loss in the left ear and underwent total excision of the cyst through transnasal endoscopy. The diagnosis and treatment characteristics of the case are presented with the review of the literature.

  2. Pityriasis amiantacea: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ayanlowo, O O; Olowoyo, O O; Akinkugbe, A O; Adelekan, F A; Ahamneze, N C

    2014-06-01

    Pityriasis amiantacea (PA) is a papulosquamous condition of the scalp,characterized by asbestos - like thick scales attached to the hair shaft. It is thought to represent a reaction pattern to inflammatory skin disorders like psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, tinea capitis, atopic dermatitis and lichen planus, rather than a distinctive disease. The scaling may be localised or generalised, depending on the underlying condition and its duration.This report highlights the clinical features of pityriasis amiantacea secondary to atopic dermatitis and the differential features of other papulo-squamous scalp disorders such as scalp psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and lichen planus.Scalp psoriasis and seborrhoeic dermatitis are the commonest causes of PA as well as the closest differentials hence should be excluded in all cases. The longterm sequelae of PA include scalp fibrosis and permanent hair loss hence should be identified and treated promptly. The management modalities of PA will also be discussed.

  3. Intestinal perforations in a premature infant caused by Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Girisch, M; Ries, M; Zenker, M; Carbon, R; Rauch, R; Hofbeck, M

    2003-06-01

    Although Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous bacterium, the incidence of neonatal infections is very low with only a few cases of B. cereus infections in neonates reported in the literature. We report the case of a premature infant with multiple intestinal perforations and an abdominal B. cereus infection. The initial course was characterized by severe cardiovascular shock, anemia, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, leading to periventricular leukomalacia, alopecia capitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The possible role of B. cereus-associated enterotoxins for the clinical manifestations are discussed. Our case confirms previous reports of severe clinical symptoms in B. cereus infection in premature neonates. We speculate that the systemic complications of B. cereus infection are at least partly related to the effect of B. cereus-associated enterotoxins.

  4. Ergonomic comparison of operating a built-in touch-pad pointing device and a trackball mouse on posture and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the effects of operating a built-in touch-pad pointing device and a trackball mouse on participants' completion times, hand positions during operation, postural angles, and muscle activities. 8 young men were asked to perform a cursor travel task on a notebook computer using both 60- and 80-cm high table conditions. Analysis showed that the trackball mouse significantly decreased completion times. Participants selected a hand position farther from the table edge and larger elbow angle for the trackball mouse than for the built-in touch-pad pointing device. Participants' neck, thoracic, and arm angles, or splenius capitis, trapezius, deltoid, and erector spinae muscle activities were not significantly affected by the devices, but table height significantly affected participants' completion times, hand positions, and postural angles.

  5. What's bugging you? An update on the treatment of head lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Tebruegge, Marc; Pantazidou, Anastasia; Curtis, Nigel

    2011-02-01

    Head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is a common problem in paediatric practice. It can cause considerable distress to children and their families and may lead to bullying and social stigmatisation. Therapy with "conventional" topical pediculicides with neurotoxic mode of action-such as malathion, permethrin, phenothrin and carbaryl-is increasingly associated with treatment failure as a result of the emergence of resistance within the parasite population. This review provides an overview of the natural history, clinical symptoms and diagnosis of head lice infestation. It also discusses general management principles and summarises the current data on novel treatment strategies, including wet combing, dimeticone, isopropyl myristate, benzyl alcohol, plant-based compounds and oral medication.

  6. Demystifying pediculosis: school nurses taking the lead.

    PubMed

    Pontius, Deborah J

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is fraught with misinformation, myths, and mismanagement. Common myths include the need to exclude children from school, the need to remove all visible nits ("no-nit" policies), the need for massive environmental cleaning, that head lice live for long periods of time, and that schools are a common location for lice transmission. Head lice are a common childhood nuisance, causing embarrassment and emotional trauma in both children and families. This article explores and challenges the commonly held beliefs about the identification, management, and treatment of Pediculosis by presenting current recommended evidence-based practice. It also challenges pediatric nurses, and school nurses in particular, in alignment with the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) Position Statement on Pediculosis Management in the School Setting, to act as change agents for reasonable and effective school policies and practices.

  7. An incurable itch: head lice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christine H; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-08-01

    Head lice infestations continue to be seen frequently in many communities. Some of these children require multiple treatments before eradication. What are the current treatment recommendations for head lice? Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestations are common, particularly among school-aged children. In order to minimize louse resistance, insecticide usage, and social stigmatization, diagnosis and treatment should be limited to those with live lice on the scalp. Options for management are predominantly topical therapies or physical removal. Large studies comparing the efficacy of these treatments are lacking. Treatment should be repeated in approximately 7 days if topical insecticides are used or every 2 to 3 days for 2 weeks if wet combing is used. Lice resistance patterns vary widely geographically, and resistance is now the most common cause of treatment failure.

  8. Socioeconomical Factors Associated With Pediculosis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tagka, Anna; Lambrou, George I; Braoudaki, Maria; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Papanikolaou, Eleni; Laggas, Dimitris

    2016-07-01

    Pediculosis in humans and especially in children is a very common dermatological disorder caused by the ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer. We investigated the socioeconomic factors affecting the prevalence of pediculosis in the Greek urban area of Athens during 2004-2006. The target population consisted of children from kindergartens. In total, 434 children from single- or two-parent families were investigated with respect to socioeconomic factors such as education, income and family composition, and the prevalence of pediculosis. The overall pediculosis rate was 5.30%. Head louse infestations were significantly higher in female children and in two-parent families. Lice infestations peaked in low- and medium-income families. Head louse infestation rates were influenced by income, parents' education, and nationality. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An incurable itch

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine H.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Question Head lice infestations continue to be seen frequently in many communities. Some of these children require multiple treatments before eradication. What are the current treatment recommendations for head lice? Answer Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestations are common, particularly among school-aged children. In order to minimize louse resistance, insecticide usage, and social stigmatization, diagnosis and treatment should be limited to those with live lice on the scalp. Options for management are predominantly topical therapies or physical removal. Large studies comparing the efficacy of these treatments are lacking. Treatment should be repeated in approximately 7 days if topical insecticides are used or every 2 to 3 days for 2 weeks if wet combing is used. Lice resistance patterns vary widely geographically, and resistance is now the most common cause of treatment failure. PMID:22893334

  10. Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2011-08-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the anti-parasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent against the larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae); head louse Pediculus humanus capitis, De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus, Grassi; and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, Say (Diptera: Culicidae). R. microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different ZnO NP concentrations. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs for 24 h. The results suggested that the mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 43% at 1 h, 64% at 3 h, 78% at 6 h, and 100% after 12 h against R. microplus activity. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 38% at 10 min, 71% at 30 min, 83% at 1 h, and 100% after 6 h against P. humanus capitis. One hundred percent lice mortality was observed at 10 mg/L treated for 6 h. The mortality was confirmed after 24 h of observation period. The larval mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 37%, 72%, 100% and 43%, 78% and 100% at 6, 12, and 24 h against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. It is apparent that the small size and corresponding large specific surface area of small nanometer-scale ZnO particles impose several effects that govern its parasitic action, which are size dependent. ZnO NPs were synthesized by wet chemical process, and it was characterized with the UV showing peak at 361 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the zinc oxide with

  11. Multiple Liver Abscesses Associated with Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tae Ki

    2013-01-01

    Liver abscess following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting occurs very rarely. We report an unusual case of multiple liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus capitis in a 50-year-old compromised woman due to a complicating VP shunt infection. We reviewed the nine cases of VP shunt complications reported in the English literature, and speculated that the most likely pathogenetic mechanism in our case is an infected peritoneal tip that migrated to and penetrated the liver, which subsequently caused the formation of multiple liver abscesses. The patient was successfully treated with percutaneous aspiration, drainage of the abscesses, intravenous antibiotics, and shunt revision. Awareness and vigilance of the possibility of liver abscess formation caused by VP shunt infection will help establish an early accurate diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. PMID:24379956

  12. [Several features of the metabolism of the fast and slow muscles of Emys orbicularis tortoises].

    PubMed

    Lebedinskaia, I I; Ogorodnikova, L G

    1978-01-01

    In skeletal muscles of the tortoise E. orbicularis, studies have been made on the content of glycogen, lactic acid, on the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphorylase. Histochemical studies were made on the lipid content. Experiments were performed on fast and slow bundles from mm. iliofibularis, testo cervicalis and retractor capitis. For comparison, the same indices of carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in fast m. plantaris and slow m. soleus of rats. In rats, slow muscles exhibit aerobic metabolism, in fast muscles--anaerobic one. In tortoises, slow muscles exhibit intermediate type of metabolism. Fast muscles show an anaerobic type or metabolism which is less intensive than anaerobic metabolism in slow muscles. Significant differences in some of the indices of carbohydrate metabolism were found in muscles which perform different functions in the organism.

  13. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities. PMID:28265137

  14. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    PubMed

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082.

