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  1. Tinea capitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tinea capitis. A special test that uses a lamp called a Wood's lamp can help diagnose a fungal scalp infection. Your ... Ringworm - scalp Images Ringworm of the scalp Wood's lamp test - of the scalp Ringworm, tinea capitis - close- ...

  2. [Tinea capitis].

    PubMed

    Rebollo, N; López-Barcenas, A P; Arenas, R

    2008-03-01

    Tinea capitis is a widespread scalp infection in children caused by dermatophytes. In fact, it is the most common cutaneous mycosis in children but is uncommon in adults. The disease has been major public health concern for decades. Some factors implicated in infection include poor personal hygiene, crowded living conditions, and low socioeconomic status. It can be caused by any pathogenic dermatophyte except for Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton concentricum. Trichophyton rubrum, the most commonly isolated dermatophyte worldwide, is rarely the causative agent of this infection. Tinea capitis is a classic example of the changing geographic patterns of dermatophytosis. In developed countries, Trichophyton tonsurans is the most common causative agent, whereas in developing countries such as Mexico, the most common agent is Microsporum canis followed by Trichophyton tonsurans. The increasing incidence of tinea capitis warranted a review of the current literature and treatment strategies.

  3. Tinea Capitis: Current Status.

    PubMed

    Hay, R J

    2017-02-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common childhood infection in many parts of the world. Yet knowledge of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and the development of effective immunity have shown striking advances, and new methods of diagnosis ranging from dermoscopy to molecular laboratory tests have been developed even though they have not been assimilated into routine practice in many centres. Treatment is effective although it needs to be given for at least 1 month. What is missing, however, is a systematic approach to control through case ascertainment and therapy.

  4. Tinea capitis: diagnostic criteria and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

    2009-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection involving the hair shaft of the scalp. It is commonly referred to as ringworm and occurs primarily in children. Treatment with a systemic anti-fungal rather than topical treatment is required. Currently, two medications, griseofulvin (Grifulvin) and terbinafine (Lamisil Granules), are FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis. Treatment with griseofulvin is usually 6 to 8 weeks, while treatment with terbinafine requires 6 weeks. There are other medications currently not FDA-approved to treat tinea capitis that have similar cure rates and shorter durations of treatment for tinea capitis, and as a result, are being used off-label. This article reviews the research-based literature related to the treatment of tinea capitis with various pharmacologic agents.

  5. [Pediculosis capitis, a permanent and renewed problem].

    PubMed

    Schenonel, H; Lobos, M

    1997-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is still a world-wide public health problem. Pediculus humanus capitis, the agent, is a permanent and specific human blood-sucking ectoparasite extended throughout the world. By the end of sixties and begin of seventies an important increase of prevalence of this parasitose was observed in many countries and lice infestation throughout the world was estimated to run into hundreds of millions. Decline of personal hygiene, increased promiscuity and long hairstyle, particularly in adolescents and young people seemed to mark the beginning of this new situation. At present pediculosis capitis not only affects low socio-economic groups, but middle and high level groups. Several observations have shown a clear relationship between long hair and pediculosis capitis. Prevention of pediculosis capitis is supported by community health education, stressing the personal hygiene, the use of reasonable short hair and frequent washing of head.

  6. An epidemic of pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Slonka, G F; Fleissner, M L; Berlin, J; Puleo, J; Harrod, E K; Schultz, M G

    1977-04-01

    An epidemic due to Pediculus humanus capitis occurred in the public schools of Buffalo, New York, in the winter of 1973. A survey at one elementary school showed that 20% of whites and no blacks were infested, and a city-wide prevalence survey during the academic year September 1972 to May 1973 showed that 7.2% of all pupils were infested. An epidemiological investigation showed that sex, age, race, socioeconomic status, crowding, method of closeting garments, and family size influenced the distribution of pediculosis but that hair length apparently was not a factor. Poverty and ignorance appeared to contribute to the persistence of infestation.

  7. Staphylococcus capitis isolated from prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Tevell, S; Hellmark, B; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Å; Söderquist, B

    2017-01-01

    Further knowledge about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by different coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may facilitate interpretation of microbiological findings and improve treatment algorithms. Staphylococcus capitis is a CoNS with documented potential for both human disease and nosocomial spread. As data on orthopaedic infections are scarce, our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PJIs caused by S. capitis. This retrospective cohort study included three centres and 21 patients with significant growth of S. capitis during revision surgery for PJI between 2005 and 2014. Clinical data were extracted and further microbiological characterisation of the S. capitis isolates was performed. Multidrug-resistant (≥3 antibiotic groups) S. capitis was detected in 28.6 % of isolates, methicillin resistance in 38.1 % and fluoroquinolone resistance in 14.3 %; no isolates were rifampin-resistant. Heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate resistance was detected in 38.1 %. Biofilm-forming ability was common. All episodes were either early post-interventional or chronic, and there were no haematogenous infections. Ten patients experienced monomicrobial infections. Among patients available for evaluation, 86 % of chronic infections and 70 % of early post-interventional infections achieved clinical cure; 90 % of monomicrobial infections remained infection-free. Genetic fingerprinting with repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab®) displayed clustering of isolates, suggesting that nosocomial spread might be present. Staphylococcus capitis has the potential to cause PJIs, with infection most likely being contracted during surgery or in the early postoperative period. As S. capitis might be an emerging nosocomial pathogen, surveillance of the prevalence of PJIs caused by S. capitis could be recommended.

  8. Tinea capitis favosa misdiagnosed as tinea amiantacea

    PubMed Central

    Anane, Sonia; Chtourou, Olfa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Favus of the scalp or tinea capitis favosa is a chronic dermatophyte infection of the scalp. In almost cases, favus is caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii, anthropophilic dermatophyte. It is characterized by the presence of scutula and severe alopecia. Besides the classic clinical type of tinea capitis favosa, there are many variant of clinical form which may persist undiagnosed for many years. In this work, we report an atypical form of favus to Trichophyton schoenleinii which was misdiagnosed as tinea amiantacea. Case-report An 11-year old girl came to the outpatient department of dermatology (day 0) with history of tinea amiantacea treated unsuccessfully with keratolytic shampoo (day – 730). She presented a diffuse scaling of the scalp with thick scaly patches and without scutula or alopecia. A diagnosis of tinea favosa by T. schoenleinii was made by mycological examination. She was treated with griseofulvin and ketoconazole in the form of foaming gel for twelve weeks. Despite treatment, clinical evolution was marked by appearance of permanent alopecia patches. The follow-up mycological examination was negative. Conclusion Because of ultimate evolution of favus into alopecia, we emphasize the importance of mycological examination in case of diffuse scaling. PMID:24432210

  9. White piedra and pediculosis capitis in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Camargo, Rosângela Maria Pires de

    2012-01-01

    White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by the genus Trichosporon. It is characterized by nodules on the hair shaft. Pediculosis capitis is caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis of the suborder Anoplura. Whereas pediculosis is a common infestation, clinical reports of white piedra are rare. Molecular biology procedures identified T. inkin as the agent of white piedra in this case report. The authors present associations between the two diseases in the same patient in order to highlight their clinical differences.

  10. Spinalis capitis, or an accessory paraspinous muscle?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A

    1994-01-01

    A unilateral muscle, the location and dimensions of which do not exactly conform to existing descriptions, was found during dissection of the suboccipital region. The muscle in question extended from the spine and transverse process of the 6th cervical vertebra to the base of the skull. At its rostral attachment it blended with the insertion of the left rectus capitis posterior minor muscle on the inferior nuchal line. The caudal attachment arched over the semispinalis cervicis, separated from that muscle by an extensive venous complex. Medially, along the length of the muscle, weak fascial attachments to the ligamentum nuchae were present. Arterial branches from the occipital artery entered the muscle near its rostral end and nerve fibres and vascular channels from the lower cervical region entered the deep surface of the muscle. Images Figs 1-3 Fig. 4 PMID:7559114

  11. Insights on virulence from the complete genome of Staphylococcus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, David R.; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Hassan, Karl A.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Tuck, Kellie L.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Peleg, Anton Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis is an opportunistic pathogen of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). Functional genomic studies of S. capitis have thus far been limited by a lack of available complete genome sequences. Here, we determined the closed S. capitis genome and methylome using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The strain, AYP1020, harbors a single circular chromosome of 2.44 Mb encoding 2304 predicted proteins, which is the smallest of all complete staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date. AYP1020 harbors two large mobile genetic elements; a plasmid designated pAYP1020 (59.6 Kb) and a prophage, ΦAYP1020 (48.5 Kb). Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation across the genome involving two distinct methylation motifs (1972 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues identified). Putative adenine methyltransferases were also identified. Comparative analysis of AYP1020 and the closely related CoNS, S. epidermidis RP62a, revealed a host of virulence factors that likely contribute to S. capitis pathogenicity, most notably genes important for biofilm formation and a suite of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs); the expression/production of these factors were corroborated by functional assays. The complete S. capitis genome will aid future studies on the evolution and pathogenesis of the coagulase negative staphylococci. PMID:26441910

  12. Increasing tinea capitis prevalence in Stockholm reflects immigration.

    PubMed

    Hällgren, Jenny; Petrini, Björn; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to describe the mycological and clinical data in children diagnosed with tinea capitis in a hospital setting in Stockholm. Information concerning demography, symptoms, mycology and treatment were obtained, retrospectively, from medical records of all children up to 15 years of age diagnosed with tinea capitis during two 3-year periods, 1989--1991 and 1999--2001, at the Pediatric Dermatology Unit of the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm. Between 1989 and 1991, five children were diagnosed with tinea capitis. Between 1999 and 2001, there were 92 children, the vast majority (86%) being of foreign extraction, mostly African (83%). Trichophyton violaceum was the most prevalent pathogen, affecting 68% of the children. Of the anthropophilic infections, 62% were linked to relatives. In 71% of all positive cultures, microscopy was positive. The most common clinical findings were scaling of the scalp (80%), itching (54%) and patches of alopecia (52%). The treatment consisted of the oral antimycotics terbinafine (n = 48) or griseofulvin (n = 49). During the last decade there has been an increase in tinea capitis in Stockholm, most commonly caused by Trichophyton violaceum, corresponding with the increased immigration from Africa. Spread within the family seems to be of importance, and family members are preferably screened in an effort to prevent continued transmission. It is important to bear the diagnosis of tinea capitis in mind, especially as, untreated, some cases can develop permanent alopecia and may also cause further spreading of this infection.

  13. Management of tinea capitis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive. PMID:21437064

  14. Cytobrush-culture method to diagnose tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Isa-Isa, Rafael; Araiza, Javier; Cruz, Cecilia; Hernández, Marco A; Ponce, Rosa Maria

    2007-06-01

    This is a comparative study to isolate the dermatophytes of tinea capitis using the cytobrush and comparing it versus the standard method. A prospective, observational, comparative trial of 178 probable cases of tinea capitis was conducted in two dermatological centers. Each patient underwent mycological tests that included direct exam with KOH and cultures with either of two methods: scraping the scalp to remove hair and cell debris, and the cytobrush. A total of 135 clinically and mycologically proven cases of tinea capitis were included; 119 were non-inflammatory and 16 inflammatory tinea. A total of 131 had a positive direct exam and subsequent primary isolation cultures were obtained in 135 cases. The main dermatophytes isolated were Microsporum canis (68%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (20%). A total of 115/135 (85.1%), were detected with the traditional method, with an average of 11.2 days until positive, while the number detected with the cytobrush was 132/135 (97.7%) with an average of 8.5 days until positive. The chi-square statistical method showed that the cytobrush culture was superior to the standard one with a chi-square of 5.078 (P = 0.025), with a statistically significant difference versus the standard method.

  15. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable.

  16. Pediculosis capitis: new insights into epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H

    2012-09-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease caused by Pediculus humanus capitis. Head lice are highly specialised parasites which can propagate only on human scalp and hair. Transmission occurs by direct head-to-head contact. Head lice are vectors of important bacterial pathogens. Pediculosis capitis usually occurs in small epidemics in play groups, kindergartens and schools. Population-based studies in European countries show highly diverging prevalences, ranging from 1% to 20%. The diagnosis of head lice infestation is made through the visual inspection of hair and scalp or dry/wet combing. The optimal method for the diagnosis of active head lice infestation is dry/wet combing. Topical application of a pediculicide is the most common treatment. Compounds with a neurotoxic mode of action are widely used but are becoming less effective due to resistant parasite populations. Besides, their use is restricted by safety concerns. Dimeticones, silicone oils with a low surface tension and the propensity to perfectly coat surfaces, have a purely physical mode of action. This group of compounds is highly effective and safe, and there is no risk that head lice become resistant. The control of epidemics requires active contact tracing and synchronised treatment with an effective and safe pediculicide.

  17. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone. PMID:28221122

  18. Effects of erythromycin on the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm expression in two clinical Staphylococcus capitis subspecies and a functional analysis of Ica proteins in S. capitis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2015-06-01

    The ica operon encoding polysaccharide intercellular adhesion, which facilitates biofilm formation in staphylococci, has been extensively studied in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Based on in silico analysis, we suggest the following functional model for Ica proteins in S. capitis. IcaA is responsible for polysaccharide synthesis. IcaA and IcaD complete transferring the growing sugar chain to the cell surface; IcaB is a deacetylase, with the same function as IcaB of S. epidermidis. IcaC mainly modifies the synthesized glucan by acetylation. We also examined the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin on phenotypic biofilm expression and transcription of biofilm-related genes, using isolates representing the two subspecies of Staphylococcus capitis and different biofilm and resistance phenotypes. On induction with erythromycin, biofilm density was strongly elevated in two erythromycin-resistant S. capitis, but not in three susceptible isolates. In the representative erythromycin-resistant S. capitis subsp. urealyticus, there were significant upregulations of the icaA gene and its positive regulator sarA on transition to the stationary phase without erythromycin induction. There were also significant increases in the transcription levels of icaA, rsbU and sigB corresponding to a very strong biofilm phenotype in the stationary phase on erythromycin stress. In contrast, the representative erythromycin-susceptible S. capitis subsp. capitis displayed upregulation only of altE on entry into the stationary phase with erythromycin induction, but this change was not associated with enhancement of biofilm production. These findings suggest that the two subspecies of S. capitis adopt different pathogenesis and survival strategies to adapt to a hostile environment.

  19. Dermoscopy as a useful supportive tool for the diagnosis of pityriasis amiantacea-like tinea capitis

    PubMed Central

    Errichetti, Enzo; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Clinical distinction between pityriasis amiantacea-like tinea capitis and pityriasis amiantacea due to noninfectious inflammatory diseases is a troublesome task, with a significant likelihood of diagnostic errors/delays and prescription of inappropriate therapies. We report a case of pityriasis amiantacea-like tinea capitis with its dermoscopic findings in order to highlight the usefulness of dermoscopy in improving the recognition of such a condition. PMID:27648387

  20. [Tinea capitis etiology in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Zeroual, Z; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2012-09-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a contagious infection that affects mainly children and teenagers. A retrospective study was realized at the mycology-parasitology department of the Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat, Morocco. The study includes 125 cases of TC. The mean age is 12.73 ± 11.61 year. The isolation of TC is dominated by two species Trichophyton violaceum 76 (60.8%) and Microsporum canis 27 (21.6%). Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated only in male and all of rural origin. In adults over 18 years, the most isolated species is T. violaceum (six cases) in females. For the last thirty years, the epidemiological profile of TC remains almost the same in Morocco.

  1. [Tinea capitis in children from Goiânia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias, Tatiana; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fátima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Passos, Xisto Sena; Costa, Milce; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    During the period January 1999 to July 2002 a total de 164 cases of Tinea capitis were diagnosed by mycological examination in Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública of the Universidade Federal de Goiás. Of the 164 patients 94 (57.3%) were males, with an age of 3 months to 13 years. Laboratory studies were performed by direct examination with 20% KOH and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar medium and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The following species were identified: Microsporum canis (71.3%), Trichophyton tonsurans (11%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (7.9%), Trichophyton rubrum (6.7%), and Microsporum gypseum (3%). Our study showed that the most frequent rise of scalp infection was a zoophylic fungi, called Microsporum canis.

  2. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  3. Tinea capitis among primary school children in some parts of central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayanbimpe, Grace M; Taghir, Henry; Diya, Abigail; Wapwera, Samuel

    2008-07-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common superficial mycosis in children of school age. Although it is of public health importance, it is not a reportable or notifiable disease; therefore, actual prevalence figures are unknown in many endemic areas. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school children in two states in central Nigeria, highlighting the main aetiological agents of the infection and possible predisposing factors. A total of 28 505 primary school children aged between 3 and 16 years were recruited for the study, from 12 primary schools in two local government areas of Benue and Plateau States of Nigeria. Of them, 796 had lesions, which were clinically suggestive of tinea capitis out of which 248 (31.2%) were confirmed positive by microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was more frequent in males, 194 (78.2%) than in females, 54 (21.8%). Children aged 10-14 years, followed by 5-9 years were predominantly infected, with 106 (42.7%) and 100 (40.3%) respectively. There was a significant correlation between age group and occurrence of tinea capitis in the study population at 95% confidence level (P = 0.004). Tinea capitis was significantly more frequent in Jos State (44.6%) than in Gboko State (23.2%) (t = .659; 95% confidence level). The prevalence of tinea capitis was influenced by social and cultural habits of the areas rather than by population density. The aetiological agent of tinea capitis in the study population was Trichophyton soudanense, 76 (30.6%), followed by Microsporum ferrugineum, 19 (7.7%) and Microsporum audouinii, 19 (7.7%). Differences in aetiology were observed for Gboko and Jos, except for T. soudanense, which predominated in both areas. The high prevalence of tinea capitis in the areas studied may be attributed to frequent interaction with soil and animals and low level of health education on personal and environmental hygiene. Aetiological agents varied from one geographical area to another.

  4. Changing in the Epidemiology of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Naglaa A.; Abd El Raheem, Talal A.; Mohammed, Basma H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tinea capitis remains a prevalent health problem among school-aged children. Objective To estimate the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school students, in Fayoum, Egypt with identification of etiological agents in both public and private primary schools. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in twelve primary schools. The students were selected from different grades with a total number of 12,128 students. Hair and scalp were clinically examined for any lesions that may suspect tinea capitis and mycological samples were collected for direct microscopy and culture. Results The prevalence of tinea capitis in the study group was 0.4% and higher in public than private schools (73.5% versus 26.5% respectively). Boys were more affected than girls with boy to girls' ratio 5:1. Intrafamily history of infection was present in 40.8% of tested group while 51% showed low social standard profile. Mycological culture revealed that Microsporum canis was the predominant isolated organism followed by M. audouinii (52% and 36% respectively). Conclusion M. canis is replacing Trichophyton violaceum as an etiology for tinea capitis in Egypt with lower prevalence rate than reported previously. PMID:28223741

  5. Histological examination of the human obliquus capitis inferior myodural bridge.

    PubMed

    Pontell, Matthew E; Scali, Frank; Enix, Dennis E; Battaglia, Patrick J; Marshall, Ewarld

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the anatomical relationship between the obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscle and the cervical dura mater at the histological level. Eight human cadavers, with an average age of 65 ± 7.9 years were selected from a convenience sample for suboccipital dissection. Twelve OCI muscle specimens were excised, 100% of which emitted grossly visible soft tissue tracts that inserted into the posterolateral aspect of the cervical dura. These 12 myodural specimens were excised as single, continuous structures and sent for H&E staining. One sample also underwent immuno-peroxidase staining. Microscopic evaluation confirmed a connective tissue bridge emanating from the OCI muscular body and attaching to the posterolateral aspect of the cervical dura mater in 75% of the specimens. Microtome slices of the remaining 25% were not able to capture muscle, connective tissue and dura within the same plane and were therefore unable to be properly analyzed. The sample sent for neuro-analysis stained positively for several neuronal fascicles traveling within, and passing through the OCI myodural bridge. This study histologically confirms the presence of a connective tissue bridge that links the OCI muscle to the dura mater and the presence of neuronal tissue within this connection warrants further examination. This structure may represent a component of normal human anatomy. In addition to its hypothetical role in human homeostasis, it may contribute to certain neuropathological conditions, as well.

  6. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups.

  7. Dermatophytid in tinea capitis: rarely reported common phenomenon with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nancy; Rucker Wright, Dakara; Cohen, Bernard A

    2011-08-01

    Tinea capitis may be associated with a dermatophytid, which appears as a disseminated eczematous eruption. This phenomenon may occur before or after initiation of systemic antifungal drug therapy and is not an indication for stopping medication. We present here a series of cases that involve 5 children with tinea capitis who developed a dermatophytid before or during the course of their management. In each child, the eruption resolved despite continuation of oral antifungal therapy. Our experience suggests that dermatophytid secondary to tinea capitis is much more common than reported. Furthermore, parents and clinicians frequently mistake dermatophytid for drug allergy. Recognition of this phenomenon, distinction of dermatophytid from drug allergy, and continuation of systemic treatment is essential for clearing the infection and dermatophytid.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Pediculosis Capitis in an Impoverished Urban Community in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lesshafft, Hannah; Baier, Andreas; Guerra, Humberto; Terashima, Angelica; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease associated with intense pruritus of the scalp. In developing countries it frequently affects children and adults, but epidemiological data at the community level are rare. Objectives: To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in a resource-poor community in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods: In total, 736 persons living in 199 households in a circumscribed neighbourhood were examined for head lice and nits by visual inspection. At the same time, socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Variables associated with pediculosis were identified by performing a bivariate analysis, followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 9.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0-11.2 %) in the general population and 19.9% (CI: 15.4-24.4%) in children ≤15 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that pediculosis capitis was significantly associated with age ≤ 15 years (OR: 16.85; CI:7.42-38.24), female sex (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.58-5.12), household size of >4 persons (OR: 1.98; CI: 1.11-3.55), low quality of house construction material (OR:2.22; CI: 1.20-4.12), and presence of animals in the household (OR: 1.94; CI: 1.11-3.39). Conclusion: Pediculosis capitis was a very common disease in the studied community in Lima, Peru. Our logistic regression analysis affirms that young age is the most important risk factor for pediculosis capitis. Moreover, female sex, large household size, living in wooden houses and the presence of animals were identified as being significantly associated with head lice infestation. PMID:24672174

  9. Aspergillus niger - a possible new etiopathogenic agent in Tinea capitis? Presentation of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Zisova, Liliya; Chorleva, Kristina; Tchernev, Georgi

    2016-01-01

    Tinea capitis is generally considered as the most frequent fungal infection in childhood, as it accounts for approximately 92% of all mycosis in children. The epidemiology of this disease varies widely ranging from antropophillic, zoophilic, and geophillic dermatophytes, as the main causative agent in different geographic areas, depending on several additional factors. Nowadays, the etiology is considered to vary with age, as well with gender, and general health condition. The former reported extraordinary Tinea capitis case reports have been replaced by original articles and researches dealing with progressively changing patterns in etiology and clinical manifestation of the disease. This fact is indicative that under the umbrella of the well-known disease there are facts still hidden for future revelations. Herein, we present two rare cases of Tinea capitis in children, which totally differ from the recently established pattern, in their clinical presentation, as well as in the etiological aspect, as we discuss this potential new etiological pattern of the disease, focusing on our retrospective and clinical observation. Collected data suggest that pathogenic molds should be considered as a potential source of infection in some geographic regions, which require total rationalization of the former therapeutic conception, regarding the molds' higher antimitotic resistance compared to dermatophytes. Molds-induced Tinea capitis should be also considered in clinically resistant and atypical cases, with further investigations of the antifungal susceptibility of the newest pathogens in the frame of the old disease. Further investigations are still needed to confirm or reject this proposal.

  10. [Prevalence and parasitism intensity by Pediculus humanus capitis in six to eleven-year-old schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Catalá, Silvia; Carrizo, Lorena; Córdoba, Marina; Khairallah, Roxana; Moschella, Fabrizio; Bocca, Julio Nacif; Calvo, Ana Nieto; Torres, Judiht; Tutino, Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine head lice parasitism intensity by Pediculus humanus capitis and its variation, according to both gender and age in 181 school children of a primary school. The intensity was higher among 6 to 8-year-old girls. Pediculosis intensity diminishes significantly between 9 and 11 years of age in both sexes.

  11. Arthropathy associated with cystic acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, and perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens: treatment with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Libow, L F; Friar, D A

    1999-08-01

    A patient with arthropathy associated with cystic acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, and perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens who showed a dramatic response to isotretinoin is described. This, to our knowledge, is the first report documenting effective treatment of this condition, whose nosologic position with respect to other spondyloarthropathies associated with cutaneous disease is considered.

  12. Pediculosis capitis among primary-school children in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    AlBashtawy, M; Hasna, F

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis (head lice infestation) is a worldwide public health concern affecting mostly primary-school children. In a cross-sectional study in 2009/2010, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and some risk factors for infestation were investigated among 1550 randomly selected primary-school children in Mafraq governorate, Jordan. The prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 26.6%. There were significant differences in the prevalence between girls (34.7%) and boys (19.6%), rural (31.2%) and urban (23.5%) residents, and history of infestation in the previous year (57.4%) versus no history (11.5%), as well as between children of different ages, family size and income (P<0.001). Longer hair length, lack of bathing facilities, low frequency of hair-washing and bathing, and sharing of articles (e.g. combs, scarves) were significantly associated with infestation (P<0.001). The prevalence of infestation was higher than reported in previous studies in Jordan (< 14%). Programmes are needed to increase awareness of pediculosis capitis and the importance of good personal hygiene.

  13. A single application of crotamiton lotion in the treatment of patients with pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Karacic, I; Yawalkar, S J

    1982-12-01

    A single application of 10% crotamiton lotion cured 96% of the 49 patients treated for pediculosis capitis. Only two (4%) patients needed a second application. Following crotamiton application, pruritus regressed completely in 98% of the patients. An adverse effect, namely localized skin irritation leading to interruption of the trial treatment, was reported in one patient.

  14. Differences between two clinical Staphylococcus capitis subspecies as revealed by biofilm, antibiotic resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Daley, Andrew J; Deighton, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci have been identified as major causes of late-onset neonatal bacteremia in neonatal intensive care units. Sixty isolates of Staphylococcus capitis obtained from blood cultures of neonates between 2000 and 2005 were examined in this study. Biochemical analysis confirmed that 52 of these isolates belonged to the subsp. urealyticus, and the remaining 8 belonged to the subsp. capitis. Isolates of the predominant subsp. urealyticus clones were characterized by their resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and oxacillin and their biofilm formation ability, whereas subsp. capitis isolates were generally antibiotic susceptible and biofilm negative. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SacII digestion separated the 60 isolates into five major clusters. Sequence analysis showed that, in S. capitis, the ica operon plus the negative regulator icaR was 4,160 bp in length. PCRs demonstrated the presence of the ica operon in all isolates. Further analysis of five isolates (two biofilm-positive subsp. urealyticus, one biofilm-negative subsp. urealyticus, and two biofilm-negative subsp. capitis) revealed that the ica operons were identical in all of the biofilm-positive subsp. urealyticus strains; however, the biofilm-negative isolates showed variations. The distinctive phenotypic and genotypic characteristics revealed by this study may affect the epidemiology of the two subspecies of S. capitis in the clinical setting. These results may provide a better understanding of the contribution of these two species to bloodstream infections in neonates.

  15. Patterns of attachment of the myodural bridge by the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Li, Yun-Fei; Chi, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Hai-Bin; Luan, Bing-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Xi; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The myodural bridge was first described by Hack in 1995 and was thought to be related to chronic cervicogenic headaches. For a long time, few studies revealed the patterns of the myodural bridge considering the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. In this study, P45 plastination technology and anatomical dissection were performed on head specimens, and four different terminal region types of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle were observed, including the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace, posterior arch of the atlas and posterior atlanto-axial interspace. We propose that the myodural complex structures in the posterior atlanto-occipital and posterior atlanto-axial interspace have cooperative effects on cerebrospinal fluid and work together. This force might be an important source for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

  16. The potential application of plant essential oils to control Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Werdin-González, Jorge Omar; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Bras, Cristina; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2016-02-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is an ectoparasite confined to the scalp and human hairs. The repeated use of insecticides for the control of head lice during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Natural compounds such as essential oils (EOs) have been suggested as alternative sources for insect control agents. In order to introduce a new pediculicide based on EOs, the effectiveness of the product and their effects on human being must be analyzed. In consequence, the biological activity of EOs from the leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) and the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenacea) were evaluated against the eggs and adults of P. humanus capitis by fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays. Additionally, dermal corrosion/irritation tests were performed on New Zealand albino rabbits. In a fumigant bioassay, EOs from the leaves and fruits of S. areira were the most toxic against P. humanus capitis adults while these EOs and T. vulgaris were the most effective against the eggs. In contact bioassay, the EO from T. vulgaris was the most toxic against both stages. In the corrosion/irritation tests, the EOs did not produce dermal effects. According to the results, the essential oils from the leaves of T. vulgaris would be a valid tool for the management of P. humanus capitis. This EO produces a high knockdown effect in adults (followed by mortality) and toxicity in the eggs when it is applied for 21 min at a low concentration.

  17. Pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Alicja; Markowska-Gosik, Dorota; Widomska, Dorota; Kawa, Iwona Monika

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of head pediculosis in the rural and urban environments of Lublin Province (eastern Poland) in 1996-2000 and to examine socioeconomic factors influencing distribution among schoolchildren. A total of 95,153 schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas were examined twice yearly by school nurses. The overall rate of head pediculosis differs significantly between rural (1.59%) and urban (0.48%) schools in eastern Poland. Children between 8 and 12 years old were most frequently infested. Pediculosis was observed most frequently in girls both in the urban (63.5%) and rural (75.3%) schools and this was related with hairstyles. The prevalence of pediculosis decreased with increasing life standards, i.e. with high income, accessibility and consumption of water and better health care systems. Our findings showed that prevalence of pediculosis capitis depends on the age and sex of the schoolchildren and their living conditions. Hygienic controls of schoolchildren by nurses are important in the elimination of Pediculus humanus capitis. Our results confirmed pediculosis capitis is still a problem in different environments, particularly with lower life standards and poorer economic conditions of health care.

  18. Recent updates in oral terbinafine: its use in onychomycosis and tinea capitis in the US.

    PubMed

    Van Duyn Graham, Lauren; Elewski, Boni E

    2011-11-01

    Onychomycosis and tinea capitis are prevalent fungal diseases that are difficult to cure and usually require systemic treatment. Onychomycosis has high recurrence rates and can significantly affect a patient's quality of life. Oral terbinafine has been approved for onychomycosis for 20 years in Europe and 15 years in the United States. Over these past 20 years, numerous studies show that oral terbinafine is a safe and efficacious treatment for onychomycosis. More recently, oral terbinafine also has been approved for tinea capitis. Once difficult to treat, terbinafine has revolutionised treatment of these fungal diseases. It has minimal side effects and its limited drug interactions make it an excellent treatment option for patients with co-morbidities. This review discusses oral terbinafine and new insights into the treatment of onychomycosis and tinea capitis. Recent publications have enhanced our knowledge of the mechanisms of oral terbinafine and its efficacy in treating onychomycosis. Oral terbinafine vs. other antifungal therapeutic options are reviewed. Overall, terbinafine remains a superior treatment for dermatophyte infections because of its safety, fungicidal profile, once daily dosing, and its ability to penetrate the stratum corneum.

  19. The prevalence of pediculus capitis among the middle schoolchildren in Fars Province, southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Rasekhi Kazerouni, Akbar; Rahmati, Hashem; Neirami, Roxana Neirami; Bakhtiary, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infection of children. In this study we assessed the prevalence of head pediculosis among the middle schoolchildren in the urban and rural areas of Fars province, southern Iran. Methods: All middle schoolchildren ages 11-14, in all the urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head lice infestation by examining their hair and scalp. The parents of the infested children were also examined. The study was repeated in the different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, the infested children were treated with permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse. Results: The general prevalence of head lice infestation in middle school students was 0.23% in autumn, 0.27% in winter and 0.11% in spring. In all three seasons, pediculosis capitis prevalence was higher among females and in the rural areas. Treatment with permethrin shampoo was markedly more successful in males from both regions in all months except the urban areas in spring. Conclusion: The results show that pediculus capitis is generally uncommon among Fars Province middle schoolchildren. It is needed that health providers promote heath education programs especially in the rural areas. PMID:24009945

  20. Ovicidal and adulticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Han-Young; Choi, Won-Sil; Clark, J M; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-05-05

    The toxic effects of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil-derived monoterpenoids [1,8-cineole, l-phellandrene, (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, trans-pinocarveol, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol] and the known Eucalyptusleaf oil terpenoids (beta-eudesmol and geranyl acetate) on eggs and females of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, were examined using direct contact and fumigation bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum, two commonly used pediculicides. In a filter paper contact bioassay with female P. h. capitis, the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with Eucalyptus leaf oil than with either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum on the basis of LT(50) values (0.125 vs 0.25 mg/cm(2)). 1,8-Cineole was 2.2- and 2.3-fold more toxic than either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum, respectively. The pediculicidal activities of (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and (E)-pinocarveol were comparable to those of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. l-Phellandrene, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol were relatively less active than delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. beta-Eudesmol and geranyl acetate were ineffective. 1-alpha-Terpineol and (E)-pinocaveol were highly effective at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/cm(2), respectively, against P. h. capitis eggs. At 1.0 mg/cm(2), (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and gamma-terpinene exhibited moderate ovicidal activity, whereas little or no ovicidal activity was observed with the other terpenoids and with delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In fumigation tests with female P. h. capitis at 0.25 mg/cm(2), 1,8-cineole, (-)-alpha-pinene, (E)-pinocarveol, and 1-alpha-terpineol were more effective in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the effect of the monoterpenoids was largely due to action in the vapor phase. Neither delta-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Eucalyptus leaf oil, particularly 1,8-cineole, 1-alpha-terpineol, and (E)-pinocaveol, merits further study as potential

  1. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease.

  2. Tinea capitis: study of asymptomatic carriers and sick adolescents, adults and elderly who live with children with the disease.

    PubMed

    Bergson, C L; Fernandes, N C

    2001-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years) with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5%) were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8%) had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.

  3. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis Infection Among Primary School Children in a Rural Setting in South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayanlowo, Olusola; Oladele, Rita; Balogun, Mobolanle

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophyte infection is a common skin disorder. Tinea capitis, infection of the scalp and hair shaft, is the most common dermatophytosis in children aged between six months and pre-pubertal age. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, causative agents and to identify predisposing factors among primary school children in a rural community in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Following a physical examination, children with a clinical diagnosis of tinea capitis had scalp and hair scrapings for microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was confirmed in 15.4%. Trichophyton mentagrophyte (51.7%) and Microsporum aoudouinii (20.7%) were the most prevalent organisms in this study. The most common predisposing factors were carrying of objects on the scalp; sharing of hair clippers, scissors, combs, towels and fomites. Low socioeconomic status coupled with overcrowding and poor hygiene was the major determinant of tinea capitis among the children. Tinea capitis remains a common infection among Nigerian school children. Health promotion and health education interventions are recommended to promote good hygiene, better living conditions, early identification and treatment. PMID:28299118

  4. Tinea capitis and tinea corporis with a severe inflammatory response due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Hryncewicz-Gwóźdź, Anita; Beck-Jendroschek, Vera; Brasch, Jochen; Kalinowska, Katarzyna; Jagielski, Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte, with a worldwide distribution, although its prevalence varies considerably between different geographical regions. Whereas in North America infections due to this fungus are exceptionally common, on the European continent they appear relatively seldom. Although T. tonsurans is primarily associated with tinea capitis, it can also be the cause of tinea corporis and tinea unguium. The course of infection is usually only mildly symptomatic. We describe here two cases of urease-positive T. tonsurans infections with atypically extensive cutaneous lesions and severe inflammatory responses. .

  5. Tinea capitis in adults during 1981-95 in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagliotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Chaidemenos, G C; Theodoridou, M; Minas, A

    2001-11-01

    The mycological laboratory of our Hospital examined 31,073 patients between 1981 and 1995. Sex, age, the residence of patients, the clinical type of tinea and contacts with other persons and animals were investigated. All the patients were also examined under Wood's light. Tinea capitis was diagnosed in 35 adults. Trichophyton violaceum was the commonest aetiological agent (54.5%), especially in elderly women. The other anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (8.5%), T. schoenleinii (5.7%) and T. tonsurans (2.8%). The zoophilic fungi Microsporum canis (14.3%), T. terrucosum (8.5%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.7%) were also isolated.

  6. [Treatment of pediculosis capitis in children with permethrin 1% shampoo or lotion].

    PubMed

    Schenone, H; Wiedmaier, G; Contreras, L

    1994-01-01

    A clinical and entomological trial was carried out in 88 head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) infested children treated with a single dose of 1% permethrin shampoo or lotion. The sex distribution was 47 males an 41 females with ages ranging between 5 and 14 year olds. In order to assess the efficiency of treatments, search for adult forms, nymphs and eggs (nits) of the parasite was performed in each of the children, before and after treatment (30 minutes, 7 days and 21 days). The entomological evaluations consisted in stereoscopic and microscopic examinations of a mean of 12 hair samples taken from the retroauricular and occipital regions of each of the children, the biological condition of eggs, viable (immature, mature), dead and empty, was recorded. The cure rates--both clinical and entomological--obtained were 91.5% for shampoo and 95.2% for lotion. No adverse reactions with the two formulations used were reported. In conclusion, 1% permethrin shampoo or lotion in an effective and safe treatment for pediculosis capitis.

  7. Comparative study of the claws of Pediculus humanus capitis between archaeological and modern specimens.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Hipólito; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Aravena, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Metric data of the claws of archaeological specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis (dating between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500) and modern lice specimens coming from school children were analyzed and compared. Both sets of samples come from Arica in northern Chile. The overall sample is comprised of 14 archaeological specimens (6 females and 8 males) of Pediculus humanus capitis and 22 modern specimens (13 females and 9 males). All specimens were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uncoated, using variable pressure mode. The objective of this study was to metrically analyze the first couple of clutches of ancient and modern adult lice specimens (width and length of the tibio-tarsal claw and tarsus length) to test if morphological changes have taken place throughout time in these anatomical elements. We found that archaeological male and female specimens presented significant differences in the tibio-tarsal width (right and left). When comparing data between archaeological and modern male specimens, statistically significant differences were found in almost all the parameters studied, except for the right tarsal length. On the other hand, archaeological and modern female specimens showed no statistically significant change in the variables studied. In brief, our data suggest that modern male specimens have undergone a process of claw reduction, but females have maintained the same dimensions.

  8. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Hamedan-Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mansour; Saidijam, Massoud

    2007-10-01

    To determine the intensity of Pediculus capitis infestation (abundance) among school children, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 school children (407 girls, 440 boys) between 6 and 12 years, from 12 in public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Province of Hamedan, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p < 0.001), head lice were much more commonly detected in girls than in boys. The obtained results showed that there was significant variations between head lice infestation and the factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family and pediculosis in the studied areas (p > 0.05). Sex and social factor are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

  9. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Hamedan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mansour; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Shobeiri, Fatemeh

    2006-01-01

    Pediculus capitis or head-louse infestation has been a worldwide public-health problem, especially among school-aged children. To determine the intensity of infestation (abundance) among schoolchildren, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 schoolchildren (407 girls, 440 boys) aged 6-12 years, from 12 public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Hamedan Province, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p<0.001), head lice were much more common in girls than boys. The results showed significant variations in head lice infestation, and factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb, and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family, and pediculosis in the studied areas (p>0.05). Sex and social factors are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

  10. [Evolution of tinea capitis observed in mycology laboratory of institute Pasteur of Algeria from1995 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Hamroune, Z; Mazouz, A; Benelmouffok, A-B; Kellou, D

    2016-12-01

    Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria.

  11. Selection of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in Staphylococcus capitis during growth under erythromycin stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and reproducible measurement of gene transcription requires appropriate reference genes, which are stably expressed under different experimental conditions to provide normalization. Staphylococcus capitis is a human pathogen that produces biofilm under stress, such as imposed by antimicrobial agents. In this study, a set of five commonly used staphylococcal reference genes (gyrB, sodA, recA, tuf and rpoB) were systematically evaluated in two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis (S. capitis subspecies urealyticus and capitis, respectively) under erythromycin stress in mid-log and stationary phases. Two public software programs (geNorm and NormFinder) and two manual calculation methods, reference residue normalization (RRN) and relative quantitative (RQ), were applied. The potential reference genes selected by the four algorithms were further validated by comparing the expression of a well-studied biofilm gene (icaA) with phenotypic biofilm formation in S. capitis under four different experimental conditions. The four methods differed considerably in their ability to predict the most suitable reference gene or gene combination for comparing icaA expression under different conditions. Under the conditions used here, the RQ method provided better selection of reference genes than the other three algorithms; however, this finding needs to be confirmed with a larger number of isolates. This study reinforces the need to assess the stability of reference genes for analysis of target gene expression under different conditions and the use of more than one algorithm in such studies. Although this work was conducted using a specific human pathogen, it emphasizes the importance of selecting suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression more generally.

  12. Clinicoepidemiological and Mycological Study of Tinea Capitis in the Pediatric Population of Kashmir Valley: A Study from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Zeerak, Sumaya; Kanth, Farhat; Yaseen, Atiya; Hassan, Iffat; Hakak, Rubina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection that predominantly affects the pediatric population. The etiological factors vary from region to region, and the exact incidence remains obscure. The clinicoepidemiological and mycological aspects of this dermatophytosis were studied in a tertiary care centre in Kashmir valley. Aim: To determine the clinicoepidemiological aspects and mycological findings of dermatophytes involved in tinea capitis cases in Kashmir valley. Materials and Methods: Wood's lamp examination, KOH examination, and fungal culture were performed in one hundred fifty clinically diagnosed cases of tinea capitis with patients’ age upto 14 years over a period of 6 months. The epidemiological factors associated with the disease were also evaluated. Results: Tinea capitis was predominant in the 3–6 and 6–9 years age groups with a male preponderance. Grey patch tinea capitis was the most common variant. KOH positivity was 76%, and Trichophyton tonsurans was the most common fungal isolate. Conclusion: Tinea capitis is a very common fungal infection in our setting. Early detection and diagnosis is mandatory to prevent its spread in the community as well as the development of scarring alopecia in the affected individual.

  13. Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of monoterpenoids against permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Toloza, A C; Vassena, C; Picollo, M I

    2008-12-01

    The improper use of pediculicides containing permethrin has led to the development of resistance. Thus, new alternatives for control are needed. Plant-derived insecticides are attractive alternatives to common chemical insecticides because most of them are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to mammals. The toxic activity of 23 monoterpenoids belonging to several chemical classes was tested against the eggs of permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Significant differences in ovicidal action were observed among the tested substances. The most effective chemicals were hydrocarbons and ethers, followed by ketones, alcohols, phenols and esters. A linear relationship between egg mortality and knockdown time (KT(50)) on adults by the tested components revealed that most of the components were effective on both egg and adult stages. The monoterpenoids described herein are good candidates as effective pediculicides.

  14. Geographic distributions and origins of human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) based on mitochondrial data.

    PubMed

    Light, Jessica E; Allen, Julie M; Long, Lauren M; Carter, Tamar E; Barrow, Lisa; Suren, Ganbold; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L

    2008-12-01

    Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are subdivided into 3 deeply divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades A, B, and C), each having unique geographical distributions. Determining the evolutionary history and geographic distribution of these mitochondrial clades can elucidate the evolutionary history of the lice as well as their human hosts. Previous data suggest that lice belonging to mitochondrial Clade B may have originated in North America or Asia; however, geographic sampling and sample sizes have been limited. With newly collected lice, we calculate the relative frequency, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of louse mitochondrial clades to determine the geographic origin of lice belonging to Clade B. In agreement with previous studies, genetic diversity data support a North American origin of Clade B lice. It is likely that lice belonging to this mitochondrial clade recently migrated to other geographic localities, e.g., Europe and Australia, and, if not already present, may disperse further to occupy all geographic regions.

  15. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis and determination of risk factors in primary-school children in Kerman.

    PubMed

    Kamiabi, F; Nakhaei, F Hosain

    2005-01-01

    This descriptive, analytical study was carried out in 2003 to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and some risk factors among primary-school pupils in Kerman. We selected 1200 pupils (53% girls) from 50 primary schools by multistage, systematic random sampling. Their hair was examined for head louse infestation: 45 (3.8%) were infected with lice, 43 (95.5%) girls and 2 (4.5%) boys. The highest rate of infestation was in 9-year-olds. There was a significant relationship between head louse infestation and sex (P < 0.0001), age (P < 0.05), parents' education (P < 0.0001), father's job (P < 0.01), family size (P < 0.01), length of hair (P < 0.0001) and having separate bathing facilities in the house (P < 0.0001).

  16. The ligamentum capitis femoris: anatomic, magnetic resonance and computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carro, Luis; Golano, Pau; Vega, Jordi; Escajadillo, Natalia F; Rubin, Carlos G; Cerezal, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the normal anatomy of the ligamentum capitis femoris and to determine the neurovascular structures potentially at risk during its reconstruction. Ten cadaveric specimens of the ligamentum capitis femoris (LCF) were dissected and photographed. Magnetic resonance (MR) and Computed tomography (CT) arthrography evaluation of the anatomy of the LCF in 30 hips were performed to measure length of the ligament and to study the proximity of neurovascular structures. The anatomical study showed that the LCF has a pyramidal structure and a banded appearance. The thickness of the medial wall of the acetabulum 3 mm superior to the inferior acetabular boundary was found to be 6.7 mm (4-9 mm) at point 1 (anterior), 4.1 mm (3-7 mm) at point 2 (central), and 6.5 mm (4-9 mm) at point 3 (posterior). Central anchors or screws were found to lie within 1.7 cm (1.6-1.9 cm) of the external iliac vein and artery. Angulation of anchors in the anterior and posterior columns in the axial plane with respect to acetabular fossa floor (the Optimal Angulation Angle or OAA), is safer (0 to 45º the safest optimal angles). The sagittal angulation created by the safe pathway in the anterior and posterior columns with respect to the plane of the facies lunata in this area was also measured and termed the Optimal Angle of Penetration (OAP) with normal values being: 110º (102-123º) for the posterior column and 90º (85-94º) for the anterior column. Our results suggest that reconstruction of the LCF can be safely performed if these guidelines are followed.

  17. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  18. Inflammatory tinea capitis mimicking dissecting cellulitis in a postpubertal male: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stein, Loretta L; Adams, Erin G; Holcomb, Katherine Z

    2013-09-01

    Tinea capitis in postpubertal patients is unusual and may be misdiagnosed as dissecting cellulitis. We report a case of a healthy 19-year-old Hispanic male presenting with a 2-month history of a large, painful subcutaneous boggy plaque on the scalp with patchy alopecia, erythematous papules, cysts and pustules. Although initially diagnosed as dissecting cellulitis, potassium hydroxide evaluation (KOH preparation) of the hair from the affected region was positive. A punch biopsy of the scalp demonstrated endothrix consistent with tinea capitis, but with a brisk, deep mixed inflammatory infiltrate as can be seen with chronic dissecting cellulitis. Fungal culture revealed Trichophyton tonsurans, and a diagnosis of inflammatory tinea capitis was made. The patient was treated over the course of 17 months with multiple systemic and topical antifungal medications, with slow, but demonstrable clinical and histopathological improvement. A rare diagnosis in adults, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this condition in an adult with an inflammatory scalp disorder not classic for dissecting cellulitis or with a recalcitrant dissecting cellulitis. Prompt, appropriate diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent the long-term complications of scarring alopecia.

  19. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations.

  20. Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

    2013-10-01

    We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream.

  1. Tinea capitis outbreak among paediatric refugee population, an evolving healthcare challenge.

    PubMed

    Mashiah, Jacob; Kutz, Ana; Ben Ami, Ronen; Savion, Mihal; Goldberg, Ilan; Gan Or, Tamar; Zidan, Omri; Sprecher, Eli; Harel, Avikam

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of tinea capitis (TC) represent a major medical and economic burden. Population migrations have become a phenomenon of increasing relevance for medical conditions management. Given the recent massive arrival of immigrants, we sought to determine epidemiologic trends for TC among paediatric populations at the Tel Aviv Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of all TC cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 in a paediatric dermatology unit of a tertiary medical centre, serving as a referral centre for the paediatric refugee population from the great Tel Aviv area. Epidemiologic, clinical and treatment data including effectiveness and safety were reviewed. In all, 145 children met the inclusion criteria. Trend analyses showed increases in TC rates over the study period. Incidence rates were higher in boys than in girls. Children of African origin had the highest TC incidence rates as compared with other ethnic groups. Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum audouinii were the predominant causative organisms. Treatment with griseofulvin was satisfactory in all cases. There was a significant increase in TC incidence rates in the Tel Aviv area over the study period. TV and MA were the predominant organisms. These trends may be a result of poor living conditions and crowded school premises.

  2. Electron Microscopic Alterations in Pediculus humanus capitis Exposed to Some Pediculicidal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Akkad, Dina M. H. El; El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M.; Yousof, Hebat-Allah Salah A.; Ismail, Mousa A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, infestation is an important public health problem in Egypt. Inadequate application of topical pediculicides and the increasing resistance to the commonly used pediculicides made the urgent need for the development of new agents able to induce irreversible changes in the exposed lice leading to their mortality. The aim of the present work is to evaluate pediculicidal efficacy of some natural products such as olive oil, tea tree oil, lemon juice, and ivermectin separately in comparison with tetramethrin-piperonyl butoxide (licid), as a standard pediculicide commonly used in Egypt. The effects of these products were evaluated by direct observation using dissecting and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Results showed that after 1 hr exposure time in vitro, absolute (100%) mortalities were recorded after exposure to 1% ivermectin and fresh concentrate lemon juice. The mortalities were decreased to 96.7% after exposure to tea tree oil. Very low percentage of mortality (23.3%) was recorded after 1 hr of exposure to extra virgin olive oil. On the other hand, the reference pediculicide (licid) revealed only mortality rate of 93.3%. On the contrary, no mortalities were recorded in the control group exposed to distilled water. By SEM examination, control lice preserved outer smooth architecture, eyes, antenna, respiratory spiracles, sensory hairs, and legs with hook-like claws. In contrast, dead lice which had been exposed to pediculicidal products showed damage of outer smooth architecture, sensory hairs, respiratory spiracles and/or clinching claws according to pediculicidal products used. PMID:27658606

  3. Epidemiology of tinea capitis among school-age children in Meiganga, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kechia, F A; Kouoto, E A; Nkoa, T; Nweze, E I; Fokoua, D C M; Fosso, S; Somo, M R

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) commonly called scalp ringworm is a worldwide concern and a public health problem in Africa. This study aimed at determining the epidemiologic profile of TC among school-aged children in the savanna zone of Cameroon. All children present at school during this study period, August 2011-July 2012, were examined for signs suggestive of TC. Children not registered at school were excluded from the study. Pathologic specimens were taken from suspected head lesions and cultured. Amongst the 4601 children, average age 10.7±0.16 years, 377 presented with suggestive TC lesions giving a prevalence of 8.1%. The proportion of boys with TC was (63.7%) higher than in girls (36.3%) (P≤0.05). TC manifestations varied; small plaques of alopecia 59.26% were the most frequent. Communal living was the most incriminated risk factor. Three hundred and thirty six isolates were obtained in culture. The prevalence was significantly higher (P<0.05) in age range between 8 and 12 years, followed by that between 13 and 15. The most prevalent isolate was T. soudannense 56.8%, followed by T. rubrum 29.2%. Only 6.0% of the isolates belonged to the genus Microsporum.

  4. Age-related decrease of the phosphorus content in the ligamentum capitis femoris of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Oishi, Takao; Minami, Takeshi; Khanpetch, Pongsak; Azuma, Cho; Quiggins, Ranida

    2014-10-01

    To elucidate compositional changes of the ligament with aging, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements in the ligamentum capitis femoris (LCF) of monkeys with a wide range of ages by direct chemical analysis. Used rhesus and Japanese monkeys consisted of 9 males and 22 females, ranging in age from newborn to 31 years (average age = 10.4 ± 10.9 years). After incineration with nitric acid and perchloric acid, element contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. It was found that the P content decreased significantly in the LCFs of monkeys with aging, but other six element contents, Ca, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na, did not change significantly with aging. Assuming that the P content indicated the active cell density and the S content indicated the protein amount, an age-related change of the mass ratio of P/S was examined in the LCFs. The mass ratio of P/S decreased significantly in the LCFs in childhood. Regarding the relationships among elements, significant direct correlations were found among the Ca, P, S, and Mg contents in the LCFs. It was suggested that the active cell density of the connective tissue cells might decrease significantly in the LCF in childhood.

  5. Susceptibility of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) to pediculicides in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J A; Barker, S C

    2003-08-01

    Infestation with head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, is a worldwide problem, especially among primary (elementary) school children. Although studies in many different countries indicate lower levels of susceptibility to certain insecticides than expected ("resistance"), there is no empirical data from Australia. Data on the susceptibility of head lice to malathion, pyrethrums and permethrin were collected from four schools in Brisbane and one school in northern Queensland. Since no completely susceptible strain of head lice was available and head lice are difficult to keep in culture, a completely susceptible strain of body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, was used for reference. All five groups of head lice were less susceptible to malathion, pyrethrums and permethrin than were lice from the reference strain. Moreover, the degree of susceptibility to these insecticides varied substantially among schools. Thus, a pediculicide that controlled lice at one school in Brisbane would not necessarily control head lice at another school in the same city. These preliminary data indicate that detailed information on the susceptibility of the different populations of head lice in Queensland to the different insecticides available is needed to maximize the chance of effective control of these increasingly common parasites.

  6. Bioactivity of Argentinean Essential Oils Against Permethrin-Resistant Head Lice, Pediculus humanus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT50 values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed. PMID:21062140

  7. Bioactivity of Argentinean essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT(50) values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed.

  8. Increased monooxygenase activity associated with resistance to permethrin in Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    González Audino, P; Barrios, S; Vassena, C; Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E; Picollo, M I

    2005-05-01

    We studied the profile of permethrin resistance in populations of head lice infesting children 6-12 yr old in schools and their homes in and around Buenos Aires, Argentina. Five permethrin-resistant populations with different levels of resistance were collected: Hogar Loyola (HL), Republica de Turquia (RT), Hogar Mitre (HM), Guardia de Honor (GH), and Ricardo Guiraldes (RG). One susceptible population, Bandera Argentina (BA), also was collected. Their level of resistance was evaluated, and results showed resistance ratios of 13 for HL, 16 for RT, 22 for HM, 61 for GH, and 69 for RG. To elucidate the possible involvement of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in conferring permethrin resistance, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity was measured in abdomens of individual third instars and adults by using a fluorometric assay. The ECOD activity was lower in the susceptible BA population (4.7 ng per louse) than in the resistant ones (13.7 ng per louse for RG, 12.3 ng per louse for GH, 8.6 ng per louse for RT, and 8.2 ng per louse for HL). ECOD activity was significantly correlated with the level of resistance in the field populations (r = 0.97, P = 0.0009), suggesting a role for cytochrome monooxygenase P450 system in permethrin resistance by head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer.

  9. Electron Microscopic Alterations in Pediculus humanus capitis Exposed to Some Pediculicidal Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Akkad, Dina M H El; El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Yousof, Hebat-Allah Salah A; Ismail, Mousa A M

    2016-08-01

    Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, infestation is an important public health problem in Egypt. Inadequate application of topical pediculicides and the increasing resistance to the commonly used pediculicides made the urgent need for the development of new agents able to induce irreversible changes in the exposed lice leading to their mortality. The aim of the present work is to evaluate pediculicidal efficacy of some natural products such as olive oil, tea tree oil, lemon juice, and ivermectin separately in comparison with tetramethrin-piperonyl butoxide (licid), as a standard pediculicide commonly used in Egypt. The effects of these products were evaluated by direct observation using dissecting and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Results showed that after 1 hr exposure time in vitro, absolute (100%) mortalities were recorded after exposure to 1% ivermectin and fresh concentrate lemon juice. The mortalities were decreased to 96.7% after exposure to tea tree oil. Very low percentage of mortality (23.3%) was recorded after 1 hr of exposure to extra virgin olive oil. On the other hand, the reference pediculicide (licid) revealed only mortality rate of 93.3%. On the contrary, no mortalities were recorded in the control group exposed to distilled water. By SEM examination, control lice preserved outer smooth architecture, eyes, antenna, respiratory spiracles, sensory hairs, and legs with hook-like claws. In contrast, dead lice which had been exposed to pediculicidal products showed damage of outer smooth architecture, sensory hairs, respiratory spiracles and/or clinching claws according to pediculicidal products used.

  10. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Catherine; Koch, Laine H; Dice, James E; Dempsey, Kimberly K; Moskowitz, Alan B; Barnes-Eley, Myra L; Hubbard, Thomas W; Williams, Judith V

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Forty children aged 1-11 years with clinically diagnosed tinea capitis were randomized to receive selenium sulfide shampoo 1% or ciclopirox shampoo 1% twice a week as adjuncts to an 8-week course of ultramicronized griseofulvin dosed at 10-12 mg/kg/day. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, subjects returned to the clinic for evaluation and scalp cultures. Subjects then returned for follow-up visits 4 weeks after completing treatment. Overall, by 8 weeks, 30 of 33 (90.9%) treated children demonstrated mycological cure. Selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% were equally effective as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children in our study.

  11. Wide geographical dissemination of the multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A clone in neonatal intensive-care units.

    PubMed

    Butin, M; Rasigade, J-P; Martins-Simões, P; Meugnier, H; Lemriss, H; Goering, R V; Kearns, A; Deighton, M A; Denis, O; Ibrahimi, A; Claris, O; Vandenesch, F; Picaud, J-C; Laurent, F

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial late-onset sepsis represents a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates. The Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has been previously described as an emerging cause of nosocomial bacteraemia in French neonatal intensive-care units (NICUs). In this study, we aimed to explore the possible unrecognized dissemination of this clone on a larger geographical scale. One hundred methicillin-resistant S. capitis strains isolated from neonates (n = 86) and adult patients (n = 14) between 2000 and 2013 in four different countries (France, Belgium, the UK, and Australia) were analysed with SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and dru typing. The vast majority of NICU strains showed the NRCS-A pulsotype and the dt11c type (96%). We then randomly selected 14 isolates (from neonates, n = 12, three per country; from adult patients, n = 2), considered to be a subset of representative isolates, and performed further molecular typing (SacII PFGE, SCCmec typing, and multilocus sequence typing-like analysis), confirming the clonality of the S. capitis strains isolated from neonates, despite their distant geographical origin. Whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis of five NICU isolates (from the different countries) attested to high genetic relatedness within the NRCS-A clone. Finally, all of the NRCS-A strains showed multidrug resistance (e.g. methicillin and aminoglycoside resistance, and decreased vancomycin susceptibility), with potential therapeutic implications for infected neonates. In conclusion, this study represents the first report of clonal dissemination of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus clone on a large geographical scale. Questions remain regarding the origin and means of international spread, and the reasons for this clone's apparent predilection for neonates.

  12. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing particular doses of griseofulvin and terbinafine for the treatment of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Drummond-Main, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Two oral antifungal agents, griseofulvin and terbinafine, have regulatory approval in the United States, but it is unknown whether one has superior overall efficacy. Genus-specific differences in efficacy are believed to exist for the two agents. It is not clear at what doses and durations of treatment these differences apply. The goals of this meta-analysis were to determine whether a statistically significant difference in efficacy exists between these agents at a given dose and duration of each in tinea capitis infections overall and to determine whether a genus-specific difference in efficacy exists for these two treatments at a given dose and duration of each. We performed a literature search for clinically and methodologically similar randomized controlled trials comparing 8 weeks of griseofulvin (6.25-12.5 mg/kg/day) to 4 weeks of terbinafine (3.125-6.25 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of tinea capitis. A meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model; results were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials did not show a significant difference in the overall efficacy of the two drugs at the doses specified, but specific efficacy differences were observed based on the infectious species. For tinea capitis caused by Microsporum spp., griseofulvin is superior (p = 0.04), whereas terbinafine is superior for Trichophyton spp. infection (p = 0.04). Our results support species-specific differences in treatment efficacy between griseofulvin and terbinafine and provide a clinical context in which this knowledge may be applied.

  13. TINEA CAPITIS DUE TO TRICHOPHYTON TONSURANS—Incidence, Diagnosis and Epidemiology in the San Francisco Bay Region

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Herbert L.; Halde, Carlyn

    1955-01-01

    Eighty-five cases of tinea capitis due to T. tonsurans were observed in the San Francisco Bay area during the five years 1950-54. This disease, unlike the common microsporum infections, sometimes affects adults and adolescents. Hairs infected with T. tonsurans do not fluoresce under the Wood's light. Diagnosis is a laboratory procedure in which the fungus is isolated from the hair. There are three clinical varieties of the disease. The course is prolonged and treatment is unsatisfactory. The disease apparently has spread from Mexico, through the Southwest and Southern California. Control is difficult. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4. PMID:13260935

  14. Late-onset sepsis due to Staphylococcus capitis 'neonatalis' in low-birthweight infants: a new entity?

    PubMed

    Ben Said, M; Hays, S; Bonfils, M; Jourdes, E; Rasigade, J-P; Laurent, F; Picaud, J-C

    2016-09-01

    During hospitalization, sepsis occurs in one of every five very-low-birthweight infants. The emergence of Staphylococcus capitis (SC)-related sepsis in preterm infants was observed recently. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical severity of SC-related sepsis in preterm infants. Of the 105 infants who presented with sepsis related to coagulase-negative staphylococci, 74 were SC. Severe morbidity was more common in the SC group (55.4%) than in the non-SC coagulase-negative staphylococci group (32.0%) (P=0.03). Multi-variate analysis identified SC-related sepsis as an independent risk factor for severe morbidity.