  15. Dynamic modeling of the neck muscles during horizontal head movement. Part II: Model construction in Pro/Engineer.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Stephenie A; Enderle, John D

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the next phase of research on a parametric model of the head-neck system for dynamic simulation of horizontal head rotation. A skull has been imported into Pro/Engineer software and has been assigned mass properties such as density, surface area and moments of inertia. The origin of a universal coordinate system has been located at the center of gravity of the T1 vertebrae. Identification of this origin allows insertion and attachment points of the sternocleidomastoid (SCOM) and splenius capitis to be located. An assembly has been created, marking the location of both muscle sets. This paper will also explore the obstacles encountered when working with an imported feature in Pro/E and attempts to resolve some of these issues. The goal of this work involves the creation of a 3D homeomorphic saccadic eye and head movement system.

  16. Treatment of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation with botulinum toxin muscle block and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Liao, Su-Lan; Raung, Shue-Ling; Tsai, Sen-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Slippage after reduction of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is usually treated with repeated cervical traction and brace immobilization. To date, no data have been published on the management of muscle spasm during treatment. Here, we describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with AARF for 1 month who visited our hospital for treatment. During physical examination, spasm of the sternocleidomastoid muscle was noted. The patient was treated with manipulative reduction, and slippage after reduction was managed with botulinum spasticity block of the sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles, and repeated manipulation. Cervical orthosis immobilization with a rehabilitation program of isometric contract-relax exercise for the neck was conducted for 3 months. The subject had full recovery from AARF at 1-year follow-up. This report demonstrates that, in selected cases of slippage after reduction from AARF, conservative management with manipulation under anesthesia is a good method, and the muscle components may play a crucial role in AARF.

  17. The axial musculature of Pontoporia blainvillei, with comments on the organization of this system and its effect on fluke-stroke dynamics in the cetacea.

    PubMed

    Strickler, T L

    1980-01-01

    The axial muscular system of Pontoporia blainvillei is described and compared with published reports of this system in other cetaceans. A comprehensive system for classification of axial muscles is presented, based on the studies of Slijper. A discrete obliquus capitis inferior is described for the first time in cetacea, and it is suggested that its absence in previous descriptions may have been due partly to dissection error. The major axial muscle-masses are organized in a similar way in most cetaceans, comprising a set of tail elevators and depressors, and a set of tendons with similar actions on the flukes. The anatomy of the axial musculature does not support the idea that the upstroke is the main propulsive stroke in cetaceans, but suggests similar roles of the upstroke and downstroke in propulsion.

  18. Microsporum canis infection in a 5-year-old boy: transmission from the interior of a second-hand car.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Korting, H C; Strassl, W; Ruzicka, T

    1994-01-01

    Microsporum canis is one of the most common zoophilic dermatophytes. If transmitted to humans, inflammatory lesions may develop, e.g. on the scalp. M. canis was isolated from a 5-year-old boy living in a suburban area who suffered from a long-standing, mildly inflammatory lesion on the scalp that had been treated for several months with anti-eczematous regimens. There had been no contact with animals, e.g. cats or dogs, in the previous months, but the lesions had developed a few weeks after the family had bought a used car from a dog owner. Indeed, M. canis could be grown on contact plates from the car's interior. This case illustrates that attention should be paid to the often neglected diagnosis of M. canis-induced tinea capitis and to unusual routes of infection.

  19. Infectious alopecia in a dog breeder after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Wen, Mei-Chin; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung

    2008-09-01

    Tinea capitis rarely occurs in renal transplant recipients. We report this living-related renal transplant patient receiving cyclosporine-based therapy who initially presented with severe exfoliation of the scalp with yellowish-white scales and marked hair loss. The lesions extended to the frontal area and both cheeks, resulting in several skin ulcers with perifocal erythematous inflammatory changes, and palpable cervical lymph nodes. A biopsy of a skin lesion revealed fungal infection and culture yielded Microsporum canis. The patient mentioned an outbreak of ringworm in her breeding dogs during this period. After adequate treatment of the patient and her infected animals with griseofulvin and disinfection of the environment, her skin lesions resolved dramatically, with regrowth of hair.

  20. [Scalp neuralgia and headache elicited by cranial superficial anatomical causes: supraorbital neuralgia, occipital neuralgia, and post-craniotomy headache].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Most scalp neuralgias are supraorbital or occipital. Although they have been considered idiopathic, recent studies revealed that some were attributable to mechanical irritation with the peripheral nerve of the scalp by superficial anatomical cranial structures. Supraorbital neuralgia involves entrapment of the supraorbital nerve by the facial muscle, and occipital neuralgia involves entrapment of occipital nerves, mainly the greater occipital nerve, by the semispinalis capitis muscle. Contact between the occipital artery and the greater occipital nerve in the scalp may also be causative. Decompression surgery to address these neuralgias has been reported. As headache after craniotomy is the result of iatrogenic injury to the peripheral nerve of the scalp, post-craniotomy headache should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  1. Staphylococcus spp. as mastitis-related pathogens in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Deinhofer, M; Pernthaner, A

    1995-02-01

    A total of 359 Micrococcaceae strains isolated from goat milk samples were differentiated with the commercially available ATB 32 Staph differentiation system. Of these strains, 303 (84.4%) were identified. Six strains were sensitive in the bacitracin resistance test, and accordingly classified as Micrococcus spp. Staphylococcal species isolated of goat milk were S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. caprae, S. lentus, S. simulans, S. capitis, S. lugdunensis, S. xylosus, S. chromogenes, S. hominis, S. arlettae, S. warneri, S. sciuri, and S. saprophyticus. Highest somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and the highest prevalence of clinical udder alterations were associated with coagulase-positive S. aureus. Increases in milk SCC as well as pathological udder findings were observed in infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci such as novobiocin-sensitive S. epidermidis, S. simulans, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, and S. warneri.

  2. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Human-Associated Staphylococci by Use of Multiplex PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirotaki, Shintaro; Sasaki, Takashi; Kuwahara-Arai, Kyoko; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Although staphylococci are identified by phenotypic analysis in many clinical laboratories, these results are often incorrect because of phenotypic variation. Genetic analysis is necessary for definitive species identification. In the present study, we developed a simple multiplex-PCR (M-PCR) for species identification of human-associated staphylococci, which were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus, S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, and S. warneri. This method was designed on the basis of nucleotide sequences of the thermonuclease (nuc) genes that were universally conserved in staphylococci except the S. sciuri group and showed moderate sequence diversity. In order to validate this assay, 361 staphylococcal strains were studied, which had been identified at the species levels by sequence analysis of the hsp60 genes. In consequence, M-PCR demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. By virtue of simplicity and accuracy, this method will be useful in clinical research. PMID:21832022

  3. Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in preschool nursery children of Afyon, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Semsettin; Dogru, Omer; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Kulac, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Scabies and pediculosis are ubiquitous, contagious, and debilitating parasitic dermatoses. The tendency of high prevalence of pediculosis and scabies among school and preschool age children has prompted us to conduct a head louse and scabies prevalence survey among preschool nursery children in our district. A school-based, crosssectional study was performed, with 1,134 children chosen for evaluation. All cases were evaluated by physical examination and a detailed, structured questionnaire. The infestation was found in 14 (1.2%) of 1,134 children; 9 (0.8%) with pediculosis capitis and 5 (0.4%) with scabies. We found that infestations were more frequent in children with mothers whose education levels were low. This indicates the necessity of an improvement in the economic and sociocultural status of the community and the promotion of hygiene concepts and practices in order to improve health of preschool age children. PMID:16514290

  4. Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in preschool nursery children of Afyon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki; Karaca, Semsettin; Dogru, Omer; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Kulac, Mustafa

    2006-03-01

    Scabies and pediculosis are ubiquitous, contagious, and debilitating parasitic dermatoses. The tendency of high prevalence of pediculosis and scabies among school and preschool age children has prompted us to conduct a head louse and scabies prevalence survey among preschool nursery children in our district. A school-based, crosssectional study was performed, with 1,134 children chosen for evaluation. All cases were evaluated by physical examination and a detailed, structured questionnaire. The infestation was found in 14 (1.2%) of 1,134 children; 9 (0.8%) with pediculosis capitis and 5 (0.4%) with scabies. We found that infestations were more frequent in children with mothers whose education levels were low. This indicates the necessity of an improvement in the economic and sociocultural status of the community and the promotion of hygiene concepts and practices in order to improve health of preschool age children.

  5. The prevalence of ectoparasites in Ethiopian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Miller, J; Manor, O; Ben-Yshai, F; Klaus, S

    1993-01-01

    Newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants in Israel were screened for ectoparasitic insects and mites. Of 304 individuals examined 65.1% were infested with the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis). The infestation rate among children varied between 65 and 100%. Children aged 6-11 years were the most infested group and no differences between girls and boys were found. The infestation rate in children was significantly higher than that found in adults. Approximately 39% of those examined were infested with the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus). The rate of infestation with this parasite was higher in adults than in children and higher in females than males. Ten percent of the immigrants examined were infested with the scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) and 4.3% with the human flea (Pulex irritans).

  6. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania.

  7. Remarkable Works and Cases in the History of Medical Mycology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Katsutaro

    2017-01-01

    Several pathogenic fungi and cases related to Japanese medical mycologists were reviewed. Trichosporon inkin (as Sarcinomyces inkin) was reported as a pathogen of scrotal lesion by Oho in 1921, and Trichosporon asahii was isolated from generalized keratotic lesions in 1922 by Akagi in Japan. They were once included in Trichophyton beigelii, but then based on revision using DNA molecular technology, were returned to their original names.Microsporum ferrugineum was reported by Ota as a causative dermatophyte of tinea capitis in Japan and surrounding areas. It was once classified under the genus Trichophyton, but after the discovery of characteristic rough-walled macroconidia belonging to genus Microsporum, the fungus was again assigned to the original name.

  8. Identification and genetic homogeneity of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from several regions by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, J A; Takizawa, K; Fukushima, K; Nishimura, K; Miyaji, M

    1999-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte mostly causing tinea capitis and tinea corporis. This study was carried out to identify T. tonsurans and to clarify whether it has any genetic differences depending on the phenotype or region of isolation by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with three random primers. The assay was performed in 11 Korean, 2 Japanese, 2 Taiwanese, 5 Brazilian and 1 American isolates of T. tonsurans together with the other 10 anamorphic species of dermatophytes and 3 Arthroderma spp. All tested species of dermatophytes showed distinct bands and T. tonsurans was differentiated from other dermatophytes. It was most clearly differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by using primer 5'-GAAGGCTCCC-3' (OPAO-15). No difference was found in RAPD band patterns in all strains of T. tonsurans with these random primers. It was considered that T. tonsurans is a genetically homogeneous species regardless of its isolation regions, morphologic or physiologic characteristics.

  9. A New Postulate on Two Stages of Dandruff: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Frederick; Ranganathan, S

    2011-01-01

    Dandruff (pityriasis capitis, seborrheic dermatitis confined to the scalp) is a disease that has been around for centuries despite several treatment options. Almost every day new players are entering the market with various antidandruff products, perhaps due to an increase in the incidence of dandruff all over the world. Interestingly, clinicians, especially dermatologists, gave little attention to this problem. At the end, the dandruff sufferer is puzzled by the array of antidandruff products with varied claims entering the market day by day. Why have we not achieved complete treatment success against dandruff? Is dandruff a disease or disorder? It seems that our understanding about dandruff perfectly fits into the famous saying of Albert Einstein, “as the area of light increases, so does the circumferences of darkness.” Have dermatologists left dandruff unattended, only to be exploited by the personal care industry? PMID:21769228

  10. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M; Ouf, S A; Moussa, Tarek A A; Eltahlawi, S M R

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31-40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis.

  11. The effect of forward head posture on muscle activity during neck protraction and retraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Jin; Han, Hee-Young; Cheon, Song-Hee; Park, So-Hyun; Yong, Min-Sik

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study was performed to investigate whether forward head posture (FHP) affects muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects attending Y university in Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea. They were divided into two groups according to craniovertebral angle: a control group (n=10) and a FHP group (n=10). Electromyography electrodes were attached to the upper fibers of the trapezius, middle fibers of the trapezius, the splenii (splenius capitis and splenius cervicis), and the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle to measure muscle activity during the neck protraction and retraction. [Results] EMG activities of the middle trapezius, splenii, and SCM muscle showed significant differences between the control group and the FHP group. However, the EMG activity of the upper trapezius muscle showed no significant difference between the two groups during neck protraction and retraction. [Conclusion] The results suggest that FHP alters the muscle activity in neck protraction and retraction.

  12. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities.

  13. What's new in pediatric dermatology?: part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pride, Howard B; Tollefson, Megha; Silverman, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The field of pediatric dermatology has been rich in new developments. Part II of this continuing medical education article will focus on new therapeutic modalities for several entities encountered in pediatric dermatology. The treatment of atopic dermatitis, exciting advances in the use of propranolol and other beta-blockers for the use of infantile hemangiomas, the use of rapamycin for vascular anomalies, the use of biologics in children, the central nervous system risks of general anesthesia in young children, side effects in the use of isotretinoin, the treatment of tinea capitis, treatment of herpes simplex infections, and the use of technologies such as texting and social media in medicine will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Previously Unreported Arterial Variant of the Suboccipital Region Based on Cadaveric Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fisahn, Christian; Burgess, Brittni; Iwanaga, Joe; Alonso, Fernando; Chapman, Jens R.; Oskouian, Rod J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several arterial variants have been reported to occur around the posterior arch of the atlas. Understanding the various anomalies and diagnosing them preoperatively can dramatically reduce the risk of surgical insult during neurosurgical procedures. Herein we report a case of an arterial variant found just below the posterior arch of C1. Case Report During the routine dissection of the suboccipital region via a posterior approach, an unusual bulge was identified just inferior to the inferior capitis oblique muscle. With further dissection, the structure was identified as a tortuous internal carotid artery. Conclusion Arterial variants around the posterior arch of C1 are surgically significant and can result in catastrophic injuries if unappreciated. Most of these variants will be related to the vertebral artery. To our knowledge, an arterial variant of the internal carotid artery in this location, as reported herein, has not been previously reported. PMID:28299248

  15. Crystal structure of a SLC11 (NRAMP) transporter reveals the basis for transition-metal ion transport.

    PubMed

    Ehrnstorfer, Ines A; Geertsma, Eric R; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Dutzler, Raimund

    2014-11-01

    Members of the SLC11 (NRAMP) family transport iron and other transition-metal ions across cellular membranes. These membrane proteins are present in all kingdoms of life with a high degree of sequence conservation. To gain insight into the determinants of ion selectivity, we have determined the crystal structure of Staphylococcus capitis DMT (ScaDMT), a close prokaryotic homolog of the family. ScaDMT shows a familiar architecture that was previously identified in the amino acid permease LeuT. The protein adopts an inward-facing conformation with a substrate-binding site located in the center of the transporter. This site is composed of conserved residues, which coordinate Mn2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ but not Ca2+. Mutations of interacting residues affect ion binding and transport in both ScaDMT and human DMT1. Our study thus reveals a conserved mechanism for transition-metal ion selectivity within the SLC11 family.

  16. [Epidemiology and etiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Milce; Passos, Xisto Sena; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Miranda, André Thiago Borges; Lemos, Janine de Aquino; Oliveira, Juldásio Galdino de; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce infections called dermatophytosis. In order to review the etiology and epidemiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, 1955 specimens with diagnostic suspicion of dermatophytic lesions, were collected from January to December, 1999, from the Mycology Laboratory in the Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás. A total of 445 (22.8%) samples were positive for dermatophytes and Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated species (49.4%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (30.8%) and Microsporum canis (12.6%). Concerning the location of the lesions, the inferior limbs, feet and nails together with tinea capitis were the most frequently found clinical pattern in the majority of patients. Correlation between sex, age, location of the lesions and etiologic agents is considered in the study.

  17. Preliminary studies on the characterization and distribution of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species on animal skin.

    PubMed Central

    Kloos, W E; Zimmerman, R J; Smith, R F

    1976-01-01

    A total of 221 strains of staphylococci and 98 strains of micrococci isolated from the skins of Eastern gray squirrels, Southern flying squirrels, raccoons, opossums, squirrel monkeys, swine, sheep, horses, cattle, and dogs were characterized in a preliminary attempt to resolve their natural relationships and distribution in nature. Staphylococci demonstrating the widest host range included Staphylococcus xylosus and unnamed Staphylococcus sp. 3. Unnamed Staphylococcus sp. 2 was isolated only from sheep, Staphylococcus sp. 4 only from opossums, Staphylococcus sp. 5 only from squirrel monkeys, and Staphylococcus sp. 6 only from swine. The predominant species isolated from human skin, including S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, and S. capitis, were either not isolated or only rarely isolated from animal skin. Micrococcus varians was the predominant Micrococcus species isolated from animal skin. M. luteus was only occasionally isolated. M. lylae, M. sedentarius, M. roseus, M. kristinae, and M. nishinomiyaensis, species occasionally isolated from human skin, were not isolated from animal skin. PMID:942208

  18. [Pediatric head lice: taxonomy, incidence, resistance, delousing].

    PubMed

    Rupes, V; Vlcková, J; Mazánek, L; Chmela, J; Ledvinka, J

    2006-08-01

    Based on the current knowledge, head louse (Pediculus capitis) and body louse (Pediculus humanus) are two different species that infest specific parts of the human body and do not interbreed in vivo. In 1991-2002, 6 257 cases of pediculosis were reported in the Czech Republic while 3 138 000 pediculicide packagings, i.e. about 500 times as many as the number of cases, were marketed. Between October 2004 and February 2005, a total of 531 children aged between 6 and 15 years from 16 selected schools in the Zlín and Olomouc regions were screened by dry hair combing. Living lice were detected in 14.1% of the enrolled children and dead nits alone were observed in other 9.8% of the subjects. In vitro tests revealed that the collected head lice were highly resistant to malathion, the active ingredient of Diffusil H 92 M. The number of reported cases of pediculosis roughly doubled in 2005.