  15. Enhancing DNA electro-transformation efficiency on a clinical Staphylococcus capitis isolate.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2015-02-01

    Clinical staphylococcus isolates possess a stronger restriction-modification (RM) barrier than laboratory strains. Clinical isolates are therefore more resistant to acceptance of foreign genetic material than laboratory strains, as their restriction systems more readily recognize and destroy foreign DNA. This stronger barrier consequently restricts genetic studies to a small number of domestic strains that are capable of accepting foreign DNA. In this study, an isolate of Staphylococcus capitis, obtained from the blood of a very low birth-weight baby, was transformed with a shuttle vector, pBT2. Optimal conditions for electro-transformation were as follows: cells were harvested at mid-log phase, electro-competent cells were prepared; cells were pre-treated at 55°C for 1min; 3μg of plasmid DNA was mixed with 70-80μL of competent cells (3-4×10(10)cells/mL) at 20°C in 0.5M sucrose, 10% glycerol; and electroporation was conducted using 2.1kV/cm field strength with a 0.1cm gap. Compared to the conventional method, which involves DNA electroporation of Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 as an intermediate strain to overcome the restriction barrier, our proposed approach exhibits a higher level (3 log10 units) of transformation efficiency. Heat treatment was used to temporarily inactivate the recipient RM barrier. Other important parameters contributing to improved electro-transformation efficiency were growth stage for cell harvesting, the quantity of DNA, the transformation temperature and field strength. The approach described here may facilitate genetic manipulations of this opportunistic pathogen.

  16. Splenius capitis is a reliable target for measuring cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in adults.

    PubMed

    Camp, Aaron J; Gu, Chao; Cushing, Sharon L; Gordon, Karen A; Corneil, Brian D

    2017-02-08

    The cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a common and simple test of vestibulospinal reflex patency. In the clinic, cVEMPs are measured in response to loud sounds from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) on the ventral neck, as subjects maintain an uncomfortable head posture needed to recruit SCM. Here we characterize the cVEMP in a dorsal neck turner (splenius capitis; SPL), and compare it with the SCM cVEMP. cVEMPs were recorded simultaneously via surface electromyography from SCM and SPL from 17 healthy subjects in a variety of postures, including head-turned postures adopted while either seated or standing, and the clinical posture. Like the SCM cVEMP recorded ipsilateral to the side of sound stimulation, the cVEMP on the contralateral SPL (synergistic with ipsilateral SCM) was characterized by a biphasic wave of muscle activity that began at ~ 13 ms. cVEMP reliability was higher on SPL vs. SCM in standing postures (chi-squared; P < 0.05), and equivalent results were obtained from SPL in a standing or seated posture. In 9 of the 17 subjects, we also obtained bilateral intramuscular (IM) recordings from SPL at the same time as the surface recordings. In these subjects, the initial surface response in SPL was associated with a consistent decrease in multi-unit IM SPL activity. Overall, these results demonstrate that SPL recordings offer a complimentary target for cVEMP assessments. The expression of SPL cVEMPs in simple head-turned postures may also improve the utility of cVEMP testing for vestibular assessment in children, the elderly, or non-compliant.

  17. Tinea Capitis: Mixed or Consecutive Infection with White and Violet Strains of Trichophyton violaceum: A Diagnostic or Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Roma

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting scalp and hair of pre-pubertal children. With introduction of Griseofulvin in 1958, there has been considerable improvement in the treatment of tinea capitis. A seven-year-old male child was brought to the dermatology clinic. He presented with diffuse white scaly patches of alopecia on scalp of one-year duration. The child was sent to the microbiology section of the National Health laboratory, Botswana for the collection of the samples. The samples consisted of scalp scrapings and few plucked hairs from the suspicious areas, which were collected by swab and scalpel blade methods. Potassium hydroxide (10% KOH) mounts were prepared for scales and hair samples. Scales were positive for fungal elements and endothrix type of perforation was seen in hair. Cultures on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) and Derm agar were incubated at 25°C, which yielded white variant of Trichophyton violaceum after two weeks of incubation. T. vioaceum (white variant) grew in all the plates. After six weeks of treatment with griseofulvin, the repeat culture grew only T. violaceum (violet strain). The child showed a definite clinical improvement. PMID:26814801

  18. Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Infested Cases with Pediculus capitis and P. corporis in Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Riabi, H Ramezani Awal; Atarodi, AR

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. Methods In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. Results The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Conclusion Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi. PMID:23133477

  19. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2012-09-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca.

  20. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe)2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiling; Li, Fuguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe)2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program. PMID:26035817

  1. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2005-12-01

    The toxicity of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of their related compounds, benzyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, as well as two widely used pediculicides, d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay with female lice at 0.25 mg/cm(2), benzaldehyde was 29- and 27-fold more toxic than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively, as judged by median lethal time (LT(50)) values. Salicylaldehyde was nine and eight times more active than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively. Pediculicidal activity of linalool was comparable with that of d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. Cinnamomum bark essential oil was slightly less effective than either d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. Benzyl alcohol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde exhibited moderate pediculicidal activity. After 24h of exposure, no hatching was observed with 0.063 mg/cm(2) salicylaldehyde, 0.125 mg/cm(2) benzaldehyde, 0.5mg/cm(2)Cinnamomum bark essential oil, 1.0 mg/cm(2) (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 1.0 mg/cm(2) benzyl cinnamate. Little or no ovicidal activity was observed with d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. In vapour phase toxicity tests with female lice, benzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde were much more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these compounds was largely due to action in the vapour phase. Neither d-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Cinnamomum bark essential oil and test compounds described merit further study as potential pediculicides or ovicides for the control of P. h. capitis.

  2. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe)2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Wu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Xiling; Li, Fuguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe)2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  3. Pediculosis capitis among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tappeh, K Hazrati; Chavshin, AR; Hajipirloo, H Mohammadzadeh; Khashaveh, S; Hanifian, H; Bozorgomid, A; Mohammadi, M; Gharabag, D Jabbari; Azizi, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psychological effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010. Methods: 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls) were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive. Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test. Results: Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suitable warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys) are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups. There was no significant relation between parent’s education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation. Conclusion: The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school children.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem. PMID:23293782

  4. Insecticidal activity of individual and mixed monoterpenoids of geranium essential oil against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Picollo, M I; González-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G

    2012-03-01

    The major components of geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) oil and their mixtures were tested against female Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed four major constituents: citronellol (38%), geraniol (16%), citronellyl formate (10.4%), and linalool (6.45%) (concentration expressed as percentage of total). Topical application demonstrated that the most potent component was citronellol and geraniol, with LD50 values 9.7 and 12.7 microg/insect, respectively. Linalool and Citronellyl formate were less toxic with LD50 values 24.7 and 38.5 microg/insect, respectively. Toxicity of these four major constituents in the same proportion as the natural oil, was greater than whole oil and each individual component. Removal of any four constituents produced a decreased in effectiveness. The absence of citronellol caused the greatest decrease in toxicity (DL50 from 2.2 to 10.9 microg/insect), leading us to conclude that this constituent is the major contributor to oil toxicity. The knowledge of the role of each constituent in the toxicity of the whole oil gives the possibility to create artificial blends of different constituents for the development of more effective control agents.

  5. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, A; Shemshad, K; Sayyadi, M; Biglarian, A; Vahabi, B; Sayyad, S; Shemshad, M; Rafinejad, J

    2012-06-01

    Human head lice, Pediculus (humanus) capitis, infest people worldwide and are most prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice, in relation to socioeconomic status of the family and hygienic practices in the home. The prevalence rate was determined in 27 primary schools that had 810 students in Sanandaj city who were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. A total of 38 students from all grades were infested with different rates of infestations. In addition, standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each student were fulfilled. Children aged 10-11 years were the most frequently affected, there was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family income and parents education level (α=5%). Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world. Pediculosis was found to be more prevalent among children of fathers with lower level of education and socioeconomic status, it is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in this area.

  7. IL6-174 G>C Polymorphism (rs1800795) Association with Late Effects of Low Dose Radiation Exposure in the Portuguese Tinea Capitis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Paula; Durães, Cecília; Mendes, Adélia; Costa, Natália Rios; Chora, Inês; Ferreira, Sara; Araújo, Emanuel; Lopes, Pedro; Rosa, Gilberto; Marques, Pedro; Bettencourt, Paulo; Oliveira, Inês; Costa, Francisco; Ramos, Isabel; Teles, Maria José; Guimarães, João Tiago; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    Head and neck cancers, and cardiovascular disease have been described as late effects of low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, namely in tinea capitis cohorts. In addition to radiation dose, gender and younger age at exposure, the genetic background might be involved in the susceptibility to LDR late effects. The -174 G>C (rs1800795) SNP in IL6 has been associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, nevertheless this association is still controversial. We assessed the association of the IL6-174 G>C SNP with LDR effects such as thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and carotid atherosclerosis in the Portuguese tinea capitis cohort. The IL6-174 G>C SNP was genotyped in 1269 individuals formerly irradiated for tinea capitis. This sampling group included thyroid cancer (n = 36), basal cell carcinoma (n = 113) and cases without thyroid or basal cell carcinoma (1120). A subgroup was assessed for atherosclerosis by ultrasonography (n = 379) and included matched controls (n = 222). Genotypes were discriminated by real-time PCR using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. In the irradiated group, we observed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with carotid plaque risk, both in the genotypic (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.60-7.95, p-value = 0.002) and in the recessive (OR = 3.02, CI = 1.42-6.42, p-value = 0.004) models. Irradiation alone was not a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis. We did not find a significant association of the IL6-174 C allele with thyroid carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma risk. The IL6-174 CC genotype confers a three-fold risk for carotid atherosclerotic disease suggesting it may represent a genetic susceptibility factor in the LDR context.

  8. Thyroid and parathyroid tumours in patients submitted to X-ray scalp epilation during the tinea capitis eradication campaign in the North of Portugal (1950-1963).

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Paula; Pereira, Dina; Mendes, Adélia; Teixeira-Gomes, José; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-10-01

    Tinea capitis attained epidemical proportions in the fifth and sixth decades in Portugal, as in other countries. Before starting the utilization of griseofulvin in 1959, the best approach to treat tinea capitis infection was X-ray scalp epilation combined with topical antimycotic ointments. A long-term side effect of this therapy is thyroid disease, namely thyroid cancer; data on parathyroid lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma) are scarce. We observed clinically 1,375 individuals irradiated in childhood for tinea capitis treatment in the North of Portugal with the main purpose of evaluating thyroid and parathyroid tumours as possible sequelae of the irradiation treatment. For each individual, a cervical ultrasound and a serum calcium measurement were proposed. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suggested whenever ultrasound thyroid nodules presented suspicious features. We observed a 54 % frequency of thyroid nodules and a 2.8 % frequency of thyroid carcinoma (38/1,375). Nineteen of the 38 (50 %) carcinomas were diagnosed by us, whereas the remaining 19 carcinomas had been diagnosed and treated prior to our observation. The carcinomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men. Benign excised lesions were also significantly more frequent in women and in patients irradiated at younger ages. Seven women, considered asymptomatic until our clinical observation, had laboratory signs of hyperparathyroidism. The data we have obtained, namely high thyroid cancer frequency, corroborate previous data from childhood irradiated cohorts and highlight the need for the close follow-up of these populations in order to identify and treat early undiagnosed head and neck lesions. No evidence of increased parathyroid disease was found in this cohort of head and neck X-irradiated patients.

  9. IL6-174 G>C Polymorphism (rs1800795) Association with Late Effects of Low Dose Radiation Exposure in the Portuguese Tinea Capitis Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Adélia; Costa, Natália Rios; Chora, Inês; Ferreira, Sara; Araújo, Emanuel; Lopes, Pedro; Rosa, Gilberto; Marques, Pedro; Bettencourt, Paulo; Oliveira, Inês; Costa, Francisco; Ramos, Isabel; Teles, Maria José; Guimarães, João Tiago; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancers, and cardiovascular disease have been described as late effects of low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, namely in tinea capitis cohorts. In addition to radiation dose, gender and younger age at exposure, the genetic background might be involved in the susceptibility to LDR late effects. The -174 G>C (rs1800795) SNP in IL6 has been associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, nevertheless this association is still controversial. We assessed the association of the IL6-174 G>C SNP with LDR effects such as thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and carotid atherosclerosis in the Portuguese tinea capitis cohort. The IL6-174 G>C SNP was genotyped in 1269 individuals formerly irradiated for tinea capitis. This sampling group included thyroid cancer (n = 36), basal cell carcinoma (n = 113) and cases without thyroid or basal cell carcinoma (1120). A subgroup was assessed for atherosclerosis by ultrasonography (n = 379) and included matched controls (n = 222). Genotypes were discriminated by real-time PCR using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. In the irradiated group, we observed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with carotid plaque risk, both in the genotypic (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.60–7.95, p-value = 0.002) and in the recessive (OR = 3.02, CI = 1.42–6.42, p-value = 0.004) models. Irradiation alone was not a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis. We did not find a significant association of the IL6-174 C allele with thyroid carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma risk. The IL6-174 CC genotype confers a three-fold risk for carotid atherosclerotic disease suggesting it may represent a genetic susceptibility factor in the LDR context. PMID:27662210

  10. Tumors and other diseases following childhood x-ray treatment for ringworm of the scalp (Tinea capitis).

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E; Moseson, Miriam; Harley, Naomi; Pasternack, Bernard S

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the study is to characterize the risk of tumors from radiation exposure to the head and neck. A cohort of 2,224 children given x-ray treatment and 1,380 given only topical medications for ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis) during 1940-1959 have been followed up for a median of 39 y to determine tumor incidence. Follow-ups were by mail/telephone questionnaire, with 84-88% of the original cohort followed and with medical verification of diseases of interest. Sixteen intracranial tumors [7 brain cancers, 4 meningiomas, and 5 acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas)] occurred in the x-irradiated group following an average brain dose of about 1.4 Gy, compared to 1 acoustic neuroma in the control group. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for brain cancer was 3.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 5.9]. Even though the dose to the thyroid gland was only about 60 mGy, 2 thyroid cancers were found in the irradiated group vs. none among controls, and 11 vs. 1 thyroid adenomas were found in the respective groups. Following an average dose of about 4 Gy to cranial marrow, 8 cases of leukemia (SIR = 3.2, CI: 1.5, 6.1) were observed in the irradiated group and 1 in the control group. There was also a suggestive excess of blood dyscrasias. There was no difference between the groups in the frequency of other cancers of the head and neck (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) or in total mortality.

  11. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5) was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax appears to offer a

  12. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    PubMed

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (P<0.01). The most effective pediculicide was T. indica extract shampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 values<1.0 min. Our data showed that all herbal shampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  13. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in a woman and Tinea capitis in her 15-day-old baby: molecular evidence of vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, E T M; Borghi, E; Cerri, A; Sciota, R; Morace, G; Menni, S

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman who came under our observation with a 7-year history of a chronic erythematous scaly dermatitis, diagnosed as psoriasis, involving gluteal area and thighs, and treated with topical steroids without benefit. During pregnancy, a progressive worsening of her condition and an extension of cutaneous lesions were observed. Her newborn, a 15-day-old girl, presented a similar scaly and squamous lesion on her scalp. Mycological examination was positive for Trichophyton rubrum in both cases, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed the isogenicity of the two isolates. We performed a diagnosis of T. rubrum tinea corporis and tinea capitis. The case we describe illustrates an unusual clinical presentation of tinea corporis with remarkable extension of cutaneous lesions due to the diagnostic delay and the continuous use of local steroids, together with a rare tinea capitis in the newborn. Our experience highlights the possibility of mother-child transmission and the importance of an early diagnosis.

  14. Impact of family ownerships, individual hygiene, and residential environments on the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Salimian, Shahin; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Khayatzadeh, Simin

    2015-11-01

    In the appraisal of head lice outbreak, in addition to socioeconomic factors and availability of health care services, environmental conditions of the households must be taken into account. However, interviewing with children or mailing questionnaires to families may not reflect the actualities. Therefore, in this study, all the inclusive factors which may be associated with head lice outbreak were thoroughly and closely investigated. The data were collected by examining students at schools and surveying patients' households. A questionnaire concerning children's personal hygienic practices, family features, and environmental conditions of the households was filled out during the close assessment of the residential area. The overall prevalence of head lice was obtained as 5.9%, and the difference was not significant within the urban (5.1%) and rural (6.1%) communities. Overall, the number of infested students was more frequent in girls (6.6%) than boys (2.8%), but the difference was not significant. The highest infestation rate was obtained in the examined students whose fathers were unemployed, farmer, and herdsman. Family income showed greater correlation with the prevalence of pediculosis capitis. A high frequency of pediculosis capitis was identified among the students who were sharing individual items with siblings. Assessment of households showed that room flooring material and keeping animals at home were highly correlated with head lice prevalence. Households should be informed that infestations happen, irrespective of socioeconomic status. However, the physical and environmental conditions of living areas and households play an important role in head lice prevention.

  15. Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2011-11-01

    The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide, with high prevalence in children. P. humanus capitis has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments, and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance to conventional insecticides. Non-toxic alternative options are hence needed for head lice treatment and/or prevention, and natural products from plants are good candidates for safer control agents that may provide good anti-lice activity. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study carried out the pediculocidal activity using the hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) against P. humanus capitis examined by direct contact and fumigant toxicity (closed- and open-container methods) bioassay. The chemical composition of S. aromaticum flower bud hexane extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent (58.79%) of flower bud hexane extract S. aromaticum was identified as chavibetol (5-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The hexane extract of S. aromaticum was subjected to gas chromatography analysis, and totally 47 compounds were detected, of which chavibetol was predominantly present. The other major constituents present in the hexane extract were eugenol acetate (phenol,2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-,acetate (15.09%), caryophyllene-(I1) (2,6,10,10-tetramethyl bicyclo [7.2.0] undeca-1,6-diene (13.75%), caryophyllene oxide (3.04%), 2,6,6,9-tetramethyl-1,4,8-cycloundecatriene (1.67%), and copaene (1.33%). The filter paper contact bioassay study showed pronounced pediculicidal activity in the flower bud hexane

  16. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to control Pediculus humanus capitis, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Elango, Gandhi; Arora, Pooja; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Manikandan, Sivan; Jose, Sujin

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the antiparasitic efficacies of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Solanum trilobatum against the adult head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed that the particles were in the form of nanocrystals as evidenced by the major peaks at 2θ values of 27.52°, 36.21°, and 54.43° identified as 110, 101, and 211 reflections, respectively. FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,466 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. SEM images displayed NPs that were spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates with an average size of 70 nm. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered a three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The pediculocidal and acaricidal activities of synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the percent mortality of 31, 42, 63, 82, 100; 36, 44, 67, 89, and 100 at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L, respectively, against P. h. capitis and H. a. anatolicum. The average larval percent mortality of synthesized TiO2 NPs was 38, 47, 66, 79, and 100 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/L, respectively, against A. subpictus

  17. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  18. Single-Molecule Sequencing (PacBio) of the Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A Clone Reveals the Basis of Multidrug Resistance and Adaptation to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Environment

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Patrícia Martins; Lemriss, Hajar; Dumont, Yann; Lemriss, Sanâa; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Assant-Trouillet, Sophie; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; El Kabbaj, Saâd; Butin, Marine; Laurent, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S. capitis genomes. Our goal was to delineate the uniqueness of the NRCS-A clone with respect to antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and mobile genetic elements. We identified 6 antimicrobial resistance genes, all carried by mobile genetic elements. Previously described virulence genes present in the NRCS-A genomes are shared with the six non-NRCS-A S. capitis genomes. Overall, 63 genes are specific to the NRCS-A lineage, including 28 genes located in the methicillin-resistance cassette SCCmec. Among the 35 remaining genes, 25 are of unknown function, and 9 correspond to an additional type I restriction modification system (n = 3), a cytosine methylation operon (n = 2), and a cluster of genes related to the biosynthesis of teichoic acids (n = 4). Interestingly, a tenth gene corresponds to a resistance determinant for nisin (nsr gene), a bacteriocin secreted by potential NRCS-A strain niche competitors in the gut microbiota. The genomic characteristics presented here emphasize the contribution of mobile genetic elements to the emergence of multidrug resistance in the S. capitis NRCS-A clone. No NRCS-A-specific known virulence determinant was detected, which does not support a role for virulence as a driving force of NRCS-A emergence in NICUs worldwide. However, the presence of a nisin resistance determinant on the NRCS-A chromosome, but not in other S. capitis strains and most coagulase-negative representatives, might confer a competitive advantage to NRCS

  19. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in young children in boarding schools in Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant.

  20. Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens controlled with a combination therapy: systemic antibiosis (metronidazole plus clindamycin), dermatosurgical approach, and high-dose isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, Georgi

    2011-05-01

    Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is a suppurative process that involves the scalp, eventually resulting in extensive scarring and irreversible alopecia. The condition is also known as 'acne necrotica miliaris' or 'Proprionibacterium' folliculitis. Most often the disease affects men of African-American or African-Caribbean descent between 20 and 40 years of age. The clinical picture is determined by fluctuating painful fistule-forming conglomerates of abscesses in the region of the occipital scalp. The cause of scalp folliculitis is not well understood. It is generally considered to be an inflammatory reaction to components of the hair follicle, particularly the micro-organisms. These include: bacteria (especially Propionibacterium acnes, but in severe cases, also Staphylococcus aureus), Yeasts (Malassezia species) and mites (Demodex folliculorum). The initial histopathologic finding is an exclusively neutrophilic infiltration followed by a granulomatous infiltrate. The treatment of the disease is usually difficult and often disappointing. Successful treatment with isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass could be achieved only after regular systematic administration in the course of 3-4 months. Here we describe a patient with eruptive purulent form of the disease, which has been controlled with combination therapy: systemic antibiosis with metronidazole and clindamycin, dermatosurgical removal of single nodular formations, and isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass for 3-5 months.

  1. Continuous increase of Trichophyton tonsurans as a cause of tinea capitis in the urban area of Paris, France: a 5-year-long study.

    PubMed

    Gits-Muselli, Maud; Benderdouche, Mazouz; Hamane, Samia; Mingui, Anselme; Feuilhade de Chauvin, Martine; Guigue, Nicolas; Picat, Marie-Quitterie; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Petit, Antoine; Bagot, Martine; Alanio, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-10-14

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33.5%), Trichophyton soudanense (38.3%), or Microsporum audouinii (28.2%)]. When considering one TC case per family, we observed a significant increase of T. tonsurans (P = .018) during these 5 years. The increase was more pronounced (P = .0047) in patients of West-African descent (n = 666), and was at the expense of M. audouinii and T. soudanense On the other hand, the Caribbean patients (n = 85) remained predominantly (72.9%) infected by T. tonsurans Our results show a better virulence of T. tonsurans over other species as already reported. Since T. tonsurans has not been reported in Africa, the infection of patients of West-African descent probably took place in the Paris area by exchanges with Caribbean patients. This increase of TC due to T. tonsurans was observed in the context of griseofulvin being the only licensed paediatric treatment for TC in France, which should deserve reappraisal because terbinafine may be more efficacious.

  2. Screening for asymptomatic scalp carriage in household contacts of patients with tinea capitis during 1997-2011: a retrospective hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Papadogeorgaki, Eleni; Athanasopoulou, Vasiliki; Antoniou, Christina; Stratigos, Alexander J

    2014-06-01

    For anthropophilic tinea capitis (TC), household spread and asymptomatic scalp carriage (ASC) is considered an important route of transmission and incomplete clearance. To investigate ASC in household contacts of patients diagnosed with TC in a tertiary hospital in Athens, Greece, we retrospectively reviewed the medical files of household contacts that were screened for ASC from 1997 to 2011. Only 34 household contacts of 15 index cases agreed to come for screening. Thirty-three (97%) household contacts were asymptomatic scalp carriers. The most commonly isolated species was Trichophyton violaceum (59%). There was a statistically significant association of ASC with the isolated dermatophyte species (T. violaceum, P-value: 0.029), and with the age of younger than 16 years old (P-value: 0.005), while there was no association with gender (P-value: 0.672). A small number of household contacts accepted to proceed for screening. ASC was found in nearly all screened household contacts and was associated with T. violaceum and younger age. The low number of household contacts that accepted screening may reflect the ignorance of the general population about the possibility of ASC among household contacts in case of a patient with TC.

  3. Treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation: is regular combing alone with a special detection comb effective at all levels?

    PubMed

    Kurt, Özgür; Balcıoğlu, I Cüneyt; Limoncu, M Emin; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Arserim, Süha K; Görgün, Serhan; Oyur, Tuba; Karakuş, Mehmet; Düzyol, Didem; Gökmen, Aysegül Aksoy; Kitapçıoğlu, Gül; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Head lice infestation (HLI) caused by Pediculus humanus capitis has been a public health problem worldwide. Specially designed combs are used to identify head lice, while anti-lice products are applied on the scalp for treatment. In the present study, we aimed to test whether combing only by precision detection comb (PDC) or metal pin comb (MPC) could be effective alternatives to the use of anti-lice products in children. A total of 560 children from two rural schools in Turkey were screened. In the PDC trial, children were combed every second day for 14 days, while in the MPC trial, combing was performed once in every four days for 15 days. Children were divided into two groups (dry combing and wet combing) for both trials and results were compared. The results showed no significant differences between dry and wet combing strategies for both combs for the removal of head lice (p > 0.05). The number of adult head lice declined significantly on each subsequent combing day in both approaches, except on day 15 in the MPC trial. In the end, no louse was found in 54.1 and 48.9% of children in the PDC and MPC trials, respectively. Since family members of infested children were not available, they were not checked for HLI. Four times combing within 2 weeks with MPC combs was found effective for both treatment of low HLI and prevention of heavy HLI. In conclusion, regular combing by special combs decreases HLI level in children and is safely applicable as long-term treatment.

  4. Follow-up study of patients treated by x-ray epilation for tinea capitis. Estimation of the dose to the thyroid and pituitary glands and other structures of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Harley, N H; Albert, R E; Shore, R E; Pasternack, B S

    1976-07-01

    This study is a further investigation of radiation dose to various head structures in the children given X-ray therapy for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). In this work, estimates of the dose to the thyroid and pituitary gland were obtained with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters using a child's head phantom. Doses were also measured for the parotid gland and several skin sites where skin tumours developed in the irradiated cases. In a previous study, brain and scalp doses of 140 and 500-800 rad had been estimated for the treated group using this same head phantom. In this work dosemeters were also placed in the same brain locations so that comparisons could be obtained between the two studies. The thyroid dose was estimated to be 6 +/- 2 rad and the pituitary dose was 49 +/- 6 rad for the conventional tinea capitis treatment. The dose to the parotid gland was 39 rad and the dose to skin sites on the face and neck where tumours occurred ranged from 20 to 40 rad. The data for the thyroid adenoma response from this and other studies involving irradiation of children suggests a linear dose-response relationship within the first 30-40 years after exposure with a risk of about 0-04% per rad.

  5. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  6. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C

    1981-03-01

    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2.

  7. Dissecting cellulitis (Perifolliculitis Capitis Abscedens et Suffodiens): a comprehensive review focusing on new treatments and findings of the last decade with commentary comparing the therapies and causes of dissecting cellulitis to hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-05-16

    Dissecting cellulitis (DC) also referred to as to as perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (Hoffman) manifests with perifollicular pustules, nodules, abscesses and sinuses that evolve into scarring alopecia. In the U.S., it predominantly occurs in African American men between 20-40 years of age. DC also occurs in other races and women more rarely. DC has been reported worldwide. Older therapies reported effective include: low dose oral zinc, isotretinoin, minocycline, sulfa drugs, tetracycline, prednisone, intralesional triamcinolone, incision and drainage, dapsone, antiandrogens (in women), topical clindamycin, topical isotretinoin, X-ray epilation and ablation, ablative C02 lasers, hair removal lasers (800nm and 694nm), and surgical excision. Newer treatments reported include tumor necrosis factor blockers (TNFB), quinolones, macrolide antibiotics, rifampin, alitretinoin, metronidazole, and high dose zinc sulphate (135-220 mg TID). Isotretinoin seems to provide the best chance at remission, but the number of reports is small, dosing schedules variable, and the long term follow up beyond a year is negligible; treatment failures have been reported. TNFB can succeed when isotretinoin fails, either as monotherapy, or as a bridge to aggressive surgical treatment, but long term data is lacking. Non-medical therapies noted in the last decade include: the 1064 nm laser, ALA-PDT, and modern external beam radiation therapy. Studies that span more than 1 year are lacking. Newer pathologic hair findings include: pigmented casts, black dots, and "3D" yellow dots. Newer associations include: keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome, Crohn disease and pyoderma gangrenosum. Older associations include arthritis and keratitis. DC is likely a reaction pattern, as is shown by its varied therapeutic successes and failures. The etiology of DC remains enigmatic and DC is distinct from hidradenitis suppurativa, which is shown by their varied responses to therapies and their

  8. A 21-day-old boy with an annular eruption. Tinea faciei / Tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Berry, Adam; Abramovici, Gil; Chamlin, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    A healthy 21-day-old black male was referred to pediatric dermatology for evaluation of a facial and scalp eruption that had been present for less than 1 week. The child's parents had applied a topical corticosteroid cream for several days without any improvement noted. The child was otherwise well and thriving. Review of systems was negative. Family history was unremarkable for autoimmune or infectious skin diseases. On physical examination the patient was alert, active, and vigorous. He had multiple 1 to 2.5-cm erythematous annular, scaly plaques with pustules on the periphery on his upper cheeks, forehead, and anterior scalp (Figures 1-2). No alopecia was noted. Occipital and neck lymph nodes were not palpable. A potassium hydroxide skin preparation was negative for fungal elements and a fungal culture was performed. Serum laboratory testing was also performed.

  9. [Pediculosis capitis: a questionnaire survey in 4 schools of the Bordeaux Academy 1990-1991].

    PubMed

    Courtiade, C; Labrèze, C; Fontan, I; Taïeb, A; Maleville, J

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of head lice treatment was conducted in four schools--each including a nursery and an elementary school--in the Bordeaux area. Two schools were situated in the centre of the city, one in a suburban area and one in a rural area (50 km from the city). Four-page questionnaires were filled in anonymously by the parents in April 1991; 840 answers were obtained (80 p. 100 response rate). Between January 1990 and March 1991, 48.7 p. 100 of children had at least one episode of head lice infestation (infestation rates varied from 38.8 to 62.6 p. 100 depending on the schools); 30.5 p. 100 of children were contaminated for the first time during that period. Lice were detected by the parents in 95 p. 100 of the cases. The prevalence of lice was higher in females (60 p. 100) than in males (40 p. 100). The highest prevalence was noted in the suburban school where 17 p. 100 of the parents were unemployed at the time of the survey. The peak age for head lice was 7, but 19.4 p. 100 of nursery school children aged 2-4 years had been contaminated at least once. Impetigo was rare (1.2 p. 100), and pruritus was noted in only 14.2 p. 100 of the cases. Most children had been contaminated at school. Curative treatment was counselled by a chemist in 87 p. 100 of the cases. Pyrethrins were used in 81 p. 100, and the shampoo (Hegor) plus spray (Paraspecial Poux) association was the most frequent, totalling two-thirds of prescriptions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Comparative efficacy of new commercial pediculicides against adults and eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2012-05-01

    The use of pyrethroids to control head louse infestations have suffered considerable loss of efficacy due to the development of resistance. In the last past years, several new alternative products to synthetic pyrethroids have been developed and are sold in the Argentinean market against head lice. The present study investigated the efficacy of two new Argentinean products Nopucid Qubit® and Nopucid Bio Citrus® and its comparison with two reference products Nyda® and Hedrin®. Nopucid Qubit® is a two-phase lotion containing geraniol and citronellol (phase 1) and ciclopentaxiloxane (phase 2); while Nopucid Bio Citrus® contains dimethicone, ciclopentaxiloxane, and bergamot essential oil. These products are physically acting compounds. The sensitivity of two laboratory assays for testing insecticide activity of new formulations was also compared. Mortality (100%) of motile forms occurred after they were exposed to any product for 1 and 2 min, either by in vitro or ex vivo test. Concerning ovicidal activity, the most effective pediculicides were Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nyda®, followed by Hedrin® and Nopucid Qubit®. The present study revealed, for the first time, the efficacy of over-the-counter commercial pediculicides available in Argentine (Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nopucid Qubit®) on either motile stages or eggs against head lice.

  11. Influence of the formulations in removing eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Picollo, María Inés; Vassena, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Head lice lay eggs in human head hairs in order to reproduce. There is a difficulty associated to the process of detaching these eggs: they are tightly gripped to the hair by a secretion produced by female head lice. The physical removal of eggs has become an important part of treatment of louse infestations. The finding of new products to loosen the eggs is necessary to avoid mistaken diagnosis or reinfestations. This work aimed to compare different kinds of pediculicide formulations in order to find if their presentations represented differences in the egg remover effect. We also wanted to present a new device to test the efficacy of the egg remover formulations. Products with creamy presentations (Bio infant lice and egg remover and hair conditioner) and one containing dimethicone (Nyda) showed the lower mean forces compared with the control (lower mean forces represented best removal activity). Whereas, the Biferdil egg remover (gel) and Nopucid Tribit (hydroalcoholic lotion) had no egg removal effect, presenting the highest mean forces (177.82 and 189.99 mN, respectively) compared with the control. Additionally, we proposed a removal index (RI) to compare the efficacy of different products on the egg removal activity (RI > 0, good performance). The higher index values were for Bio infant lice and egg remover (0.72) and Biferdil hair conditioner (0.58). The lowest index values were for Biferdil egg remover (-0.26) and Nopucid Tribit (-0.35).The formulation of over the counter pediculicides in the egg remover effect was discussed.

  12. Chronically recurrent and disseminated tinea faciei/corporis--autoinoculation from asymptomatic tinea capitis carriage.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ikegami, Michiko; Takase, Takako; Otsuka, Fujio

    2010-01-01

    We report clinical findings in a 12-year-old girl with long-term recurrent and disseminated multiple eruptions of tinea faciei and tinea corporis, which persisted for 10 years. Mycological examination revealed the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans in both scale samples from the body lesions and in brushing samples from her asymptomatic scalp, suggesting that she was an asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier on the scalp, and autoinoculation of the dermatophyte was responsible for the recurrent and disseminated tinea faciei/corporis.

  13. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children.

  14. Potential role of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, as vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Leo, N; Prociv, P; Barker, S C

    2003-06-01

    Since the pioneering work of Charles Nicolle in 1909 [see Gross (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:10539-10540] most medical officers and scientists have assumed that body lice are the sole vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii, the aetiological agent of louse-borne epidemic typhus (LBET). Here we review the evidence for the axiom that head lice are not involved in epidemics of LBET. Laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of head lice to transmit R. prowazekii, but evidence for this in the field has not been reported. However, the assumption that head lice do not transmit R. prowazekii has meant that head lice have not been examined for R. prowazekii during epidemics of LBET. The strong association between obvious (high) infestations of body lice and LBET has contributed to this perception, but this association does not preclude head lice as vectors of R. prowazekii. Indeed, where the prevalence and intensity of body louse infections may be high (e.g. during epidemics of LBET), the prevalence and intensity of head louse infestations is generally high as well. This review of the epidemiology of head louse and body louse infestations, and of LBET, indicates that head lice are potential vectors of R. prowazekii in the field. Simple observations in the field would reveal whether or not head lice are natural vectors of this major human pathogen.

  15. Efficacy of products to remove eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from the human hair.

    PubMed

    Lapeere, Hilde; Brochez, Lieve; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Stichele, Robert H Vander; Remon, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Jo; Leybaert, Luc

    2014-03-01

    Head lice infestations are very common in children aged between 3 and 12 yr old. The eggs of the head louse are difficult to remove and remain firmly attached to the hair even after any head louse treatment. Solid in vitro and in vivo evidence to support the use of any of the proposed products to facilitate nit removal is scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of several products to remove eggshells from human hair using an objective measurement procedure. Water and ordinary hair conditioner significantly facilitated the removal of nits in vitro. We found no difference between ordinary conditioner and products specifically marketed for the purpose of nit removal. Other products such as formic acid solution and almond oil did not have a beneficial effect.

  16. Comparative efficacy of commercial combs in removing head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

    2013-03-01

    The use of a fine comb for removing lice from the head of the human host is a relevant tool both in the diagnosis of infestations and as part of an integrated control strategy of head lice. The effectiveness of a fine comb depends, in part, on the design and material they are built. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of metal and plastic combs that are currently used in the removal of head lice and eggs worldwide. The space between comb teeth and the length was 0.23 and 13 mm in KSL® plastic, 0.3 and 10.7 mm in NOPUCID® plastic, 0.15 and 31 mm in KSL® metal and 0.09 and 37 mm in ASSY® metal. The assays were performed comparing the combs in pairs: (a) KSL® vs. NOPUCID® plastic combs, (b) KSL® vs. ASSY® metal combs and (c) KSL® plastic comb vs. ASSY® metal comb. The most effective plastic comb was KSL®, removing a higher number of individuals of all stages. The most effective metal comb was ASSY®, removing more insects of all stages (except adults). The comparative test between KSL® plastic and ASSY® metal showed that ASSY® was the most effective in removing head lice and their eggs.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of Pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary-school children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Motovali-Emami, Mohammad; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Fekri, Alireza; Yazdi, Mahbobeh

    2008-01-15

    This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of and epidemiological factors associated with, head lice infections in Iranian primary schools in 2006 and evaluate data on the therapeutic efficacy of lindane shampoo. A total of 40586 children (19774 boys (48.72%) and 20812 girls (51.28%)] from 198 Governmentprimary schools in Kerman, were screened for head lice between March and June 2006. The diagnosis of head lice infestation was confirmed by clinical inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice nymphal stage, or eggs (nit) by line-toothed head lice comb. All children infested with lice were treated with lindane shampoo (1% gamma benzene hexachloride). The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 1.8%. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (2.9%) than in boys (0.6%) (p = 0.000). The infestation rate was greater among pupils who were living in rural areas (4.6%) than in urban areas (1.5%). Of the 721 children with a positive examination result, 424 pupils (58.8%) were reported as having been infested with head lice in the previous 6 months. Mother's education level was a significant risk factor in this model (p < 0.05). At 2 weeks after the primary treatment, the success rates of treatment were 49%. Comprehensive survey in our work showed the better future of the disease and related factors. Education campaigns by health care officials, physicians and teachers are expected to be helpful for head lice control. It is essential that governments should be supported form cooperation between the school authorities and public health centers to successful control head lice infestation in primary school. Also there is an urgent need to identify safe, novel insecticides for proved efficacy.

  18. Epidemiology of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of infestation with head lice in primary schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand. Methods The present study was to determine the head lice infestation (Pediculosis) levels in primary schoolchildren, during May, 2011 to July, 2011, A total of 3 747 schoolchildren aged 5-12 years old from 12 selected primary school of Ladkrabang district, the eastern area of Bangkok were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was defined as the presence of at least on living adult, nymph and viable egg. Results The overall head lice infestation rate was 23.32% and infestation rate was higher in girls (47.12%) than in boys (0%). The infestation rate among schoolchildren varied from 12.62% to 29.76%. The infestation rate among girls varied from 26.07% (12 years old group) to 55.89% (8 years old group). Conclusions Pediculosis is a common public health problem affecting primary schoolchildren in eastern area of Bangkok and those levels are epidemic importance. PMID:23569868

  19. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal and external…

  20. A Study of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Ban, Maryam; Motaghi, Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Head lice contamination has a global distribution and it is regarded as a main health problem throughout the world. Given the importance of physical health of students and head lice prevalence at school age, we aimed to examine the rate of head lice contamination among primary school students in the villages of Abadan in 2012. In this descriptive study, 624 students were randomly selected from primary schools. The hair of all students under the study was examined by the researcher (community health nurse) and the result was registered in the checklist confidentially. Moreover, one questionnaire including personal and family information was filled out for each student. The obtained data were later analyzed in SPSS software, version 18, using statistical test Chi-square and central qualitative and distribution statistics. The frequency of lice contamination was 27 cases (4.33%) in total, all of whom were girls. Although the difference between the head lice contamination and gender was statistically significant (P=0.00), the difference between this contamination type and grade of students and their parents' education and fathers' occupation was not significance. The highest rate of contamination (6.73%) was, however, observed in fifth graders. All contaminations were seen in girls, which could be due to their longer hair or wearing scarf as compared with boys. Unfavorable health condition and regional hot weather can be effective as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide the students, especially girls, with health training.

  1. Ex vivo effectiveness of French over-the-counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Toubate, Berthine; Veirron, Emilie; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is still a public health problem worldwide, with an intracountry and intercountry prevalence variation of 0.7 to 59%. There is a large variety of over-the-counter anti-louse products, but their efficacy is not always well assessed. Our objective was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of 21 over-the-counter head louse products, available in France during the period of 2008 to 2012. We tested children living in Tours City in central France and visiting preschools, primary schools, kindergarten, camps, and child care facilities, as well as children in their family houses, and were examined for the presence of lice. The products were collected from randomly selected pharmacies by covert investigators and then tested in the laboratory on an ex vivo sample of head lice and their eggs, collected from the hair of infested children. Living lice and unharmed eggs were collected from the scalps of 3-12 years old. The laboratory conditions for ex vivo testing mimicked the manufacturers' instructions for exposure time and application method. In 21 runs, 3919 living lice and 4321 undamaged living eggs were collected from the scalp of over 400 children. The 21 products were classified in three groups: 6 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity and potentially 100% ovicidal activity, 8 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity but insufficient ovicidal activity (including 2 products with claims of single application treatment), and 7 products in a group of insufficient pediculicidal activity and ovicidal activity. The pharmaceutical market for head lice products in France is swamped with poorly tested and ineffective products. Rigorous efficacy testing preregistration and periodic screening and testing of effectiveness in the post-registration period should be endorsed by the health authorities.

  2. A Study of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Ban, Maryam; Motaghi, Minoo

    2014-01-01

    Head lice contamination has a global distribution and it is regarded as a main health problem throughout the world. Given the importance of physical health of students and head lice prevalence at school age, we aimed to examine the rate of head lice contamination among primary school students in the villages of Abadan in 2012. In this descriptive study, 624 students were randomly selected from primary schools. The hair of all students under the study was examined by the researcher (community health nurse) and the result was registered in the checklist confidentially. Moreover, one questionnaire including personal and family information was filled out for each student. The obtained data were later analyzed in SPSS software, version 18, using statistical test Chi-square and central qualitative and distribution statistics. The frequency of lice contamination was 27 cases (4.33%) in total, all of whom were girls. Although the difference between the head lice contamination and gender was statistically significant (P=0.00), the difference between this contamination type and grade of students and their parents’ education and fathers’ occupation was not significance. The highest rate of contamination (6.73%) was, however, observed in fifth graders. All contaminations were seen in girls, which could be due to their longer hair or wearing scarf as compared with boys. Unfavorable health condition and regional hot weather can be effective as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide the students, especially girls, with health training. PMID:25349862

  3. Determination, mechanism and monitoring of knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Permethrin resistance has been reported worldwide and clinical failures to commercial pediculicides containing permethrin have likewise occurred. Permethrin resistance in head lice populations from the U.S. is widespread but is not yet uniform and the level of resistance is relatively low (~4–8 fold). Permethrin-resistant lice are cross-resistant to pyrethrins, PBO-synergized pyrethrins and to DDT. Nix®, when applied to human hair tufts following manufacture’s instructions, did not provide 100% control when assessed by the hair tuft bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system. Resistance to permethrin is due to knockdown resistance (kdr), which is the result of three point mutations within the α-subunit gene of the voltage-gated sodium channel that causes amino acid substitutions, leading to nerve insensitivity. A three-tiered resistance monitoring system has been established based on molecular resistance detection techniques. Quantitative sequencing (QS) has been developed to predict the kdr allele frequency in head lice at a population level. The speed, simplicity and accuracy of QS made it an ideal candidate for a routine primary resistance monitoring tool to screen a large number of louse populations as an alternative to conventional bioassay. As a secondary monitoring method, real-time PASA (rtPASA) has been devised for a more precise determination of low resistance allele frequencies. To obtain more detailed information on resistance allele zygosity, as well as allele frequency, serial invasive signal amplification reaction (SISAR) has been developed as an individual genotyping method. Our approach of using three tiers of molecular resistance detection should facilitate large-scale routine resistance monitoring of permethrin resistance in head lice using field-collected samples. PMID:20161186

  4. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Doroodgar, Abbas; Sadr, Fakhraddin; Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein; Sayyah, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of head louse infestation among elementary students, and examine the associated factors with infection in the city of Aran and Bidgol. Methods A total of 19 boys' and girls' primary schools were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. Overall, 3 590 students were examined for head lice infestation in urban areas of Aran and Bidgol during 2008. The diagnosis was based on live louse or nit on the scalp of students. The students were screened by standard questionnaire and demographic data in addition to related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results The mean age of students was (8.68±1.58) years ranging between 6-12 years. The total prevalence of head louse infestation was 0.47%. This rate was 0.42% and 0.05% in female and male, respectively. There was a significant association between pediculosis and sex, father's job, mother's education, access to bathroom in home, prior infection, drug use and nationality, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The results showed that pediculosis was not a major health priority among primary school in city of Aran and Bidgol. However, enhancing the knowledge of students about head lice infestation and the existence of health teachers in schools can play a significant role in disease control.

  5. Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs.

    PubMed

    Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Delli Pizzi, Patricia; Di Giulio, Mara; Grande, Rossella; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-11-01

    Head lice infestation is an emerging social problem in undeveloped and developed countries. Because of louse resistance increasing, several long-used insecticidal compounds have lost their efficacy, and alternatives, such as essential oils, have been proposed to treat this parasitic infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of two natural substances: tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) against lice and its eggs. Products were used alone and in combination (ratio 1:1 and 1:2) from 8 % dilution. The in vitro effect of natural substances at different concentrations were evaluated against 69 head lice (adults and nymphs) and 187 louse eggs collected from school children in Chieti-Pescara (Central Italy) over a 6-month period. The lice mortality was evaluated for 24 h by a stereo light microscope. The ovicidal activity was monitored by microscopic inspections for 15 days. Tea tree oil was more effective than nerolidol against head lice with 100 % mortality at 30 min and 1 % concentration. On the contrary, nerolidol expressed a more pronounced ovicidal activity inducing the failure of 50 % of the eggs to hatch at 1 % concentration after 4 days; the same effect was achieved by using a twice concentration of tea tree oil. The association of the two substances both in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 combined efficaciously their insecticidal and ovicidal effect; in particular, the ratio 1:2 (tea tree oil 0.5 % plus nerolidol 1 %) acted producing both the death of all head lice at 30 min and the abortive effect of louse eggs after 5 days. These results offer new potential application of natural compounds and display a promising scenario in the treatment of pediculosis resistant cases. The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation.

  6. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of 12 Antifungal Drugs against 55 Trichophyton schoenleinii Isolates from Tinea Capitis Favosa Patients in Iran, Turkey, and China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuwen; Ansari, Saham; Ilkit, Macit; Rafati, Haleh; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mojtaba; Nasrollahi-Omran, Ayatollah; Tolooe, Ali; Zhan, Ping; Liao, Wanqing; van der Lee, Henrich A; Verweij, Paul E; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2017-02-01

    Trichophyton schoenleinii is an anthropophilic dermatophyte mainly causing tinea favosa of the scalp in certain regions of the world, especially Africa and Asia. We investigated the in vitro susceptibilities of 55 T. schoenleinii isolates collected over the last 30 years from Iran, Turkey, and China to 12 antifungals using the CLSI broth microdilution method. Our results revealed that terbinafine and ketoconazole were the most potent antifungal agents among those tested, independently of the geographic regions where strains were isolated.

  7. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to head lice and showed 0% of cure rate after the first and the second treatments. Our data showed that three herbal shampoos of native plants in Thailand in this study are suitable to be used as pediculicides for Thai children since it is safe for children and there is no side-effect after application.

  8. The infected hairs of tinea capitis due to Microsporum canis: demonstration of uniqueness of the hair cuticle by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D; Burmeister, V

    1987-02-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies were done on scalp hairs of four patients infected with ectothrix Microsporum canis. Both freeze fracture and cross-sectioning of hairs revealed a thick sheath of fungal spores encircling the hair shaft beneath an intact cuticle. These spores were not visible on surface inspection but became apparent only where the cuticle had been rubbed off or broken. Daily selenium sulfide shampoos removed all of the spores from these sites. The cuticle is viewed as being an effective barrier to the penetration of fungi, so that the hair is vulnerable to fungus infection only deep within the hair follicle below the level of the mature cuticle. Once the fungus enters the hair cortex just above the hair bulb, it produces myriads of spores that remain trapped and hidden beneath the cuticle for the length of the intact hair.

  9. Viper NHEXS Program: A Viper Pilot Neck Health & Conditioning Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical Research Dept 2510 Fifth St. Wright...units, which include the contralateral sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae , scalenus, splenius capitis, and ipsilateral splenius capitis [6]. Neck

  10. Hormonalna terapia zastępcza a choroby układu sercowo-naczyniowego.

    PubMed

    Lesiak, Maciej; Mariola, Ropacka-Lesiak; Podkowa, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The results of large randomized trials such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), Heart and Estrogen / Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) or Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis Study (ERAS) as well as the Million Women Study (MWS) which does not meet criteria RCT, concerning, among others the impact of HRT on breast cancer risk, thromboembolism, or the aging processes in the central nervous system caused the recent big confusion in the medical community , causing distrust about the safety and advisability of HRT in menopausal women. The paper presents an overview of the available, current literature on HRT. It was found that HRT should not be used in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease Great expectations was associated with an earlier initiation of therapy, before the advent of atherosclerosis - but there is currently no conclusive data about its role in the primary prevention of coronary disease. Oral HRT increases the risk of thromboembolic events - that is why you should prefer the form of a transdermal. HRT may increase the risk of ischemic stroke (but early initiation of therapy does not increase the risk of stroke) and should not be used in the primary prevention of stroke.

  11. [Dapagliflozin, a novel oral antidiabetic with an uncertain future].

    PubMed

    Escudero Vilaplana, Belén; Almodóvar Carretón, María José; Herrero Hernández, Silvia

    2014-11-03

    Objetivo: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es uno de los principales problemas sociosanitarios a nivel mundial, para la que existen multitud de tratamientos. Recientemente, se ha aprobado el primer farmaco de una nueva familia de antidiabeticos orales (ADO): la dapagliflozina. Nuestro objetivo es revisar la evidencia cientifica disponible sobre la dapagliflozina, con el fin de analizar su eficacia, seguridad y coste y poder estimar su papel en la farmacoterapia actual de la DM2. Métodos: La eficacia y seguridad de la dapagliflozina se analizaron mediante una evaluacion de la evidencia cientifica. El coste de los diferentes ADO se calculo en base a sus dosis diarias definidas (DDD) y al precio de venta del laboratorio. Resultados: Se identificaron 7 ensayos clinicos aleatorizados: 2 en monoterapia (840 pacientes) y 5 en terapia combinada con otros antidiabeticos (3184 pacientes). En los 7 ensayos, la dapagliflozina redujo la concentracion de HbA1c; en todos se comparo con placebo, salvo en un estudio en terapia combinada que se comparo frente a farmaco activo (glipizida). Entre los efectos adversos mas frecuentes se detectaron infecciones genitourinarias e hipotension, aunque se debe prestar especial atencion al incremento del cancer de vejiga. Junto con los inhibidores de la DPP-4, la dapagliflozina es uno de los ADO de mayor coste (coste anual de DDD=729,3 euros). Conclusiones: La dapagliflozina no aporta ventajas respecto a la farmacoterapia de la DM2 ya existente. Su falta de experiencia de uso, la ausencia de importantes beneficios clinicos y su elevado coste hacen necesario restringir su utilizacion.

  12. NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT FOR FULMINANT HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Ramos Figueira, Estela Regina; Rocha Filho, Joel Avancini; Souto Nacif, Lucas; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz; Linetzky Waitzberg, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la hepatitis fulminante se asocia a un exacerbado hipercatabolismo, la hipoglicemia y la hiperamonemia están acompañadas por la liberación de citocinas proinflamatorias y hormonas catabólicas en la circulación sistémica, empeorando la condición clínica del paciente. El apoyo nutricional es un elemento crucial para la recuperación de estos pacientes. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta revisión es actualizar el apoyo nutricional para la hepatitis fulminante. Métodos: la revisión se llevó a cabo mediante la búsqueda electrónica en Medline-PubMed, utilizando malla de términos. Resultados y discusión: no hay muchos datos disponibles sobre el apoyo nutricional para lahepatitis fulminante o fallo hepático agudo. Las estrategias de intervención nutricional inicial se centran en el control de los trastornos metabólicos de la hepatitis fulminante descritos anteriormente, que deben ser individualizadas de acuerdo a la gravedad de la situación clínica del paciente. Energía y proteína se pueden proporcionar en cantidades de 25‑40 kcal / kg / día y 0,8-1,2 g / kg / día, respectivamente. La terapia nutricional enteral está indicada en pacientes con encefalopatía avanzada o para aquellos que no pueden ser adecuadamente alimentados por vía oral. Se debe obtener una euglicemia y la ingesta de proteínas puede estar basada en fórmulas de BCAA. Los lípidos se pueden administrar como suplemento energético con precaución. Una terapia nutricional adecuada puede potencialmente reducir la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los pacientes con hepatitis fulminante.

  13. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, you may be prescribed an ...

  14. Echoes from the anatomical theater of Padua: Fabrici on the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zanchin, Giorgio; Panetto, Monica; Dalla Francesca, Elisabetta Hellman

    2015-06-01

    Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente, never published a systematic description nor an iconographic record of the nervous system except for the series of 21 pictures, entitled De Anatomia Capitis Cerebri Nervorum, stored in the Biblioteca Marciana of Venice.

  15. Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... gen_info/faqs.html. Accessed March 10, 2015. Goldstein AO, et al. Pediculosis capitis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 10, 2015. Goldstein AO, et al. Pediculosis pubis and pediculosis ciliaris. ...

  16. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  17. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... shampoo for tinea versicolor and tinea capitis ) Sulconazole Terbinafine Terconazole Tioconazole Tolnaftate Undecylenate Resources In This Article ... 3 Oxiconazole OXISTAT Butenafine MENTAX Tioconazole VAGISTAT-1 Terbinafine LAMISIL Econazole ECOZA Miconazole MONISTAT 3 Butoconazole FEMSTAT ...

  18. [Guidelines in RA treatment: concepts on safety and recommendations using anti-TNF-alpha inhibitors. Grupo de Estudio de Nuevas Terapias de Enfermedades reumáticas (GENTE)].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Jouanen, Efraín; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto; Medrano-Ramírez, Gabriel; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Orozco-Alcalá, José Javier; Pacheco-Tena, César Francisco; Pineda, Carlos; Pozos-Espíndola, Juan Carlos; Ramos-Niembro, Francisco; Robles-San-Román, Manuel; Santana-Sahagún, Jesús Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Recommendations for the use of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARD) with both conventional and biological agents in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) must be based on their safety profile, adverse effects, risks, and advantages. With the purpose of presenting the most updated information about the safety of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antagonists, in this article we summarize the literature published during the last three years about this sort of biological agents in specific clinical situations, such as risk of developing infections, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmunity; as well as their administration to patients who will undergo surgical procedures, pregnant and/or breast-feeding women, and patients who need immunizations. Likewise, in this analysis we offer specific recommendations, based on evidence, for the best anti-TNF-alfa management.

  19. Muscle pain induces task-dependent changes in cervical agonist/antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Falla, D; Farina, D; Dahl, M Kanstrup; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the effect of experimental neck muscle pain on the EMG-force relationship of cervical agonist and antagonist muscles. Surface EMG signals were detected from the sternomastoid, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius muscles bilaterally from 14 healthy subjects during cervical flexion and extension contractions of linearly increasing force from 0 to 60% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Measurements were performed before and after injection of 0.5 ml hypertonic and isotonic saline into either the sternomastoid or splenius capitis in two experimental sessions. EMG average rectified value (ARV) of the sternomastoid, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius muscles and the muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) of the sternomastoid muscle were estimated at 5% MVC force increments. During cervical flexion with injection of hypertonic saline in sternomastoid, ARV of sternomastoid was lower on the side of pain in the force range 25-60% MVC (P < 0.05) and was associated with a bilateral reduction of splenius capitis and upper trapezius ARV (P < 0.01). During cervical extension, injection of hypertonic saline in splenius capitis resulted in lower estimates of splenius capitis ARV on the painful side from 45 to 60% MVC (P < 0.05), which was associated with a bilateral increase in upper trapezius ARV estimates from 50 to 60% MVC (P < 0.001). However, no significant change was identified for estimates of sternomastoid ARV. Experimentally induced neck muscle pain resulted in task-dependent changes in cervical agonist/antagonist activity without modifications in muscle fiber CV.

  20. Dermatophytosis among Schoolchildren in Three Eco-climatic Zones of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Goïta, Siaka; Gaudart, Jean; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatophytosis, and particularly the subtype tinea capitis, is common among African children; however, the risk factors associated with this condition are poorly understood. To describe the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in distinct eco-climatic zones, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in public primary schools located in the Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zones in Mali. Principal Findings Among 590 children (average age 9.7 years) the overall clinical prevalence of tinea capitis was 39.3%. Tinea capitis prevalence was 59.5% in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 41.6% in the Sudanian zone and 17% in the Sahelian eco-climatic zone. Microsporum audouinii was isolated primarily from large and/or microsporic lesions. Trichophyton soudanense was primarily isolated from trichophytic lesions. Based on the multivariate analysis, tinea capitis was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.51, 95%CI [1.74–3.61], P<10−4) and residing in the Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zone (OR = 7.45, 95%CI [4.63–11.99], P<10−4). Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii, were the most frequent species associated with tinea capitis among primary schoolchildren in Mali. Conclusions Tinea capitis risk increased with increasing climate humidity in this relatively homogenous schoolchild population in Mali, which suggests a significant role of climatic factors in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis. PMID:27124571

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging study of the morphometry of cervical extensor muscles in chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Bueno, A; Ferrando, J; Elliott, J M; Cuadrado, M L; Pareja, J A

    2007-04-01

    This study analyses the differences in the relative cross-sectional area (rCSA) of several cervical extensor muscles, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), between patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and healthy controls. MRI of the cervical spine was performed on 15 CTTH females and 15 matched controls. The rCSA values for the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin), rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj), semispinalis capitis and splenius capitis muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images using axial MR slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to substantiate the diagnosis and record the pain history. CTTH patients showed reduced rCSA for both RCPmin and RCPmaj muscles (P < 0.01), but not for semispinalis and splenius capitis muscles, compared with controls. Headache intensity, duration or frequency and rCSA in both RCPmin and RCPmaj muscles were negatively correlated (P < 0.05): the greater the headache intensity, duration or frequency, the smaller the rCSA in the RCPmin and RCPmaj muscles. CTTH patients demonstrate muscle atrophy of the rectus capitis posterior muscles. Whether this selective muscle atrophy is a primary or secondary phenomenon remains unclear. In any case, muscle atrophy could possibly account for a reduction of proprioceptive output from these muscles, and thus contribute to the perpetuation of pain.

  2. [Use of leflunomide in a cytomegalovirus infection resistant: a report of a case].