  19. [Vision aids for multiple sclerosis patients].

    PubMed

    Frieling, E; Kornhuber, H H; Nissl, K

    1986-02-07

    Optical or electronic vision aids enabled 35 of 39 visually handicapped multiple sclerosis patients to read. Six patients had an uncorrected ametropia. 15 could read again with the help of magnifying optical aids and 11 with the help of an electronic television system. An electronic television reader was useful when visual acuities were below 0.1 and in patients with oscillating nystagmus or tremor capitis. Contact lenses helped 3 patients who had a neurogenous visual defect and oscillating nystagmus. Although acquired oscillating nystagmus disappears on eyelid closure and only reappears again on fixation, its amplitude, when unable to read, is greater. On overcoming the neurogenous visual defect with vision aids it becomes smaller.

  20. Extra-scalp black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans among contact sports players.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kojima, Kiyoto; Hatta, Junko; Tababe, Hiroshi; Higaki, Shuichi; Fujita, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    We describe here two patients with tinea corporis exhibiting black dot ringworm (BDR). A cluster of black dots was observed on the extensor surfaces of the extremities of two rather hairy male patients, a 15-year-old judo practitioner and a 26-year-old combined martial arts fighter, during treatment of tinea corporis with topical antimycotics. Direct KOH examination showed that the black dots were composed of degenerated hair with numerous arthroconidia and were indistinguishable from BDR of tinea capitis. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from the dots of both patients. Although they were diagnosed with tinea corporis, they required 2-3 months of treatment with oral terbinafine. Dermatologists should be aware that BDR can appear on areas of the skin other than the scalp.

  1. Trichophyton tonsurans-Ringworm in an NICU.

    PubMed

    Sproul, Ann Vivian; Whitehall, John; Engler, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Ringworm is very rarely found in the neonate, especially infants who have been confined from birth to an intensive care unit. We report an infection with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, the most common cause of tinea capitis in children but not yet described in a premature baby who has never left the nursery. Our case illustrates the need to consider this diagnosis among the causes of dermatitis in the newborn, especially in at-risk populations such as indigenous Australians. Though our infant's presentation was the classic "ring" shape, a literature review revealed varied presentations. In contrast to the usual need for long-term antifungal medication, our case responded rapidly to a topical azole preparation. Although we did not screen visiting family members, screening would have been appropriate, and those found positive might have benefited from at least antifungal shampoo.

  2. Screening of biogenic amine production by coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated during industrial Spanish dry-cured ham processes.

    PubMed

    Landeta, Gerardo; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Muñoz, Rosario

    2007-12-01

    The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated for 56 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated during industrial Spanish dry-cured ham processes. The presence of biogenic amines from bacterial cultures was determined by thin-layer chromatography. The percentage of strains that decarboxylated amino acids was very low (3.6%). The only staphylococci with aminogenic capacity were an histamine-producing Staphylococcus capitis strain, and a Staphylococcus lugdunensis strain that simultaneously produced putrescine and cadaverine. In both strains, PCR was used to confirm the presence of the genes encoding the amino acid decarboxylases responsible for the synthesis of these amines. This study reveals that production of biogenic amines is not a widely distributed property among the staphylococci isolated from Spanish dry-cured hams.

  3. Parasomnia with rhythmic movements manifesting as nocturnal tongue biting.

    PubMed

    Tuxhorn, I; Hoppe, M

    1993-06-01

    The case of a healthy 2-year-old girl with repeated nocturnal tongue biting as a result of rhythmic movements of the jaw associated with body rocking in non-REM sleep is described. Parasomnias manifesting with rhythmic, stereotyped movements of the head, trunk and extremities are well described in healthy children. The term rhythmic movement disorders (RMD) was introduced for these repetive movements in sleep which may appear as head banging (jactatio capitis), body rocking or leg rolling. Severe injuries including fractures, subdural effusions and eye injures are reported. Repeated tongue injuries have not been described as a consequence of RMD. The differential diagnosis from nocturnal seizures is crucial to avoid overtreatment of this benign albeit dramatically presenting condition.

  4. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M.; Ouf, S.A.; Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Eltahlawi, S.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis. PMID:26413063

  5. Permethrin-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae) in Argentina are susceptible to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E N; Picollo, M I

    2006-05-01

    The insecticidal activity of spinosad was evaluated against susceptible and permethrin-resistant human lice. In a permethrin-susceptible strain of the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae), the toxicity of spinosad was similar to that established for permethrin, with an LD50 value of 1.2 ng/insect and 2.4 ng/insect, respectively. Topical application of spinosad to populations of permethrin-resistant head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), showed that susceptibility to spinosad was independent of resistance to permethrin. The effectiveness of spinosad against human lice and the low mammalian toxicity reported in the literature suggest that spinosad could be useful for the management of permethrin-resistant human lice.

  6. Embryonic development of human lice: rearing conditions and susceptibility to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-05-01

    The embryonic development of human lice was evaluated according to the changes in the morphology of the embryo observed through the transparent chorion. Based on ocular and appendage development, three stages of embryogenesis were established: early, medium, and late. Influence of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the laboratory rearing of Pediculus humanus capitis eggs was assessed. The optimal ranges for temperature and RH were 27-31 degrees C and 45-75%. The susceptibility of head [corrected] louse eggs to insecticide spinosad (a macrocyclic lactone) was assessed by immersion method. The results showed similar susceptibility to spinosad in early, medium, and late stages of head lice eggs. In addition, this study showed similar susceptibility of head and body lice eggs to spinosad, an insecticide that has not been used as pediculicide in Argentina (lethal concentration 50: 0.01%).

  7. Comparative study of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo for the treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, J G; Gomez, M P; Austin, R D; Wold, D E

    1987-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo were compared for the treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis). A total of 1040 patients in the Nezahualcoyotl community of Mexico City representing 296 family groups were enrolled and randomized to treatment, with one patient in each family designated as the index patient. Among index patients 98% treated with permethrin and 76% treated with lindane were louse-free 2 weeks after treatment (P less than 0.001). Comparable results were found with nonindex patients as well. Mild dermal reactions, such as pruritus or erythema, occurred in 1.2% of permethrin-treated patients and 2.6% of lindane-treated patients. There were no reports of central nervous system adverse effects or conjunctivitis.

  8. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  9. Do nit removal formulations and other treatments loosen head louse eggs and nits from hair?

    PubMed

    Burgess, I F

    2010-03-01

    Eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), are difficult to remove because the female louse fixes them to hairs using a proteinaceous secretion that hardens within seconds. The persistent eggshells are harmless but unsightly and are often mistaken for an active infestation. Combing with a fine comb (nit comb) does not readily remove the eggs or empty eggshells because of the resilience of the fixative and both folk remedies and medical products have claimed to facilitate their removal. Measurement of the force required to initiate sliding of the egg fixative using a slip-peel tester was unable to detect evidence that any of three products which claimed to have egg-loosening properties (Step 2 Nit Removal System, Clear Lice Egg Remover, RID Lice Egg Loosener Gel) had any activity or exerted any effect on the egg fixative beyond the lubricating effects conveyed by water or conventional hair conditioner.

  10. Periocular and anterior orbital necrosis after upper eyelid gold weight loading: operation-related or self-inflicted?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Ben Cnaan, Ran; Schein, Ophir; Giladi, Michael; Raz, Michal; Leibovitch, Igal

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, who had undergone gold-weight implantation due to facial palsy and lagophthalmos, arrived at the ophthalmology ward with eyelid swelling and erythema, which rapidly deteriorated under intravenous antibiotics to a necrotic process involving the periocular tissues, the eye, and the anterior orbit. Despite prompt removal of the gold weight, the patient's ocular and systemic condition continued to deteriorate, necessitating evisceration and debridement of necrotic tissue. Cultures showed growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, Candida glabrata, and Candida albicans, and histopathology demonstrated an acute nonspecific necrotizing panophthalmitis. Later on, the patient was admitted to a plastic surgery ward with recurrent severe burns of her thigh, which were highly suggestive of being self-induced, raising the possibility of self-induced damage.

  11. Periocular and anterior orbital necrosis after upper eyelid gold weight loading: operation-related or self-inflicted?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Roy; Ben Cnaan, Ran; Schein, Ophir; Giladi, Michael; Raz, Michal; Leibovitch, Igal

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, who had undergone gold-weight implantation due to facial palsy and lagophthalmos, arrived at the ophthalmology ward with eyelid swelling and erythema, which rapidly deteriorated under intravenous antibiotics to a necrotic process involving the periocular tissues, the eye, and the anterior orbit. Despite prompt removal of the gold weight, the patient’s ocular and systemic condition continued to deteriorate, necessitating evisceration and debridement of necrotic tissue. Cultures showed growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, Candida glabrata, and Candida albicans, and histopathology demonstrated an acute nonspecific necrotizing panophthalmitis. Later on, the patient was admitted to a plastic surgery ward with recurrent severe burns of her thigh, which were highly suggestive of being self-induced, raising the possibility of self-induced damage. PMID:24812491

  12. Scabies, lice, and fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L

    1989-09-01

    Scabies and pediculosis capitis are frequent and often unrecognized causes of multiple streptococcal and staphylococcal pyodermas. Permethrin 1 per cent creme rinse (NIX) for head lice, and permethrin 5 per cent topical cream for scabies are new, highly effective, safe, and cosmetically elegant treatments which have shown superiority over older remedies. In populations in which pediculosis and scabies have resisted traditional lindane therapy, patients promptly responded to these permethrin products. Scabies in nursing homes is a persistent and expanding problem which demands a high level of diagnostic suspicion and an integrated approach to management. For fungal infections, several new broad-spectrum oral and topical agents have been introduced. Their successful use is enhanced by appropriate diagnostic tests which can be performed in the office setting. Recommendations and references are given to assist the physician in diagnosis and choice of therapy.

  13. Dermatophytoses in the Gdańsk area, Poland: a 12-year survey.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, R

    1996-01-01

    A survey of dermatophytes and dermatophytoses was carried out among patients of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Gdańsk, in the years 1984-95. Over the 12-year period, 1195 cases of ringworm were seen: 55% in men and 45% in women. Listing the dermatophytes isolated and their frequencies as a percentage of the total are as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes 42.1%, Microsporum canis 26.0%, Trichophyton rubrum 14.7%, Epidermophyton floccosum 11.0%, Trichophyton tonsurans 4.6%, Trichophyton verrucosum 1.3%, Trichophyton violaceum 0.3%. The most common clinical variant of dermatophytosis in the Gdańsk area was tinea cutis glabrae (32.9%), followed by tinea pedis (24%), onychomycosis (16.5%), tinea capitis (11.9%)), tinea inguinalis (10.3%) and tinea manuum (4.4%). Dermatophytoses were significantly more frequent among adults (> 15 years) (71.3%).

  14. Diagnostic procedures of the skin. Part one: Wood's light, KOH slide, Gram's stain, and cultures.

    PubMed

    Krull, E A; Babel, D E

    1976-06-01

    The diagnosis of skin lesions involves the same priniciples and methodology required in other medical problems. Visual recognition alone and "shotgun" therapy is not a satisfactory clinical approach. A disciplined and careful examination of lesions, establishment of a differential diagnosis, and selection of appropriate procedures are frequently necessary for cutaneous diseases. The indications, limitations, interpretation, and techniques of diagnostic procedures must be well understoood to obtain reliable information. Not all tinea capitis will reveal fluorescence with Wood's light examination, but the Wood's light may be particularly helpful in the diagnosis of tinea versicolor, erythrasma, porphyria, and tuberous sclerosis. Bacterial growth on cultures taken from the skin does not necessarily mean infection. Because the eczematous skin teems with bacteria, there must be a careful interpretation of the cultures results within the context of the clinical situation. This paper is the first in a two-part series dealing with selected cutaneous procedures which are useful to the family physician in everyday practice.

  15. Trichphyton violaceum and T. soudanese: re-emerging pathogens in Italy, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Farina, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; Imberti, Gianlorenzo; Lombardi, Gianluigi; Passera, Marco; Andreoni, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Dermatomycoses due to Trichophyton violaceum are described in Mediterranean Countries, North Africa and in the Horn of Africa where T. soudanense is present too, but it was rare until few years ago in Italy. Aim of the present study was to evaluate an Italian multicenter 9 year (2005-2013) experience concerning these re-emerging pathogens. Fifty three fungal strains were sent from clinical laboratories to the Medical Mycology Committee (CoSM)--Italian Association of Clinical Microbiology (AMCLI) for mycological confirmation. Strains were identified as T. violaceum (23) and T. soudanense (30) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. These dermatophytes present epidemiological (high rate of inter-human transmission, high risk among adopted children coming from countries of either the Horn of Africa or Sub-Saharan Africa also in outbreaks of tinea capitis) and clinical peculiarities (reduced alopecia, presence of exudative lesions) confirming the originality of these "imported" dermatophyte infections.

  16. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  17. Evolution of slime production by coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterotoxigenic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from various human clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Boynukara, Banur; Gulhan, Timur; Gurturk, Kemal; Alisarli, Mustafa; Ogun, Erdal

    2007-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the slime production of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and the enterotoxigenic properties of Staphylococcus aureus strains, and to evaluate the clinical importance of slime-producing CoNS and enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains isolated from various human clinical specimens. For this purpose, a total of 120 Staphylococcus strains were isolated and identified, and further characterized for their slime production and enterotoxigenicity. Of the clinical isolates, 55 (45.8 %) were found to be S. aureus, and the others (54.2 %) were identified as CoNS. Of the CoNS, 20 (16.7 %) were further identified as Staphylococcus hominis, 18 (15 %) as Staphylococcus epidermidis, six (5 %) as Staphylococcus xylosus, six (5 %) as Staphylococcus warneri, five (4.2 %) as Staphylococcus sciuri, four (3.3 %) as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and two each (1.7 %) as Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, respectively. Thirty-nine (60 %) of 65 CoNS were found to be slime producers. Slime production was observed in all CoNS, except S. capitis, mostly from blood (38.5 %), tracheal aspiration (20.5 %) and urine (12.8 %) specimens. In addition, of the 55 S. aureus isolates, 46 (83.6 %) were found to be enterotoxigenic, and of these S. aureus strains, 39 (84.7 %) were positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)A. The results of this study showed that the slime-producing CoNS were mostly found in clinical specimens of blood, tracheal aspirate and urine. SEA was the predominant enterotoxin type detected in S. aureus strains from human clinical specimens.

  18. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Henry P; Holliday, Casey M

    2015-06-01

    Archosaurs evolved a wide diversity of locomotor postures, body sizes, and hip joint morphologies. The two extant archosaurs clades (birds and crocodylians) possess highly divergent hip joint morphologies, and the homologies and functions of their articular soft tissues, such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, are poorly understood. Reconstructing joint anatomy and function of extinct vertebrates is critical to understanding their posture, locomotor behavior, ecology, and evolution. However, the lack of soft tissues in fossil taxa makes accurate inferences of joint function difficult. Here, we describe the soft tissue anatomies and their osteological correlates in the hip joint of archosaurs and their sauropsid outgroups, and infer structural homology across the extant taxa. A comparative sample of 35 species of birds, crocodylians, lepidosaurs, and turtles ranging from hatchling to skeletally mature adult were studied using dissection, imaging, and histology. Birds and crocodylians possess topologically and histologically consistent articular soft tissues in their hip joints. Epiphyseal cartilages, fibrocartilages, and ligaments leave consistent osteological correlates. The archosaur acetabulum possesses distinct labrum and antitrochanter structures on the supraacetabulum. The ligamentum capitis femoris consists of distinct pubic- and ischial attachments, and is homologous with the ventral capsular ligament of lepidosaurs. The proximal femur has a hyaline cartilage core attached to the metaphysis via a fibrocartilaginous sleeve. This study provides new insight into soft tissue structures and their osteological correlates (e.g., the antitrochanter, the fovea capitis, and the metaphyseal collar) in the archosaur hip joint. The topological arrangement of fibro- and hyaline cartilage may provide mechanical support for the chondroepiphysis. The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and

  19. Updating the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections in Palestine with special reference to concomitant dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Yaish, S; Jamous, R M; Arda, H; Husein, E I

    2015-06-01

    To determine the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in Palestinian patients, detect changes in the etiological agents during the last three decades, and to correlate between concomitant tinea pedis infections, and other cutaneous lesions. 220 suspected dermatophytosis patients were involved in this study. In an additional 38 cases, where consultation was prompted by tinea pedis, the presence of other lesions of concomitant dermatophytosis was studied, to further investigate the diagnosis. Clinical specimens were collected and identification of dermatophyte species was based on gross and microscopic morphology. Epidemiology of tinea capitis has gone the most radical changes in Palestine in the last three decades, with the zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis replacing Trichophyton violaceum, becoming the predominant causative agent. During this study, 21.6% (38/176) patients with tinea pedis and concomitant lesions caused by the same dermatophytes at sites distant from the primary lesions in the foot were prospectively identified. About 63.2% of patients with tinea pedis have a concomitant toenail onychomycosis infection. The epidemiology of dermatophytosis, especially tinea capitis, has gone the most radical changes in Palestine in the last three decades, with M. canis replacing T. violaceum, and becoming the predominant causative agent of all cases of infections. The coexistence of tinea pedis with other types of fungal skin infections is a frequent phenomenon; we believe that the infected foot may be a site of primary infection. Thus, the effective therapy for tinea pedis is essential to prevent spreading the infection to other sites of the skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying Temporomandibular Joint Synovitis in Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vakilian, Pouya M.; Breen, Micheál; Zurakowski, David; Caruso, Paul; Henderson, Lauren; Nigrovic, Peter A.; Kaban, Leonard B.; Peacock, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) frequently affects the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and is often undetected by history, examination, and plain imaging. Qualitative assessment of gadolinium‐enhanced magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is currently the standard for diagnosis of TMJ synovitis associated with JIA. The purpose of this study is to apply a quantitative analysis of synovial enhancement to MRIs of patients with and without JIA to establish a disease threshold and sensitivity and specificity for the technique. Methods This is a retrospective case–control study of children (age ≤16 years) who had MRIs with gadolinium including the TMJs. Subjects were divided into a JIA group and a control group. From a coronal T1‐weighted image, a ratio (enhancement ratio [ER]) of the average pixel intensity within three 0.2‐mm2 regions of interest (ROIs) in the TMJ synovium to that of a 50‐mm2 ROI of the longus capitis muscle was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity. The inter‐ and intraexaminer reliability was evaluated with Bland‐Altman plots and 2‐way mixed, absolute agreement intraclass correlation coefficients. Results There were 187 and 142 TMJs included in the JIA and control groups, respectively. An ER threshold of 1.55 had a sensitivity and specificity for detecting synovitis of 91% and 96%, respectively. The inter‐ and intraexaminer reliability was excellent. Conclusion Calculating a ratio of pixel intensity between the TMJ synovium and the longus capitis muscle is a reliable way to quantify synovial enhancement. An ER of 1.55 differentiates normal TMJs from those affected by inflammatory arthritis. PMID:27110936