    PubMed

    Gómez Valbuena, Isabel; Alioto, Daniel; Serrano Garrote, Olga; Ferrari Piquero, Jose Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la infección por citomegalovirus (CMV) es una de las complicaciones más habituales en pacientes trasplantados, que puede desembocar en un fallo multiorgánico. El 80-90% de los pacientes se cura con el tratamiento estándar intravenoso (ganciclovir), o su profármaco oral (valganciclovir). En caso de no responder a ellos existe como alternativa otro antivírico, foscarnet. Un pequeño número de pacientes tampoco responden a este, teniendo un mal pronóstico. Objetivo: describir el caso de una paciente con trasplante bipulmonar por fibrosis quística y recidiva de infección por CMV en la cual el uso de leflunomida consigue disminuir e incluso llegar a niveles indetectables de la carga viral. Descripción del caso: mujer de 22 años, trasplantada bipulmonar por fibrosis quística en marzo del 2014. Las serologías de CMV realizadas fueron positivas en el donante y negativas en el receptor. Los controles de la carga viral durante la profilaxis con valganciclovir fueron negativos en el receptor hasta el sexto mes después del trasplante, momento en el que se detectó carga viral en los controles (2.090 UI/ml). La paciente ingresó en nuestro hospital para recibir tratamiento intravenoso con ganciclovir, persistiendo la carga viral positiva (42.400 UI/ml) al mes del inicio con esta terapia intravenosa. Un estudio de resistencias mostró que era resistente a ganciclovir, y por ello se inició tratamiento con foscarnet intravenoso. Con este fármaco se consiguió negativizar la carga viral, por lo que se suspendió el tratamiento, continuándose con controles quincenales de la carga viral. A los dos meses sin tratamiento se observó un aumento de la carga viral hasta 13.665 UI/ml, motivo por el cual se solicitó al Servicio de Farmacia el uso fuera de ficha técnica de leflunomida, con la intención de que la paciente recibiera terapia oral en lugar de intravenosa. La paciente fue tratada con valganciclovir hasta disponer de la autorización de uso de

  3. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) é um excelente organismo modelo para o estudo do desenvolvimento dos vertebrados. Este facto deve-se às grandes ninhadas que cada casal produz, que podem atingir 200 embriões a cada sete dias, e ao facto dos embriões serem pequenos, transparentes e com um rápido desenvolvimento externo.Material e Métodos: Usando ferramentas de pesquisa bibliográfica científica disponíveis online e utilizando e as palavras-chave “Zebrafish”, “biomedical research”, “human disease” e “drug screening”, avaliámos estudos originais e revisões indexadas na PubMed.Resultados: Neste artigo de revisão fazemos um resumo do trabalho realizado com este modelo no melhoramento doconhecimento de várias doenças humanas. Fizemos ainda um breve relato da investigação biomédica realizada em Portugal com o modelo de peixe-zebra.Discussão: Têm sido desenvolvidas poderosas ferramentas genéticas e de microscopia in vivo, que também tornaram o peixe-zebra num modelo valioso em investigação biomédica. A conjugação destes atributos com a optimização de sistemas automatizados de triagem de medicamentos, transformaram o peixe-zebra num top model da investigação em biomedicina, nomeadamente na triagem de compostos químicos com efeitos terapêuticos e em testes de toxicidade. Além disso, com a otimização da tecnologia dos xenografos, será possível usar o peixe-zebra na escolha de uma terapia personalizada.Conclusão: O peixe-zebra é um excelente organismo modelo na pesquisa biomédica, em screens de medicamentos e na terapia clinica.

  4. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids.

  5. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  6. [Pharmacoeconomic study of the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vivancos-Matellano, F; Garcia-Ruiz, A J; Garcia-Agua Soler, N

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. Cuando el tratamiento farmacologico oral o transdermico de la enfermedad de Parkinson pierde eficacia, se dispone de tres terapias mediante dispositivos asistidos que pueden reducir las complicaciones motoras y no motoras: la apomorfina en infusion subcutanea (ASBI), la bomba de infusion duodenal continua de levodopa/carbidopa (IDL) y la estimulacion cerebral profunda (ECP). Objetivo. Efectuar un analisis farmacoeconomico comparativo del uso de ASBI con IDL y ECP; como objetivo secundario, discutir el perfil del candidato ideal para cada una de las tecnicas. Pacientes y metodos. Se extrajo informacion sobre datos de años de vida ganados y años de vida ganados ajustados por calidad (AVAC) segun la escala de Hoehn y Yahr, e informacion sobre costes y consumo de recursos para cada alternativa. La perspectiva del analisis fue la del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y el horizonte temporal fue de cinco años para los costes y toda la vida del paciente para las utilidades. Las medidas de resultado utilizadas fueron los años de vida ganados y AVAC, y en su comparacion se uso la ratio coste-utilidad incremental. Resultados. El coste-utilidad obtenido para cada opcion fue: 31.956 euros/AVAC para la ECP, 38.249 euros/AVAC para la ASBI y 75.206 euros/AVAC para la IDL. Conclusiones. Los resultados permiten evaluar la efectividad y utilidad de los diferentes tratamientos para la enfermedad de Parkinson avanzada, pues se presentan en ganancias de años vividos en plena salud. Los datos obtenidos contribuyen a la toma de decisiones que determinen la planificacion y gestion de cada caso, sin olvidar las preferencias del paciente y del neurologo, asi como las limitaciones presupuestarias.

  7. Treatment of retroauricular keloids: Revision of cases treated at the ENT service of HC/UFPR.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bettina; Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Ribeiro, Talita Beithum; Cavichiolo, Juliana Benthien; Ballin, Carlos Roberto; Mocellin, Marcos

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: Queloides são tumores benignos resultantes de cicatrização anômala da pele, sendo que existem diversos procedimentos disponíveis para o seu tratamento.Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os resultados de pacientes submetidos a tratamento de queloides retroauriculares após cirurgias otorrinológicas em nosso serviço.Método: Estudo retrospectivo e prospectivo, através de análise de prontuários, dos pacientes submetidos a tratamento de queloides retroauriculares em nosso serviço.Resultados: Nove pacientes foram avaliados, sendo que 6 foram submetidos a ressecção e betaterapia adjuvante, 2 foram submetidos a ressecção mais aplicação de corticoide local, 1 foi submetido apenas a ressecção sem terapia adjuvante. Não houve recidiva nos casos tratados com betaterapia no pós-operatório precoce, 1 paciente apresentou recidiva mesmo com corticoterapia e betaterapia tardia.Discussão: diversas técnicas tem sido utilizadas para tratamento dos queloides retroauriculares, sendo que a betaterapia é considerada a com melhores resultados, seguida pela utilização de corticoides intralesionais.Conclusão: o tratamento dos queloides retroauriculares continua um desafio. Enquanto novas técnicas não são desenvolvidas, a ressecção seguida de betaterapia precoce ainda é a melhor opção.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging study of cross-sectional area of the cervical extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J M; Jull, G A; Noteboom, J T; Durbridge, G L; Gibbon, W W

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be regarded as the gold standard for muscle imaging; however there is little knowledge about in vivo morphometric features of neck extensor muscles in healthy subjects and how muscle size alters across vertebral segments. It is not known how body size and activity levels may influence neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) or if the muscles differ from left and right. The purpose of this study was to establish relative CSA (rCSA) data for the cervical extensor musculature with a reliable MRI measure in asymptomatic females within a defined age range and to determine if side-side and vertebral level differences exist. MRI of the cervical spine was performed on 42 asymptomatic female subjects within the age range of 18-45. The rCSA values for the cervical extensor muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images. We found significant side-side rCSA differences for the rectus capitis posterior minor, major (P < 0.001), multifidus (P = 0.002), and the semispinalis cervicis/capitis (P = 0.001, P < 0.001). There were significant vertebral level differences in rCSA of the semispinalis cervicis/capitis, multifidus, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius (P < 0.001). Activity levels were shown to impact on the size of semispinalis cervicis (P = 0.027), semispinalis capitis (P = 0.003), and the splenius capitis (P = 0.004). In conclusion, measuring differences in neck extensor muscle rCSA with MRI in an asymptomatic population provides the basis for future study investigating relationships between muscular atrophy and symptoms in patients suffering from persistent neck pain. Clin.

  9. Tinea caput medusa: an unusual presentation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes on the scalp.

    PubMed

    Houck, H E; Cooley, J E; Lowitt, M H; Kao, G F

    1996-07-01

    Tinea capitis has a wide variety of clinical presentations in adolescents and adults. However, the occurrence of fingerlike projections in the scalp has not been previously described. A 14-year-old girl presented with a one-year history of a painful scalp mass. Debridement of this mass revealed slender papillomatous growths resembling those seen in elephantiasis nostras verrucosa. A fungal culture grew Trichophyton mentagrophytes. We describe the first case of this unusual clinical variant of tinea capitis and hypothesize on its pathophysiological basis.

  10. Manual de Adiestramiento sobre Terapia de Rehidratacion Oral y Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas (Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mari; And Others

    This Spanish-language manual was developed to train Peace Corps volunteers and other community health workers in Spanish-speaking countries in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the control of diarrheal diseases. Using a competency-based format, the manual contains three training modules (organized in seven sessions) that focus on interrelated…

  11. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections.

    PubMed

    Ely, John W; Rosenfeld, Sandra; Seabury Stone, Mary

    2014-11-15

    Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). The clinical diagnosis can be unreliable because tinea infections have many mimics, which can manifest identical lesions. For example, tinea corporis can be confused with eczema, tinea capitis can be confused with alopecia areata, and onychomycosis can be confused with dystrophic toenails from repeated low-level trauma. Physicians should confirm suspected onychomycosis and tinea capitis with a potassium hydroxide preparation or culture. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis generally respond to inexpensive topical agents such as terbinafine cream or butenafine cream, but oral antifungal agents may be indicated for extensive disease, failed topical treatment, immunocompromised patients, or severe moccasin-type tinea pedis. Oral terbinafine is first-line therapy for tinea capitis and onychomycosis because of its tolerability, high cure rate, and low cost. However, kerion should be treated with griseofulvin unless Trichophyton has been documented as the pathogen. Failure to treat kerion promptly can lead to scarring and permanent hair loss.

  12. Prevalence and monthly distribution of head lice using two diagnostic procedures in several age groups in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raquel; Silva, Juliana J; Rodrigues, Rosângela M; Mendes, Júlio

    2007-01-01

    Some epidemiological characteristics of head lice, Pediculus capitis, were studied using two procedures: cut hair analysis and head inspection. Higher prevalence rates were observed in the middle and at the end of the school terms. Both procedures indicated that children were the main reservoir for this type of pediculosis in Uberlândia.

  13. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Haiti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    puertoricensis P. humanus capitis Rhipicephalus sanguineus Pthirus pubis Bugs : Cimex hemipterus Scorpions: Tityus crassimanus C. lectularius Triatoma...DSN 850- 2271/3191 or commercial (614) 238-2271/3191. For personal protection equipment ( bed nets, head nets, etc.): contact the Defense Personnel

  14. Very late-onset lead-associated endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Lead-associated endocarditis is a serious complication due to device implantation. The present article reports on a case involving a 57-year-old man with microbiologically and pathologically confirmed lead-associated endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus capitis. Transesophageal echocardiography is essential for diagnosis, and treatment usually requires appropriate antibiotics and removal of the lead. PMID:23205027

  15. Information systems in clinical pharmacy applied to parenteral nutrition management and traceability: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martínez Gabarrón, Josefa; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Revisar la literatura científica sobre los sistemas de información en farmacia clínica aplicados a la gestión y trazabilidad de la nutrición parenteral (NP). Método: Revisión sistemática de los documentos recuperados en las bases de datos MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) y Google Académico hasta mayo de 2016. Los términos utilizados, como descriptores y texto libre, fueron: “Parenteral Nutrition” y “Drug Information Services”. La calidad de los artículos se evaluó mediante el cuestionario STROBE. Se completó la búsqueda con la consulta a expertos y la revisión de la bibliografía de los artículos seleccionados. Resultado: De las 153 referencias recuperadas, tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron para la revisión seis artículos. Tres trabajos diseñaban diagramas de flujo, o algún tipo de notación gráfica, para desarrollar sistemas normalizados de gestión, y tres se basaban en programas informáticos. Dos de los trabajos seleccionados diseñaban un sistema de gestión integral de control y trazabilidad para la NP. Conclusiones: La NP debe integrarse en un sistema estandarizado con el fin de asegurar la calidad y la minimización de los riesgos asociados a esta terapia. Disponer de tecnologías aplicadas a la NP permitiría configurar sistemas de gestión más completos y fáciles de aplicar en un contexto real. Por ende, se cree necesario la generación de nuevos trabajos y desarrollos específicos en relación a la gestión y trazabilidad de la NP que permitan su control y evaluación constante.

  16. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critically-ill patients: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Nuria; De Antonio-Cuscó, Marta; Echeverría-Esnal, Daniel; Luque, Sonia; Salas, Esther; Grau, Santiago

    2017-03-01

    Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) está relacionada con unas tasas elevadas de morbi-mortalidad. A pesar de que Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) se ha relacionado frecuentemente con la neumonía nosocomial, algunos pacientes con NAC por este microorganismo revisten la suficiente gravedad como para precisar su ingreso en la UCI.Objetivos: Efectuar una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre el tratamiento antibiótico de la NAC por SARM en pacientes críticos.Material y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos sobre NAC por SARM en el paciente crítico. Se identificaron las publicaciones pertinentes en PUBMED, BestPractice database, UpTo-Date database y Cochrane Plus Library para artículos publicados en inglés desde diciembre del 2001 hasta abril del 2016. Resultados: Se encontraron 70 publicaciones, incluyendo 13 (18,8%) y excluyendo 57 (81,4%). Predominaron los estudios de cohortes con un total de 6 (20,7%), frente a una única publicación en forma de estudio transversal (3,5%). Conclusiones: La experiencia en el tratamiento de la NAC por SARM en pacientes que precisen ingreso en la UCI es muy limitada. La vancomicina o el linezolid parecen ser las terapias en las que se dispone de una mayor experiencia, aunque no existe ninguna recomendación específica al respecto. Puede ser útil la utilización de vías alternativas como la nebulizada, administración en perfusión continua o en asociación con otros antibióticos.

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Baladia, Eduard; Frutos Pérez-Surio, Alberto; Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo

    2016-06-30

    Objetivos: dar a conocer las recomendaciones relacionadas con la Nutrición Humana y Dietética (NHyD) de la Guía de Práctica Clínica para el manejo de la enfermedad de Parkinson del Sistema Nacional de Salud (GPC-EP/SNS) y favorecer su difusión e implementación en la práctica. El objetivo secundario es presentar la implicación de los profesionales de la NHyD en la elaboración de la guía.Material y métodos: siguiendo el Manual Metodológico de Elaboración de Guías de Práctica Clínica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud, se formularon las preguntas clínicas, se realizó una búsqueda sistemática para cada pregunta en bases de datos (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CRD, LILACS, IBECS y ClinicalTrials), se definieron los criterios de elegibilidad, al menos dos investigadores seleccionaron los estudios, se realizó lectura crítica de la literatura se resumió en tablas de síntesis de evidencia y se establecieron las recomendaciones.Resultados: se propusieron 14 preguntas relacionadas directamente con NHyD-Parkinson, de las cuales solamente 3 pudieron incluirse. Se formuló una pregunta relacionada con la terapia de logopedia aplicada en personas con EP que presentan problemas de deglución, tratamiento donde se imbrican los profesionales de la NHyD. De 642 artículos localizados, únicamente 2 pudieron ser incluidos para contestar las correspondientes preguntas. De las evidencias halladas, se derivaron 11 recomendaciones directa o indirectamente relacionados con la NHyD.Conclusiones: la implicación de profesionales sanitarios en equipos multidisciplinares mejora el resultado final de las guías y la atención sanitaria de los pacientes. Es necesario que los profesionales sanitarios de la NHyD (los/las dietistas-nutricionistas) se impliquen en iniciativas basadas en la mejor evidencia científica disponible y que formen parte de los equipos de trabajo multidisciplinares.

  18. [Juvenile Pompe disease: retrospective clinical study].

    PubMed

    Loureiro Neves, Filipa; Garcia, Paula Cristina; Madureira, Núria; Araújo, Henriqueta; Rodrigues, Fidjy; Estêvão, Maria Helena; Lacerda, Lúcia; Diogo Matos, Luísa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A doença de Pompe ou glicogenose tipo II é uma doença autossómica recessiva por deficiência de maltase ácida. É uma entidade rara, com prevalência de 1/40.000 nas populações holandesa e afro-americana e 1/46000 na população australiana. Embora se distingam três formas de apresentação (infantil, juvenil e do adulto), observa-se um amplo espectro clínico. Em Portugal está disponível terapêutica enzimática de substituição desde 2006.Material e Métodos: Fez-se o estudo retrospetivo de quatro doentes (duas das quais irmãs), baseado na revisão dos processos clínicos.Resultados: Em todas, a doença manifestou-se no segundo ano de vida. O tempo até ao diagnóstico variou entre dois e onze anos. Aquando do diagnóstico, todas apresentavam miopatia com atraso de aquisições motoras e em duas havia hipertrofia miocárdica. A suspeita clínica surgiu por insuficiência respiratória em contexto infeccioso em duas doentes. Em todas havia elevação da creatina quinase e das aminotransferases. Todas evoluíram com insuficiência respiratória crónica por síndrome restritiva. O diagnóstico foi baseado na diminuição da atividade da maltase ácida em fibroblastos (0 a 1,5% do limite inferior do normal). Na biópsia muscular, realizada em três doentes, demonstrou-se acumulação lisossómica de glicogénio. Todas apresentavam a mutação c.1064T > C no exão 6 do gene GAA (glucosidase-alpha-acid), em homozigotia numa delas, associada às mutações c.1666A > G no exão 12 e c.2065G > A no exão 15 nas duas irmãs e à mutação c.380G > T no exão 2 na doente mais nova. Todas iniciaram terapia enzimática de substituiçãologo que disponível, com boa tolerância. A doente mais jovem faleceu pouco depois. As outras mantêm medidas de suporteventilatório e fisioterapia, deslocando-se a mais velha, em cadeira de rodas, mantendo a irmã marcha independente e necessitando a mais nova de andarilho.Conclusão: Os nossos casos incluem

  19. Evaluating the Training Needs of Active Duty and Reserve Military General Surgeons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Surgical Intensive Care Data Managem3nt System." London, England. June 2nd. 1981 VII Reuni6n Nacional de Medicina CrItica y Terapia Intensiva...Asociaci6n Mexicana de Medicine Critica y Terapia Intensive. Curso de Actualizaci6n Profesional en Medicina CrItica: "Development of Intensive Care Systems

  20. Abnormal distribution of the histocompatibility antigens (HLA) in lousy patients.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Alalfy, M S; Sabry, A H; Fikry, A A; El Sharkawy, I M

    1996-04-01

    The histocompatibility antigens have important functions in the development of the immune response, in the development of immunologic tolerance and in the resistance and susceptibility to diseases. In the present study, the frequency of the human leucocytic antigens (HLA) were studied in 31 lousy children with Pediculus h. capitis (head lice) and 14 adults with Phthirus pubis (pubic lice) to evaluate the immune response in their pathogenesis. The patients (children and adults) were parasite-free as indicated by urine, stool and blood analysis and clinical examination. A significant increase was found between HLA-A11 and, -B5 and lousy children with P. h. capitis and between HLA,-A11, -B5 and -B27 and lousy adults with P. pubis. The association between HLA antigens and parasitic infection was discussed.

  1. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  2. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation.

  3. The cervical myodural bridge, a review of literature and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Enix, Dennis E; Scali, Frank; Pontell, Matthew E

    2014-06-01

    The role of posterior cervical musculature in sensorimotor control, cervicocephalic pain, and stabilization of the spinal cord has been recently described. Anatomical soft tissue connections which cross the cervical epidural space link suboccipital muscle fascia and dura. These myodural bridges provide passive and active anchoring of the spinal cord. They may also be involved in a dural tension monitoring system to prevent dural infolding, and maintain patency of the spinal cord. Modulation of dural tension may be initiated via a sensory reflex to muscular contractile tissues. Unanticipated movements such as hyperflexion extension injuries stimulate deep suboccipital muscles and transmit tensile forces through the bridge to the cervical dura. Due to its larger cross sectional area, the rectus capitis posterior major myodural bridge may exert greater mechanical traction on the dura than the rectus capitis posterior minor. University ethics committee approval and anatomical donor consent was obtained for this study.

  4. Radiation-induced cerebral meningioma: a recognizable entity.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, A B; Shalit, M N; Cohen, M L; Zandbank, U; Reichenthal, E

    1984-11-01

    The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological findings in 201 patients with intracranial meningiomas operated on in the period 1978 to 1982. Forty-three of the patients (21.4%) had at some previous time received radiation treatment to their scalp, the majority for tinea capitis. The findings in these 43 irradiated patients were compared with those in the 158 non-irradiated patients. Several distinctive clinical and histological features were identified in the irradiated group, which suggest that radiation-induced meningiomas can be defined as a separate nosological subgroup. The use of irradiation in large numbers of children with tinea capitis in the era prior to the availability of griseofulvin may be responsible for a significantly increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas.

  5. High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view.

  6. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton violaceum: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Smriti, C; Anuradha, S; Kamlesh, T; Isampreet, K; Nitin, K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are Fungi which infect keratinized tissues, that is, skin epidermis, hair and nails. Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic, cosmopolitan dermatophyte. It primarily causes tinea capitis and less commonly tinea corporis and tinea unguium. We present a report of two cases of tinea corporis due to T. violaceum in children. Infections due to T. violaceum are important because of its transmissibility within families and community and its potential to spread and establish in new geographical areas.

  7. Microorganisms present on peripheral intravenous needleless connectors in the clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Karen; Cooke, Marie; Whitby, Michael; Fullerton, Fiona; Douglas, Joel; Hay, Jennine; Rickard, Claire

    2017-03-20

    The aim of this study was to quantify culturable microorganisms on needleless connectors (NCs) attached to peripheral intravenous catheters in hospitalized adult medical patients. Half (50%) of 40 NCs were contaminated with microorganisms commonly found on the skin or mouth. Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were most commonly isolated. Emergency department insertion and higher patient dependency were statistically associated with positive NC microorganism growth. These results reaffirm the need for NC decontamination prior to access.

  8. Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All CoNS hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.

  9. Muscle restricted vasculitis causing dropped head syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Amy Almaraz; Smith, Benn E; Engel, Andrew G; Bosch, Erich Peter

    2012-03-01

    A 52-year-old man presented with a severe head drop and proximal extremity weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed T2 hyperintensity in cervical paraspinal muscles. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed an axial myopathy isolated to paraspinal muscles. A splenius capitis muscle biopsy confirmed an acute myopathy associated with nonsystemic vasculitis. The patient improved on steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and monthly pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Our case emphasizes that a subgroup of patients with dropped head syndrome have treatable conditions.

  10. Craniovertebral junction 360°: A combined microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    Jhawar, Sukhdeep Singh; Nunez, Maximiliano; Pacca, Paolo; Voscoboinik, Daniel Seclen; Truong, Huy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) can be approached from various corridors depending on the location and extent of disease. A three-dimensional understanding of anatomy of CVJ is paramount for safe surgery in this region. Aim of this cadaveric study is to elucidate combined microscopic and endoscopic anatomy of critical neurovascular structures in this area in relation to bony and muscular landmarks. Materials and Methods: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric heads injected with color silicon were used for this study. A stepwise dissection was done from anterior, posterior, and lateral sides with reference to bony and muscular landmarks. Anterior approach was done endonasal endoscopically. Posterior and lateral approaches were done with a microscope. In two specimens, both anterior and posterior approaches were done to delineate the course of vertebral artery and lower cranial nerves from ventral and dorsal aspects. Results: CVJ can be accessed through three corridors, namely, anterior, posterior, and lateral. Access to clivus, foreman magnum, occipital cervical joint, odontoid, and atlantoaxial joint was studied anteriorly with an endoscope. Superior and inferior clival lines, supracondylar groove, hypoglossal canal, arch of atlas and body of axis, and occipitocervical joint act as useful bony landmarks whereas longus capitis and rectus capitis anterior are related muscles to this approach. In posterior approach, spinous process of axis, arch of atlas, C2 ganglion, and transverse process of atlas and axis are bony landmarks. Rectus capitis posterior major, superior oblique, inferior oblique, and rectus capitis lateralis (RCLa) are muscles related to this approach. Occipital condyles, transverse process of atlas, and jugular tubercle are main bony landmarks in lateral corridor whereas RCLa and posterior belly of digastric muscle are the main muscular landmarks. Conclusion: With advances in endoscopic and microscopic techniques, access to lesions and bony anomalies

  11. [Pediculosis capita in childhood: epidemiological and socio-medical results from screening of school beginners].

    PubMed

    Jahnke, C; Bauer, E; Feldmeier, H

    2008-11-01

    Although pediculosis capitis is the most frequent parasitosis in childhood, reliable data on its epidemiology and morbidity are scarce. In Germany population-based data do not exist. During the routine medical examination of 5-6-year-old pre-school children in Braunschweig city (n=1 890) the children were also examined for the presence of head lice and head lice-associated pathology. Visual inspection of five predilection sites was used to diagnose head lice infestation. Knowledge of careers on head lice infestation and disease perception were analysed using a standardised questionnaire. Socio-demographic variables of the households to which the children belonged were correlated to current or historical head lice infestation. Head lice infestation was diagnosed in 14 out of the 1 890 children (0.7%). Considering the low sensitivity of visual inspection the true prevalence should be higher by a factor 3 to 4. In addition, 5.6% of the children examined had suffered from a head lice infestation in the previous 12 months. This results in an incidence of 598 cases per 10,000 children aged 5 to 6 years per year. Households with a low educational level of the parents and without a background of migration were significantly more often affected by pediculosis capitis during the previous 12 months. The analysis of the questionnaires showed a rather low level of knowledge about pediculosis capitis, a tendency towards polypragmatic therapeutic approaches and partially aberrant reactions such as hysteria. The knowledge about pediculosis capitis was significantly lower in parents with a low educational level. Our study provides for the first time reliable data on the prevalence, incidence and disease perception of head lice infestation as well as concerning the knowledge parents have about this parasitic skin disease.

  12. Pharmacological management of pediatric Kerion celsi.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, G; Muscianese, M; Grimaldi, M; Tuzi, M; Pranteda, G; Fidanza, L; Tamburi, F; Bottoni, U; Nisticò, S

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of severe tinea capitis, treated successfully with griseofulvin. In our opinion, the treatment of this severe dermatophytosis with griseofulvin is safe and effective. Other treatments, such as itraconazole pulsed therapy, failed, despite an initial improvement, leading to an aggressive recurrence of the lesion. We chose griseofulvin for its well-known large spectrum activity, also against uncommon species, like Microsporum Gypseum, which are responsible for the most severe cases.

  13. Imposters of androgenetic alopecia: diagnostic pearls for the hair restoration surgeon.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole

    2013-08-01

    It is crucial that hair restoration surgeons understand the basic clinical diagnosis and pathologic condition of other hair loss conditions that are not always amenable to successful hair transplantation. In this article nonscarring and scarring mimickers of androgenetic alopecia are discussed. Nonscarring conditions include alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, and tinea capitis. Some of the more common scarring alopecias include lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Less common inflammatory conditions include pseudopelade of Brocq, discoid lupus erythematosus, and folliculitis decalvans.

  14. Red face revisited: Disorders of hair growth and the pilosebaceous unit.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Pirmez, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on the diseases of the hair and pilosebaceous unit that may cause a red face. We discuss the epidemiology, clinicals, pathogenesis, and therapy of lichen planopilaris with its variants, discoid lupus erythematosus, folliculitis decalvans, dissecting folliculitis, acne keloidalis nuchae, pseudofolliculitis barbae, tinea capitis, tinea barbae, folliculitis of diverse causative factors and inflammatory follicular keratotic syndromes, ulerythema ophryogenes, atrophoderma vermiculatum, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and folliculitis spinulosa decalvans.

  15. Effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 38 office workers who were randomly divided into two groups: a manual therapy group of 19 subjects and a shoulder stabilization exercise group of 19 subjects. All subjects underwent evaluation of the pressure pain threshold in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy used in the study was designed to include soft-tissue mobilization, prone thoracic mobilization, prone selected thoracic mobilization, cervical mobilization, and thoracic manipulation. Both groups underwent training of two 40-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly increased pressure pain thresholds in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy group showed greater improvements than did the shoulder stabilization exercise group in the splenius capitis on both sides, left upper trapezius, middle trapezius on both sides, and right lower trapezius. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that manual therapy for shoulder pain is feasible and suitable for office workers and may be useful in clinical rehabilitation. PMID:27799661

  16. Linezolid-resistant clinical isolates of meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and Enterococcus faecium from China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia Chang; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Hong Wei; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Seventeen meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), including ten Staphylococcus capitis, four Staphylococcus cohnii, two Staphylococcus haemolyticus and one Staphylococcus sciuri, and an Enterococcus faecium isolate with various levels of linezolid resistance were isolated from intensive care units in a Chinese hospital. PFGE indicated that the four S. cohnii isolates belonged to a clonal strain, and that nine of the S. capitis isolates were indistinguishable (clone A1) and the other one was closely related (clone A2). A G2576T mutation was identified in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene in the E. faecium isolate. Besides the G2576T mutation, a novel C2104T mutation was detected in the nine clone A1 S. capitis isolates. The cfr gene was detected in all the staphylococci except an S. sciuri isolate, whose 23S rRNA gene contained the G2576T mutation. There was a clonal dissemination of linezolid-resistant MRCoNS in intensive care units of our hospital, and this is the first report, to our knowledge, of linezolid-resistant staphylococci and enterococci in China.

  17. Effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers.

    PubMed

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of manual therapy on shoulder pain in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 38 office workers who were randomly divided into two groups: a manual therapy group of 19 subjects and a shoulder stabilization exercise group of 19 subjects. All subjects underwent evaluation of the pressure pain threshold in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy used in the study was designed to include soft-tissue mobilization, prone thoracic mobilization, prone selected thoracic mobilization, cervical mobilization, and thoracic manipulation. Both groups underwent training of two 40-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly increased pressure pain thresholds in the splenius capitis and upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles on both sides. The manual therapy group showed greater improvements than did the shoulder stabilization exercise group in the splenius capitis on both sides, left upper trapezius, middle trapezius on both sides, and right lower trapezius. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that manual therapy for shoulder pain is feasible and suitable for office workers and may be useful in clinical rehabilitation.

  18. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.

  19. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  20. [The consultation with the candidate couple for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). The experience of the MATRIS (Medici Associati per la Terapia e la Ricerca dell'Infertilità e Sterilità) center of Milan].

    PubMed

    Magro, B; Magro, S

    1998-04-01

    The authors examine the relationship between doctor and patient during the consultation for the therapeutic decision for those couples who have to undergo a medical procreation, especially the ICSI by MESA and TESA. The couple's psycho-emotional involvement and the medical terminology hinder the real possibility of communication between doctor and patient. The data relating to a study of 80 couples done by the authors are presented. They show the need to improve the quality of communication between doctor and patient during the consultation. For this purpose, on the basis of the research conducted, modification of the language used and the support of audio-visual media are suggested during the consultation in order to reduce the percentage of the couple's doubts and uncertainties.

  1. [Mirror therapy in hemiplegic patient].

    PubMed

    Lisalde-Rodríguez, María Elena; Garcia-Fernández, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. La terapia de espejo es una intervencion relativamente nueva, cada vez mas utilizada y de facil acceso para el tratamiento rehabilitador del paciente hemiplejico. El paciente moviliza el miembro sano frente a un espejo, de modo que mira el reflejo del movimiento del lado sano como si fuera el lado afectado. Objetivo. Analizar el efecto de la terapia de espejo en el paciente hemiplejico en cuanto a funcion sensitivomotora, heminegligencia y actividades de la vida diaria. Desarrollo. Se definio una estrategia de busqueda bibliografica en Medline, EMBASE, PEDro y Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials de ensayos clinicos aleatorizados llevados a cabo con pacientes hemiplejicos en los que se utilizara como intervencion rehabilitadora principal la terapia de espejo. Siete estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusion con nivel medio-alto de calidad metodologica. La mayoria de los estudios valora el efecto de la terapia de espejo sobre el deficit motor, con mejorias significativas. Se encontraron tres ensayos clinicos aleatorizados que evaluan el efecto de la terapia de espejo sobre la heminegligencia, con beneficios tambien significativos. Conclusiones. La terapia de espejo combinada con una rehabilitacion convencional es efectiva sobre todo en la funcion motora y no tanto en la funcion sensitiva y en la funcionalidad global del paciente hemiplejico. En la heminegligencia se obtienen resultados tambien beneficiosos, aunque se basan en pocos ensayos clinicos aleatorizados y con muestras de pacientes reducidas, por lo que los resultados, aunque prometedores, son poco concluyentes.

  2. [LONG-TERM FULMINANT HEPATIC FAILURE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING GASTRIC BYPASS FOR MORBID OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Mayo Ossorio, M Angeles; Pacheco Garcia, José Manuel; Pérez Gomar, Daniel; Bazán Hinojo, M Del Carmen; Vilchez Lopez, Francisco Javier; Aguilar Diosdad, Manuel; Fernández Serrano, José Luis

    2015-07-01

    La obesidad mórbida es un factor de riesgo para numerosas enfermedades, incluidas las enfermedades hepáticas, siendo la incidencia de esteatosis hepática de un 70 a 80%. Aunque el tratamiento quirúrgico es eficaz en la reducción del peso, sus efectos sobre el hígado no se han establecido convincentemente. Presentamos dos casos de pacientes intervenidas de cirugía bariátrica y que presentaron un fallo hepático fulminante con resultado de muerte. Material y método: caso clínico n.º 1: mujer de 36 años intervenida de obesidad en 1995 con gastroplastia vertical anillada con IMC 52,5 que tras reganancia ponderal posterior se realiza cirugía de revisión en 2009, realizándose by-pass gástrico distal. Caso clínico n.º2: mujer de 42 años intervenida de obesidad en 2009 mediante by-pass gástrico distal con IMC de 51 y colocación de malla profiláctica de composix kugel midline. A los tres años con buena pérdida ponderal presenta absceso de pared por fístula enterocutánea y se interviene quirúrgicamente, extrayendo malla, identificándose dos fístulas en asa alimentaria y común que se extirpan y se realizá nueva anastomosis. Resultados: caso clínico n.º1: a los dos meses de la cirugía de revisión inicia cuadro de vómitos secundarios a estenosis de anastomosis gastroyeyunal que se trata mediante dilatación, y cuadro de ictericia progresiva, ascitis y encefalopatía por fallo hepático fulminante con resultado de muerte. Caso clínico n.º2: en el postoperatorio inmediato inicia incremento del debito del drenaje, así como ascenso de enzimas de citolisis hepática y coagulopatía. Se reinterviene por sospecha de fuga anastomótica y sepsis abdominal, desarrollando fallo hepático fulminante con coagulopatía y encefalopatía que se trata mediante sistema MARS, falleciendo a las cuatro horas de la instauración de la terapia. Conclusiones: si bien las técnicas quirúrgicas actuales de cirugía bariátrica se consideran bastante seguras, se

  3. Comparative study of abdominal cavity temporary closure techniques for damage control.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; Carvalho, Sabrina Marques DE; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery, with emphasis on laparostomy, usually results in shrinkage of the aponeurosis and loss of the ability to close the abdominal wall, leading to the formation of ventral incisional hernias. Currently, various techniques offer greater chances of closing the abdominal cavity with less tension. Thus, this study aims to evaluate three temporary closure techniques of the abdominal cavity: the Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC, the Bogotá Bag and the Vacuum-pack. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting 28 articles published in the last 20 years. The techniques of the bag Bogotá and Vacuum-pack had the advantage of easy access to the material in most centers and low cost, contrary to VAC, which, besides presenting high cost, is not available in most hospitals. On the other hand, the VAC technique was more effective in reducing stress at the edges of lesions, removing stagnant fluids and waste, in addition to acting at the cellular level by increasing proliferation and cell division rates, and showed the highest rates of primary closure of the abdominal cavity. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos, com ênfase em peritoneostomia, geralmente resulta em retração da aponeurose e perda da capacidade de fechar a parede abdominal, levando à formação de hérnias ventrais incisionais. Atualmente, várias técnicas oferecem maiores chances de fechamento da cavidade abdominal, com menor tensão. Deste modo, este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar três técnicas de fechamento temporário da cavidade abdominal: fechamento a vácuo (Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC), Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura com seleção de 28 artigos publicados nos últimos 20 anos. As técnicas de Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack tiveram como vantagem o acesso fácil ao material, na maioria dos centros, e baixo custo, ao contrário do que se observa na terapia a vácuo, VAC, que além de apresentar

  4. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (±5 mA, 0–75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼30–45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization. PMID:25008409

  5. Flexion-relaxation ratio in computer workers with and without chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carina Ferreira; dos Santos, Marina Foresti; Chaves, Thais Cristina

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) and flexion-relaxation ratios (FR-ratios) using surface electromyography (sEMG) of the cervical extensor muscles of computer workers with and without chronic neck pain, as well as of healthy subjects who were not computer users. This study comprised 60 subjects 20-45years of age, of which 20 were computer workers with chronic neck pain (CPG), 20 were computer workers without neck pain (NPG), and 20 were control individuals who do not use computers for work and use them less than 4h/day for other purposes (CG). FRP and FR-ratios were analyzed using sEMG of the cervical extensors. Analysis of FR-ratios showed smaller values in the semispinalis capitis muscles of the two groups of workers compared to the control group. The reference FR-ratio (flexion relaxation ratio [FRR], defined as the maximum activity in 1s of the re-extension/full flexion sEMG activity) was significantly higher in the computer workers with neck pain compared to the CG (CPG: 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI95%] 2.50-3.70; NPG: 2.33, CI95% 1.93-2.74; CG: 1.99, CI95% 1.81-2.17; p<0.001). The FR-ratios and FRR of sEMG in this study suggested that computer use could increase recruitment of the semispinalis capitis during neck extension (concentric and eccentric phases), which could explain our results. These results also suggest that the FR-ratios of the semispinalis may be a potential functional predictive neuromuscular marker of asymptomatic neck musculoskeletal disorders since even asymptomatic computer workers showed altered values. On the other hand, the FRR values of the semispinalis capitis demonstrated a good discriminative ability to detect neck pain, and such results suggested that each FR-ratio could have a different application.

  6. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Siegmund, Gunter P; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (± 5 mA, 0-75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼ 25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼ 30-45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization.

  7. MRI study of the cross-sectional area for the cervical extensor musculature in patients with persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD).

    PubMed

    Elliott, James; Jull, Gwendolen; Noteboom, Jon Timothy; Galloway, Graham

    2008-06-01

    Cervical muscle function is disturbed in patients with persistent pain related to a whiplash associated disorder (WAD) but little is known about neck extensor muscle morphometry in this group. This study used magnetic resonance imaging to measure relative cross-sectional area (rCSA) of the rectus capitis posterior minor and major, multifidus, semispinalis cervicis and capitis, splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles bilaterally at each cervical segment. In total, 113 female subjects (79 WAD, 34 healthy control; 18-45 years, 3 months-3 years post-injury) were recruited for the study. Significant main effects for differences in muscle and segmental level were found between the two groups (P < 0.0001) as well as a significant group * muscle * level interaction (P < 0.0001). The cervical multifidus muscle in the WAD group had significantly larger rCSA at all spinal levels and in contrast, there were variable differences in rCSA measures across levels in the intermediate and superficial extensor muscles when compared to the healthy controls (P < 0.0001). There were occasional weak, although statistically significant relationships between age, body mass index (BMI), duration of symptoms and the size of some muscles in both healthy control and WAD subjects (P < 0.01). It is possible that the consistent pattern of larger rCSA in multifidus at all levels and the variable pattern of rCSA values in the intermediate and superficial muscles in patients with WAD may reflect morphometric change due to fatty infiltrate in the WAD muscles. Future clinical studies are required to investigate the relationships between muscular morphometry, symptoms and function in patients with persistent WAD.

  8. Electromyography of superficial and deep neck muscles during isometric, voluntary, and reflex contractions.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Brault, John R; Hedenstierna, Sofia; Inglis, J Timothy

    2007-02-01

    Increasingly complex models of the neck neuromusculature need detailed muscle and kinematic data for proper validation. The goal of this study was to measure the electromyographic activity of superficial and deep neck muscles during tasks involving isometric, voluntary, and reflexively evoked contractions of the neck muscles. Three male subjects (28-41 years) had electromyographic (EMG) fine wires inserted into the left sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, trapezius, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus muscles. Surface electrodes were placed over the left sternohyoid muscle. Subjects then performed: (i) maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in the eight directions (45 deg intervals) from the neutral posture; (ii) 50 N isometric contractions with a slow sweep of the force direction through 720 deg; (iii) voluntary oscillatory head movements in flexion and extension; and (iv) initially relaxed reflex muscle activations to a forward acceleration while seated on a sled. Isometric contractions were performed against an overhead load cell and movement dynamics were measured using six-axis accelerometry on the head and torso. In all three subjects, the two anterior neck muscles had similar preferred activation directions and acted synergistically in both dynamic tasks. With the exception of splenius capitis, the posterior and posterolateral neck muscles also showed consistent activation directions and acted synergistically during the voluntary motions, but not during the sled perturbations. These findings suggest that the common numerical-modeling assumption that all anterior muscles act synergistically as flexors is reasonable, but that the related assumption that all posterior muscles act synergistically as extensors is not. Despite the small number of subjects, the data presented here can be used to inform and validate a neck model at three levels of increasing neuromuscular-kinematic complexity: muscles generating forces

  9. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control Información relacionada disponible en ... variation in the length of time needed, but it can be as long as a year). Empty ...

  10. An enlarged endocranial venous system in Steneosaurus pictaviensis (Crocodylia: Thalattosuchia) from the Upper Jurassic of LesLourdines, FranceUn système veineux endocrânien volumineux chez Steneosaurus pictaviensis (Crocodylia: Thalattosuchia) du Jurassique supérieur des Lourdines, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, Deborah Susan

    2000-08-01

    Large endocranial features are revealed in a three-dimensionally preserved specimen of the thalattosuchian crocodile Steneosaurus pictaviensis. Structures found on an endocast indicate the presence of the same venous blood system, although much enlarged, as found within the cranial cavity of modern crocodilians. An exceptionally large longitudinal dorsal blood sinus forms an expanded torcular herophili above the junction of the midbrain and hindbrain. The venous canals entering the posterodorsal part of the torcular herophili are the capiti dorsalis, which drain blood from the temporal and occipital musculature, entering the braincase in this region as in many extant and extinct Archosauria.

  11. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  12. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  13. An outbreak of scalp white piedra in a Brazilian children day care.

    PubMed

    Roselino, Ana Maria; Seixas, Ana Beatriz; Thomazini, José A; Maffei, Claudia M L

    2008-01-01

    White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by Trichosporon spp. that affects the hair shaft of any part of the body. It is presented an outbreak of scalp white piedra seen in 5.8% of the children frequenting a day care in Northeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. Mycological exam and culture identified T. cutaneum in all five cases, and scanning electron microscopy of nodules around hair shaft infected by Trichosporon spp. is demonstrated comparing them with those of black piedra and with nits of Pediculous capitis.

  14. [Dermatophytoses in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Arenas, Roberto

    2002-06-01

    The dermatophytic infections are superficial mycoses common in Mexico, they have an estimated frequency of 5% in dermatological outpatients. In this review we present a global view of these mycoses as well as their etiological agents in tinea capitis, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris and onychomycosis and also uncommon infections such as tinea imbricata and epidermophytosis of the diaper area. We also analyze these infections in diabetic patients, healthy carriers and dermatophytic infections in pets and laboratory animals. The most important publications about dermatophytosis in Mexico in the dermatological, epidemiological or mycological area are reviewed, specially those published in the last ten years.

  15. Tinea corporis purpurica and onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton violaceum.

    PubMed

    Romano, Clara; Massai, Lucia; Strangi, Rosa; Feci, Luca; Miracco, Clelia; Fimiani, Michele

    2011-03-01

    We report two cases of tinea corporis purpurica of the legs, presumably caused by self-inoculation of the mycete from the toenails, in two elderly women (80 and 78 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated from the skin and nails. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen from the leg lesions confirmed the diagnosis. The source of infection was an Ethiopian carer who had tinea capitis in the first case, and was undiagnosed in the second patient. Cases of purpuric variants of tinea corporis are rare and this is the first report of probable self-inoculation of T. violaceum from onychomycosis.

  16. Dermatophytosis in northern Greece during the decade 1981-1990.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Badillet, G

    1995-01-01

    Dermatophytic infections are very common in Greece. In the Mycological Laboratory of the Venereal and Skin Diseases Hospital in Thessaloniki, 6572 isolates of different dermatophytes were obtained from 17,120 patients examined. It is suggested that 5% of the people who present with skin problems in Greece suffer from dermatophyte infections. They are frequent causative agents of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, tinea capitis and tinea unguium. In this paper, the species, the number and the prevalence of the dermatophytes were studied according to location and sex of the patients. The contribution of dermatophyte infections to the overall incidence of superficial fungal infection over 10 years was also studied.

  17. Topical application of ivermectin for human ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M Y; Sadaka, H A; Eissa, M M; el-Ariny, A F

    1995-12-01

    Ivermectin is used in veterinary practice against many ectoparasites and endoparasites and is the drug of choice for treatment of human onchocerciasis. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of topical application of this drug against human ectoparasites (Sarcoptes scabiei and Pediculus humanus capitis). Ivernectin was found to have a curative effect on head lice after a single topical application. In patients with scabies, the drug was also found to be effective after a single application. However, in 50% of the cases, another application was needed five days later.

  18. [Dermatophytes transmitted by pets and cattle].

    PubMed

    Monod, M; Fratti, M; Mignon, B; Baudraz-Rosselet, F

    2014-04-02

    Most inflammatory skin and hair dermatophytoses are caused by one of four zoophilic dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (from cats and dogs), Trichophyton verrucosum (from cattle), Arthroderma benhamiae (from Guinea-pigs) and Arthrodermna vanbreuseghemii (generally from cats and dogs). In cases of highly inflammatory tinea corporis, tinea faciae and tinea capitis in humans, it is important to identify with certainty the precise etiologic agent and to examine pets as the possible source of infection. The recurrence of infections or new infections can be prevented by adequately treating incriminated domestic animals and their environments. Cooperation between the medical and veterinary professions is required in this situation.

  19. Wet combing for the eradication of head lice.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Manual removal (using conditioner and comb or a wet comb) can be used in the treatment of head lice. Head lice infestation (Pediculosis humanus capitis) is a common problem. It is diagnosed by visualising the lice. As half of people infested with head lice will not scratch, all people in contact with a person affected with head lice should be manually checked for infestations. Wet combing is easily and safely performed at home, but persistence is needed. This article describes the process of head lice removal using a wet comb. It has NHMRC Level 2 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported.

  20. Itraconazole in common dermatophyte infections of the skin: fixed treatment schedules.

    PubMed

    Saul, A; Bonifaz, A

    1990-09-01

    Itraconazole is an effective medication against the most common dermatophytoses. It has been shown to be more active than griseofulvin and ketoconazole. Ease of use, affinity for keratinized tissues, lack of toxicity, continued activity after discontinuation, and the possibility of using fixed schedules are advantages of itraconazole. The fixed schedules indicated by pharmacokinetics and clinical studies are one 100 mg capsule daily for 15 days in cases of tinea corporis and tinea cruris and the same dosage for 30 days in cases of tinea pedis and tinea manuum. These fixed treatments have some limitations, and they are not recommended for treating tinea capitis and tinea unguium. The drug is well tolerated.

  1. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. )

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  2. Diagnosis and management of alopecia in children.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Soccio, Leslie

    2014-04-01

    Alopecia in childhood is a source of high concern, frustration, and anxiety. Delineating types of alopecia and those that are chronic or potentially related to underlying medical problems is important. There are 5 common types of hair loss in children: alopecia related to tinea capitis, alopecia areata spectrum/autoimmune alopecia, traction alopecia, telogen effluvium, and trichotillomania/trichotillosis. Hair-cycle anomalies including loose anagen syndrome can lead to sparse-appearing hair. Rarer reasons for alopecia in children include pressure-induced alopecia, alopecia related to nutritional deficiency or toxic ingestion, and androgenetic alopecia. Congenital lesions should be considered for areas of localized alopecia occurring at birth.

  3. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI.

  4. Historical aspects of dermatomycoses.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Ricardo

    2010-03-04

    Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Beigel reported white piedra in 1856, and Cerqueira, tinea nigra in 1891. The book Les Tiegnes was published by Sabouraud in 1910, and black piedra infection was described by Horta in 1911. In 1927, Nannizzi reported the description of the sexual state of Microsporum gypseum. The current classification of dermatophytes was published by Emmons in 1934, and the taxonomy of yeast fungi was described by Lodder and Kreger-van Rij in 1952. Finally, the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin by Gentles in 1958 saved many patients with tinea capitis from permanent hair loss, a common side effect after treatment with thallium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emergence of cfr-harbouring coagulase-negative staphylococci among patients receiving linezolid therapy in two hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Jing; Chen, Yan; Yang, Qing; Qu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Li-Lin; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song

    2013-06-01

    This study reports on the emergence of cfr-harbouring coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) among patients who received linezolid therapy in two hospitals in Hangzhou, China. The mechanisms of resistance and transmission were analysed for these resistant isolates. Eight Staphylococcus capitis isolates, one Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate and one Staphylococcus hominis isolate, obtained from patients who had received linezolid therapy in two hospitals in Hangzhou, China, were confirmed as linezolid resistant, with MICs ranging from 8 to >256 mg l(-1). The linezolid usage data of the ten patients before isolation of the linezolid-resistant CoNS were collected. PFGE analysis showed that the eight S. capitis isolates from the two hospitals belonged to the same clone. Nine of the linezolid-resistant CoNS isolates carried the cfr gene, which was located on plasmids of a similar size. A 5.3 kb fragment containing the cfr gene, revealing 99 % identity to the sequence of the cfr-harbouring plasmid pSS-01 reported previously, was determined by PCR mapping for all cfr-positive isolates, and the cfr gene was flanked by two copies of IS256-like elements. Thus, these results document the emergence of linezolid-resistant CoNS isolates carrying the cfr gene in Hangzhou, China. Effective nosocomial infection control strategies and the judicious use of antibiotics will be required to prevent further spread of this resistance mechanism.

  6. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Materials and Methods: Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. Results: The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. PMID:26649237

  7. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats.

  8. The course of the greater occipital nerve in the suboccipital region: a proposal for setting landmarks for local anesthesia in patients with occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Natsis, K; Baraliakos, X; Appell, H J; Tsikaras, P; Gigis, I; Koebke, J

    2006-05-01

    The anatomical relationships of the greater occipital nerve (GON) to the semispinalis capitis muscle (SCM) and the trapezius muscle aponeurosis (TMA) were examined to identify topographic landmarks for use in anesthetic blockade of the GON in occipital neuralgia. The course and the diameter of the GON were studied in 40 cadavers (29 females, 11 males), and the points where it pierced the SCM and the TMA were identified. The course of the GON did not differ between males and females. A left-right difference was detected in the site of the GON in the TMA region but not in the SCM region. The nerve became wider towards the periphery. This may be relevant to entrapment of the nerve in the development of occipital neuralgia. In three cases, the GON split into two branches before piercing the TMA and reunited after having passed the TMA, and it pierced the obliquus capitis inferior muscle in another three cases. The GON and the lesser occipital nerve reunited at the level of the occiput in 80% of the specimens. The occiput and the nuchal midline are useful topographic landmarks to guide anesthetic blockade of the GON for diagnosis and therapy of occipital neuralgia. The infiltration is probably best aimed at the site where the SCM is pierced by the GON.

  9. Skin diseases in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Émilie; Nourrisson, Céline; Sciauvaud, Julie; Pascal, Julie; Texier, Charlotte; Corbin, Violaine; Poirier, Véronique; Beytout, Jean; Labbe, André; Lesens, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Internationally adopted children often present diseases contracted in the country of origin. Skin diseases are common in new arrivals, and diagnosis may prove challenging for GPs or even dermatologists if they are inexperienced in the extensive geographic and ethnic diversity of international adoptees. To analyse the frequency and characteristics of skin diseases in international adoptees. In total, 142 adoptees were evaluated for a cross-sectional cohort study. The most frequent diseases observed at arrival were dermatological conditions. Of the adoptees, 70% presented at least one skin disease, of which 57.5% were infectious; Tinea capitis being the most frequent (n = 42). The recovery rate of Tinea capitis was 89% (n = 32/36). Ten cases of scabies were diagnosed. Other diseases included viral skin infection (n = 22), with 16 cases of Molluscum contagiosum and bacterial infection. Skin diseases are very common in internationally adopted children. There is a need for close collaboration between dermatologists and paediatricians to diagnose such infections, as well as clear guidelines to treat them.

  10. [Distribution of head lice in the Erciş district of Van].

    PubMed

    Dursun, Nahit; Cengiz, Zeynep Taş

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to to detect the prevalence of Pediculus capitis in the Erciş district of Van between May and June, 2007. The study was performed on sixth, seventh and eighth grade schoolchildren between 12 and 15 years old who studied at the Osmangazi Primary School. All of the hair, especially on the neck and the back of the head was examined for the egg, nymph and imago stages of the parasite in 622 schoolchildren (196 females and 426 males) and samples were collected from possibly infected schoolchildren. The questionnaire forms were given to all schoolchildren. The samples taken from schoolchildren were brought to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital, Yüzüncü Yil University. Eggs of the parasite were found in 9.5% of all schoolchildren, in 23% of females and 3.3% of males. A statistically significant relationship was found between the prevalence of P. capitis and gender, educational status of students' mothers (in some groups), the frequency of bathing (p < 0.01), and the fathers' profession (in some groups; p < 0.05). As a result, relation was observed between head lice and socioeconomic status, hygiene rules, crowded families and classrooms at schools.

  11. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eline; Jahnke, Claudia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in childhood. If not diagnosed and treated rapidly, considerable clinical pathology may develop. The ubiquitous parasitic skin disease is characterized by a lack of sound epidemiological data, and factors which influence disease occurrence are still enigmatic. To investigate whether, in Germany, head lice infestation follows a seasonal pattern, we analyzed the weekly head lice consultations at the Health Department of Braunschweig City, Lower Saxony, for a period of 5 years, and compared the data with the units of pediculocides sold by two wholesalers to German pharmacies during a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively. The number of consultations did not show a clear seasonality, although there was a tendency of fewer consultations during school holidays, and an increase when schools opened again after Christmas, Easter, summer, and autumn holidays. In contrast, the number of packages of pediculocides sold followed a distinct seasonal rhythm with a maximum between calendar week 34 and 40, i.e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn.

  12. Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pediculus L. that parasitize humans comprise two subspecies: the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus De Geer. Despite the 200 yr of the first description of these two species, there is still a long debate about their taxonomic status. Some authors proposed that these organisms are separate species, conspecifics, or grouped in clades. The sequencing of both forms indicated that the difference between them is one gene absent in the head louse. However, their chromosomal number remains to be determined. In this study, we described the male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and examined the chromatin structure by means of C-banding. In P. h. humanus and P. h. capitis, the diploid chromosome complement was 2 n = 12 in both sexes. In oogonial prometaphase and metaphase and spermatogonial metaphase, it is evident that chromosomes lack of a primary constriction. No identifiable sex chromosomes or B chromosomes were observed in head and body lice. Neither chiasmata nor chromatin connections between homologous chromosomes were detected in male meiosis. The meiotic behaviour of the chromosomes showed that they are holokinetic. C-banding revealed the absence of constitutive heterochromatin. Our results provide relevant information to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response.

  13. Familial keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with woolly hair.

    PubMed

    Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Rossi, Alfredo; Schwartz, Robert A; Micali, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is a rare inherited disorder of keratinization clinically characterized by diffuse follicular hyperkeratosis, progressive scarring alopecia of scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes, corneal dystrophy and photophobia. Woolly hair is a hereditary condition, transmitted as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait, usually seen in Caucasians at birth or shortly after, in which there are curly, thick, often heavily pigmented hairs. We report two cases, a son and his mother, in whom KFSD occurred in association with woolly hair. In addition, various dental anomalies, including agenesis, inclusions and teeth malformations, were present in the child. Interestingly, both patients simultaneously developed an inflammatory tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, the association of KFSD with woolly hair has not been described. The dental anomalies found in the child are intriguing, as they have never been reported previously in patients with KFSD. Finally, the concomitant onset of inflammatory tinea capitis in both patients may be explained by the enhanced susceptibility to fungal infection in keratinizing disorders.

  14. Alopecia: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lynne J; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia is a disorder that affects all patients, young and old. Many diagnoses, particularly the scarring alopecias, are more common in adults; however, others, such as tinea capitis, are more common in children, and some, such as alopecia areata, often affect both age groups. The approach to, and evaluation of, an alopecia patient is thus highly dependent on his or her age. In adults with diffuse, non-scarring hair loss, a part-width examination can help detect pattern hair loss, the most common cause of diffuse loss in this age group. In children this is much less likely, and a careful evaluation for tinea capitis is in order. The same holds true for patchy alopecia in children, as well as scarring alopecia-tinea needs to always be considered. In adults, patchy alopecia is often due to alopecia areata and sometimes to one of the primary scarring alopecias. A laboratory evaluation, and especially a biopsy, would be a more appropriate undertaking for an adult than a child, and an adult would be more likely to tolerate certain therapeutic regimens such as intralesional injections. In a conversational manner, the authors discuss their individual approaches to the alopecia patient, highlighting the differences in diagnosis, workup, and management that depend on whether the affected individual is an adult or a child.

  15. [Trends in Google searches on complementary and alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Cevallos-Morales, Alejandro; Málaga, Marco; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este artículo es evaluar el interés de la población en terapias de medicina alternativa y complementaria (MAC), a través de la herramienta Google Trends y en países de habla hispana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional mediante la herramienta Google Trends. Se evaluaron las tendencias de búsqueda de 34 terapias de MAC en español, de manera global y en 21 países de habla hispana. Se evaluó la asociación entre la mediana de búsquedas de las terapias más populares y el producto interno bruto (PIB) per cápita en cada país, mediante la prueba de Spearman. Resultados: se observa una tendencia descendente en el volumen de búsquedas de homeopatía, medicina herbaria, acupuntura y terapias sensoriales; así como una tendencia ascendente de la quiropraxia. Además, al analizar los países se observó una asociación directa entre el PIB per cápita y la mediana de la búsqueda de las terapias de MAC más populares, pero esta no fue significativa (p = 0.432). Conclusiones: el interés de terapias de MAC presenta variaciones temporales y geográficas que deben estudiarse a profundidad. Estos resultados pueden ser de utilidad para establecer una vigilancia internacional al respecto.

  16. Extra-anatomic iliac to superior mesenteric artery bypass after bridge endovascular treatment for chronic mesenteric ischemia. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bajardi, Guido; Pakeliani, David; Dinoto, Ettore; Bracale, Umberto M; Pecoraro, Felice

    2015-07-03

    Un uomo di 60 anni con ischemia mesenterica cronica (CMI) è stato trattato con una terapia ‘bridge’ verso una terapia di chirurgia open tradizionale, mediante stenting dell’arteria mesenterica superiore (SMA). Al follow-up a 5 mesi lo stent della SMA è andato incontro ad occlusione. Durante questo periodo ‘bridge’ il paziente ha migliorato le sue condizioni generali e il suo indice di massa corporea (BMI) è incrementato da 18 a 22. Il paziente è stato sottoposto successivamente ad intervento chirurgico di bypass iliaco-SMA in configurazione ‘Cloop’. Al follow-up a 6 mesi il bypass è pervio, il paziente non riferisce sintomatologia di CMI ed il suo BMI è di 25. Il trattamento endovascolare non ha precluso una successiva riparazione chirurgica e può essere impiegato in maniera sicura come terapia ‘bridge’. Un miglioramento delle condizioni cliniche, anche durante un limitato periodo ‘bridge’, può migliorare i risultati della terapia chirurgica tradizionale.

  17. [Pharmacological strategies to improve the adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Clapé-Laffita, Oneyda

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la adherencia a la terapia antirretroviral es un factor importante para suprimir el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. El propósito de la investigación que se presenta fue aplicar estrategias farmacológicas basadas en medidas farmacocinéticas para facilitar la adherencia a la terapia antirretroviral. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo durante ocho meses, con 75 pacientes positivos al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, con criterios clínicos y sociales para una terapia antirretroviral altamente activa, en Opuwo, Namibia. Se analizaron aspectos farmacológicos como la no existencia de efectos adversos graves ni interacciones medicamentosas riesgosas. El análisis de resultado fue realizado con estadística descriptiva. Resultados: fueron detectados tres efectos adversos leves (dos para efavirenz y uno para nevirapina) y uno grave para estavudina/lamivudina. Se evitaron las interacciones medicamentosas riesgosas aplicando medidas farmacocinéticas con efavirenz, estavudina/ lamivudina y zidovudina; así como entre nevirapina y fluconazol (o ketoconazol). Conclusiones: la adherencia a la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa se facilitó al aplicar las estrategias farmacológicas propuestas y se evitaron efectos adversos e interacciones medicamentosas riesgosas.

  18. [Analysis of the causes leading to withdrawal of the treatment with triple antiviral therapy for hepatitis C patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ramos, J; Lorente Fernández, L; Gil Gómez, I; Cueto Sola, M; Monte Boquet, E; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar las causas de suspensión de tratamientofrente a Hepatitis C que reciben triple terapia antiviral (peginterferon+ ribavirina + inhibidor de proteasa).Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes queiniciaron triple terapia antiviral entre enero 2012 - marzo 2013y suspendieron el tratamiento antes de completar el mismo.Resultados: De 156 pacientes que iniciaron triple terapia, 41interrumpieron el tratamiento: Diecinueve por toxicidad, siendodermatológica en siete pacientes (36,8%), intolerancia en seis(31,6%) y hematológica en cuatro (15,8%). Dieciséis pacientessuspendieron todo el tratamiento por ineficacia. El grupo depacientes con mayor porcentaje de fracasos por ineficacia fueronlos “no respondedores” (32,3%) mientras que el grupo depacientes “recidivantes” fueron el grupo con mayor porcentajede suspensiones por toxicidad (15,6%). Dos pacientes fallecierondurante el tratamiento por neumonía.Conclusiones: La triple terapia frente a VHC está asociada a unnúmero importante de fracasos terapéuticos tanto por toxicidadcomo por ineficacia.