  1. Mitochondrial D310 D-Loop instability and histological subtypes in radiation-induced cutaneous basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Paula; Pereira, Dina; Mendes, Adélia; Batista, Rui; da Silva, André Ferreira; Guimarães, Isabel; Honavar, Mrinalini; Teixeira-Gomes, José; Lopes, José Manuel; Máximo, Valdemar; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent skin cancer. An elevated prevalence of BCC has been associated with radiation, namely after the Tinea capitis epilation treatment, being these tumors described as more aggressive. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been reported in many human tumors, but their occurrence in BCC is poorly documented. The purpose of this work was to evaluate BCC histological subtypes in individuals subjected to X-ray epilation for Tinea capitis treatment when compared to non-irradiated patients. Moreover we also wanted to evaluate mitochondrial D-Loop instability in both groups of BCCs in order to compare the frequency of D-Loop mutations in post-irradiation BCC versus sporadic BCC. 228 histological specimens corresponding to BCCs from 75 irradiated patients and 60 non-irradiated patients were re-evaluated for histological subtype. Subsequently, we sequenced the D-Loop 310 repeat in blood, oral mucosa, tumor lesions and, whenever available, non-tumoral adjacent tissue from these patients. The infiltrative subtype of BCC, considered to be more aggressive, was significantly more frequent in irradiated patients. BCC D-Loop D310 mutation rate was significantly higher in irradiated BCCs than in the non-irradiated ones. Moreover, it was associated with a higher irradiation dose. The presence of mtDNA heteroplasmy in patients' blood was associated with a higher mutation rate in the BCCs suggesting that a more unstable genotype could predispose to mtDNA somatic mutation. Our results suggest that radiation-induced BCCs may be considered to be more aggressive tumors. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of mtDNA D-Loop mutations in tumors from irradiated patients. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pediculus L. that parasitize humans comprise two subspecies: the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus De Geer. Despite the 200 yr of the first description of these two species, there is still a long debate about their taxonomic status. Some authors proposed that these organisms are separate species, conspecifics, or grouped in clades. The sequencing of both forms indicated that the difference between them is one gene absent in the head louse. However, their chromosomal number remains to be determined. In this study, we described the male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and examined the chromatin structure by means of C-banding. In P. h. humanus and P. h. capitis, the diploid chromosome complement was 2 n = 12 in both sexes. In oogonial prometaphase and metaphase and spermatogonial metaphase, it is evident that chromosomes lack of a primary constriction. No identifiable sex chromosomes or B chromosomes were observed in head and body lice. Neither chiasmata nor chromatin connections between homologous chromosomes were detected in male meiosis. The meiotic behaviour of the chromosomes showed that they are holokinetic. C-banding revealed the absence of constitutive heterochromatin. Our results provide relevant information to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Rock, Alex N; Jones, Sherri L; Malenke, Jael R; Clayton, Dale H

    2011-01-01

    Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) occur worldwide and infest millions of children and adults every year. Head lice infestations, which are known as pediculosis capitis, are psychologically stressful, physically irritating, and are one of the leading causes of K-6 school absence. The prevalence of head lice in many countries is increasing rapidly because of resistance to chemicals used in many head lice treatments. We tested the efficacy of an alternative method for controlling head lice, the LouseBuster, a custom-built medical device designed to kill head lice and their eggs using controlled, heated air. A total of 56 infested subjects was treated with the LouseBuster, and the efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by comparing the viability of lice and eggs on randomly assigned pre- and posttreatment sides of each subject's scalp. We evaluate treatment efficacy in the hands of novice versus experienced operators. We also evaluate treatment efficacy on different hair types and at different ambient humidities. Overall mortality of lice and eggs was 94.8% after treatment by experienced operators. Novice operators also achieved good results after a short training session; their results did not differ significantly from those of experienced operators. No adverse events were associated with the LouseBuster treatment. The LouseBuster is efficacious for killing head lice and their eggs. The use of heated air is appealing because it is a fast, safe, nonchemical treatment. Head lice are also unlikely to evolve resistance to desiccation, which is the apparent mode of action.

  4. [Myofascial trigger points, pain, disability and quality of sleep in patients with chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Martín-Herrero, Clara; Rodrigues de Souza, Daiana P; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. The referred pain induced by myofascial trigger points (MTP) and sleep disorders can be factors that contribute to chronic tension-type headache. AIM. To determine the relationship between MTP, intensity of pain, disability and quality of sleep in people with chronic tension-type headache. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Participants in the study consisted of 16 patients with chronic tension-type headache and 15 healthy controls. A visual analogue scale was used to measure the intensity of the pain, and the neck disability questionnaire and the Pittsburgh (quality of sleep) questionnaire were also employed. MTP were explored in the temporal, masseter, upper trapezius, suboccipital, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis and anterior digastric muscles by a blind evaluator. RESULTS. The subjects with chronic tension-type headache had greater cervical disability (p < 0.001) than the controls, whereas the quality of sleep showed a tendency (p = 0.092). A positive correlation was found between the worst pain last week with the Pittsburgh questionnaire (r = 0.631; p = 0.009) and disability (r = 0.521; p = 0.046), as well as a positive correlation between disability and quality of sleep (r = 0.815; p < 0.001). The patients with headache displayed a higher number of MTP than the healthy controls (p < 0.001), the presence of active MTP being found exclusively in the patients. No association was found between the number of MTP and intensity of pain, disability or quality of sleep. CONCLUSIONS. Quality of sleep and active MTP can be different factors contributing to chronic tension-type headache. Nevertheless, the presence of MTP could also be an epiphenomenon of the pain.

  5. The myodural bridge existing in the Nephocaena phocaenoides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Li, Chan; Zheng, Nan; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have identified that the myodural bridge (MDB) between the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi) and the cervical spinal dura mater in the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace in humans. And it was supposed that the MDB may play essential physiological roles. As a result, the MDB is possibly a highly conserved structure in the evolution of mammals. However, there is little confirmative description about the existence of the MDB in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to explore the existence and the fiber property of the MDB in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. Six cadavers of the Neophocaena phocaenoides with formalin fixation were used in this study. One was used for head and neck CT scanning and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and suboccipital region dissection, two were for sectional observation by P45 plastinated sheets of head and neck, and three were for histological analysis of suboccipial structures. This is the first study to demonstrate the existence of the MDB in the aquatic mammals. The rectus capitis dorsal minor (RCDmi) originated from the inferior border of the occiput and inserted into the cervical spinal dura mater. At the ventral aspect of the RCDmi, the MDB directly extended through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace and connected with the cervical spinal dura mater which was consisted of type Ⅰ collagen. In addition, the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane was not found in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. The tendinous myodural bridge extended from the RCDmi to the spinal dura mater through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace in the Neophocaena phocaenoides.