  19. The Effects of Middle Ear Pressure on Hearing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    Hultcrantz et al., 1982; Larsen et al., 1982; Prazma & Rogers , 1982); 3) direct visualization of flow in selected cochlear vessels (Perlman & Kimura, 1955...Plenum Publishers, New York. 4. DeVincetits, I., Bozzi, L. and Pizzichetta, V. 1964. Sulla terapia medica di alcuwe gravi ipoacusie. Valsalua 40:65-79

  20. Immunological failure of first-line and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in Tanzania: analysis of routinely collected national data

    PubMed Central

    Vanobberghen, Fiona M; Kilama, Bonita; Wringe, Alison; Ramadhani, Angela; Zaba, Basia; Mmbando, Donan; Todd, Jim

    2015-01-01

    benefits of increased coverage. Objectifs Les taux d’échec du traitement de 1ère ligne et les passages au traitement de 2nde ligne sont des indicateurs clés pour les programmes nationaux VIH. Nous avons évalué l’échec immunologique du traitement selon les critères de l’OMS dans le programme national VIH tanzanien. Méthodes Nous avons inclus les adultes entreprenant une thérapie de 1ère ligne entre 2004 et 2011 avec une numération des CD4 prétraitement disponible et un suivi ≥6 mois. Nous avons évalué les rapports en dessous du risque pour l’échec immunologique du traitement et le passage subséquent à la thérapie de 2nde ligne, en utilisant les méthodes de risques concurrents pour tenir compte des décès. Résultats Sur 121.308 adultes, 7% ont connu un échec immunologique du traitement et 2% sont décédés sans observation d’échec immunologique du traitement, sur une médiane de 1,7 ans. La probabilité cumulée d’échec immunologique du traitement sur six ans était de 19,0% (IC95%: 18,5 à 19,7) et 5,1% (4,8 à 5,4) de décès. Les prédicteurs d’échecs immunologiques du traitement comprenaient: l'instauration précoce du traitement (p <0,001), l'initiation dans les établissements de niveau inférieur (SHR = 2,23 [2,03 à 2,45] pour les dispensaires versus les hôpitaux), le sexe masculin (1,27 [1,19 à 1,33]) et l'initiation du traitement à des taux de CD4 faibles ou élevés (par exemple, 1,78 [1,65 à 1,92] et 5,33 [4,65 à 6,10] pour des taux <50 et ≥500 versus des taux compris entre 200 et 349 cellules/mm3, respectivement). Sur 7.382 participants à l'analyse sur le moment du changement de traitement, 6% ont changé de traitement et 5% sont décédés avant le changement. Quatre ans après l’échec immunologique du traitement, la probabilité cumulative du changement de traitement était de 7,3% (6,6 à 8,0) et de 6,8% (6,0 à 7,6) pour les décès. Ceux qui ont connu un échec immunologique dans les dispensaires, les

  1. Evaluation of surgery risk factor associated to antithrombotic therapy in patients who underwent colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Paolo; Sozzi, Francesco; Bertocchi, Elisa; Dell'Abate, Paolo; Perrone, Gennaro; Arcuri, Maria Francesca; Sianesi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    I trattamenti antipiastrinici sono comuni nel mondo occidentale ed il rischio di sanguinamento correlato a procedure chirurgiche o comunque invasive è di conseguenza elevato e pertanto abbiamo volute analizzare la correlazione tra la chirurgia del colon.retto ,la terapia antipiastrinica e le complicanze chirurgiche postoperatorie. Sono stati studiati 176 pazienti operati per tumori del colon-retto considerando i seguenti dati:tipo di intervento xchirurgico,l’indice di massa corporea (BMI), il valore dell’emoglobina (Hb); PT preoperatorio e le trasfusioni di sangue pre epost-operatorie e durante lo stesso intervento chirurgico. L’analisi si è concentrata su due gruppi :pazienti sottoposti a trattamento antipiastrinico (ATterapia antiaggregante) e pazienti non trattati ( NAT: non terapia antiaggregante piastrinica). Nei gruppi di pazienti sottoposti a emicolectomia destra, i valori di emoglobina erano più bassi neri pazienti che hanno ricevuto la terapia antitrombotica rispetto ai pazienti che non hanno ricevuto questa terapia, con una significatività statistica (p <0,05); dati analoghi sono stati osservati nei pazienti sottoposti a emicolectomia sinistra. I pazienti dipeso normale trattati con terapia antiaggregante avevano valori più bassi di emoglobina senza significatività statistica (valore di p non significativo). I pazienti in sovrappeso sottoposti a trattamento antiaggregante hanno presentato valori di Hb inferiori a quelli non trattati (p < 0,05). La percentuale di emotrasfusioneè risultata maggiore nei pazienti sottoposti a trattamento antiaggregante (AT) a prescindere dal tipo di interveno chirurgico rispetto al secondo gruppo con significatività statistica. Tra i pazienti normopeso si è registrata una diversa incidenza di trasfusione di sangue nei pazienti trattati con AT (50%) e quelli non trattati (29%) con un significato statistico (p <0,05), mentre i pazienti in sovrappeso non hanno presenato questa significativa differenza. È stata

  2. [Effect of immune therapy in the prognosis of viral myocarditis in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, Horacio; López-Gallegos, Diana; González-Espinosa, Alicia María Dolores; Zamudio-López, Jonathan Omar; Yáñez-Gutiérrez, Lucelli

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la miocarditis es una inflamación del tejido miocárdico, causada principalmente por infección viral. La miocardiopatía dilatada (MD) es la complicación más grave a largo plazo. La terapia con inmunomoduladores no está validada en este tipo de enfermos, sin embargo parece ofrecer beneficios en el pronóstico de esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto pronóstico de la terapia inmunomoduladora en el desarrollo de MD en enfermos pediátricos con miocarditis viral. Métodos: se integró una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes entre 4 y 17 años con diagnóstico de miocarditis viral. Se consideró como principal exposición al tratamiento, el cual se dividió en dos tipos: habitual e inmunomoduladora. Se midieron variables confusoras como: tiempo entre el diagnóstico y tratamiento, antecedente de asistolia y anticuerpos positivos para enterovirus y adenovirus. El seguimiento fue de 48 meses. La variable de desenlace fue la MD (diámetro diastólico del VI > + 2 Z-score y biopsia positiva). Resultados: se obtuvieron 31 pacientes con una mediana de 5 años (4-15); 6 recibieron la terapia inmunomoduladora y el resto la habitual. La MD se presentó en 17% de los enfermos expuestos a la terapia inmunomoduladora frente al 35% tradicional, con un HR = 0.5 (0.1-0.7). Conclusiones: la terapia inmunoduladora es un factor protector para MD en pacientes con miocarditis viral.

  3. [Early discharge of the healthy newborn from the nursery of the Hospital Español de México].

    PubMed

    Santos Burgoa-Larrañaga, Lorena; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el riesgo-beneficio del alta temprana en neonatos es controversial. No encontramos estudios concluyentes que analicen las variables del neonato y el impacto en su morbilidad al alta temprana. Asociamos estadísticamente variables con alguna terapia adicional que pudiera poner en riesgo al neonato de alta temprana. Métodos: estudio prolectivo observacional en recién nacidos de término desde el nacimiento hasta el alta (de agosto a diciembre de 2013). Se hizo seguimiento telefónico al mes de vida para conocer su estado de salud. Las variables dependientes fueron las horas intrahospitalarias, las terapias adicionales y la atención intrahospitalaria en el primer mes. Resultados: 701 neonatos a término, 41 con terapia adicional, 23 ingresos a UCIN (22 en < 24 horas). Hubo un RR de 12.9 si el Apgar era < 8.8. Hubo 9 veces más riesgo de terapia adicional si había < 38 semanas de gestación. El peso bajo triplicó el riesgo para ingreso a UCIN. Hubo 143 altas tempranas, 58 % seguimiento telefónico, 0 % de reingresos. Las principales variables que influyen en requerir terapia adicional son el Apgar < 8 a los 5 minutos, tener < 38 semanas de gestación y peso bajo.Conclusión: los elementos para el manejo de pacientes con alta temprana son datos de alarma, seguimiento con pediatra a los tres días de vida, vigilancia estrecha si el APGAR es < 8 a los 5 minutos o < 38 semanas de gestación o si hay peso bajo para la edad gestacional.

  4. HELICOBACTER PYLORI (HP) INFECTION IN OBESE PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROUXEN- Y GASTRIC BYPASS; EFFICACY OF TWO DIFFERENT TREATMENT REGIMENS IN HP ERADICATION.

    PubMed

    Cuesta Hernández, Martín; Pérez Peña, Celia; Matía Martín, Pilar; Cabrerizo García, Lucio; Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres García, Antonio; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: las causas implicadas en el aumento de incidencia de úlcera gástrica tras el bypass en Y de Roux no son completamente conocidas. El tratamiento de la infección por HP se recomienda antes de la cirugía en países cuya prevalencia sea elevada, como el caso de España, de cara a disminuir dicha complicación. Sin embargo, las pautas actuales de tratamiento pueden no ser adecuadas dados los elevados índices de resistencia. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de 243 pacientes operados de bypass en Y de Roux. De ellos, 111 pacientes (45%) presentaban infección por HP. Objetivo principal: comparación de la eficacia de dos terapias de erradicación de la infección por HP. Resultados: 70 pacientes recibieron OCA( Omeprazol 20 mg/12 h, Claritromicina 500 mg/12 h y Amoxicilina 1 g/12h durante 10 días), mientras que 41 pacientes recibieron OLA (Omeprazol 20 mg/12 h, Levofloxacino 500 mg/12 h y Amoxicilina 1 g/12 h durante 10 días). En 56/70 pacientes (80%) que recibieron OCA HP fue erradicado, comparado con 37/41 (91%) del grupo que recibió OLA como primera terapia (p = 0,283). La terapia con OLA usada de segunda línea fue eficaz en 13/14 pacientes con HP resistente a la terapia OCA. Conclusión: la resistencia de HP a Claritromicina es significativa en nuestra serie de pacientes, siendo la terapia con OLA una alternativa adecuada en las cepas resistentes.

  5. Socioeconomical Factors Associated With Pediculosis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tagka, Anna; Lambrou, George I; Braoudaki, Maria; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Papanikolaou, Eleni; Laggas, Dimitris

    2016-07-01

    Pediculosis in humans and especially in children is a very common dermatological disorder caused by the ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer. We investigated the socioeconomic factors affecting the prevalence of pediculosis in the Greek urban area of Athens during 2004-2006. The target population consisted of children from kindergartens. In total, 434 children from single- or two-parent families were investigated with respect to socioeconomic factors such as education, income and family composition, and the prevalence of pediculosis. The overall pediculosis rate was 5.30%. Head louse infestations were significantly higher in female children and in two-parent families. Lice infestations peaked in low- and medium-income families. Head louse infestation rates were influenced by income, parents' education, and nationality.

  6. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  7. Extra-scalp black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans among contact sports players.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kojima, Kiyoto; Hatta, Junko; Tababe, Hiroshi; Higaki, Shuichi; Fujita, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    We describe here two patients with tinea corporis exhibiting black dot ringworm (BDR). A cluster of black dots was observed on the extensor surfaces of the extremities of two rather hairy male patients, a 15-year-old judo practitioner and a 26-year-old combined martial arts fighter, during treatment of tinea corporis with topical antimycotics. Direct KOH examination showed that the black dots were composed of degenerated hair with numerous arthroconidia and were indistinguishable from BDR of tinea capitis. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from the dots of both patients. Although they were diagnosed with tinea corporis, they required 2-3 months of treatment with oral terbinafine. Dermatologists should be aware that BDR can appear on areas of the skin other than the scalp.

  8. Trichophyton tonsurans-Ringworm in an NICU.

    PubMed

    Sproul, Ann Vivian; Whitehall, John; Engler, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Ringworm is very rarely found in the neonate, especially infants who have been confined from birth to an intensive care unit. We report an infection with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, the most common cause of tinea capitis in children but not yet described in a premature baby who has never left the nursery. Our case illustrates the need to consider this diagnosis among the causes of dermatitis in the newborn, especially in at-risk populations such as indigenous Australians. Though our infant's presentation was the classic "ring" shape, a literature review revealed varied presentations. In contrast to the usual need for long-term antifungal medication, our case responded rapidly to a topical azole preparation. Although we did not screen visiting family members, screening would have been appropriate, and those found positive might have benefited from at least antifungal shampoo.

  9. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities.

  10. Periocular and anterior orbital necrosis after upper eyelid gold weight loading: operation-related or self-inflicted?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Ben Cnaan, Ran; Schein, Ophir; Giladi, Michael; Raz, Michal; Leibovitch, Igal

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, who had undergone gold-weight implantation due to facial palsy and lagophthalmos, arrived at the ophthalmology ward with eyelid swelling and erythema, which rapidly deteriorated under intravenous antibiotics to a necrotic process involving the periocular tissues, the eye, and the anterior orbit. Despite prompt removal of the gold weight, the patient's ocular and systemic condition continued to deteriorate, necessitating evisceration and debridement of necrotic tissue. Cultures showed growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, Candida glabrata, and Candida albicans, and histopathology demonstrated an acute nonspecific necrotizing panophthalmitis. Later on, the patient was admitted to a plastic surgery ward with recurrent severe burns of her thigh, which were highly suggestive of being self-induced, raising the possibility of self-induced damage.

  11. Periocular and anterior orbital necrosis after upper eyelid gold weight loading: operation-related or self-inflicted?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Roy; Ben Cnaan, Ran; Schein, Ophir; Giladi, Michael; Raz, Michal; Leibovitch, Igal

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, who had undergone gold-weight implantation due to facial palsy and lagophthalmos, arrived at the ophthalmology ward with eyelid swelling and erythema, which rapidly deteriorated under intravenous antibiotics to a necrotic process involving the periocular tissues, the eye, and the anterior orbit. Despite prompt removal of the gold weight, the patient’s ocular and systemic condition continued to deteriorate, necessitating evisceration and debridement of necrotic tissue. Cultures showed growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, Candida glabrata, and Candida albicans, and histopathology demonstrated an acute nonspecific necrotizing panophthalmitis. Later on, the patient was admitted to a plastic surgery ward with recurrent severe burns of her thigh, which were highly suggestive of being self-induced, raising the possibility of self-induced damage. PMID:24812491

  12. Screening of biogenic amine production by coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated during industrial Spanish dry-cured ham processes.

    PubMed

    Landeta, Gerardo; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Muñoz, Rosario

    2007-12-01

    The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated for 56 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated during industrial Spanish dry-cured ham processes. The presence of biogenic amines from bacterial cultures was determined by thin-layer chromatography. The percentage of strains that decarboxylated amino acids was very low (3.6%). The only staphylococci with aminogenic capacity were an histamine-producing Staphylococcus capitis strain, and a Staphylococcus lugdunensis strain that simultaneously produced putrescine and cadaverine. In both strains, PCR was used to confirm the presence of the genes encoding the amino acid decarboxylases responsible for the synthesis of these amines. This study reveals that production of biogenic amines is not a widely distributed property among the staphylococci isolated from Spanish dry-cured hams.

  13. Crystal structure of a SLC11 (NRAMP) transporter reveals the basis for transition-metal ion transport.

    PubMed

    Ehrnstorfer, Ines A; Geertsma, Eric R; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Dutzler, Raimund

    2014-11-01

    Members of the SLC11 (NRAMP) family transport iron and other transition-metal ions across cellular membranes. These membrane proteins are present in all kingdoms of life with a high degree of sequence conservation. To gain insight into the determinants of ion selectivity, we have determined the crystal structure of Staphylococcus capitis DMT (ScaDMT), a close prokaryotic homolog of the family. ScaDMT shows a familiar architecture that was previously identified in the amino acid permease LeuT. The protein adopts an inward-facing conformation with a substrate-binding site located in the center of the transporter. This site is composed of conserved residues, which coordinate Mn2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ but not Ca2+. Mutations of interacting residues affect ion binding and transport in both ScaDMT and human DMT1. Our study thus reveals a conserved mechanism for transition-metal ion selectivity within the SLC11 family.

  14. [Epidemiology and etiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Milce; Passos, Xisto Sena; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Miranda, André Thiago Borges; Lemos, Janine de Aquino; Oliveira, Juldásio Galdino de; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce infections called dermatophytosis. In order to review the etiology and epidemiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, 1955 specimens with diagnostic suspicion of dermatophytic lesions, were collected from January to December, 1999, from the Mycology Laboratory in the Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás. A total of 445 (22.8%) samples were positive for dermatophytes and Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated species (49.4%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (30.8%) and Microsporum canis (12.6%). Concerning the location of the lesions, the inferior limbs, feet and nails together with tinea capitis were the most frequently found clinical pattern in the majority of patients. Correlation between sex, age, location of the lesions and etiologic agents is considered in the study.

  15. Do nit removal formulations and other treatments loosen head louse eggs and nits from hair?

    PubMed

    Burgess, I F

    2010-03-01

    Eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), are difficult to remove because the female louse fixes them to hairs using a proteinaceous secretion that hardens within seconds. The persistent eggshells are harmless but unsightly and are often mistaken for an active infestation. Combing with a fine comb (nit comb) does not readily remove the eggs or empty eggshells because of the resilience of the fixative and both folk remedies and medical products have claimed to facilitate their removal. Measurement of the force required to initiate sliding of the egg fixative using a slip-peel tester was unable to detect evidence that any of three products which claimed to have egg-loosening properties (Step 2 Nit Removal System, Clear Lice Egg Remover, RID Lice Egg Loosener Gel) had any activity or exerted any effect on the egg fixative beyond the lubricating effects conveyed by water or conventional hair conditioner.

  16. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Human-Associated Staphylococci by Use of Multiplex PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirotaki, Shintaro; Sasaki, Takashi; Kuwahara-Arai, Kyoko; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Although staphylococci are identified by phenotypic analysis in many clinical laboratories, these results are often incorrect because of phenotypic variation. Genetic analysis is necessary for definitive species identification. In the present study, we developed a simple multiplex-PCR (M-PCR) for species identification of human-associated staphylococci, which were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus, S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, and S. warneri. This method was designed on the basis of nucleotide sequences of the thermonuclease (nuc) genes that were universally conserved in staphylococci except the S. sciuri group and showed moderate sequence diversity. In order to validate this assay, 361 staphylococcal strains were studied, which had been identified at the species levels by sequence analysis of the hsp60 genes. In consequence, M-PCR demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. By virtue of simplicity and accuracy, this method will be useful in clinical research. PMID:21832022

  17. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M.; Ouf, S.A.; Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Eltahlawi, S.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis. PMID:26413063

  18. Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2011-08-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the anti-parasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent against the larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae); head louse Pediculus humanus capitis, De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus, Grassi; and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, Say (Diptera: Culicidae). R. microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different ZnO NP concentrations. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs for 24 h. The results suggested that the mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 43% at 1 h, 64% at 3 h, 78% at 6 h, and 100% after 12 h against R. microplus activity. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 38% at 10 min, 71% at 30 min, 83% at 1 h, and 100% after 6 h against P. humanus capitis. One hundred percent lice mortality was observed at 10 mg/L treated for 6 h. The mortality was confirmed after 24 h of observation period. The larval mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 37%, 72%, 100% and 43%, 78% and 100% at 6, 12, and 24 h against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. It is apparent that the small size and corresponding large specific surface area of small nanometer-scale ZnO particles impose several effects that govern its parasitic action, which are size dependent. ZnO NPs were synthesized by wet chemical process, and it was characterized with the UV showing peak at 361 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the zinc oxide with

  19. [Scalp neuralgia and headache elicited by cranial superficial anatomical causes: supraorbital neuralgia, occipital neuralgia, and post-craniotomy headache].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Most scalp neuralgias are supraorbital or occipital. Although they have been considered idiopathic, recent studies revealed that some were attributable to mechanical irritation with the peripheral nerve of the scalp by superficial anatomical cranial structures. Supraorbital neuralgia involves entrapment of the supraorbital nerve by the facial muscle, and occipital neuralgia involves entrapment of occipital nerves, mainly the greater occipital nerve, by the semispinalis capitis muscle. Contact between the occipital artery and the greater occipital nerve in the scalp may also be causative. Decompression surgery to address these neuralgias has been reported. As headache after craniotomy is the result of iatrogenic injury to the peripheral nerve of the scalp, post-craniotomy headache should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  20. Multiple Liver Abscesses Associated with Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tae Ki

    2013-01-01

    Liver abscess following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting occurs very rarely. We report an unusual case of multiple liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus capitis in a 50-year-old compromised woman due to a complicating VP shunt infection. We reviewed the nine cases of VP shunt complications reported in the English literature, and speculated that the most likely pathogenetic mechanism in our case is an infected peritoneal tip that migrated to and penetrated the liver, which subsequently caused the formation of multiple liver abscesses. The patient was successfully treated with percutaneous aspiration, drainage of the abscesses, intravenous antibiotics, and shunt revision. Awareness and vigilance of the possibility of liver abscess formation caused by VP shunt infection will help establish an early accurate diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. PMID:24379956

  1. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    PubMed

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082.

  2. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities. PMID:28265137

  3. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania.

  4. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M; Ouf, S A; Moussa, Tarek A A; Eltahlawi, S M R

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31-40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis.

  5. The prevalence of ectoparasites in Ethiopian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Miller, J; Manor, O; Ben-Yshai, F; Klaus, S

    1993-01-01

    Newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants in Israel were screened for ectoparasitic insects and mites. Of 304 individuals examined 65.1% were infested with the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis). The infestation rate among children varied between 65 and 100%. Children aged 6-11 years were the most infested group and no differences between girls and boys were found. The infestation rate in children was significantly higher than that found in adults. Approximately 39% of those examined were infested with the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus). The rate of infestation with this parasite was higher in adults than in children and higher in females than males. Ten percent of the immigrants examined were infested with the scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) and 4.3% with the human flea (Pulex irritans).

  6. Dynamic modeling of the neck muscles during horizontal head movement. Part II: Model construction in Pro/Engineer.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Stephenie A; Enderle, John D

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the next phase of research on a parametric model of the head-neck system for dynamic simulation of horizontal head rotation. A skull has been imported into Pro/Engineer software and has been assigned mass properties such as density, surface area and moments of inertia. The origin of a universal coordinate system has been located at the center of gravity of the T1 vertebrae. Identification of this origin allows insertion and attachment points of the sternocleidomastoid (SCOM) and splenius capitis to be located. An assembly has been created, marking the location of both muscle sets. This paper will also explore the obstacles encountered when working with an imported feature in Pro/E and attempts to resolve some of these issues. The goal of this work involves the creation of a 3D homeomorphic saccadic eye and head movement system.

  7. Ergonomic comparison of operating a built-in touch-pad pointing device and a trackball mouse on posture and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the effects of operating a built-in touch-pad pointing device and a trackball mouse on participants' completion times, hand positions during operation, postural angles, and muscle activities. 8 young men were asked to perform a cursor travel task on a notebook computer using both 60- and 80-cm high table conditions. Analysis showed that the trackball mouse significantly decreased completion times. Participants selected a hand position farther from the table edge and larger elbow angle for the trackball mouse than for the built-in touch-pad pointing device. Participants' neck, thoracic, and arm angles, or splenius capitis, trapezius, deltoid, and erector spinae muscle activities were not significantly affected by the devices, but table height significantly affected participants' completion times, hand positions, and postural angles.

  8. Parasomnia with rhythmic movements manifesting as nocturnal tongue biting.

    PubMed

    Tuxhorn, I; Hoppe, M

    1993-06-01

    The case of a healthy 2-year-old girl with repeated nocturnal tongue biting as a result of rhythmic movements of the jaw associated with body rocking in non-REM sleep is described. Parasomnias manifesting with rhythmic, stereotyped movements of the head, trunk and extremities are well described in healthy children. The term rhythmic movement disorders (RMD) was introduced for these repetive movements in sleep which may appear as head banging (jactatio capitis), body rocking or leg rolling. Severe injuries including fractures, subdural effusions and eye injures are reported. Repeated tongue injuries have not been described as a consequence of RMD. The differential diagnosis from nocturnal seizures is crucial to avoid overtreatment of this benign albeit dramatically presenting condition.

  9. [Pediatric head lice: taxonomy, incidence, resistance, delousing].

    PubMed

    Rupes, V; Vlcková, J; Mazánek, L; Chmela, J; Ledvinka, J

    2006-08-01

    Based on the current knowledge, head louse (Pediculus capitis) and body louse (Pediculus humanus) are two different species that infest specific parts of the human body and do not interbreed in vivo. In 1991-2002, 6 257 cases of pediculosis were reported in the Czech Republic while 3 138 000 pediculicide packagings, i.e. about 500 times as many as the number of cases, were marketed. Between October 2004 and February 2005, a total of 531 children aged between 6 and 15 years from 16 selected schools in the Zlín and Olomouc regions were screened by dry hair combing. Living lice were detected in 14.1% of the enrolled children and dead nits alone were observed in other 9.8% of the subjects. In vitro tests revealed that the collected head lice were highly resistant to malathion, the active ingredient of Diffusil H 92 M. The number of reported cases of pediculosis roughly doubled in 2005.

  10. [Vision aids for multiple sclerosis patients].

    PubMed

    Frieling, E; Kornhuber, H H; Nissl, K

    1986-02-07

    Optical or electronic vision aids enabled 35 of 39 visually handicapped multiple sclerosis patients to read. Six patients had an uncorrected ametropia. 15 could read again with the help of magnifying optical aids and 11 with the help of an electronic television system. An electronic television reader was useful when visual acuities were below 0.1 and in patients with oscillating nystagmus or tremor capitis. Contact lenses helped 3 patients who had a neurogenous visual defect and oscillating nystagmus. Although acquired oscillating nystagmus disappears on eyelid closure and only reappears again on fixation, its amplitude, when unable to read, is greater. On overcoming the neurogenous visual defect with vision aids it becomes smaller.

  11. Identification and genetic homogeneity of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from several regions by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, J A; Takizawa, K; Fukushima, K; Nishimura, K; Miyaji, M

    1999-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte mostly causing tinea capitis and tinea corporis. This study was carried out to identify T. tonsurans and to clarify whether it has any genetic differences depending on the phenotype or region of isolation by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with three random primers. The assay was performed in 11 Korean, 2 Japanese, 2 Taiwanese, 5 Brazilian and 1 American isolates of T. tonsurans together with the other 10 anamorphic species of dermatophytes and 3 Arthroderma spp. All tested species of dermatophytes showed distinct bands and T. tonsurans was differentiated from other dermatophytes. It was most clearly differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by using primer 5'-GAAGGCTCCC-3' (OPAO-15). No difference was found in RAPD band patterns in all strains of T. tonsurans with these random primers. It was considered that T. tonsurans is a genetically homogeneous species regardless of its isolation regions, morphologic or physiologic characteristics.

  12. A New Postulate on Two Stages of Dandruff: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Frederick; Ranganathan, S

    2011-01-01

    Dandruff (pityriasis capitis, seborrheic dermatitis confined to the scalp) is a disease that has been around for centuries despite several treatment options. Almost every day new players are entering the market with various antidandruff products, perhaps due to an increase in the incidence of dandruff all over the world. Interestingly, clinicians, especially dermatologists, gave little attention to this problem. At the end, the dandruff sufferer is puzzled by the array of antidandruff products with varied claims entering the market day by day. Why have we not achieved complete treatment success against dandruff? Is dandruff a disease or disorder? It seems that our understanding about dandruff perfectly fits into the famous saying of Albert Einstein, “as the area of light increases, so does the circumferences of darkness.” Have dermatologists left dandruff unattended, only to be exploited by the personal care industry? PMID:21769228

  13. A Previously Unreported Arterial Variant of the Suboccipital Region Based on Cadaveric Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fisahn, Christian; Burgess, Brittni; Iwanaga, Joe; Alonso, Fernando; Chapman, Jens R.; Oskouian, Rod J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several arterial variants have been reported to occur around the posterior arch of the atlas. Understanding the various anomalies and diagnosing them preoperatively can dramatically reduce the risk of surgical insult during neurosurgical procedures. Herein we report a case of an arterial variant found just below the posterior arch of C1. Case Report During the routine dissection of the suboccipital region via a posterior approach, an unusual bulge was identified just inferior to the inferior capitis oblique muscle. With further dissection, the structure was identified as a tortuous internal carotid artery. Conclusion Arterial variants around the posterior arch of C1 are surgically significant and can result in catastrophic injuries if unappreciated. Most of these variants will be related to the vertebral artery. To our knowledge, an arterial variant of the internal carotid artery in this location, as reported herein, has not been previously reported. PMID:28299248

  14. Trichphyton violaceum and T. soudanese: re-emerging pathogens in Italy, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Farina, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; Imberti, Gianlorenzo; Lombardi, Gianluigi; Passera, Marco; Andreoni, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Dermatomycoses due to Trichophyton violaceum are described in Mediterranean Countries, North Africa and in the Horn of Africa where T. soudanense is present too, but it was rare until few years ago in Italy. Aim of the present study was to evaluate an Italian multicenter 9 year (2005-2013) experience concerning these re-emerging pathogens. Fifty three fungal strains were sent from clinical laboratories to the Medical Mycology Committee (CoSM)--Italian Association of Clinical Microbiology (AMCLI) for mycological confirmation. Strains were identified as T. violaceum (23) and T. soudanense (30) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. These dermatophytes present epidemiological (high rate of inter-human transmission, high risk among adopted children coming from countries of either the Horn of Africa or Sub-Saharan Africa also in outbreaks of tinea capitis) and clinical peculiarities (reduced alopecia, presence of exudative lesions) confirming the originality of these "imported" dermatophyte infections.

  15. Treatment of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation with botulinum toxin muscle block and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Liao, Su-Lan; Raung, Shue-Ling; Tsai, Sen-Wei

    2010-04-01

    Slippage after reduction of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is usually treated with repeated cervical traction and brace immobilization. To date, no data have been published on the management of muscle spasm during treatment. Here, we describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with AARF for 1 month who visited our hospital for treatment. During physical examination, spasm of the sternocleidomastoid muscle was noted. The patient was treated with manipulative reduction, and slippage after reduction was managed with botulinum spasticity block of the sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles, and repeated manipulation. Cervical orthosis immobilization with a rehabilitation program of isometric contract-relax exercise for the neck was conducted for 3 months. The subject had full recovery from AARF at 1-year follow-up. This report demonstrates that, in selected cases of slippage after reduction from AARF, conservative management with manipulation under anesthesia is a good method, and the muscle components may play a crucial role in AARF.

  16. Microsporum canis infection in a 5-year-old boy: transmission from the interior of a second-hand car.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Korting, H C; Strassl, W; Ruzicka, T

    1994-01-01

    Microsporum canis is one of the most common zoophilic dermatophytes. If transmitted to humans, inflammatory lesions may develop, e.g. on the scalp. M. canis was isolated from a 5-year-old boy living in a suburban area who suffered from a long-standing, mildly inflammatory lesion on the scalp that had been treated for several months with anti-eczematous regimens. There had been no contact with animals, e.g. cats or dogs, in the previous months, but the lesions had developed a few weeks after the family had bought a used car from a dog owner. Indeed, M. canis could be grown on contact plates from the car's interior. This case illustrates that attention should be paid to the often neglected diagnosis of M. canis-induced tinea capitis and to unusual routes of infection.

  17. [Several features of the metabolism of the fast and slow muscles of Emys orbicularis tortoises].

    PubMed

    Lebedinskaia, I I; Ogorodnikova, L G

    1978-01-01

    In skeletal muscles of the tortoise E. orbicularis, studies have been made on the content of glycogen, lactic acid, on the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphorylase. Histochemical studies were made on the lipid content. Experiments were performed on fast and slow bundles from mm. iliofibularis, testo cervicalis and retractor capitis. For comparison, the same indices of carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in fast m. plantaris and slow m. soleus of rats. In rats, slow muscles exhibit aerobic metabolism, in fast muscles--anaerobic one. In tortoises, slow muscles exhibit intermediate type of metabolism. Fast muscles show an anaerobic type or metabolism which is less intensive than anaerobic metabolism in slow muscles. Significant differences in some of the indices of carbohydrate metabolism were found in muscles which perform different functions in the organism.

  18. Intestinal perforations in a premature infant caused by Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Girisch, M; Ries, M; Zenker, M; Carbon, R; Rauch, R; Hofbeck, M

    2003-06-01

    Although Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous bacterium, the incidence of neonatal infections is very low with only a few cases of B. cereus infections in neonates reported in the literature. We report the case of a premature infant with multiple intestinal perforations and an abdominal B. cereus infection. The initial course was characterized by severe cardiovascular shock, anemia, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, leading to periventricular leukomalacia, alopecia capitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The possible role of B. cereus-associated enterotoxins for the clinical manifestations are discussed. Our case confirms previous reports of severe clinical symptoms in B. cereus infection in premature neonates. We speculate that the systemic complications of B. cereus infection are at least partly related to the effect of B. cereus-associated enterotoxins.

  19. Scabies, lice, and fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L

    1989-09-01

    Scabies and pediculosis capitis are frequent and often unrecognized causes of multiple streptococcal and staphylococcal pyodermas. Permethrin 1 per cent creme rinse (NIX) for head lice, and permethrin 5 per cent topical cream for scabies are new, highly effective, safe, and cosmetically elegant treatments which have shown superiority over older remedies. In populations in which pediculosis and scabies have resisted traditional lindane therapy, patients promptly responded to these permethrin products. Scabies in nursing homes is a persistent and expanding problem which demands a high level of diagnostic suspicion and an integrated approach to management. For fungal infections, several new broad-spectrum oral and topical agents have been introduced. Their successful use is enhanced by appropriate diagnostic tests which can be performed in the office setting. Recommendations and references are given to assist the physician in diagnosis and choice of therapy.

  20. Dermatophytoses in the Gdańsk area, Poland: a 12-year survey.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, R

    1996-01-01

    A survey of dermatophytes and dermatophytoses was carried out among patients of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Gdańsk, in the years 1984-95. Over the 12-year period, 1195 cases of ringworm were seen: 55% in men and 45% in women. Listing the dermatophytes isolated and their frequencies as a percentage of the total are as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes 42.1%, Microsporum canis 26.0%, Trichophyton rubrum 14.7%, Epidermophyton floccosum 11.0%, Trichophyton tonsurans 4.6%, Trichophyton verrucosum 1.3%, Trichophyton violaceum 0.3%. The most common clinical variant of dermatophytosis in the Gdańsk area was tinea cutis glabrae (32.9%), followed by tinea pedis (24%), onychomycosis (16.5%), tinea capitis (11.9%)), tinea inguinalis (10.3%) and tinea manuum (4.4%). Dermatophytoses were significantly more frequent among adults (> 15 years) (71.3%).

  1. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogenesis, occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and in vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on biofilm-growing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Szczuka, Ewa; Jabłońska, Lucyna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15 %), aminoglycoside [aac(6')/aph(2″)(11 %), aph (3')-IIIa (15 %), ant(4')-Ia (19 %)] and macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) [erm(A) (4 %), erm(B) (13 %), erm(C) (41 %), msr(A) (11 %)] antibiotics. CoNS isolates (64 %) were able to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that these biofilms formed a three-dimensional structure composed mainly of living cells. All biofilm-positive strains carried the ica operon. In vitro studies demonstrated that a combination treatment with tigecycline and rifampicin was more effective against biofilms than one with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration values were 0.062-0.5 µg ml-1 for tigecycline/rifampicin and 0.250-2 µg ml-1 for ciprofloxacin/rifampicin. All CoNS strains adhered to the human epithelial cell line HeLa, and more than half of the isolates were able to invade the HeLa cells, although most invaded relatively poorly. The virulence of CoNS is also attributed to their cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Incubation of HeLa cells with culture supernatant of the CoNS isolates resulted in cell death. The results indicate that the pathogenicity of S. capitis, S. auricularis, S. lugdunensis, S. cohnii and S. caprae is multi-factorial, involving the ability of these bacteria to adhere to human epithelial cells, form biofilms and invade and destroy human cells.

  2. Multi-Acupuncture Point Injections and Their Anatomical Study in Relation to Neck and Shoulder Pain Syndrome (So-Called Katakori) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Suyama, Kaori; Tanaka, Osamu; Sawada, Makoto; Ito, Miho; Ito, Kenji; Akamatsu, Tadashi; Masuda, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Sakabe, Kou

    2015-01-01

    Katakori is a symptom name that is unique to Japan, and refers to myofascial pain syndrome-like clinical signs in the shoulder girdle. Various methods of pain relief for katakori have been reported, but in the present study, we examined the clinical effects of multi-acupuncture point injections (MAPI) in the acupuncture points with which we empirically achieved an effect, as well as the anatomical sites affected by liquid medicine. The subjects were idiopathic katakori patients (n = 9), and three cadavers for anatomical investigation. BL-10, GB-21, LI-16, SI-14, and BL-38 as the WHO notation were selected as the acupuncture point. Injections of 1 mL of 1% w/v mepivacaine were introduced at the same time into each of these points in the patients. Assessment items were the Pain Relief Score and the therapeutic effect period. Dissections were centered at the puncture sites of cadavers. India ink was similarly injected into each point, and each site that was darkly-stained with India ink was evaluated. Katakori pain in the present study was significantly reduced by MAPI. Regardless of the presence or absence of trigger points, pain was significantly reduced in these cases. Dark staining with India ink at each of the points in the anatomical analysis was as follows: BL-10: over the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and rectus capitis posterior major muscle fascia; GB-21: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; LI-16: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; SI-14: over the rhomboid muscle fascia; and BL-38: over the rhomboid muscle fascia. The anatomical study suggested that the drug effect was exerted on the muscles above and below the muscle fascia, as well as the peripheral nerves because the points of action in acupuncture were darkly-stained in the spaces between the muscle and the muscle fascia. PMID:26046784

  3. The myodural bridge existing in the Nephocaena phocaenoides

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Nan; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have identified that the myodural bridge (MDB) between the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi) and the cervical spinal dura mater in the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace in humans. And it was supposed that the MDB may play essential physiological roles. As a result, the MDB is possibly a highly conserved structure in the evolution of mammals. However, there is little confirmative description about the existence of the MDB in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to explore the existence and the fiber property of the MDB in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. Six cadavers of the Neophocaena phocaenoides with formalin fixation were used in this study. One was used for head and neck CT scanning and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and suboccipital region dissection, two were for sectional observation by P45 plastinated sheets of head and neck, and three were for histological analysis of suboccipial structures. This is the first study to demonstrate the existence of the MDB in the aquatic mammals. The rectus capitis dorsal minor (RCDmi) originated from the inferior border of the occiput and inserted into the cervical spinal dura mater. At the ventral aspect of the RCDmi, the MDB directly extended through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace and connected with the cervical spinal dura mater which was consisted of type Ⅰ collagen. In addition, the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane was not found in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. The tendinous myodural bridge extended from the RCDmi to the spinal dura mater through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:28278181

  4. [Myofascial trigger points, pain, disability and quality of sleep in patients with chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Martín-Herrero, Clara; Rodrigues de Souza, Daiana P; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. The referred pain induced by myofascial trigger points (MTP) and sleep disorders can be factors that contribute to chronic tension-type headache. AIM. To determine the relationship between MTP, intensity of pain, disability and quality of sleep in people with chronic tension-type headache. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Participants in the study consisted of 16 patients with chronic tension-type headache and 15 healthy controls. A visual analogue scale was used to measure the intensity of the pain, and the neck disability questionnaire and the Pittsburgh (quality of sleep) questionnaire were also employed. MTP were explored in the temporal, masseter, upper trapezius, suboccipital, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis and anterior digastric muscles by a blind evaluator. RESULTS. The subjects with chronic tension-type headache had greater cervical disability (p < 0.001) than the controls, whereas the quality of sleep showed a tendency (p = 0.092). A positive correlation was found between the worst pain last week with the Pittsburgh questionnaire (r = 0.631; p = 0.009) and disability (r = 0.521; p = 0.046), as well as a positive correlation between disability and quality of sleep (r = 0.815; p < 0.001). The patients with headache displayed a higher number of MTP than the healthy controls (p < 0.001), the presence of active MTP being found exclusively in the patients. No association was found between the number of MTP and intensity of pain, disability or quality of sleep. CONCLUSIONS. Quality of sleep and active MTP can be different factors contributing to chronic tension-type headache. Nevertheless, the presence of MTP could also be an epiphenomenon of the pain.

  5. The myodural bridge existing in the Nephocaena phocaenoides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Li, Chan; Zheng, Nan; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have identified that the myodural bridge (MDB) between the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi) and the cervical spinal dura mater in the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace in humans. And it was supposed that the MDB may play essential physiological roles. As a result, the MDB is possibly a highly conserved structure in the evolution of mammals. However, there is little confirmative description about the existence of the MDB in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to explore the existence and the fiber property of the MDB in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. Six cadavers of the Neophocaena phocaenoides with formalin fixation were used in this study. One was used for head and neck CT scanning and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and suboccipital region dissection, two were for sectional observation by P45 plastinated sheets of head and neck, and three were for histological analysis of suboccipial structures. This is the first study to demonstrate the existence of the MDB in the aquatic mammals. The rectus capitis dorsal minor (RCDmi) originated from the inferior border of the occiput and inserted into the cervical spinal dura mater. At the ventral aspect of the RCDmi, the MDB directly extended through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace and connected with the cervical spinal dura mater which was consisted of type Ⅰ collagen. In addition, the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane was not found in the Neophocaena phocaenoides. The tendinous myodural bridge extended from the RCDmi to the spinal dura mater through the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace in the Neophocaena phocaenoides.

  6. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Henry P; Holliday, Casey M

    2015-06-01

    Archosaurs evolved a wide diversity of locomotor postures, body sizes, and hip joint morphologies. The two extant archosaurs clades (birds and crocodylians) possess highly divergent hip joint morphologies, and the homologies and functions of their articular soft tissues, such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, are poorly understood. Reconstructing joint anatomy and function of extinct vertebrates is critical to understanding their posture, locomotor behavior, ecology, and evolution. However, the lack of soft tissues in fossil taxa makes accurate inferences of joint function difficult. Here, we describe the soft tissue anatomies and their osteological correlates in the hip joint of archosaurs and their sauropsid outgroups, and infer structural homology across the extant taxa. A comparative sample of 35 species of birds, crocodylians, lepidosaurs, and turtles ranging from hatchling to skeletally mature adult were studied using dissection, imaging, and histology. Birds and crocodylians possess topologically and histologically consistent articular soft tissues in their hip joints. Epiphyseal cartilages, fibrocartilages, and ligaments leave consistent osteological correlates. The archosaur acetabulum possesses distinct labrum and antitrochanter structures on the supraacetabulum. The ligamentum capitis femoris consists of distinct pubic- and ischial attachments, and is homologous with the ventral capsular ligament of lepidosaurs. The proximal femur has a hyaline cartilage core attached to the metaphysis via a fibrocartilaginous sleeve. This study provides new insight into soft tissue structures and their osteological correlates (e.g., the antitrochanter, the fovea capitis, and the metaphyseal collar) in the archosaur hip joint. The topological arrangement of fibro- and hyaline cartilage may provide mechanical support for the chondroepiphysis. The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and

  7. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  8. Geographical distribution of pyrethroid resistance allele frequency in head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Ascunce, Marina S; Reed, David; Picollo, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is an obligate ectoparasite that causes pediculosis capitis and has parasitized humans since the beginning of humankind. Head louse infestations are widespread throughout the world and have been increasing since the early 1990s partially because of ineffective pediculicides. In Argentina, the overuse of products containing pyrethroids has led to the development of resistant louse populations. Pyrethroid insecticides act on the nervous system affecting voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Three point mutations at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions M815I, T917I, and L920F in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are responsible for contributing to knockdown resistance (kdr). The management of pyrethroid resistance requires either early detection or the characterization of the mechanisms involved in head louse populations. In the current study, we estimated the distribution of kdr alleles in 154 head lice from six geographical regions of Argentina. Pyrethroid resistance kdr alleles were found in high frequencies ranging from 67 to 100%. Of these, 131 (85.1%) were homozygous resistant, 13 (8.4%) were homozygous susceptible, and 10 (6.5%) were heterozygous. Exact tests for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each location showed that genotype frequencies differed significantly from expectation in four of the six sites studied. These results show that pyrethroid resistance is well established reaching an overall frequency of 88%, thus close to fixation. With 30 yr of pyrethroid-based pediculicides use in Argentina, kdr resistance has evolved rapidly among these head louse populations.

  9. Second-generation sequencing of entire mitochondrial coding-regions (∼15.4 kb) holds promise for study of the phylogeny and taxonomy of human body lice and head lice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, H; Campelo, D; Pollack, R J; Raoult, D; Shao, R; Alem, M; Ali, J; Bilcha, K; Barker, S C

    2014-08-01

    The Illumina Hiseq platform was used to sequence the entire mitochondrial coding-regions of 20 body lice, Pediculus humanus Linnaeus, and head lice, P. capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), from eight towns and cities in five countries: Ethiopia, France, China, Australia and the U.S.A. These data (∼310 kb) were used to see how much more informative entire mitochondrial coding-region sequences were than partial mitochondrial coding-region sequences, and thus to guide the design of future studies of the phylogeny, origin, evolution and taxonomy of body lice and head lice. Phylogenies were compared from entire coding-region sequences (∼15.4 kb), entire cox1 (∼1.5 kb), partial cox1 (∼700 bp) and partial cytb (∼600 bp) sequences. On the one hand, phylogenies from entire mitochondrial coding-region sequences (∼15.4 kb) were much more informative than phylogenies from entire cox1 sequences (∼1.5 kb) and partial gene sequences (∼600 to ∼700 bp). For example, 19 branches had > 95% bootstrap support in our maximum likelihood tree from the entire mitochondrial coding-regions (∼15.4 kb) whereas the tree from 700 bp cox1 had only two branches with bootstrap support > 95%. Yet, by contrast, partial cytb (∼600 bp) and partial cox1 (∼486 bp) sequences were sufficient to genotype lice to Clade A, B or C. The sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of the P. humanus, P. capitis and P. schaeffi Fahrenholz studied are in NCBI GenBank under the accession numbers KC660761-800, KC685631-6330, KC241882-97, EU219988-95, HM241895-8 and JX080388-407.

  10. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  11. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  12. Epidemiology of dermatomycosis in the eastern Croatia--today and yesterday.

    PubMed

    Barisić-Drusko, Vladimira; Rucević, Ivana; Biljan, Darko; Jukić, Zlatica

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our investigation was to compare the distribution of dermatomycosis species in Eastern Croatia between two different periods: first period from 1997-2001 year, and second period from 1986-88 year. The outpatients from Department of Dermatovenerology University Hospital "Osijek" with confirmed diagnosis infection. Tinea, were selected on the basis o age, gender, localization and dermatomycosis species. During the first period (1997-2001) among 75,691 outpatients Tinea infection was confirmed in 558 (0.73%), while in the second period among 47,832 outpatients there were 126 (0.26%) cases with Tinea, what showed significant increase of fungal infections among population this region. According the age and gender in both periods predominant population were under of the age 16(40.14%: 41.26%), and female population was predominant (58.60% and 57.14%) in comparison to males (41.39% and 42.85%). The most frequent localization of lesions in period I were cutis glabrae (47.31%), palms and soles (31.36%), capitis (17.38%) and unguis (9.31%) and isolated species were as followed: Trichophyton (39.06%), Microsporum (31.72%) and Candida (28.13%) species. In period II the most frequent localization were palms and soles (40.47%), cutis glabrae (36.50%), capitis (12.69%) and unguis (10.31%). The isolated species in this period were: Trichophyton (80.15%), Candida (12.69%) and Microsporum (4.76%) species. From the data collected during two different periods we can observe 1) increase of fungal infection generally in our region; 2) significant changes in causative species (increase of Microsporum and Candida species infection, but Trichophyton spp still remain the first causative agent); and 3) changes in the localization of lesions.

  13. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes the importance of outdoor training adaptation.

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Jara; Dominguez, D; Til, L; González-Gross, M; Drobnic, F

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: En los últimos años, el descubrimiento de receptores musculares para la vitamina D sugiere un papel significativo de esta vitamina en el tejido muscular, adquiriendo una relevancia especial en deportistas. No existen apenas datos disponibles acerca de las concentraciones de vitamina D en deportistas de élite Españoles.

  14. [Analysis of food service and opinion of its users in a Catalan prison].

    PubMed

    Sáiz Izquierdo, María Elena; Fornons Fontdevila, David; Medina Luque, F Xavier; Aguilar Martínez, Alicia

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: Los estudios sobre restauración colectiva se encuentran viviendo un cierto auge en España. Sin embargo, se dispone de muy poca información sobre cómo se organiza este servicio en las instituciones penitenciarias, y mucho menos aún sobre cómo es percibido por sus usuarios.

  15. National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Varias hojas informativas sobre ingredientes específicos de los suplementos dietéticos ahora están disponibles en español. Several consumer ... they work? More En español Muchos adultos toman suplementos dietéticos para adelgazar. Pero de verdad funcionan? More ...

  16. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: An Evaluation of Smartphone Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    dans un tel environnement et offre une comparaison des diverses plateformes de téléphone intel- ligent disponibles à l’égard de leurs capacités et...CORA CR 2011-169 5 Networking and the Open System Interconnection Model The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) began working on a

  17. [Cognitive behavioral treatment in the integral management of obesity in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Mendoza-Ávila, Eduardo; Cumplido-Fuentes, Agustín; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Gabriela; Sánchez-Lazcano, Gloria Janeth; Ramírez-Bonilla, Paulina; Cumplido-González, Guadalupe; Ortiz-Martínez, Guadalupe; Pinedo-Rodríguez, Gustavo Alan; Meza-Villa, Ángel; Ortiz-Ramos, Alma Fátima; Puerta-Mota, Gerardo; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTIÓN: la obesidad en niños y adolescentes y la morbilidad que se le asocia se han incrementado significativamente, lo cual se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de la terapia cognitivo-conductual (TCC) en el manejo integral de la obesidad en adolescentes. MÉTODOS: estudio de intervención, aleatorio, doble ciego, controlado, de cuatro meses de seguimiento, al que se integraron 115 adolescentes obesos de 12 a 16 años de edad. El grupo de intervención recibió TCC como terapia coadyuvante, así como indicaciones de dieta y apoyo para el desarrollo de ejercicio. El grupo control solo recibió indicaciones de dieta y apoyo para el desarrollo de ejercicio.

  18. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    PubMed

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393).

  19. Use of 70 MeV proton beam for medical applications at INFN-LNS: CATANA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabini, M. G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Tonghi, L. Barone; Bartolotta, A.; Brai, M.; Cuttone, G.; Nigro, S. Lo; Marano, F.; Nicoletti, G. A.; Privitera, G.; Raffaele, L.; Reibaldi, A.; Romeo, N.; Rovelli, A.; Salamone, V.; Teri, G.

    2000-04-01

    The project CATANA (Centro di Adro Terapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) is a collaboration between the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Physics Department, Ophthalmology Institute and Radiology Institute of the Catania University and CSFNSM Catania. The main goal of CATANA is the study and the application of protontherapy for the treatment of shallow tumors (4 cm max) like uveal melanomas and subfoveal macular degenerations.

  20. [Neovascularization corneal regression in patients treated with photodynamic therapy with verteporfin].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Dávalos, César David; Carrasco-Quiroz, Arturo; Rivera-Díez, Dirce

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la neovascularización corneal es una condición que amenaza la visión, por lo general, se asocia a trastornos inflamatorios o infecciosos de la superficie ocular. Uno de los tratamientos actuales es la terapia fotodinámica, el uso de un fotosensibilizador para ocluir los vasos ha producido con éxito la trombosis microvascular con un daño mínimo al tejido normal circundante. El objetivo de este artículo es determinar cuantitativamente el porcentaje de regresión en la neovascularización corneal que presentan los pacientes tratados con terapia fotodinámica con verteporfirina. Métodos: estudio de tratamiento de antes y después; experimental, analítico, prospectivo y longitudinal. Resultados: de los 25 neovasos analizados, 8 vasos (32 %) presentaron al mes una oclusión total del 100 %, 15 vasos (60 %) una oclusión parcial en el rango de 15.3 al 85.1 %, y 2 vasos (8 %) empeoramiento en la vascularización corneal. El promedio del área de neovascularización corneal disminuyó significativamente en un 70 % de 0.147 ± 0.118 mm2 a 0.045 ± 0.046 mm2, (p < 0.0005) posterior a la terapia fotodinámica. No se reportaron efectos adversos. Conclusiones: la terapia fotodinámica con verteporfina es un procedimiento seguro y efectivo para reducir la neovascularización de la córnea y puede utilizarse para inhibir la angiogénesis en la córnea.

  1. [Autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy: the role of ketogenic diet].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Un 5-40% de los pacientes autistas desarrolla epilepsia. Aunque generalmente se controlan bien con medicacion, hasta un 20-30% de estas epilepsias son refractarias al tratamiento farmacologico. En esta poblacion, la dieta cetogenica (DC) puede ser una terapia alternativa altamente eficaz y debe considerarse seriamente. Objetivo. Revisar el papel de la DC en el tratamiento de la epilepsia infantil refractaria y en los pacientes que asocian autismo y epilepsia. Desarrollo. La DC es un tratamiento eficaz y bien tolerado para las epilepsias infantiles refractarias, incluyendo los pacientes que asocian autismo y epilepsia. Es fundamental caracterizar de forma precisa el sindrome epileptico para conocer cuales son los mejores candidatos para tratar con DC. Por otra parte, el efecto positivo de la DC sobre las alteraciones del metabolismo oxidativo mitocondrial y la evidencia experimental obtenida con DC en animales autistas sugieren que pueda ser una alternativa eficaz en los pacientes con autismo. Conclusiones. Basandose en la utilidad demostrada de la DC en el tratamiento de pacientes con epilepsia y autismo, esta terapia se ha usado en los ultimos años como una terapia alternativa para los pacientes autistas, aunque se desconoce cual es su eficacia real. Es necesario realizar un estudio aleatorizado y controlado para definir el perfil de eficacia y seguridad en esta poblacion.

  2. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF EARLY NUTRITIONAL THERAPY IN MALNOURISHED ADULT PATIENTS IN A HIGH COMPLEXITY HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Giraldo Giraldo, Nubia Amparo; Vásquez Velásquez, Johanna; Roldán Cano, Paula Andrea; Ospina Astudillo, Carolina; Sosa Cardona, Yuliet Paulina

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la malnutrición hospitalaria es un problema frecuente en el mundo que aumenta las complicaciones, los días de estancia, la mortalidad y los costes sanitarios. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la coste-efectividad de la terapia nutricional precoz en pacientes malnutridos en un hospital de alta complejidad. Materiales y métodos: este estudio analítico con valoración económica, incluyó 227 adultos hospitalizados y malnutridos según Valoración Global Subjetiva. La cohorte prospectiva recibió Terapia Nutricional Precoz (TNP), mientras que la cohorte retrospectiva recibió Terapia Nutricional Tardía (TNT). Las medidas del coste- efectividad incluyeron costes por: días de estancia, complicaciones y condición de egreso. Resultados: las cohortes fueron similares en cuanto a características clínicas y demográficas, excepto en la mediana de edad; para la TNP fue 61 años (rango intercuartil [RIQ]: 48-71) y para la TNT fue 55 años (RIQ: 44-67) (p=0,024). La TNP se encontró costo-efectiva en la reducción de los días de estancia hospitalaria (11 días, RIQ: 7-17) en comparación con la TNT (18 días, RIQ: 10-28) (p.

  3. [Associated metabolic and nutritional side effects to biological cancer therapy].

    PubMed

    Alonso Castellanos, Sara; Soto Célix, María; Alonso Galarreta, Judith; del Riego Valledor, Ana; Miján de la Torre, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los diferentes tipos de cáncer constituyen una de las principales causas de morbi-mortalidad en el mundo. La terapia clásica antitumoral (cirugía, quimioterapia, radioterapia) ha incrementado notoriamente la supervivencia. Las terapias biológicas, con mecanismos de acción selectivos y frecuentemente específicos, constituyen una incorporación relativamente reciente al tratamiento oncológico; entre las más utilizadas se incluyen: citoquinas, anticuerpos monoclonales e inhibidores de tirosin kinasa y de mTOR. Si bien están adecuadamente documentados los efectos adversos nutricionales y metabólicos asociados a la terapia clásica, tanto en literatura como en guías clínicas, no ocurre igual con la terapia biológica. Objetivo: Revisar la literatura al respecto y detallar de modo organizado los resultados obtenidos. Métodos: Se revisó la literatura indizada así como todas las fichas técnicas de los fármacos incluidos en las distintas familias mediante la Agencia Española del Medicamento y Productos Sanitarios a Julio de 2013. Se registran los síntomas y signos clínicos con teórica acción sobre el estado nutricional o metabólico. Resultados: Se describe la acción específica de cada familia. Se agrupan los posibles efectos adversos de cada una sobre el estado nutricional y metabolismo, detallando y diferenciándolos en tablas para una más fácil y cómoda revisión y consulta. Se observan como posibles efectos secundarios más prevalentes los relacionados con el apetito, aparato digestivo y alteraciones electrolíticas. Conclusiones: Los posibles efectos secundarios asociados a terapias biológicas son múltiples y aparecen con diferente frecuencia y gravedad. Es importante al utilizarlas conocer el impacto nutricional y metabólico que pueden presentar, para su prevención y tratamiento.

  4. [Efficiency of oncologic treatments for solid tumours in Spain].

    PubMed

    Oyagüez, I; Frías, C; Seguí, M Á; Gómez-Barrera, M; Casado, M Á; Queralt Gorgas, M

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Proporcionar estimadores de la eficiencia de esquemas oncológicos empleados en España. Métodos: Se seleccionaron las publicaciones de ensayos clínicos en fase III usados para indicación de las terapias oncológicas de alto impacto empleadas para tratamiento de tumores sólidos en estadíos III-IV. Para cada esquema se calculó la relación costeeficacia incremental (RCEI) respecto al comparador del ensayo, con la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud. El coste (?, 2012) farmacológico, en PVL, de cada esquema y comparador se estimó con las unidades de medicamento requeridas en cada administración (aprovechamiento máximo de viales) considerando la posología y el número de ciclos especificado en el ensayo para cada una de las ramas. La efectividad se expresó en meses de supervivencia global (SG) y/o supervivencia libre de progresión (SLP). Resultados: Se analizaron 40 esquemas oncológicos para trece tumores metastásicos. La SG osciló entre 5,3 y 33,3 meses para las 34 terapias que incluían esa información, con valores de Hazard ratio (HR) respecto a sus comparadores de 0,49 a 1,15. La SLP osciló entre 1,5 y 12,4 meses para las 39 terapias con este dato, con HR de 0,33 a 1,52. Los valores de RCEI oscilaron entre 2.142,57 ?-60.996,37 ?/mes de SG adicional y entre 2.102,54 ?-661.845,27 ?/mes de SLP adicional. Conclusión: La dispersión y heterogeneidad de la supervivencia y RCEI estimadas, sugieren disparidad de criterios en la decisión de precio y financiación de las terapias, en España. Los continuos avances en terapias oncológicas parecen requerir reevaluaciones económicas de los medicamentos.

  5. Lidocaine injection of pericranial myofascial trigger points in the treatment of frequent episodic tension-type headache

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of local lidocaine injections into the myofascial trigger points (TPs) located at the pericranial muscles in patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH). Methods The study included 108 patients with frequent ETTH that were randomized into 4 groups. One injection of saline (NaCl 0.9%) was administered to group 1 (n = 27), 1 injection of lidocaine (0.5%) was administered to group 2 (n = 27), group 3 (n = 27) received 5 injections of saline (NaCl 0.9%), and group 4 (n = 27) received 5 injections of lidocaine (0.5%); on alternate days 2 mL for each muscle was injected into the frontal, temporal, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, semispinalis capitis, trapezius and splenius capitis muscles bilaterally. The frequency of painful days per month (FPD) and the patients’ visual analogue scales (VAS) were evaluated before treatment, and 2, 4 and 6 months after treatment. Results Mean age of the patients was 36.28 ± 9.41 years (range: 18–54 years). FPD scores improved significantly in group 2, 3 and 4 at 2 months posttreatment compared to pre- treatment (all P < 0.05), and also VAS scores improved significantly in group 2 and 4 at 2 months posttreatment (P < 0.05) but this improvement insisted at the 6 month only in group 4. Group 2 had better VAS and FPD than group 1 only at 2. and 4. months after treatment (for VAS P < 0.0121, P = 0.0232; for FPD P = 0.0003, P = 0.0004, respectively). Group 4 had better scores than group 3 at the 2., 4. and 6. months after treatment in both parameters (all P < 0.05). Group 2 had better scores than group 1 in FPD at the 2. and 4. months posttreatment (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0004, respectively), but not at the 6. month. Conclusion Local lidocaine injections into the myofascial TPs located in the pericranial muscles could be considered as an effective alternative treatment for ETTH. PMID:23698019

  6. Precision Airdrop (Largage de precision)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    largage de précision. Il donne une description générale d’un certain nombre de systèmes de largage de précision disponibles dans le commerce et de...sont souhaitables. Si vous souhaitez recevoir une notification électronique de la disponibilité des rapports de la RTO au fur et à mesure de leur

  7. Base de données des étoiles doubles et multiples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblak, E.; Chareton, M.; Dumon, R.; Kurpinska-Winiarska, M.; Kundera, T.

    Les auteurs réalisent à Besançon une base de données de tous les types d'étoiles doubles et multiples. Le traitement des données concerne l'acquisition de nouvelles données, l'examen de celles déjà disponibles, et le développement d'un outil informatique de gestion et d'interrogation à distance de la base.

  8. [Recommendations for the preservation and good-for-use period of multi-dose containers after being opened].

    PubMed

    Gaspar Carreño, M; Gavião Prado, C; Torrico Martín, F; Márquez Peiró, J F; Navarro Ferrer, F; Tudela Ortells, V

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer un procedimiento normalizado de utilización y conservación de fármacos, dietoterápicos y productos cosméticos en envases multidosis. Método: Se procede a elaborar una tabla resumen de los fármacos, dietoterápicos y productos cosméticos incluidos en la guía farmacoterapéutica del hospital disponibles en envases multidosis y se recopilan informaciones de conservación y perío - do de validez de los ítems seleccionados mediante consulta a las fichas técnicas de los productos, consulta a laboratorios o revisión bibliográfica. Resultados: Se ha revisado un total de 205 envases multidosis incluídos en la Guía Farmacoterapéutica (GFT) del Hospital. Se ha elaborado un procedimiento normalizado de trabajo con instrucciones generales y tabla de recomendaciones para los casos de no disponer de información. Conclusiones: En conclusión, con el presente estudio se facilita información sobre el período de validez y conservación de los envases multidosis tras su apertura. Esta información deberá mantenerse siempre disponible y actualizada.

  9. Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Billis, Evdokia; Papanikolaou, Dimitra-Tania; Koutsojannis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI) score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM) was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67) completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p < 0.05). However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p < 0.05) in the tested muscles' PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold. PMID:27990302

  10. Trigemino-cervical reflex in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Ayşegül; Uzun, Nurten; Örnek, Nurettin İrem; Ünalan, Halil; Karamehmetoğlu, Şafak Sahir; Kızıltan, Meral E

    2014-09-19

    Abnormal enhancement of polysynaptic brainstem reflexes has been previously reported in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We aimed to investigate trigemino-cervical reflex (TCR) in SCI since it may reflect alterations in the connections of trigeminal proprioceptive system and cervical motoneurons. Consecutive 14 patients with SCI and 16 healthy subjects were included in this study. All patients were in the chronic phase. TCR was recorded over sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius capitis (SC) muscles by stimulation of infraorbital nerve. We measured onset latency, amplitudes and durations of responses and compared between groups. We obtained stable responses over both muscles after one sided stimulation in healthy volunteers whereas probability of TCR was decreased in patients over both SCM (78.6% vs. 100%, p=0.050) and SC (71.4% vs. 100%, p=0.022). The absence of TCR was related to use of oral baclofen (≥50mg/day). However, when present, responses of SCI group had higher amplitudes and were more persistent. We demonstrated that TCR probability was similar to healthy subjects in SCI patients who used no or low dose oral baclofen. But it had higher amplitudes and longer durations. It was not obtained in only two patients who used oral baclofen more than 50mg/day.

  11. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control evoked by tonic craniofacial pain in humans.

    PubMed

    Sowman, P F; Wang, K; Svensson, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2011-02-01

    Tonic pain in one body segment can inhibit the perception of pain in another body segment. This phenomenon is mediated by diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), and its efficacy in craniofacial regions is investigated in this study. A compressive device that evoked a tonic, moderate/severe, headache-like, conditioning pain (∼8/10 on a visual analogue scale) was applied for 15min. Eleven males participated in the study. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and pressure pain tolerance (PPTol) at multiple heterosegmental body sites (right masseter, splenius capitis, second intermediate phalange, brachioradialis and tibialis anterior) were measured before, during and at multiple time points (5, 20 and 35min) after the termination of the conditioning pain. PPTs and PPTols were compared within participants across two experimental sessions; one that included painful conditioning stimulation, and a separate control session on a different day. Painful conditioning increased PPT significantly during pain over the masseter (p<0.05) and over the tibialis anterior (p<0.01). PPTol was unchanged. In the period after the painful conditioning stimulation PPT was depressed compared to control. This study shows that pain evoked from the craniofacial region evokes DNIC-like mechanisms on segmental as well as heterosegmental sites.

  12. A 20-year survey of tinea faciei.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Aste; Laura, Atzori; Natalia, Aste; Monica, Pau

    2010-11-01

    Tinea faciei is an uncommon dermatophytosis affecting the glabrous skin of the face. Between 1988 and 2007 at the Dermatology Department of Cagliari University, 107 cases of tinea faciei have been diagnosed, involving 72 females and 35 males, aged 2-72 years. Incidence peaks were observed between 6 and 15 years (48.59%) and between 36 and 45 years (17.76%). Males below and females above 15 years of age were the most affected. In 61 patients (57.1%), typical forms of tinea faciei were observed, whereas in 46 (42.9%), atypical forms were observed, mainly mimicking discoid lupus erythematosus (nine cases), and polymorphous light eruption (eight cases). Typical cases were present in younger patients, aged between 2 and 15 years, while atypical forms were distributed in any of the decades, but mostly between 36 and 72 years. Of the 46 cases of atypical presentation, 33 were females. The isolated dermatophytes were Microsporum canis (63 cases), Trichophyton rubrum (24 cases) and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (20 cases). Seven males and two females aged 4-10 years were also affected by tinea capitis and eight patients (three males and five females) of various ages by tinea corporis. Eleven patients (two males and nine females) aged >35 years were affected by onychomycosis. All patients recovered after local and/or systemic antifungal therapy, without relapse or side effects.

  13. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated in corneal/external infections

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, A.; Zanetti, S.; Sotgiu, M.; Sechi, L.; Fadda, G.; Carta, F.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To identify and determine antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from patients with chronic blepharitis, purulent conjunctivitis, and suppurative keratitis.
METHODS—A retrospective review of all culture positive cases of chronic blepharitis, purulent conjunctivitis, and suppurative keratitis between July 1995 and December 1996 was performed. Cases in which CoNS were the sole isolates were analysed. Species identification was performed by using a commercially available standardised biochemical test system. Antibiotic susceptibility to penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and teicoplanin was determined by agar disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer method). Teicoplanin resistance was confirmed by agar dilution.
RESULTS—42 Staphylococcus epidermidis, four S warneri, three S capitis, two S hominis, one each of S xylosus, S simulans, S equorum, and S lugdunensis were identified. 37 CoNS were penicillin resistant, 12 gentamicin resistant, 28 tetracycline resistant, 18 erythromycin resistant, four ciprofloxacin resistant, and one teicoplanin resistant (MIC, 32 µg/ml). In total, 16 strains were resistant to three or more antibiotics.
CONCLUSION—Species of CoNS apart from S epidermidis may be isolated from patients with corneal and external infection. Antibiotic susceptibility of CoNS is unpredictable and multiresistant strains are common. As a result, antibiotic susceptibility testing should be performed in all cases of clinically significant ocular infections caused by CoNS.

 PMID:10381660

  14. Radiation induction of cancer of the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Burns, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of epidermal tumors was studied using exposures to 25 kV x-rays with or without subsequent exposures to 12-0-tetradeconyl phorbol-13 acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet radiation (uvr) 280-400 nm. Fractionation regimens and total exposure up to 4000R produced no squamous cell carcinomas. When these regimes were followed by TPA an incidence of about 80% was obtained, and incidence of 60% when uvr exposures followed the x-irradiation. A dose-dependent increase in fibrosarcomas was found when x-irradiation was followed by 24 weeks of topical treatment with TPA. These results support the contention that uvr can enhance the expression of cells initiated by x-rays. The experimental evidence is compared with the data from the tinea capitis patients treated with x-rays. In C3HF/He male mice exposed to 50, 100, 150 and 200 rads /sup 137/Cs gamma rays the induction rate for fibrosarcomas was 2.9 x 10/sup -4/ per cGy/per mouse. This result compares with 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ transformations per surviving cell per cGy with 10T1/2 cells that are fibroblasts derived from C3H mice. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Preston, D.; Alfandary, E.; Stovall, M.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1991-03-01

    Radiation exposures to the scalp during childhood for tinea capitis were associated with a fourfold increase in skin cancer, primarily basal cell carcinomas, and a threefold increase in benign skin tumors. Malignant melanoma, however, was not significantly elevated. Overall, 80 neoplasms were identified from an extensive search of the pathology logs of all major hospitals in Israel and computer linkage with the national cancer registry. Radiation dose to the scalp was computed for over 10,000 persons irradiated for ringworm (mean 7 Gy), and incidence rates were contrasted with those observed in 16,000 matched comparison subjects. The relative risk of radiogenic skin cancer did not differ significantly between men or women or by time since exposure; however, risk was greatest following exposures in early childhood. After adjusting for sex, ethnic origin, and attained age, the estimated excess relative risk was 0.7 per Gy and the average excess risk over the current follow-up was 0.31/10(4) PY-Gy. The risk per Gy of radiation-induced skin cancer was intermediate between the high risk found among whites and no risk found among blacks in a similar study conducted in New York City. This finding suggests the role that subsequent exposure to uv radiation likely plays in the expression of a potential radiation-induced skin malignancy.

  16. Dermoscopy for the pediatric dermatologist part I: dermoscopy of pediatric infectious and inflammatory skin lesions and hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Haliasos, Elena C; Kerner, Miryam; Jaimes-Lopez, Natalia; Rudnicka, Lidia; Zalaudek, Iris; Malvehy, Josep; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Braun, Ralph P; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2013-01-01

    The dermoscope allows physicians to examine the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. This review summarizes important dermoscopic structures seen in infectious and inflammatory skin conditions and hair disorders in children. Scabies, pediculosis, phthiriasis, molluscum contagiosum, tinea nigra, and verrucae are well characterized dermoscopically by delta-shaped structures, ovoid-shaped nits, the crab louse, red corona, brown strands or spicules, and multiple densely packed papilla with a central black dot surrounded by a whitish halo, respectively. These dermoscopic structures will be discussed, focusing on the dermoscopic morphologies and dermoscopic sensitivity for diagnosis and its utility in monitoring treatment progress. Dermoscopy has also been shown to significantly improve the clinician's diagnostic and monitoring accuracy of inflammatory skin lesions such as psoriasis, which is characterized dermoscopically by uniformly distributed dotted blood vessels, and lichen planus, which is characterized by whitish lines on a purple to reddish background. Dermoscopy of the hair and scalp (trichoscopy) facilitates the differential diagnosis of hair diseases in children, including alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis. It can also assist in the diagnosis of multiple genetic hair shaft disorders, such as monilethrix, trichorrhexis invaginata, trichorrhexis nodosa, pili torti, and pili annulati.

  17. Pilot study of the prevalence of head lice infestation in a population of Saudi Arabian children.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    1987-06-01

    The prevalence of infestation with the head louse, Pediculus capitis, was assessed among the child population, from birth to 10 years old inclusive, of the rapidly expanding Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Over a period of two months, 300 consecutive children attending the general practitioner for any reason were examined specifically to identify those infested with head lice: 37 cases of active infestation were found, which is an overall prevalence of 12%. An interesting distribution, however, was noted in respect of age, ranging from less than 2% in the first year of life, rising rapidly to around 30% in ages six to eight years, thereafter declining steadily to about 16% by age 10 years. The distribution of infestation among males and females was broadly similar. These results show a high head lice infestation, particularly in the early school years, where presumably interpersonal contacts are most frequent, facilitating contagious spread. As the head lice is known to spread several viral and rickettsial diseases, such as relapsing fever and typhus, greater efforts should be made towards patient education in hygiene, and towards identifying and treating the disease when found.

  18. [Ectoparasites. Part 1: lice and fleas].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Herrmann, J; Schmoranzer, B; Paasch, U

    2009-08-01

    Ectoparasites and epidermal parasitic skin diseases are a heterogeneous group of infections of the external layer of the skin. The most common forms world-wide are scabies, lice (Pediculosis capitis, corporis, vestimentorum and pubis), tungiasis and the hookworm-associated Larva migrans cutanea. The head louse is the most widespread parasite in children in Germany. The symptoms, apart from pruritus, eczematous skin eruptions and ictus reactions of the skin, are often unspecific and many differential diagnoses must be considered. Treatment of ectoparasites includes manual procedures, such as repeated cleansing and combing out of lice-infected hair and also local antiparasitic treatment with permethrin, pyrethrum extract, allethrin and dimeticon. Lindan which has been used for decades can no longer be used in medications after 2008 after a decision of the EU Commission. Failure of treatment of head lice can be a result of errors in the treatment which favor survival of the eggs, larvae or adults. This can be a result of too short reaction times and too economical use or unequal distribution of medications, excessive dilution due to wet hair or omitting repeated treatment stages. Additionally resistance of head lice to pyrethrum is a known phenomenon and has been reported in several countries.

  19. Quantification of PrPC in bovine peripheral tissues: Analysis in wild-type and PrPC-deficient cattle.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi; Ano, Yasuhisa; Sakudo, Akikazu; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Sigiura, Katsuaki; Manabe, Noboru; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Cellular PrP (PrPC) is necessary for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infection. The purpose of the present experiment was the quantification of PrPC in peripheral tissues to assess the risk of BSE infection from these tissues. The tissue distribution of PrPC was examined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) and histochemical analysis. PrPC-deficient cows were used as a negative control. The sELISA revealed that the brain contained the highest PrPC content (10.7 µg/g tissue), while other organs/tissues harbored lower amounts, in decreasing order as follows: longissimus capitis muscle, iliocostalis thoracis muscle, splenius muscle, biceps femoris muscle, triceps brachii muscle, longissimus thoracis muscle, ileum, jejunum, duodenum, colon, cecum, apex linguae, omotransversarius muscle, posterior part of the corpus linguae, anterior part of the corpus linguae and radix linguae (5.2- to 31-fold less PrPC than the brain). In the tissue/organs of PrP-deficient cows, PrPC levels were under the limit of detection. Histochemical analysis showed that PrPC was expressed in nerve cells in intestinal tissues. The presence of PrPC in the bovine tongue, skeletal muscles and intestines raises the possibility of PrPSc accumulation in these tissues, indicating that these organs/tissues may serve as potential sources of BSE infection.

  20. Genotypic Diversity of Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Inpatients and Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Malihe; Shafiee, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Javad; Moghadam, Nasrin Asghari; Saifi, Mahnaz; Pourshafie, Mohammad R

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) isolated from hospitalized patients and outpatients (OP). Out of 350 staphylococcal isolates collected from three hospitals, 190 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). These isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests, detection of mecA, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Among the 190 isolated CoNS, Staphylococcus epidermidis (47.3%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (44.2%) were the most prevalent species. Other CoNS species that were isolated were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2.1%), Staphylococcus warneri (2.1%), Staphylococcus simulans (1.6%), Staphylococcus capitis (1.1%), Staphylococcus schleiferi (1.1%), and Staphylococcus hominis (0.5%). The rate of resistance to methicillin was 60% with 58 (50%) S. epidermidis and 55 (49%) S. haemolyticus. The rate of resistance to 13 antibiotics tested with the lowest and highest to chloramphenicol and penicillin, respectively. High clonal diversity with different PFGE patterns was obtained for methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus by 32 and 31 types, respectively. Our results indicated that the dissemination of MRCoNS is widespread in Tehran. The majority of these isolates showed distinct genotyping patterns. At the same time, the common patterns were found among the MRCoNS obtained from outpatient and inpatient isolates, suggestive of an epidemiological link.

  1. Reflex (unloading) and (defensive capitulation) responses in human neck muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Corna, S; Ito, Y; von Brevern, M; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1996-01-01

    1. We studied unloading and stretch responses in human neck muscle during manoeuvres in which the head pulled against a 2-3 kg weight which could be abruptly released or applied electromagnetically. 2. During head tracking in pitch, unloading of the weight induced inhibition of EMG in the contracting sternocleidomastoid at a mean latency of 24.9 ms in normal subjects and at 41 ms in bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects, with antagonist (trapezius) excitation at 30.5 and 41.3 ms, respectively. During tracking in yaw, unloading induced inhibition in the contracting splenius capitis (SpC) at a mean latency of 20.4 ms in normal subjects and 25 ms in labyrinthine-defective subjects, with excitation in the antagonist SpC at 22.2 and 24 ms, respectively. 3. If subjects tried to resist an unexpected sideways tug on the head a burst occurred in the stretched SpC at a mean latency of 53.5 ms. When subjects relaxed there was excitation of the shortening of SpC at 75.9 ms, which assisted the imposed motion and is possibly a "defensive reflex". PMID:8910241

  2. Nasal Carriage of Uncommon Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Nurses and Physicians of Tehran University Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Elaheh; Pakbaz, Zahra; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Avakh Majelan, Payman; Dehbashi, Sanaz

    2016-05-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have been identified as a major cause of nosocomial infections. Nasal carriage of CoNS in nurses and physicians is known to be an important risk factor for potential hospital infections. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococci among nurse and physician staffs of Tehran University Hospitals. A total of 116 CoNS were isolated from anterior nares of the study participants working in different wards of the hospitals. Thirteen uncommon CoNS were identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods, were subsequently confirmed by API kits. Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus capitis species accounted for 53.85%, 30.77%, and 15.38% from the isolates, respectively. Six isolates (46.15%) were found to be resistant to methicillin. In conclusion, screening of healthcare workers for uncommon CoNS colonization along with identification and testing for susceptibility of cultured isolates is of paramount importance in strengthening effective nosocomial infection control and prevention measures.

  3. Reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PC21 panel in identifying and detecting oxacillin resistance in clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci strains.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, A N; Barros, E M; Laport, M S; Dos Santos, K R N; Giambiagi-Demarval, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the MicroScan WalkAway PosCombo21 (PC21) system for the identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains and the detection of oxacillin resistance. Using molecular and phenotypic methods, 196 clinical strains were evaluated. The automated system demonstrated 100 % reliability for the identification of the clinical strains Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus cohnii; 98.03 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis; 70 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus lugdunensis; 40 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus warneri; and 28.57 % reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus capitis, but no reliability for the identification of Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus xylosus. We concluded that the automated system provides accurate results for the more common CNS species but often fails to accurately identify less prevalent species. For the detection of oxacillin resistance, the automated system showed 100 % specificity and 90.22 % sensitivity. Thus, the PC21 panel detects oxacillin-resistant strains, but is limited by the heteroresistance that is observed when using most phenotypic methods.

  4. Of Lice and Math: Using Models to Understand and Control Populations of Head Lice

    PubMed Central

    Laguna, Mara Fabiana; Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use detailed data about the biology of the head louse (pediculus humanus capitis) to build a model of the evolution of head lice colonies. Using theory and computer simulations, we show that the model can be used to assess the impact of the various strategies usually applied to eradicate head lice, both conscious (treatments) and unconscious (grooming). In the case of treatments, we study the difference in performance that arises when they are applied in systematic and non-systematic ways. Using some reasonable simplifying assumptions (as random mixing of human groups and the same mobility for all life stages of head lice other than eggs) we model the contagion of pediculosis using only one additional parameter. It is shown that this parameter can be tuned to obtain collective infestations whose characteristics are compatible with what is given in the literature on real infestations. We analyze two scenarios: One where group members begin treatment when a similar number of lice are present in each head, and another where there is one individual who starts treatment with a much larger threshold (“superspreader”). For both cases we assess the impact of several collective strategies of treatment. PMID:21799752

  5. Aerobic bacteria from mucous membranes, ear canals, and skin wounds of feral cats in Grenada, and the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of major isolates.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Fountain, Jacqueline; Snell, Alicia; Doherty, Devin; King, Brittany; Shemer, Eran; Oliveira, Simone; Sharma, Ravindra N

    2011-03-01

    In a 2-year period 54 feral cats were captured in Grenada, West Indies, and a total of 383 samples consisting of swabs from rectum, vagina, ears, eyes, mouth, nose and wounds/abscesses, were cultured for aerobic bacteria and campylobacters. A total of 251 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 205 were identified to species level and 46 to genus level. A commercial bacterial identification system (API/Biomerieux), was used for this purpose. The most common species was Escherichia coli (N=60), followed by Staphylococcus felis/simulans (40), S. hominis (16), S. haemolyticus (12), Streptococcus canis (9), Proteus mirabilis (8), Pasteurella multocida (7), Streptococcus mitis (7), Staphylococcus xylosus (7), S. capitis (6), S. chromogenes (4), S. sciuri (3), S. auricularis (2), S. lentus (2), S. hyicus (2), Streptococcus suis (2) and Pseudomonas argentinensis (2). Sixteen other isolates were identified to species level. A molecular method using 16S rRNA sequencing was used to confirm/identify 22 isolates. Salmonella or campylobacters were not isolated from rectal swabs. E. coli and S. felis/simulans together constituted 50% of isolates from vagina. S. felis/simulans was the most common species from culture positive ear and eye samples. P. multocida was isolated from 15% of mouth samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common isolates from nose and wound swabs. Staphylococcus aureus, or S. intemedius/S. pseudintermedius were not isolated from any sample. Antimicrobial drug resistance was minimal, most isolates being susceptible to all drugs tested against, including tetracycline.

  6. Ligamentum teres tendinopathy and tears

    PubMed Central

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Garabekyan, Tigran; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The ligamentum teres (LT) consists of two bands that originate on the ischial and pubic sides of the acetabular notch and insert on the fovea capitis of the femoral head. Recent studies have established the LT as an important hip stabilizer in a squatting position, particularly in patients with osseous instability. Purpose This review aims to concisely present the literature on LT tendinopathy and tears in order to guide health care professionals in the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and surgical management of ligamentum teres tendinopathy and tears. Conclusions The ligamentum teres is an important stabilizer to the hip joint, particularly with hip flexion and external rotation. Older age and acetabular bony pathomorphology are two of the known risk factors for LT tears. Symptoms of LT tendinopathy are largely non-specific, mimicking a wide range of other hip disorders including impingement and instability. Debridement of LT tears or reactive tissue has been reported with good outcomes, with more recent studies describing reconstruction of a completely torn, nonfunctional, or absent LT using various graft sources including synthetic grafts, autografts, and allografts. Level of evidence II. PMID:28066738

  7. The Influence of Pretreatment Characteristics and Radiotherapy Parameters on Time Interval to Development of Radiation-Associated Meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Paulino, Arnold C.; Ahmed, Irfan M.; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To identify pretreatment characteristics and radiotherapy parameters which may influence time interval to development of radiation-associated meningioma (RAM). Methods and Materials: A Medline/PUBMED search of articles dealing with RAM yielded 66 studies between 1981 and 2006. Factors analyzed included patient age and gender, type of initial tumor treated, radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume, and time interval from RT to development of RAM. Results: A total of 143 patients with a median age at RT of 12 years form the basis of this report. The most common initial tumors or conditions treated with RT were medulloblastoma (n = 27), pituitary adenoma (n = 20), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 20), low-grade astrocytoma (n = 19), and tinea capitis (n = 14). In the 116 patients whose RT fields were known, 55 (47.4%) had a portion of the brain treated, whereas 32 (27.6%) and 29 (25.0%) had craniospinal and whole-brain fields. The median time from RT to develop a RAM or latent time (LT) was 19 years (range, 1-63 years). Male gender (p = 0.001), initial diagnosis of leukemia (p = 0.001), and use of whole brain or craniospinal field (p <= 0.0001) were associated with a shorter LT, whereas patients who received lower doses of RT had a longer LT (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The latent time to develop a RAM was related to gender, initial tumor type, radiotherapy volume, and radiotherapy dose.

  8. Sport and infectious risk: a systematic review of the literature over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Grosset-Janin, A; Nicolas, X; Saraux, A

    2012-11-01

    The development of sports activities promoted as a health factor should not hide the increased risk for diseases, more particularly infections. A review of articles made over the last 20 years was made with a descriptive epidemiological purpose. The most marked risk is skin infection with methicillin-resistant community acquired Staphylococcus aureus (27.4% of the articles), followed by Tinea corporis and capitis (13.7%), and leptospirosis (11.7%). The risk of blood-borne infection seems low, and articles are rare (3.9%). The risk of disease with respiratory transmission (measles, meningococcal meningitis) must be taken into account. The effect of physical activity on the immune system depends on the type and duration of the work out: it seems to be beneficial for a workout of a moderate intensity, and deleterious for a sustained acute work out, or a period of intensive training. These periods of protection or susceptibility to infections are described as "open window" and "J curve". The only recommendations for prevention of sport-related infections arise from the frequency of skin infections and the severity of blood-borne infections. These recommendations are published by American and international sports authorities. The specificity of athletes' management is due to imperatives of competitiveness (maintaining physical performance) and the necessity of temporary eviction from sports, in case of contagiousness. The athletes must make sure their recommended vaccinations are up-to-date.

  9. [Epidemiological and clinical profile of superficial mycoses in the Monastir region (Tunisia). Retrospective study (1991-1994) of 3578 cases].

    PubMed

    Khorchani, H; Haouet, H; Amri, M; Zanned, I; Babba, H; Azaiz, R

    1996-01-01

    Despite of socio-economical improvement in our population and the efficacy of available antifungal treatment, superficial mycoses remain a common condition in dermatologic practice. To determine the epidemio-clinical pattern of superficial mycoses in our region, a retrospective study of 3578 cases have been carried out in the Department of Dermatology of the University Hospital of Monastir during a 4 year-period. The mean age of patients was 33 years (range: 6 months-91 years). The male to female sex-ratio was 0.82. Rural origin, history of previous mycoses, diabetes, topic or systemic corticosteroids and the presence of animals in surroundings were the most predisposing factors. The most frequent clinical patterns were: tinea corcoris and pedis (40.3%), Tinea versicolor (21.6%), Tinea capitis (9.7%) dermatophytosis of hairless skin (9.6%) and onychomycosis (8.6%). Dermatophyte was the most frequent (55.5%). The occurrence of superficial mycose especially if it affects diffuse area of the body, or if it is relapsing and resistant to treatment, requires looking for predisposing factors.

  10. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-12-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III-V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented.

  11. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  12. Computational analysis of conserved coil functional residues in the mitochondrial genomic sequences of dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bulbul; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophyte is a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue of humans and other animals. The infection known as dermatophytosis, caused by members of the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton includes infection to the groin (tinea cruris), beard (tinea barbae), scalp (tinea capitis), feet (tinea pedis), glabrous skin (tinea corporis), nail (tinea unguium), and hand (tinea manuum). The identification of evolutionary relationship between these three genera of dermatophyte is epidemiologically important to understand their pathogenicity. Mitochondrial DNA evolves more rapidly than a nuclear DNA due to higher rate of mutation but is very less affected by genetic recombination, making it an important tool for phylogenetic studies. Thus, here we present a novel scheme to identify the conserved coil functional residues of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Protein coding sequences of the mitochondrial genome were aligned for their similar sequences and homology modelling was performed for structure and pocket identification. The results obtained from comparative analysis of the protein sequences revealed the presence of functionally active sites in all the species of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. However in Epidermophyton floccosum it was observed in three protein sequences of the five studied. The absence of these conserved coil functional residues in E. floccusum may be correlated with lesser infectivity of this organism. The functional residues identified in the present study could be responsible for the disease and thus can act as putative target sites for drug designing. PMID:28149055

  13. Differentiation of Staphylococcus spp. by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Slany, Michal; Vanerkova, Martina; Nemcova, Eva; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ruzicka, Filip; Freiberger, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a fast (post-PCR) high-throughput method to scan for sequence variations in a target gene. The aim of this study was to test the potential of HRMA to distinguish particular bacterial species of the Staphylococcus genus even when using a broad-range PCR within the 16S rRNA gene where sequence differences are minimal. Genomic DNA samples isolated from 12 reference staphylococcal strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus xylosus) were subjected to a real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene in the presence of fluorescent dye EvaGreen™, followed by HRMA. Melting profiles were used as molecular fingerprints for bacterial species differentiation. HRMA of S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus resulted in undistinguishable profiles because of their identical sequences in the analyzed 16S rRNA region. The remaining reference strains were fully differentiated either directly or via high-resolution plots obtained by heteroduplex formation between coamplified PCR products of the tested staphylococcal strain and phylogenetically unrelated strain.

  14. Comprehensive Analysis of Bacterial Flora in Postoperative Maxillary Cyst Fluid by 16S rRNA Gene and Culture Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Naoto; Yamashita, Yoshio; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Goto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Intracystic fluid was aseptically collected from 11 patients with postoperative maxillary cyst (POMC), and DNA was extracted from the POMC fluid. Bacterial species were identified by sequencing after cloning of approximately 580 bp of the 16S rRNA gene. Identification of pathogenic bacteria was also performed by culture methods. The phylogenetic identity was determined by sequencing 517–596 bp in each of the 1139 16S rRNA gene clones. A total of 1114 clones were classified while the remaining 25 clones were unclassified. A total of 103 bacterial species belonging to 42 genera were identified in POMC fluid samples by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Species of Prevotella (91%), Neisseria (73%), Fusobacterium (73%), Porphyromonas (73%), and Propionibacterium (73%) were found to be highly prevalent in all patients. Streptococcus mitis (64%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (55%), Propionibacterium acnes (55%), Staphylococcus capitis (55%), and Streptococcus salivarius (55%) were detected in more than 6 of the 11 patients. The results obtained by the culture method were different from those obtained by 16S rRNA gene analysis, but both approaches may be necessary for the identification of pathogens, especially of bacteria that are difficult to detect by culture methods, and the development of rational treatments for patients with POMC. PMID:22685668

  15. Poloxamer-hydroxyethyl cellulose-α-cyclodextrin supramolecular gels for sustained release of griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Xelhua; Pérez-Casas, Silvia; Llovo, José; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-03-16

    Supramolecular gels of poloxamer-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)-α-cyclodextrin (αCD) were developed aiming to obtain synergisms regarding solubilization and sustained release of griseofulvin for topical application. The effects of αCD concentration (0-10%w/w) on the phase behavior of aqueous dispersions of Pluronic(®) P123 (14%w/w) mixed with HEC (2%w/w) were evaluated at 4, 20 and 37°C. The cooperative effects of the inclusion complex formation between poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blocks and HEC with αCD prevented phase separation and led to supramolecular networks that solubilize the antifungal drug. Rheological and bioadhesive properties of gels with and without griseofulvin could be easily tuned modulating the polymers proportions. Supramolecular gels underwent sol-gel transition at lower temperature than P123 solely dispersions and enabled drug sustained release for at least three weeks. All gels demonstrated good biocompatibility in the HET-CAM test. Furthermore, the drug-loaded gels showed activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and thus may be useful for the treatment of tinea capitis and other cutaneous fungal infections.

  16. Tinea corporis with acute inflammation caused by Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Sayoko; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Masako; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2008-09-01

    A 13-year-old Japanese boy presented with acute skin inflammation on the extremities. He belonged to a judo club of a junior high school in which club tinea capitis and tinea corporis seemed to be prevalent. Vesicles and pustules appeared on his right forearm and right leg. They increased in numbers and formed annular lesions. Pruritic erythema appeared surrounding these lesions. Direct microscopic examination of the lesions detected hyphae, and culture for the fungi yielded yellowish colonies. The result of culture from pustules revealed Staphylococcus aureus. At first, a topical antifungal drug and systemic antibiotics seemed to cure annular lesions, but pustules arose again. A large surrounding erythema was cured by topical treatment with a steroid agent. A biopsy specimen from a pustule showed hyphae of fungi within a hair shaft and in the bulb. The restriction fragment length polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal gene (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism) revealed a banding pattern compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Treatment with systemic itraconazole was begun and lesions disappeared immediately. Systemic antifungal therapy was needed in our case. Tinea corporis with inflammation necessitates systemic antifungal therapy.

  17. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklebirhan, Gebreabiezgi; Bitew, Adane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4%) by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4%) samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7%) cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed. PMID:26448763

  18. Sequencing of a new target genome: the Pediculus humanus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) genome project.

    PubMed

    Pittendrigh, B R; Clark, J M; Johnston, J S; Lee, S H; Romero-Severson, J; Dasch, G A

    2006-11-01

    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus (L.), and the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, belong to the hemimetabolous order Phthiraptera. The body louse is the primary vector that transmits the bacterial agents of louse-borne relapsing fever, trench fever, and epidemic typhus. The genomes of the bacterial causative agents of several of these aforementioned diseases have been sequenced. Thus, determining the body louse genome will enhance studies of host-vector-pathogen interactions. Although not important as a major disease vector, head lice are of major social concern. Resistance to traditional pesticides used to control head and body lice have developed. It is imperative that new molecular targets be discovered for the development of novel compounds to control these insects. No complete genome sequence exists for a hemimetabolous insect species primarily because hemimetabolous insects often have large (2000 Mb) to very large (up to 16,300 Mb) genomes. Fortuitously, we determined that the human body louse has one of the smallest genome sizes known in insects, suggesting it may be a suitable choice as a minimal hemimetabolous genome in which many genes have been eliminated during its adaptation to human parasitism. Because many louse species infest birds and mammals, the body louse genome-sequencing project will facilitate studies of their comparative genomics. A 6-8X coverage of the body louse genome, plus sequenced expressed sequence tags, should provide the entomological, evolutionary biology, medical, and public health communities with useful genetic information.

  19. Parasagittal meningiomas: Our surgical experience and the reconstruction technique of the superior sagittal sinus

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Alessandro; Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Del Maestro, Mattia; Gallieni, Massimo; Dechcordi, Soheila Raysi; Marzi, Sara; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The radical resection of parasagittal meningiomas without complications and recurrences is the goal of the neurosurgeon. Nowadays, different managements are proposed. This study describes our surgical technique during the lesional excision and the reconstruction of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Methods: The total removal (Simpson I and II) of parasagittal meningiomas (WHO grade I and II) was obtained in 75 patients from September 2000 to January 2010. The indocyanine green videoangiography was used before the dural opening and, when necessary, to identify and preserve the cortical veins. The surgery of the SSS was performed in accordance with Sindou's classification, and its reconstruction was achieved through the use of a patch of galea capitis. Results: We had no cases of recurrence and thrombotic occlusion of the SSS in 5 years after the reconstruction. No complications were observed in 65 patients, and no cases of mortality were reported. Neurological focal deficits were observed in 5 patients. A brain swelling and a venous infarction were observed in 1 patient. Only one case of thrombotic occlusion was observed. A cerebrospinal fluid leak was observed in 2 patients, and a systemic complication was found in 1 patient. Conclusion: Several factors contribute to the success of the parasagittal meningioma surgery. We consider the preservation of the cortical veins to be important, and, when possible, we recommend the reconstruction of the anterior third of the SSS. Our experience has led us to believe that until now surgery is a winning choice if practiced by expert hands. PMID:28217380

  20. Estimating the burden of fungal disease in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, J; Denning, D W; Chau, N V; Yen, N T B; Crump, J A; Day, J N

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding the prevalence of fungal infections in Vietnam are limited yet they are likely to occur more frequently as increasingly sophisticated healthcare creates more iatrogenic risk factors. In this study, we sought to estimate baseline incidence and prevalence of selected serious fungal infections for the year 2012. We made estimates with a previously described actuarial method, using reports on the incidence and prevalence of various established risk factors for fungal infections from Vietnam, or similar environments, supplemented by personal communications. Global data were used if local data were unavailable. We estimated 2,352,748 episodes of serious fungal infection occurred in Vietnam in 2012. Frequent conditions included recurrent vaginal candidiasis (3893/100,000 women annually), tinea capitis (457/100,000 annually) and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (61/100,000/5 year period). We estimated 140 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 206 of penicilliosis and 608 of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This is the first summary of Vietnamese fungal infections. The majority of severe disease is due to Aspergillus species, driven by the high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. The AIDS epidemic highlights opportunistic infections, such as penicilliosis and cryptococcosis, which may complicate immunosuppressive treatments. These estimates provide a useful indication of disease prevalence to inform future research and resource allocation but should be verified by further epidemiological approaches.

  1. Epidemiological trends in skin mycoses worldwide.

    PubMed

    Havlickova, Blanka; Czaika, Viktor A; Friedrich, Markus

    2008-09-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are a common global problem. The high prevalence of superficial mycotic infections shows that 20-25% of the world's population has skin mycoses, making these one of the most frequent forms of infection. Pathogens responsible for skin mycoses are primarily anthropophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes from the genera Trichophyton (T.), Microsporum (M.) and Epidermophyton (E.). There appears to be considerable inter- and intra-continental variability in the global incidence of these fungal infections. Trichophyton rubrum, T. interdigitale (mentagrophytes var. interdigitale), M. canis, M. audouinii, T. tonsurans and T. verrucosum are the most common, but the attack rates and incidence of specific mycoses can vary widely. Local socio-economic conditions and cultural practices can also influence the prevalence of a particular infection in a given area. For example, tinea pedis (athlete's foot) is more prevalent in developed countries than in emerging economies and is likely to be caused by the anthropophilic germ T. rubrum. In poorer countries, scalp infections (tinea capitis) caused by T. soudanense or M. audouinii are more prevalent. This review summarises current epidemiological trends for fungal infections and focuses on dermatomycosis of glabrous skin on different continents.

  2. Cryptococcal disease and the burden of other fungal diseases in Uganda; Where are the knowledge gaps and how can we fill them?

    PubMed

    Parkes-Ratanshi, R; Achan, B; Kwizera, R; Kambugu, A; Meya, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The HIV epidemic in Uganda has highlighted Cryptococcus and Candida infections as important opportunistic fungal infections. However, the burden of other fungal diseases is not well described. We aimed to estimate the burden of fungal infections in Uganda. All epidemiological papers of fungal diseases in Uganda were reviewed. Where there is no Ugandan data, global or East African data were used. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is estimated to occur in 375 540 Uganda women per year; Candida in pregnant women affects up to 651,600 women per year. There are around 45,000 HIV-related oral and oesophageal candidosis cases per year. There are up to 3000 cases per year of post-TB chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. There are an estimated 40,392 people with asthma-related fungal conditions. An estimated 1,300,000 cases of tinea capitis occur in school children yearly in Uganda. There are approximately 800 HIV-positive adults with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) annually and up to 42 000 children with PJP per year. There are an estimated 4000 cryptococcal cases annually. There are an estimated 2.5 million fungal infections per year in Uganda. Cryptococcus and PJP cause around 28,000 deaths in adults and children per year. We propose replicating the model of research around cryptococcal disease to investigate and development management strategies for other fungal diseases in Uganda.

  3. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies.

  4. Burden of serious fungal infections in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Denning, David W; Gugnani, Harish C

    2015-10-01

    The information on the prevalence of fungal infections in the Caribbean region including Trinidad and Tobago (population 1,339,000 million) is scanty. Tinea capitis is common in children, being predominant in those of African descent, with no definitive estimate. Asthma is also common affecting 77,000-139,000 adults with an estimated 1927-3491 affected by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 2544-4608 with severe asthma and fungal sensitisation (SAFS). An estimated 23,763 women have ≥4 attacks of vaginal candidiasis annually. Among the estimated 14,000 HIV-infected patients, 750 cases of oesophageal candidiasis, 400 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and 50 cases of cryptococcal meningitis are anticipated. Histoplasma capsulatum is endemic in the islands with a 49% skin positivity rate in those <60 years old. Three cases of cutaneous histoplasmosis in AIDS patients have been reported. Three cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis were reported among German biologists following exposure to bats in a cave in Trinidad. Using a low mean international incidence figure for candidaemia of 5/100,000, 67 cases of candidaemia are estimated. The burden of fungal infections in Trinidad and Tobago is considerable and requires appropriate diagnostic and clinical expertise.

  5. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments.

  6. Structural and functional anatomy of the neck musculature of the dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Sharir, Amnon; Milgram, Joshua; Shahar, Ron

    2006-03-01

    The morphometric properties and the anatomical relationships of the entire musculature of the canine cervical spine are reported herein. These data were obtained from the dissection of cadavers of six dogs. Total muscle length, muscle weight, fascicle length and angles of pennation were recorded for each muscle comprising the canine cervical spine. Based upon these properties, physiological cross-section area (PCSA) and architectural index were estimated. When scaled by whole body mass, the values of each of these parameters were found to be similar between all dogs. Muscles that course from the cranial neck to the shoulder girdle or the rib cage (e.g. brachiocephalicus and rhomboideus capitis) were found to have relatively long fascicles and low PCSA values and thus appear to be designed for rapid excursions. By contrast, muscles that primarily support the neck and shoulder against gravitational forces (e.g. serratus ventralis and trapezius) were found to have relatively high PCSA values and short fascicle lengths, and thus have the capacity to generate large forces. Differences of morphometry as well as nomenclature were found between the canine and human neck musculature. Nevertheless, many similarities exist; in particular, both species have similar muscles adapted to force generation or large excursions. We thus conclude that the canine neck may be used as a modelling tool for biomechanical investigations of the human cervical region as long as the differences listed are borne in mind.

  7. [Mycoses frequency in three communities in the North mountain of the State of Puebla].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; Lemini-López, Alicia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Blancas-Espinosa, Roberto; López-Martínez, Rubén

    2003-01-01

    In order to know mycosis frequency in the North of the State of Puebla, Mexico, in habitants from the communities of Ayotoxco, Mazatepec and Zacatipan were studied. Previous medical study biological samples were submitted to direct examination, smear and culture. Histoplasmin and sporotrichin skin test were applied to 57 individual from Zacatipan. From 110 patients 146 mycological studies were performed. Eighty six cases (59%) of mycosis were detected: 43 finger or toenails onychomycosis, 25 tinea pedis, seven tinea capitis, four cases of tinea manum and, finally, five cases of seborrhoeic dermatitis and two of pitiriasis versicolor. We isolated: 18 streins of dermatophytes, mainly Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (11 and 5 strains respectively); 12 cultures of non-dermatophytes filamentous fungi; six cases of mycelia sterile; six yeast strains, most of them Candida spp but none C. albicans. From 57 patients to whom skin tests were applied, five of them (8.8%) were positive to both antigens; ten positive (17.6%) only to histoplasmin and eight (14%) to sporotrichin. This study showed that rural population from Puebla present a high frequency of superficial mycosis (61% of mycological studies). Considering the percentage of positive skin test we suppose that there are many not diagnosed sporotrichosis and histoplasmosis cases.

  8. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Johan; Magnusson, Måns; Grünewald, Maria; Hulth, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice) and "hårlöss" (lice in hair) were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001) when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689). In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  9. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Basheir, Zeinab M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

    2002-12-01

    Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%).

  10. Should hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa best be renamed as "dissecting terminal hair folliculitis"?

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Plewig, Gerd

    2016-09-13

    Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa is a diverse, enigmatic and distressful disease that has aroused growing interest in specialists from different disciplines. Both names describe its classical manifestations in the intertriginous regions and reflect the historical view of the disease definition, but cause confusions in the understanding of its pathogenesis and classification. In the light of the advance in clinical, histopathological and pathophysiological findings, we propose the term "dissecting terminal hair folliculitis" (DTHF) to characterize its disease nature as folliculitis instead of acneiform disease or apocrine gland disorder. DTHF attacks exclusively the terminal hair follicles in an overwhelming majority of adults, initiating from the fragile acroinfundibulum leading to a non-infectious overreaction of innate immunity system with inflammation that may fiercely dissect and engulf all the surrounding tissues accompanied by secondary bacterial infections. Evidence indicates that perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens and pilonidal disease are very likely regional variants of DTHF with the same pathogenesis. Treatment of DTHF remains frustrating. The benefit of biologics in targeting inflammation is so far non-specific, palliative and inconsistent. Hair epilation and photodynamic therapy in treatment of the disease is questionable in consideration of the pathogenesis. Genetic and translational research, especially on the Notch signalling pathways, will yield breakthrough in the development of novel treatment modalities.

  11. Heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial genomes of human lice and ticks revealed by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haoyu; Barker, Stephen C; Burger, Thomas D; Raoult, Didier; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation.

  12. Response of Pediculus humanus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) to water or 70% ethanol immersion and determination of optimal times for measuring toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Mougabure Cueto, Gastón; Inés Picollo, María

    2010-05-01

    Human pediculosis is caused by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). We studied the response of body lice to immersion in water and ethanol 70% and determined the optimal times for measuring knockdown and mortality. After immersion in water, all lice remained alive from 5 min to 22 h for both times of exposure. A low proportion of lice were affected after 2 min of immersion in ethanol in the 10-min exposure test, but recovered completely after 5 min. Different proportions of lice were affected between 2 and 7 h after immersion in ethanol, depending on the immersion time. However, a high proportion of lice recovered after 22 h. The results suggest that the optimal times for measuring early knockdown effects of insecticides are the 5-min to 7-h interval for water and 5-min to 1-h interval for ethanol. On the other hand, the best time for measuring mortality is 22 h after immersion. These results should improve the interpretations of the effects of pediculicides in immersion bioassays.

  13. Arrestant Effect of Human Scalp Components on Head Louse (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Ceferino Toloza, Ariel; Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Inés Picollo, María

    2016-12-23

    Relevant evidence has shown that parasites process host-related information using chemical, visual, tactile, or auditory cues. However, the cues that are involved in the host-parasite interaction between Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767) and humans have not been identified yet. In this work, we studied the effect of human scalp components on the behavior of adult head lice. Filter paper segments were rubbed on volunteers' scalps and then placed in the experimental arena, where adult head lice were individually tested. The movement of the insects was recorded for each arena using the software EthoVision. Average movement parameters were calculated for the treatments in the bioassays such as total distance, velocity, number of times a head louse crossed between zones of the arena, and time in each zone of the arena. We found that scalp components induced head lice to decrease average locomotor activity and to remain arrested on the treated paper. The effect of the ageing of human scalp samples in the response of head lice was not statistically significant (i.e., human scalp samples of 4, 18, 40, and 60 h of ageing did not elicit a significant change in head louse behavior). When we analyzed the effect of the sex in the response of head lice to human scalp samples, males demonstrated significant differences. Our results showed for the first time the effect of host components conditioning head lice behavior. We discuss the role of these components in the dynamic of head lice infestation.

  14. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed.

  15. Lice.

    PubMed

    Do-Pham, Giao; Monsel, Gentiane; Chosidow, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Pediculosis (capitis, corporis, and pubis) share well-known features: worldwide prevalence (involving millions of people annually); parasites inducing skin lesions directly, and indirectly as a result of itching and hypersensitivity to parasites; and treatment based on good entomological knowledge of the parasite and practical considerations (ie, most available treatments do not act on eggs and should be repeated, depending on the life cycle of the parasites). Infestations are spread most commonly by close contacts. Social stigma and persistent misconceptions complicate the implementation of appropriate management strategies. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by the visualization of insects or viable nits (eggs). Primary treatments are topical pediculicides (permethrin or malathion), used twice, but emergence of resistance against pediculicides has created the need of alternative treatments including topical or oral ivermectin. Pubic lice are treated the same as head lice, but this finding should prompt evaluation for other sexually transmitted diseases. Body lice infestation should be suspected when symptoms of generalized itching occur in persons who do not change or wash their clothing or bedding regularly; lice may be found in the seams of their clothing.Topically administered permethrin may help to eradicate body lice, but personal hygiene measures are essential for successful treatment. Environmental treatment is also necessary for the eradication of the infestation. Health care personnel who come into contact with this population need to be well informed of the facts in order to disseminate accurate information for diagnosis and management.

  16. A new ivermectin formulation topically kills permethrin-resistant human head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a new ivermectin formulation for the topical treatment of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Permethrin-resistant lice originally obtained from south Florida and maintained on an in vitro rearing system were 100% susceptible to ivermectin formulations by using a semiclinical hair tuft bioassay. The formulation was 100% effective at killing lice using 1, 0.5, and 0.25% ivermectin concentrations after 10-min exposures. As judged by the lethal time (LT)50 and LT95 values, 0.5% formulated ivermectin was 3.8 and 3.2 times faster at killing lice, respectively, than 0.5% nonformulated ivermectin, indicating that the formulation may facilitate the penetration of ivermectin into the louse. The hair tuft-based bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system provides a standardized method to assess the comparative efficacy of pediculicide formulations in a reproducible format that mimics the exposure scenario that occurs on the human scalp.

  17. Molecular evolution of Pediculus humanus and the origin of clothing.

    PubMed

    Kittler, Ralf; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2003-08-19

    The human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body louse (P. humanus corporis or P. h. humanus) are strict, obligate human ectoparasites that differ mainly in their habitat on the host : the head louse lives and feeds exclusively on the scalp, whereas the body louse feeds on the body but lives in clothing. This ecological differentiation probably arose when humans adopted frequent use of clothing, an important event in human evolution for which there is no direct archaeological evidence. We therefore used a molecular clock approach to date the origin of body lice, assuming that this should correspond with the frequent use of clothing. Sequences were obtained from two mtDNA and two nuclear DNA segments from a global sample of 40 head and body lice, and from a chimpanzee louse to use as an outgroup. The results indicate greater diversity in African than non-African lice, suggesting an African origin of human lice. A molecular clock analysis indicates that body lice originated not more than about 72,000 +/- 42,000 years ago; the mtDNA sequences also indicate a demographic expansion of body lice that correlates with the spread of modern humans out of Africa. These results suggest that clothing was a surprisingly recent innovation in human evolution.

  18. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  19. Correlation between deep cervical flexor muscle thickness at rest and sternocleidomastoid activity during the craniocervical flexion test.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Ono, Koji; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the thickness of the deep cervical flexor muscles (longus capitis and longus colli) at rest and sternocleidomastoid activity during the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT). Thirteen healthy males participated in this study. The thickness of the deep cervical flexor muscles was measured by ultrasound imaging in a relaxed supine position. Activity of the sternocleidomastoid was measured by electromyography during the CCFT at five incremental levels (22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 mm Hg). Correlations between normalized muscle thickness relative to body mass index and sternocleidomastoid activity were determined. Significant negative correlations were observed between normalized muscle thickness and activity of the sternocleidomastoid at 26 (r = -0.622, P = 0.023) and 28 mmHg (r = -0.653, P = 0.015). Individuals with smaller deep cervical flexor muscles exhibited increased activity in the sternocleidomastoid during the CCFT.

  20. Binding of fibronectin to Staphylococcus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Switalski, L M; Rydén, C; Rubin, K; Ljungh, A; Höök, M; Wadström, T

    1983-01-01

    Fibronectin, a major protein component of plasma and loose connective tissue has previously been shown to bind to several strains of Staphylococcus aureus. We examined a large number of strains of different species of Staphylococcus with respect to their ability to bind fibronectin. The relative numbers of strains defined as fibronectin-binders among the different species were as follows: S. aureus (22 of 23), S. haemolyticus (5 of 5), S. warneri (8 of 11), S. hyicus (5 of 6), S. hominis (13 of 17), S. saprophyticus (11 of 20), S. epidermidis (4 of 7), and S. simulans (8 of 10). Only three species showed a predominance of nonbinders over binders: S. capitis (4 of 14), S. xylosus (0 of 4), and S. cohnii (3 of 11). These data indicate that staphylococcal species isolated from soft tissue infections frequently have the ability to bind fibronectin and suggest that the ability to bind to this protein may contribute to the virulence of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:6315582

  1. Head and neck tumors after energetic proton irradiation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D.; Cox, A.; Hardy, K.; Salmon, Y.; Trotter, R.

    1994-10-01

    This is a two-year progress report on a life span dose-response study of brain tumor risk at moderate to high doses of energetic protons. It was initiated because a joint NASA/USAF life span study of rhesus monkeys that were irradiated with 55-MeV protons (average surface dose, 3.5 Gy) indicated that the incidence of brain tumors per unit surface absorbed dose was over 19 times that of the human tinea capitis patients whose heads were exposed to 100 kv x-rays. Examination of those rats that died in the two-year interval after irradiation of the head revealed a linear dose-response for total head and neck tumor incidence in the dose range of 0-8.5 Gy. The exposed rats had a greater incidence of pituitary chromophobe adenomas, epithelial and mesothelial cell tumors than the unexposed controls but the excessive occurrence of malignant gliomas that was observed in the monkeys was absent in the rats. The estimated dose required to double the number of all types of head and neck tumors was 5.2 Gy. The highest dose, 18 Gy, resulted in high mortality due to obstructive squamous metaplasia at less than 50 weeks, prompting a new study of the relative bological effectiveness of high energy protons in producing this lesion.

  2. [Terbinafine : Relevant drug interactions and their management].

    PubMed

    Dürrbeck, A; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    The allylamine terbinafine is the probably most frequently prescribed systemic antifungal agent in Germany for the treatment of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses. According to the German drug law, terbinafine is approved for patients who are 18 years and older; however, this antifungal agent is increasingly used off-label for treatment of onychomycoses and tinea capitis in children. Terbinafine is associated with only a few interactions with other drugs, which is why terbinafine can generally be used without problems in older and multimorbid patients. Nevertheless, some potential interactions of terbinafine with certain drug substances are known, including substances of the group of antidepressants/antipsychotics and some cardiovascular drugs. Decisive for the relevance of interactions is-along with the therapeutic index of the substrate and the possible alternative degradation pathways-the genetically determined type of metabolism. When combining terbinafine with tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, the clinical response and potential side effects must be monitored. Problematic is the use of terbinafine with simultaneous treatment with tamoxifen. The administration of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors leads to a diminished efficacy of tamoxifen because one of its most important active metabolites-endoxifen-is not sufficiently available. Therefore, combination of tamoxifen and terbinafine should be avoided. In conclusion, the number of substances which are able to cause clinically relevant interactions in case of simultaneously administration with terbinafine is clear and should be manageable in the dermatological office with adequate monitoring.

  3. Of lice and math: using models to understand and control populations of head lice.

    PubMed

    Laguna, María Fabiana; Laguna, Mara Fabiana; Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use detailed data about the biology of the head louse (pediculus humanus capitis) to build a model of the evolution of head lice colonies. Using theory and computer simulations, we show that the model can be used to assess the impact of the various strategies usually applied to eradicate head lice, both conscious (treatments) and unconscious (grooming). In the case of treatments, we study the difference in performance that arises when they are applied in systematic and non-systematic ways. Using some reasonable simplifying assumptions (as random mixing of human groups and the same mobility for all life stages of head lice other than eggs) we model the contagion of pediculosis using only one additional parameter. It is shown that this parameter can be tuned to obtain collective infestations whose characteristics are compatible with what is given in the literature on real infestations. We analyze two scenarios: One where group members begin treatment when a similar number of lice are present in each head, and another where there is one individual who starts treatment with a much larger threshold ("superspreader"). For both cases we assess the impact of several collective strategies of treatment.

  4. Detailed Anatomy of the Cranial Cervical Ganglion in the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Biglari, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    The detailed morphology and topography of the cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) with its surrounding structures were studied in 10 sides of five heads of adult one-humped camel to determine its general arrangement as well as its differences and similarities to other animals. The following detailed descriptions were obtained: (1) the bilateral CCG was constantly present caudal to cranial base at the rostroventral border of the occipital condyle over the caudolateral part of nasopharynx; (2) the CCG was always in close relations medially with the longus capitis muscle, rostrolaterally with the internal carotid artery, and caudally with the vagus nerve; and (3) the branches of the CCG were the internal carotid and external carotid nerves, jugular nerve, cervical interganglionic branch, laryngopharyngeal branch, carotid sinus branch and communicating branches to the vagus, and first spinal nerves. In conclusion, there was no variation regarding topography of dromedary CCG among the specimens, in spite of typical variations in number, and mainly in origin of nerve branches ramifying from the CCG. In comparative anatomy aspect, the close constant relations, and presence of major nerves (internal/external carotid and jugular nerves) of dromedary CCG exhibited a typical reported animal's pattern. However, the shape, structures lateral to the CCG, the origin and course pattern of external carotid and jugular nerves, the number of the major nerves branches, the communicating branches of the CCG to the spinal and cranial nerves, and the separation of most rostral parts of vagosympathetic trunk of dromedary were different from those of most reported animals.

  5. Microplate assay for screening the antibacterial activity of Schiff bases derived from substituted benzopyran-4-one.

    PubMed

    Amin, Rehab M; Abdel-Kader, Nora S; El-Ansary, Aida L

    2012-09-01

    Schiff bases (SB(1)-SB(3)) were synthesized from the condensation of 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one with 2-aminopyridine (SB(1)), p-phenylenediamine (SB(2)) and o-phenylenediamine (SB(3)), while Schiff bases (SB(4)-SB(6)) were synthesized by condensation of 5,7-dihydroxy-6-formyl-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one with 2-aminopyridine (SB(4)), p-phenylenediamine (SB(5)) and o-phenylenediamine (SB(6)). Schiff bases were characterized using elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopy. These compounds were screened for antibacterial activities by micro-plate assay technique. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus capitis were exposed to different concentrations of the Schiff bases. Results showed that the antibacterial effect of these Schiff bases on Gram-negative bacteria were higher than that on Gram-positive bacteria moreover, the Schiff bases containing substituent OCH(3) on position five have higher antibacterial activity than that containing hydroxy group on the same position.

  6. Spectroscopic and biological activities studies of bivalent transition metal complexes of Schiff bases derived from condensation of 1,4-phenylenediamine and benzopyrone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Omaima E; Abdel-Kader, Nora S

    2014-01-03

    Many tools of analysis such as elemental analyses, infrared, ultraviolet-visible, electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermal analysis, as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to elucidate the structures of the newly prepared Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 1,4-phenylenediamine with 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzo-pyran-4-one (H2L) or 5,7-dihydroxy-6-formyl-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one (H4L). The data showed that all formed complexes are 1:1 or 2:2 (M:L) and non-electrolyte chelates. The Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of the two Schiff bases were screened for antibacterial activities by the disk diffusion method. The antibacterial activity was screened using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus capitis but the antifungal activity was examined by using Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The Results showed that the tested complexes have antibacterial, except CuH4L, but not antifungal activities.

  7. Cutaneous Infections in Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Eugene K.; deWeber, Kevin; Berry, James W.; Wilckens, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Cutaneous infections are common in wrestlers. Although many are simply a nuisance in the everyday population, they can be problematic to wrestlers because such infections may result in disqualification from practice or competition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are therefore important. Evidence Acquisition: Medline and PubMed databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate were searched through 2012 with the following keywords in various combinations: skin infections, cutaneous infections, wrestlers, athletes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, skin and soft tissue infections, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris, warts, scabies, and pediculosis. Relevant articles found in the primary search, and selected references from those articles were reviewed for pertinent clinical information. Results: The most commonly reported cutaneous infections in wrestlers are herpes simplex virus infections (herpes gladiatorum), bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, and dermatophyte infections (tinea gladiatorum). The clinical appearance of these infections can be different in wrestlers than in the community at large. Conclusion: For most cutaneous infections, diagnosis and management options in wrestlers are similar to those in the community at large. With atypical presentations, testing methods are recommended to confirm the diagnosis of herpes gladiatorum and tinea gladiatorum. There is evidence to support the use of prophylactic medications to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex virus and reduce the incidence of dermatophyte infections in wrestlers. PMID:24427413

  8. Study of cervical muscle response and injury of driver during a frontal vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenhai; Li, Chuzhao; Hu, Hongyu; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chaoyang; Yu, Huili

    2015-01-01

    Frontal vehicle collisions can cause injury to a driver's cervical muscles resulting from intense changes in muscle strain and muscle load. This study investigated the influence of collision forces in a sled test environment using a modified Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy equipped with simulated spring-type muscles. Cervical muscle responses including strain and load of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), splenius capitis (SPL), and trapezius (TRP) were analyzed, and muscle injury was assessed. The SCM, SPL, and TRP suffered average peak muscle strains of 21%, 40%, and 23%, respectively, exceeding the injury threshold. The average peak muscle loads of the SCM, SPL and TRP were 11 N, 25 N, and 25 N, respectively, lower than the ultimate failure load. The SPL endured the largest injury, while the injuries to the SCM and TRP were relatively small. This is a preliminary study to assess the cervical muscle of driver during a frontal vehicle collision. This study provides a foundation for investigating the muscle response and injury in sled test environments, which can lead to the improvement of occupant protections.

  9. Effects of temperature on anoxic submergence: skeletal buffering, lactate distribution, and glycogen utilization in the turtle, Trachemys scripta.

    PubMed

    Warren, Daniel E; Jackson, Donald C

    2007-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that submergence temperature affects the distribution of the lactate load and glycogen utilization during anoxia in turtles, we sampled a variety of tissues after 7 days, 24 h, and 4 h of anoxic submergence at 5, 15, and 25 degrees C, respectively. These anoxic durations were chosen because we found that they produced similar decreases in plasma HCO(3)(-) ( approximately 18-22 meq/l). The sampled tissues included ventricle, liver, small intestine, carapace, and the following muscles: flexor digitorum longus, retrahens capitis, iliofibularis, and pectoralis. Shell and skeleton sequestered 41.9, 34.1, and 26.1% of the estimated lactate load at 5, 15, and 25 degrees C. The changes in plasma Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), relative to the estimated lactate load, decreased with increased temperature, indicating greater buffer release from bone at colder temperatures. Tissue lactate contents, relative to plasma lactate, increased with the temperature of the submergence. Glucose mobilization and tissue glycogen utilization were more pronounced at 15 and 25 degrees C than at 5 degrees C. We conclude that, in slider turtles, the ability of the mineralized tissue to participate in the buffering of lactic acid during anoxia is inversely related to temperature, causing the lactate burden to shift to the tissues at warmer temperatures. Muscles utilize glycogen during anoxia more at warmer temperatures.

  10. Human phthiriasis. Can dermoscopy really help dermatologists? Entodermoscopy: a new dermatological discipline on the edge of entomology.