  6. Identification of Staphylococcus species and subspecies by the chaperonin 60 gene identification method and reverse checkerboard hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, S H; Santucci, Z; Kloos, W E; Faltyn, M; George, C G; Driedger, D; Hemmingsen, S M

    1997-01-01

    A previous study (S. H. Goh et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:818-823, 1996) demonstrated that a 600-bp region of the chaperonin 60 (Cpn60) genes from various bacterial isolates could be amplified by PCR with a pair of degenerate primers and that the products could be used as species-specific probes for Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, and S. schleiferi. To further validate the utility of bacterial Cpn60 genes as universal targets for bacterial identification (ID), reverse checkerboard chemiluminescent hybridization experiments were performed with DNA probes from 34 different Staphylococcus species and subspecies. With the exception of probes from the Cpn60 genes of S. intermedius and S. delphini, which cross hybridized, all were species specific. Two subspecies of both S. capitis and S. cohnii were differentiated from one another, while DNAs from the two S. schleiferi subspecies cross hybridized. When 40 known Staphylococcus isolates were tested in a blind experiment by the Cpn60 gene method, 36 strains, representing six species and one subspecies (S. sciuri, S. caseolyticus, S. hominis, S. warneri, S. hyicus, S. haemolyticus, and S. capitis subsp. ureolyticus), were correctly identified. DNA from the four remaining isolates, known to be S. hyicus bovine strains, failed to hybridize to DNA from the S. hyicus target strain or any other Staphylococcus species. However, DNAs from these S. hyicus isolates did cross hybridize with each other. New DNA sequence data and evidence from previous studies suggest some genetic divergence between the two groups of S. hyicus isolates. Our results demonstrate that this Cpn60 gene-based ID method has the potential to be a basic method for bacterial ID. Studies are in progress to further validate the utility of this Cpn60 gene system for ID of Staphylococcus and other genera, including those of slow-growing microorganisms. PMID:9399505

  7. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  8. Clinical significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci other than S. epidermidis blood stream isolates at a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Hitzenbichler, Florian; Simon, Michaela; Salzberger, Bernd; Hanses, Frank

    2017-04-01

    We retrospectively evaluated blood culture (BC) isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci other than Staphylococcus epidermidis (NonSe-CoNS) for clinical relevance at a tertiary care hospital in Germany from January 2011 to September 2015. Clinical data were correlated to microbiological results based on medical records. Infection was considered likely if (1) no other infection and (2) two or more isolates of the same species were present and (3) symptoms ameliorated after therapy. Infection was considered possible if a foreign body was present and (1) and (3) were fulfilled. All the other cases were considered contaminations. 313 patients with blood cultures positive for NonSe-CoNS were identified. 61 patients were excluded, either because of missing data or multiple pathogens in the same blood culture. Of the remaining 252 patients, 58 (23 %) were classified as possible (n = 32) or likely (n = 26) infections. S. haemolyticus was the most frequent isolate (infection: n = 28), followed by S. hominis (n = 13), S. capitis (n = 12), and S. lugdunensis (n = 3). One patient died from NonSe-CoNS infection. The source of infection in the majority of patients was foreign bodies (n = 43), and endocarditis was present in six cases. Staphylococci always considered contaminations were: S. auricularis, S. caprae, S. schleiferi, S. pettenkoferi, S. saccharolyticus, and S. simulans. The growth of NonSe-CoNS in the anaerobic BC bottle only and a time to positivity >36 h were associated with contaminations. One out of four NonSe-CoNS isolates was clinically relevant in our cohort, where S. haemolyticus, S. capitis, S. hominis, and S. lugdunensis contributed to 96.6 % of all relevant infections.

  9. Multi-Acupuncture Point Injections and Their Anatomical Study in Relation to Neck and Shoulder Pain Syndrome (So-Called Katakori) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Suyama, Kaori; Tanaka, Osamu; Sawada, Makoto; Ito, Miho; Ito, Kenji; Akamatsu, Tadashi; Masuda, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Sakabe, Kou

    2015-01-01

    Katakori is a symptom name that is unique to Japan, and refers to myofascial pain syndrome-like clinical signs in the shoulder girdle. Various methods of pain relief for katakori have been reported, but in the present study, we examined the clinical effects of multi-acupuncture point injections (MAPI) in the acupuncture points with which we empirically achieved an effect, as well as the anatomical sites affected by liquid medicine. The subjects were idiopathic katakori patients (n = 9), and three cadavers for anatomical investigation. BL-10, GB-21, LI-16, SI-14, and BL-38 as the WHO notation were selected as the acupuncture point. Injections of 1 mL of 1% w/v mepivacaine were introduced at the same time into each of these points in the patients. Assessment items were the Pain Relief Score and the therapeutic effect period. Dissections were centered at the puncture sites of cadavers. India ink was similarly injected into each point, and each site that was darkly-stained with India ink was evaluated. Katakori pain in the present study was significantly reduced by MAPI. Regardless of the presence or absence of trigger points, pain was significantly reduced in these cases. Dark staining with India ink at each of the points in the anatomical analysis was as follows: BL-10: over the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and rectus capitis posterior major muscle fascia; GB-21: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; LI-16: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; SI-14: over the rhomboid muscle fascia; and BL-38: over the rhomboid muscle fascia. The anatomical study suggested that the drug effect was exerted on the muscles above and below the muscle fascia, as well as the peripheral nerves because the points of action in acupuncture were darkly-stained in the spaces between the muscle and the muscle fascia. PMID:26046784

  10. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogenesis, occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and in vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on biofilm-growing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Szczuka, Ewa; Jabłońska, Lucyna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15 %), aminoglycoside [aac(6')/aph(2″)(11 %), aph (3')-IIIa (15 %), ant(4')-Ia (19 %)] and macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) [erm(A) (4 %), erm(B) (13 %), erm(C) (41 %), msr(A) (11 %)] antibiotics. CoNS isolates (64 %) were able to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that these biofilms formed a three-dimensional structure composed mainly of living cells. All biofilm-positive strains carried the ica operon. In vitro studies demonstrated that a combination treatment with tigecycline and rifampicin was more effective against biofilms than one with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration values were 0.062-0.5 µg ml-1 for tigecycline/rifampicin and 0.250-2 µg ml-1 for ciprofloxacin/rifampicin. All CoNS strains adhered to the human epithelial cell line HeLa, and more than half of the isolates were able to invade the HeLa cells, although most invaded relatively poorly. The virulence of CoNS is also attributed to their cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Incubation of HeLa cells with culture supernatant of the CoNS isolates resulted in cell death. The results indicate that the pathogenicity of S. capitis, S. auricularis, S. lugdunensis, S. cohnii and S. caprae is multi-factorial, involving the ability of these bacteria to adhere to human epithelial cells, form biofilms and invade and destroy human cells.

  11. Geographical distribution of pyrethroid resistance allele frequency in head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Ascunce, Marina S; Reed, David; Picollo, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is an obligate ectoparasite that causes pediculosis capitis and has parasitized humans since the beginning of humankind. Head louse infestations are widespread throughout the world and have been increasing since the early 1990s partially because of ineffective pediculicides. In Argentina, the overuse of products containing pyrethroids has led to the development of resistant louse populations. Pyrethroid insecticides act on the nervous system affecting voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Three point mutations at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions M815I, T917I, and L920F in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are responsible for contributing to knockdown resistance (kdr). The management of pyrethroid resistance requires either early detection or the characterization of the mechanisms involved in head louse populations. In the current study, we estimated the distribution of kdr alleles in 154 head lice from six geographical regions of Argentina. Pyrethroid resistance kdr alleles were found in high frequencies ranging from 67 to 100%. Of these, 131 (85.1%) were homozygous resistant, 13 (8.4%) were homozygous susceptible, and 10 (6.5%) were heterozygous. Exact tests for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each location showed that genotype frequencies differed significantly from expectation in four of the six sites studied. These results show that pyrethroid resistance is well established reaching an overall frequency of 88%, thus close to fixation. With 30 yr of pyrethroid-based pediculicides use in Argentina, kdr resistance has evolved rapidly among these head louse populations.

  12. Second-generation sequencing of entire mitochondrial coding-regions (∼15.4 kb) holds promise for study of the phylogeny and taxonomy of human body lice and head lice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, H; Campelo, D; Pollack, R J; Raoult, D; Shao, R; Alem, M; Ali, J; Bilcha, K; Barker, S C

    2014-08-01

    The Illumina Hiseq platform was used to sequence the entire mitochondrial coding-regions of 20 body lice, Pediculus humanus Linnaeus, and head lice, P. capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), from eight towns and cities in five countries: Ethiopia, France, China, Australia and the U.S.A. These data (∼310 kb) were used to see how much more informative entire mitochondrial coding-region sequences were than partial mitochondrial coding-region sequences, and thus to guide the design of future studies of the phylogeny, origin, evolution and taxonomy of body lice and head lice. Phylogenies were compared from entire coding-region sequences (∼15.4 kb), entire cox1 (∼1.5 kb), partial cox1 (∼700 bp) and partial cytb (∼600 bp) sequences. On the one hand, phylogenies from entire mitochondrial coding-region sequences (∼15.4 kb) were much more informative than phylogenies from entire cox1 sequences (∼1.5 kb) and partial gene sequences (∼600 to ∼700 bp). For example, 19 branches had > 95% bootstrap support in our maximum likelihood tree from the entire mitochondrial coding-regions (∼15.4 kb) whereas the tree from 700 bp cox1 had only two branches with bootstrap support > 95%. Yet, by contrast, partial cytb (∼600 bp) and partial cox1 (∼486 bp) sequences were sufficient to genotype lice to Clade A, B or C. The sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of the P. humanus, P. capitis and P. schaeffi Fahrenholz studied are in NCBI GenBank under the accession numbers KC660761-800, KC685631-6330, KC241882-97, EU219988-95, HM241895-8 and JX080388-407.