    PubMed

    Scanni, G

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis of human phtiriasis (often referred to as the "crab" or the "pubic louse") can be more difficult than other types of pediculosis (Pediculus corporis and Pediculus capitis) because this insect has a smaller body of 1.2 x 0.8 mm, may be lighter in color, not as mobile and therefore harder to see to the naked eye. Can dermoscopy aid to perform a better analysis of the skin? The clinical experience developed in two patients gives an affirmative answer, moreover adding useful information of insect and its eggs already known to entomologists but never used in dermatological diagnosis. The identification in vivo can distinguish Phthirus pubis from other skin signs while the conical shape of the operculum and the wide fixing sleeve of egg to hair, tells what species of louse is infesting, even if the insect is unavailable or nits are elsewhere from the pubic area. Entodermoscopy, provided that dermatologists have some knowledge of entomology, therefore promises advantages over standard microscopic examination.

  11. Seborrheic dermatitis: etiology, risk factors, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, based on the observation of their presence in affected skin and the therapeutic response to antifungal agents. Others have proposed that Malassezia is incidental to a primary inflammatory dermatosis that resulted in increased cell turnover, scaling, and inflammation in the epidermis, similar to psoriasis. The presence of host susceptibility factors, permitting the transition of M furfur to its pathogenic form, may be associated with immune response and inflammation. Metabolites produced by Malassezia species, including oleic acid, malssezin, and indole-3-carbaldehyde, have been implicated. SD also has been traditionally considered to be a form of dermatitis based on the presence of Malassezia in healthy skin, the absence the pathogenic mycelial form of Malassezia yeasts in SD, and its chronic course. As a result, proposed treatments vary, ranging from topical corticosteroids to topical antifungals and antimicrobial peptides.

  12. Identifying the health risks from very low-dose sparsely ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, N A; Friedlander, E

    1982-01-01

    The health risks from low-dose sparsely ionizing (low-LET) radiation have been the subject of continued debate. At present, quantitative estimates of risk are extremely uncertain due to the controversy surrounding both the dosimetry for A-bomb survivor data and the choice of mathematical models for extrapolating risk from high to low doses. Nevertheless, much can be learned about the nature of the health risks by reviewing the epidemiologic literature. We present a summary of diseases which have been associated with low-LET radiation (less than 1000 rad) in at least two independent studies, according to the mean cumulative organ dose at which the disease was observed. At organ doses of less than or equal to 50 rad, the only diseases that have been reported consistently are thyroid cancer, salivary gland tumors, and leukemia. The first two diseases were observed in association with x-ray epilation of the scalp for tinea capitis, a therapy which is no longer employed. On the other hand, leukemia has been observed repeatedly to occur at cumulative doses of greater than or equal to 30 rad low-LET radiation. PMID:7041660

  13. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-01-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III–V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented. PMID:19930516

  14. Clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic profile of dermatophytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; da Cruz, Natasha Ferreira Santos; Lobato, Amanda Monteiro; de Sousa, Priscila Oliveira; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Mendes, Alena Margareth Darwich

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cutaneous mycoses, mainly caused by dermatophyte fungi, are among the most common fungal infections worldwide. It is estimated that 10% to 15% of the population will be infected by a dermatophyte at some point in their lives, thus making this a group of diseases with great public health importance. OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic profile of dermatophytosis in patients enrolled at the Dermatology service of Universidade do Estado do Pará, Brazil, from July 2010 to September 2012. METHOD A total of 145 medical records of patients diagnosed with dermatophytosis were surveyed. Data were collected and subsequently recorded according to a protocol developed by the researchers. This protocol consisted of information regarding epidemiological and clinical aspects of the disease and the therapy employed. RESULTS The main clinical form of dermatophyte infection was onychomycosis, followed by tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea capitis. Furthermore, the female population and the age group of 51 to 60 years were the most affected. Regarding therapy, there was a preference for treatments that combine topical and systemic drugs, and the most widely used drugs were fluconazole (systemic) and ciclopirox olamine (topical). CONCLUSION This study showed the importance of recurrent analysis of the epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis to enable correct therapeutic and preventive management of these conditions, which have significant clinical consequences, with chronic, difficult-totreat lesions that can decrease patient quality of life and cause disfigurement. PMID:24770502

  15. Dermatophytosis in children and adolescents in Gdansk, Poland.

    PubMed

    Lange, M; Nowicki, R; Barańska-Rybak, W; Bykowska, B

    2004-08-01

    During a 3-year period (1999-2001) a total of 94 cases of dermatophytosis were seen in patients from 0 to 18 years of age attending the Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology of Gdańsk Medical University. Mycoses were diagnosed on the basis of clinical picture and direct microscopy and were confirmed by positive cultures. The most frequent pathogens were Microsporum canis (62%) and Trichophyton rubrum (12%). The most often forms of dermatophytosis in children were tinea cutis glabrae (42%) and tinea capitis (30%). Microsporum canis predominated in both locations. Glabrous skin lesions were the most frequent in children aged 8-15 years; the peak of scalp lesions was observed mainly in children aged 4-7 years. Tinea pedis occurred more frequently than suspected. Tinea pedis was observed mainly in adolescents (above the age of 12 years)--the majority of cases were caused by T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum. Onychomycosis was highly uncommon, caused mainly by T. rubrum. Dermatomycoses in general were most frequent in October and November.

  16. Evaluation of quality and efficacy of an ethnomedicinal plant Ageratum conyzoides L. in the management of pediculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shailajan, Sunita; Wadke, Priyanka; Joshi, Harshvardhan; Tiwari, Bhavesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is one of the most common parasitic infestations of human worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that includes wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The main difficulty posed in controlling the head louse infestation is increasing lice resistance to synthetic pediculicidal drugs. Plant-based drugs; especially essential oil components and standardized extracts have been suggested as an alternative source of materials for insect control. Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) has been reported to possess antifungal and insecticidal properties. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to evaluate in vitro pediculicidal activity of A. conyzoides. Methods A filter paper diffusion bioassay was carried out in order to determine the pediculicidal activity of different extracts of A. conyzoides. Results The study elucidates the active plant part and suitable extract responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of this plant in the management of pediculosis. Conclusion Findings of the present study indicate the potential of A. conyzoides extract to be included in the formulations as a pediculicidal agent. PMID:24563592

  17. Bacteriology and somatic cell counts in milk samples from ewes on a Scottish farm.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Donachie, Willie; Macaldowie, Colin; Keefe, Greg

    2004-07-01

    Milk samples from 50 sheep on a single Scottish research farm were collected weekly for 10 wk postpartum. Samples were analyzed for somatic cell counts (SCC) each week and bacteriologic culture was done for 7 of the 10 wk. A total of 492 udder half samples were cultured, of which 467 had corresponding cell count data. Statistical analysis on complete SCC and culture data showed no association between SCC and bacterial isolation, even when more than 10 colonies of a single bacterial species were present. Only 3.6% of the samples were simultaneously positive for high count (> 10 colonies from 0.01 mL of milk) of any one bacterial species and high SCC (> 1 x 10(6)/mL). The bacteria recovered were: Staphylococcus equorum (19 times), S. xylosus (7 times), S. simulans (6 times), Streptococcus uberis (3 times) and other streptococci (4 times), Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (2 times), Staphylococcus aureus (1 time), S. capitis (1 time), and Enterococcus faecium (1 time). There was an association between the test day and SCC, with higher SCC values in the first 2 wk. In addition, significantly higher SCC values were found in the oldest animals compared to the other age groups.

  18. [Intestinal dysbiosis in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Blanca; Mach, Núria

    2013-11-01

    Introducción La enfermedad de Crohn (EC) pediátrica es un desorden caracterizado por presentar inflamación crónica que puede afectar cualquier segmento del tracto gastrointestinal. La disbiosis intestinal es un factor implicado en la patogénesis multifactorial de esta enfermedad. Diferentes suplementos dietarios se han propuesto como terapia alternativa para inducir o mantener la remisión de la EC. Objetivo Revisar las evidencias científicas publicadas sobre disbiosis intestinal en pacientes de Crohn pediátricos y la eficacia de la terapia con suplementos dietarios (especialmente probióticos). Material y métodos Se ha realizado una extensa búsqueda de publicaciones científicas en las principales bases de datos electrónicas especializadas: NCBI, Elsevier, Scielo, Scirus y Science Direct. Resultados y Discusión Se ha observado en la población pediátrica de EC un aumento de Proteobacteria y una reducción de Firmicutes. Los resultados referentes a los phyla Bacteroidetes y Actinobacteria son divergentes. Referente al uso de suplementos dietarios, el uso de probióticos no ha mostrado ningún impacto positivo en la EC pediátrica. Conclusiones Los resultados publicados hasta la fecha referentes a la disbiosis intestinal en pacientes pediátricos de Crohn, contribuyen al mejor conocimiento y entendimiento de las modificaciones en la flora bacteriana. Sin embargo, no es posible definir una microbiota asociada o causante de la EC. Además, los resultados publicados hasta la fecha no aportan evidencias sólidas de la eficacia de los probióticos como terapia en dichos pacientes.

  19. [Infectious complications in children with end-stage renal disease on replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Robles-Vázquez, Néstor Daniel; Aguilar-Kitsu, María Alejandra; Mendoza-Guevara, Leticia; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: aproximadamente 5000 niños menores de 20 años y 200 menores de dos años inician anualmente tratamiento para enfermedad renal terminal (ERT). Se buscó estimar la incidencia de complicaciones infecciosas en niños con ERT en terapia sustitutiva. Métodos: cohorte retrospectiva, se incluyeron pacientes en los programas de diálisis peritoneal y hemodiálisis, con seguimiento mínimo de tres meses. Se calculó la densidad de incidencia para las infecciones asociadas a terapia sustitutiva. Resultados: se analizaron 67 pacientes. En 88 % la terapia inicial fue diálisis peritoneal. Se presentaron 52 eventos de peritonitis y la densidad de incidencia fue de 0.63 episodios/paciente por año. Treinta niños (48 %) nunca tuvieron peritonitis. A los seis meses de seguimiento 90 % de los niños continuaban con el mismo catéter, lo cual disminuyó a 84, 74 y 50 % a los 12, 18 y 24 meses, respectivamente. Cuarenta y cinco niños estuvieron en hemodiálisis, 82 % de ellos precedidos por diálisis peritoneal. El tiempo en hemodiálisis en 25 % fue mayor a 19 meses. Se presentaron 22 eventos de bacteriemia y la densidad de incidencia fue 1 episodio/1000 días-catéter ó 2.5/1000 sesiones de hemodiálisis. Se trasplantaron 29 pacientes (43 %), dos fallecieron. La mediana de espera para trasplante fue de 15 meses. Conclusiones: la incidencia de complicaciones infecciosas es similar a lo registrado en la literatura. A los 20 meses, la mitad de los pacientes tuvieron al menos una complicación infecciosa.

  20. [Rescue treatment in acute thrombosis of intracranial stents].

    PubMed

    Pumar, José M; Banguero, Alexandra; Arias-Rivas, Susana; Blanco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Sucasas, Paula; Blanco, Miguel; Castiñeira-Mourenza, José A; Vázquez-Herrero, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Introduccion. La trombosis aguda intrastent es una complicacion potencialmente grave en el stenting intracraneal. Es primordial determinar cual es la terapia mas adecuada en las trombosis intrastent. Caso clinico. Mujer de 58 años, el primer caso de trombosis aguda de un stent intracraneal, que fue tratada con exito mediante fibrinolisis tras la implantacion de un dispositivo diversificador de flujo (Silk) en un aneurisma basilar fusiforme. Conclusion. La administracion de abciximab como tratamiento de rescate parece segura en los casos de formaciones de trombos agudos intrastent.

  1. Cardiac Regeneration using Growth Factors: Advances and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Juliana de Souza; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Formiga, Fabio Rocha

    2016-09-01

    Myocardial infarction is the most significant manifestation of ischemic heart disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Novel strategies targeting at regenerating the injured myocardium have been investigated, including gene therapy, cell therapy, and the use of growth factors. Growth factor therapy has aroused interest in cardiovascular medicine because of the regeneration mechanisms induced by these biomolecules, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, cardiomyocyte proliferation, stem-cell recruitment, and others. Together, these mechanisms promote myocardial repair and improvement of the cardiac function. This review aims to address the strategic role of growth factor therapy in cardiac regeneration, considering its innovative and multifactorial character in myocardial repair after ischemic injury. Different issues will be discussed, with emphasis on the regeneration mechanisms as a potential therapeutic resource mediated by growth factors, and the challenges to make these proteins therapeutically viable in the field of cardiology and regenerative medicine. Resumo O infarto do miocárdio representa a manifestação mais significativa da cardiopatia isquêmica e está associado a elevada morbimortalidade. Novas estratégias vêm sendo investigadas com o intuito de regenerar o miocárdio lesionado, incluindo a terapia gênica, a terapia celular e a utilização de fatores de crescimento. A terapia com fatores de crescimento despertou interesse em medicina cardiovascular, devido aos mecanismos de regeneração induzidos por essas biomoléculas, incluindo angiogênese, remodelamento da matriz extracelular, proliferação de cardiomiócitos e recrutamento de células-tronco, dentre outros. Em conjunto, tais mecanismos promovem a reparação do miocárdio e a melhora da função cardíaca. Esta revisão pretende abordar o papel estratégico da terapia, com fatores de crescimento, para a regeneração cardíaca, considerando seu car

  2. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), a hypersensitivity response to antigenic material in the saliva of feeding fleas, occurs worldwide and remains a common presentation in companion animal veterinary practice despite widespread availability of effective systemic and topical flea-control products. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the clinical response in dogs with FAD treated topically with indoxacarb, a novel oxadiazine insecticide. Animals Twenty-five client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia diagnosed with pre-existing FAD on the basis of clinical signs, flea-antigen intradermal and serological tests. Methods An open-label, noncontrolled study, in which all dogs were treated with topical indoxacarb at 4 week intervals, three times over 12 weeks. Results Twenty-four dogs completed the study. Complete resolution of clinical signs of FAD was observed in 21 cases (87.5%), with nearly complete resolution or marked improvement in the remaining three cases. Mean clinical scores (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) were reduced by 93.3% at week 12. Mean owner-assessed pruritus scores were reduced by 88% by week 12. Mean flea counts reduced by 98.7 and 100% in weeks 8 and 12, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance Topical indoxacarb treatment applied every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, without concomitant antipruritic or ectoparasiticide therapy, completely alleviated flea infestations in all dogs and associated clinical signs of FAD in a high proportion of this population of dogs in a challenging flea-infestation environment. Résumé Contexte La dermatite par allergie aux piqures de puces (FAD), une hypersensibilité aux antigènes salivaires des puces, est décrite dans le monde entier et reste une présentation fréquente en médicine vétérinaire des animaux de compagnie malgré une large gamme d'antiparasitaires topiques et systémiques efficaces disponibles. Hypothèses/Objectifs Estimer la réponse clinique des chiens

  3. Neuropsychology of perpetrators of domestic violence: the role of traumatic brain injury and alcohol abuse and/or dependence.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Introduccion. Gran parte de los hombres que ejercen maltrato contra sus parejas presentan deficits en funciones ejecutivas, memoria y atencion, capacidades intelectuales y empatia. Dos factores coadyuvantes a estas deficiencias son los traumatismos craneoencefalicos y el abuso de alcohol. Objetivo. Revisar y recapitular los resultados obtenidos sobre los deficits neuropsicologicos en maltratadores y relacionarlos con los correlatos neuroanatomicos implicados en las funciones alteradas. Se enfatiza el papel de los traumatismos craneoencefalicos y el abuso o la dependencia del alcohol, asi como la posible existencia de daño organico cerebral. Desarrollo. Se ha revisado la bibliografia cientifica usando los buscadores Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline e ISI Web of Knowledge. Conclusiones. Los maltratadores presentan un detrimento de la flexibilidad cognitiva, la capacidad de inhibicion, la velocidad de procesamiento y las habilidades verbales. Ademas, muestran una atencion pobre, una baja capacidad de abstraccion y una limitacion en las habilidades mnemicas, tanto de la memoria de trabajo como a largo plazo. Los traumatismos craneoencefalicos y el abuso o la dependencia del alcohol exacerban los deficits ya presentes en los maltratadores, pero no son suficientes per se para explicarlos. Estos deficits podrian ser producto de un funcionamiento anormal de estructuras como los cortex prefrontal y occipital, el giro fusiforme y el cingulado posterior, el hipocampo, el talamo y la amigdala. La comprension de dichos mecanismos favoreceria el desarrollo de terapias de rehabilitacion neuropsicologica coadyuvantes a las terapias establecidas hoy en dia.

  4. [Therapeutic potential of bone marrow stem cells in cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Milián-Rodríguez, Lismary

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. Las celulas madre constituyen una alternativa terapeutica que se encuentra en fase de experimentacion para el infarto cerebral. Objetivo. Mostrar la evidencia cientifica existente sobre el potencial terapeutico de las celulas madre de la medula osea en esta enfermedad. Desarrollo. El infarto cerebral representa el 80% de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares. La trombolisis constituye la unica terapia aprobada, pero, por su estrecha ventana terapeutica, solo se aplica a un bajo porcentaje de los pacientes. De manera alternativa, los tratamientos neurorrestauradores, como el de celulas madre, pueden aplicarse en periodos mas prolongados. Por esta razon se efectuo una busqueda bibliografica en PubMed con el empleo de las palabras clave 'stem cells', 'bone marrow derived mononuclear cells' y 'stroke'. Se encontraron evidencias de seguridad y eficacia de dichas celulas en diferentes momentos evolutivos del infarto cerebral. Se identificaron estudios que en clinica y preclinica las recolectaron por puncion medular y en sangre periferica, y las trasplantaron directamente en el area infartada o por via intravascular. El efecto terapeutico se relaciona con sus propiedades de plasticidad celular y liberacion de factores troficos. Conclusiones. El concentrado de celulas mononucleares autologas, obtenido en sangre periferica o por puncion de la medula osea, y trasplantado por via intravenosa, es una factible opcion metodologica que permitira rapidamente incrementar el numero de ensayos clinicos en diferentes etapas evolutivas del infarto cerebral. Esta terapia muestra seguridad y eficacia; sin embargo, deben ampliarse las evidencias que avalen su generalizacion en humanos.

  5. [Depression prevalence among end stage renal disease patients in maintenance hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Macías-de la Torre, Aída Anahí; Higareda-Almaraz, Martha Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la depresión es una morbilidad frecuente en pacientes con enfermedad renal terminal (ERT) e impacta negativamente en los resultados esperados del tratamiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue mediar la prevalencia de depresión entre pacientes mexicanos con ERT en hemodiálisis de mantenimiento (HDM) y evaluar la relación con el tiempo transcurrido (< 1 año o ≥ 1 año) desde el inicio de la terapia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal en un hospital urbano del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social y 81 individuos de 30 – 69 años de edad fueron incluidos. El inventario de depresión de Beck (IDB) fue aplicado y se realizó un análisis estratificado. Resultados: la prevalencia general de depresión (≥ 16 puntos, IDB) fue 42.0 % y 35.6 % y 50.0 % en el grupo con < 1 año 0 ≥ 1 año en tratamiento respectivamente (p = 0.191). Conclusiones: nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la prevalencia de depresión es alta entre pacientes adultos en HDM y parece ser independiente del tiempo transcurrido desde el inicio de la terapia.

  6. [Risk for the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children in an intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Glenda Karina; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Angel; González-Ortiz, Beatriz; Troconis-Trens, Germán; Tapia-Monge, Dora María; Flores-Calderón, Judith

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: si bien el sangrado del tubo digestivo puede producirse a cualquier edad, la mayoría de los estudios que buscan establecer las causas o factores de riesgo para su desarrollo se ha realizado en adultos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los factores de riesgo en los niños hospitalizados en una unidad de terapia intensiva pediátrica. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles. Se consideró como casos a los niños que presentaron sangrado digestivo alto durante su estancia en terapia intensiva. Las variables se obtuvieron de los expedientes clínicos: edad, sexo, estado nutricional, ventilación mecánica, uso de sonda nasogástrica, desarrollo de complicaciones, presencia de coagulopatía, uso de profilaxis para sangrado digestivo alto, ayuno y uso de esteroides. Mediante análisis multivariado se identificaron los factores de riesgo, con cálculo de razón de momios e intervalos de confianza de 95 %.

  7. [Therapeutic plasma exchange: applications in neurology].

    PubMed

    Láinez-Andrés, José M; Gascón-Giménez, Francisco; Coret-Ferrer, Francisco; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Santonja, José M

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El recambio plasmatico es una tecnica utilizada en el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades neurologicas de base autoinmune desde los años ochenta, especialmente en situaciones agudas. En los ultimos años se han publicado nuevos datos sobre su empleo en numerosas entidades con base autoinmune, ampliando, con ello, el espectro de utilizacion. Objetivo. Actualizar las indicaciones de esta tecnica en el tratamiento de las enfermedades neurologicas. Desarrollo. Se ha realizado una revision exhaustiva de todos los articulos publicados desde los años ochenta sobre la eficacia del recambio plasmatico en el tratamiento de las diferentes enfermedades neurologicas. Tambien se ha efectuado un analisis detallado de las recomendaciones y evidencias de la utilizacion de este procedimiento por parte de las diferentes sociedades cientificas. Conclusiones. El recambio plasmatico ha demostrado ser una alternativa eficaz con evidencia cientifica de primer nivel en enfermedades como el sindrome de Guillain-Barre, la polineuropatia desmielinizante inflamatoria cronica o la miastenia grave. Ha mostrado ser eficaz en el tratamiento de episodios desmielinizantes agudos sin respuesta a otras terapias, en los brotes de neuromielitis optica y en otras enfermedades del sistema nervioso central producidas por anticuerpos. En los estudios comparativos con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, la eficacia de ambas terapias es similar. Es preciso seguir realizando estudios comparativos para conocer mejor los mecanismos y establecer indicaciones prioritarias y comparar la relacion coste-eficacia de ambos procedimientos.

  8. Autotransplantation of pancreatic islets. A single-center first experience.

    PubMed

    Magistri, Paolo; Andreani, Sara; Lo Conte, Domenico; Ferrari, Giovanni Carlo; Forgione, Antonello; Pugliese, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    L’autotrapianto d’isole pancreatiche (IAT) è una procedura ben nota che consente di migliorare il controllo glicemico dopo una pancreasectomia totale (o completamento di pancreasectomia dopo duodenocefalopancreasectomia) rispetto alla sola terapia insulinica. In questo lavoro presentiamo la nostra esperienza nel campo dell’ IAT riportando il caso clinico di una donna di sessanta anni, sottoposta a completamento di pancreasectomia per episodi ricorrenti di acuzie in un quadro di pancreatite cronica. Il trattamento IAT è stato somministrato mediante iniezione trans-epatica intra-portale. Il recupero post-procedurale è stato ottimale, fatta eccezione per un’infezione di ferita che ha richiesto un trattamento con tecnologia a pressione negativa. La paziente è stata dimessa in ventisettesima giornata postoperatoria, in buone condizioni generali, dopo regolare ripresa dell’alimentazione e della canalizzazione. I dati presenti in letteratura dimostrano che la IAT è una procedura sicura, garantendo nel lungo periodo un vantaggio rispetto alla terapia insulinica in termini di rapporto costo-beneficio. Riguardo alla procedura chirurgica, è qui utile ricordare che la mortalità a 30 giorni dopo pancreasectomia totale associata a IAT è del 5%, ed è pertanto sovrapponibile ai risultati della pancreasectomia totale senza IAT. Riportando questa esperienza intendiamo contribuire alla crescita della casistica chirurgica attuale in questo campo, proponendo nel futuro un più ampio sviluppo e una più estesa applicazione di tale approccio.

  9. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  10. [The essence of essential tremor: neurochemical bases].

    PubMed

    Gironell, A; Marin-Lahoz, J

    2016-06-01

    Introduccion. El temblor esencial es el trastorno del movimiento mas frecuente en el adulto. Se ha considerado una enfermedad benigna, pero puede ocasionar una importante discapacidad fisica y psicosocial. El tratamiento farmacologico sigue siendo poco satisfactorio. Su etiologia, fisiopatologia y anatomia siguen sin conocerse del todo. Objetivo. El conocimiento de las bases neuroquimicas es fundamental para el desarrollo de terapias mas eficaces. Se revisan los conocimientos actuales en este campo a fin de incentivar nuevas investigaciones e ideas que permitan mejorar la comprension de la enfermedad y que fomenten el desarrollo de nuevas terapias farmacologicas. Desarrollo. Se revisan los trabajos realizados hasta la fecha en humanos y en modelos animales de neurotransmisores (acido gamma-aminobutirico, glutamato, noradrenalina, serotonina, adenosina), proteinas y otros fenomenos neuroquimicos, como los canales de calcio de tipo T en el temblor esencial. Conclusiones. Se han descrito cuatro disfunciones neuroquimicas que acontecerian basicamente en el cerebelo y el nucleo olivar inferior: alteracion del sistema gabergico, aumento del rebote postinhibitorio mediante corrientes de calcio de tipo T, disminucion de los mecanismos de inhibicion neuronal y aumento de la actividad de los neurotransmisores excitatorios. Estas disfunciones neuroquimicas comportarian un aumento de la actividad de las neuronas profundas cerebelosas con actividad oscilatoria, que se trasladaria al nucleo del talamo y a la corteza motora, y comportarian la aparicion del temblor. Son necesarios nuevos estudios para poder confirmar estas hipotesis y seguir avanzando para conseguir tratamientos farmacologicos mas eficaces para los pacientes con temblor esencial.

  11. [Milk and dairy products: evidence and recommendations in health and disease].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    El presente suplemento tiene como propósito mostrar el contexto y una guía clínica sobre el consumo y papel de la leche de vaca en la alimentación. El contenido considera el papel de la leche y productos lácteos en diferentes estados fisiológicos, etapas de vida y patologías. Se basa en la mejor evidencia científica disponible y está dirigido a profesionales de la salud de diferentes especialidades.

  12. Canadian Forces Training and Mental Preparation for Adversity: Empirical Review of Stoltz ’Adversity Quotient (AQ) Training for Optimal Response to Adversity’, A Review of the AQ Literature and Supporting Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    critique des ouvrages lies au QA et A d’autres sujets connexes a montr6 que le concept du QA est fond6 sur un certain nombre de thdories sens~es sur la...already existing constructs (e.g., hardiness, dispositional optimism, the Attributional Style Questionnaire , etc.); "* The mechanism(s) through which AQ...analytique figure 6galement en annexe afin de donner un aperqu des ouvrages disponibles sur la question. Jusqu’A maintenant, notre examen des ouvrages

  13. Developing Soft-Kill Capability for Light Armoured Vehicles through Battlefield Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    système de composantes disponibles directement des manufacturiers pourrait être configuré comme suit: 1. Système de capteurs (a) Capteur fixe...d’échantillonnage de 60 Hz (b) Balayage de capteur monté sur une mini-tourelle avec une vitesse angulaire de 750◦/s, • Couverture dans l’infrarouge moyen, 1024...à partir de trois sources distinctes. Ces contributions incluent : la modélisation de la technologie et des phénomènes naturels par les

  14. [Clinical course and prognosis of patients with urolithiasis in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Ubillo-Sánchez, José Manuel; Bonilla-Rojas, Jesús; Peña, Luis Alberto; Zurita-Cruz, Jessie Nallely; Cárdenas-Navarrete, Rocío; Serret-Montoya, Juana; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la litiasis renal se considera poco frecuente en pediatría. La información disponible no es suficiente para determinar con certeza su pronóstico. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir los signos, síntomas, complicaciones y recurrencia que presentaron los pacientes pediátricos con urolitiasis. MÉTODOS: se identificaron los expedientes de pacientes pediátricos con urolitiasis atendidos en el Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, en el periodo de 2003 a 2009.

  15. Civil-Military Relations in Post Cold War Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    Ministro de Gobernacion y policia y seguridad publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 16 Freedom House 17 Constitution of Panama, Artículo 305.- La...Ramos Martínez, Licenciado Rogelio, Ministro de Gobernación y Policía y Seguridad Publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 Salvatierra, BG Manuel...medios ordinarios para el mantenimiento de la paz interna, la tranquilidad y la seguridad pública, el Presidente de la República podrá disponer de la

  16. Staff Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M. C. E.

    1986-09-01

    Los astronomos de ESO dedican una considerable parte de su tiempo a la preparacion de solicitudes para tiempo de observacion en La Silla. Sin embargo, debido a la gran demanda par los telescopios, se debe hacer una seleccion, aveces drastica, de los programas de observacion presentados. EI Comite de Programas de Observacion (OPC) tiene como tarea evaluar el merito cientifico de las solicitudes presentadas. Basada en las recomendaciones dei OPC, ESO prepara una Lista de Tiempos de Observacion en la cual distribuye el tiempo disponible en los telescopios a los programas mejor evaluados.

  17. Sensor Management for Tactical Surveillance Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    défis des opérateurs militaires dans cette situation est d’utiliser de la manière la plus efficace les capteurs disponibles, mais peu abondants, afin...de colliger l’information la plus complète et la plus pertinente possible. Cela définit la problématique de la gestion des capteurs qui vise à...et la compréhension de la situation d’intérêt. En tant que partie du processus de Commandement et Contrôle, la gestion des capteurs consiste en

  18. Development of an Assessment Methodology for Demonstrating Usability, Technical Maturity, and Operational Benefits of Advanced Medical Technology (Developpement d’une Methodologie d’Evaluation Permettant de Demontrer la Facilite d’Utilisation, la Maturite Technique et les Avantages Operationnels des Technologies Medicales Evoluees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    prise de décision quant à l’utilisation ou la non-utilisation de ces nouvelles technologies dans un environnement multinational. Le RTG-130 a examiné...il a en outre soigneusement étudié la documentation internationale disponible sur l’évaluation des technologies médicales et les tests réalisés...dans l’environnement international de l’OTAN, a été présentée, recommandant l’attribution de cette tâche à la branche médicale du Commandement allié

  19. High Power Microwaves (HPM) (les Micro-ondes de forte puissance (MFP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    hyperfrdquences sont d6j. disponibles au niveau des laboratoires et il faut en tenir compte pour de possibles d6veloppements d’armes hyperfr6quence...6lectromagn6tique nucl6aire). D’autre part, il faut 6galement tenir compte de certains aspects sp6cifiques tels que la capacit6 d’acheminement de la puissance de...puissance - les installations d’essais iWi Sensor and Propagation Panel Chairman: Prof. D.H. HOHN FGAN Forschungsinstitut ftr Optik Schloss Kressbach D

  20. Diseno de una matriz de soporte compuesta de colageno de piel de tiburon-aloe para ingenier a tisular (Design of Shark Skin Collagen-Aloe Composite Scaffold for Tissue Engineering)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    de otras fuentes. En el presente estudio , se utilizan animales acuáticos y, en concreto, especies de tiburón en las que el colágeno tipo I es una...función de la fuente de la que se obtiene. En el presente estudio , se utilizó la piel de tiburón como fuente rica en colágeno tipo I. La piel de...biocompatibilidad y propiedades biodegradables son únicas. El colágeno bovino y porcino tipo I constituyen una fuente fácilmente disponible de

  1. Integrating New Bellhop Functionality into the Environmental Modelling Manager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    publicly-available source code originally developed by Michael Porter and published by the Ocean Acoustics Library, with the support of the U.S. Office of...disponible publiquement développé par Michael Porter et publié par l’Ocean Acoustics Library avec l’appui de l’U.S. Office of Naval Research. Cette...originally developed by Michael Porter and published by the Ocean Acoustics Library, with the support of the U.S. Office of Naval Research

  2. Evolución en el tiempo de las relaciones Masa-Luminosidad y Corrección Bolométrica y Temperatura Efectiva contra Índice de Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, L. A.; Camperi, J. A.

    Analizamos la evolución que en los últimos 70 años han tenido las relaciones M-L, BC vs CI y Teff vs CI. Se discuten las causas de esa evolución, se trata de incorporar los valores más modernos disponibles discutiendo su calidad y se deducen las relaciones que actualmente deberían ser las más confiables. Destacamos los puntos en los que estas relaciones continúan estando pobremente definidas y sería deseable mejorar en el futuro próximo.

  3. Activation of Neck and Low-Back Muscles Is Reduced with the Use of a Neck Balance System Together with a Lumbar Support in Urban Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Menotti, Federica; Labanca, Luciana; Laudani, Luca; Giombini, Arrigo; Pigozzi, Fabio; Macaluso, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Driving is associated with high activation of low-back and neck muscles due to the sitting position and perturbations imposed by the vehicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a neck balance system together with a lumbar support on the activation of low-back and neck muscles during driving. Twelve healthy male subjects (age 32±6.71 years) were asked to drive in two conditions: 1) with devices; 2) without devices. During vehicle accelerations and decelerations root mean square (RMS) of surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded from the erector spinae, semispinalis capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles and expressed as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The pitch of the head was obtained by means of an inertial sensor placed on the subjects’ head. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess the level of perceived comfort. RMS of the low back muscles was lower with than without devices during both acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle (1.40±0.93% vs 29 2.32±1.90% and 1.88±1.45% vs 2.91±2.33%, respectively), while RMS of neck extensor muscles was reduced only during acceleration (5.18±1.96% vs 5.91±2.16%). There were no differences between the two conditions in RMS of neck flexor muscles, the pitch of the head and the VAS score. The use of these two ergonomic devices is therefore effective in reducing the activation of low-back and neck muscles during driving with no changes in the level of perceived comfort, which is likely due to rebalancing weight on the neck and giving a neutral position to lumbar segments. PMID:26474160

  4. The effects of cervical traction, cranial rhythmic impulse, and Mckenzie exercise on headache and cervical muscle stiffness in episodic tension-type headache patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Yong; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cervical traction treatment, cranial rhythmic impulse treatment, a manual therapy, and McKenzie exercise, a dynamic strengthening exercise, on patients who have the neck muscle stiffness of the infrequent episodic tension-type (IETTH) headache and frequent episodic tension-type headache(FETTH), as well as to provide the basic materials for clinical interventions. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects (males: 15, females: 12) who were diagnosed with IETTH and FETTH after treatment by a neurologist were divided into three groups: (a cervical traction group (CTG, n=9), a cranial rhythmic contractiongroup (CRIG, n=9), and a McKenzie exercise group (MEG, n=9). An intervention was conducted for each group and the differences in their degrees of neck pain and changes in muscle tone were observed. [Results] In the within-group comparison of each group, headache significantly decreased in CTG. According to the results of the analysis of the muscle tone of the upper trapezius, there was a statistically significant difference in MEG on the right side and in CRIG on the left side. According to the results of the analysis of the muscle tone of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, there was a statistically significant difference in MEG on the right side and in CRIG on the left side. [Conclusion] In the comparison of the splenius capitis muscle between the groups, there was a statistically significant difference on the right side. Hence, compared to the other methods, cervical traction is concluded to be more effective at reducing headaches in IETTH and FETTH patients. PMID:27134368

  5. Efficacy of spray formulations containing binary mixtures of clove and eucalyptus oils against susceptible and pyrethroid/ malathion-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Han-Young; Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-05-01

    The control efficacy of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata, and eucalyptus, Eucalyptus globulus, essential oils and 15 formulations containing these essential oils alone (8, 12, and 15% sprays) and their binary mixtures (7:3, 5:5, and 3:7 by weight) against adult females of insecticide-susceptible KR-HL and dual malathion- and permethrin-resistant BR-HL strains of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer), was examined by using contact plus fumigant and human hair wig (placed over the head of mannequin) mortality bioassays. In contact plus fumigant mortality bioassay, essential oils from eucalyptus (0.225 mg/cm2) and clove (1.149 mg/cm2) were less effective than either d-phenothrin (0.0029 mg/cm2) or pyrethrum (0.0025 mg/cm2) based on 6-h median lethal concentration values. However, the efficacies of eucalyptus and clove oils were almost identical against females fromn both strains, despite high levels of resistance of the BR-HL females to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio, 667) and pyrethrum (resistance ratio, 754). In human hair wig mortality bioassay, eucalyptus oil spray treatment gave better control efficacy than either spray treatment with clove oil alone or their binary mixtures. Thus, eucalyptus applied as 8% sprays (15 or 20 ml) appears to provide effective protection against pediculosis even to insecticide-resistant head louse populations. Once the safety issues resolved, covering the treated hair and scalp with bath shower cap or hat would ensure the fumigant action of the essential oil.

  6. Tinea faciei due to microsporum canis in children: a survey of 46 cases in the District of Cagliari (Italy).

    PubMed

    Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytoses are frequent in children, but involvement of the facial skin has peculiar aspects that should be considered a separate entity: tinea faciei. Microsporum canis infection in tinea faciei has not been widely documented. To review cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children diagnosed at the Dermatology Clinic, University of Cagliari. Between 1990 and 2009, all children with dermatophyte infections of the facial skin were recruited for the study after parental consent. Diagnosis was made through direct microscopic and cultural examination. Age, sex, clinical form, illness duration, identified dermatophyte, source of infection, and treatment were recorded. Forty-six cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children aged 11 months to 15 years (29 male/17 female) were diagnosed. In 42 (91.3%) children, the illness was the result of contact with pets, and 4 (8.7%) cases resulted from contact with children affected by tinea capitis due to M. canis. Clinical manifestations were typical ringworm in 34 (74%) patients, whereas in 12 (26%) cases, atypical forms mimicking atopic dermatitis, impetigo, lupus erythematosus, and periorificial dermatitis were observed. In 18 (39%) cases, involvement of the vellus hair follicle was documented as ectothrix invasion. Topical or systemic antifungal therapy was effective in all patients. Tinea faciei shows a complex spectrum of differential diagnosis and age-related variations with respect to other superficial dermatophytosis. M. canis is the main organism responsible in children residing in Cagliari, capitol city of Sardinia, Italy. Close collaboration with veterinary and educational programs within infant communities are required for adequate prevention.

  7. Human pediculosis: a critical health problem and what about nursing policy?

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Abdel, Fadil Eman Ebrahim; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-12-01

    Lice infestation on the human body (also known as pediculosis) is very common. Cases number in the hundreds of millions worldwide. Three distinct presentations of lice infection exist and each is caused by a unique parasite. Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) is by far and away the most common infestation and favors no particular socioeconomic group. A genetically close "cousin," Pediculus humanus corporis, is responsible for body lice and is more commonly associated with poverty, overcrowding, and poor hygiene. Pubic lice (crabs) are caused by Pthirus pubis and is transmitted by intimate and/or sexual contact. No doubt, human lice infestation is an increasing problem worldwide, Apart from being an irritating and a shaming human ecto-parasite, they transmit serious infectious diseases; epidemic or classical typhus, epidemic relapsing fever as well as Trench fever. Eradication of lice infestation prevents transmission of infectious diseases. People who live and work in close proximity to louse-infested individuals may secondarily acquire lice even if they regularly wash their clothes and have good hygiene. Thus, all louse-infested persons and workers in close contact with such persons should periodically inspected and use long-acting safe insecticides. Human lice can be treated with agents such as DDT, malathion, and lindane, but reports of resistance to one or more of them have recently appeared. Pyrethroid permethrin when applied as a dust or spray to clothing or bedding is highly effective against lice and is the delousing agent of choice. Fabric treated with permethrin retains toxicity to lice even after 20 washings, thereby offering significant long-term passive protection against epidemic typhus. Itching may continue even after all lice are destroyed. This happens because of a lingering allergic reactionto their bites. Over-the-counter cortisone (corticosteroid) creams or calamine lotion may help.

  8. High Ancient Genetic Diversity of Human Lice, Pediculus humanus, from Israel Reveals New Insights into the Origin of Clade B Lice

    PubMed Central

    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Fenollar, Florence; Alfi, Shir; Yesilyurt, Gonca; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is subdivided into several significantly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups, each with particular geographical distributions. Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. In this study, ancient DNA analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), combined with conventional PCR, was applied to the remains of twenty-four ancient head lice and their eggs from the Roman period which were recovered from Israel. The lice and eggs were found in three combs, one of which was recovered from archaeological excavations in the Hatzeva area of the Judean desert, and two of which found in Moa, in the Arava region, close to the Dead Sea. Results show that the head lice remains dating approximately to 2,000 years old have a cytb haplogroup A, which is worldwide in distribution, and haplogroup B, which has thus far only been found in contemporary lice from America, Europe, Australia and, most recently, Africa. More specifically, this haplogroup B has a B36 haplotype, the most common among B haplogroups, and has been present in America for at least 4,000 years. The present findings confirm that clade B lice existed, at least in the Middle East, prior to contacts between Native Americans and Europeans. These results support a Middle Eastern origin for clade B followed by its introduction into the New World with the early peoples. Lastly, the presence of Acinetobacter baumannii DNA was demonstrated by qPCR and sequencing in four head lice remains belonging to clade A. PMID:27741281

  9. Synthesis of pediculocidal and larvicidal silver nanoparticles by leaf extract from heartleaf moonseed plant, Tinospora cordifolia Miers.

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Vishnu Kirthi, Arivarasan; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi

    2011-07-01

    Insecticide resistance and inadequate attention to the application instructions of topical pediculicides are common reasons for treatment failure. Essential oils or plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study was carried out to establish the pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Menispermaceae) against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). We reported the aqueous plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against head lice and vectors. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. The synthesized AgNPs characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction. Head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results suggest that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized AgNPs were 33% at 5 min, 67% at 15 min, and 100% after 1 h. The maximum activity was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against lice, A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 12.46, 6.43 and 6.96 mg/L; r (2) = 0.978, 0.773 and 0.828), respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized AgNPs possess excellent anti-lice and mosquito larvicidal activity. These results suggest that the green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of head lice and vectors.

  10. Foxes as a potential wildlife reservoir for mecA-positive Staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Carson, Marianne; Meredith, Anna L; Shaw, Darren J; Giotis, Efstathios S; Lloyd, David H; Loeffler, Anette

    2012-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in particular, have become a public and veterinary health concern. The search for MRS reservoirs outside human hospitals is needed in order to understand the reasons for their persistence and to control their spread. MRS have been isolated from rats, but little is known about their occurrence in foxes. In view of the perceived increasing proximity between people and foxes in the U.K. and the well-documented potential of foxes as hosts for zoonotic pathogens, this study examined whether foxes can be a reservoir for MRS. This study examined the carriage of staphylococci and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in 38 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from rural and semirural areas in the U.K. Staphylococci were isolated by enrichment culture from nasal, oral, axillary, and perineal swabs and speciated by standard bacteriological tests and API ID32 STAPH (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Antimicrobial resistance was investigated by disc diffusion tests and identification of mecA. Thirty-seven staphylococcal isolates were identified from 35 of the 38 foxes. All isolates were coagulase-negative and most frequently included species from the S. sciuri group (35%), S. equorum (27%), and S. capitis (22%). All were phenotypically resistant to methicillin, and mecA was detected in 33 (89%) of isolates, but only 10 (27%) showed broad β-lactam antibiotic resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not identified. These results indicate that foxes are a potential wildlife reservoir for mecA-positive staphylococci. Selection pressure from environmental contamination with antimicrobials should be considered.

  11. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustalampi, Sirpa; Ylinen, Jari; Korniloff, Katariina; Weir, Adam; Häkkinen, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability. PMID:26828215

  12. Activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents tested against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalised patients in Europe (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-10-01

    The activity of telavancin was evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. collected from European hospitals as part of an international surveillance study (2007-2008). A total of 7534 staphylococcal clinical isolates [5726 Staphylococcus aureus and 1808 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)] were included. Isolates were tested for susceptibility according to reference methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010 and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2009 criteria. Telavancin breakpoints approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were applied. Telavancin activity was evaluated against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) displaying several antibiogram resistance patterns, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Telavancin was active against S. aureus [MIC(50/90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively)=0.12/0.25mg/L; 100.0% susceptible] and CoNS (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L), inhibiting all isolates at < or =0.5mg/L. Similar results were observed when S. aureus were stratified by year or country of origin (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L). When MRSA isolates were clustered according to 48 different resistance patterns, telavancin showed consistent MIC(90) values (0.25mg/L) regardless of multidrug resistance. Amongst CoNS, telavancin was slightly more active against Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus xylosus (MIC(50)=0.12 mg/L) compared with Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC(50)=0.25mg/L). Overall, telavancin exhibited MIC(90) results two- to eight-fold lower than comparators (daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin and linezolid). Based upon MIC(90) values, telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a contemporary (2007-2008) collection of Staphylococcus spp

  13. Possible implication of sterile connecting device in contamination of pooled platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Mertens, G; Muylle, L; Goossens, H

    1997-09-01

    Considering the possibility that a pooled random donor platelet concentrate could become contaminated by welding with a sterile connecting device, we undertook a study to determine the influence of pooling on the contamination rate. As a control group, apheresis platelets were examined. Bacteriological testing was done with a sensitive CO2 detecting culture system, the BacT/ Alert. Out of 1105 pooled platelet concentrates prepared by the buffy coat method, 15 (1.4%) were confirmed as contaminated, all with Staphylococcus epidermidis and two with a second bacterial species, i.e. Staphylococcus capitis and Propionibacterium acnes, respectively. Median detection time by the BacT/Alert was 23 h. Twelve pools of five units were contaminated, which is significantly more than the three contaminated pools of four units. On the other hand, the reuse of the welding wafers proved not be a risk factor for contamination. One welded tubing segment of a contaminated platelet concentrate failed the air leakage test, an incident which was 73 times more frequent than with the sterile platelet concentrates. We found five pooled platelet concentrates containing Staphylococci from which no bacteria could be grown from the individual buffy coats that had been pooled. We suggest the contamination here to have occurred after separation of the buffy coat from the whole blood, possibly during the welding process. Finally, none out of 378 apheresis platelet concentrates was contaminated. All our observations highlight the potential risk for contamination when making pooled platelet concentrates with a sterile connecting device. For this type of transfusion product, we advocate bacteriological screening of all units before release. The incubation time for the sterility test should, however, be limited to 36 h, if logistical problems with the availability of platelets are to be avoided.

  14. Isolation of Microsporum canis from the hair coat of pet dogs and cats belonging to owners diagnosed with M. canis tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Romito, Diana; Capelli, Gioia; Guillot, Jacques; Otranto, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Microsporum canis has been frequently isolated from human cases of tinea capitis and tinea corporis. The infection may be acquired from infected animals with cutaneous lesions but also from asymptomatic carriers or from the environment. As asymptomatic M. canis carriers are considered to be a critical factor in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in humans, this study investigated the relationship between the presence of dermatophytes on the hair coats of dogs and cats without cutaneous lesions and the occurrence of the disease in their respective owners. A total of 136 dogs and 248 cats were sampled from January 1999 to January 2005. Seventy-eight animals (22 dogs and 56 cats) belonged to individuals affected by tinea corporis caused by M. canis and 306 (114 dogs and 192 cats) to individuals without dermatophytosis. Age, sex, breed, habitat and season were recorded for each animal and examined as potential risk factors. Dermatophytes were isolated from 20.5% of the dogs and 28.2% of the cats. Microsporum canis was isolated from 36.4% of dogs cohabiting with owners diagnosed with tinea corporis but it was never isolated from dogs whose owners had no lesions. By contrast, M. canis was isolated from 53.6% of cats cohabiting with owners diagnosed with tinea corporis and from 14.6% of cats whose owners had no signs of the disease. These results clearly indicate that both cats and dogs should be considered as a major source of pathogenic dermatophytes for humans even when they do not present clinical signs of dermatophytosis.

  15. [Tinea corporis due to the rare geophilic dermatophyte Microsporum praecox].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Overbeck, C; Uhrlaß, S; Krüger, C; Gräser, Y

    2016-09-01

    A 10-year-old girl suffered from tinea corporis with erythematosquamous and centrifugal growing, sparse itching lesions of her right lower arm. Fluorescence optical Blankophor® preparation from skin scrapings revealed fungal hyphae. On Sabouraud's dextrose agar, the fast growing dermatophyte formed flat, peripheral radiating and convolved colonies with white, slightly yellowish to beige brown stained granular and powdery surface. The reverse side of the colonies was smooth with luminous yellow colour. Microscopically, an attitude of thin-walled spindle-shaped and echinulate (with small spins) and lanceolate macroconidia appeared. The small based macroconidia are raised in the middle and end part, however, pointy at the end ("spearhead"). Three to six or seven across septae are formed. The small piriform microconidia had an orthotropic arrangement. Chlamydospores were also formed. Urease activity was positive. Macromorphologically, Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale (formerly T. mentagrophytes) was suspected. Due to the shape of macroconidia, Microsporum (M.) gypseum and M. fulvum were also considered as possible species identification. Direct uniplex-PCR-EIA of the strains revealed negative results for T. rubrum, T. interdigitale, T. anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae and M. canis. Sequencing analysis of the ribosomal ITS-region (18 S rRNA, ITS1, 5.8 S rRNA, ITS2, 28 S rRNA) and of the translation elongation factor 1‑alpha (tef-1-alpha) gene revealed the dermatophyte species M. praecox. Topical treatment was done using ciclopiroxolamine cream. M. praecox represents a geophilic dermatophyte, morphologically resembling M. gypseum. Horses are often the source of infection. In humans, M. praecox causes tinea corporis and tinea capitis. For oral treatment of dermatomycosis due to M. praecox, griseofulvin and terbinafine can be used.

  16. Clinicomycological Study of Dermatophytosis in South India

    PubMed Central

    Poluri, Lakshmi Vasantha; Indugula, Jyothi P; Kondapaneni, Sai L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dermatophytic infections are commonly encountered a problem and constitute more than 50% of cases in dermatology outpatient departments. Diagnosis of these infections requires the proper use of laboratory methods. Objectives: This study was conducted to know the etiology of dermatophytosis in patients attending Tertiary Care Level Hospital in South India and to compare the efficacy of Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) with actidione and dermatophyte test medium (DTM) in isolating and identifying dermatophytes. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 samples which included 101 skin samples and 9 hair samples from clinically suspected dermatophytosis were collected. Direct microscopy by KOH and culture on SDA with actidione and DTM were done. Results: Of 110 samples collected, 58.18% were KOH positive for fungal filaments and 56.36% were culture positive for dermatophytes. More number of cases were observed between age groups of 21–40 years. Males were more affected compared to females. Tinea corporis was the common clinical presentation observed (40%). Trichophyton rubrum (58.06%) was the predominant isolate recovered in all clinical presentations but Trichophyton violaceum was the most common isolate in tinea capitis. All culture positives were grown on both SDA with actidione and DTM. Appearance of growth was earlier on DTM that is, within 10 days compared to SDA with actidione where growth started appearing only after 10 days. This is statistically significant P < 0.0001 (χ2 = 71.6). Species level identification on primary isolation was possible when grown on SDA with actidione and it was not possible with the growth on DTM on primary isolation. Conclusion: DTM is a good screening medium in laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis when compared to SDA with actidione. But DTM is inferior to SDA with actidione in identification of dermatophyte species. PMID:26417157

  17. A case of pituitary abscess presenting without a source of infection or prior pituitary pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary abscess is a relatively uncommon cause of pituitary hormone deficiencies and/or a suprasellar mass. Risk factors for pituitary abscess include prior surgery, irradiation and/or pathology of the suprasellar region as well as underlying infections. We present the case of a 22-year-old female presenting with a spontaneous pituitary abscess in the absence of risk factors described previously. Her initial presentation included headache, bitemporal hemianopia, polyuria, polydipsia and amenorrhoea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her pituitary showed a suprasellar mass. As the patient did not have any risk factors for pituitary abscess or symptoms of infection, the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively. She underwent transsphenoidal resection and purulent material was seen intraoperatively. Culture of the surgical specimen showed two species of alpha hemolytic Streptococcus, Staphylococcus capitis and Prevotella melaninogenica. Urine and blood cultures, dental radiographs and transthoracic echocardiogram failed to show any source of infection that could have caused the pituitary abscess. The patient was treated with 6weeks of oral metronidazole and intravenous vancomycin. After 6weeks of transsphenoidal resection and just after completion of antibiotic therapy, her headache and bitemporal hemianopsia resolved. However, nocturia and polydipsia from central diabetes insipidus and amenorrhoea from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism persisted. Learning points Pituitary abscesses typically develop in patients who have other sources of infection or disruption of the normal suprasellar anatomy by either surgery, irradiation or pre-existing pathology; however, they can develop in the absence of known risk factors. Patients with pituitary abscesses typically complain of headache, visual changes and symptoms of pituitary hormone deficiencies. As other pituitary neoplasms present with similar clinical findings, the diagnosis of pituitary abscess is often not

  18. Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Vardy, Alistair N; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-10-01

    Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain between-muscle differences. Two hypotheses were evaluated: 1) that muscle-specific motor-unit properties influence the bandwidth of vestibular reflexes; and 2) that frequency responses of vestibular reflexes differ between neck, back, and lower limb muscles because of neural filtering. Subjects were exposed to electrical vestibular stimuli over bandwidths of 0-25 and 0-75 Hz while recording activity in sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, erector spinae, soleus, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Coherence between stimulus and muscle activity revealed markedly larger vestibular reflex bandwidths in neck muscles (0-70 Hz) than back (0-15 Hz) or lower limb muscles (0-20 Hz). In addition, vestibular reflexes in back and lower limb muscles undergo low-pass filtering compared with neck-muscle responses, which span a broader dynamic range. These results suggest that the wider bandwidth of head-neck biomechanics requires a vestibular influence on neck-muscle activation across a larger dynamic range than lower limb muscles. A computational model of vestibular afferents and a motoneuron pool indicates that motor-unit properties are not primary contributors to the bandwidth filtering of vestibular reflexes in different muscles. Instead, our experimental findings suggest that pathway-dependent neural filtering, not captured in our model, contributes to these muscle-specific responses. Furthermore, gain-phase discontinuities in the neck-muscle vestibular reflexes provide evidence of destructive interaction between different reflex components, likely via indirect vestibular-motor pathways.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents when tested against numerous species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus causing infection in US hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Streit, Jennifer M; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-05-01

    A total of 1593 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) considered clinically significant were collected from 71 US medical centers in 2013-2014 and tested for susceptibility by CLSI broth microdilution methods. Species identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Overall, 59.7% of isolates were oxacillin resistant (MRCoNS). Ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5μg/mL) inhibited 99.2% of CoNS at ≤1μg/mL (susceptible breakpoint for Staphylococcus aureus), including 98.7% of MRCoNS, and the highest ceftaroline MIC value was 2μg/mL (13 isolates). Staphylococcus epidermidis represented 60.3% of the CoNS collection and was highly susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5μg/mL, 99.9% inhibited at ≤1μg/mL). All isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus pettenkoferi, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC50/90, 0.06-0.25/0.25-0.5μg/mL) were inhibited at ceftaroline MIC of ≤1μg/mL. Staphylococcus haemolyticus represented only 4.8%, was atypically less susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.5/2μg/mL, 87.0% inhibited at ≤1μg/mL), and accounted for 76.9% (10/13) of isolates with ceftaroline MIC >1μg/mL.

  20. Molecular microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Satomi, M.; Chung, S.; Kern, R.; Koukol, R.; Basic, C.; White, D.

    2001-01-01

    In ongoing investigations to map and archive the microbial footprints in various components of the spacecraft and its accessories, we have examined the microbial populations of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Spacecraft Assembly Facility (JPL-SAF). Witness plates made up of spacecraft materials, some painted with spacecraft qualified paints, were exposed for approximately 7 to 9 months at JPL-SAF and examined the particulate materials collected for the incidence of total cultivable aerobic heterotrophs and heat-tolerant (80 degrees C for 15-min.) spore-formers. The results showed that the witness plates coated with spacecraft qualified paints attracted more dust particles than the non-coated stainless steel witness plates. Among the four paints tested, witness plates coated with NS43G accumulated the highest number of particles, and hence attracted more cultivable microbes. The conventional microbiological examination revealed that the JPL-SAF harbors mainly Gram-positive microbes and mostly spore-forming Bacillus species. Most of the isolated microbes were heat resistant to 80 degrees C and proliferate at 60 degrees C. The phylogenetic relationships among 23 cultivable heat-tolerant microbes were examined using a battery of morphological, physiological, molecular and chemotaxonomic characterizations. By 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolates fell into seven clades: Bacillus licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. cereus, B. circulans, Staphylococcus capitis, Planococcus sp. and Micrococcus lylae. In contrast to the cultivable approach, direct DNA isolation, cloning and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed equal representation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.

  1. Species diversity and antibiotic resistance properties of Staphylococcus of farm animal origin in Nkonkobe Municipality, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Anthony A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus isolates of healthy farm animal origin in Nkonkobe Municipality as well as the prevalence of putative antibiotic resistance genes were investigated using phenotypic and molecular methods. A total of 120 Staphylococcus isolates were isolated from 150 animal samples and consisted of Staphylococcus haemolyticus (30 %) and Staphylococcus aureus (23.3 %) from pig, Staphylococcus capitis (15 %) from goat, S. haemolyticus (5 %) and Staphylococcus xylosus (15 %) from cattle, and other staphylococci (11.7 %) from dead chicken and pigs. Besides this, the presence of these isolates was observed from the animal dung, showing that the organisms are shed to the environment. About 23.3 % of these isolates were coagulase-positive and 76.7 % were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Between 75 and 100 % of the isolates were resistant to penicillin G, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid; about 38 % were methicillin-resistant staphylococci, including 12.6 % methicillin-resistant S. aureus from pigs. In total, 12 % of all isolates were vancomycin resistant. Also, 12 % of the isolates were erythromycin resistant, while 40.2 % were resistant to ceftazidime. Only the genes mecA and mphC could be confirmed, whereas the genes vanA, vanB, ermA, ermB, and ermC could not be detected. The high phenotypic antibiotic resistance and the presence of some associated resistance genes is a potential threat to public health and suggest the animals to be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  2. Modeling length-tension properties of RCPm muscles during voluntary retraction of the head.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    Head retraction exercises are one of several commonly used clinical tools that are used to assess and treat patients with head and neck pain and to aid in restoration of a normal neutral head posture. Retraction of the head results in flexion of the occipitoatlantal (OA) joint and stretching of rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPm) muscles. The role that retraction of the head might have in treating head and neck pain patients is currently unknown. RCPm muscles arise from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1 and insert into the occipital bone inferior to the inferior nuchal line and lateral to the midline. RCPm muscles are the only muscles that attach to the posterior arch of C1. The functional role of RCPm muscles has not been clearly defined. The goal of this project was to develop a three-dimensional, computer-based biomechanical model of the posterior aspect of the OA joint. This model should help clarify why voluntary head retraction exercises seem to contribute to the resolution of head and neck pain and restoration of a normal head posture in some patients. The model documents that length-tension properties of RCPm muscles are significantly affected by variations in the physical properties of the musculotendonous unit. The model suggests that variations in the cross sectional area of RCPm muscles due to pathologies that weaken the muscle, such as muscle atrophy, may reduce the ability of these muscles to generate levels of force that are necessary for the performance of normal, daily activities. The model suggests that the main benefit of the initial phase of head retraction exercises may be to strengthen RCPm muscles through eccentric contractions, and that the main benefit of the final phase of retraction may be to stretch the muscles as the final position is held.

  3. Burden of serious fungal infections in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, Harish C; Denning, David W

    2016-01-01

    The Dominican Republic (DR) is the second largest Caribbean nation and, with Haiti, the DR accounts for nearly three-quarters of the cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Caribbean region and the highest rates of TB in the Americas. The present study estimated the burden of serious fungal infections and some other mycoses in the DR. The data were extracted from the World Health Organization Stop Tuberculosis (WHO STOP TB) program, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and searches for relevant literature via MEDLINE, PubMed, MedFacts, and so on. The chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) rates were derived from the asthma and TB rates. When no data regarding mycoses were available, we used specific populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infection in each of these populations to estimate the national prevalence. Among its population of 10,090,000, we estimated that 221,027 (2.2%) have a serious fungal infection, including 158,134 women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We estimated high numbers of 25,150 for ABPA and 34,000 for severe asthma fungal sensitization (SAFS) (250 and 529/100,000, respectively). CPA was common, with an estimated 2122 cases, of which 707 followed pulmonary TB. The annual prevalence of CPA was estimated to be 1374 cases. Four cases of histoplasmosis and several cases of chromoblastomycosis have also been reported. Pityriasis versicolor and tinea capitis are frequent in children, and 11% have kerion. Local epidemiological investigations are urgently required to validate or modify these estimates of serious fungal infections in the DR.

  4. [Superficial mycoses in patients from Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, period 2002-2012].

    PubMed

    Lemus-Espinoza, Druvic; Teresa Maniscalchi, María; Villarroel, Oskarina; Bónoli, Stefano B; Wahab, Fadi; García, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Superficial fungal diseases that affect the skin and its appendages are frequently seen in basic triage and in dermatology services. These diseases are distributed in Venezuela with an incidence of 92.9%. The aim of this study was to determine the genera and species that cause dermatomycoses in residents of Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, during the period 2002-2012. A total of 4257 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycoses were studied, with ages from 7 months to 79 years. The overall prevalence was 30.9%. The most frequent were dermatophytosis (44.7%). M. canis produced 148 cases of tinea capitis. Three dermatophytic agents represented 95% of all cases, with a significant predominance of T. mentagrophytes with 50%. Candidosis occurred in 28.4%. C. albicans, and the C. parapsilosis complex, were responsible for 80% of the cases. The other species identified were C. tropicalis (n = 41, 11.0%), C. glabrata (n = 10, 2.7%), C. guilliermondii (n = 6, 1.6%), C. krusei (n = 4, 1.1%). Pityriasis versicolor occurred in 22.4% of the cases studied, and less frequently were present onychomycosis produced by a non dermatophytic mold: Fusarium oxysporum (n = 34, 65.4%), Aspergillus terreus (n=16, 30.8%) and Scytalidium dimidiatum (n=2; 3.8%). Rare cases of Trichosporon onychomycosis (0.5%) and one case of black tinea were also found. Health education in the population is recommended to promote measures to prevent transmission of these fungi and prevent the spread of this silent public health problem.

  5. Mycoses in Thailand: current concerns.

    PubMed

    Ungpakorn, Rataporn

    2005-01-01

    Scytalidium dimidiatum is the leading cause of fungal foot diseases in Thailand, in contrast to similar studies in which dermatophytes have been identified as the predominant pathogens. By contrast, the prevalence of Candida albicans in our study was only 2.6 approximately 3.0%. Scytalidium fungal foot infection is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by dermatophytes and should be included as a possible cause of treatment failure in tinea pedis and onychomycosis. Without proper culture identification, clinically diagnosed patients would be treated with a standard antifungal regimen leading to minimal response and be interpreted as drug resistant cases resulting in switching of drugs and more aggressive management procedures. Tinea capitis is another health problem in young children. However, for Microsporum canis and some ectothrix organisms, the effectiveness of treatment may be less than endothrix infection. Griseofulvin is still the mainstay antifungal although itraconazole and terbinafine are as effective. Pulse regimen may be another option with advantages of increased compliance and convenience. Two pulses of terbinafine may be sufficient for treating most cases of Microsporum infection, although additional treatment may be needed if clinical improvement is not evident at week 8 after initiating therapy. Chromoblastomycosis is another subcutaneous infection that requires long treatment duration with costly antifungal drugs. The most common pathogen in Thailand is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Preliminary study of pulse itraconazole 400 mg/d 1 week monthly for 9-12 consecutive months showed promising results. The prevalence of Penicillium marneffei infection is alarming in HIV infected patients living in endemic areas. Diagnosis relies on direct examination of the specimens and confirmation by culture. Treatment regimens include systemic amphotericin B or itraconazole followed by long-term prophylaxis. Treatment outcome depends on the immune status of the

  6. Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes from Clinical Samples at Sohag University Hospital in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mona Fattouh Mohamed; El-din, Asmaa Nasr; El-Hamd, Mohammed Abu

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and explore the in-vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of dermatophytes isolated from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis (tinea infections) attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. Methods This study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital from December 2014 to December 2015. Clinical samples (e.g., skin scrapings and hair stumps) were collected under aseptic precautions. The identification of dermatophytes was performed through microscopic examination using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) with 40% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) mounts and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and on Dermasel agar base media, both supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. All dermatophytes isolates were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing using the agar-based disk diffusion (ABDD) method against Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Fluconazole, and Griseofulvin. Data were analyzed via SPSS 16, using Chi square and a screening test (cross-tabulation method). Results A total of 110 patients of dermatophytosis were studied. The patients were clinically diagnosed and mycologically confirmed as having tinea capitis (49), tinea corporis (30), tinea pedis (16), tinea cruris (9), or tinea barbae (6). The dermatophytes isolates belonged to 4 species: Microsporum canis 58 (52.7%), Microsporum gypseum 23 (20.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18 (16.4%), and Microsporum audouinii 11 (10%). The most effective antifungal drugs tested were Clotrimazole, followed by Miconazole (95.5% and 84.5% of isolates were susceptible, respectively). Conclusion Every patient with a tinea infection should be properly studied for a mycological examination and should be treated accordingly. Dermasel agar is more useful as an identification medium in the isolation of dermatophytes. The ABDD method appears to be a simple, cost-effective, and promising method for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes. PMID

  7. [Scanning electron microscopic observation on the parasitic form of the fungi in the horny layer in dermatophytosis].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nanako; Wakumoto, Keiko; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Electron microscopic techniques have been widely used to investigate the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis. In this article, morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) concerned with the dermatophyte infection process are literary reviewed and we introduced our morphological study observing the parasitic form of dermatophytes in the lesional cornified layer. Various experimental models have been established to study fungal adhesion and invasion to the skin surface in the early stage of infection by several authors.In these studies, arthroconidial adherence to corneocytes and germination was demonstrated by SEM and TEM. To understand the host-fungus relationship in dermatophytosis, it is also important to identify parasitic forms of fungi and morphological changes of corneocytes in the lesion. The three-dimensional structure of growing or parasitic dermatophytes in the lesional cornified cell layer was observed using the adhesive strip method in tinea cruris and tinea glabrosa. In tinea unguium, however, it is difficult to apply this method because of subungual hyperkeratosis. We introduce the alkaline treatment method for SEM for use in observing fungal elements in a subungual hyperkeratotic lesion and scales in dermatophytosis. With this technique, small pieces of nails or scales were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, and were treated with low concentrations of alkaline and subjected to the conventional procedure for SEM observation. This method is applicable to various skin lesions, such as tinea unguium, tinea pedis and tinea capitis to investigate the parasitic forms of dermatophytes and the spatial relationship with corneocytes and is useful to understand the infection process of dermatophytosis.

  8. Distribution and density of contacts from noradrenergic and serotonergic boutons on the dendrites of neck flexor motoneurons in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    Maratta, Robert; Fenrich, Keith K; Zhao, Ethan; Neuber-Hess, Monica S; Rose, P Ken

    2015-08-01

    Serotonergic (5-HT) and noradrenergic (NA) input to spinal motoneurons is essential for generating plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges. Extensor motoneurons are densely innervated by 5-HT and NA synapses and have robust plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges. Conversely, plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges are very rare in flexor motoneurons. The most likely reasons for this difference are that flexor motoneurons have few 5-HT and NA synapses and/or they are distributed distant to the channels responsible for plateau potentials and self-sustained discharges. However, the distribution of 5-HT and NA synapses on flexor motoneurons is unknown. Here we describe the distribution and density of 5-HT and NA synapses on motoneurons that innervate the flexor neck muscle, rectus capitis anterior (RCA), in the adult cat. Using a combination of intracellular staining, fluorescent immunohistochemistry, and 3D reconstruction techniques, we found that 5-HT and NA synapses are widely distributed throughout the dendritic trees of RCA motoneurons, albeit with a strong bias to small-diameter dendrites and to medial dendrites in the case of NA contacts. The number of 5-HT and NA contacts per motoneuron ranged, respectively, from 381 to 1,430 and from 642 to 1,382, which is 2.3- and 1.4-fold less than neck extensor motoneurons (Montague et al., J Comp Neurol 2013;521:638-656). These results suggest that 5-HT and NA synapses on flexor motoneurons may provide a powerful means of amplifying synaptic currents without incurring plateau potentials or self-sustained discharges. This feature is well suited to meet the biomechanical demands imposed on flexor muscles during different motor tasks.

  9. Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin susceptibility testing directly from growth-positive blood cultures by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Leanne; Mikhail, Jane; Bome-Mannathoko, Naledi; Hadfield, Stephen J; Harris, Llinos G; El-Bouri, Khalid; Davies, Angharad P; Mack, Dietrich

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR method specific for the mecA, femA-SA and femA-SE genes for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and meticillin susceptibility testing directly in positive blood cultures that grew Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 100 positive blood cultures produced: 39 S. aureus [12 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 31% of all the S. aureus]; 30 S. epidermidis (56.6% of the CoNS), 8 Staphylococcus capitis (15.1%), 3 Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%), 4 Staphylococcus hominis (7.5%), 3 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (5.7%), 2 Staphylococcus warneri (3.8%), 1 Staphylococcus cohnii (1.9%) and 2 unidentified Staphylococcus spp. (3.8%); and 1 Micrococcus luteus in pure culture. Two blood cultures had no growth on subculture and five blood cultures grew mixed CoNS. For the 95 blood cultures with pure growth or no growth on subculture, there was very good agreement between real-time PCR and the BD Phoenix identification system for staphylococcal species categorization in S. aureus, S. epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis CoNS and meticillin-resistance determination (Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient κ=0.882). All MRSA and meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were correctly identified by mecA amplification. PCR amplification of mecA was more sensitive for direct detection of meticillin-resistant CoNS in positive blood cultures than testing with the BD Phoenix system. There were no major errors when identifying staphylococcal isolates and their meticillin susceptibility within 2.5 h. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of using such a rapid test on the consumption of glycopeptide antibiotics and the alteration of empiric therapy in the situation of positive blood cultures growing staphylococci, and the respective clinical outcomes.

  10. Lethal effects of treatment with a special dimeticone formula on head lice and house crickets (Orthoptera, Ensifera: Acheta domestica and Anoplura, phthiraptera: Pediculus humanus). Insights into physical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Richling, Ira; Böckeler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides the first convincing explanation of the mode of action of the medical device NYDA, a special dimeticone (CAS 9006-65-9) formula containing 92% of two dimeticones with different viscosities specifically designed for the physical treatment of head lice infestations (pediculosis capitis) by suffocation. Both, lice (Pediculus humanus) and house crickets (Acheta domestica) treated with this anti-head lice product are knocked out to the status "of no major vital signs" within less than 1 min that in consequence is accompanied irreversibly with the death of the respective insects. Scanning electron microscopical investigations have revealed that the cuticle is coated by a thin closed layer of the dimeticone formula that also enters the stigmata. In vivo observations and dissections of Acheta domestica have shown that application of the medical device to the thoracic stigmata invariably leads to rapid death; this is strongly correlated with the influx of the special dimeticone formula into the head trachea, whereby the solution effectively blocks the oxygen supply of the central nervous system. Dissections after application of the stained product show that it also enters the finest tracheal branches. Analogous in vivo observations in Pediculus humanus have confirmed the correlation between the disappearance of major vital signs and the displacement of air by the dimeticone formula in the tracheal system of the head. For both insect species, statistical data are provided for the chronological sequence of the filling of the tracheal system in relation to the respective vitality conditions of the Insects. On average, the special dimeticone formula reaches the insect's head tracheae within 0.5 min in house crickets and in less than 1 min in lice with a complete filling of the entire head tracheal system of lice within 3.5 min. In addition, a timed sequence of images illustrates this process for lice. The experiments clearly reveal the exclusive and

  11. Insect bite reactions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Mann, Baldeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK) disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr) as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some serious adverse effects

  12. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  13. Molecular microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Venkateswaran, K; Satomi, M; Chung, S; Kern, R; Koukol, R; Basic, C; White, D

    2001-07-01

    In ongoing investigations to map and archive the microbial footprints in various components of the spacecraft and its accessories, we have examined the microbial populations of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Spacecraft Assembly Facility (JPL-SAF). Witness plates made up of spacecraft materials, some painted with spacecraft qualified paints, were exposed for approximately 7 to 9 months at JPL-SAF and examined the particulate materials collected for the incidence of total cultivable aerobic heterotrophs and heat-tolerant (80 degrees C for 15-min.) spore-formers. The results showed that the witness plates coated with spacecraft qualified paints attracted more dust particles than the non-coated stainless steel witness plates. Among the four paints tested, witness plates coated with NS43G accumulated the highest number of particles, and hence attracted more cultivable microbes. The conventional microbiological examination revealed that the JPL-SAF harbors mainly Gram-positive microbes and mostly spore-forming Bacillus species. Most of the isolated microbes were heat resistant to 80 degrees C and proliferate at 60 degrees C. The phylogenetic relationships among 23 cultivable heat-tolerant microbes were examined using a battery of morphological, physiological, molecular and chemotaxonomic characterizations. By 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolates fell into seven clades: Bacillus licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. cereus, B. circulans, Staphylococcus capitis, Planococcus sp. and Micrococcus lylae. In contrast to the cultivable approach, direct DNA isolation, cloning and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed equal representation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.

  14. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus) reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Toups, Melissa A; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  15. High Ancient Genetic Diversity of Human Lice, Pediculus humanus, from Israel Reveals New Insights into the Origin of Clade B Lice.

    PubMed

    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Fenollar, Florence; Alfi, Shir; Yesilyurt, Gonca; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is subdivided into several significantly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups, each with particular geographical distributions. Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. In this study, ancient DNA analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), combined with conventional PCR, was applied to the remains of twenty-four ancient head lice and their eggs from the Roman period which were recovered from Israel. The lice and eggs were found in three combs, one of which was recovered from archaeological excavations in the Hatzeva area of the Judean desert, and two of which found in Moa, in the Arava region, close to the Dead Sea. Results show that the head lice remains dating approximately to 2,000 years old have a cytb haplogroup A, which is worldwide in distribution, and haplogroup B, which has thus far only been found in contemporary lice from America, Europe, Australia and, most recently, Africa. More specifically, this haplogroup B has a B36 haplotype, the most common among B haplogroups, and has been present in America for at least 4,000 years. The present findings confirm that clade B lice existed, at least in the Middle East, prior to contacts between Native Americans and Europeans. These results support a Middle Eastern origin for clade B followed by its introduction into the New World with the early peoples. Lastly, the presence of Acinetobacter baumannii DNA was demonstrated by qPCR and sequencing in four head lice remains belonging to clade A.

  16. Organization of motor pools supplying the cervical musculature in a cryptodyran turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans. II. Medial motor nucleus and muscles supplied by two motor nuclei.

    PubMed

    Yeow, M B; Peterson, E H

    1986-01-08

    In this paper we describe the medial motor nucleus of Pseudemys cervical spinal cord and the motor pools of three neck muscles that exhibit an unusual pattern of innervation. Cells of the medial motor nucleus form a longitudinal column at the dorsomedial gray/white border of the ventral horn from C1 through C8. In Nissl-stained transverse sections they appear fusiform with prominent medially projecting dendrites; in HRP material these dendrites are seen to cross into the contralateral ventral funiculus. Medial nuclear cells vary in size (12-31 micron in diameter) and are often relatively large (greater than 21 micron in diameter). They are significantly larger and more numerous in caudal than in rostral cervical segments. Medial nuclear cells supply three of the cervical muscles examined in this study: mm. retrahens capitis collique (RCCQ), testocervicis, and longus colli. These three muscles differ from other cervical muscles in Pseudemys and from vertebrate limb muscles in that they are supplied in parallel by two populations of motor neurons: the medial and ventral motor nuclei (cf. Yeow and Peterson, '86). Ventral nuclear cells supplying these three muscles are organized into a musculotopic pattern with m. testocervicis motor neurons most medial and m. RCCQ motor neurons lateral; in contrast, the location of medial nuclear motor neurons is invariant with respect to muscle position. HRP-positive medial nuclear cells are sometimes smaller (m. testocervicis) but more often are as large or larger (mm. RCCQ and longus colli) than ventral nuclear cells supplying the same muscles, thus suggesting that they supply extrafusal muscle fibers, perhaps different muscle unit types in the three muscles. Based on the morphology of medial nuclear cells and the probable actions of the muscles they innervate, we hypothesize that the medial motor nucleus may represent a discrete functional system for producing bilaterally synchronous muscle activation, and that this system is

  17. Visual and proprioceptive interaction in patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Cutfield, Nicholas J; Scott, Gregory; Waldman, Adam D; Sharp, David J; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2014-01-01

    Following bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) patients gradually adapt to the loss of vestibular input and rely more on other sensory inputs. Here we examine changes in the way proprioceptive and visual inputs interact. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate visual responses in the context of varying levels of proprioceptive input in 12 BVL subjects and 15 normal controls. A novel metal-free vibrator was developed to allow vibrotactile neck proprioceptive input to be delivered in the MRI system. A high level (100 Hz) and low level (30 Hz) control stimulus was applied over the left splenius capitis; only the high frequency stimulus generates a significant proprioceptive stimulus. The neck stimulus was applied in combination with static and moving (optokinetic) visual stimuli, in a factorial fMRI experimental design. We found that high level neck proprioceptive input had more cortical effect on brain activity in the BVL patients. This included a reduction in visual motion responses during high levels of proprioceptive input and differential activation in the midline cerebellum. In early visual cortical areas, the effect of high proprioceptive input was present for both visual conditions but in lateral visual areas, including V5/MT, the effect was only seen in the context of visual motion stimulation. The finding of a cortical visuo-proprioceptive interaction in BVL patients is consistent with behavioural data indicating that, in BVL patients, neck afferents partly replace vestibular input during the CNS-mediated compensatory process. An fMRI cervico-visual interaction may thus substitute the known visuo-vestibular interaction reported in normal subject fMRI studies. The results provide evidence for a cortical mechanism of adaptation to vestibular failure, in the form of an enhanced proprioceptive influence on visual processing. The results may provide the basis for a cortical mechanism involved in proprioceptive substitution of vestibular

  18. The effects of cervical traction, cranial rhythmic impulse, and Mckenzie exercise on headache and cervical muscle stiffness in episodic tension-type headache patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Yong; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cervical traction treatment, cranial rhythmic impulse treatment, a manual therapy, and McKenzie exercise, a dynamic strengthening exercise, on patients who have the neck muscle stiffness of the infrequent episodic tension-type (IETTH) headache and frequent episodic tension-type headache(FETTH), as well as to provide the basic materials for clinical interventions. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects (males: 15, females: 12) who were diagnosed with IETTH and FETTH after treatment by a neurologist were divided into three groups: (a cervical traction group (CTG, n=9), a cranial rhythmic contractiongroup (CRIG, n=9), and a McKenzie exercise group (MEG, n=9). An intervention was conducted for each group and the differences in their degrees of neck pain and changes in muscle tone were observed. [Results] In the within-group comparison of each group, headache significantly decreased in CTG. According to the results of the analysis of the muscle tone of the upper trapezius, there was a statistically significant difference in MEG on the right side and in CRIG on the left side. According to the results of the analysis of the muscle tone of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, there was a statistically significant difference in MEG on the right side and in CRIG on the left side. [Conclusion] In the comparison of the splenius capitis muscle between the groups, there was a statistically significant difference on the right side. Hence, compared to the other methods, cervical traction is concluded to be more effective at reducing headaches in IETTH and FETTH patients.

  19. [Radiation-induced tumors of the nervous system in man].

    PubMed

    Hubert, D; Bertin, M

    1993-11-01

    The risk of developing a tumor of the nervous system in humans is analysed in several studies of populations, exposed to ionising radiation for medical reasons, or exposed to military or occupational radiation. The main data come from series of patients who underwent radiotherapy during childhood: a high incidence of tumors of the nervous system is found after irradiation of one to a few grays as treatment of a benign disease (especially tinea capitis), as well as after irradiation at higher doses of a few tens of grays for the treatment of cancer (in particular cerebral irradiation in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia). The type of radiation-induced tumors is variable, but meningioma is more frequent after low doses and glioma and sarcoma after higher doses used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. A dose-effect relationship appeared between the risk of tumor of the nervous system and the radiation dose. The risk was higher when radiation was delivered at a younger age. Much less data are available after radiotherapy in the adulthood, but an increased risk of cerebral tumor appears in the series of ankylosing spondylitis patients. As for the exposures to radiodiagnosis exams, the main problem is the risk of cerebral tumor in children whose mother has undergone abdominal or pelvic X-rays during pregnancy. No risk of neurologic tumor was found in the A-bomb survivors irradiated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation has been incriminated in the first radiologists exposed to high doses. In nuclear industry workers, the results of epidemiological studies are contradictory and at the present time it is not possible to link their radiologic exposure with a risk of tumor of the nervous system. In populations living near nuclear plants, mortality due to tumors of the nervous system was not increased.

  20. Nuclear Genetic Diversity in Human Lice (Pediculus humanus) Reveals Continental Differences and High Inbreeding among Worldwide Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ascunce, Marina S.; Toups, Melissa A.; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  1. Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jamaica by Literature Review and Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Gugnani, HC; Denning, DW

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Jamaica is one of the largest countries in the Caribbean with a population of 2 706 500. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jamaica is high, while that of tuberculosis (TB) is recorded to be low. In this study, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal infections and some other mycoses in Jamaica. Methods: All published papers reporting on rates of fungal infections in Jamaica and the Caribbean were identified through extensive search of the literature. We also extracted data from published papers on epidemiology and from the World Health Organization (WHO) TB Programme and UNAIDS. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) rates were derived from asthma and TB rates. Where there were no available data on some mycoses, we used specific populations at risk and frequencies of fungal infection of each to estimate national prevalence. Results: Over 57 600 people in Jamaica probably suffer from serious fungal infections each year, most related to ‘fungal asthma’ (ABPA and SAFS), recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Histoplasmosis is endemic in Jamaica, though only a few clinical cases are known. Pneumocystis pneumonia is frequent while cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are rarely recorded. Tinea capitis was common in children. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is very common (3154/100 000) and candidaemia occurs. Subcutaneous mycoses such as chromoblastomycosis and mycetoma also seem to be relatively common. Conclusion: Local epidemiological studies are urgently required to validate or modify these estimates of serious fungal infections in Jamaica. PMID:26426178

  2. Serious fungal infections in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Batac, M C R; Denning, D

    2017-02-21

    The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org ), estimates were derived from data gathered from WHO, UNAIDS, Philippine Health Statistics 2011, Philippine Dermatological Society Health Information System database, HIV/AIDS and ART registry of the Philippines, epidemiological studies such as The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database 2005, and personal communication. Aspergillosis and candidiasis were the top causes of fungal infections in the Philippines. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), drawn from the number of tuberculosis patients, affects 77,172 people. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) frequencies, which were derived from the number of asthmatic patients, affect 121,113 and 159,869 respectively. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) affects 1,481,899 women. Other estimates were cryptococcal meningitis 84, Pneumocystis pneumonia 391, oral candidiasis 3,467, esophageal candidiasis 1,522 (all in HIV-infected people), invasive aspergillosis (IA) 3,085, candidemia 1,968, candida peritonitis 246, mucormycosis 20, fungal keratitis 358, tinea capitis 846 and mycetoma 97 annually. A total of 1,852,137 (1.9% of population) are afflicted with a serious fungal infection. Epidemiological studies are needed to validate these estimates, facilitating appropriate medical care of patients and proper prioritization of limited resources.

  3. Unusually severe case of dermatosis neglecta.

    PubMed

    Turrentine, Jake E; Blalock, Travis W; Davis, Loretta S

    2012-01-01

    An 18-year-old black woman with cerebral palsy was admitted for evaluation of an intrathecal baclofen pump site infection. The dermatology service was consulted for treatment suggestions of a presumed diagnosis of chronic tinea capitis. Three courses of oral griseofulvin during the past 2 years failed to resolve the patient's chronic scalp dermatosis. Scalp lesions first began about 2 years earlier after hospitalization for placement of an intrathecal baclofen pump. The patient was unable to care for her scalp due to her cerebral palsy, and her mother interpreted the scalp condition as infectious. No routine shampoo care, scalp care, or topical treatment was performed for more than 1 1/2 years. The mother felt that touching the patient's scalp might cause pain and noted that the majority of her time was spent concentrating on more critical medical issues. Physical examination revealed coalescing hyperkeratotic plaques extending dorsally from the anterior hairline to the occipital scalp with small flecks of keratinous debris throughout the remaining hair (Figure 1). The plate-like plaques were devoid of hair, except at a few fissures where a few tufts of hair emerged. No cervical lymph nodes were appreciated on palpation. Treatment was initiated with compresses consisting of large warm water-soaked towels 4 times daily. Three times a day, a nursing staff applied 5% salicylic acid in olive oil to the scalp under a shower cap for approximately 1 hour. Over the following 2 days, a significant reduction in keratinous debris was appreciated. Within 2 weeks, the bulk of the plaques had been removed (Figure 2). At 6-week follow-up, the underlying scalp showed areas of fibrosis and possible scarring with a few emerging tufts of hair. On the basis of history and response to treatment with salicylic acid and routine scalp care, the patient was diagnosed with an unusually severe case of dermatosis neglecta.

  4. [Superficial mycoses: casuistry of the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel", Caracas, Venezuela (2001-2014)].

    PubMed

    Capote, Ana María; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Panizo, María Mercedes; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Reviakina, Vera; Dolande, Maribel

    2016-03-01

    The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. only direct examination was performed. Of the 3 228 samples processed, 1 098 (34%) were positive and their distribution according to the etiological agent was: dermatophytes 79.5%; 10.9% yeasts; non-dermatophytes fungi 5.1% and 4.5% Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex (70.1%), followed by T mentagrophytes complex (15.1%), Microsporum canis (9.4%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (4%). The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium (66.8%), followed by Tineapedis (16.4%) and Tinea capitis (8.1%). Candida parapsilosis complex (37.5%) was the most frequently isolated yeast and Fusarium spp. (53.6%) was the most isolated among non-dermatophyte fungi, followed by Aspergillus spp. (19.6%) and Acremonium spp. (10.7%). The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment. This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country.

  5. Une démangeaison incurable

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine H.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Question Dans de nombreuses communautés, on continue à voir survenir des infestations de poux de tête. Certains enfants ont besoin de multiples traitements avant que les poux soient éradiqués. Quels sont les traitements actuellement recommandés pour se débarrasser des poux de tête? Réponse Les infestations de poux de tête (Pediculus humanus capitis) sont fréquentes, surtout chez les enfants d’âge scolaire. Pour minimiser la résistance des poux, l’utilisation des insecticides et la stigmatisation sociale, on devrait limiter le diagnostic et le traitement à ceux qui ont des poux vivants sur le cuir chevelu. Les options de prise en charge prennent surtout la forme de thérapies topiques ou de l’enlèvement physique. Il y a peu d’études importantes qui comparent l’efficacité de ces traitements. Si on utilise des insecticides topiques, il faut répéter le traitement environ 7 jours après et si on a recours au peigne fin sur cheveux mouillés, il faut le faire aux 2 à 3 jours pendant 2 semaines. Les tendances dans la résistance des poux varient grandement selon la région et la résistance est maintenant la cause la plus fréquente de l’échec du traitement.

  6. Expression of human choriogonadotropin-like material in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, H F; Campbell-Acevedo, E; Kloos, W E

    1985-01-01

    We identified 101 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains obtained from different laboratories, the American Type Culture Collection, and our collection, isolated from 23 patients with overt cancer and 34 normal individuals through Kloos and Schleifer conventional methods and the Staph-Ident staphylococcal system (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.). In 40 strains, identity was further verified by DNA-DNA hybridization techniques. Identification revealed 39 S. epidermidis, 22 S. hominis, 8 S. haemolyticus, 9 S. capitis, 5 S. warneri, 5 S. cohnii, 8 S. saprophyticus, and 5 S. xylosus strains, all resident species found in humans. All bacteria were tested for the expression of human choriogonadotropin (hCG)-like material by the indirect fluorescein and peroxidase immunocytochemical labeling techniques by using specific antisera to the whole hormone, to its alpha and beta subunits, to the hCG beta COOH-terminal peptide, and to a monoclonal antibody to the hCG beta. The results demonstrated that the isolates from cancer patients were not unique bacteria, as has been postulated by others; the expression of immunoreactive hCG-like material is a strain, not a species, characteristic; not every bacterial strain isolated from a cancer patient is able to express the material; hCG-producing bacteria do not necessarily indicate the presence of active disease; 20% of the strains that we studied revealed a clonal variation of the expression of hCG-like material or its subunits or both as well as a variable expression of a single hCG epitope, an observation similar to that described for malignant cells; and a specific antiserum to the whole hormone with a high affinity and high sensitivity for immunocytochemistry can be a reliable reagent for screening purposes. Images PMID:2415456

  7. Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical

  8. Experimental Muscle Pain Impairs the Synergistic Modular Control of Neck Muscles.

    PubMed

    Gizzi, Leonardo; Muceli, Silvia; Petzke, Frank; Falla, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    A motor task can be performed via different patterns of muscle activation that show regularities that can be factorized in combinations of a reduced number of muscle groupings (also referred to as motor modules, or muscle synergies). In this study we evaluate whether an acute noxious stimulus induces a change in the way motor modules are combined to generate movement by neck muscles. The neck region was selected as it is a region with potentially high muscular redundancy. We used the motor modules framework to assess the redistribution of muscular activity of 12 muscles (6 per side) in the neck region of 8 healthy individuals engaged in a head and neck aiming task, in non-painful conditions (baseline, isotonic saline injection, post pain) and after the injection of hypertonic saline into the right splenius capitis muscle. The kinematics of the task was similar in the painful and control conditions. A general decrease of activity was noted for the injected muscle during the painful condition together with an increase or decrease of the activity of the other muscles. Subjects did not adopt shared control strategies (motor modules inter subject similarity at baseline 0.73±0.14); the motor modules recorded during the painful condition could not be used to reconstruct the activation patterns of the control conditions, and the painful stimulus triggered a subject-specific redistribution of muscular activation (i.e., in some subjects the activity of a given muscle increased, whereas in other subjects it decreased with pain). Alterations of afferent input (i.e., painful stimulus) influenced motor control at a multi muscular level, but not kinematic output. These findings provide new insights into the motor adaptation to pain.

  9. Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Barker, Stephen C.; Herd, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes in their most recent common ancestor, which lived ∼7 Ma. The head louse has exactly the same set of mt minichromosomes as the body louse, indicating that the number of minichromosomes, and the gene content and gene arrangement in each minichromosome have remained unchanged since the body louse evolved from the head louse ∼107,000 years ago. The pubic louse has the same pattern of one protein-coding or rRNA gene per minichromosome (except one minichromosome with two protein-coding genes, atp6 and atp8) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement of other tRNA genes was by gene translocation between minichromosomes, likely caused by minichromosome split via gene degeneration and deletion. PMID:23042553

  10. An international activity and spectrum analysis of linezolid: ZAAPS Program results for 2011.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Ross, James E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-06-01

    Through a continuing resistance surveillance monitoring program, linezolid was shown to maintain its spectrum and potency against a collection of 8059 clinically relevant Gram-positive strains collected from patients at 79 medical centers in 33 countries and Hong Kong. Linezolid MIC90 values were 2 μg/mL for methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, and the MIC90 value was 1 μg/mL for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), β-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and viridans group streptococci. Reference broth microdilution susceptibility testing for linezolid demonstrated a 99.83% susceptibility rate for all organisms. All S. aureus were inhibited by ≤2 μg/mL. Three (0.3%) of 928 strains of CoNS had a linezolid MIC of 4 μg/mL and contained the cfr resistance gene; 1 also had a mutation in L3. There were 14 linezolid-resistant strains detected from 7 countries (Brazil [5], France [1], Germany [2] Greece [2], Italy [2], Ireland [1], and Spain [1]) representing 5 species (E. faecium, S. capitis, S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. lugdenensis). A mobile cfr gene was noted in 2 species having elevated linezolid MIC values; one was a S. haemolyticus isolate with a MIC at 4 μg/mL. Resistance rates were as follows for the 6 groups of organisms sampled in the 2011 ZAAPS Program: CoNS, 1.2%; enterococci, 0.39%; among S aureus, S. pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and β-hemolytic streptococci, no resistance was detected. As the activities of commonly used antimicrobials continue to be compromised by evolving resistance mechanisms in Gram-positive pathogens, linezolid-resistant strains remain uncommon and without increasing occurrence.

  11. Finding the neck-trunk boundary in snakes: anteroposterior dissociation of myological characteristics in snakes and its implications for their neck and trunk body regionalization.

    PubMed

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Kearney, Maureen; Rieppel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The neck and trunk regionalization of the presacral musculoskeletal system in snakes and other limb-reduced squamates was assessed based on observations on craniovertebral and body wall muscles. It was confirmed that myological features characterizing the neck in quadrupedal squamates (i.e., squamates with well-developed limbs) are retained in all examined snakes, contradicting the complete lack of the neck in snakes hypothesized in previous studies. However, the posterior-most origins of the craniovertebral muscles and the anterior-most bony attachments of the body wall muscles that are located at around the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates were found to be dissociated anteroposteriorly in snakes. Together with results of a recent study that the anterior expression boundaries of Hox genes coinciding with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal amniotes were dissociated anteroposteriorly in a colubrid snake, these observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes. Whereas certain craniovertebral muscles are elongated in some snakes, results of optimization on an ophidian cladogram show that the most recent common ancestor of extant snakes would have had the longest craniovertebral muscle, M. rectus capitis anterior, that is elongated only by several segments compared with that of quadrupedal squamates. Therefore, even such a posteriorly displaced "cervical" characteristic plesiomorphically lies fairly anteriorly in the greatly elongated precloacal region of snakes, suggesting that the trunk, not the neck, would have contributed most to the elongation of the snake precloacal region. A similar dissociation of structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates is observed in limb-reduced squamates, suggesting that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the

  12. Head Lice of Pygmies Reveal the Presence of Relapsing Fever Borreliae in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Akiana, Jean; Mongo Ndombe, Géor; Davoust, Bernard; Nsana, Nardiouf Sjelin; Parra, Henri-Joseph; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, occur in four divergent mitochondrial clades (A, B, C and D), each having particular geographical distributions. Recent studies suggest that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Therefore, understanding the genetic diversity of lice worldwide is of critical importance to our understanding of the risk of louse-borne diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the results of the first molecular screening of pygmies’ head lice in the Republic of Congo for seven pathogens and an analysis of lice mitochondrial clades. We developed two duplex clade-specific real-time PCRs and identified three major mitochondrial clades: A, C, and D indicating high diversity among the head lice studied. We identified the presence of a dangerous human pathogen, Borrelia recurrentis, the causative agent of relapsing fever, in ten clade A head lice, which was not reported in the Republic of Congo, and B. theileri in one head louse. The results also show widespread infection among head lice with several species of Acinetobacter. A. junii was the most prevalent, followed by A. ursingii, A. baumannii, A. johnsonii, A. schindleri, A. lwoffii, A. nosocomialis and A. towneri. Conclusions/Significance Our study is the first to show the presence of B. recurrentis in African pygmies’ head lice in the Republic of Congo. This study is also the first to report the presence of DNAs of B. theileri and several species of Acinetobacter in human head lice. Further studies are needed to determine whether the head lice can transmit these pathogenic bacteria from person to another. PMID:27911894

  13. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I.; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  14. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  15. Dermoscopy in General Dermatology: A Practical Overview.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans), itchy papulonodular dermatoses (hypertrophic lichen planus, prurigo nodularis, nodular scabies and acquired perforating dermatosis), erythrodermas (due to psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, mycosis fungoides, pityriasis rubra pilaris and scabies), noninfectious balanitis (Zoon's plasma cell balanitis, psoriatic balanitis, seborrheic dermatitis and non-specific balanitis) and erythroplasia of Queyrat, inflammatory cicatricial alopecias (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and folliculitis decalvans), nonscarring alopecias (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium) and scaling disorders of the scalp (tinea capitis, scalp psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis amiantacea).

  16. Chemical composition of the essential oils of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm. f.) and their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Dalia; Ashour, Mohamed L; Mulyaningsih, Sri; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The volatile secondary metabolites of essential oils from fruit peel and leaves of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon) were investigated using GLC and GLC-MS (gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy). Altogether 141 compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 99.59% and 96.33% of the total hydrodistilled peel and leaf oil, respectively. Limonene occurred in higher amounts in fruit peel (52.73%) than in leaf oil (29.13%). Neral (12.72%), neryl acetate (8.53%), p-menth-1-en-7-al (4.63%), beta-pinene (6.35%), and nerol (4.42%) were the most abundant constituents in leaf oil, whereas gamma-terpinene (9.88%), beta-pinene (7.67%), geranial (4.44%), and neral (3.64%) dominated in the fruit peel oil. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal, and antimicrobial activities of the fruit peel essential oil were evaluated. The oil had a low antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of (26.66 +/- 2.07) mg/ml as compared to the efficient antioxidant ascorbic acid [IC50 (16.32 +/- 0.16) microg/ml]. The oil moderately inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with an IC50 value of (32.05 +/- 3.91) microg/ml and had moderate antitrypanosomal activity [IC50 (60.90 +/- 0.91) microg/ml]. In addition, moderate antimicrobial activities were detected against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus capitis, Micrococcus luteus), one Gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens), and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida parapsilosis).

  17. Anatomy and biomechanics of the vertebral aponeurosis part of the posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Thurston, Todd; Jones, Virginia L; Linganna, Sanjay; Tubbs, R Shane

    2008-03-01

    There is significant paucity in the literature regarding vertebral aponeurosis. We were able to find only a few descriptions of this specific fascia in the extant medical literature. To elucidate further the anatomy of this structure, forty adult human cadavers were dissected. Both quantitation and anatomical observations were made of the vertebral aponeurosis. The vertebral aponeurosis was identified in 100% of specimens. This fascia was identified as a thin fibrous layer consisting of longitudinal and transverse connective tissue fibers blended together deep to the latissimus dorsi muscle. It attached medially to the spinous processes of the of the thoracic vertebrae; laterally to the angles of ribs; inferiorly to the fascia covering the serratus posterior inferior muscle (superficial lamina of the posterior layer of thoracolumbar fascia); superiorly it ran deep to the serratus posterior superior and splenius capitis muscles to blend with the deep fascia of the neck. At the level of the serratus posterior inferior muscle, the vertebral aponeurosis fused to form a continuous layer descending toward the sacrotuberous ligament covering the erector spinae muscle. Morphometrically, the mean length of the vertebral aponeurosis was 38 cm and the mean width was 24 cm. The mean thickness was three mm. There was no significant difference between left and right sides, gender or age with regard to vertebral aponeurosis length, width, or thickness (P > 0.05). During manual tension of the vertebral aponeurosis, the tensile force necessary for failure had a mean of 38.7 N. In all specimens, the vertebral aponeurosis was capable of holding sutures placed through its substance. We hope that these data will be of use for descriptive purposes and may potentially add to our understanding of the biomechanics involved in movements of the back. As back pain is perhaps the most common reason patients visit their physicians, additional knowledge of this anatomical region is important.

  18. [Epilepsy and cognition: the role of antiepileptic drugs].

    PubMed

    García-Peñas, Juan José; Fournier-Del Castillo, M Concepción; Domínguez-Carral, Jana

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. Multiples y muy diversos factores se relacionan con la alteracion cognitiva en la epilepsia, incluyendo el efecto adverso directo de los farmacos antiepilepticos (FAE). El uso de los FAE requiere de un riguroso equilibrio entre riesgo y beneficio para conseguir asi el mejor control de las crisis con el menor numero de efectos adversos neurocognitivos. Objetivo. Analizar los efectos adversos cognitivos generales y especificos de los FAE de primera, segunda y tercera generacion. Desarrollo. Todos los FAE disponibles pueden producir efectos adversos cognitivos, que son mas frecuentes en politerapia, con dosis totales altas y niveles sericos elevados. Las alteraciones mas comunes son el descenso de la capacidad de reaccion y de la velocidad de procesamiento con afectacion concomitante de la memoria, la atencion y el lenguaje. Sin embargo, hay gran controversia sobre la existencia o no de perfiles cognitivos especificos para cada uno de los distintos FAE y se dispone de una informacion contradictoria al respecto por la inadecuada metodologia de los estudios comparativos. Conclusiones. Los efectos adversos cognitivos de los FAE son frecuentes y pueden afectar negativamente la tolerabilidad, el cumplimiento y el mantenimiento a largo plazo del tratamiento antiepileptico. Se debe considerar el potencial efecto adverso cognitivo de los distintos FAE a la hora de elegir un tratamiento y es importante reconocer e identificar precozmente estos efectos adversos y saber como pueden afectar a los pacientes.

  19. [Antineoplastic treatment impact on nutritional status in patients with breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Monroy Cisneros, Karina; Astiazarán García, Humberto; Esparza Romero, Julián; Guevara Torres, Alfonso Genaro; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E; Méndez Estrada, Rosa Olivia; Tortoledo Ortiz, Orlando; Pacheco Moreno, Bertha Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Presentación: El cáncer de mama es el tipo de tumor más frecuentemente diagnosticado entre las mujeres de México y también el de más alta mortalidad. Aunque el tratamiento ha mejorado significativamente, puede afectar al estado nutricional del paciente. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio era evaluar el impacto de la fase inicial de la terapia antineoplásica sobre el estado nutricional en pacientes con cáncer de mama. Métodos: Cuarenta sujetos con diagnóstico primario de cáncer de mama invasivo fueron estudiados antes y después de la intervención (con seis meses de desfase) usando un diseño quasi-experimental. Las mediciones al inicio y seis meses después de la intervención incluyeron antropometría, composición corporal mediante absorciometría dual de rayos X (DEXA), cuestionario de recopilación de dieta en 24 horas y frecuencia de comidas, y suero beta-caroteno y retinol. El efecto de la terapia fue analizado empleando mediciones repetidas y regresión lineal mixta. Resultados: El tejido magro disminuyó tras el periodo de estudio (p=0.032). Además, se dio una interacción entre los parámetros de peso, IMC y grasa corporal con el estado de menopausia, aumentando en estas variables debido a la terapia solo en pacientes premenopáusicas (p=0.005, 0.006 y 0.001, respectivamente). Descenso de retinol sérico (p=0.049) a pesar de la mejoría en el estado de beta-caroteno (p=0.03). En general hubo un aumento en el consumo de verdura y un descenso de productos animales. Conclusión: El tratamiento antineoplásico del cáncer de mama tuvo un efecto negativo sobre el peso y la grasa corporal, especialmente en mujeres jóvenes. Aunque se observaron algunos cambios positivos en la dieta, el consumo de verdura siguió siendo insuficiente, lo que también se reflejó en los biomarcadores séricos.

  20. Design of quality indicators for oral nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Gimenez Verotti, Cristiane Comeron; de Miranda Torrinhas, Raquel Susana Matos; Pires Corona, Ligiana; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: los indicadores de calidad en la terapia nutricional han sido propuestos como herramientas útiles para mejorar la terapia nutricional (TN). Este estudio pretende diseñar indicadores de calidad de terapia nutricional oral (ICTNO) factibles en el control de calidad de TN oral. Métodos: el diseño de ICTNO fue realizado por una comisión de nutrición clínica compuesta por brasileños expertos en TN del International Life Science Institute (ILSI). Más tarde, la aprobación de estos ICTNO fue valorada con análisis psicométricos recogiendo las opiniones de otros brasileños dedicados independientemente a la TN (n = 40) vía SurveyMonkey (encuesta por internet). Esta consistió en cuatro atributos valorando cada ICTNO (simplicidad, utilidad, objetividad y bajo precio) seguida de una escala Likert con cinco puntos. Resultados: los expertos en TN de ILSI proporcionaron el diseño de 12 QIONT, que fueron todos consistentemente (Alfa de Cronbach = 0,84) clasificados como válidos por expertos independientes en NT. Por orden de relevancia, los nuevos ICTNO valoraron: la frecuencia de screening nutricional, la prescripción de suplementos de nutrición oral para pacientes desnutridos que ya reciben dieta oral, la prescripción de suplementos de nutrición oral para pacientes con bajo riesgo nutricional que ya reciben dieta oral, el consejo nutricional, la adhesión al suplemento nutricional oral, los pacientes hospitalizados con dieta oral insuficiente y prescripción de suplementos nutricionales orales, los pacientes de UCI con dieta oral insuficiente y prescripción de suplementos nutricionales orales, el consejo de nutrición oral en pacientes de UCI, el consejo de nutrición oral en pacientes en planta, la intolerancia al volumen de suplemento oral debido a dosificación inadecuada, la intolerancia al sabor del suplemento oral y la intolerancia al volumen de suplemento oral. Conclusión: según la opinión experta, 12 potenciales y factibles nuevos ICTNO

  1. Laparoscopic drainage of a recurrent psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Neola, Benedetto; D'Ambra, Michele; Capasso, Stefano; Russo, Milena; Ferulano, Giuseppe Paolo

    2014-03-28

    Negli ultimi anni, gli ascessi del muscolo ileopsoas sono stati riportati in letteratura con crescente frequenza, probabilmente a causa del largo impiego della TC nella diagnostica differenziale delle algie lombari. Qui presentiamo il caso di una paziente che ha sviluppato un ascesso dell’ileopsoas post-traumatico. Una donna di 43 anni riferiva febbre da 4 settimane, anoressia, dolore al fianco destro e alla regione lombare e difficoltà alla deambulazione. Tale sintomatologia, insorta per la prima volta 20 anni prima in seguito ad una caduta da cavallo, si ripresentava ciclicamente. Per il controllo della febbre e del dolore, la paziente assumeva una terapia antibiotica empirica. Al momento del ricovero gli esami ematochimici mostravano una moderata leucocitosi. La TC dell’addome evidenziava un grosso ascesso multiloculato dello psoas destro ed una lesione ipodensa del sesto segmento epatico. Considerando la lunga storia di infezioni ricorrenti e l’indicazione ad investigare ulteriormente la lesione epatica, si optava per il drenaggio laparoscopico della lesione: aperta completamente la parete dell’ascesso, venivano drenati 550ml di liquido purulento la cui coltura evidenziava la presenza di Stafilococco aureo. Una ecografia del fegato intraoperatoria con sonda laparoscopica escludeva la presenza di una lesione resecabile del sesto segmento epatico e ne confermava la natura infiammatoria. La paziente veniva dimessa in terza giornata operatoria con terapia antibiotica mirata sull’antibiogramma. Nè febbre, nè dolore sono stati più riferiti ai successivi controlli a 1, 6, 12 e 24 mesi dall’intervento. Molti Autori ritengono che gli ascessi dell’ileopsoas possano essere controllati con terapia antibiotica ed eventualmente attraverso il drenaggio percutaneo, riservando il drenaggio chirurgico ai casi complessi o recidivanti. Tuttavia la letteratura non chiarisce se sia da preferire il drenaggio chirurgico con accesso open o laparoscopico. Nella nostra

  2. [Rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism associated to multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas].

    PubMed

    Mejia, P; Piedra, L M; Merchan-Del Hierro, X

    2017-03-01

    Introduccion. Las demencias rapidamente progresivas son un grupo poco frecuente de enfermedades caracterizadas por un deterioro cognitivo y otras alteraciones neurologicas que evolucionan en el transcurso de semanas a meses. Su etiologia es diversa e incluye un gran numero de condiciones neurodegenerativas, toxicas, metabolicas, autoinmunes, infecciosas y vasculares. Caso clinico. Varon de 69 años, que ingreso por demencia rapidamente progresiva y parkinsonismo causado por multiples fistulas arteriovenosas durales tratadas exitosamente mediante terapia endovascular. Conclusion. Las fistulas arteriovenosas durales son conexiones anomalas entre las arterias durales y los senos venosos o venas corticales que constituyen una causa inusual de demencia rapidamente progresiva, pero que debe considerarse, dada la disponibilidad de un tratamiento especifico con reversion de los sintomas.

  3. [Transdermal estrogenic therapy in menopause].

    PubMed

    Nencioni, T; Polvani, F; Penotti, M; Porcaro, E; Barbieri Carones, M

    1989-01-01

    The availability of percutaneous estrogenic preparations capable of directly entering the bloodstream, avoiding the liver, has opened new prospects in the treatment of the climacteric syndrome. The purpose of our work has been to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of a percutaneous 17-beta-estradiol-oral progestin association with an all oral association of conjugated estrogens and progestins and to evaluate the ability to control menopausal symptoms and biohumoral characteristics. 42 (1 to 7 years postmenopausal) heavily symptomatic patients were selected at the "Centro per lo studio e la terapia del climaterio" in Milan and divided in two equally sized groups. One group was treated using the percutaneous therapy, the other with the all-oral one. The results show that percutaneous administration leads to a quicker control of vasomotor symptomatology and metabolic effects similar to oral administration.

  4. Online beam monitoring in the treatment of ocular pathologies at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Catania.

    PubMed

    Givehchi, N; Marchetto, F; Valastro, L M; Ansarinejad, A; Attili, A; Garella, M A; Giordanengo, S; Monaco, V; Montero, J Pardo; Sacchi, R; Boriano, A; Bourhaleb, F; Cirio, R; La Rosa, A; Pecka, A; Peroni, C; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Donetti, M; Iliescu, S; Pittera, S; Raffaele, L

    2011-10-01

    A detector (MOPI) has been developed for the online monitoring of the beam at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA), where shallow tumours of the ocular region are treated with 62 MeV protons. At CATANA the beam is passively spread to match the tumour shape. The uniformity of the delivered dose depends on beam geometrical quantities which are checked before each treatment. However, beam instabilities might develop during the irradiation affecting the dose distribution. This paper reports on the use of the MOPI detector to measure the stability of the beam profile during the irradiation in the clinical practice. The results obtained in the treatment of 54 patients are also presented.

  5. Deep burn of hand and forearm treated by abdominal wall flap. A case report.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, Stefano; Del Torto, Giuseppe; Maffia, Romano; Pataia, Elisabetta; Alfano, Carmine

    2015-06-24

    Le ustioni della mano sono sempre state uno dei maggiori problemi per i chirurghi ricostruttori a causa della sua particolare anatomia e delle sue complesse funzioni. Una guarigione spontanea di lesioni profonde in queste aree può portare a risultati catastrofici: una copertura cutanea adeguata è fondamentale per tutte le funzioni. La copertura precoce dei tessuti molli residuanti è fondamentale al fine di evitare la formazione di contratture disabilitanti che con il tempo potrebbero determinare anchilosi articolare e retrazione tendinea. Escissione precoce e innesti cutanei rappresentano la terapia standard per le ustioni della mano; in alcuni casi quest’approccio è inapplicabile e, pertanto, il ricorso ai lembi diventa inevitabile. In questo articolo riportiamo un caso di ustione complessa del dorso della mano trattata in prima istanza con innesti cutanei e, quindi, con un lembo addominale, riuscendo ad ottenere un’ottima copertura ed un buon recupero delle funzioni.

  6. Case report: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of pancreatic origin in a patient with down syndrome: The role of diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, M; Di Renzo, D; Persico, A; Chiesa, P Lelli

    2011-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Il tumore miofibroblastico infiammatorio (TIM) è un tumore solido benigno, di incerta eziologia. MATERIALI E METODI: Riportiamo un case-report di un bambino (4 anni, sindrome di Down), con massa pancreatica identificata all’ultrasonografia (US) e confermata da TC. RISULTATI: Il monitoraggio del TIM è stato effettuato con US seriate. Il follow-up a 4 anni dalla diagnosi è senza recidive. DISCUSSIONE: Il paziente, data l’impossibilità dell’exeresi chirurgica radicale, è stato trattato con successo con terapia medica (FANS). Abbiamo deciso di monitorizzare la lesione con ultrasonografie seriate, riducendo il numero di esami TC ai quali il paziente avrebbe dovuto sottoporsi, evitando così l’esposizione a radiazioni ionizzanti. La letteratura, infatti, riporta ampiamente come l’esecuzione di ripetuti esami TC si accompagni ad una importante radioesposizione con conseguente rischio cancerogeno, dato assolutamente non trascurabile in età pediatrica.

  7. [Utility of a pneumatic system to transport erythrocyte concentrates: pilot study].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Torres, Noemí Patricia; Virgen-Díaz, Surid; León-Olvera, Daira L; Hernández-Pérez, Ana L; Calderón-Abbo, Moisés C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: los sistemas de transporte de componentes eritrocitarios deben ser seguros y modernos. En este trabajo se analiza la seguridad de un sistema neumático como medio de transporte de concentrados eritrocitarios del servicio de transfusiones al servicio de la terapia posquirúrgica. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron las muestras piloto de 50 concentrados eritrocitarios, previa homogeneización del tubo con pinza rotatoria. Se obtuvieron 1.5 mL de la muestra antes de enviar el concentrado eritrocitario por el sistema neumático y 1.5 mL después de su llegada a su destino. Las muestras fueron colocadas en tubos de cristal para su análisis. También se analizaron la concentración de hemoglobina, el nivel de hematócrito y la concentración de potasio extracelular.

  8. Nutritional and metabolic status of breast cancer women.

    PubMed

    Bering, Tatiana; Maurício, Sílvia Fernandes; Silva, Jacqueline Braga da; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson

    2014-09-28

    Introducción: El estado nutricional y metabolico se han relacionado con factores de riesgo del cancer, asi como la morbimortalidad del tratamiento del cancer. Por lo tanto, su evaluacion es importante para el desarrollo de estrategias para la promocion, mantenimiento y/o recuperacion del estado nutricional y la evolucion del cancer. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron varios metodos diferentes para la evaluacion nutricional en pacientes con cancer de mama sometidas a terapia adyuvante, incluyendo la valoracion subjetiva global (SGA), el indice de masa corporal (IMC), pliegue tricipital (PT), la circunferencia del brazo (CB), del espesor del musculo aductor del pulgar (TAPM), la fuerza de prension manual (FPM) y el porcentaje de masa grasa (PMG) mediante impedancia bioelectrica. Tambien se evaluo la presencia del sindrome metabolico (SM). Se evaluo la aparicion de complicaciones durante el tratamiento del cancer en comparacion con el estado nutricional. Resultados: Se siguieron a 78 mujeres con una edad media de 53,2 } 11,6 anos. La mayoria de los pacientes estaban bien nutridos (80,8 %). Excesiva PMG y los SM se encontraron en 80,8 % y 41,9 % de los pacientes, respectivamente. Hubo diferencias significativas en el IMC, PT, circunferencia de la cintura y la PMG entre los pacientes con y sin sindrome metabolico. La mayoria de los pacientes experimentaron complicaciones durante el tratamiento del cancer, pero no hubo asociacion con el estado nutricional o metabolico. Conclusión: En las mujeres con cancer de mama que reciben terapia adyuvante, la prevalencia del sindrome metabolico fue alta y, por el contrario, la desnutricion era baja. No hubo efectos a corto plazo del sindrome metabolico o la desnutricion en los resultados clinicos.

  9. [Safety in the clinical practice of the triple therapy with telaprevir in chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Sangrador Pelluz, C; Maiques Llácer, F J; Soler Company, E

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudiar la seguridad de la triple terapia con telaprevir y el momento de aparición de las RAM en el tratamiento de la hepatitis C. Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo (Enero 2012- Junio 2013) de los pacientes con VHC genotipo 1 que hubieran finalizado las 12 semanas de triple terapia con telaprevir. Se recogieron las variables necesarias para caracterizar a los pacientes, y aquellas referentes al tratamiento recibido. La clasificación de las RAM se realizó según criterios de la División del SIDA versión 1.0. Resultados: Se incluyeron 88 pacientes (78% hombres), 75% pacientes cirróticos. El 40,9% estaba coinfectado con VIH. Las principales RAM (incidencia > 40%) incluyendo todos los grados: toxicidad hematológica, cansancio, hiperuricemia, hiperbilirrubinemia y prurito. Las RAM graves (incidencia > 15%): trombocitopenia, anemia y neutropenia. El 3,4% presentó toxicodermia grave. El 51,1% requirió ajuste de dosis de ribavirina, 13,6% transfusiones de sangre, y 28,4% eritropoyetina exógena. El 8% requirió ingreso hospitalario motivado por la toxicidad del tratamiento. El tratamiento fue suspendido por toxicidad en el 6,8% de los pacientes: 3 por toxicodermia grave, 2 por toxicidad hematológica grave, y 1 por emesis grave. La trombocitopenia y la hiperbilirrubinemia se registraron de manera temprana en su mayor grado de toxicidad, mientras que el resto de RAM presentaron periodos de progresión más prolongados. Conclusiones: El estudio señala un perfil de toxicidad superior al descrito en los ensayos clínicos, principalmente en cuanto a toxicidad hematológica, y permite predecir un rango de tiempo de mayor probabilidad de aparición de las RAM.

  10. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of etanercept compared with other biologic therapies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Vargas-Valencia, Juan; García-García, Erika Gabriela; Munciño-Ortega, Emilio; Galindo-Suárez, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar la relación costo-efectividad del etanercept en comparación con otras terapias biológicas para tratar la artritis reumatoide moderada o severa en pacientes con falla previa a fármacos antirreumáticos modificadores de la enfermedad. Métodos: se empleó un modelo farmacoeconómico basado en el análisis de decisiones para valorar la evolución clínica con etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab o tocilizumab para tratar artritis reumatoide moderada o severa. Los parámetros de efectividad fueron las tasas de mejoría igual o superior a 20 % (ACR 20) y de mejoría igual o superior a 70 % (ACR 70). Resultados: etanercept tuvo la mayor efectividad terapéutica: en 79.7 % de los pacientes se observó una ACR 20 y en 31.4 %, una ACR 70. También tuvo el menor costo asociado ($149 629.1 por paciente) y fue más costo-efectiva ($187 740.4 por éxito clínico para obtener ACR 20 y $476 525.8 por éxito clínico para obtener ACR 70) que las demás terapias biológicas. Conclusiones: el etanercept fue el fármaco más efectivo y menos costoso, por lo que resulta la opción terapéutica más eficiente, desde el punto de vista de la relación costo-efectividad media y en términos incrementales para el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide.

  11. [Quality care in an intensive therapy unit at private hospital].

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Miranda, Mauricio; Anthon-Mendez, Francisco Javier; Esponda-Prado, Juan Gerardo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es evaluar la calidad de la atención en una unidad de terapia intensiva con índices internacionales de calidad. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de atención privada en México. Se analizan los indicadores de 2012 con un total de 446 pacientes hospitalizados. Los indicadores de calidad fueron acordes a recomendaciones internacionales. La gravedad fue determinada por la escala SAPS III. Resultados: el indicador de neumonías asociadas a ventilación se encontró por debajo del estándar recomendado (11.7 frente a 12 por mil); la bacteremia relacionada a catéter venoso central en rangos aceptados (5.7 frente a 4 por mil). Las acciones de profilaxis de úlceras, prevención de tromboembolia pulmonar y prevención de caídas en altas proporciones de cumplimiento (> 90, > 95 % y 0 caídas). Las tasas de extubación no programada y reintubaciones estuvieron por debajo de los indicadores (< 1 por mil días intubación y < 12 %). La mortalidad fue menor a la estimada por la gravedad. Conclusión: En esta terapia la implementación de acciones recomendadas a nivel internacional ha permitido mantener una adecuada calidad de atención. El esfuerzo a impactado no solo a los pacientes con condiciones agudas de ingreso, sino también a pacientes con alto riesgo de mortalidad.

  12. [Infusional therapy: an alternative for shouder pain post-laparoscopy].

    PubMed

    Ureña-Frausto, Cielo Alborada; Plancarte-Sánchez, Ricardo; Reyes-Torres, Juan Ignacio; Ramírez-Aranda, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: en cirugía laparoscópica del hemiabdomen superior la anestesia neuroaxial disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias; sin embargo, el dolor de hombro es una afección frecuente de difícil control. Puesto que los fármacos opioides mayores (fentanilo) para el control del dolor deprimen la función respiratoria, consideramos que la terapia infusional es un tratamiento seguro y eficaz. Objetivo: comparar diversos esquemas analgésicos para el control del dolor de hombro secundario al neumoperitoneo. Material y método: ensayo clínico no aleatorizado, efectuado en 56 pacientes ASA I-II en cuatro grupos con colecistectomía laparoscópica. El grupo I (n= 15) se trató con ketorolaco 1 mg/kg, el grupo II (n= 12) con ketoprofeno 100 mg, el grupo III (n= 14) con ketoprofeno 50 mg más tramadol 50 mg, y el grupo IV (n= 15) con ketoprofeno 100 mg más tramadol 100 mg. Las variables analizadas fueron: dolor y su intensidad, analgesia de rescate y tiempo quirúrgico. Resultados: en el grupo I hubo más episodios de dolor de hombro que en el resto de los grupos (p= 0.002); el grupo IV requirió menos analgesia de rescate (p= 0.034). Conclusión: la analgesia preventiva con terapia infusional con ketoprofeno-tramadol, a dosis de 100 mg, es segura para pacientes intervenidos mediante cirugía laparoscópica.

  13. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology.

    PubMed

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A tosse é o sintoma respiratório mais comum em crianças e adultos.Objetivo: Apresentar uma revisão sobre a neurofisiologia e os métodos para estudo do reflexo da tosse, bem como a farmacoterapia e terapia fonoaudiológica da tosse, baseada nos trabalhos publicados entre 2005 e 2010 e indexados nas bases Medline, Lilacs e Biblioteca Cochrane sob os unitermos “tosse” ou “antitussígenos”.Síntese dos dados: O reflexo da tosse envolve ativação de múltiplos receptores vagais nas vias aéreas e de projeções neurais do núcleo do trato solitário para outras estruturas do sistema nervoso central. Técnicas experimentais permitem estudar o reflexo da tosse ao nível celular e molecular para desenvolver novos agentes antitussígenos. Não há evidências de que antitussígenos isentos de prescrição médica tenham eficácia superior à do placebo para o alívio da tosse. A terapia fonoaudiológica pode beneficiar pacientes com tosse crônica refratária ao tratamento farmacológico, sobretudo quando coexiste movimento paradoxal das pregas vocais.Comentários Finais: A abordagem multidisciplinar tem papel fundamental no diagnóstico etiológico e tratamento da tosse. O otorrinolaringologista deve informar os pacientes sobre os riscos dos antitussígenos de venda livre a fim de prevenir intoxicações e efeitos adversos, especialmente em crianças.