  13. In Vivo Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole in an Animal Model of Dermatophytosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Saunte, D. M.; Simmel, F.; Frimodt-Moller, N.; Stolle, L. B.; Svejgaard, E. L.; Haedersdal, M.; Kloft, C.; Arendrup, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    The standard treatment for tinea capitis caused by Microsporum species for many years has been oral griseofulvin, which is no longer universally marketed. Voriconazole has been demonstrated to inhibit growth of Microsporum canis in vitro. We evaluated the efficacy and tissue pharmacokinetics of oral voriconazole in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. Guinea pigs (n = 16) were inoculated with M. canis conidia on razed skin. Voriconazole was dosed orally at 20 mg/kg/day for 12 days (days 3 to 14). The guinea pigs were scored clinically (redness and lesion severity) and mycologically (microscopy and culture) until day 17. Voriconazole concentrations were measured day 14 in blood, skin biopsy specimens, and interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis in selected animals. Clinically, the voriconazole-treated animals had significantly less redness and lower lesion scores than untreated animals from days 7 and 10, respectively (P < 0.05). Skin scrapings from seven of eight animals in the voriconazole-treated group were microscopy and culture negative in contrast to zero of eight animals from the untreated group at day 14. The colony counts per specimen were significantly higher in samples from untreated animals (mean colony count of 28) than in the voriconazole-treated animals (<1 in the voriconazole group [P < 0.0001]). The voriconazole concentration in microdialysate (unbound) ranged from 0.9 to 2.0 μg/ml and in the skin biopsy specimens total from 9.1 to 35.9 μg/g. In conclusion, orally administered voriconazole leads to skin concentrations greater than the necessary MICs for Microsporum and was shown to be highly efficacious in an animal model of dermatophytosis. Voriconazole may be a future alternative for treatment of tinea capitis in humans. PMID:17576826

  14. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  15. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  16. Improved identification of dystonic cervical muscles via abnormal muscle activity during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    De Bruijn, E; Nijmeijer, S W R; Forbes, P A; Koelman, J H T M; van der Helm, F C T; Tijssen, M A J; Happee, R

    2015-07-15

    The preferred treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is injection of botulinum toxin in the dystonic muscles. Unfortunately, in the absence of reliable diagnostic methods it can be difficult to discriminate dystonic muscles from healthy muscles acting in compensation. We investigated if dystonic muscle activation patterns could be identified in cervical dystonia patients during a harmonized isometric contraction task. Furthermore, we investigated whether dystonia worsens at higher levels of voluntary contraction, which might further improve the identification of dystonic muscle activity. An isometric device was used to investigate muscle activation during voluntary contraction tasks in 10 controls and 10 CD patients. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the sternocleidomastoidus, splenius capitis, and semispinalis capitis muscles was evaluated during a rest task and when performing submaximal (20%) and maximal voluntary contractions for eight head transversal force directions and for head twist. Two measures were developed to identify dystonic activation: 1) Muscle activity in the contraction direction in which the contribution of the muscle was lowest (Minimum EMG), and 2) the average muscle activity over all contraction directions (Total Mean EMG). Patients showed increased dystonic activity in the rest task and during submaximal contractions relative to controls, but not during maximal contractions. Increases in Minimum EMG indicated an inability of patients to deactivate dystonic muscles counteracting the task. Increases in Total Mean EMG indicated dystonic activity in all task directions. During maximal contractions these effects were absent in dystonic muscles. Dystonia is therefore found not to worsen at higher levels of isometric voluntary contraction. The activity of dystonic muscles modulated with different loading directions similar to controls. Using Minimum EMG 54% of the muscles clinically diagnosed as dystonic and 91% of non-dystonic muscles were

  17. The effect of C1 bursting fracture on comparative anatomical relationship between the internal carotid artery and the atlas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Seok; Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Il Sup; Cho, Kyoung Seok; Kim, Sang Don; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Hong, Jae Taek

    2016-01-01

    To describe the effect of the C1 bursting fracture on the location of the internal carotid artery (ICA) around the atlas. The authors analyzed the morphology of the atlas and the ICA in 15 patients with C1 bursting fracture and compared with control group (77 patients) without any pathology. All patients were evaluated with CT angiography for the anatomical assessment. The laterality of the ICA, the distances of the ICA from the midline, anterior tubercle, and ventral surface of the C1 lateral mass were compared between two groups. The distance between the lateral margin of the longus capitis muscle and the inner edge of the transverse foramen was also measured. Medially located ICA was more common in the C1 bursting fracture group than control group (76.7 vs 42.8 %). There were no significant differences between 2 groups for the distance from the midline, anterior tubercle, and ventral surface of the C1 lateral mass, respectively. The distance of the longus capitis muscle to transverse foramen was 2.52 ± 2.09 and 4.15 ± 3.09 mm in each group, and there was statistically significant difference (p < 0.01). Lateral displacement of the bony structure of C1 bursting fracture changes the relative location of the ICA medially, which increase the injury risk during the bicortical C1 screw insertion. These data suggest that CT angiography or enhanced CT scans can give critical information to choose the ideal fixation technique and the proper trajectory of the screws for C1 bursting fracture.

  18. The myodural bridge existing in the Nephocaena phocaenoides

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Nan; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have identified that the myodural bridge (MDB) between the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi) and the cervical spinal dura mater in the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace in humans. And it was supposed that the MDB may play essential physiological roles. As a result, the MDB is possibly a highly conserved structure in the evolution of mammals. However, there is little confirmative description about the existence of the MDB in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to explore the existence and the fiber property of the MDB in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. Six cadavers of the Neophocaena phocaenoides with formalin fixation were used in this study. One was used for head and neck CT scanning and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and suboccipital region dissection, two were for sectional observation by P45 plastinated sheets of head and neck, and three were for histological analysis of suboccipial structures. This is the first study to demonstrate the existence of the MDB in the aquatic mammals. The rectus capitis dorsal minor (RCDmi) originated from the inferior border of the occiput and inserted into the cervical spinal dura mater. At the ventral aspect of the RCDmi, the MDB directly extended through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace and connected with the cervical spinal dura mater which was consisted of type Ⅰ collagen. In addition, the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane was not found in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. The tendinous myodural bridge extended from the RCDmi to the spinal dura mater through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:28278181

  19. Craniocervical orientation affects muscle activation when exercising the cervical extensors in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Elliott, James M; O'Leary, Shaun P; Cagnie, Barbara; Durbridge, Gail; Danneels, Lieven; Jull, Gwendolen

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the activity of neck extensor muscles during different extension exercises with muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI). Cross-sectional. University laboratory. Healthy subjects (N=11; 7 men, mean age +/- SD, 34+/-5.6y; 4 women, mean age +/- SD, 23.3+/-5.2y; group mean age +/- SD, 30.1+/-7.5y). Not applicable. mfMRI measures of T2 relaxation were made for the multifidus (Mul), the semispinalis cervicis (SCe), the semispinalis capitis (SCa), and the splenius capitis (SpC) at C2-3, C5-6, and C7-T1 in response to 2 head/neck orientations: craniocervical neutral (CCN) and craniocervical extension (CCE). Subjects performed three 1-minute repetitions of each condition at 20% maximum voluntary contraction. Significant shifts were observed in all muscle groups at the C5-6 and C7-T1 levels after both conditions (P=.04) except the SpC muscle at C5-6 with CCN (P=.17). T2 shifts in the SCa were significantly greater in response to CCE than CCN at C2-3 (P=.03) and C5-6 (P=.02). Similarly, CCE resulted in larger shifts than CCN in the Mul/SCe at C7-T1 (P=.003). No segmental differences were observed between exercises for SpC (P=.25). The results of this study provide some preliminary insight into the impact of craniocervical orientation on the differential response of the deep and superficial cervical extensor muscles during the performance of cervical extensor exercises.

  20. A simplified CT-guided approach for greater occipital nerve infiltration in the management of occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Kastler, Adrian; Onana, Yannick; Comte, Alexandre; Attyé, Arnaud; Lajoie, Jean-Louis; Kastler, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a simplified CT-guided greater occipital nerve (GON) infiltration approach in the management of occipital neuralgia (ON). Local IRB approval was obtained and written informed consent was waived. Thirty three patients suffering from severe refractory ON who underwent a total of 37 CT-guided GON infiltrations were included between 2012 and 2014. GON infiltration was performed at the first bend of the GON, between the inferior obliqus capitis and semispinalis capitis muscles with local anaesthetics and cortivazol. Pain was evaluated via VAS scores. Clinical success was defined by pain relief greater than or equal to 50 % lasting for at least 3 months. The pre-procedure mean pain score was 8/10. Patients suffered from left GON neuralgia in 13 cases, right GON neuralgia in 16 cases and bilateral GON neuralgia in 4 cases. The clinical success rate was 86 %. In case of clinical success, the mean pain relief duration following the procedure was 9.16 months. Simplified CT-guided infiltration appears to be effective in managing refractory ON. With this technique, infiltration of the GON appears to be faster, technically easier and, therefore, safer compared with other previously described techniques. • Occipital neuralgia is a very painful and debilitating condition • GON infiltrations have been successful in the treatment of occipital neuralgia • This simplified technique presents a high efficacy rate with long-lasting pain relief • This infiltration technique does not require contrast media injection for pre-planning • GON infiltration at the first bend appears easier and safer.