  14. [Long-term effect of policosanol on the functional recovery of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke patients: a one year study].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Illnait, J; Mas, R; Mendoza, S; Fernandez, L; Mesa, M; Vega, H; Fernandez, J; Reyes, P; Ruiz, D

    2017-02-16

    Introduccion. El ictus es una causa principal de mortalidad y discapacidad. El policosanol ha sido eficaz en modelos de isquemia cerebral. Este estudio investiga si el tratamiento a largo plazo con policosanol, añadido a la terapia con acido acetilsalicilico (AAS), dentro de los 30 dias posteriores a un ictus, es mejor que el placebo + AAS en la recuperacion de los pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio aleatorizado, doble ciego, controlado con placebo. Se incluyeron 80 pacientes (edad media: 69 años) que sufrieron un ictus en los 30 dias previos y con una puntuacion de 2-4 en la escala de Rankin modificada (mRS). Se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en dos grupos y recibieron policosanol + AAS o placebo + AAS durante 12 meses. Resultados. El tratamiento con policosanol + AAS disminuyo significativamente la puntuacion en la mRS desde el primer control intermedio (1,5 meses). El efecto del tratamiento incluso mejoro con la terapia a largo plazo. El numero de pacientes que alcanzaron valores de mRS menores o iguales a 1 fue superior en el grupo de policosanol + AAS (87,5%) que en el de placebo + AAS (0%). El tratamiento con policosanol + AAS aumento significativamente el indice de Barthel, disminuyo el colesterol LDL y aumento el colesterol HDL frente a placebo + AAS. Conclusiones. El tratamiento a largo plazo (12 meses) con policosanol + AAS fue mas efectivo que el tratamiento con placebo + AAS en la recuperacion funcional de los pacientes despues de sufrir un ictus isquemico no cardioembolico de moderada gravedad.

  15. [Urgent stroke care in hospitals with a stroke unit. Quick Project].

    PubMed

    Masjuán, Jaime; Álvarez-Sabín, José; Arias-Rivas, Susana; Blanco, Miguel; de Felipe, Alicia; Escudero-Martínez, Irene; Fuentes, Blanca; Gállego-Culleré, Jaime; Moniche-Álvarez, Francisco; Muñoz, Lucía; Pérez de la Ossa-Herrero, Natalia; Sahuquillo, Patricia; Santamarina, Estevo; Sanz, Borja; Tembl, José I; Zandio, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El ictus es una emergencia medica dependiente del tiempo. La rapidez en su reconocimiento y en la atencion que reciben los pacientes es clave en el pronostico. Objetivos. Analizar los tiempos de actuacion medica, evaluar posibles areas de mejora y estudiar la dotacion de recursos de los centros. Pacientes y metodos. Registro prospectivo de pacientes atendidos en ocho unidades de ictus experimentadas españolas con sospecha de ictus y activacion del codigo ictus. Se recogieron los tiempos inicio-puerta, puerta-tomografia computarizada (TC), puerta-aguja, TC-aguja e inicio-aguja. Tambien se recogieron el metodo de trasporte al hospital, el tipo de ictus y las terapias de reperfusion. En cuanto a la dotacion estructural de los centros, se recogieron la ratio de enfermeria, la monitorizacion de camas, la disponibilidad de TC multimodal y resonancia magnetica, y la realizacion de cursos de informacion o formacion. Resultados. Se incluyeron 197 pacientes, de los cuales fueron validos 181 (151 infartos y 30 hemorragias cerebrales). Las medianas (p25-p75) en minutos fueron: inicio-puerta, 104 (70-188); puerta-TC, 27 (19-41); TC-aguja, 30 (21-43); puerta-aguja, 64 (49-83); e inicio-aguja, 156 (129-202). Se aplicaron terapias de reperfusion en 68 pacientes (el 45% de los infartos cerebrales), de los cuales el 81% fueron trombolisis intravenosas; el 7%, tratamientos endovasculares; y el 12%, una combinacion de ambos. Los recursos de los centros estuvieron de acuerdo con lo recomendado por las guias clinicas. Hubo un bajo porcentaje de pacientes estudiados con resonancia magnetica. Conclusion. El porcentaje de pacientes tratados con trombolisis fue muy elevado y los tiempos de los circuitos intrahospitalarios, aunque buenos, tienen margen de mejora.

  16. Thoracic ultrasonography: A new method for the work-up of patients with dyspnea().

    PubMed

    Vitturi, N; Soattin, M; Allemand, E; Simoni, F; Realdi, G

    2011-09-01

    SommarioLa diagnosi differenziale di dispnea è fondamentale per la gestione dell’insufficienza respiratoria in cui, ai parametri routinari, può essere ora affiancata l’ecografia toracica. L’obiettivo di questo studio è stato valutare la validità e l’accuratezza di questa metodica anche in un reparto di medicina interna. MATERIALI E METODI: 152 pazienti ricoverati conseguentemente con diagnosi di dispnea sono stati esaminati dopo valutazione clinica, radiografia del torace, dosaggi bioumorali (NT-proBNP) e terapia d’emergenza. L’esame ecografico polmonare è stato considerato positivo qualora il numero totale di linee B fosse superiore ad 8. L’esame ecografico e il dosaggio dell’NT-proBNP sono stati ripetuti dopo 48 ore. Il gold standard di riferimento è stato la diagnosi clinica di scompenso cardiaco fatta da medici esperti secondo le linee guida dell’AHA. RISULTATI: Il gruppo di pazienti che mostrava un esame ecografico positivo riceveva in percentuale maggiore la diagnosi finale di insufficienza cardiaca (X 92.5; p < 0.005) e valori significativamente più elevati di NT-proBNP (10,384 ng/l vs 3889 ng/l; p < 0.05). Inoltre la diminuzione delle linee B a 48 ore era significativamente maggiore (p < 0.005) nel gruppo di pazienti trattati per scompenso cardiaco mentre non vi erano cambiamenti significativi nei valori di NT-proBNP (p = 0.37). DISCUSSIONE: In conclusione abbiamo dimostrato che anche in un reparto di medicina interna l’ecografia polmonare è uno strumento diagnostico utile per le gestione dell’insufficienza respiratoria e il suo monitoraggio durante la terapia.

  17. Abdominal compartment syndrome and open abdomen management with negative pressure devices.

    PubMed

    Surace, Alessandra; Ferrarese, Alessia; Marola, Silvia; Cumbo, Jacopo; Valentina, Gentile; Borello, Alessandro; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter; Nano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Per sindrome compartimentale addominale (SCA) si intende un incremento della pressione intra-addominale (PIA) a valori superiori a 20 mmHg, associato ad una ridotta perfusione e disfunzione d’organo. La mortalità della SCA è del 50%; la sua incidenza tra i pazienti in RIA è del 30-50%. Il trattamento chirurgico consiste sostanzialmente nella decompressione addominale con apertura dell’addome; attualmente la metodica più utilizzata per la gestione della SCA è la terapia a pressione negativa. Nel 2009 è stata realizzata una classificazione dell’addome aperto, che stratifica i pazienti in base alla cronologia naturale del miglioramento o del deterioramento clinico dei pazienti con addome aperto. Lo scopo del trattamento è mantenere l’addome aperto del paziente al livello più basso ed evitare la progressione ad un livello più complesso. Secondo quanto riportato in letteratura questa metodica consente un tasso di chiusura fasciale tra i 65 e il 100% dei casi, riduce i tassi di mortalità e i tempi di degenza nei reparti di terapia intensiva. La chiusura dell’addome può avvenire progressivamente (per ridurre il rischio di fascite) oppure mediante l’utilizzo di una protesi biologia spessa su cui viene posizionata una copertura in plastica e impostato il lavaggio nel sottocute: la parete addominale deve essere chiusa dopo 24 ore. Se non fosse possibile chiudere tutti gli strati della parete addominale, il tentativo deve riguardare almeno il peritoneo, per ridurre morbilità e mortalità.

  18. [Current status of alternative therapies renal function at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Durán, Antonio; Ignorosa-Luna, Manuel Humberto; Pérez-Aguilar, Gilberto; Rivera-Rodríguez, Francisco Jesús; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Dávila-Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el IMSS realiza de manera sistemática la actualización de datos de los pacientes en terapias sustitutivas de la función renal (TSFR) mediante un registro electrónico denominado: Censo de administración de pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica (CIRC), cuyo objetivo es conocer la prevalencia de pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica y el comportamiento de las TSFR en el IMSS. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo, incluye 212 hospitales de segundo nivel con programas de diálisis, pacientes pediátricos y adultos. Datos obtenidos del CIRC de enero a diciembre de 2014, cédulas numeral y nominal de diálisis peritoneal (DP) y hemodiálisis (HD). Se identifica prevalencia de pacientes y terapias por delegación, distribución por género y edad, causa de la enfermedad renal, la morbilidad y mortalidad. Resultados: 55 101 pacientes, de los cuales fueron 29 924 masculinos (54 %) y 25 177 femeninos (46 %); edad promedio 62.1 años (rng: 4 a 90); pensionados 20 387 (36.9 %). Las causas de la insuficiencia renal fueron: diabetes 29 054 (52.7 %), hipertensión arterial 18 975 (34.4%), glomerulopatías crónicas 3951 (7.2 %), riñones poliquísticos 1142 (2.1 %), congénitos 875 (1.6 %), y otras 1104 (2 %). La HD se otorgó en 41 % de los pacientes y la DP al 59 % restante; el costo anual fue de 5 608 290 622 pesos. Conclusiones: la prevalencia incrementada de diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial repercuten en el inicio de una TSFR, las cuales muestran un panorama financiero catastrófico para el Instituto.

  19. [Is endovenous thrombolysis safety and efficacy in ischemic stroke comparable between patients aged over and above 80 years? Experience from an Argentinean cohort].

    PubMed

    Colla-Machado, P E; Pigretti, S G; Luzzi, A A; Balian, N R; Cristiano, E; Zurru-Ganen, M C

    2017-04-16

    Introduccion. La inclusion de mayores de 80 años fue escasa en los estudios que evaluaron la terapia trombolitica. El objetivo de este estudio es comparar la seguridad y eficacia del uso de activador del plasminogeno tisular recombinante en pacientes mayores y menores de 80 años. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio prospectivo de pacientes que recibieron tratamiento trombolitico. Se comparo el tiempo de estancia, la incidencia de sangrado, la mortalidad hospitalaria y la evolucion a 90 dias en pacientes mayores y menores de 80 años. Resultados. De 1.996 pacientes con ictus ingresados entre octubre de 2005 y enero de 2016, 180 recibieron tratamiento trombolitico (9%). La edad media fue de 77 ± 10 años, con un 55% de mujeres. Cuando se compararon los menores y mayores de 80 años, en estos ultimos la estancia hospitalaria fue prolongada, con una mediana de 15 dias (rango intercuartilico: 6-19) frente a siete dias (rango intercuartilico: 4-12; p = 0,001), y la discapacidad a los tres meses fue mayor (escala de Rankin 0-1 del 24% frente al 41%; p = 0,001). La puntuacion ASPECTS de ingreso, la incidencia de sangrado y la mortalidad hospitalaria no mostraron diferencias entre mayores y menores de 80 años. Los pacientes mayores de 80 años tuvieron menor tiempo de demora para llegar al hospital (97 ± 34 frente a 113 ± 45 min; p = 0,01); sin embargo, el tiempo puerta-aguja fue superior en los mayores de 80 años. Conclusion. La terapia trombolitica en los mayores de 80 años fue segura, aunque el grado de beneficio para reducir la discapacidad resulto menor.

  20. [Prognostic factors associated with postoperative morbidity in children with isolated ventricular septal defect].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, Claudia Olimpia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Lydia; Estrada-Loza, María Jesús; Herrera-Márquez, Julia Rocío; Gómez-Salvador, Maricela; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la comunicación interventricular aislada (CIV) es una de las cardiopatías congénitas más frecuentes a nivel mundial. Se desconoce cuáles son los factores pronósticos asociados a la morbilidad postoperatoria de los pacientes con CIV aislada en el Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo del 1 de enero de 2009 al 31 de diciembre de 2013. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y comparaciones entre los grupos mediante chi cuadrada, U de Mann Whitney y regresión lineal. Se calcularon riesgos relativos (RR) e intervalos de confianza al 95 % (IC 95%). Resultados: se incluyeron 64 pacientes a quienes se les realizó cierre de comunicación interventricular aislada. El 12.5 % (n = 8) tenían antecedente de cerclaje pulmonar y 22 (34.3 %) pacientes tenían síndrome de Down. Las CIV perimembranosas y la subaórtica se presentaron en 70 % de los casos. Los factores asociados a una mayor morbilidad y estancia prolongada en terapia intensiva fueron: lactato al final de la circulación extracorpórea (CEC) mayor a 3mmol/L (p = 0.02) y el síndrome de Down (p = 0.02) quienes presentaron una mayor frecuencia de complicaciones postoperatorias (p = 0.02). Conclusiones: se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa: cuanto mayor era la clase funcional preoperatoria, mayor era su estancia intrahospitalaria, con mayor número de días en terapia intensiva y mayor tiempo de ventilación mecánica asistida.

  1. [Assessment of therapeutic passive hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy that need interhospital transport].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ruiz, José A; Lagares-Franco, Carolina; Rodríguez-Molina, Óscar; Cordero-Cañas, Enrique; Benavente-Fernández, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Introduccion. La hipotermia inducida durante las primeras horas de vida del recien nacido es un tratamiento eficaz para reducir la mortalidad y secuelas graves en neonatos que han sufrido un episodio de hipoxia perinatal. Este procedimiento requiere una asistencia universalizada independiente del centro donde haya nacido, siendo necesario su traslado al hospital de referencia. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia del traslado interhospitalario del neonato con encefalopatia hipoxico-isquemica en hipotermia pasiva. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo de series de casos con caracter retrospectivo. Se estudiaron neonatos de la provincia de Cadiz que precisaron hipotermia inducida. Se incluyo a un total de 46 neonatos en el analisis: 33 de ellos (71,74%) precisaron traslado por el Servicio de Traslados de Pacientes Criticos (grupo TPC); el resto (28,26%) nacio en el centro de referencia. Resultados. Ambos grupos son comparables en edad gestacional al nacimiento, sexo, peso y grado de encefalopatia hipoxico-isquemica. Se analizan variables relacionadas con la aplicacion de la hipotermia, y en el grupo TPC se analizan variables relacionadas con el traslado. No se aprecian diferencias significativas entre los grupos en la efectividad-consecuencia de la terapia neuroprotectora con hipotermia al alta hospitalaria (p = 0,159). No se encuentran complicaciones derivadas del traslado interhospitalario. Conclusiones. El traslado interhospitalario del neonato en hipotermia terapeutica realizado de forma pasiva es efectivo, seguro y necesario para el cumplimiento de la terapia. Es preciso consensuar la asistencia con el servicio de referencia, estableciendo guias en cuanto al soporte y rango de temperatura adecuada, consolidando asi una asistencia integral.

  2. State of malnutrition in cuban hospitals; a needed update.

    PubMed

    Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Justificación: El Estudio Cubano de Desnutricion Hospitalaria, conducido en el bienio 1999 – 2001 con 1,905 pacientes atendidos en 12 hospitales de 6 provincias del pais, revelo una tasa de desnutricion hospitalaria del 41.2%. Transcurrida una decada de aquella indagacion, se impone la actualizacion de este estimado. Objetivo: Actualizar el estado de la desnutricion hospitalaria en Cuba. Material y método: La presencia de desnutricion en 1,664 pacientes ingresados en 12 hospitales de 8 provincias del pais entre Marzo del 2012 y Marzo del 2014 se documento mediante la Encuesta Subjetiva Global (ESG). El estado de los procesos hospitalarios de cuidados alimentarios y nutricionales se evaluo con la Encuesta de Nutricion Hospitalaria (ENH). Resultados: La tasa corriente de desnutricion hospitalaria fue del 36.9% (Δ = +4.3%; p < 0.05). Las tasas de completamiento de los ejercicios hospitalarios de evaluacion nutricional y de uso de terapias de replecion nutricional fueron superiores. Conclusiones: Transcurridos 10 anos de la primera edicion del Estudio ELAN CUBA, se aprecian modestos avances en la identificacion y el tratamiento de la desnutricion en los hospitales en Cuba. Se percibe que la formacion e insercion de nutricionistas verticalizados en la actuacion hospitalaria haya contribuido al cambio observado. Asimismo, la actividad de la Sociedad Cubana de Nutricion Clinica y Metabolismo en el avance de las disciplinas de la terapia nutricional, la nutricion artificial y el metabolismo puede haber servido para un mejor reconocimiento del problema de salud representado por la desnutricion hospitalaria.

  3. Sputum smear conversion and treatment outcomes for tuberculosis patients with and without diabetes in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P; Gounder, S; Varman, S; Viney, K

    2014-09-21

    Contexte : Trois centres de traitement de la tuberculose (TB) dans le cadre du Programme national de Lutte contre la TB aux Fidji.Objectif : Déterminer la prévalence du diabète (DM) parmi les patients tuberculeux entre 2010 et 2012 et d'évaluer la conversion des frottis de crachats et les résultats du traitement de la TB en comparant les patients avec et sans DM.Schéma : Etude rétrospective descriptive basée sur les données recueillies en routine à partir des registres de la TB et des dossiers des patients hospitalisés.Résultats : De 577 patients tuberculeux identifiés, des informations relatives au DM étaient disponibles pour 567 d'entre eux (98%) ; parmi ceuxci, 68 (12%) étaient diabétiques. Le résultat du frottis à 2 mois était disponible pour 254 (82%) patients atteints de TB pulmonaire à frottis positif. Le taux de conversion du frottis (de positif à négatif) était identique chez tous les patients tuberculeux avec ou sans DM (78% contre 80% ; P = 0,66). Le résultat du traitement anti-tuberculeux était disponible pour 462 patients ; il n'y avait pas non plus de différence significative en termes de succès du traitement (91% chez les patients avec DM contre 84% chez les patients sans DM ; P = 0,06).Conclusion : Le DM est fréquent chez les patients tuberculeux aux Fidji. Le taux de conversion du frottis ne s'est cependant pas avéré différent chez les patients avec et sans DM, et il n'y a pas non plus eu de différence significative en termes de succès du traitement entre les deux groupes.

  4. Field technique of permeability tests in highly fissured limestone strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Salihi, Adnan; Asaad, Abdulah

    2002-05-01

    Résumé.L'étude de dispositifs de dénoyage est nécessaire pour l'amélioration de sites avant la construction de certaines structures. L'étude de dispositifs de dénoyage efficaces exige d'estimer la valeur du coefficient de perméabilité in situ. Les relations disponibles pour estimer le coefficient de perméabilité ont été développées sur la base de mesures et de conditions de terrain limitées, et les prédictions varient de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. C'est pourquoi il est nécessaire de réaliser des mesures de perméabilité sur le terrain et de déterminer la relation qui permet le meilleur ajustement de ces mesures avant l'étude du dispositif de dénoyage pour des conditions locales et géologiques spécifiques. Ce papier présente des mesures de perméabilité sur le terrain dans des niveaux calcaires complexes chaotiques et diagénétisés. Il propose également une analyse comparative de plusieurs relations disponibles dans la littérature destinées à prédire le coefficient de perméabilité in situ. L'analyse est faite en conditions permanentes et non permanentes. Les résultats montrent que la valeur du coefficient de perméabilité dépend du niveau de la nappe, qui est affecté par le régime de marées. On montre que l'équation de l'US Navy donne la meilleure corrélation avec les mesures de terrain. Resumen.El diseño de sistemas de desecado es necesario para mejorar las condiciones de un emplazamiento antes de la construcción de determinadas estructuras. El diseño de un sistema eficiente de desecado requiere de la estimación del valor de la permeabilidad in-situ. Las relaciones disponibles para tal fin han sido desarrolladas bajo condiciones y medidas de campo limitadas; sus predicciones varían en algunos órdenes de magnitud. Por tanto, es necesario tomar medidas de permeabilidad en campo y determinar la relación que reproduce mejor dichas medidas como paso previo al diseño de un sistema de desecado en condiciones geol

  5. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  6. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  7. Expendable Trihedral Corner Reflectors for Target Enhancement and Position Control in RADARSAT-1 Fine Beam Mode SAR Imagery: Results from an Exercise Narwhal Pre-Trial Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    ouverture synthétique (ROS) couvrant les points de contrôle terrestres (GCP). Des réflecteurs en trièdre de différentes tailles ont été déployés au...disponibles pour des études de géométrie ROS. Avant cet exercice, il n’était pas facile d’obtenir une imagerie ROS avec contrôle terrestre. DRDC Ottawa... gestion ultérieure de l’événement dans la zone de responsabilité du Secteur Nord des Forces canadiennes (SNFC); • de mettre à l’essai la capacité du

  8. Hémangiome intestinal: une cause inhabituelle d'hémorragie digestive inexpliquée, rapport d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Kharrasse, Ghizlane; Hadjkacem, Hanane; Azouguagh, Rachid; Soufi, Mehdi; El Malki, Omar; Ismaili, Moulay Ezzahy; Mohcine, Raouf; Ifrine, Lahcen; Belkouchi, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    Les hémangiomes de l'intestin grêle (HG) sont des tumeurs bénignes et rares du tube digestif, parfois responsables d'hémorragie digestive. Le diagnostic positif de ces lésions est souvent difficile mais rendu plus aisé grâce à l'avènement de la vidéo capsule endoscopique (VCE), le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'un hémangiome caverneux du jéjunum révélé par une hémorragie digestive récidivante et diagnostiqué par VCE et nous discutons l'apport de cet examen dans la prise en charge de l'hémorragie digestive inexpliquée tout en la comparant aux autres explorations actuellement disponibles. PMID:25709722

  9. Broad spectrum antidermatophytic drug for the control of tinea infection in human beings.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Seema; Kumar, Padma

    2012-07-01

    During antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts, free and bound flavonoids of Piper betle were found to be most effective as an antidermatophytic against human pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Candida albicans. Dermatophytic fungi cause both superficial and internal mycoses. These mycoses, although normally not lethal, are unpleasant and difficult to cure and cause considerable financial losses. Earlier workers prove that allopathic drugs are still found effective against dermatomycoses, but these drugs could not be accepted as a routine treatment for every case, because they are expensive and require long treatment. It is almost unaffordable by middle and lower class people. In view of such prospects and constraints, our aim was to explore more new compounds of plant origin for controlling dermatophytic infections. Author explored water, methanolic and flavonoid extracts for screening as antidermatophytic agent. Plant extracts that showed good results in vitro were selected for clinical studies. The study may give cheaper treatment for medium and lower class patients suffering with tinea and may provide them much relief. Well-established paper disc method was used for the screening of different extracts of their antidermatophytic activity. Moreover, it did not exhibit any adverse side effect on mammalian skin. Flavonoids in the form of ointment Pi be I and Pi be II were subjected to topical testing on patients attending out patients department of S.M.S. Hospital, Jaipur, India. Patients were diagnosed as tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea manum or tinea pedis. All patients showed positive potassium hydroxide (KOH) results at the beginning of trial. Patients between the ages of 3 months to 58 years were enrolled. At the end of treatment, while 64% of patients cured completely, 24% showed significant improvement and 12% showed little improvement from the disease. Allopathic treatment took

  10. Bayesian analysis of two diagnostic methods for paediatric ringworm infections in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Rath, S; Panda, M; Sahu, M C; Padhy, R N

    2015-09-01

    Quantitatively, conventional methods of diagnosis of tinea capitis or paediatric ringworm, microscopic and culture tests were evaluated with Bayes rule. This analysis would help in quantifying the pervasive errors in each diagnostic method, particularly the microscopic method, as a long-term treatment would be involved to eradicate the infection by the use of a particular antifungal chemotherapy. Secondly, the analysis of clinical data would help in obtaining digitally the fallible standard of the microscopic test method, as the culture test method is taken as gold standard. Test results of 51 paediatric patients were of 4 categories: 21 samples were true positive (both tests positive), and 13 were true negative; the rest samples comprised both 14 false positive (microscopic test positivity with culture test negativity) and 3 false negative (microscopic test negativity with culture test positivity) samples. The prevalence of tinea infection was 47.01% in the population of 51 children. The microscopic test of a sample was efficient by 87.5%, in arriving at a positive result on diagnosis, when its culture test was positive; and, this test was efficient by 76.4%, in arriving at a negative result, when its culture test was negative. But, the post-test probability value of a sample with both microscopic and culture tests would be correct in distinguishing a sample from a sick or a healthy child with a chance of 71.5%. However, since the sensitivity of the analysis is 87.5%, the microscopic test positivity would be easier to detect in the presence of infection. In conclusion, it could be stated that Trychophyton rubrum was the most prevalent species; sensitivity and specificity of treating the infection, by antifungal therapy before ascertaining by the culture method remain as 0.8751 and 0.7642, respectively. A correct/coveted diagnostic method of fungal infection would be could be achieved by modern molecular methods (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation

  11. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: A pooled analysis of seven studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Lubin, J.H.; Pottern, L.M.; Tucker, M.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Shore, R.E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Modan, B.; Schneider, A.B.

    1995-03-01

    The thyroid gland of children is especially vulnerable to the carcinogenic action of ionizing radiation. To provide insights into various modifying influences on risk, seven major studies with organ doses to individual subjects were evaluated. Five cohort studies (atomic bomb survivors, children treated for tinea capitis, two studies of children irradiated for enlarged tonsils, and infants irradiated for an enlarged thymus gland) and two case-control studies (patients with cervical cancer and childhood cancer) were studied. The combined studies include almost 120,000 people (approximately 58,000 exposed to a wide range of doses and 61,000 nonexposed subjects), nearly 700 thyroid cancers and 3,000,000 person years of follow-up. For persons exposed to radiation before age 15 years, linearity best described the dose response, even down to 0.10 Gy. At the highest doses (>10 Gy), associated with cancer therapy, there appeared to be a decrease or leveling of risk. For childhood exposures, the pooled excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) was 7.7 (95% CI = 2.1, 28.7) and the excess absolute risk per 10{sup 4} PY Gy (EAR/10{sup 4} PY Gy) was 4.4 (95% CI = 1.9, 10.1). The attributable risk percent (AR%) at 1 Gy was 88%. However, these summary estimates were affected strongly by age at exposure even within this limited age range. The ERR was greater (P = 0.07) for females than males, but the findings from the individual studies were not consistent. The EAR was higher among women, reflecting their higher rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer. The distribution of ERR over time followed neither a simple multiplicative nor an additive pattern in relation to background occurrence. Only two cases were seen within 5 years of exposure. The ERR began to decline about 30 years after exposure but was still elevated at 40 years. Risk also decreased significantly with increasing age at exposure, with little risk apparent after age 20 years. 56 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. An investigation into the microflora of heroin.

    PubMed

    McLauchlin, J; Mithani, V; Bolton, F J; Nichols, G L; Bellis, M A; Syed, Q; Thomson, R P M; Ashton, J R

    2002-11-01

    %) samples; S. warneri and S. epidermidis were the most common and were cultured from 13 (22%) and 6 (10%) samples respectively. One or two samples yielded cultures of S. aureus, S. capitis and S. haemolyticus. The remainder of the flora detected comprised two samples contaminated with C. perfringens and two samples with either C. sordellii or C. tertium. Multiple bacterial species were isolated from 43 (74%) samples, a single species from the remaining 15. In 13 samples B. cereus alone was isolated, in one B. subtilis alone and in one sample B. pumilus alone. C. botulinum and C. novyi were not isolated from any of the heroin samples. Recommendations for the optimal examination of the microflora of heroin are given.

  13. A report of clinical trial conducted on Toto ointment and soap products.

    PubMed Central

    Alebiosu, C. O.; Ogunledun, A.; Ogunleye, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of Toto ointment and soap on common skin disorders was tested. METHODOLOGY: A cohort of Nigerians with common skin conditions such as fungal and bacterial skin infections, scabies, acne vulgaris, and dandruff were selected and followed for a period of 12 weeks. The study is a randomized, comparative, prospective, blinded observational study. Following a placebo run in/wash out period, patients were given either a Toto ointment or soap, or a combination of these, or sulfur ointment alone. Soap use was preferred in patients with Tinea capitis more than patients with any other superficial skin condition for technical reasons--such as ease of application of the soap lather. Expressed preference for either the soap or the cream was at times taken into consideration. Cure rate, adverse drug effects and acceptability of the products were assessed. RESULTS: Out of the 595 patients with common skin diseases selected for the study, 446 (74.9%) had fungal infections, while 64 (10.8%) had scabies infestation. A total of 47 (7.9%) patients had bacterial skin infections, 36 (6.1%) had acne vulgaris, and two (0.3%) had dandruff. At the end of the treatment period, out of the 129 patients with fungal infections treated with Toto ointment alone, 92 (71.3)% were successfully treated; while 41 (87.2%) out of the 47 patients with scabies were successfully treated with Toto ointment alone. Although few patients were seen with bacterial skin infections during the study period, these patients responded well to the ointment, the soap or a combination of the two. Overall, the combination of Toto ointment and soap had a better clinical success rate on all diseases when compared to sulfur ointment alone. The study has shown the efficacy and tolerability of Toto products (skin ointment and soap) in the management of common skin disorders. CONCLUSION: Toto ointment and soap are particularly efficacious in the management of common skin conditions such as fungal and

  14. Isolation, Identification and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. Associated with the Mobile Phones of University Students.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Yasushi; Lee, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Masahiro; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    From May 2014 to February 2015, 319 university students (male, n=173; female n=146) of 18 to 24 years of age who carried mobile phones or computer tablets were selected as subjects. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 101 of 319 samples (31.7%). In the present study, 11 strains of S. aureus were isolated and identified, not all of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Overall, 14 species were identified, with 11 strains (10.9%) of S. xylosus being isolated at the highest frequency. Following this were eight strains (7.9%) of S. cohnii and seven strains (6.9%) each of S. capitis and S. haemolyticus. Staphylococcus spp. isolation was performed with bacterial samples obtained from the mobile phones of 22 specific subjects (males, n=12; females, n=10). Staphylococcus spp. isolation was performed on days -1, 7 and 30 of the experiment. Staphylococcus spp. were positively detected one or more times in 12 subjects (54.5%). In one subject (8.3%), all three tests were positive. Furthermore, two tests were positive in three (25.0%). In the eight remaining subjects (66.7%) Staphylococcus spp. were detected only once. For the three abovementioned tests, we investigated the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the strains derived from the mobile phone and from the fingers of three subjects in whom the same bacterial species were isolated twice. From the cases with similarities between strains derived from the fingers and the mobile phones and cases, with consistency in the strains derived from the mobile phone at different times, commonality was observed in the strains derived from the fingers and mobile phones along with chronological uniformity in the strains derived from the mobile phones. A total of 101 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from mobile phones. According to drug susceptibility tests, 99 strains (98.0%) were found to have some degree of resistance to drugs (excluding one strain each of S. aureus and S. haemolyticus

  15. Species distribution of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Rahman, A; Hosaain, M A; Mahmud, C; Paul, S K; Sultana, S; Haque, N; Kabir, M R; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococci are Gram positive, non motile, asporogenous bacteria that characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular cluster. Species are classified as coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are reported to be the third causative agent of nosocomial infections and the most frequent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Strains of CoNS those are resistant to methicillin referred to as Methicillin Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS). Now a days, MRCoNS has been increasing as a serious nosocomial pathogen having the property of multi drug resistance. The present study was conducted to see the species distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns and some virulence factors of CoNS isolated from different clinical specimens. This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College during the period from July 2009 to May 2011. A total of 300 clinical specimens were collected for this study of which 240 were found culture positive as single isolate. Among them 110 were from surgical wound, 80 from pus of skin infections, 30 from burn ulcer exudates and 20 from diabetic ulcer exudates. A total of 80 strains of CoNS were isolated from them. Besides CoNS other isolated bacteria were S. aureus, Pseudomonas spp and Escherichia coli. The CoNS were initially detected by coagulase test. All the strains that were either slide or tube coagulase negative were further identified by different biochemical tests using a commercial kit HiStaph™ Identification Kit (HiMedia Laboratories Ltd) which comprise a set of 12 standard biochemical tests. A total of 16 species were identified. These were S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. caprae, S. haemolyticus, S. simulans, S. xylosus, S. hyicus, S. hominis, S. warneri, S. auricularis, S. lugdunensis, S. felis, S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. carnosus and S

  16. Survey assessment on pediatricians’ attitudes on head lice management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide health problem. One of the most important factor in effective head lice eradication is to ensure that infestation is adequately recognized and treated. Our survey investigated the knowledge and practice among primary care Italian pediatricians regarding to the prevention and treatment of head lice. Methods The questionnaire was distributed to all the pediatricians registered at the Annual Congress of Practice in Pediatrics held in Florence, Italy, November 11–12, 2011. It includes 10 questions in a multiple choice format, and one answer for each question was provided. The questionnaire was conceived by pediatricians at the Infectious Disease Unit of the Department of Science for the Health of Woman and Child, University of Florence. Questions were designed according to the guidelines by the Italian Pediatric Society (SIP), and international guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Results Overall, 364/600 pediatricians (60.7% of physicians registered to the Congress) returned the questionnaire. The majority of them (232/364; 63,7%) believe that parents consult their primary care pediatrician only after the failure of other “remedies”. Mostly, they prescribe Malathion (116/364, 31,8%) as first line treatment. Two-hundred-fourty-three (66.7%) of participants consider creams, foams and gels the most effective formulations. Two-hundred-sixty-two of pediatricians interviewed (72.0%) suggest to repeat the treatment after one week, 37/364 (10.2%) after two weeks. The majority of the pediatricians interviewed reported that recurrences occur in less than 30% of cases (279/364; 76,6%). In their own opinion, most of recurrences are the consequence of a reinfestation in the community (259/264; 77%). Three-hundred-thirty-four (91.7%) of them have never prescribed oral therapy for the treatment of head lice. Finally, 289/364 (79.4%) pediatricians

  17. Epidemiological Aspects of Dermatophytosis in Khuzestan, southwestern Iran, an Update.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Rafiei, Abdollah; Makimura, Koichi; Gräser, Yvonne; Gharghani, Maral; Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool

    2016-08-01

    Dermatophytosis is among the most common superficial mycoses in Iran. The purpose of this report was to update the clinical and mycological features of human dermatophytosis in the Khuzestan, southwestern Iran. In the framework of a one-year survey, a total of 4120 skin, hair and nail samples obtained from the outpatients with symptoms suggestive of tinea were analyzed by using direct microscopy, culture and molecular identification methods. Strains isolated from cultures were subjected to amplification of the nuclear rDNA ITS regions in a PCR assay followed by an early established RFLP analysis. For confirmation of species identification, 100 isolates as representatives of all presumable species were subjected to ITS sequencing. Infection was confirmed in 1123 individuals (27.25 %) in the age range of 1-89 years by direct microscopy and/or culture including 603 males versus 520 females. Frequencies of infections were the highest and the lowest in age groups of 21-30 and 11-20 years, respectively. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent clinical manifestation followed by tinea cruris, tinea capitis, tinea manuum, tinea pedis, tinea unguium, tinea faciei and tinea barbae. Trichophyton interdigitale (58.7 %) was the most dominant isolate followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (35.4 %), Microsporum canis (3 %), T. rubrum (1.5 %), T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae (0.5 %), T. tonsurans (0.3 %) and T. violaceum (0.3 %). Other species included M. gypseum, M. fulvum and T. verrucosum (each one 0.1 %). Such a high occurrence of infection with T. interdigitale, which has not been reported from Iran, is due to the use of accurate molecular methods based on new species concept in dermatophytes. The prevalence of dermatophytoses caused by zoophilic species remarkably increased and Trichophyton species of A. benhamiae has emerged as a new agent of dermatophytosis in southwestern Iran, while infections due to anthropophilic species, except E. floccosum, took a

  18. Cutaneous Mycoses: Management and Education in Universities and Their Clinics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In May 2015, information on the current status of mycological examinations in university clinics, and the education of students, and junior and senior residents in Japanese universities was gathered using a questionnaire, which was completed by 98 of the 117 (83.8%) professors or directors in charge of dermatology departments in Japan that were included in the survey.The questionnaire items were divided into three parts; namely, Part A, inspection methods used for diagnosis of cutaneous mycoses in each university clinic; Part B, need for a network and construction of a support system for medical care and education; and Part C, status of education of undergraduate students and residents. Some of these questions are based on a similar survey in 2007. In Part A, it was found that only 3% of university clinics performed fungal culture for all or most cases, indicating a drop from the previous study (9% in 2007). Meanwhile, responses indicating that fungal culture was almost or completely done away with accounted for about 36%. Based on type of mycoses, fungal culture for deep mycoses was performed in about 83% of the facilities. However, the percentage for superficial mycoses was very low, wherein only 39% of the facilities performed cultures even for tinea capitis. Trichophyton tonsurans infection was "often" or "sometimes" diagnosed in 22% of the facilities, with the other 78% reporting "no" or "almost no cases" of T. tonsurans infection diagnosed. In Part B, it was found that 96% of respondents (up from 89% in 2007) desired help from the university network, including aid in identifying fungal isolates, diagnosing rare fungal infections, and basic training in medical mycology of young doctors (senior residents in university hospitals). In Part C, it was found that education in direct KOH preparation for senior residents was satisfactory in about 80% of the facilities. However, about 45% of respondents reported that majority or all of the senior residents in their

  19. Responses of Myosin Heavy Chain Phenotypes and Gene Expressions in Neck Muscle to Micro- an Hyper-Gravity in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Tomotaka; Ohira, Takashi; Kawano, F.; Shibaguchi, T.; Okabe, H.; Ohno, Y.; Nakai, N.; Ochiai, T.; Goto, K.; Ohira, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Neck muscles are known to play important roles in the maintenance of head posture against gravity. However, it is not known how the properties of neck muscle are influenced by gravity. Therefore, the current study was performed to investigate the responses of neck muscle (rhomboideus capitis) in mice to inhibition of gravity and/or increase to 2-G for 3 months to test the hypothesis that the properties of neck muscles are regulated in response to the level of mechanical load applied by the gravitational load. Three male wild type C57BL/10J mice (8 weeks old) were launched by space shuttle Discovery (STS-128) and housed in Japanese Experimental Module “KIBO” on the International Space Station in mouse drawer system (MDS) project, which was organized by Italian Space Agency. Only 1 mouse returned to the Earth alive after 3 months by space shuttle Atlantis (STS-129). Neck muscles were sampled from both sides within 3 hours after landing. Cage and laboratory control experiments were also performed on the ground. Further, 3-month ground-based control experiments were performed with 6 groups, i.e. pre-experiment, 3-month hindlimb suspension, 2-G exposure by using animal centrifuge, and vivarium control (n=5 each group). Five mice were allowed to recover from hindlimb suspension (including 5 cage control) for 3 months in the cage. Neck muscles were sampled bilaterally before and after 3-month suspension and 2-G exposure, and at the end of 3-month ambulation recovery. Spaceflight-associated shift of myosin heavy chain phenotype from type I to II and atrophy of type I fibers were observed. In response to spaceflight, 17 genes were up-regulated and 13 genes were down-regulated vs. those in the laboratory control. Expression of 6 genes were up-regulated and that of 88 genes were down-regulated by 3-month exposure to 2-G vs. the age-matched cage control. In response to chronic hindlimb suspension, 4 and 20 genes were up- or down-regulated. Further, 98 genes responded

  20. Characterization of staphylococci in urban wastewater treatment plants in Spain, with detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Estepa, Vanesa; Tenorio, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus in urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP) of La Rioja (Spain), and to characterize de obtained isolates. 16 wastewater samples (8 influent, 8 effluent) of six UWTPs were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics and the presence of 35 antimicrobial resistance genes and 14 virulence genes by PCR. S. aureus was typed by spa, agr, and multilocus-sequence-typing, and the presence of immune-evasion-genes cluster was analyzed. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 13 of 16 tested wastewater samples (81%), although the number of CFU/mL decreased after treatment. 40 staphylococci were recovered (1-5/sample), and 8 of them were identified as S. aureus being typed as (number of strains): spa-t011/agr-II/ST398 (1), spa-t002/agr-II/ST5 (2), spa-t3262/agr-II/ST5 (1), spa-t605/agr-II/ST126 (3), and spa-t878/agr-III/ST2849 (1). S. aureus ST398 strain was methicillin-resistant and showed a multidrug resistance phenotype. Virulence genes tst, etd, sea, sec, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seu, were detected among S. aureus and only ST5 strains showed genes of immune evasion cluster. Thirty-two coagulase-negative Staphylococcus of 12 different species were recovered (number of strains): Staphylococcus equorum (7), Staphylococcus vitulinus (4), Staphylococcus lentus (4), Staphylococcus sciuri (4), Staphylococcus fleurettii (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (2), Staphylococcus hominis (2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2), Staphylococcus succinus (2), Staphylococcus capitis (1), Staphylococcus cohnii (1), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). Five presented a multidrug resistance phenotype. The following resistance and virulence genes were found: mecA, lnu(A), vga(A), tet(K), erm(C), msr(A)/(B), mph(C), tst, and sem. We found that

  1. [A recurrent case of adult favus successfully treated with terbinafine].

    PubMed

    Erkan, Deniz; Kolukırık, İlkay; Acar, Alpaslan; Kandemir, Hazal; İlkit, Macit

    2015-10-01

    Favus or tinea capitis favosa, is a chronic inflammatory dermatophytosis of the scalp. The disease is particularly common in children aged 6 to 10 years, more often in boys, and it also occurs in adults. Human-to-human transmission is therefore possible. Anthropophilic Trichophyton schöenleinii is responsible for over 95% of favus cases. In addition, there are rare cases of anthropophilic T.violaceum, zoophilic (T.verrucosum, T.quinckeanum, and Microsporum canis) and geophilic M.gypseum species recorded as agents of favus. It is also reported in mice (T.quinckeanum), poultry (M.gallinae), and cats (M.incurvatum). Favus is common in Iran, Nigeria, and China, however it has been reported rarely in the last two decades in Turkey. Although Turkish records are not sufficient to indicate an accurate incidence rate, favus is still present in Turkey. In this report, a 20-year-old female with favus was presented. She had squames and areas of alopecia on the right frontoparietal area of her scalp. Scalp biopsy and hair follicle samples were taken for histopathological examination and fungal culture. According to the conventional identification by mycological methods and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing analysis, the pathogen was identified as T.schöenleinii. The patient was treated with oral terbinafine (250 mg/day) for 4 weeks and topical isoconazole and ketoconazole for 6 weeks. Clinical recovery was observed after 6 weeks, however, fungal culture could not be repeated. Six months after the initial presentation, the patient's symptoms recurred due to the poor adherence and T.schöenleinii was repeatedly grown in culture. Antifungal treatment was administered with the same drugs for the same period. There was a clinical and mycological recovery 8 months after initial presentation. Favus, which is not frequently observed in adults, is an uncommon disease. Confusion arises in its diagnosis because other diseases have similar clinical appearances, and

  2. Genotyping of Human Lice Suggests Multiple Emergences of Body Lice from Local Head Louse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Ortiz, Gabriel; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Gimenez, Gregory; Reed, David L.; Pittendrigh, Barry; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus) does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. Methods and Findings By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed) and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. Conclusions We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice), to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in human populations

  3. Contrasting alterations to synaptic and intrinsic properties in upper-cervical superficial dorsal horn neurons following acute neck muscle inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute and chronic pain in axial structures, like the back and neck, are difficult to treat, and have incidence as high as 15%. Surprisingly, most preclinical work on pain mechanisms focuses on cutaneous structures in the limbs and animal models of axial pain are not widely available. Accordingly, we developed a mouse model of acute cervical muscle inflammation and assessed the functional properties of superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons. Results Male C57/Bl6 mice (P24-P40) were deeply anaesthetised (urethane 2.2 g/kg i.p) and the rectus capitis major muscle (RCM) injected with 40 μl of 2% carrageenan. Sham animals received vehicle injection and controls remained anaesthetised for 2 hrs. Mice in each group were sacrificed at 2 hrs for analysis. c-Fos staining was used to determine the location of activated neurons. c-Fos labelling in carrageenan-injected mice was concentrated within ipsilateral (87% and 63% of labelled neurons in C1 and C2 segments, respectively) and contralateral laminae I - II with some expression in lateral lamina V. c-Fos expression remained below detectable levels in control and sham animals. In additional experiments, whole cell recordings were obtained from visualised SDH neurons in transverse slices in the ipsilateral C1 and C2 spinal segments. Resting membrane potential and input resistance were not altered. Mean spontaneous EPSC amplitude was reduced by ~20% in neurons from carrageenan-injected mice versus control and sham animals (20.63 ± 1.05 vs. 24.64 ± 0.91 and 25.87 ± 1.32 pA, respectively). The amplitude (238 ± 33 vs. 494 ± 96 and 593 ± 167 pA) and inactivation time constant (12.9 ± 1.5 vs. 22.1 ± 3.6 and 15.3 ± 1.4 ms) of the rapid A type potassium current (IAr), the dominant subthreshold current in SDH neurons, were reduced in carrageenan-injected mice. Conclusions Excitatory synaptic drive onto, and important intrinsic properties (i.e., IAr) within SDH neurons are

  4. Infectious diseases prevalence, vaccination coverage, and diagnostic challenges in a population of internationally adopted children referred to a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sollai, Sara; Ghetti, Francesca; Bianchi, Leila; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children (IAC). With the objective to evaluate infectious diseases prevalence in a large cohort of IAC and to explore possible risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and parasitic infections, clinical and laboratory data at first screening visit of all IAC (<18 years) consecutively referred to our Center in 2009 to 2015 were collected and analyzed. In total, 1612 children (median age: 5.40 years; interquartile range: 3.00–7.90) were enrolled, 123/1612 (7.60%) having medical conditions included in the special needs definition. The most frequent cutaneous infections were Molluscum contagiosum (42/1612; 2.60%) and Tinea capitis (37/1612; 2.30%). Viral hepatitis prevalence was <1% (hepatitis B virus [HBV]: 13 children, 0.80%; hepatitis C virus: 1 child, 0.10%; hepatitis A virus: 6 children, 0.40%). A parasitic infection was diagnosed in 372/1612 (23.10%) children. No risk factors for parasitosis were evidenced. Active TB was diagnosed in 4/1355 (0.3%) children, latent TB in 222/1355 (16.40%). Only 3.7% (51/1355) children had concordant positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) results. Risk factors for TST+/QFT-G-IT− results were previous Bacille de Calmette-Guérin vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.18; 96% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26–3.79; P = 0.006), and age ≥5 years (aOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06–2.11; P = 0.02). The proportion of children with nonprotective titers for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) ranged from 15.70% (208/1323) for tetanus to 35.10% (469/1337) for HBV. Infectious diseases were commonly observed in our cohort. The high rate of discordant TST/QFT-G results brings up questions regarding the optimal management of these children, and suggests that, at least in children older than 5 years, only QFT-G-IT results may be reliable. The low proportion of children protected for VPD, confirms importance of a timely screening. PMID

  5. Enterotoxin genes in coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Guimarães, Felipe; Nóbrega, Diego Borin; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Marson, Pâmela Merlo; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Langoni, Helio

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the main staphylococcal species causing bovine mastitis in 10 Brazilian dairy herds and study their capability to produce enterotoxins. Herds were selected based on size and use of milking technology, and farms were visited once during the study. All mammary glands of all lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a strip cup. A single aseptic milk sample (20 mL) was collected from all CMT-positive quarters. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. was performed using conventional microbiology, and PCR was used to determine the presence of enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, and sed). Of the 1,318 CMT-positive milk samples, Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 263 (19.9%). Of these isolates, 135 (51%) were coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and 128 (49%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Eighteen different species of CNS were isolated, among which S. warneri, S. epidermidis and S. hyicus were the most frequent. The distribution of Staphylococcus species was different among herds: S. epidermidis was found in 8 herds, S. warneri was found in 7 herds, and S. hyicus in 6 herds. Some of the CNS species (S. saprophyticus ssp. saprophyticus, S. auricularis, S. capitis, and S. chromogenes) were isolated in only one of the farms. Genes related to production of enterotoxins were found in 66% (n=85) of all CNS and in 35% of the CPS isolates. For both CNS and CPS isolates, the most frequently identified enterotoxin genes were sea, seb, and sec; the prevalence of sea differed between CPS (9.5%) and CNS (35.1%) isolates. Staphylococcus warneri isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than seb, sec, or sed, whereas S. hyicus isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than sec. Over 60% of CNS belonged to 3 major species, which carried 62.2 to 81.3% of the enterotoxin genes. The high prevalence highlights the potential for food poisoning caused by these species. For

  6. Relationship of active trigger points with related disability and anxiety in people with tension-type headache

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Ceña, María; Castaldo, Matteo; Wang, Kelun; Catena, Antonella; Torelli, Paola; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the differences in the presence of trigger points (TrPs) and their association with headache-related disability and mood disorders in people with frequent episodic tension-type headache (TTH) (FETTH) and chronic TTH (CTTH). One hundred twenty-two individuals with TTH participated. Clinical features of headache (i.e., intensity, duration, and frequency) were recorded on a headache diary. Headache-related disability was assessed with the Headache Disability Inventory, trait and state anxiety levels with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. TrPs were bilaterally explored in the temporalis, masseter, suboccipital, upper trapezius, splenius capitis, and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Sixty-two (51%) patients were classified as FETTH, whereas 60 (49%) were classified as CTTH. Individuals with CTTH showed higher burden of headache and depression than FETTH (P < 0.001). Subjects with FETTH showed similar number of TrPs (total number: 5.9 ± 3.1, active TrPs: 4.7 ± 2.5, and latent TrPs: 1.2 ± 1.9) than those with CTTH (total number: 5.7 ± 3.2, active TrPs: 4.2 ± 3.0, and latent TrPs: 1.5 ± 1.8). The number of active TrPs was significantly associated with the burden of headache (r = 0.189; P = 0.037) and trait anxiety (r = 0.273; P = 0.005): the higher the number of active TrPs, the greater the physical burden of headache or the more the trait anxiety level. No association with the depression was observed. The presence of active TrPs in head and neck/shoulder muscles was similar between individuals with FETTH and CTTH and associated with the physical burden of headache and trait anxiety levels independently of the subgroup of TTH. PMID:28353618

  7. [Improvement of the knowledge on allergic cross-reactions between two drug groups: beta-lactams and NSAIDS].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quiles, I; Nájera-Pérez, M D; Calleja-Hernández, M Á; Martinez-Martínez, F; Belchí-Hernández, J; Canteras, M

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Identificar oportunidades de mejora, sobre el conocimiento disponible del personal sanitario (en concreto a personal médico, farmacéutico y de enfermería), sobre reacciones alérgicas cruzadas (RAC) de penicilinas y AINEs. Método: Estudio prospectivo cuasiexperimental pre-exposición en un hospital de 412 camas. Se realizó una valoración del conocimiento sobre RAC de penicilinas y AINEs, a través de encuestas anónimas, antes (1a encuesta) y después (2a encuesta) de la implantación de una serie de medidas de mejora: protocolo “paciente alérgico a medicamentos”, tarjeta de bolsillo, póster resumen de información y charlas divulgativas. Las propias encuestas sirvieron de hoja de recogida de datos y el análisis estadístico se llevó a cabo con el programa SPSS v18.0. Resultados: La media de errores en las 1as encuestas sobre “RAC en paciente alérgico a penicilinas” y sobre “RAC en paciente alérgico a AINEs”, fue de 20,53 y 27,62, respectivamente. La media de errores en las 2as encuestas sobre “RAC en paciente alérgico a penicilinas” y sobre “RAC en paciente alérgico a AINEs”, fue de 2,27 y 7,26, respectivamente. Todos los resultados se consideraron significativos para un nivel 945;< 0,05. Conclusiones: - No se dispone de un nivel adecuado de conocimiento sobre RAC de penicilinas y AINEs, lo que justifica la realización de un ciclo de mejora. - Tras la implantación de las medidas de mejora se aprecia un aumento en el nivel de conocimiento sobre RAC en penicilinas y AINEs, en los grupos de estudio.

  8. [Thermolabile drugs stability faced with an accidental interruption in the cold chain].

    PubMed

    Ricote-Lobera, I; Ortiz-Martín, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Santos-Mena, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una guía actualizada sobre la estabilidad delos medicamentos termolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticaque, según ficha técnica, deben conservarse bajorefrigeración o congelación, expuestos accidentalmente a temperaturasde conservación fuera del rango recomendado por elfabricante.Métodos: Se revisó la información sobre las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles a distintas temperaturas de los medicamentostermolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticade un hospital de 400 camas que, según el fabricante, debenconservarse bajo refrigeración o congelación. Se excluyeron losmedicamentos incluidos en ensayos clínicos. Los datos de estabilidadse obtuvieron a partir de la ficha técnica, la informacióncontenida en las dos últimas guías de conservación de medicamentostermolábiles publicadas en España y a través de las consultasrealizadas a los laboratorios (vía telefónica o por e-mail).Resultados: Se confeccionó una tabla con las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles actualmente a distintas temperaturas de209 presentaciones de distintas especialidades farmacéuticas.Se solicitaron datos de estabilidad actualizados de 172 de ellasa los laboratorios.Conclusiones: La guía elaborada constituye una herramientaque facilita la toma de decisiones del farmacéutico ante unarotura accidental de la cadena de frío, cuando sea necesarioconocer si el fármaco puede ser utilizado y no sea posible contactarcon el laboratorio fabricante.

  9. [Algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema as a tool for management].

    PubMed

    Baeza, María Luisa; Caballero Molina, Teresa; Crespo Diz, Carlos; González-Quevedo; Guilarte Clavero, Mar; Hernández Fernández de Rojas, Dolores; Lobera Labairu, Teófilo; Marcos Bravo, Carmen; Navarro Ruiz, Andrés; Navarro Ruiz, A; Poveda Andrés, José Luis; Poveda Andrés, J L; Cebollero, María Antonia; Cebollero de Torre, A

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El angioedema hereditario es una enfermedad rara de baja prevalencia y gran heterogeneidad en la gravedad del cuadro clínico, lo que dificulta su diagnóstico, y establece la necesidad de iniciar un tratamiento precoz y específico con el fin de evitar complicaciones. Objetivo: Proponer un algoritmo de decisión en el angioedema hereditario (AEH), basado en la evidencia disponible, sobre el diagnóstico, valoración clínica y tratamiento. Se trata de presentar opciones terapéuticas disponibles, así como un algoritmo de decisión para seleccionar el tratamiento más eficiente en cada momento. Material y Métodos: Revisión bibliográfica mediante una búsqueda a través de PubMed y otras fuentes de interés. Resultados: Se han desarrollado cuatro algoritmos de decisión para el AEH; diagnóstico de angioedema mediado por bradicinina, tratamiento del ataque agudo y profilaxis a corto y largo plazo del AEH por déficit del inhibidor C1. Conclusiones: La aplicación de un algoritmo de decisión, en función de unas variables clínicas, ayuda a la selección de la opción terapéutica más eficiente en cada momento y puede ser un instrumento de utilidad en el abordaje terapéutico.

  10. Central effects of fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  11. Impact of long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators on lung function in a patient with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Cecilia; Corcione, Nadia; Rea, Gaetano; Stefanelli, Francesco; Meoli, Ilernando; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a small airways disease characterized by fixed airflow limitation. Therefore, inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids are not recommended as maintenance therapy options. The management of PIBO currently consists only of close monitoring of affected patients, aimed at the prevention and early treatment of pulmonary infections. In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of PIBO in the pediatric population. Patients with PIBO are characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, accompanied by a decrease in overall functional capacity. Here, we report the case of a relatively young man diagnosed with PIBO and followed for three years. After short- and long-term therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting 2 agonist combination, together with an inhaled long-acting antimuscarinic, the patient showed relevant improvement of airway obstruction that had been irreversible at the time of the bronchodilator test. The lung function of the patient worsened when he interrupted the triple inhaled therapy. In addition, a 3-week pulmonary rehabilitation program markedly improved his physical performance. RESUMO A bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa (BOPI) é uma doença das pequenas vias aéreas caracterizada por limitação fixa do fluxo aéreo. Portanto, os broncodilatadores e os corticosteroides inalatórios não são recomendados como opções de terapia de manutenção. Atualmente, o manejo da BOPI consiste apenas de um acompanhamento rigoroso dos pacientes afetados, visando à prevenção e ao tratamento precoce de infecções pulmonares. A incidência de BOPI tem aumentado na população pediátrica nos últimos anos. Os pacientes com BOPI caracterizam-se por um declínio progressivo da função pulmonar, associado a uma diminuição da capacidade funcional global. Relatamos aqui o caso de um homem relativamente jovem diagnosticado com BOPI, acompanhado por três anos. Ap

  12. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    ão geral das evidências científicas sobre a efetividade das intervenções psicossociais no tratamento de transtornos alimentares. Foram incluídas todas as revisões sistemáticas publicadas no Banco de Dados de Revisões Sistemáticas da Cochrane Library. Posteriormente, a partir da data menos recente destas revisões (2001), realizou-se uma busca adicional no PubMed, com estratégia de busca sensibilizada e com os mesmos descritores utilizados antes. No total, foram incluídos 101 estudos primários e 30 revisões sistemáticas (5 revisões sistemáticas da Cochrane), metanálises, diretrizes ou revisões narrativas da literatura. Os principais desfechos foram remissão de sintomas, imagem corporal, distorção cognitiva, comorbidade psiquiátrica, funcionamento psicossocial e satisfação do paciente. A abordagem cognitivo-comportamental foi o tratamento mais efetivo, principalmente para bulimia nervosa, transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica e síndrome do comer noturno. Para anorexia nervosa, a abordagem familiar demonstrou maior efetividade. Outras abordagens efetivas foram psicoterapia interpessoal, terapia comportamental dialética, terapia de apoio e manuais de autoajuda. Além disso, houve um número crescente de abordagens preventivas e promocionais que contemplaram fatores de risco individuais, familiares e sociais, sendo promissoras para o desenvolvimento da autoimagem positiva e autoeficácia. São necessários mais estudos que avaliem o impacto de abordagens multidisciplinares em todos transtornos alimentares, além da relação custo-efetividade de algumas modalidades efetivas, como a terapia cognitivo-comportamental.

  13. Adverse events in the intensive care unit: impact on mortality and length of stay in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Roque, Keroulay Estebanez; Tonini, Teresa; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates

    2016-10-20

    This study sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse events and their impacts on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU). This is a prospective study carried out in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cohort included 355 patients over 18 years of age admitted to the ICU between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. The process we used to identify adverse events was adapted from the method proposed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. We used a logistical regression to analyze the association between adverse event occurrence and death, adjusted by case severity. We confirmed 324 adverse events in 115 patients admitted over the year we followed. The incidence rate was 9.3 adverse events per 100 patients-day and adverse event occurrence impacted on an increase in length of stay (19 days) and in mortality (OR = 2.047; 95%CI: 1.172-3.570). This study highlights the serious problem of adverse events in intensive care and the risk factors associated with adverse event incidence. Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de eventos adversos e o impacto deles sobre o tempo de permanência e a mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo desenvolvido em um hospital de ensino do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coorte foi formada por 355 pacientes maiores de 18 anos, admitidos na UTI, no período de 1º de agosto de 2011 a 31 de julho de 2012. O processo de identificação de eventos adversos baseou-se em uma adaptação do método proposto pelo Institute for Healthcare Improvement. A regressão logística foi utilizada para analisar a associação entre a ocorrência de evento adverso e o óbito, ajustado pela gravidade do paciente. Confirmados 324 eventos adversos em 115 pacientes internados ao longo de um ano de seguimento. A taxa de incidência foi de 9,3 eventos adversos por 100 pacientes-dia, e a ocorrência de evento adverso impactou no aumento do tempo de internação (19

  14. Basal energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Becker Veronese, Camila Beltrame; Guerra, Léa Teresinha; Souza Grigolleti, Shana; Vargas, Juliane; Pereira da Rosa, André Ricardo; Pinto Kruel, Cleber Dario

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: La determinación del gasto energético basal (GEB) es esencial para la planificación de la terapia nutricional en pacientes con cáncer de esófago. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar GEB por calorimetría indirecta (CI) en pacientes con carcinoma de células escamosas del esófago (CCS). Métodos: Estudio transversal con 30 pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de CCS que se sometieron CI antes de iniciar la terapia contra el cáncer. La abeja se evaluó con CI y estimó por medio de la ecuación de Harris-Benedict (EHB). La evaluación nutricional se realizó utilizando los parámetros antropométricos (índice de masa corporal, circunferencia del brazo, el pliegue del tríceps, circunferencia muscular del brazo y pérdida de peso), parámetros bioquímicos (albúmina, transferrina y la proteína C-reactiva) y bioimpedancia tetrapolar para evaluar la composición corporal (grasa masa). Además, la capacidad pulmonar se midió y la estadificación clínica del cáncer establecido por el método TNM. Resultados: La media de la abeja para la ecuación CI y Harris-Benedict fueron 1421,8 ± 348,2 kcal / día y 1310,6 ± 215,1 kcal / día, respectivamente. No se encontró asociación entre GEB medido por CI y la estadificación clínica (p = 0,255) o el índice Tiffeneau (p = 0,946). No se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre GEB medidos por dosis de CI y alteración de la transferrina, albúmina y proteína C reactiva (p = 0,364, 0,309 y 0,780, respectivamente). Los factores más asociados con GEB fueron el IMC y la masa libre de grasa. Conclusión: La abeja de los pacientes con CCS fue subestimada cuando se utiliza el EHB, y el resultado sobreestimado cuando se incorpora un factor de d2013 con el EHB. Por lo tanto, a pesar de las dificultades de aplicación práctica de CI, su uso debe ser considerado.

  15. Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular a