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Sample records for caprine arthritis encephalitis

  1. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: prevalence and risk factors in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Tabet, E; Hosri, C; Abi-Rizk, A

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey, accompanied by a serological analysis,was conducted on samples taken from Lebanese goat herds in order to determine the prevalence of infection with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Lebanon. The results of the survey provided information on various livestock production, animal health and herd management factors. Serum samplesfrom 952 goats, including the local breeds (Baladi and Damascene) and imported breeds (Alpine and Saneen), were taken from 60 farms distributed throughout Lebanon and tested for the presence of anti-CAEV antibodies. The data obtained were analysed using a statistical model to assess CAEV infection risk factors in Lebanon. In total, 125 samples proved to be positive, representing a prevalence in selected individuals of 13.1% and in selected herds of 51.7%. The Bekaa region had the highest number of herds with seropositive goats (90% of herds); the level was lower in Mount Lebanon, the North and the South (54%, 34% and 33%, respectively). The prevalence in relation to the livestock production system was 70% in herds in intensive systems, 54% in semi-intensive systems and 45% in extensive systems. The indigenous breeds were more resistant and tolerant of CAEV than the imported breeds. This study confirms the presence of CAEV in Lebanese goat herds and identifies the different livestock production practices likely to favour the rapid spread of the virus.

  2. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  3. Molecular characterization of the gag gene of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Padiernos, Ryan Bismark C; Balbin, Michelle M; Parayao, Arman M; Mingala, Claro N

    2015-04-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes caprine arthritis encephalitis syndrome, which is an emerging disease of goats in the Philippines. DNA sequence analysis showed homology of 86-93 % between Philippine CAEV and available CAEV sequences in GenBank. CAEV was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and new sets of primers were designed in order to amplify the gag gene, which is a highly conserved region of the viral genome. In addition, the Philippine CAEV isolate clustered in group B with the prototype caprine lentivirus. Based on amino acid sequence alignments, it is possible that the Philippine CAEV isolate is a new strain of CAEV, but it is also possible that it was already present in the country even before the start of goat importation. Molecular characterization of the CAEV gag gene is important for the development of a detection kit specific for the local strain of CAEV and the establishment of small ruminant lentivirus eradication programs in the Philippines. This study is the first report to describe the molecular characteristics of CAEV circulating in the Philippines.

  4. [Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: trial of an adjuvant vaccine preparation. I. Clinical and virological study].

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Vitu, C; Fontaine, J J; Vignoni, M

    1993-04-01

    In purpose to protect goats against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), the first group of kids (I) was inoculated with purified, inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions, the second group (II) with adjuvant and the third one (III) with culture medium. 2-4 months later, the three groups were challenged with virulent CAEV by intraarticular route. On the clinical level, vaccinated and challenged kids show more early and severe arthritis than other groups. On the virological level, isolation of lentivirus from white blood cells and different organs is more important in group I than groups II and III. Therefore, vaccinations with inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions do not protect against a virulent challenge; there is an enhancement of lesions. We note that the adjuvant elicits a mild non-specific protection against virulent challenge.

  5. The connective tissue component of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, T. B.; Adams, D. S.; Sande, R. D.; Gorham, J. R.; Henson, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The gross and microscopic connective tissue lesions in 12 goats with caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) are described, including those from which a virus (CAEV) was isolated. Lesions were most often associated with synovial-lined structures including joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae, and were typified by synovial cell proliferations, subsynovial mononuclear cell infiltration, the presence of fibrin, fibrinous concretions, necrosis, and mineralization. Extrasynovial lesions were located in kidneys, vessels, and brain. The inflammatory infiltrates in these organs were predominantly mononuclear. Amyloid was also found in liver, spleen, and kidney. Microbiologic techniques failed to demonstrate any bacteria, mycoplasma, or chlamydia in the lesions. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7406019

  6. Preferential immune response to virion surface glycoproteins by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goats.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G C; Barbet, A F; Klevjer-Anderson, P; McGuire, T C

    1983-01-01

    Six months after inoculation with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, the serum and synovial fluid of virus-infected goats had antibodies to [35S]methionine-labeled viral proteins with apparent molecular weights of 125,000, 90,000, 28,000, and 15,000. The 125,000-, 90,000-, and 15,000-molecular-weight methionine-labeled proteins were identified as virion surface glycoproteins by lactoperoxidase iodination and galactose oxidase-boro[3H]hydride reduction labeling techniques. Radioimmunoassay antibody titers to purified p28, the most abundant viral structural protein, averaged 1:182 in synovial fluid and 1:67 in serum 6 months after inoculation. High dilutions of serum and synovial fluid reacted with gp90 and gp125 electroblotted onto nitrocellulose paper from polyacrylamide gels. Anti-gp90 activity was detected at dilutions with an immunoglobulin G content of 0.02 to 11 micrograms, whereas antibody to p28, when detectable on Western blots, was present in samples with an immunoglobulin G content of 0.1 to 2 mg, representing 100- to 1,000-fold-greater titers of antibody to the surface glycoprotein. Synovial fluids often contained more anti-gp90 antibody than did sera. Immunoprecipitation of lactoperoxidase-iodinated virus confirmed the presence of high antibody titers to the two virion surface glycoproteins. Because antiviral gp90 and gp125 antibody is abundant in the synovial fluid of infected goats, it probably contributes to the high immunoglobulin G1 concentrations seen at this site 6 months after caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection. Images PMID:6307878

  7. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs.

  8. Caprine arthritis encephalitis: an example of risk assessment for embryo trading.

    PubMed

    Fieni, Francis; Lamara, Ali; Ali Al Ahmad, Mohamad Zuher; Cortez-Romero, Cesar; Pellerin, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    The risk of transmission of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) during embryo transfer has been demonstrated in vivo through the detection of CAEV proviral DNA in: (1) flushing media for embryo collection; (2) cells of the cumulus oophorus surrounding the oocytes, ovarian follicle, oviduct and uterine tissues; and (3) testis, epididymis, vas deferens and vesicular glands. Experimentally infected embryos without a zona pellucida (ZP), washed 10 times with Minimum Essential Media (MEM) and 5% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) solution, were capable of transmitting CAEV. In vitro we demonstrated that granulosa, oviductal, epididymal and embryo cells are fully susceptible to CAEV infection and allow active replication. However, AI with in vitro-infected semen can result in the production, after ten washing, of CAEV-free embryos, and ten washing in vitro- or in vivo-infected embryos with an intact ZP, or ten washing oocytes with an intact ZP, resulted in the production of virus-free female gametes or embryos that can be used for IVF or embryo transfer. Therefore, we have demonstrated that: (1) that CAEV-free embryos can be produced by IVF using spermatozoa infected in vitro by CAEV; and (2) embryo transfer can be used under field conditions to produce CAEV-free kids from CAEV-infected biological mothers.

  9. Development and Field Testing of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis-Virus (CAEV)

    PubMed Central

    Brajon, Giovanni; Mandas, Daniela; Liciardi, Manuele; Taccori, Flavia; Meloni, Mauro; Corrias, Franco; Montaldo, Caterina; Coghe, Ferdinando; Casciari, Cristina; Giammarioli, Monica; Orrù, Germano

    2011-01-01

    Caprine arthritis/encephalitis (CAE) of goats and occasionally sheep are persistent virus infections caused by a lentivirus (CAEV). This viral infection results in arthritis in adult animals and encephalitis in kids. Prognosis for the encephalitic form is normally poor, with substantial economic loss for the farm. In this context an early/fast laboratory diagnosis for CAEV infection could be useful for effective prophylactic action. In this work we performed a quantitative real time PCR designed on the CAEV env gene to detect/quantify in goat/sheep samples, viral RNA or proviral DNA forms of CAEV. This procedure was validated in 15 sheep, experimentally infected with CAEV or with a highly correlated lentivirus (visna maedi, MVV); in addition, a total of 37 clinical goat specimens recruited in CAEV positive herds were analyzed and compared using serological analysis (Elisa and AGID). All samples infected with MVV resulted negative. In sheep experimentally infected with CAEV, proviral DNA was detectable 15 days post infection, whereas the serological methods revealed an indicative positivity after 40-60 days.This method showed a sensitivity of 102 env fragments/PCR) with a linear dynamic range of quantitation from 103 to 107 env fragments/PCR; the R2 correlation coefficient was 0.98. All subjects with a clinical diagnosis for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) resulted CAEV DNA positive. PMID:22888382

  10. High prevalence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Taiwan revealed by large-scale serological survey

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Wei-Cheng; CHEN, Hui-Yu; WANG, Chi-Young; PAN, Hung-Yu; WU, Cheng-Wei; HSU, Yun-Hsiu; SU, Jui-Chuan; CHAN, Kun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a large-scale serological survey of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was conducted between March 2011 and October 2012. 3,437 goat blood or milk samples were collected from 65 goat farms throughout Taiwan. A commercial ELISA kit was used to detect antibodies against CAEV. The overall seropositive rate was 61.7% (2,120/3,437) in goats and in 98.5% (64/65) of goat farms. These results provide the first large-scale serological evidence for the presence of CAEV infection, indicating that the disease is widespread in Taiwan. PMID:27916786

  11. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease.

  12. Diagnosis of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus infection in dairy goats by ELISA, PCR and Viral Culture.

    PubMed

    Panneum, S; Rukkwamsuk, T

    2017-03-01

    For preventive and control strategies of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection in dairy goats, performance of the available diagnostic tests was described as one of the most important and necessary aspects. The study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic test performance, including PCR, ELISA and viral culture, for CAEV infection in dairy goats in Thailand. Blood samples of 29 dairy goats from five low- to medium-prevalence herds and one very low-prevalence herd were collected for PCR and ELISA methods. The performance of these two diagnostic methods was evaluated by comparing with cytopathic effects (CPE) in the co-cultivation of CAEV and primary synovial cells. Results indicated that sensitivity, specificity were, respectively, 69.6%, 100%, for PCR; and 95.7%, 83.3% for ELISA. The PCR assay tended to have lower sensitivity and higher specificity than ELISA. When multiple tests were applied, parallel testing provided sensitivity and specificity of 98.7% and 83.3%, while series testing showed sensitivity and specificity of 66.6% and 100% respectively. These results indicated that combination of ELISA and PCR provided some advantages and possibly offered optimal methods to detect CAEV-infected goats. Kappa value of the agreement between PCR and ELISA test was 0.34, indicating fair agreement. Regarding the possibility of antigenic variation between CAEV strains used in both PCR and ELISA assays, the actual circulating CAEV strain should be reviewed in order to develop and enhance the diagnostic tests using the CAE viral antigens derived from specific local strains of Thailand.

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors of exposure to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Barrero Domínguez, B; Luque, I; Maldonado, A; Huerta, B; Sánchez, M; Gomez Laguna, J; Astorga, R

    2017-03-04

    The aim of the present transversal descriptive study was to determine the exposure and risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in southern Spain. A total of 3,312 serum samples were collected from goat belonging to three different breeds coming from 48 flocks located in different geographic areas from southern Spain. In addition, health and productive parameters were surveyed during the visit to the herds. Serum samples were analysed by INgezim Maedi Screening (Ingenasa®) ELISA kit. The total percentage of herds exposed to CAEV was 87.71% (CI95 78.42-97.00). A total of 733 goats were seropositive with overall seroprevalence of 23.22% (CI95 21.78-24.65). The intraherd seroprevalence was 20.82%±24.07. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant association between CAEV and the next variables: (i) herd size (P<0.0001; OR: 2.07; CI95: 1.73-2.50), (ii) kidding area (P<0.0020; OR: 1.38; CI95: 1.13-1.69), (iii) cleaning and disinfection program (P<0.0067; OR: 1.90; CI95: 1.43-2.53), (iv) natural mating (P<0.0026; OR: 2.22; CI95: 1.73-2.86) and (v) multiparous (P<0.0001; OR: 2.90; CI95: 2.17-3.87). The results indicate a widespread of CAEV infection in goat herds in southern Spain, being herd size, existence of kidding area, absence of cleaning and disinfection program, natural mating and multiparous goats risk factors for the exposure to CAEV. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Clearance of a Productive Lentivirus Infection in Calves Experimentally Inoculated with Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Thierry; Guiguen, François; Bouzar, Baya Amel; Villet, Stéphanie; Greenland, Timothy; Grezel, Délphine; Gounel, Françoise; Gallay, Kathy; Garnier, Céline; Durand, Jitka; Alogninouwa, Théodore; Mselli-Lakhal, Laïla; Mornex, Jean-François; Chebloune, Yahia

    2003-01-01

    Lentiviruses have long been considered host-specific pathogens, but several recent observations demonstrated their capacity to conquer new hosts from different species, genera, and families. From these cross-species infections emerged new animal and human infectious diseases. The successful colonization and adaptation of a lentivirus to a nonnatural host depends on unspecific and specific host barriers. Some of those barriers exert a relative control of viral replication (i.e., cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response, viral inhibitory factors), but none of them was found able to totally clear the infection once the retrovirus is fully adapted in its host. In this study we examined the evolution of the host-lentivirus interactions occurring in an experimental animal model of cross-species infection in order to analyze the efficiency of those barriers in preventing the establishment of a persistent infection. Five newborn calves were inoculated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), and the evolution of infection was studied for more than 12 months. All the animals seroconverted in the first 0.75 to 1 month following the inoculation and remained seropositive for the remaining time of the experiment. Viral infection was productive during 4 months with isolation of replication competent virus from the blood cells and organs of the early euthanized animals. After 4 months of infection, neither replication-competent virus nor virus genome could be detected in blood cells or in the classical target organs, even after an experimental immunosuppression. No evidence of in vitro restriction of CAEV replication was observed in cells from tissues explanted from organs of these calves. These data provide the demonstration of a natural clearance of lentivirus infection following experimental inoculation of a nonnatural host, enabling perspectives of development of new potential vaccine strategies to fight against lentivirus infections. PMID:12743300

  15. Clearance of a productive lentivirus infection in calves experimentally inoculated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Morin, Thierry; Guiguen, François; Bouzar, Baya Amel; Villet, Stéphanie; Greenland, Timothy; Grezel, Délphine; Gounel, Françoise; Gallay, Kathy; Garnier, Céline; Durand, Jitka; Alogninouwa, Théodore; Mselli-Lakhal, Laïla; Mornex, Jean-François; Chebloune, Yahia

    2003-06-01

    Lentiviruses have long been considered host-specific pathogens, but several recent observations demonstrated their capacity to conquer new hosts from different species, genera, and families. From these cross-species infections emerged new animal and human infectious diseases. The successful colonization and adaptation of a lentivirus to a nonnatural host depends on unspecific and specific host barriers. Some of those barriers exert a relative control of viral replication (i.e., cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response, viral inhibitory factors), but none of them was found able to totally clear the infection once the retrovirus is fully adapted in its host. In this study we examined the evolution of the host-lentivirus interactions occurring in an experimental animal model of cross-species infection in order to analyze the efficiency of those barriers in preventing the establishment of a persistent infection. Five newborn calves were inoculated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), and the evolution of infection was studied for more than 12 months. All the animals seroconverted in the first 0.75 to 1 month following the inoculation and remained seropositive for the remaining time of the experiment. Viral infection was productive during 4 months with isolation of replication competent virus from the blood cells and organs of the early euthanized animals. After 4 months of infection, neither replication-competent virus nor virus genome could be detected in blood cells or in the classical target organs, even after an experimental immunosuppression. No evidence of in vitro restriction of CAEV replication was observed in cells from tissues explanted from organs of these calves. These data provide the demonstration of a natural clearance of lentivirus infection following experimental inoculation of a nonnatural host, enabling perspectives of development of new potential vaccine strategies to fight against lentivirus infections.

  16. Specific G2 arrest of caprine cells infected with a caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing vpr and vpx genes from simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Bouzar, Amel Baya; Guiguen, François; Morin, Thierry; Villet, Stephanie; Fornazero, Claudie; Garnier, Céline; Gallay, Kathy; Gounel, Françoise; Favier, Colette; Durand, Jitka; Balleydier, Sabine; Mornex, Jean Francois; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia

    2003-04-25

    Primate lentivirus (HIV and SIV) vpr accessory genes encode 12- to 14-kDa proteins which induce cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase of infected cells, preventing them from going through mitosis. Members of the HIV-2/SIVmac/SIVsmm group also encode a second closely related accessory protein called Vpx. Vpx and HIV Vpr are critical for virus replication in nondividing cells due to their participation in nuclear import of the preintegration complex. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi visna virus are the natural lentiviruses of domestic goat and sheep, respectively, and their genomes do not carry vpr and vpx genes. In this study, we generated chimeric CAEV-based genomes carrying vpr and vpx genes from SIVmac239 and tested their ability to induce G2 cell cycle arrest in infected caprine cells. CAEV-pBSCAvpxvpr is the chimeric genome that was shown to be infectious and replication competent. Our data demonstrated that CAEV-pBSCAvpxvpr-infected goat synovial membrane cell monolayer developed more cytopathic effects and a high proportion of cells remained in the G2 phase of cell cycle. This G2 arrest was observed both at the early and at the late stages of infection, while minimal effect was observed with the parental CAEV-pBSCA. These results, described for the first time in mammalian cells other than those of primates, indicate that Vpr-induced G2 cell cycle arrest is not restricted to only primate cells. Thus, conservation of Vpx/Vpr protein functions in caprine cells suggests a possible role for these proteins in the virus life cycle and its ability to adapt to new hosts. The data presented here thus raise a pertinent question about the biological significance of the conservation of Vpr and Vpx functions in caprine cells despite the high phylogenic distance between primates and small ruminants.

  17. Large-scale serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Korean black goats (Capra hircus aegagrus).

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Byun, Jae-Won; Kim, Ha-Young; Kwak, Dongmi; Jung, Byeong Yeal

    2012-12-01

    A national serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. A total of 658 black goats of various breeds were sampled from 59 farms in three regions of Korea. The CAEV-positive goats were predominantly detected in the Southern region (n=17) as compared with the Northern (n=1) and Central regions (n=0) (χ(2)=6.26, P=0.044). Among 658 goats tested, 18 were positive in both ELISA and AGID, indicating a CAEV prevalence of 2.73% (95% confidence interval: 1.74-4.28). These results indicate that CAEV is present in Korean black goats.

  18. Maedi-Visna Virus and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Genomes Encode a Vpr-Like but No Tat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Villet, Stéphanie; Bouzar, Baya Amel; Morin, Thierry; Verdier, Gérard; Legras, Catherine; Chebloune, Yahia

    2003-01-01

    A small open reading frame (ORF) in maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) was initially named “tat” by analogy with a similarly placed ORF in the primate lentiviruses. The encoded “Tat” protein was ascribed the function of up regulation of the viral transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter, but we have recently reported that MVV and CAEV Tat proteins lack trans-activation function activity under physiological conditions (S. Villet, C. Faure, B. Bouzar, G. Verdien, Y. Chebloune, and C. Legras, Virology 307:317-327, 2003). In the present work, we show that MVV Tat localizes to the nucleus of transfected cells, probably through the action of a nuclear localization signal in its C-terminal portion. We also show that, unlike the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein, MVV Tat was not secreted into the medium by transfected human or caprine cells in the absence of cell lysis but that, like the primate accessory protein Vpr, MVV and CAEV Tat proteins were incorporated into viral particles. In addition, analysis of the primary protein structures showed that small-ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) Tat proteins are more similar to the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein than to HIV-1 Tat. We also demonstrate a functional similarity between the SRLV Tat proteins and the HIV-1 Vpr product in the induction of a specific G2 arrest of the cell cycle in MVV Tat-transfected cells, which increases the G2/G1 ratio 2.8-fold. Together, these data strongly suggest that the tat ORF in the SRLV genomes does not code for a regulatory transactivator of the LTR but, rather, for a Vpr-like accessory protein. PMID:12915575

  19. Maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genomes encode a Vpr-like but no Tat protein.

    PubMed

    Villet, Stéphanie; Bouzar, Baya Amel; Morin, Thierry; Verdier, Gérard; Legras, Catherine; Chebloune, Yahia

    2003-09-01

    A small open reading frame (ORF) in maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) was initially named "tat" by analogy with a similarly placed ORF in the primate lentiviruses. The encoded "Tat" protein was ascribed the function of up regulation of the viral transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter, but we have recently reported that MVV and CAEV Tat proteins lack trans-activation function activity under physiological conditions (S. Villet, C. Faure, B. Bouzar, G. Verdien, Y. Chebloune, and C. Legras, Virology 307:317-327, 2003). In the present work, we show that MVV Tat localizes to the nucleus of transfected cells, probably through the action of a nuclear localization signal in its C-terminal portion. We also show that, unlike the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein, MVV Tat was not secreted into the medium by transfected human or caprine cells in the absence of cell lysis but that, like the primate accessory protein Vpr, MVV and CAEV Tat proteins were incorporated into viral particles. In addition, analysis of the primary protein structures showed that small-ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) Tat proteins are more similar to the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein than to HIV-1 Tat. We also demonstrate a functional similarity between the SRLV Tat proteins and the HIV-1 Vpr product in the induction of a specific G(2) arrest of the cell cycle in MVV Tat-transfected cells, which increases the G(2)/G(1) ratio 2.8-fold. Together, these data strongly suggest that the tat ORF in the SRLV genomes does not code for a regulatory transactivator of the LTR but, rather, for a Vpr-like accessory protein.

  20. Development of TaqMan-based qPCR method for detection of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhou, Fengjuan; Li, Xia; Wang, Jianhua; Zhao, Xiangping; Huang, Jinhai

    2013-10-01

    A specific and sensitive two-step TaqMan real-time PCR has been developed for rapid diagnosis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection by using a set of specific primers and a TaqMan probe targeting a highly conserved region within the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (CA). The assay successfully detected CAEV proviral DNA in total DNA extracts originating from cell culture, whole blood samples and isolated PBMCs, with a lower detection limit of 10(2) copies and a linear dynamic range of 10(5) to 10(10) copies/ml. There was no cross-reaction with other animal viruses (e.g., goat pox virus, bovine leukemia virus, bovine mucosal disease virus, swine influenza virus and Nipah virus). When applied in parallel with serological AGID and conventional PCR for detection of CAEV in field samples, this assay exhibited a higher sensitivity than these traditional methods, and 7.8 % of the 308 specimens collected in the Shanxi and Tianjin regions of China from 1993 to 2011 were found to be positive. Thus, the TaqMan qPCR assay provides a fast, specific and sensitive means for detecting CAEV proviral DNA in goat specimens and should be useful for large-scale detection in eradication programs and epidemiological studies.

  1. Lack of trans-activation function for Maedi Visna virus and Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Tat proteins.

    PubMed

    Villet, Stéphanie; Faure, Claudine; Bouzar, Baya Amel; Morin, Thierry; Verdier, Gérard; Chebloune, Yahia; Legras, Catherine

    2003-03-15

    All lentiviruses contain an open reading frame located shortly upstream or inside of the env gene and encoding a small protein which has been designated Tat. This designation was mainly with respect to the positional analogy with the first exon of the trans-activator protein of the well studied human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this work we comparatively studied the trans- activation activity induced by Tat proteins of the small ruminant Maedi Visna virus (MVV) of sheep and Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) of goats on MVV and CAEV LTRs with that induced by the human lentivirus HIV-1 on its own LTR. The HIV-1 LTR alone weakly expresses the reporter GFP gene except when the HIV-1 Tat protein is coexpressed, the GFP expression is increased 60-fold. In similar conditions only minimal trans-activation increasing two- to three-fold the MVV and CAEV LTR activity was found with MVV Tat protein, and no trans-activation activity was detected in any used cell type or with any virus strain when CAEV Tat was tested. These results indicate that the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) differ from the primate lentiviruses in their control of expression from the viral LTRs and put into question the biological role of the encoded protein named "Tat."

  2. Distribution of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus provirus, RNA, and antigen in the reproductive tract of one naturally and seven experimentally infected bucks.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andréia P; Paniago, Juliana J; da Costa, Luciana F; da Cruz, Juliano C M; Braz, Gissandra F; Gouveia, Aurora M G; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L; Heinemann, Marcos B

    2013-11-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a worldwide, multisystemic disease caused by a small ruminant lentivirus. Although the main route of transmission is oral, detection of proviral DNA of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in caprine semen has been previously described. However, the presence of viral antigens in the male reproductive tract has apparently never been reported. The objective was to study lesions in the buck reproductive system and to detect, in these tissues, the presence of proviral DNA, viral RNA and CAEV antigens. Tissues from eight CAEV-infected bucks (one naturally and seven experimentally infected) were analyzed by histopathology, nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Interstitial pneumonia, synovitis, and lesions in the male reproductive tract were detected in some of the bucks. Proviral DNA was detected in the lungs and joints as well as in the reproductive systems of all animals, whereas viral RNA was detected only in the genital tract of the naturally infected buck. Viral antigens were immunostained in most of the organs of the male reproductive tract. This report was apparently the first to clearly demonstrate CAEV antigen expression in the male reproductive tract, which indicates the possibility of venereal transmission of CAEV.

  3. Evaluation of a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus/maedi-visna virus indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serological diagnosis of ovine progressive pneumonia virus in U.S. sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serological diagnostic testing of sheep and goats using enzyme immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) is the most common method of determining small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection. A caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect (i) ELISA, which utilizes MVV EV1 capsid a...

  4. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for the field diagnosis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection.

    PubMed

    Tu, Po-An; Shiu, Jia-Shian; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Pang, Victor Fei; Wang, De-Chi; Wang, Pei-Hwa

    2017-05-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) in goats is a complex disease syndrome caused by a lentivirus. This persistent viral infection results in arthritis in adult goats and encephalitis in lambs. The prognosis for the encephalitic form is normally poor, and this form of the disease has caused substantial economic losses for goat farmers. Hence, a more efficient detection platform based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed in the present study for detecting the proviral DNA of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Under the optimal incubation conditions, specifically, 30min at 37°C for RPA followed by 5min at room temperature for LFD, the assay was found to be sensitive to a lower limit of 80pg of total DNA and 10 copies of plasmid DNA. Furthermore, there was no cross-reaction with other tested viruses, including goat pox virus and bovine leukemia virus. Given its simplicity and portability, this RPA-LFD protocol can serve as an alternative tool to ELISA for the primary screening of CAEV, one that is suitable for both laboratory and field application. When the RPA-LFD was applied in parallel with serological ELISA for the detection of CAEV in field samples, the RPA-LFD assay exhibited a higher sensitivity than the traditional method, and 82% of the 200 samples collected in Taiwan were found to be positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing evidence to support the use of an RPA-LFD assay as a specific and sensitive platform for detecting CAEV proviral DNA in goats in a faster manner, one that is also applicable for on-site utilization at farms and that should be useful in both eradication programs and epidemiological studies.

  5. First isolation and nucleotide comparison of the gag gene of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus circulating in naturally infected goats from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Gos, Maria Laura; Valera, Alejandro Rafael; Galosi, Cecilia Monica; Echeverria, Maria Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) has been reported in different countries worldwide, based on serological and molecular detection. In Argentina, the prevalence of CAEV infections is increasing, with goats showing symptoms associated mostly with cachexia and arthritis. Although in Argentina the virus has been detected by serology, it has never been isolated or characterized. Thus, the objectives of this work were to isolate and analyze the nucleotide sequences of the gag gene of Argentine CAEV strains and compare them with those of other SRLVs previously reported. Nucleotide sequence comparison showed homology with CAEV-Co, the CAEV prototype. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Argentine strains clustered with genotype B, subtype B1. Because the molecular characterization of the gag region is suitable for phylogenetic studies and may be applied to monitor the control of SRLV, molecularly characterizing the Argentine CAEV strains may help develop a proper plan of eradication of CAEV infections. PMID:28331831

  6. Is caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transmitted vertically to early embryo development stages (morulae or blastocyst) via in vitro infected frozen semen?

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, M Z Ali; Chebloune, Y; Chatagnon, G; Pellerin, J L; Fieni, F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether in vitro infected cryopreserved caprine sperm is capable of transmitting caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) vertically to early embryo development stages via artificial insemination with in vitro infected semen. Sperm was collected from CAEV-free bucks by electroejaculation. Half of each ejaculate was inoculated with CAEV-pBSCA at a viral concentration of 10(4) TCID(50)/mL. The second half of each ejaculate was used as a negative control. The semen was then frozen. On Day 13 of superovulation treatment, 14 CAEV-free does were inseminated directly into the uterus under endoscopic control with thawed infected semen. Six CAEV-free does, used as a negative control, were inseminated intrauterine with thawed CAEV-free sperm, and eight CAEV-free does were mated with naturally infected bucks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect CAEV proviral-DNA in the embryos at the D7 stage, in the embryo washing media, and in the uterine secretions of recipient does. At Day 7, all the harvested embryos were PCR-negative for CAEV proviral-DNA; however, CAEV proviral-DNA was detected in 8/14 uterine smears, and 9/14 flushing media taken from does inseminated with infected sperm, and in 1/8 uterine swabs taken from the does mated with infected bucks. The results of this study confirm that (i) artificial insemination with infected semen or mating with infected bucks may result in the transmission of CAEV to the does genital tack seven days after insemination, and (ii) irrespective of the medical status of the semen or the recipient doe, it is possible to obtain CAEV-free early embryos usable for embryo transfer.

  7. A serological study on Brucella abortus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and Leptospira in dairy goats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lilenbaum, Walter; de Souza, Guilherme Nunes; Ristow, Paula; Moreira, Madelayne Cortez; Fráguas, Suzana; Cardoso, Verônica da Silva; Oelemann, Walter Martin Roland

    2007-03-01

    In spite of the large number of goats found in several developing tropical countries, milk production remains unsatisfactory. The occurrence of infectious diseases, such as leptospirosis, brucellosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) may in part be responsible for sub-optimal production. In this study, 1000 serum samples were tested for leptospirosis, 953 for brucellosis and 562 for CAE. All tested flocks presented at least one seroreactive animal for leptospirosis and for CAE. Reactivity to leptospirosis was 11.1%, and serovar hardjo was the most frequently found. Anti-B. abortus agglutinins were found in 0.5% of the samples presented and 14.1% were seroreactive to CAE. Leptospirosis was considered to represent the major infectious problem in the studied goat flocks. The occurrence of infectious diseases in the tested flocks may represent an important factor contributing to the decreased productivity of the animals. These findings may be similar to those observed in other developing countries and require further study to define the relationship between seropositivity and reduced production.

  8. Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzar, Baya Amel; Rea, Angela; Hoc-Villet, Stephanie; Garnier, Celine; Guiguen, Francois; Jin Yuhuai; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia . E-mail: ychebloune@kumc.edu

    2007-08-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes.

  9. Immunogenicity of a lentiviral-based DNA vaccine driven by the 5'LTR of the naturally attenuated caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in mice and macaques.

    PubMed

    Arrode-Brusés, Géraldine; Hegde, Ramakrishna; Jin, Yuhuai; Liu, Zhengian; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia

    2012-04-19

    Increasing the safety and the efficacy of existing HIV vaccines is one of the strategies that could help to promote the development of a vaccine for human use. We developed a HIV DNA vaccine (Δ4-SHIVKU2) that has been shown to induce potent polyfunctional HIV-specific T cell responses following a single dose immunization of mice and macaques. Δ4-SHIVKU2 also induced protection when immunized macaques were challenged with homologous pathogenic viruses. In the present study, our aim was to examine whether a chimeric HIV DNA vaccine (CAL-Δ4-SHIVKU2) whose genome is driven by the LTR of the goat lentivirus, caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV) expresses efficiently the vaccine antigens and induces potent immune responses in animal models for HIV vaccine. Data of radioimmunoprecipitation assays clearly show that this chimeric genome drives efficient expression of all HIV antigens in the construct. In addition, evaluation of the p24 Gag protein in the supernatant of HEK-293-T cells transfected in parallel with Δ4-SHIVKU2 and CAL-Δ4-SHIVKU2 showed no difference suggesting that these two LTRs are inducing equally the expression of the viral genes. Immunization of mice and macaques using our single dose immunization regimen resulted in induction of similar IFN-γ ELISPOT responses in Δ4-SHIVKU2- and CAL-Δ4-SHIVKU2-treated mice. Similar profiles of T cell responses were also detected both in mice and macaques when multiparametric flow cytometry analyses were performed. Since CAEV LTR is not dependent of Tat to drive viral gene expression and is not functional for integration with HIV integrase, this new vector increases the safety and efficacy of our vaccine vectors and vaccination strategy.

  10. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of Maedi Visna and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis viral sequences in sheep and goats from Spain.

    PubMed

    Reina, R; Mora, M I; Glaria, I; García, Iker; Solano, C; Luján, L; Badiola, J J; Contreras, A; Berriatua, E; Juste, R; Mamoun, R Z; Rolland, M; Amorena, B; de Andrés, D

    2006-11-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are widely spread in many countries, including Spain. However, little is known about the genetic characteristics of Spanish goat and sheep SRLV. In this study, segments from three genomic regions (pol, gag-p25 and LTR) were amplified using DNA isolated from three Spanish autochthonous sheep (one) and goats (two). Animals (one per flock) belonged to distantly located, single-species flocks (goat or sheep). Sequence analysis showed conservation of regions that are putatively relevant to viral survival. Sequences of Spanish goat and sheep SRLV were allocated into phylogenetic trees (phylograms) with known SRLV groups. The phylograms corresponding to the pol, gag-p25 and LTR regions analyzed presented a compatible topology. This showed that Spanish caprine and ovine SRLV sequences belonged to the A or D phylogenetic groups and were closer to sheep SRLV prototypes (A1 group) than to goat SRLV prototypes (B or C groups), according to the current classification [Shah, C., Boni, J., Huder, J.B., Vogt, H.R., Muhlherr, J., Zanoni, R., Miserez, R., Lutz, H., Schupbach, J., 2004a. Phylogenetic analysis and reclassification of caprine and ovine lentiviruses based on 104 new isolates: evidence for regular sheep-to-goat transmission and worldwide propagation through livestock trade. Virology 319 (1), 12-26]. It was not possible to amplify in the three genetic regions the expected fragment in additional Spanish caprine and ovine SRLV proviral DNA sequences with the PCR primers used. This suggests that there is heterogeneity at the primer binding site among Spanish SRLV sequences. It also illustrates the need to develop diagnostic tests that are sensitive in local breeds.

  11. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Hoetzel, Isidro . E-mail: ihotzel@gene.com; Cheevers, William P.

    2005-09-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain {beta}-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding.

  12. The validation of housekeeping genes as a reference in quantitative Real Time PCR analysis: application in the milk somatic cells and frozen whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jarosław; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2014-10-10

    The validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) for normalization of RNA expression in Real-Time PCR is crucial to obtain the most reliable results. There is limited information on reference genes used in the study of gene expression in milk somatic cells and the frozen whole blood of goats. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose the most stable housekeeping genes that can be used as a reference in Real-Time PCR analysis of milk somatic cells and whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Animals were divided into two groups: non-infected (N=13) and infected with CAEV (N=13). Biological material (milk somatic cells and whole blood) was collected 4 times during the lactation period (7, 30, 100 and 240days post-partum). The expression levels of candidate reference genes were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software. The stability of candidates for reference gene expression was analyzed for CAEV-free (control) and CAEV-infected groups, and also for both groups together (combined group). The stability of expression of β-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin A (PPIA), RNA18S1, ubiquilin (UBQLN1) and ribosomal protein large subunit P0 (RPLP0) was determined in milk somatic cells, while ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), battenin (CLN3), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3K (EIF3K) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) were measured in frozen whole blood of goats. PPIA and RPLP0 were considered as the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed in milk somatic cells regardless of disease status, according to NormFinder software. Furthermore, geNorm results indicated the expression of PPIA/RPLP0 genes as the best combination under these experimental conditions. The results of frozen whole blood analysis using NormFinder software revealed that the most stable reference gene in control, CAEV-infected and combined groups is

  13. Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to some viruses, including: Measles Mumps Polio Rabies Rubella Varicella (chickenpox) Other viruses that cause encephalitis ... Vaccinate animals to prevent encephalitis caused by the rabies virus. References Aksamit AJ. Acute viral encephalitis. In: ...

  14. Expression of cytokine mRNA in lentivirus-induced arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, F.; Vogt, H. R.; Seow, H. F.; Bertoni, G.; Cheevers, W. P.; von Bodungen, U.; Zurbriggen, A.; Peterhans, E.

    1997-01-01

    Infection of goats with the lentivirus caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) leads to persistent infection and development of chronic arthritis. We analyzed the expression of cytokines and viral RNA in the joints of goats at early time points after experimental infection with CAEV and in those of animals suffering from chronic arthritis as a result of natural infection. In situ hybridization experiments showed that the pattern of cytokine expression in caprine arthritis was similar to that found in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with a few cells expressing the lymphocyte-derived cytokines interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 and rather more cells expressing monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. IFN-gamma mRNA expression in experimentally infected joints peaked at day 12 and was mostly detected in areas containing viral RNA. At later time points, no IFN-gamma- or virus-expressing cells were found in inflamed joints but both were again detected in goats with severe arthritis. Interestingly, at the clinical stage of arthritis reflecting the chronic stage of infection, the inflammatory lesion was found to be immunologically compartmentalized. Humoral immune responses and cell-mediated immune responses appeared to concurrently occur in distinct areas of the synovial membrane. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9327739

  15. Small ruminant lentiviral Vif proteins commonly utilize cyclophilin A, an evolutionarily and structurally conserved protein, to degrade ovine and caprine APOBEC3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Nakano, Yusuke; Yamada, Eri; Moriwaki, Miyu; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2016-06-01

    Mammals have co-evolved with retroviruses, including lentiviruses, over a long period. Evidence supporting this contention is that viral infectivity factor (Vif) encoded by lentiviruses antagonizes the anti-viral action of cellular apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) of the host. To orchestrate E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for APOBEC3 degradation, Vifs utilize mammalian proteins such as core-binding factor beta (CBFB; for primate lentiviruses) or cyclophilin A (CYPA; for Maedi-Visna virus [MVV]). However, the co-evolutionary relationship between lentiviral Vif and the mammalian proteins associated with Vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation is poorly understood. Moreover, it is unclear whether Vif proteins of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), including MVV and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), commonly utilize CYPA to degrade the APOBEC3 of their hosts. In this study, molecular phylogenetic and protein homology modeling revealed that Vif co-factors are evolutionarily and structurally conserved. It was also found that not only MVV but also CAEV Vifs degrade APOBEC3 of both sheep and goats and that CAEV Vifs interact with CYPA. These findings suggest that lentiviral Vifs chose evolutionarily and structurally stable proteins as their partners (e.g., CBFB or CYPA) for APOBEC3 degradation and, particularly, that SRLV Vifs evolved to utilize CYPA as their co-factor in degradation of ovine and caprine APOBEC3. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or have trouble moving around, you might have arthritis. Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints ... joint can become severely damaged. Some kinds of arthritis can also cause problems in your organs, such ...

  17. St. Louis Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases transmitted by mosquitoes Chikungunya virus Dengue Eastern Equine Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis Malaria La Crosse Encephalitis Western Equine Encephalitis West Nile virus Yellow Fever Saint Louis ...

  18. Small ruminant lentivirus-induced arthritis: clinicopathologic findings in sheep infected by a highly replicative SRLV B2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M; Biescas, E; Reina, R; Glaria, I; Marín, B; Marquina, A; Salazar, E; Álvarez, N; de Andrés, D; Fantova, E; Badiola, J J; Amorena, B; Luján, L

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinicopathologic features of an arthritis outbreak in sheep induced by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), linked to the presence of a new SRLV isolate phylogenetically assigned to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like subgroup B2. Thirteen SRLV seropositive Rasa Aragonesa adult ewes were selected from 5 SRLV highly infected flocks (mean seroprevalence, 90.7%) for presenting uni- or bilateral chronic arthritis in the carpal joint. A complete study was performed, including symptomatology, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and microbiology. The carpus was the joint almost exclusively affected, with 10 sheep (76%) showing a moderate increase in carpal joint size (diameter range, 18-20 cm; normal range, 15-16 cm) without signs of locomotion problems and with 3 ewes (23%) showing severe inflammation with marked increase in diameter (21-24 cm), pain at palpation, and abnormal standing position. Grossly, chronic proliferative arthritis was observed in affected joints characterized by an increased thickness of the synovial capsule and synovial membrane proliferation. Microscopically, synovial membrane inflammation and proliferation and hyperplasia of synoviocytes were observed. More positive cases of SLRV infection were detected by immunocytochemistry of articular fluid than of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization also detected positive cells in the subsynovial connective tissue, lung, mediastinal lymph node, mammary gland, and mammary lymph node. All animals were negative for the presence of Mycoplasma or other bacteria in the articular space. The present outbreak likely represents an adaptation of a caprine virus to sheep. Our results underline the importance of the arthritis induced by SRLV in sheep, a clinical form that might be underestimated.

  19. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... joints Infection, most often by bacteria or virus Crystals such as uric acid or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate ... common types of inflammatory arthritis include: Ankylosing ... calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease Juvenile rheumatoid ...

  20. Dengue encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Borawake, Kapil; Prayag, Parikshit; Wagh, Atul; Dole, Swati

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of dengue fever with features of encephalitis. The diagnosis of dengue was confirmed by the serum antibodies to dengue and the presence of a dengue antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid. This patient had characteristic magnetic resonance imaging brain findings, mainly involving the bilateral thalami, with hemorrhage. Dengue is not primarily a neurotropic virus and encephalopathy is a common finding in Dengue. Hence various other etiological possibilities were considered before concluding this as a case of Dengue encephalitis. This case explains the importance of considering the diagnosis of dengue encephalitis in appropriate situations. PMID:22013316

  1. Autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Newman, M P; Blum, S; Wong, R C W; Scott, J G; Prain, K; Wilson, R J; Gillis, D

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, the clinical spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis has expanded with the emergence of several new clinicopathological entities. In particular, autoimmune encephalitis has recently been described in association with antibodies to surface receptors and ion channels on neurological tissues. Greater clinician awareness has resulted in autoimmune encephalitis being increasingly recognised in patients with unexplained neurological and psychiatric symptoms and signs. The clinical spectrum of presentations, as well as our understanding of disease mechanisms and treatment regimens, is rapidly developing. An understanding of these conditions is important to all subspecialties of Internal Medicine, including neurology and clinical immunology, psychiatry, intensive care and rehabilitation medicine. This review provides a contemporary overview of the aetiology, investigations and treatment of the most recently described autoimmune encephalitides. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Encephalitis awareness.

    PubMed

    Easton, Ava

    2017-03-01

    Last week we marked the 4th World Encephalitis Day, a global campaign with two primary aims. The first is to acknowledge the experiences of survivors of this devastating neurological condition and their family members, while the second is to raise much-needed awareness among the public.

  3. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  4. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas.

  5. Encephalitis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: What You Need to Know - 繁體中文 ( ...

  6. Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Armangue, Thaís; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The causes of encephalitis are numerous, and extensive investigations for infectious agents and other etiologies are often negative. The discovery that many of these encephalitis are immune mediated has changed the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Moreover, the broad spectrum of symptoms including, psychosis, catatonia, alterations of behavior and memory, seizures, abnormal movements, and autonomic dysregulation usually requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach. This review focuses in several forms of encephalitis that occur in children, and for which an autoimmune etiology has been demonstrated (eg, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis) or is strongly suspected (eg, Rasmussen encephalitis, limbic encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus). The authors also review several disorders that may be immune mediated, such as the rapid onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome and some encephalopathies with fever and status epilepticus. Recognition of novel immune-mediated encephalitis is important because some of these disorders are highly responsive to immunotherapy. PMID:22935553

  7. Managing patients with encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Matata, Claire; Easton, Ava; Michael, Benedict; Evans, Becky; Ward, Deborah; Solomon, Tom; Kneen, Rachel

    2015-11-11

    This article provides an overview of encephalitis and addresses its diagnosis, some of the common presenting signs and symptoms, and the different aspects of nursing care required for these patients. In particular, it addresses how to explain encephalitis to the patient's relatives, the rehabilitation needs of these patients, and important aspects of discharge planning. Tests that are necessary for diagnosis in patients with suspected encephalitis and the importance of these are explained.

  8. Travelers' Health: Japanese Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (81) Japanese Encephalitis more Tables ...

  9. Psoriatic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic Arthritis Fast Facts Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic arthritis. ... appear before the skin disorder. What is psoriatic arthritis? Psoriasis is a disease in which scaly red ...

  10. Arthritis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  11. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile Arthritis Fast Facts Arthritis in children is treatable. It ... as fevers or rash. What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis? Several types of arthritis, all involving chronic (long- ...

  12. Encephalitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... syphilis. Certain parasites, like toxoplasmosis (found in infected cat feces), can also cause encephalitis in people with ... that won't stop Reviewed by: Nicole A. Green, MD Date reviewed: April 2013 previous 1 • 2 • ...

  13. Encephalitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Encephalitis can be a very rare complication of Lyme disease transmitted by ticks or of rabies spread by ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC West Nile Virus Chickenpox Lyme Disease Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature What's West ...

  14. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  15. Auto-immune encephalitis as differential diagnosis of infectious encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Armangue, Thaís; Leypoldt, Frank; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the main types of autoimmune encephalitis with special emphasis on those associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface or synaptic proteins, and the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Recent findings There is a continuous expansion of the number of cell surface or synaptic proteins that are targets of autoimmunity. The most recently identified include the mGluR5, DPPX, and the GABAAR. In these and previously known autoimmune encephalitis (NMDAR, AMPAR, GABABR, LGI1, CASPR2), the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral encephalitis. We review here clues that help in the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Moreover, recent investigations indicate that viral encephalitis (e.g., herpes simplex) can trigger synaptic autoimmunity. In all these disorders immunotherapy is usually effective. Summary Autoimmune encephalitis comprises an expanding group of potentially treatable disorders that should be included in the differential diagnosis of any type of encephalitis. PMID:24792345

  16. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  17. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, T S; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in Europe and many parts of Asia. The etiological agent Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is a member of the virus genus Flavivirus, of the family Flaviviridae. TBEV is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in Russia and about 3000 cases in the rest of Europe annually. Related viruses within the same group, Louping ill virus (LIV), Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus (POWV), also cause human encephalitis but rarely on an epidemic scale. Three other viruses within the same group, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma virus (ALKV), are closely related to the TBEV complex viruses and tend to cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers rather than encephalitis. This review describes the clinical manifestations associated with TBEV infections, the main molecular-biological properties of these viruses, and the different factors that define the incidence and severity of disease. The role of ticks and their local hosts in the emergence of new virus variants with different pathogenic characteristics is also discussed. This review also contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including trials with live attenuated vaccine and modern tendencies in developing of vaccine virus strains.

  18. Multiphasic presentation of Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Avberšek, Andreja; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew W; Patel, Ayesha V; Aronica, Eleonora; Blümcke, Ingmar; Jacques, Thomas S; Acheson, James; Thom, Maria; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2015-09-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause, characterised by drug-resistant focal epilepsy that may rarely present in adolescence or adulthood. We present a case of Rasmussen's encephalitis with prominent recurrent fluctuation in symptoms and well-documented fluctuating changes on MRI, adding to the spectrum of diversity of Rasmussen's encephalitis.

  19. Autoimmune encephalitis update

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Josep; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated immune-mediated disorders of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group. These disorders include the classic paraneoplastic neurologic disorders and the more recently described autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to neuronal cell-surface or synaptic receptors that occur with and without a cancer association. Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes that can be severe and prolonged. In contrast to the classic paraneoplastic disorders that are poorly responsive to tumor treatment and immunotherapy, autoimmune encephalitis often responds to these treatments, and patients can have full or marked recoveries. As early treatment speeds recovery, reduces disability, and decreases relapses that can occur in about 20% of cases, it is important that the immune pathogenesis of these disorders is recognized. PMID:24637228

  20. California encephalitis in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Mancao, M Y; Law, I M; Roberson-Trammell, K

    1996-10-01

    Arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections in humans are primarily central nervous system infections, but other clinical manifestations include febrile illness and fever with hemorrhagic diathesis. In the genus Bunyavirus there are several viruses that cause disease in humans, especially in North America; these include LaCrosse, Jamestown Canyon, trivittatus, and snowshoe hare viruses. The disease seen mainly in children is California encephalitis (usually of the LaCrosse subtype); this infection is widespread in the United States but is most prevalent in the upper Midwest, especially in rural areas. We present the first reported case of California encephalitis in rural Alabama; the patient was a 7-year-old boy who came to us with fever and seizures in the summer of 1994. This report stresses the importance of including California encephalitis in the differential diagnosis when children have fever and altered sensorium after exposure to mosquitoes during summer months.

  1. [Hashimoto encephalitis and depression].

    PubMed

    Veltman, E M; Rhebergen, D; van Exel, E; Stek, M L

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto encephalitis (he) is an auto-immune disease, with 40-50% of patients developing psychopathology. This could require targeted treatment. HE and prednison could both cloud the identification of a concurrent depressive disorder. We saw a 78-year-old woman with he and a severe depression, and treated her succesfully with ect.

  2. Gonococcal arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI); Disseminated gonococcemia; Septic arthritis - gonococcal arthritis ... Gonococcal arthritis is an infection of a joint. It occurs in people who have gonorrhea , which is caused by ...

  3. Viral arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in ... wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is ...

  5. Autoimmune encephalitis associated with vitiligo?

    PubMed

    Haitao, Ren; Huiqin, Liu; Tao, Qu; Xunzhe, Yang; Xiaoqiu, Shao; Wei, Li; Jiewen, Zhang; Liying, Cui; Hongzhi, Guan

    2017-09-15

    The autoimmune encephalitis can develop with or without an underlying tumor. For tumor-negative autoimmune encephalitis, the causes are still largely unknown. Here we presented three patients with autoimmune encephalitis accompanied with vitiligo. Among them, two patients suffered from anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis and one patient suffered from anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy. All of them received intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids as immunotherapy. The two patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis recovered and got a good prognosis. For the patient with anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy, he only got a moderate and transient improvement. Based on the above, we speculate that vitiligo may be a clue to an autoimmune cause for encephalitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Clinical Approach to Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Piquet, Amanda L; Cho, Tracey A

    2016-05-01

    Encephalitis has various etiologies, but viral infections and autoimmune disorders are the most commonly identified. Clinical signs, geographical clues, and diagnostic testing-including cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities-can be helpful in identifying the cause. Certain forms of encephalitis have specific treatments; hence, establishing a diagnosis rapidly and accurately is crucial. Here, we describe the clinical approach to diagnosing several common etiologies of encephalitis as well as treatment strategies.

  7. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  8. Psoriatic arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, L.H.; Espinoza, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: The history and epidemiologic definition of psoriatic arthritis as a distinct entity; Psoriatic arthritis: Further epidemiologic and genetic considerations; The radiologic features of psoriatic arthritis; and Laboratory findings and pathology of psoriatic arthritis.

  9. [Herpetic encephalitis: a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Dryhant, L P; Sereda, V H; Kushpiĭ, O V; Tkachenko, V V; Kravchuk, N A; Inhula, N I; Sizina, A V; Sachko, Iu Iu; Andrusenko, A S; Tytenko, Iu I; Babirad, A M

    2012-01-01

    An example of diagnostics and treatment of patient is in-process made with herpetic encephalitis. It is well-proven in researches, that a herpetic encephalitis is 11.5% among sharp encephalitises. Morbidity is sporadic, some researchers specify on an increase its spring. An infection can be passed tiny and pin a way. Seasonal vibrations are not incident to the herpetic encephalitis. Two peaks of morbidity are on 5-30 years and age more senior 50 years. More than in 95% cases the virus of simple herpes of type serves as an exciter of herpetic encephalitis 1. A characteristic triad of herpetic encephalitis is the sharp feverish beginning, development of cramps of dzheksonovskogo type and violation of consciousness, developing usually after a brief respirator infection. Sometimes sudden development of cramps and loss of consciousness is preceded a fever. Example of such development of disease is made an in our work.

  10. Morphological changes of post-isolation of caprine pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Tengku Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina; Othman, Abas Mazni

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is commonly used to treat diabetes. Cell isolation and purification methods can affect the structure and function of the isolated islet cells. Thus, the development of cell isolation techniques that preserve the structure and function of pancreatic islet cells is essential for enabling successful transplantation procedures. The impact of purification procedures on cell function can be assessed by performing ultrastructure and in vivo studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caprine islets purification procedure on islet cell ultrastructure and functional integrity prior to and post-isolation/purification. The islets were isolated from caprine pancreas by using an optimized collagenase XI-S concentration, and the cells were subsequently purified using Euro-Ficoll density gradient. In vitro viability of islets was determined by fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining. Static incubation was used to assess functionality and insulin production by islet cells in culture media when exposed to various levels of glucose. Pancreatic tissues were examined by using light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. In vivo viability and functionality of caprine islets were assessed by evaluating the transplanted islets in diabetic mice. Insulin assay of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test showed that the insulin levels increased with increasing concentration of glucose. Thus, purified islets stimulated with high glucose concentration (25 mM) secreted higher levels of insulin (0.542 ± 0.346 μg/L) than the insulin levels (0.361 ± 0.219, 0.303 ± 0.234 μg/L) secreted by exposure to low glucose concentrations (1.67 mM). Furthermore, insulin levels of recipient mice were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those prior to xenotransplantation. In addition, following islets transplantation, there was significant enhancement in blood glucose

  11. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Valarcher, J F; Hägglund, S; Juremalm, M; Blomqvist, G; Renström, L; Zohari, S; Leijon, M; Chirico, J

    2015-08-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a zoonotic arbovirosis caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is an increasing public health concern. Infections result in neurological symptoms in humans and the virus has rapidly expanded to new geographical areas. Three subtypes are currently present in different parts of Europe and Asia. The virus is transmitted by ticks, mainly Ixodes spp., between small mammals such as rodents, which serve as virus amplifying hosts. Humans are infected sporadically, either by a tick bite or by ingestion of infected milk or milk products. Other mammals (e.g. ruminants) can also be infected, but most of the time do not show clinical signs. In contrast to rodents, other wild and domestic mammals probably play only a very small direct role in maintaining TBEV in an area, but they might play an important role as hosts in sustaining a large tick population. Therefore, the virus prevalence and the occurrence of TBE can be influenced by several environmental, genetic and behavioural factors associated with the virus, the vectors or the hosts, and understanding these factors is essential for implementation of effective control measures. This article reviews virus characteristics and the epidemiological and clinical aspects of TBEV infections and examines pathogenesis, diagnostic approaches and control measures.

  12. Autoimmune NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Tebo, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a treatable autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with prominent neurologic and psychiatric features at disease onset. The disease is associated with the production of autoantibodies to NMDAR, a protein involved in memory function and synaptic plasticity. Affected patients develop a multistage progressive illness with symptoms ranging from memory deficits, seizures and psychosis, to potentially lethal catatonia, and autonomic and breathing instability. The outcome can be much improved with accurate diagnosis and early treatment using adequate immunosuppressive therapy. However, since the neurological and psychiatric symptoms as well as the clinical examination results can be non-specific, the disease is probably under-recognized. Reliable and accurate clinical testing for the identification of NMDAR autoantibodies is crucial for diagnosis, timely treatment selection, and monitoring. Recently, a cell-based indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for the detection of IgG antibodies to NMDAR has become available for diagnostic use. This review highlights the progress and challenges of laboratory testing in the evaluation and management anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and perspectives for the future.

  13. Dynamics of the enzymatic antioxidants during experimental caprine coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, E; Razavi, S M; Nazifi, S; Farzaneh, M; Mobarraei, N

    2013-04-01

    Caprine coccidiosis, caused by coccidian parasites from genus Eimeria, is considered as one of the most common and significant diseases in goats worldwide. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the responses of the enzymatic antioxidant systems during experimental coccidiosis. For this purpose, 20 newborn kids were selected. Ten were infected with sporulated oocysts of the most pathogenic species of Eimeria, and the remainder served as the control. Blood samples were taken at 0 (before inoculation), 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days post-infection (dpi), and antioxidant-oxidant-related parameters were measured. Our data showed that the activities of the main erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes revealed significant declines at 7 dpi. These decreases were more evident at 14 to 21 dpi and then gradually enhanced to the normal values until 35 dpi; however, total antioxidant capacity revealed a remarkable decrease at 7 dpi and remained on the same level toward the end of the study. By contrast, serum levels of malondialdehyde (a biomarker of lipid peroxidation) and total homocysteine significantly increased at 21 and 14, 21, and 28 dpi, respectively. These observations suggest that caprine coccidiosis can impair the major antioxidant systems leading to remarkable oxidative damages during the infection. Furthermore, oxidative injuries could have a considerable linkage to the pathogenesis of Eimeria parasites.

  14. Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 μmol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of PRNP S127 allele in experimental goat infection with classical caprine scrapie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic goats and sheep. Experimental inoculation studies in sheep confirmed that classical caprine scrapie can readily transmit to sheep. Therefore, even if current scrapie eradication measures are successful in sheep, goa...

  16. First isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, one of the causal agents of caprine contagious agalactia, on the island of Lanzarote (Spain).

    PubMed

    De la Fe, C; Gutiérrez, A; Poveda, J B; Assunção, P; Ramírez, A S; Fabelo, F

    2007-03-01

    During an unusually long period of bad weather, several outbreaks of caprine contagious agalactia (CCA) were reported in a number of flocks on the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain). Clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating goats and some cases of arthritis and pneumonia in kids were observed in the affected flocks. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was isolated as the main causal agent of the outbreaks, associated with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides "large colony type" (Mmm LC) in two flocks. This is the first report of an isolation of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum on the island of Lanzarote. The finding is of epidemiological importance and could complicate plans to control the disease. The significance of this mycoplasma species in association with CCA must now be studied in detail.

  17. Infectious Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  18. Thumb Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Thumb Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... A joint is where bones connect and move. Arthritis is thinning of the cartilage, which is the ...

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000431.htm Rheumatoid arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term disease. It leads ...

  20. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  1. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe.

  2. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  3. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  4. An assessment of caprine tuberculosis prevalence in Lubumbashi slaughterhouse, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Luboya, Luboya Wa; Malangu, Mposhy; Kaleka, Mwenyi; Ngulu, Nsasi; Nkokele, Bimwala; Maryabo, Kazembe; Pourrut, Xavier; Vincent, Tom; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Caprine tuberculosis is a major health problem for goats and a major zoonosis of veterinary public health interest. In order to prepare a response to and control of caprine tuberculosis, to evaluate the potential risks to public health, and to assess the prevalence of the disease in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo, 656 goats that were slaughtered at the Kabasele abattoir of Mzee Laurent-Desire Kabila Market in Lubumbashi were subjected to rigorous veterinary inspection during June to August 2012. All goat specimens came from the Kasumbalesa, Kasenga, and Kipushi areas of Katanga province. Consequently, suspected organs presenting signs of tuberculosis were collected and examined using Ziehl-Neelsen stains for diagnosis. Through this investigative inspection in the province, we found an overall prevalence of caprine tuberculosis of 1.68%. Although females showed higher prevalence of caprine tuberculosis (1.07%) compared to males (0.61%), and adults showed higher prevalence (1.22%) than juveniles (0.45%), these comparisons were not statically significant. However, lung and intestine infection by tuberculosis showed significantly higher prevalence of positive cases (1.21 and 0.46%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Goats from Kasumbalesa had the highest prevalence of caprine tuberculosis (1.22%) compared to goats from Kipushi (0.31%) and Kasenga (0.18%). These findings show the risk of caprine tuberculosis in the province for the first time, and we therefore recommend the implementation of strict animal biosecurity and tuberculosis controlling protocols.

  5. Bacterial expression and preliminary crystallographic studies of a 149-residue fragment of human Caprin-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuhong; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Xiaolan; Du, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    Caprin-1 is an RNA-binding protein which plays critical roles in several important biological processes, including cellular proliferation, the interferon-mediated antiviral innate immune response, the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and the formation of RNA stress granules. Caprin-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including osteo­sarcoma, breast cancer, viral infections, hearing loss and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the emerging biological and physiopathological significance of Caprin-1, no structural information is available for this protein. Moreover, Caprin-1 does not have sequence similarity to any other protein with a known structure. It is therefore expected that structural studies will play a particularly crucial role in revealing the functional mechanisms of Caprin-1. Here, a protein fragment of human Caprin-1 consisting of residues 112–260 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Native and Se-SAD data sets were collected to resolutions to 2.05 and 2.65 Å, respectively, in different space groups. PMID:25760709

  6. Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gutierrez, Adela; Attaie, Rahmat; Farrell, Harold M

    2010-04-28

    Caseins (alpha(s1)-, alpha(s2)-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals; this property makes them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in alpha(s1)-casein content generated by genetic polymorphism. This variability in composition could lead to altered antioxidant properties. Thus, the ability of two caprine caseins differing in alpha(s1)-casein content to inhibit lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions at 5% oil was investigated and compared to bovine caseinate. All caseins inhibited the formation of lipid oxidation at pH 7.0 as determined by lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). However, caprine caseins were in general more effective inhibitors of lipid oxidation than the bovine caseins, which may be attributed to their altered casein amino acid content and/or metal binding capabilities. The combination of the carotenoids with bovine and caprine caseins was highly effective at repressing oxidation leading to the speculation that the caseins may inhibit the loss of the carotenoids and/or react with and enhance the carotenoid activity; again some differences between bovine and caprine caseins were observed with caprine caseins being slightly more effective in the presence of carotenoids.

  7. The effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitate formation in caprine and bovine milks.

    PubMed

    Miloradovic, Zorana N; Kljajevic, Nemanja V; Jovanovic, Snezana T; Vucic, Tanja R; Macej, Ognjen D

    2015-02-01

    Caprine and bovine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences in colloidal casein micelles could affect directly or indirectly the heat stability of caprine and bovine milks at their natural pH. In the present work, the differences in colloidal stability of caprine and bovine milk have been studied by analysing the effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitation of proteins. Raw and heated milk samples (70 °C/5 min, 80°C/5 min and 90°C/5 min) were centrifuged at 600, 2000, and 4500  g . The amount of precipitate formed after skimming was measured and the protein composition of both precipitates and supernatants analysed using the SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and densitometry. In caprine milk, the heat treatment prior to skimming had a statistically significant effect on protein precipitation. Centrifugal force had a statistically significant effect on amount of precipitate for both milks, but the amount was 2 to 4 times higher for caprine milk. When defatting the milk for electrophoresis, a centrifugal force of 600  g appeared to be the most appropriate, in order to avoid protein loss and a possible error in the interpretation of results. Results of this study could also serve as the basis for further investigations on adjusting the skimming conditions for caprine milk in industrial dairy processing environment.

  8. Japanese encephalitis in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Graščenkov, N. I.

    1964-01-01

    The author sketches the history of Japanese encephalitis in the USSR, where it has been thoroughly studied since it first occurred in 1938. After a brief outline of its epidemiology, he describes the pathogenesis, the signs and symptoms, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that make this form of encephalitis so dangerous. He also discusses the diagnosis and the methods of treatment and prevention practised in the USSR. PMID:14153405

  9. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... men. About two to three times as many women as men have the disease. Living with Rheumatoid Arthritis Video length: 2 min 54 sec Click to watch this video Learn more about how rheumatoid arthritis occurs. Effects Vary Rheumatoid arthritis affects people differently. Some people ...

  10. Caprine plasma proteinase inhibitors--II. Genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Vankan, D M; Bell, K

    1993-01-01

    1. Analysis of the inheritances of the variants of five caprine plasma proteinase inhibitor systems in families demonstrated a genetic control of codominant alleles at five loci. 2. The PIA, B, C, D and E proteins are controlled by four (PIA1,2,3,4), three (PIB1,4,0), three (PIC2,3,0), five (PID1,2,3,4,0) and two (PIE1,2) alleles respectively. Null alleles were postulated for the PIB, PIC and PID systems. 3. The frequencies of the alleles differed substantially between the Australian and Texan Angoras and Cashmere breeds of goats. 4. The combined exclusion probability for the five PI systems was as high as 0.82 in the Cashmere breed, indicating the potential of the proteinase inhibitor proteins for parentage control purposes.

  11. The analytic hierarchy process in decisionmaking for caprine health programmes.

    PubMed

    Maino, M; Pérez, P; Oviedo, P; Sotomayor, G; Abalos, P

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to assist decision-making when planning animal health programmes, by assigning priorities to issues of concern to producers in Chile's main goat production region. This process allows a multi-criteria approach to problems, by analysing and ranking them in a hierarchical structure. Industry experts have highlighted the following animal health and disease control criteria: acceptance by breeders of disease control measures; impact of specific diseases on regional animal trade; the cost and efficacy of control measures; a decrease in flock production; and the impact of caprine diseases on human public health. Using these criteria in the AHP, the study found that the most important impacts were on human public health and on the animal trade. The disease priorities were tuberculosis, brucellosis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, due mainlyto their zoonotic impact. The analytic hierarchy process proved useful when several criteria were involved in public health issues.

  12. Arthritis and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... IBD Help Center Home > Resources > Arthritis Go Back Arthritis Email Print + Share Arthritis, or inflammation of the ... joints and a reduction in flexibility. TYPES OF ARTHRITIS In IBD, arthritis may appear in three different ...

  13. What Is Reactive Arthritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...

  14. Effect of aging on the rheology of full fat and low fat Cheddar-like caprine cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rheological properties of aging full fat (FF) and low fat (LF) caprine milk cheeses were characterized to determine the changes in the cheese matrix during storage. Six batches of high moisture, Cheddar-like cheese were manufactured from whole or skim caprine milk and were aged at 4 deg C for u...

  15. Visual influences on primate encephalization.

    PubMed

    Kirk, E Christopher

    2006-07-01

    Primates differ from most other mammals in having relatively large brains. As a result, numerous comparative studies have attempted to identify the selective variables influencing primate encephalization. However, none have examined the effect of the total amount of visual input on relative brain size. According to Jerison's principle of proper mass, functional areas of the brain devoted primarily to processing visual information should exhibit increases in size when the amount of visual input to those areas increases. As a result, the total amount of visual input to the brain could exert a large influence on encephalization because visual areas comprise a large proportion of total brain mass in primates. The goal of this analysis is to test the expectation of a direct relationship between visual input and encephalization using optic foramen size and optic nerve size as proxies for total visual input. Data were collected for a large comparative sample of primates and carnivorans, and three primary analyses were undertaken. First, the relationship between relative proxies for visual input and relative endocranial volume were examined using partial correlations and phylogenetic comparative methods. Second, to examine the generality of the results derived for extant primates, a parallel series of partial correlation and comparative analyses were undertaken using data for carnivorans. Third, data for various Eocene and Oligocene primates were compared with those for living primates in order to determine whether the fossil taxa demonstrate a similar relationship between relative brain size and visual input. All three analyses confirm the expectations of proper mass and favor the conclusion that the amount of visual input has been a major influence on the evolution of relative brain size in both primates and carnivorans. Furthermore, this study suggests that differences in visual input may partly explain (1) the high encephalization of primates relative to the primitive

  16. Monoarticular Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Vogelgesang, Scott A

    2017-05-01

    Monoarticular arthritis is inflammation characterized by joint pain, swelling, and sometimes periarticular erythema. Although chronic causes are seen, the onset is often acute. An infected joint can quickly lead to permanent damage, making it a medical emergency. However, acute gout presenting as monoarticular arthritis is often so uncomfortable it requires urgent attention. Monoarticular crystalline arthritis is common and a septic joint is a medical emergency so it is no surprise that these diagnoses come to mind with complaint of inflammation in 1 joint. However, there are many causes of monoarticular arthritis that clinicians must consider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Caprin-1, a novel Cyr61-interacting protein, promotes osteosarcoma tumor growth and lung metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabile, Adam A; Arlt, Matthias J E; Muff, Roman; Husmann, Knut; Hess, Daniel; Bertz, Josefine; Langsam, Bettina; Aemisegger, Caroline; Ziegler, Urs; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. More than 30% of patients develop lung metastasis, which is the leading cause of mortality. Recently, the extracellular matrix protein Cyr61 has been recognized as a malignancy promoting protein in OS mouse model with prognostic potential in human OS. In this study, we aimed at the identification of novel Cyr61-interacting proteins. Here we report that Cyr61 associates with Caprin-1, and confocal microscopy showed that stable ectopic expression of Caprin-1 leads to the formation of stress granules containing Caprin-1 and Cyr61, confers resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Importantly, ectopic expression of Caprin-1 dramatically enhanced primary tumor growth, remarkably increased lung metastatic load in a SCID intratibial OS mouse model, and decreased significantly (p<0.0018) the survival of the mice. Although Caprin-1 expression, evaluated with a tissue microarray including samples from 59 OS patients, failed to be an independent predictor for the patients' outcome in this limited cohort of patients, increased Caprin-1 expression indicated a tendency to shortened overall survival, and more strikingly, Cyr61/Caprin-1 co-expression was associated with worse survival than that observed for patients with tumors expressing either Cyr61 or Caprin-1 alone or none of these proteins. The findings imply that Caprin-1 may have a metastasis promoting role in OS and show that through resistance to apoptosis and via the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, Caprin-1 is significantly involved in the development of OS metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, A; Kennedy, P

    2002-01-01

    Acute encephalitis constitutes a medical emergency. In most cases, the presence of focal neurological signs and focal seizures will distinguish encephalitis from encephalopathy. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a non-infective inflammatory encephalitis that may require to be treated with steroids. Acute infective encephalitis is usually viral. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the commonest sporadic acute viral encephalitis in the Western world. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain is the investigation of choice in HSE and the diagnosis may be confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction test for the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. In this article, we review the diagnosis, investigations, and management of acute encephalitis. With few exceptions (for example, aciclovir for HSE), no specific therapy is available for most forms of viral encephalitis. Mortality and morbidity may be high and long term sequelae are known among survivors. The emergence of unusual forms of zoonotic encephalitis has posed an important public health problem. Vaccination and vector control measures are useful preventive strategies in certain arboviral and zoonotic encephalitis. However, we need better antiviral therapy to meet the challenge of acute viral encephalitis more effectively. PMID:12415078

  19. Can we differentiate between herpes simplex encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis?

    PubMed

    Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha Kant; Mani, Vinita Elizabeth; Bhoi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-07-15

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) occurs without regional and seasonal predilections. HSE is important to differentiate from arboviral encephalitis in endemic areas because of therapeutic potential of HSE. This study evaluates clinical features, MRI and laboratory findings which may help in differentiating HSE from Japanese encephalitis (JE). Confirmed patients with JE and HSE in last 10years were included. The presenting clinical symptoms including demographic information, seizure, behavioral abnormality, focal weakness and movement disorders were noted. Cranial MRI was done and location and nature of signal alteration were noted. Electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood counts and serum chemistry were done. Outcome was measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Death, functional outcome and neurological sequelae were noted at 3, 6 and 12months follow up, and compared between HSE and JE. Outcome was categorized as poor (mRS;>2) and good (mRS≤2). 97 patients with JE and 40 HSE were included. JE patients were younger than HSE and occurred in post monsoon period whereas HSE occurred throughout the year. Seizure (86% vs 40%) and behavioral abnormality (48% vs 10%) were commoner in HSE; whereas movement disorders (76% vs 0%) and focal reflex loss (42% vs 10%) were commoner in JE. CSF findings and laboratory parameters were similar in both the groups. Thalamic involvement in JE and temporal involvement in HSE were specific markers of respective encephalitis. Delta slowing on EEG was more frequent in JE than HSE. 20% JE and 30% HSE died in the hospital, and at 1year follow up JE patients showed better outcome compared to HSE (48% vs 24%). Memory loss (72% vs 22%) was the predominant sequelae in HSE. Seizure and behavioral abnormality are common features in HSE whereas focal reflex loss is commoner in JE. In a patient with acute encephalitis, thalamic lesion suggests JE and temporal lobe involvement HSE. Long term outcome in JE is better compared to

  20. Septic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... septic arthritis. Knees are most commonly affected, but septic arthritis also can affect hips, shoulders and other joints. The infection can quickly and severely damage the cartilage and bone within the joint, so prompt treatment is crucial. Treatment involves draining the joint with ...

  1. [Clinical Phenomenology of Autoimmune Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Holle, J F; Jessen, F; Kuhn, J

    2016-05-01

    Antibody-associated disorders of the central nervous system constitute a heterogeneous group of disorders that can be roughly divided into two categories: Classic paraneoplastic syndromes associated with so-called well-characterized antibodies (paraneoplastic neurological disorders, PND) and autoimmune disorders with antibodies to membrane-bound or synaptic antigens (autoimmune encephalitis, AE). The discovery of autoimmune encephalitis has led to a paradigm shift in diagnosis and therapy as well as a reclassification of some neuropsychiatric syndromes that were previously classified as idiopathic or simply covered with descriptive terms.In this review article, especially clinical aspects of autoimmune encephalitis will be discussed, as there has been a rapid increase in knowledge in this regard within the past decade; increasingly overlap syndromes and associations with other disease entities have been detected. In addition to general aspects, characteristics of anti-NMDAR-, anti-LGI1-, anti-GABAA and GABABR, anti-AMPAR-, anti-CASPR2-, anti-mGluR, anti-GlycinR-, anti-GAD, anti- DPPX- and anti-D2 R encephalitis and the anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy will be presented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tian Chye; Tan, Peng Chiang; Sharma, Reuben; Sugnaseelan, Sumita; Suresh, Kumar Govind

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite found in humans and animals. The possibility of zoonotic transmission to humans from livestock especially goats led us to investigate the genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis sp. obtained from five different farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Moreover, there is a lack of information on the prevalence as well as genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in goat worldwide. Results showed that 73/236 (30.9 %) of the goats were found to be positive for Blastocystis infection. The most predominant Blastocystis sp. subtype was ST1 (60.3 %) followed by ST7 (41.1 %), ST6 (41.1 %), and ST3 (11.0 %) when amplified by PCR using sequenced-tagged site (STS) primers. Four farms had goats infected only with ST1 whereas the fifth showed mixed infections with multiple STs. The proximity of the fifth farm to human dwellings, nearby domesticated animals and grass land as opposed to a sterile captive environment in the first four farms may account for the multiple STs seen in the fifth farm. Since ST1, ST3, ST6 and ST 7 were previously reported in human infection worldwide in particular Malaysia, the potential of the zoonotic transmission of blastocystosis should not be disregarded. The implications of different farm management systems on the distribution of Blastocystis sp. STs are discussed.

  3. Caprine (goat) collagen: a potential biomaterial for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Indranil; Mishra, Debasish; Das, Tamal; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K

    2012-01-01

    Collagens presently used in tissue engineering are primarily of bovine or porcine origin. However, a risk of a spongiform encephalopathy epidemic has limited the use of collagen from these sources. Keeping the aforementioned perspective in mind, we explored the possibility of using domestic goat available in the subcontinent as a potential source of collagen for tissue-engineering application. This article delineates the isolation, physico-chemical characterization, biocompatibility study and wound healing application of acid soluble caprine (goat) tendon collagen (GTC). Physico-chemical characterization of 1% acetic acid extracted GTC was done by SDS-PAGE, amino-acid composition analysis, FT-IR and CD spectroscopy. Results revealed that GTC was comprised of type-I collagen. Biocompatibility study showed that GTC augmented cell adhesion, cell cycle progression and proliferation. Immuno-cytochemical analysis in conjugation with traction force microscopy further confirmed a superior focal adhesion complex mediated cell-substrate interaction in GTC. Finally, in vivo study in mice model revealed that GTC has low immunogenicity and it augments healing process significantly. Throughout the study, calf skin collagen (CSC) was used as standard for comparative evaluation. In conclusion, it can be said that GTC may find its application as biomaterial in skin tissue engineering.

  4. MicroRNA-Mediated Myostatin Silencing in Caprine Fetal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-β) and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

  5. Anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Miya, Kazushi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Mori, Hisashi

    2014-09-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in normal physiological and pathological states in the brain. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is characterized by memory deficits, seizures, confusion, and psychological disturbances in males and females of all ages. This type of encephalitis is often associated with ovarian teratoma in young women, but children are less likely to have tumors. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a neuroimmune syndrome in patients with autoantibodies recognizing extracellular epitopes of NMDAR, and the autoantibodies attenuate NMDAR function through the internalization of NMDAR. Following the initial symptoms of inflammation, the patients show the various symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, emotional disturbances, psychosis, dyskinesis, decrease in speech intelligibility, and seizures. About half of these patients improved with immunotherapy including high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins is administrated to these patients, but the patients who had no improvement with these therapy require further treatments with rituximab or cyclophosphamide. It is necessary to detect anti-NMDAR antibodies at early stages, because the prognosis of these patients may be improved by early treatment. Recovery is slow, and the patients may have some disturbances in their motor function and cognition. The pathologic mechanism underlying the development of anti-NMDAR encephalitis has been elucidated gradually, but the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. Further studies are required to clarify in detail the mechanism underlying anti-NMDA encephalitis and to develop effective treatments. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis presenting as acute viral encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kararizou, E; Markou, I; Zalonis, I; Gkiatas, K; Triantafyllou, N; Kararizos, G; Likomanos, D; Zambelis, T; Vassilopoulos, D

    2005-11-01

    To describe a case of limbic encephalitis which initially presented as viral limbic encephalitis and during the clinical evaluation a renal carcinoma was diagnosed. Patient with history of peripheral paresis of right facial nerve, 1 month after symptoms appearance and treatment, developed fever, vomiting, grand mal seizure, decreased level of consciousness, confusion, hallucinations and agitation. The patient initially presented a clinical picture of viral LE. which confirmed by CSF. MRI brain showed areas with pathological intensity signal in the region of limbic system unilateral. During the clinical evaluation a renal carcinoma was discovered and a nephrectomy has been performed. Although PLE typically presents as a chronic or subacute disease, it may be fulminant and clinically indistinguishable from an acute HSVE. This association pose the problem of a possible relation between this two syndromes and the correct diagnosis is very important, because there are effective treatments.

  7. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) KidsHealth > For Teens > Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) ... people under age 17. What Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? Arthritis doesn't affect young people as much ...

  8. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...

  9. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like gout, crystals form in the joints. But in this ... CPPD arthritis can be confused with: Gouty arthritis (gout) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Exams and Tests Most arthritic ...

  10. Psoriatic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walk Test (SMWT) Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) Fracture Risk ... Investigators Resources for Doctoral Students/Post-Doctoral Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in ...

  11. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walk Test (SMWT) Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) Fracture Risk ... Investigators Resources for Doctoral Students/Post-Doctoral Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in ...

  12. Septic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... following conditions increase your risk for septic arthritis: Artificial joint implants Bacterial infection somewhere else in your body Presence of bacteria in your blood Chronic illness or disease (such as diabetes, rheumatoid ...

  13. [Autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of psychosis].

    PubMed

    Suokas, Kimmo; Kampman, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies directed to the surface structures of nerve cells may cause autoimmune encephalitis. It may cause limbic encephalitis requiring intensive care, or symptoms are restricted to psychosis. This disease may be impossible to distinguish clinically from a functional psychotic illness. Some of the cases are paraneoplastic, i.e. associated with a diagnosed or latent malignant neoplasia, most commonly ovarian teratoma. The first line treatment for autoimmune encephalitis is an immunomodulatory combination therapy with immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone. We recommend screening of the most common NMDAR and VGKC antibodies related to autoimmune encephalitis from patients having developed a new psychosis.

  14. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Transmission of caprine herpesvirus 2 in domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Keller, Janice; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S; Oaks, J Lindsay; Crawford, Timothy B

    2005-04-25

    Caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) is a recently recognized gammaherpesvirus that is endemic in domestic goats and has been observed to cause clinical malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in certain species of deer. In this study, transmission of CpHV-2 in goats was examined. A total of 30 kids born to a CpHV-2 positive goat herd were selected and divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) remained in the positive herd; group 2 (n=14) was separated from the herd at 1 week of age after obtaining colostrum. Peripheral blood samples from each kid were examined regularly by competitive ELISA for MCF viral antibody and by PCR for CpHV-2 DNA. Fifteen out of 16 goats (94%) that remained with the positive herd seroconverted and became PCR-positive for CpHV-2 by 10 months of age. In contrast, all kids (100%) that were separated from the positive herd at 1 week of age remained negative until termination of the experiment at 1 year of age. Additional transmission experiments revealed that all CpHV-2-free adult goats were susceptible to CpHV-2 or ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) infection. The data indicate that the transmission pattern of CpHV-2 in goats is similar to the pattern of OvHV-2 in sheep and that CpHV-2-free goats can be established by early separation of kids from positive herds, which has significant implications for MCF control programs.

  16. Copper: a biphasic regulator of caprine sperm forward progression.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debarun; Dey, Souvik; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Bhattacharyya, Debdas

    2014-02-01

    Copper is essential for spermatogenesis and its presence has been demonstrated in male and female reproductive fluids in several mammalian species. However, little is known about the physiological significance of this trace element in the regulation of forward progression of mammalian sperm cells which is essential for sperm fertility potential in vivo. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physiological role of the bivalent copper ion (Cu(2+)) on mammalian sperm forward motility using a chemically-defined medium and caprine cauda epididymal sperm model. Sperm forward motility was significantly enhanced by Cu(2+) in a dose-dependent manner; maximal activation (approx 20%) was noted at the 5 µM level of the metal. Above 10 µM Cu(2+) sperm motility decreased, showing that Cu(2+) exerts a biphasic regulation on sperm motility. These findings have been confirmed using a spectrophotometric motility assay, an objective method of motility analysis. At lower concentrations (up to 5 µM), copper enhanced sperm membrane lipid peroxidation as well as the level of intra-sperm cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (c-AMP), but at a higher level it caused marked inhibition of both of the biochemical parameters. The observed correlation of Cu(2+)-dependent biphasic modulation of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and intrasperm c-AMP with sperm forward motility is consistent with the view that Cu(2+) regulation of sperm motility is mediated by membrane lipid peroxidation, which in turn modulates the level of intra-sperm c-AMP, a well-known activator of sperm motility.

  17. Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Anirban; Dutta, Kallol

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis is a flaviviral disease that is endemic to the South, Southeast Asia, and Asia Oceania regions. Given that about 60% of the world’s population (about 7.4 billion) resides in this region (about 4.4 billion), this disease poses a significant threat to global health. Active vaccination campaigns conducted in endemic countries have led to a decrease in the number of reported cases over the years. In this article, we strive to briefly highlight recent advances in understanding the role of microRNAs in disease pathology, focus on providing brief summaries of recent clinical trials in the field of Japanese encephalitis therapeutics, and review the current prophylactic strategies. PMID:28357054

  18. Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caseins (alpha S1-, alpha S2-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals, these properties make them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in aS1-casein c...

  19. Screening of fluoroquinolone residues in caprine milk using a 5-kg luminescence photometer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL) method was developed to screen presence of residues of four fluoroquinolones (FQ) registered in caprine milk in the European Union: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flumequine, and danofloxacin. After extraction in McIlvaine buffer and SPE cleanup, TSL was measure...

  20. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most important helminth parasite for small ruminants. Here we characterized the impact of helminth infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were exposed to 5,000 H. contortus L3 larvae for 50 days. Six age-matched goats served a...

  1. Isolation, culture and characterization of caprine mesenchymal stem cells derived from amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Pratheesh, M D; Gade, Nitin E; Katiyar, Amar Nath; Dubey, Pawan K; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saikumar, G; Amarpal; Sharma, G T

    2013-04-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) represents heterologous cell types and a specific group of these cells show high growth rate and multipotent characteristics. The aim of the present study was to culture and fully characterize the putative stem cell population isolated from caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Plastic adherent fibroblastoid cell population could be successfully isolated from the caprine amniotic fluid. In vitro expanded caprine amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAF-MSCs) showed high proliferation ratio with a doubling time of 33.1h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase. Relative transcript abundance of CD-73, CD-90 and CD-105 surface markers were analyzed by SYBR green based real time PCR and their respective proteins were localized through immunocytochemistry, however cAF-MSCs were found negative for haematopoietic marker CD-34. When exposed to corresponding induction condition, cAF-MSCs differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages which was confirmed through von Kossa, Oil Red O and Alcian blue staining respectively. Furthermore, these cells were found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem cell markers like Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4 which accentuate their pluripotent property. In conclusion, caprine amniotic fluid represents a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative and differentiation potential and these cells offer their scope for multiple regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Marks, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical and serological features is therefore required to guide clinicians in making diagnostic and treatment decisions. While most virally mediated arthritides are self-limiting some warrant the initiation of specific antiviral therapy. PMID:27037381

  3. Determination of the molecular defect of caprine N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Leipprandt, J.R.; Jones, M.Z.; Cavanagh, K.T.

    1994-09-01

    Caprine N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (G6S) deficiency is the only animal analog of Sanfilippo syndrome (type D). The goat with this mucopolysaccharidousis disorder (MPS III D) demonstrated delayed motor development and growth retardation but reached sexual maturity before dying suddenly at 19 mo. Histochemical and biochemical analysis of the liver showed glycosaminoglycan storage and there was GM{sub 3} ganglioside accumulation in the brain. Towards further development of this animal model for treatment strategies, we have cloned the caprine G6S gene, determined the nature of the gene defect in caprine MPS III D and compared the goat sequence to the human sequence. The human and caprine sequences show an overall sequence similarity of about 90% in the coding region. The 5{prime}-coding region is very GC-rich in both the human and caprine G6S. One striking difference between the human and caprine genes is the presence of a GCC repeat in the goat resulting in insertion of 6 prolines and a leucine in the signal peptide. This proline-rich stretch was confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the same cDNA segment from other goats. Additionally, this region was examined in bovine cDNA and found to contain 4 prolines and 2 leucines. The mRNA for G6S consists of two species of approximately 4.0 and 4.2 kb with a coding region of 1.6 kb. For mutation analysis a series of primers was designed to cover the entire G6S coding region. Amplicons from RT-PCR on normal and affected goat total RNA were produced and sequenced. A single base substitution, T for C, was found in the 5{prime} region of the coding sequence of the affected animals that creates a stop codon. This mutation introduces an Alu I restriction site. PCR primers designed to amplify a short segment of genomic DNA encompassing the mutation have been used to identify putative carriers and develop a caprine Sanfilippo III D carrier colony.

  4. [Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Engen, Kristine; Agartz, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND In 2007 a clinical disease caused by autoantibodies directed against the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was described for the first time. Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis is a subacute, autoimmune neurological disorder with psychiatric manifestations. The disease is a form of limbic encephalitis and is often paraneoplastic. The condition is also treatable. In this review article we examine the development of the disease, clinical practice, diagnostics and treatment.MATERIAL AND METHOD The article is based on references retrieved from searches in PubMed, and a discretionary selection of articles from the authors' own literature archive.RESULTS The disease most frequently affects young women. It may initially be perceived as a psychiatric condition, as it usually presents in the form of delusions, hallucinations or mania. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients who later develop neurological symptoms such as various movement disorders, epileptic seizures and autonomic instability. Examination of serum or cerebrospinal fluid for NMDA receptor antibodies should be included in the assessment of patients with suspected encephalitis. MRI, EEG and assessment for tumours are important tools in diagnosing the condition and any underlying malignancy.INTERPRETATION If treatment is initiated early, the prognosis is good. Altogether 75 % of patients will fully recover or experience significant improvement. Apart from surgical resection of a possible tumour, the treatment consists of immunotherapy. Because of good possibilities for treatment, it is important that clinicians, particularly those in acute psychiatry, are aware of and alert to this condition.

  5. Anti-NMDA encephalitis: an uncommon, autoimmune mediated form of encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Azizyan, Avetis; Albrektson, Joshua R; Maya, Marcel M; Pressman, Barry D; Moser, Franklin

    2014-08-01

    We report an interesting case of a 19 year old female with findings on MRI suggestive of viral encephalitis. An extensive workup was negative for infectious causes and she was subsequently diagnosed with anti-NMDA encephalitis. Anti-NMDA encephalitis is a highly lethal but treatable form of autoimmune encephalitis that has recently been characterized. It is frequently found in young women and associated with an underlying teratoma. Although rare, this diagnosis should be considered in young females for whom a rapid onset of encephalitis cannot be explained by more common causes.

  6. Clinical characterization of autoimmune encephalitis and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qinjian; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting; Zhang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Autoimmune disorders are growing alarmingly high in prevalence across the globe. Autoimmune encephalitis has had a dramatic impact on the medical field, effectually altering diagnostic and treatment paradigms in regard to neuropsychiatric disorders. Our primary goal in conducting this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis patients, with special focus on psychiatric presentations, in the West China Hospital and report patient prognoses after immunotherapy. Data for patients admitted to the West China Hospital with autoimmune encephalitis diagnoses from 2015 to 2016 were collected and the corresponding clinical features were analyzed. We ultimately included 70 patients with autoimmune encephalitis: 56 (80%) anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients, 8 (11%) LGI1 antibody encephalitis patients, and 6 (9%) GABAbR antibody encephalitis patients. The median age of the 70 patients was 33years, 40% were female, and the initial symptoms in 31 patients (44%) were psychiatric in nature. Psychiatric disturbance appeared in 58 patients (83%) during inpatient treatment, after which 57 patients (81%) recovered. Many patients with autoimmune encephalitis present psychotic symptoms; psychiatric symptoms typically appear before neurological features emerge. Timely diagnosis and treatment may yield favorable prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Autoimmune encephalitis and its relation to infection.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arun; Benavides, David R

    2015-03-01

    Encephalitis, an inflammatory condition of the brain that results in substantial morbidity and mortality, has numerous causes. Over the past decade, it has become increasingly recognized that autoimmune conditions contribute significantly to the spectrum of encephalitis causes. Clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of autoimmune etiologies are of particular importance due to the need for early institution of immune suppressive therapies to improve outcome. Emerging clinical observations suggest that the most commonly recognized cause of antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, may in some cases be triggered by herpes virus infection. Other conditions such as Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) have also been posited to be autoimmune conditions triggered by infectious agents. This review focuses on emerging concepts in central nervous system autoimmunity and addresses clinical and mechanistic findings linking autoimmune encephalitis and infections. Particular consideration will be given to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and its relation to herpes simplex encephalitis.

  8. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  9. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shibani S; Lam, Alice D; Wilson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins.

  10. Rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Scott, David L; Wolfe, Frederick; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2010-09-25

    Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by persistent synovitis, systemic inflammation, and autoantibodies (particularly to rheumatoid factor and citrullinated peptide). 50% of the risk for development of rheumatoid arthritis is attributable to genetic factors. Smoking is the main environmental risk. In industrialised countries, rheumatoid arthritis affects 0·5-1·0% of adults, with 5-50 per 100 000 new cases annually. The disorder is most typical in women and elderly people. Uncontrolled active rheumatoid arthritis causes joint damage, disability, decreased quality of life, and cardiovascular and other comorbidities. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), the key therapeutic agents, reduce synovitis and systemic inflammation and improve function. The leading DMARD is methotrexate, which can be combined with other drugs of this type. Biological agents are used when arthritis is uncontrolled or toxic effects arise with DMARDs. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors were the first biological agents, followed by abatacept, rituximab, and tocilizumab. Infections and high costs restrict prescription of biological agents. Long-term remission induced by intensive, short-term treatment selected by biomarker profiles is the ultimate goal.

  11. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  12. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  13. The Anatomy of Caprine Female Urethra and Characteristics of Muscle and Bone Marrow Derived Caprine Cells for Autologous Cell Therapy Testing.

    PubMed

    Burdzinska, Anna; Dybowski, Bartosz; Zarychta-Wisniewska, Weronika; Kulesza, Agnieszka; Zagozdzon, Radoslaw; Gajewski, Zdzislaw; Paczek, Leszek

    2017-03-01

    Cell therapy is emerging as an alternative treatment of stress urinary incontinence. However, many aspects of the procedure require further optimization. A large animal model is needed to reliably test cell delivery methods. In this study, we aim to determine suitability of the goat as an experimental animal for testing intraurethral autologous cell transplantation in terms of urethral anatomy and cell culture parameters. The experiments were performed in 12 mature/aged female goats. Isolated caprine muscle derived cells (MDC) were myogenic in vitro and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) population was able to differentiate into adipo-, osteo- and chondrogenic lineages. The median yield of cells after 3 weeks of culture amounted 47 × 10(6) for MDC and 37 × 10(6) for MSC. Urethral pressure profile measurements revealed the mean functional urethral length of 3.75 ± 0.7 cm. The mean maximal urethral closure pressure amounted 63.5 ± 5.9 cmH2 O and the mean functional area was 123.3 ± 19.4 cm*cmH2 O. The omega- shaped striated urethral sphincter was well developed in the middle and distal third of the urethra and its mean thickness on cross section was 2.3 mm. In the proximal part of the urethra only loosely arranged smooth muscle fibers were identified. To conclude, presented data demonstrate that caprine MDC and MSC can be expanded in vitro in a repeatable manner even when mature or aged animals are cell donors. Results suggest that female caprine urethra has similar parameters to those reported in human and therefore the goat can be an appropriate experimental animal for testing intraurethral cell transplantation. Anat Rec, 00:000-000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:577-588, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Grammatical Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Don

    1994-01-01

    Discusses grammatical arthritis (an internal buildup of rules that hinders writing flexibility); four new "rules" (concerning "data is,""none are,""hopefully," and the restrictive "which"); attitudes toward English grammar; how to be a helpful editor; and where to learn about grammar. (SR)

  15. Fungal arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Fungal Infections Infectious Arthritis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  16. Grammatical Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Don

    1994-01-01

    Discusses grammatical arthritis (an internal buildup of rules that hinders writing flexibility); four new "rules" (concerning "data is,""none are,""hopefully," and the restrictive "which"); attitudes toward English grammar; how to be a helpful editor; and where to learn about grammar. (SR)

  17. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Parpia, Alyssa S; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2016-03-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002-December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20-44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August-September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions.

  18. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Parpia, Alyssa S.; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002–December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20–44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August–September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions. PMID:26890626

  19. Viral encephalitis: current treatments and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Renan Barros

    2012-12-01

    Several viruses may cause central nervous system infections that lead to a broad range of clinical manifestations. The course of the viral encephalitis can be acute, sub acute, or chronic. Some viruses have the ability to enter into the brain and cause direct injury, while others activate inflammatory cells that attack the central nervous system (CNS) secondarily. Some types of viral encephalitis occur in previously healthy individuals, while others affect immunocompromised patients. The epidemiology of viral encephalitis has undergone changes in recent years. Factors such as evolving lifestyles and ecological changes have had a considerable impact on the epidemiology of some types of viral encephalitis. The result is a change in the etiology spectrum of viral encephalitis, with new types of encephalitis arising or returning from time to time. Many scientific achievements in neuroimaging, molecular diagnosis, antiviral therapy, immunomodulatory treatments, and neurointensive care have allowed more precise and earlier diagnoses and more efficient treatments, resulting in improved outcomes. Despite these advances, there is still considerable morbidity and mortality related to these disorders. This aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of the current drugs used in the management of the most important viral encephalitis, focusing on the mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects of the drugs. In addition, future perspectives in this area will be addressed. Despite the technological advances, much effort has yet to be undertaken to reduce the impact of these potentially devastating diseases.

  20. [Brain stem encephalitis in childhood].

    PubMed

    Bodegas, I; Martínez-Bermejo, A; García de Miguel, M J; López-Martín, V; de José, M I; García-Hortelano, J

    1998-07-01

    To present two cases of post-infectious encephalitis of the brain stem (ETC) in infancy, which is very infrequent at this age. Two patients aged 4 months and 9 months respectively had a previous history of a catarrhal illness a few days before the onset of encephalitis. The clinical condition was of subacute onset and torpid course, characterized by ataxia, reduced level of consciousness, involvement of the pyramidal tracts and paralysis of the cranial nerves. No significant information for the diagnosis of either case was obtained from CT. MR showed lesions at the level of the pons. However, the MR image did not correspond in seventy to the clinical condition. The clinical courses of the two patients were different. One case recovered with no sequelae. In the other case the cranial nerves and gait did not return to normal. In our experience, ETC is rarely seen in infancy. A high degree of suspicion and early treatment of ETC caused by the herpes simplex virus is necessary, since there is usually a high mortality or serious neurological sequelae.

  1. [West Nile fever/encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2007-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is a mosquito-borne virus first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda. The disease in humans is characterized by a dengue-like illness with fever, and a more severe form is characterized by central nervous system involvement, including encephalitis, meningitis, and myelitis. WN encephalitis was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in the summer of 1999, there was an outbreak in New York City. Epidemic WNV strains in North America are severely pathogenic, however, attenuated WNV strains were found in Texas and Mexico in 2003. The principal vectors of WNV transmission in North America are Culex. pipiens, Cx. Quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx salinarius and Cx talsalis. The number of WN fever case has exceeded 27,000 since 1999 in the United States and 4,600 since 2002 in Canada. The first imported case of West Nile fever in Japan was confirmed in September, 2005. The patient had returned to Japan from the United States and developed symptoms the next day. There is currently no WN vaccine for use in humans. An inactivated WNV vaccine for use in horses has been available since 2001. A DNA vaccine, a chimeric live attenuated vaccine, and a recombinant vaccine have also been licensed for use in horses.

  2. Case Definitions, Diagnostic Algorithms, and Priorities in Encephalitis: Consensus Statement of the International Encephalitis Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, A.; Tunkel, A. R.; Bloch, K. C.; Lauring, A. S.; Sejvar, J.; Bitnun, A.; Stahl, J-P.; Mailles, A.; Drebot, M.; Rupprecht, C. E.; Yoder, J.; Cope, J. R.; Wilson, M. R.; Whitley, R. J.; Sullivan, J.; Granerod, J.; Jones, C.; Eastwood, K.; Ward, K. N.; Durrheim, D. N.; Solbrig, M. V.; Guo-Dong, L.; Glaser, C. A.; Sheriff, Heather; Brown, David; Farnon, Eileen; Messenger, Sharon; Paterson, Beverley; Soldatos, Ariane; Roy, Sharon; Visvesvara, Govinda; Beach, Michael; Nasci, Roger; Pertowski, Carol; Schmid, Scott; Rascoe, Lisa; Montgomery, Joel; Tong, Suxiang; Breiman, Robert; Franka, Richard; Keuhnert, Matt; Angulo, Fred; Cherry, James

    2013-01-01

    Background.Encephalitis continues to result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances in diagnosis and management have been limited, in part, by a lack of consensus on case definitions, standardized diagnostic approaches, and priorities for research. Methods.In March 2012, the International Encephalitis Consortium, a committee begun in 2010 with members worldwide, held a meeting in Atlanta to discuss recent advances in encephalitis and to set priorities for future study. Results.We present a consensus document that proposes a standardized case definition and diagnostic guidelines for evaluation of adults and children with suspected encephalitis. In addition, areas of research priority, including host genetics and selected emerging infections, are discussed. Conclusions.We anticipate that this document, representing a synthesis of our discussions and supported by literature, will serve as a practical aid to clinicians evaluating patients with suspected encephalitis and will identify key areas and approaches to advance our knowledge of encephalitis. PMID:23861361

  3. Case definitions, diagnostic algorithms, and priorities in encephalitis: consensus statement of the international encephalitis consortium.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, A; Tunkel, A R; Bloch, K C; Lauring, A S; Sejvar, J; Bitnun, A; Stahl, J-P; Mailles, A; Drebot, M; Rupprecht, C E; Yoder, J; Cope, J R; Wilson, M R; Whitley, R J; Sullivan, J; Granerod, J; Jones, C; Eastwood, K; Ward, K N; Durrheim, D N; Solbrig, M V; Guo-Dong, L; Glaser, C A

    2013-10-01

    Encephalitis continues to result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances in diagnosis and management have been limited, in part, by a lack of consensus on case definitions, standardized diagnostic approaches, and priorities for research. In March 2012, the International Encephalitis Consortium, a committee begun in 2010 with members worldwide, held a meeting in Atlanta to discuss recent advances in encephalitis and to set priorities for future study. We present a consensus document that proposes a standardized case definition and diagnostic guidelines for evaluation of adults and children with suspected encephalitis. In addition, areas of research priority, including host genetics and selected emerging infections, are discussed. We anticipate that this document, representing a synthesis of our discussions and supported by literature, will serve as a practical aid to clinicians evaluating patients with suspected encephalitis and will identify key areas and approaches to advance our knowledge of encephalitis.

  4. Improving the methods for isolation of monocyte and establishing macrophage cell culture in caprine model.

    PubMed

    Shaqinah, Nurrul Nasruddin; Mazlina, Mazlan; Zamri-Saad, M; Hazilawati, Hamzah; Jasni, Sabri

    2016-08-01

    Monocytes are widely used for immunological research, especially in the study of innate immune system. Although methods for isolation of human monocytes have been established, the procedure for non-human monocyte has not been well developed. This paper describes an improved method for isolation of monocyte and the subsequent macrophage cultivation from caprine blood. Monocytes were isolated from 16 ml of heparinized caprine blood using double density methods; the Ficoll and Percoll. The number of monocytes obtained was 5.12 ± 0.89 × 10(7) cells/ml at 70 % purity. The isolated monocytes were maintained in 10 % fetal bovine serum-enriched Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium for maturation to form macrophage cell culture. At the end of the experiment, the harvested macrophage was 2.48 ± 0.33 × 10(6) cells/ml.

  5. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of β-lactoglobulin, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of κ-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine κ-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  6. Virus meningo-encephalitis in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Vesenjak-Zmijanac, J.; Bedjanič, M.; Rus, S.; Kmet, J.

    1955-01-01

    An organism was isolated from the blood of a patient clinically diagnosed as suffering from virus meningo-encephalitis; the organism causes illness and death in white mice. The antigen prepared from the brains of mice infected with this organism fixes complement with sera from typical cases of virus meningo-encephalitis. From its biological and serological characteristics, the isolated organism appears to belong to the group of neurotropic viruses and to be the causative agent of virus meningo-encephalitis in Slovenia. PMID:14378996

  7. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo.

  8. A primitive caprine from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Alfambra, Teruel, Aragon, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, Luis; Morales, Jorge

    1997-06-01

    We describe a new caprine form from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Teruel Basin, Aragon). Aragoral mudejar Gen.n., sp.n. is close to the primitive forms of the Hippotraginae-Caprinae group. It differs from Norbertia hellenica by its more primitive dentition, the greater separation between the bases of the horn cores, the decreased thickness of the frontal bone and the relatively smaller size of the horn cores.

  9. Arthritis in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Arthritis in America Time to Take Action! Language: English ( ... by about 40% by being physically active. Problem Arthritis is common and a growing health threat. Arthritis ...

  10. Arthritis of the Wrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by just two types: osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive condition that ... other, it results in pain, stiffness, and weakness. Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that ...

  11. What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 57 KB Audio Version Time: 10:20 Size: 9.7 MB November 2014 What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public Rheumatoid arthritis is ...

  12. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) KidsHealth > For Teens > Juvenile Idiopathic ... can affect people under age 17. What Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? Arthritis doesn't affect young people ...

  13. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rule out other conditions or infections, such as Lyme disease , that may cause similar symptoms or occur along ... ESR) Bones, Muscles, and Joints Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Word! Arthritis Arthritis Lupus Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis ( ...

  14. Arthritis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Five Key Public Health Messages Arthritis Types Fibromyalgia Gout Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Management Risk Factors ... the Unites States is osteoarthritis followed by gout, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis. Top of Page What are ...

  15. Forms of Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... stiffness, inflammation, swelling and, sometimes, destruction of joints. Gout — a form of arthritis that occurs when uric ... the joints. Some 2.1 million Americans have gout. Lupus — a form of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis, ...

  16. CD4+ T cells provide protection against acute lethal encephalitis caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Peng, Bi-Hung; Bertke, Andrea S; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Smith, Jennifer K; Smith, Jeanon N; Poussard, Allison L; Salazar, Milagros; Judy, Barbara M; Zacks, Michele A; Estes, D Mark; Paessler, Slobodan

    2009-06-19

    Studying the mechanisms of host survival resulting from viral encephalitis is critical to the development of vaccines. Here we have shown in several independent studies that high dose treatment with neutralizing antibody prior to intranasal infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus had an antiviral effect in the visceral organs and prolonged survival time of infected mice, even in the absence of alphabeta T cells. Nevertheless, antibody treatment did not prevent the development of lethal encephalitis. On the contrary, the adoptive transfer of primed CD4(+) T cells was necessary to prevent lethal encephalitis in mice lacking alphabeta T cell receptor.

  17. Comparison of vitrification and conventional freezing for cryopreservation of caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Lemos, Paula F B; Freitas Neto, Leopoldo M; Moura, Marcelo T; Melo, Janaína V; Lima, Paulo F; Oliveira, Marcos A L

    2015-08-01

    The experiment aimed to compare conventional freezing and different vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of caprine embryos at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. Caprine embryos produced in vivo were allocated randomly to three groups: (1) conventional freezing with ethylene glycol (EG); (2) dimethyl sulfoxide + EG (DMSO/EG) vitrification; and (3) dimethylformamide + EG (DMF/EG) vitrification. All groups were scored for cell viability (propidium iodide staining and ultrastructural levels) and re-expansion rate after thawing or warming. Embryos subjected to DMSO/EG vitrification showed higher cell viability (73.33%), compared with DMF/EG vitrification and conventional freezing group embryos (40.00 and 66.66%, respectively). The ultrastructural study revealed that vitrified embryos had greater preservation of cellular structure than embryos from conventional freezing with EG. DMSO/EG vitrification resulted in higher rates of re-expansion in vitro (47.36%) than DMF/EG vitrification (31.58%), and conventional freezing (25.00%). In conclusion, caprine embryos produced in vivo are better cryopreserved after vitrification than conventional freezing, therefore we conclude that DMSO/EG vitrification is the most effective protocol for cryopreservation.

  18. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from caprine umbilical cord tissue matrix.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Agarwal, Pranjali; Das, Kinsuk; Mili, Bhabesh; Madhusoodan, A P; Kumar, Ajay; Bag, Sadhan

    2016-12-01

    Cord tissue fills the umbilical cord around the blood vessels and contains types of stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells or MSCs) that are not generally found in cord blood. MSCs are the stem cells that give rise to many of the "support tissues" in the body, including bone, cartilage, fat and muscle. Umbilical Cord Tissue cells (UCTs) possessing the capacity to differentiate into various cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes have been previously isolated from different species including human, canine, murine, avian species etc. The present study documents the existence of similar multipotential stem cells in caprine UCTs having similar growth and morphological characteristics. The cells were isolated from caprine umbilical cord and cultivated in DMEM (low glucose) supplemented with 15% FBS, L-glutamine and antibiotics. Primary culture achieved confluence in 5-7days having spindle shaped morphology. The cells were morphologically homogeneous, showed robust proliferation ability with a population doubled time of 92.07h as well as normal karyotype. In vitro self-renewal capacity was demonstrated by colony-forming unit assay (CFU). The cells expressed MSC specific markers and showed multi-differentiation capability into adipogenic and osteogeneic. The results indicated that caprine UCTs (cUCTs) were isolated and characterized from umbilical cord tissue which can be used for tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Small ruminant lentiviruses: Strain variation, viral tropism, and host genetics influence pathogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the Maedi-Visna virus, also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), and caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus (CAEV), are of global economic importance to sheep and goat producers, respectively. These viruses belong to the genus Lentivi...

  20. Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a s...

  1. Psychiatric aspects of herpes simplex encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and herpes zoster encephalitis among immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Więdłocha, Magdalena; Marcinowicz, Piotr; Stańczykiewicz, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    The psychopathological symptoms occurring in the course of diseases associated with infections are often initially isolated and non-characteristic, and may cause diagnostic difficulties. Moreover, such disorders tend to be less responsive to psychiatric management. Among possible causes such as trauma, neoplasm and vascular changes, inflammatory changes of the brain as a result of a viral infection should also be considered. There were 452 registered cases of viral encephalitis in Poland in 2010, and although not very prevalent they remain a severe and life-threatening condition. What is more, the frequently occurring neurological and psychiatric complications of viral encephalitis often result in permanent disabilities, causing a significant decrease in the quality of life. This article presents the three types of encephalitis that are most prevalent among immunocompetent patients in Poland, i.e. herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE). The psychopathology of the acute phase of the infection, the residual symptoms, features apparent in imaging studies and some neuropathological aspects are also presented. The paper also focuses on psychiatric aspects of the diagnostics and treatment of the described conditions. The clinical pictures of these infections are quite specific, although they cover a wide range of symptoms, and these characteristic features are described. The aim of this review is also to show the significance of thorough diagnostics and a multidisciplinary approach to patients with viral CNS infections.

  2. Cross-linking of bovine and caprine caseins by microbial transglutaminase and their use as microencapsulating agents for n-3 fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine and caprine caseins were cross-linked with microbial transglutaminase (mTG). The mTG-cross-linked bovine or caprine casein dispersion, mixed with 14.5% maltodextrin (DE = 40), was used to prepare emulsions with 10.5% algae oil. Oxidative stability of emulsions was evaluated by peroxide valu...

  3. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  4. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Soon-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is a group of encephalitis syndromes that cause altered mentality, memory decline, or seizures in association with the presence of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) autoantibodies (auto-Abs). An early diagnosis enables early treatments. The detection of auto-Abs is a confirmatory diagnosis. Tissue-based assay, cell-based immunoassay, and immunoblotting are used to detect various autoantibodies. The CSF test for the presence of antibodies is important because it is more sensitive and reflects disease activity in many autoimmune encephalitis, although antibody tests can be negative even in the presence of autoimmune encephalitis. EEG is often abnormal, but nonspecific. A unilateral or bilateral medial temporal T2 high signal is a common finding in MRI. Fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is sometimes useful for diagnosis in patients with normal MRI. PMID:28101474

  5. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gaieski, David F; O'Brien, Nicole F; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2017-09-15

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because of the value of early recognition and treatment, meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment are discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension are crucial steps in the treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  6. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Stéphane; Pin, Jean-Christophe; Pierre, Fabrice; Ciron, Jonathan; Iljicsov, Anna; Lamy, Matthias; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-MMDAR) encephalitis is an immune-mediated encephalitis mainly affecting young women. We describe the case of a 21-year-old woman who developed a classical form of anti-NMDAR encephalitis during the 10th week of gestation. The patient had been treated with methylpredinsolone and intravenous immunoglobulins. Birth history of the child was normal, with normal APGAR score. The clinical symptoms of the patient have improved after a few months. This rare occurrence during pregnancy (only 9 other cases described) presents an opportunity to highlight the importance of making the earliest possible diagnosis of this treatable and potentially reversible encephalitis, and to educate gynecologists, psychiatrists, anesthetists, and neurologists on this potential cause of psychiatric and neurological manifestations during pregnancy. PMID:26131809

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; McInnes, Iain B

    2016-10-22

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, which can cause cartilage and bone damage as well as disability. Early diagnosis is key to optimal therapeutic success, particularly in patients with well-characterised risk factors for poor outcomes such as high disease activity, presence of autoantibodies, and early joint damage. Treatment algorithms involve measuring disease activity with composite indices, applying a treatment-to-target strategy, and use of conventional, biological, and newz non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. After the treatment target of stringent remission (or at least low disease activity) is maintained, dose reduction should be attempted. Although the prospects for most patients are now favourable, many still do not respond to current therapies. Accordingly, new therapies are urgently required. In this Seminar, we describe current insights into genetics and aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, assessment, therapeutic agents, and treatment strategies together with unmet needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. [Saint Louis encephalitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Carballo, Carolina; Cabana, Magdalena; Ledezma, Francisca; Pascual, Carolina; Cazes, Claudia; Mistchenko, Alicia; López, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Saint Louis encephalitis is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. In Argentina sporadic cases are registered. Symptomatic illness is unusual in children. We present a case of meningoencephalitis caused by an uncommon viral infection. The clinical signs and symptoms are unusual for pediatric patients and the bilateral thalamic compromise showed on magnetic resonance has not been described previously. An 8-year-old girl consulted due to fever, behavior disorders and ataxia. Clonus and neck stiffness were detected at physical exam. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed mononuclear leukocytosis; bilateral ischemic compromise was observed in thalamus by magnetic resonance. Saint Louis virus was confirmed by serology: serum and cerebrospinal fluid IgM were positive during the acute phase of the disease and serum IgG was positive four weeks later. Most of the signs and symptoms of the disease were resolved, however mild behavior disorders were observed as acute sequelae up to 45 days after hospital discharge.

  9. Cysticercal encephalitis with cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajniti; Thakur, Neha; Mohanty, C; Singh, M K; Mishra, O P; Singh, Utpal Kant

    2010-10-21

    The authors report a 6-year-old boy, who had presented with low-grade fever, altered sensorium, headache and seizure for 5 days. On examination, he had features of raised intracranial pressure with left VI cranial-nerve palsy and bilateral extensor plantar response. CT scan showed multiple calcifications in cerebral cortex. MRI cranium showed multiple cysts involving whole of the brain. He was diagnosed as having cysticercal encephalitis, based on immunological and imaging study. He was managed with 20% mannitol, phenytoin and albendazole, and regained consciousness 7 days later, but had residual neurological deficit as left-lower-limb monoparesis and visual acuity of just projection of rays (PR+) and perception of light (PL+).

  10. Predictors of outcome in acute encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kiran T.; Motta, Melissa; Asemota, Anthony O.; Kirsch, Hannah L.; Benavides, David R.; Schneider, Eric B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Geocadin, Romergryko G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate predictors of outcome in patients with all-cause encephalitis receiving care in the intensive care unit. Methods: A retrospective analysis of encephalitis cases at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center was performed. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we examined mortality and predictors of good outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale scores of 1–3) and poor outcome (scores 4 and 5) in those surviving to hospital discharge. Results: In our cohort of 103 patients, the median age was 52 years (interquartile range 26), 52 patients (50.49%) were male, 28 patients (27.18%) had viral encephalitis, 19 (18.45%) developed status epilepticus (SE), 15 (14.56%) had cerebral edema, and 19 (18.45%) died. In our multivariate logistic regression analysis, death was associated with cerebral edema (odds ratio [OR] 18.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.14–103.92), SE (OR 8.16, 95% CI 1.55–43.10), and thrombocytopenia (OR 6.28, 95% CI 1.41–28.03). Endotracheal intubation requirement with ventilator support was highly correlated with death (95%). In addition, in those patients who survived, viral, nonviral, and unknown causes of encephalitis were less likely to have a poor outcome at hospital discharge compared with an autoimmune etiology (viral encephalitis: OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.57; nonviral encephalitis: OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.01–0.31; unknown etiology: OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04–0.91). Conclusions: Our study suggests that predictors of death in patients with encephalitis comprise potentially reversible conditions including cerebral edema, SE, and thrombocytopenia. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether aggressive management of these complications in patients with encephalitis improves outcome. PMID:23892708

  11. Herpes encephalitis preceded by ipsilateral vestibular neuronitis.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Stephen J; Archer, John S

    2005-11-01

    A 74-year-old woman developed vertigo and jerk nystagmus to the left with normal cerebral imaging. Three days later she developed fever, altered mental state and left medial temporal lobe hypodensity, confirmed on lumbar puncture to be due to herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis. We propose that the patient had vestibular neuronitis caused by HSV-1 that progressed to ipsilateral temporal lobe encephalitis.

  12. Predictors of outcome in acute encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kiran T; Motta, Melissa; Asemota, Anthony O; Kirsch, Hannah L; Benavides, David R; Schneider, Eric B; McArthur, Justin C; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Venkatesan, Arun

    2013-08-27

    To investigate predictors of outcome in patients with all-cause encephalitis receiving care in the intensive care unit. A retrospective analysis of encephalitis cases at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center was performed. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we examined mortality and predictors of good outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale scores of 1-3) and poor outcome (scores 4 and 5) in those surviving to hospital discharge. In our cohort of 103 patients, the median age was 52 years (interquartile range 26), 52 patients (50.49%) were male, 28 patients (27.18%) had viral encephalitis, 19 (18.45%) developed status epilepticus (SE), 15 (14.56%) had cerebral edema, and 19 (18.45%) died. In our multivariate logistic regression analysis, death was associated with cerebral edema (odds ratio [OR] 18.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.14-103.92), SE (OR 8.16, 95% CI 1.55-43.10), and thrombocytopenia (OR 6.28, 95% CI 1.41-28.03). Endotracheal intubation requirement with ventilator support was highly correlated with death (95%). In addition, in those patients who survived, viral, nonviral, and unknown causes of encephalitis were less likely to have a poor outcome at hospital discharge compared with an autoimmune etiology (viral encephalitis: OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.57; nonviral encephalitis: OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.31; unknown etiology: OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.91). Our study suggests that predictors of death in patients with encephalitis comprise potentially reversible conditions including cerebral edema, SE, and thrombocytopenia. Further prospective studies are needed to determine whether aggressive management of these complications in patients with encephalitis improves outcome.

  13. Encephalitis and AMPA receptor antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Höftberger, Romana; van Sonderen, Agnes; Leypoldt, Frank; Houghton, David; Geschwind, Michael; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Paredes, Mercedes; Sabater, Lidia; Saiz, Albert; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Graus, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We report the clinical features, comorbidities, and outcome of 22 newly identified patients with antibodies to the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR). Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients diagnosed between May 2009 and March 2014. Immunologic techniques have been reported previously. Results: Patients' median age was 62 years (range 23–81; 14 female). Four syndromes were identified: 12 (55%) patients presented with distinctive limbic encephalitis (LE), 8 (36%) with limbic dysfunction along with multifocal/diffuse encephalopathy, one with LE preceded by motor deficits, and one with psychosis with bipolar features. Fourteen patients (64%) had a tumor demonstrated pathologically (5 lung, 4 thymoma, 2 breast, 2 ovarian teratoma) or radiologically (1 lung). Additional antibodies occurred in 7 patients (3 onconeuronal, 1 tumor-related, 2 cell surface, and 1 tumor-related and cell surface), all with neurologic symptoms or tumor reflecting the concurrent autoimmunity. Treatment and outcome were available from 21 patients (median follow-up 72 weeks, range 5–266): 5 had good response to immunotherapy and tumor therapy, 10 partial response, and 6 did not improve. Eventually 5 patients died; all had a tumor or additional paraneoplastic symptoms related to onconeuronal antibodies. Coexistence of onconeuronal antibodies predicted a poor outcome (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Anti-AMPAR encephalitis usually manifests as LE, can present with other symptoms or psychosis, and is paraneoplastic in 64% of cases. Complete and impressive neurologic improvement can occur, but most patients have partial recovery. Screening for a tumor and onconeuronal antibodies is important because their detection influences outcome. PMID:25979696

  14. Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... mono), and herpes simplex (the virus that causes cold sores). Viruses and other germs that are transmitted by insects, ... Resonance Imaging (MRI) Spinal Tap Mononucleosis Hand Washing Cold Sores (HSV-1) West Nile Virus Meningitis Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact ...

  15. Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... a mosquito bite) and the germs that cause Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (transmitted through tick ... West Nile Virus Meningitis Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  16. Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... repel mosquitoes. The registered chemicals are DEET, IR3535, lemon eucalyptus and picaridin. Products with higher concentrations of the active ingredient provide longer protection. Lemon eucalyptus isn't recommended for use on children ...

  17. Relevance of Neuroinflammation and Encephalitis in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Sykes, Lisa K.; Geier, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many studies indicate that children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis have brain pathology suggestive of ongoing neuroinflammation or encephalitis in different regions of their brains. Evidence of neuroinflammation or encephalitis in ASD includes: microglial and astrocytic activation, a unique and elevated proinflammatory profile of cytokines, and aberrant expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. A conservative estimate based on the research suggests that at least 69% of individuals with an ASD diagnosis have microglial activation or neuroinflammation. Encephalitis, which is defined as inflammation of the brain, is medical diagnosis code G04.90 in the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision; however, children with an ASD diagnosis are not generally assessed for a possible medical diagnosis of encephalitis. This is unfortunate because if a child with ASD has neuroinflammation, then treating the underlying brain inflammation could lead to improved outcomes. The purpose of this review of the literature is to examine the evidence of neuroinflammation/encephalitis in those with an ASD diagnosis and to address how a medical diagnosis of encephalitis, when appropriate, could benefit these children by driving more immediate and targeted treatments. PMID:26834565

  18. Diagnosis and management of acute encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J J

    2017-01-01

    Encephalitis is typically viral (approximately half of diagnosed cases) or autoimmune (about a quarter) with the remainder remaining undiagnosable at this time. All require general supportive care but only a minority requires intensive care admission - in these intubation, to protect the airway or to treat status epilepticus with anesthetic drugs, may be needed. In some dysautonomia with wide blood pressure fluctuations is the principal concern. Remarkably, in addition to supportive care, specific treatment options are available for the majority - immune-modulating therapy for those with autoimmune disorders, antiviral therapy for herpes simplex 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster encephalitis. Flavivirus infections (West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis) remain the most common other identified cause of encephalitis but no specific intervention is available. Overall long-term outcomes are favorable in the majority of patients with encephalitis, a proportion that hopefully will improve with further advances in diagnostic technology and therapeutic interventions. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arun

    2015-06-01

    This review seeks to describe recent advances in the epidemiology, outcomes, and prognostic factors in acute encephalitis. Infectious causes continue to account for the largest proportion of encephalitis cases in which a cause is identified, although autoimmune causes are increasingly recognized. Type-A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAa) receptor antibodies have been recently identified in encephalitis with refractory seizures, whereas the roles of antibodies to the glycine receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 have been defined in progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Recent findings in the US cases of encephalomyelitis presenting with acute flaccid paralysis raise the possibility that enterovirus D68, a common respiratory pathogen, may cause central nervous system disease. Mortality from acute encephalitis occurs in about 10% of cases, with a large proportion of survivors suffering from cognitive or physical disability. In addition to delay in institution of appropriate antiviral or immune therapy, several potentially reversible factors associated with poor prognosis have been identified, including cerebral edema, status epilepticus, and thrombocytopenia. Encephalitis imposes a significant worldwide health burden and is associated with poor outcomes. Supportive treatment and early institution of therapy may improve outcomes. Careful neurocognitive assessment of survivors of encephalitis is needed to better define long-term outcomes.

  20. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiuying

    2017-01-18

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint.

  1. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiuying

    2017-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint. PMID:28106787

  2. Acute encephalitis in the immunocompromised individual.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Deanna; Thakur, Kiran; Venkatesan, Arun

    2015-08-01

    This article describes recent advances in the diagnosis and management of encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) are common causes of encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, although clinical manifestations may be atypical, and thus challenging to recognize. Recently, an increased incidence of HSV and VZV central nervous system infections has been reported in association with novel immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory treatments. The free-living ameba Balamuthia mandrillaris causes granulomatous encephalitis predominantly in immunocompromised individuals and is associated with nearly uniform fatality. In the setting of organ transplantation, the recipient's immunocompromised state along with the potential for donor-transmitted infections can result in a unique epidemiology of encephalitis, including infection by human herpes virus-6 and BK virus. Recent studies utilizing next-generation sequencing techniques have identified several pathogens, including Leptospira santarosai and a neurotropic astrovirus, as causes of encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosis and management of encephalitis is challenging in immunocompromised individuals, in part because of atypical clinical presentations and the presence of uncommon or novel infectious agents. Unbiased techniques for pathogen discovery are likely to play an increasing role in the diagnosis of central nervous system infections in immunocompromised individuals.

  3. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in a Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seung Ha; Jung, Yu Ri; Park, Soon Won; Jung, Dae Soo

    2015-06-01

    Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is one of the most common types of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis commonly occurs in young women with ovarian teratoma. It has variable clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Sometimes it is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder or viral encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare condition in pregnant women. We report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a pregnant woman who presented with abnormal behavior, epileptic seizure, and hypoventilation.

  4. Pediatric Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Complicated by N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Antibody Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Alasdair; Crowe, Belinda H A; Hacohen, Yael; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Clarke, Antonia; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Vincent, Angela; Lim, Ming; Pullaperuma, Sunil P

    2015-06-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies (NMDAR-Abs) can contribute to neurological relapse after herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE). We describe a child with NMDAR-Ab encephalitis after HSE, which was recognized and treated early. We discuss the case in the context of existing reports, and we propose a modified immunotherapy strategy to minimize risk of viral reactivation.

  5. "Of sheep and men": earliest direct evidence of caprine domestication in southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia).

    PubMed

    Pleurdeau, David; Imalwa, Emma; Détroit, Florent; Lesur, Joséphine; Veldman, Anzel; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Marais, Eugène

    2012-01-01

    The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast.

  6. Reprogramming of fetal cells by avian EE for generation of pluripotent stem cell like cells in caprine.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Parul; Kumar, Kuldeep; Singh, Renu; Puri, Gopal; Yasotha, T; Kumar, Manish; Bhure, Sanjeev; Das, B C; Sarkar, M; Bag, Sadhan

    2013-10-01

    The present work was carried out to study the ability of avian "Extract Egg" (EE) for reprogramming caprine fetal cells. The isolated caprine fetal cells were cultured in stem cell media supplemented with different percentages of either EE or FBS. The results indicated that the supplementation of 2-4% EE formed lesser but larger size stem cell like cell colonies as compared to 6% or 10% EE. The expression of pluripotent genes were comparatively higher in colonies developed in 2% or 4% as compared to 6% or 10% EE. Further, immunocytochemistry revealed that the colonies developed in all percentage of EE expressed pluripotent markers like Oct4, Nanog, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Our findings indicated that avian EE has the potentiality to reprogram caprine fetal cells into embryonic state which may help in generation of pluripotent stem cells without using viral vector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  8. PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS GENERATED BY AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITIS (CLINICAL CASE).

    PubMed

    Craciun, Georgiana; Cucoş, Liliana; Ungureanu, Elena; Pendefunda, L; Petrariu, F D; Nechita, Petronela

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis is a brain inflammation, which could involve also the meninges. The etiology of encephalitis could be: viral, bacterial, fungal or autoimmune. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an immune disorder, easy to diagnose and is a treatable condition. Most patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis develop a multistage illness that progresses from psychosis, memory deficits, seizures, to catatonic state and breathing instability. We present a case report of a 20-year old woman, who presented: amnesia, visual hallucination, illusions, seizures after that occurred following autoimmune encephalitis. The exact incidence of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is unknown, but it seems to be more frequent than any other known paraneoplastic encephalitis. The present case is important considering that autoimmune encephalitis is a rare frequency disorder in Romania, with patients presenting resounding psychiatric and neurological manifestations.

  9. Genetic study of Andalusia's ovine and caprine breeds.

    PubMed

    Rodero, E; Haba, M R; Rodero, A

    1997-01-12

    Two different breeds of Andalusian sheep, 'Grazalema Merino' and 'Lebrijan Churro', and two different breeds of Andalusian goats, 'Andalusian White' and 'Andalusian Black', chosen by previous studies (Rodero et al. 1992a) as priority breeds for conservation, were studied. The systems used corresponded to ethnozootechnic characteristics, as well as the different biochemical-polymorphism variables. Farms were differentiated within breeds, or between themselves, and different tests were used of genetic and genotypic frequencies: Wright's indices, medium heterozygosities, Whalund's variances, G test of probability of reason, etc. Also Cavalli-Sforza's genetic distance was obtained. In the Andalusian Black and Grazalema Merino breeds, the Whalund's variances obtained were a result of selection, that has divided the breeds into distinct populations differentiated spatially. Medium heterozygosities of each breed do not differ much within themselves, but when each system is considered alone, discrepancies between ethnic groups are relevant. Wright's F indices demonstrated in the Andalusian White and Grazalema Merino breeds, genetic heterozygosities between populations or studied herds can be deduced, but this is not possible in the Andalusian Black. The F(IS) values indicated, despite the small size of the populations, that inbreeding has been avoided, probably because of the entry of foreign sires. In none of the breeds is there a significant excess of heterozygosis. The genetic distances between flocks within breeds do not differ from those found between breeds. RÉSUMÉ: On a travallé avec, differents troupeau des races de montons de l'Andalusie, Grazalema Merino et Lebrija Churro, et avec les races caprines Andalusian White et Andalusian Black, choisie entre les races Andaluciennes comme prioritaires pour la conservation, dans un etudie avant (Rodero et col. 1992a). Les sistémes utilicés dans cette travaille correspondent á charactérés etnozootechniques et

  10. Gonococcal arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cucurull, E; Espinoza, L R

    1998-05-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection is the most common systemic complication of acute gonorrhea and occurs in 0.5% to 3.0% of patients with untreated mucosal infection. It is also the most common cause of septic arthritis in patients less than 30 years of age. Fortunately, the incidence of gonorrhea is decreasing dramatically in the United States and Western Europe, although it is still high in developing countries. Increasing resistance to antibiotics requires continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibilities to determine the efficacy of current therapeutic measures.

  11. Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus M. J. TURELL,1 M. L...the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus...enzootic vector of EEEV in this region. KEY WORDS Peru, eastern equine encephalitis virus, transmission, mosquito Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV

  12. Comparison of proteins specified by Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Wright, P J; Warr, H M

    1986-10-01

    The relationships among proteins specified by Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), West Nile (WN), Japanese encephalitis (JE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were examined by peptide mapping. [3H]methionine-labelled tryptic peptides of viral proteins were separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the separation profiles for a given protein specified by the different viruses were compared. Analyses of the non-structural protein NV5 (P98 or NS5) suggested that WN and SLE were the most closely related pair of viruses, and that JE was the virus most distant from the other three. Analyses of the structural proteins C and E failed to show the close relationship between WN and SLE indicated by the NV5 results, but did suggest that NV5 was the most conserved and E the least conserved of the three proteins.

  13. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis causes subacute deficits of memory and cognition, often followed by suppressed level of consciousness or coma. A careful history and examination may show early clues to particular autoimmune causes, such as neuromyotonia, hyperekplexia, psychosis, dystonia, or the presence of particular tumors. Ancillary testing with MRI and EEG may be helpful for excluding other causes, managing seizures, and, rarely, for identifying characteristic findings. Appropriate autoantibody testing can confirm specific diagnoses, although this is often done in parallel with exclusion of infectious and other causes. Autoimmune encephalitis may be divided into several groups of diseases: those with pathogenic antibodies to cell surface proteins, those with antibodies to intracellular synaptic proteins, T-cell diseases associated with antibodies to intracellular antigens, and those associated with other autoimmune disorders. Many forms of autoimmune encephalitis are paraneoplastic, and each of these conveys a distinct risk profile for various tumors. Tumor screening and, if necessary, treatment is essential to proper management. Most forms of autoimmune encephalitis respond to immune therapies, although powerful immune suppression for weeks or months may be needed in difficult cases. Autoimmune encephalitis may relapse, so follow-up care is important. PMID:26754777

  14. Seronegative Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Associated with Thymoma.

    PubMed

    Toro, Jaime; Cuellar-Giraldo, David; Duque, Alejandra; Minota, Karla; Patiño, Jorge; García, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune syndrome characterized by the acute or subacute onset of encephalopathy, memory loss, confusion, temporal lobe seizures, and behavioral and mood changes. Although most patients with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis have antineuronal antibodies, advances in the field now permit the diagnosis without autoantibody test results. In this case illustrating the new diagnostic criteria, we report a 70-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency room after the acute onset of cognitive impairment, altered mental status, and choreoathetoid movements. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense signals in both temporal lobes, and a chest computed tomogram revealed a thymoma. Because the patient met current diagnostic criteria for autoimmune limbic encephalitis, we were able to start treatment before her antibody tests were processed. The patient received immunotherapy and her tumor was resected. Her choreoathetoid movements disappeared and her other neurologic symptoms improved. Her cerebrospinal fluid proved to be negative for paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis antibodies. Most but not all patients with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with thymoma have evidence of paraneoplastic antibodies. Prompt management of the underlying malignancy determines whether patients survive and may minimize future cognitive and functional impairment. Practicing neurologists and psychiatrists should be aware of this diagnosis.

  15. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kari L.; Kay, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The ‘expensive-tissue hypothesis’ (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans. PMID:21831898

  16. Encephalitis and GABAB receptor antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Höftberger, Romana; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Sabater, Lidia; Dome, Balazs; Rózsás, Anita; Hegedus, Balazs; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Laszlo, Viktoria; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan; Harms, Lutz; Boyero, Sabas; de Felipe, Alicia; Saiz, Albert; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To report the clinical features of 20 newly diagnosed patients with GABAB receptor (GABABR) antibodies and determine the frequency of associated tumors and concurrent neuronal autoantibodies. Methods: Clinical data were retrospectively obtained and evaluated. Serum and CSF samples were examined for additional antibodies using methods previously reported. Results: Seventeen patients presented with seizures, memory loss, and confusion, compatible with limbic encephalitis (LE), one patient presented with ataxia, one patient presented with status epilepticus, and one patient presented with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). Nineteen (95%) patients eventually developed LE during the course of the disease. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) was identified in 10 (50%) patients, all with LE. Treatment and outcome was available from 19 patients: 15 showed complete (n = 7) or partial (n = 8) neurologic improvement after steroids, IV immunoglobulins, or plasma exchange and oncologic treatment when indicated; 1 patient died of tumor progression shortly after the first cycle of immunotherapy, and 3 were not treated. Five patients with SCLC had additional onconeuronal antibodies (Ri, amphiphysin, or SOX1), and 2 without tumor had GAD65 and NMDAR antibodies, respectively. GABABR antibodies were not detected in serum of 116 patients with SCLC without neurologic symptoms. Conclusion: Our study confirms GABABR as an autoantigen of paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic LE and expands the phenotype of GABABR antibodies to ataxia, OMS, and status epilepticus. The long-term prognosis is dictated by the presence of a tumor. Recognition of syndromes associated with GABABR antibodies is important because they usually respond to treatment. PMID:24068784

  17. Neurobehavioral outcomes in autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza; Arenivas, Ana; Cohen, Jesse; Venkatesan, Arun; Saylor, Deanna; Probasco, John C

    2017-11-15

    This study evaluates long-term neurobehavioral function in patients with clinically diagnosed autoimmune encephalitis (AE) of various etiologies through retrospective chart review and a cross-sectional structured telephone interview. Of 77 patients meeting clinical diagnostic criteria for AE over a ten year period, 39/77 (51%) patients had known AE-associated antibodies, and 38/77 (49%) had no detected antibody. 9/77 (12%) died, and 26/77 (34%) had "poor" neurologic disability score (mRS 3-5) at the last documented follow-up. 44 participants enrolled in the telephone interview, of whom 38/44 (86%) endorsed ongoing difficulties with fatigue, emotional lability, short-term memory, and/or concentration. On standardized assessment of adaptive behavior (ABAS-3), 23/44 (52%) scored "below average" (general adaptive composite: mean 86.95, standard deviation 18.45). Of the participants with "good" neurologic disability outcome (mRS 0-2), 12/30 (40%) scored "below average" in adaptive behavior. In summary, patients with AE frequently have persistent impairments in neurologic disability, neurocognitive symptomatology, and adaptive behavior, which may not be adequately captured by routine neurologic assessments. Comprehensively elucidating these persistent neurobehavioral impairments and predicting which patients are at highest risk will allow for optimal care of patients and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of angiotensin II receptors in the caprine ovary and improvement of follicular viability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bruno, J B; Lima-Verde, I B; Celestino, J J H; Lima, L F; Matos, M H T; Faustino, L R; Donato, M A M; Peixoto, C A; Campello, C C; Silva, J R V; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate mRNA levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors (AGTR1 and AGTR2) in caprine follicles and to investigate the influence of ANG II on the viability and in vitro growth of preantral follicles. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantify AGTR1 and AGTR2 mRNA levels in the different follicular stages. For culture, caprine ovaries were collected, cut into 13 fragments and then either directly fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis (fresh control) or placed in culture for 1 or 7 days in α-minumum essential medium plus (α-MEM+) with 0, 1, 5, 10, 50 or 100 ng/ml ANG II. Then, the fragments were destined to morphological, viability and ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that primordial follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 and AGTR2 mRNA than secondary follicles. Granulosa/theca cells from antral follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 mRNA than their respective cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs). After 7 days of culture, ANG II (10 or 50 ng/ml) maintained the percentages of normal follicles compared with α-MEM+. Fluorescence and ultrastructural microscopy confirmed follicular integrity in ANG II (10 ng/ml). In conclusion, a high expression of AGTR1 and AGTR2 is observed in primordial follicles. Granulosa/theca cells from antral follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 mRNA. Finally, 10 ng/ml ANG II maintained the viability of caprine preantral follicles after in vitro culture.

  19. Different digestion of caprine whey proteins by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Ellen K; Holm, Halvor; Jensen, Einar; Aaboe, Ragnhild; Devold, Tove G; Jacobsen, Morten; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2010-08-01

    The objective of the present study was twofold: first to compare the degradation patterns of caprine whey proteins digested with either human digestive juices (gastric or duodenal) or commercial porcine enzymes (pepsin or pancreatic enzymes) and second to observe the effect of gastric pH on digestion. An in vitro two-step assay was performed at 37 degrees C to simulate digestion in the stomach (pH 2, 4 or 6) and the duodenum (pH 8). The whey proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine pepsin than by human gastric juice at all pH values. Irrespective of the enzyme source, gastric digestion at pH 2 followed by duodenal digestion resulted in the most efficient degradation. Lactoferrin, serum albumin and the Ig heavy chains were highly degraded with less than 6 % remaining after digestion. About 15, 56 and 50 % Ig light chains, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) and alpha-lactalbumin remained intact, respectively, when digested with porcine enzymes compared with 25, 74 and 81 % with human digestive juices. For comparison, purified bovine beta-LG was digested and the peptide profiles obtained were compared with those of the caprine beta-LG in the digested whey. The bovine beta-LG seemed to be more extensively cleaved than the caprine beta-LG in the whey. Commercial enzymes appear to digest whey proteins more efficiently compared with human digestive juices when used at similar enzyme activities. This could lead to conflicting results when comparing human in vivo protein digestion with digestion using purified enzymes of non-human species. Consequently the use of human digestive juices might be preferred.

  20. In vitro modulation of caprine monocyte immune functions by ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Cristina; Invernizzi, Guido; Agazzi, Alessandro; Ferroni, Mariella; Pisani, Laura Francesca; Savoini, Giovanni; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2011-09-01

    The in vitro effects of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on phagocytosis and the extracellular respiratory burst in caprine monocytes were assessed. Blood monocytes incubated with increasing concentrations of EPA or DHA (25-200 μM) demonstrated increased phagocytosis compared to unexposed monocytes. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was not markedly affected in the presence of EPA and DHA, except at 200 μM, at which concentrations monocyte viability was also reduced.

  1. [Pathophysiology and Prognostic Factors of Autoimmune Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Prüß, H

    2016-05-01

    More and more forms of autoimmune encephalitis are being identified with the clinical spectrum ranging from epilepsy over movement disorders to psychosis. The increasing appreciation of clinical symptoms raises questions about the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and prognostic factors. Numerous novel findings on the aetiology demonstrate that diverse tumours, but also infections of the central nervous system such as Herpes encephalitis can trigger autoimmune encephalitis. Antibodies against neuronal surface epitopes are directly pathogenic in the majority of cases. They act via binding and internalization of target proteins, receptor blockage, or activation of complement. Most relevant for the patients' prognosis are the type and titer of antibodies (e. g. against NMDA, GABA, AMPA receptors or voltage-gated potassium channel complexes), associated tumours, sufficiently aggressive immunotherapies, and imaging as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Update and new insights in encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Stahl, J-P; Bloch, K C

    2017-09-01

    Infectious encephalitis is a rare but severe medical condition resulting from direct invasion of the brain by viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites, or indirect post-infectious immune or inflammatory disorders when the infectious agent does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Infectious encephalitis cases represent an interesting and accurate sentinel to follow up on trends in infectious diseases or to detect emerging infections. Using Pubmed and Embase, we searched the most relevant publications over the last years. We present here an update on the important findings and new data recently published about infectious encephalitis. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Practical Approach to Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Richie, Megan B; Josephson, S Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Meningitis is an inflammatory syndrome involving the meninges that classically manifests with headache and nuchal rigidity and is diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid examination. In contrast, encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain parenchyma itself and often results in focal neurologic deficits or seizures. In this article, the authors review the differential diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis, with an emphasis on infectious etiologies. The recommended practical clinical approach focuses on early high-yield diagnostic testing and empiric antimicrobial administration, given the high morbidity associated with these diseases and the time-sensitive nature of treatment initiation. If the initial workup does not yield a diagnosis, further etiology-specific testing based upon risk factors and clinical characteristics should be pursued. Effective treatment is available for many causes of meningitis and encephalitis, and when possible should address both the primary disease process as well as potential complications.

  4. Tick-borne encephalitis in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Graščenkov, N. I.

    1964-01-01

    The author gives the history of the study of tick-borne encephalitis in the USSR, following it up with a description of the etiological and epidemiological aspects and of the pathology, symptomology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. He stresses that other ticks as well as the main vectors of the virus, Ixodes, transmit the disease, in particular Dermacentor and Haemaphysalis. A detailed account of tick-borne encephalitis in the USSR may be of value in the study of the rather similar forms of the disease now being encountered more and more frequently in countries of South-East Asia as well as of northern and eastern Europe. PMID:14153408

  5. Herpes simplex encephalitis: some interesting presentations.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Jose, M; Kumar, V

    2003-09-01

    Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of fatal viral encephalitis. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis and successful therapy to restrict morbidity and mortality. We report 4 patients of HSE, with interesting presentations, viz. brainstem involvement in an immunosuppressed patient, Kluver-Bucy Syndrome-a consequence of untreated HSE, HSE in the postpartum period mistaken as cortical venous thrombosis, and response to inadequate treatment. They demonstrate the wide spectrum of clinical features, pitfalls in diagnosis, and a variable response to therapy in HSE.

  6. Hemiplegia: an initial manifestation of Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Nalini, A; Arunodaya, G R; Taly, A B; Swamy, H S; Vasudev, M K

    2003-09-01

    A 7-year-old boy from an area endemic to Japanese encephalitis (JE) manifested with acute febrile illness, left hemiplegia and preserved consciousness during the prodromal phase of illness. The child developed features of encephalitis 48 hours after the onset of hemiplegia. IgM MAC ELISA for JE virus revealed high titers in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid suggestive of JE. MRI of the brain showed asymmetrical bilateral thalamic hyperintense lesions on T2 weighted image, considered diagnostic of JE. Hemiplegia during the prodromal phase or as an initial symptom of JE is rather unusual.

  7. Tick-borne encephalitis in children.

    PubMed

    Rostasy, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    This review is a summary of the most important clinical findings and implications of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in children. It is based on a Pubmed search with the terms "tick-borne encephalitis", "children", "infection", "meningitis", "meningoencephalitis", and "outcome". TBE in children shares several features with their adult counterpart but has overall a better prognosis. Nevertheless, TBE is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in a small group of children and seems to cause cognitive dysfunctions, which needs to be studied in further detail.

  8. Menstrual arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, J E; Singh, M M; Griffiths, I D

    1993-01-01

    The menstrual cycle is characterised by variations in the absolute and relative concentrations of the hormones of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which in turn affect cell function and cytokine and heat shock protein production. Menstruation involves the shedding of the secretory endometrium, which is part of the mucosal associated lymphoid tissue and hence is rich in immunologically competent cells such as CD8 T cells and macrophages. The case is reported here of a patient presenting with a recurrent but transient symmetrical inflammatory polyarthritis which only occurred at menstruation with no residual damage. The disease was suppressed by danazol. Endometrial degradation products are suggested as the trigger of this 'menstrual arthritis'. PMID:8427519

  9. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel

    2008-11-01

    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis.

  10. The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

  11. Travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis and vaccination considerations.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2015-09-27

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious arboviral disease caused by a virus of the genus Flavivirus. Japanese encephalitis is the most common vaccine-preventable virus causing encephalitis in Asia, affecting more than 50,000 persons and leading to 15,000 fatalities per year in endemic countries. For most travelers to Asia, the risk of Japanese encephalitis infection is extremely low and depends on destination, duration of travel, season, and activities. This article reviews travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis with a focus on epidemiology and prevention in the light of the newly available options for active immunization against Japanese encephalitis which have become available, and of the increasing popularity of travels to Japanese encephalitis endemic countries.

  12. Dynamic Patterns of Systemic Innate Immunity and Inflammatory Associated Factors in Experimental Caprine Coccidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tadayon, Shabnam; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the dynamic patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, acute phase protein (α1-acid-glycoprotein, AGP), and an inflammation associated factor (adenosine deaminase; ADA) following experimental caprine coccidiosis. Ten kids aging from 2 to 4 months were infected orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts and 10 animals served as controls. Blood samples were collected in both groups before infection and at days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 post-infection (PI), and the levels of above-mentioned factors were measured. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, AGP, and ADA activities were significantly higher in infected animals from day 7 PI (P<0.05). In conclusion, the circulatory levels of most systemic inflammatory markers, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6), AGP, and ADA increased significantly starting from day 3 to day 7 PI in caprine coccidiosis. PMID:28095656

  13. Measurement of caprine plasma beta-mannosidase with a p-nitrophenyl substrate.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, K; Dunstan, R W; Jones, M Z

    1983-04-01

    Experimental conditions for measuring caprine plasma beta-D-mannosidase activity are described with p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-mannopyranoside as a substrate. The plasma enzyme was stable for 3 months at -20 C or 1 week at 4 C. The optimal pH for activity was 5.0 in citrate-phosphate or acetate buffer. Enzyme activity was linear with time up to 24 hours at 37 C, but incubation of plasma at 56 C for 5 minutes resulted in loss of all activity. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) for the plasma enzyme was 10.0 mM. Plasma beta-mannosidase from clinically normal and beta-mannosidosis carrier goats did not differ with respect to pH optimum, heat stability, or Km. The coefficient of variation for the assay, determined by assaying a plasma pool over a 3-month period, was 10.7% (mean: 115 nmole of p-nitrophenol formed/hour/ml of plasma). The assay described can be used to evaluate plasma beta-mannosidase measurements as a test for detecting carriers of caprine beta-mannosidosis, a newly described lysosomal storage disease.

  14. Encephalitis in Australian children: contemporary trends in hospitalisation.

    PubMed

    Britton, Philip N; Khoury, Lynette; Booy, Robert; Wood, Nicholas; Jones, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    The clinical epidemiology of childhood encephalitis in Australia is inadequately understood. We aimed to describe recent trends in childhood encephalitis-related hospitalisation. We identified encephalitis-related hospital admissions (2000-2012) in national datasets among children ≤14 years using ICD encephalitis codes. We calculated hospitalisation rates and analysed trends by year, age, gender, location, indigenous status and aetiology. Rates of childhood encephalitis hospitalisations significantly declined over an 11-year period (2000-2012; average hospitalisation rate 3.2/100 000). Varicella encephalitis hospitalisations decreased significantly, associated with high levels of varicella vaccine coverage since 2006. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was the most common 'specified' cause of encephalitis hospitalisation (15%-17%), and its rate has significantly increased. The highest hospitalisation rates occurred in the <1 year age group (5.8/100 000) and varied by location (highest in Northern Territory). The majority (58.9%) of hospitalised encephalitis had no cause identified; this proportion was highest in the <1 year age group (77%). The most common specified infectious causes included: herpes simplex virus, enterovirus, bacterial meningoencephalitis and varicella. When aggregated, the proportion of childhood encephalitis coded as viral was 21.2%. Hospitalisation of childhood encephalitis has slightly decreased in Australia. High rates of childhood immunisation have been associated with a reduction of varicella-associated encephalitis in Australian children. ADEM, an immune-mediated encephalitis, is the most common recognised cause of encephalitis in children. Young children (<1 year) have the highest admission rates. The high proportion of 'unspecified' encephalitis deaths and hospitalisations is an ongoing challenge. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  15. MP Joint Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy MP Joint Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... important for both pinching and gripping. MP joint arthritis is most common in the thumb and index ...

  16. Sex and Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pre Meeting and Ticketed Sessions Knowledge Bowl Thieves Market Call for Proposals Faculty Abstracts Abstract Submission Abstract ... Arthritis Fast Facts Sex and arthritis can coexist. Open and honest communication between partners about feelings, desires, ...

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself. The pattern of joints ... other joints and is worse in the morning. Rheumatoid arthritis is also a systemic disease, involving other body ...

  18. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve five or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  19. Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spondylitis, Q&A Bursitis and Tendinitis, Q&A Fibromyalgia, Q&A Gout, Q&A Juvenile Arthritis, Q& ... role. For example, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and fibromyalgia are more common among women. Other Rheumatic Diseases ...

  20. Arthritis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Arthritis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/arthritis.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  1. Change in Japanese encephalitis virus distribution, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nitatpattana, Narong; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Souris, Marc; Barbazan, Philippe; Yoksan, Sutee; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2008-11-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003-2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype I, which shows a switch from genotype III incidence that started during the 1980s.

  2. Autoimmune Encephalitis Following Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Geetanjali S; Leung, Kathryn S; Muscal, Eyal

    2015-09-01

    Neurological complications, especially encephalopathy and seizures, are commonly seen in bone marrow transplant patients. Infections, chemotoxicity, graft versus host disease, or secondary central nervous system malignancies are the most common underlying etiologies. There is increased awareness that autoimmune encephalitis may cause neurological dysfunction in immunocompetent children. The potential role of such a mechanism in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation is unknown. We report a boy who developed autoimmune encephalitis with voltage-gated potassium channel-associated and thyroid autoantibodies subsequent to transplantation. A 7-year-old boy presented with a change in behavior, poor attention, cognitive deficits, and abnormal movements 15 months after undergoing transplantation for idiopathic aplastic anemia. He had clinical and subclinical seizures and brain magnetic resonance imaging hyperintensities bilaterally in the uncal regions. His evaluation revealed high titers of voltage-gated potassium channel, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein, and thyroglobulin antibodies suggestive of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. He showed significant improvement in behavior and neuropsychological testing and has remained seizure-free on levetiracetam after immunotherapy with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Systemic autoimmune manifestations in bone marrow transplant patients have been well-documented, but autoimmune encephalitis after transplantation has yet to be described in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anorexia nervosa with herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    George, G. C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa appear to show an increased immunity to certain infections, as well as immunological deficiencies. This is the report of a patient with anorexia nervosa who developed herpes simplex encephalitis, a condition associated with lowered immunological defence mechanisms. PMID:7301681

  4. Novel variant of tickborne encephalitis virus, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Protopopova, Elena V; Chausov, Eugene V; Novikov, Dmitry V; Leonova, Galina N; Netesov, Sergey V; Loktev, Valery B

    2007-10-01

    We isolated a novel strain of tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Glubinnoe/2004, from a patient with a fatal case in Russia. We sequenced the strain, whose landmark features included 57 amino acid substitutions and 5 modified cleavage sites. Phylogenetically, Glubinnoe/2004 is a novel variant that belongs to the Eastern type of TBEV.

  5. Migrating Birds and Tickborne Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lundkvist, Åke; Falk, Kerstin I.; Garpmo, Ulf; Bergström, Sven; Lindegren, Gunnel; Sjöstedt, Anders; Mejlon, Hans; Fransson, Thord; Haemig, Paul D.; Olsen, Björn

    2007-01-01

    During spring and autumn 2001, we screened 13,260 migrating birds at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden, and found 3.4% were infested with ticks. Four birds, each a different passerine species, carried tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV)–infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Migrating birds may play a role in the geographic dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks. PMID:17953095

  6. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical…

  7. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis: clinico-pathological correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Bakheit, A M; Kennedy, P G; Behan, P O

    1990-01-01

    Three new cases of limbic encephalitis in association with malignancy are reported. The literature on this condition is reviewed and the clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of cases proven at necropsy are correlated. The possible pathogenic mechanism of this disorder is discussed. PMID:1963440

  8. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical…

  9. Reactive arthritis or post-infectious arthritis?

    PubMed

    Hannu, Timo; Inman, Robert; Granfors, Kaisa; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta

    2006-06-01

    The term 'reactive arthritis' was first used in 1969 to describe the development of sterile inflammatory arthritis as a sequel to remote infection, often in the gastrointestinal or urogenital tract. The demonstration of antigenic material (e.g. Salmonella and Yersinia lipopolysaccharide), DNA and RNA, and, in occasional cases, evidence of metabolically active Chlamydia spp. in the joints has blurred the boundary between reactive and post-infectious forms of arthritis. No validated and generally agreed diagnostic criteria exist, but the diagnosis of reactive arthritis is mainly clinical based on acute oligoarticular arthritis of larger joints that develops within 2-4 weeks of the preceding infection. In about 25% of patients, the infection can be asymptomatic. Diagnosis of the triggering infection is very helpful for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis. This is mainly achieved by isolating the triggering infection (stools, urogenital tract) by cultures (stool cultures for enteric microbes) or ligase reaction (Chlamydia trachomatis). However, after the onset of arthritis, this is less likely to be possible. Therefore, the diagnosis must rely on various serological tests to demonstrate evidence of previous infection, but, these serological tests are unfortunately not standardized. Treatment with antibiotics to cure Chlamydia infection is important, but the use of either short or prolonged courses of antibiotics in established arthritis has not been found to be effective for the cure of arthritis. The long-term outcome of reactive arthritis is usually good; however, about 25-50% of patients, depending on the triggering infections and possible new infections, subsequently develop acute arthritis. About 25% of patients proceed to chronic spondyloarthritis of varying activity.

  10. Epilepsy After Resolution of Presumed Childhood Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Rismanchi, Neggy; Gold, Jeffrey J; Sattar, Shifteh; Glaser, Carol A; Sheriff, Heather; Proudfoot, James; Mower, Andrew; Crawford, John R; Nespeca, Mark; Wang, Sonya G

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate factors associated with the development of epilepsy after resolution of presumed childhood encephalitis. A total of 217 patients with suspected encephalitis who met criteria for the California Encephalitis Project were identified. Evaluable outcome information was available for 99 patients (40 girls, 59 boys, ages 2 months to 17 years) without preexisting neurological conditions, including prior seizures or abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. We identified factors correlated with the development of epilepsy after resolution of the acute illness. Development of epilepsy was correlated with the initial presenting sign of seizure (P < 0.001). With each additional antiepileptic drug used to control seizures, the odds ratio of developing epilepsy was increased twofold (P < 0.001). An abnormal electroencephalograph (P < 0.05) and longer hospital duration (median of 8 versus 21 days) also correlated with development of epilepsy (P < 0.01). The need for medically induced coma was associated with epilepsy (P < 0.001). Seizures in those patients were particularly refractory, often requiring longer than 24 hours to obtain seizure control. Individuals who required antiepileptic drugs at discharge (P < 0.001) or were readmitted after their acute illness (P < 0.001) were more likely to develop epilepsy. Of our patients who were able to wean antiepileptic drugs after being started during hospitalization, 42% were successfully tapered off within 6 months. Limited data are available on the risk of developing epilepsy after childhood encephalitis. This is the first study that not only identifies risk factors for the development of epilepsy, but also provides data regarding the success rate of discontinuing antiepileptic medication after resolution of encephalitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurological Outcomes After Presumed Childhood Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Rismanchi, Neggy; Gold, Jeffrey J; Sattar, Shifteh; Glaser, Carol; Sheriff, Heather; Proudfoot, James; Mower, Andrew; Nespeca, Mark; Crawford, John R; Wang, Sonya G

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate factors during acute presumed childhood encephalitis that are associated with development of long-term neurological sequelae. A total of 217 patients from Rady Children's Hospital San Diego with suspected encephalitis who met criteria for the California Encephalitis Project were identified. A cohort of 99 patients (40 females, 59 males, age 2 months-17 years) without preexisting neurological conditions, including prior seizures or abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging scans was studied. Mean duration of follow-up was 29 months. Factors that had a relationship with the development of neurological sequelae (defined as developmental delay, learning difficulties, behavioral problems, or focal neurological findings) after acute encephalitis were identified. Neurological sequelae at follow-up was associated with younger age (6.56 versus 9.22 years) at presentation (P = 0.04) as well as an initial presenting sign of seizure (P = 0.03). Duration of hospital stay (median of 7 versus 15.5 days; P = 0.02) was associated with neurological sequelae. Of the patients with neurological sequelae, a longer hospital stay was associated with patients of an older age (P = 0.04). Abnormalities on neuroimaging (P = 1.00) or spinal fluid analysis (P = 1.00) were not uniquely associated with neurological sequelae. Children who were readmitted after their acute illness (P = 0.04) were more likely to develop neurological sequelae. There was a strong relationship between the patients who later developed epilepsy and those who developed neurological sequelae (P = 0.02). Limited data are available on the long-term neurological outcomes of childhood encephalitis. Almost half of our patients were found to have neurological sequelae at follow-up, indicating the importance of earlier therapies to improve neurological outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of Soft Tissue Management, Spacer Design, and Grafting Strategies for Large Segmental Bone Defects using the Chronic Caprine Tibial Defect Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0087 TITLE: Optimization of Soft Tissue Management, Spacer Design, and Grafting Strategies for Large Segmental Bone...Design, and Grafting Strategies for Large Segmental Bone Defects using the Chronic Caprine Tibial Defect Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...can be immediately translated into clinical practice. This study highlights the fact that the Chronic Caprine Tibial Defect Model is sufficiently

  13. Gonococcal and nongonococcal arthritis.

    PubMed

    García-De La Torre, Ignacio; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo

    2009-02-01

    Acute bacterial arthritis usually is caused by gonococcal or nongonococcal infection of the joints. Nongonococcal and gonococcal arthritis are the most potentially dangerous and destructive forms of acute arthritis. These bacterial infections of the joints are usually curable with treatment, but morbidity and mortality are still significant in patients who have underlying rheumatoid arthritis, patients who have prosthetic joints, elderly patients, and patients who have severe and multiple comorbidities. This article reviews the risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of nongonococcal and gonococcal arthritis.

  14. Activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk of different somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Kelly, A L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2015-11-01

    Individual caprine milk with different somatic cell counts (SCC) were studied with the aim of investigating the percentage distribution of leukocyte cell types and the activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes; proteolysis of casein was also studied in relation to cell type following recovery from milk. The experiment was conducted on 5 intensively managed dairy flocks of Garganica goats; on the basis of SCC, the experimental groups were denoted low (L-SCC; <700,000 cells/mL), medium (M-SCC; from 701,000 to 1,500,000 cells/mL), and high (H-SCC; >1,501,000 cells/mL) SCC. Leukocyte distribution differed between groups; polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes were higher in M-SCC and H-SCC milk samples, the percentage macrophages was the highest in H-SCC, and levels of nonviable cells significantly decreased with increasing SCC. Activities of all the main proteolytic enzymes were affected by SCC; plasmin activity was the highest in H-SCC milk and the lowest in L-SCC, and elastase and cathepsin D activities were the highest in M-SCC. Somatic cell count influenced casein hydrolysis patterns, with less intact α- and β-casein in H-SCC milk. Higher levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides were detected in sodium caseinate incubated with leukocytes isolated from L-SCC milk, independent of cell type, whereas among cells recovered from M-SCC milk, macrophages yielded the highest levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides from sodium caseinate. The level of high electrophoretic mobility peptides was higher in sodium caseinate incubated with polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes and macrophages isolated from M-SCC, whereas the same fraction of peptides was always the highest, independent of leukocyte type, for cells recovered from H-SCC milk. In caprine milk, a level of 700,000 cells/mL represented the threshold for changes in leukocyte distribution, which is presumably related to the immune status of the mammary gland. Differences in the profile of

  15. Encephalitis Lethargica With Isolated Substantia Nigra Lesions Followed by a Second Encephalitis in a Child With Humoral Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Jia, Guijuan; Li, Baomin; Lei, Gefei; Sun, Ruopeng

    2015-12-01

    Encephalitis lethargica is an encephalitic illness with multiple nervous system symptoms. Lesions only involving substantia nigra on magnetic resonance imaging are uncommon, especially in children. A second encephalitis illness after encephalitis lethargica has never been reported before. We describe a 7-year-old boy with humoral immunity deficiency who developed encephalitis lethargica associated with bilateral substantia nigra lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. After a nearly complete recovery, he developed encephalitis once again. He was diagnosed with encephalitis lethargica with somnolence, akinetic mutism, and ophthalmoplegia after intermittent fever. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and positive oligoclonal bands were documented. Symmetrical substantia nigra lesions on high-intensity magnetic resonance imaging gradually evolved into a liquid signal. He had almost recovered when he developed fatigue and hypersomnia and was diagnosed with encephalitis again, supported by mild pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid and subcortical white matter lesions in the frontal lobes. His symptoms resolved following administration of corticosteroids and immunoglobulins. This is the first report of an immune-deficient child to develop encephalitis lethargica with isolated substantia nigra lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and a second encephalitis illness after recovery from encephalitis lethargica. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Gonococcus-associated arthritis].

    PubMed

    Bodmer, K

    1989-04-01

    The various forms of arthritis associated with a gonococcus infection are pathogenetically and clinically differentiated. Whereas an infectious systemic process with different clinical symptoms is said to be underlying the arthritis-dermatitis syndrome as well as the septic GO-arthritis, the third form is para-infectious reactive arthritis. It is often difficult to diagnose an infectious GO-arthritis, as direct evidence of the virus found in joint and blood is rarely positive, so that the diagnosis can be affirmed or negated on the basis of clinical facts of the reaction of arthritis after an appropriate antibiotic therapy. Differential diagnostic considerations may help to find the correct diagnosis in view of an acute urethritis arthritis.

  17. New Estimates of Incidence of Encephalitis in England

    PubMed Central

    Cousens, Simon; Davies, Nicholas W.S.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Thomas, Sara L.

    2013-01-01

    Encephalitis causes high rates of illness and death, yet its epidemiology remains poorly understood. To improve incidence estimates in England and inform priority setting and treatment and prevention strategies, we used hospitalization data to estimate incidence of infectious and noninfectious encephalitis during 2005–2009. Hospitalization data were linked to a dataset of extensively investigated cases of encephalitis from a prospective study, and capture–recapture models were applied. Incidence was estimated from unlinked hospitalization data as 4.32 cases/100,000 population/year. Capture–recapture models gave a best estimate of encephalitis incidence of 5.23 cases/100,000/year, although the models’ indicated incidence could be as high as 8.66 cases/100,000/year. This analysis indicates that the incidence of encephalitis in England is considerably higher than previously estimated. Therefore, encephalitis should be a greater priority for clinicians, researchers, and public health officials. PMID:23969035

  18. New estimates of incidence of encephalitis in England.

    PubMed

    Granerod, Julia; Cousens, Simon; Davies, Nicholas W S; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Thomas, Sara L

    2013-01-01

    Encephalitis causes high rates of illness and death, yet its epidemiology remains poorly understood. To improve incidence estimates in England and inform priority setting and treatment and prevention strategies, we used hospitalization data to estimate incidence of infectious and noninfectious encephalitis during 2005-2009. Hospitalization data were linked to a dataset of extensively investigated cases of encephalitis from a prospective study, and capture-recapture models were applied. Incidence was estimated from unlinked hospitalization data as 4.32 cases/100,000 population/year. Capture-recapture models gave a best estimate of encephalitis incidence of 5.23 cases/100,000/year, although the models' indicated incidence could be as high as 8.66 cases/100,000/year. This analysis indicates that the incidence of encephalitis in England is considerably higher than previously estimated. Therefore, encephalitis should be a greater priority for clinicians, researchers, and public health officials.

  19. Jerking & confused: Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Casault, Colin; Alikhani, Katayoun; Pillay, Neelan; Koch, Marcus

    2015-12-15

    This is a case of autoimmune encephalitis with features of faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) pathognomonic for Leucine Rich Glioma inactivated (LGI)1 antibody encephalitis. This voltage-gated potassium channel complex encephalitis is marked by rapid onset dementia, FBDS and hyponatremia, which is sensitive to management with immunotherapy including steroids, IVIG and other agents. In this case report we review the clinical features, imaging and management of this condition. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Some factors influencing the syneresis of bovine, ovine, and caprine milks.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M M; Balcones, E

    2000-08-01

    The influence of the species, fat, curd incubation temperature (25, 30, and 35 degrees C), heat treatment of milk (70 degrees C for 5 or 30 min), and milk pH on the initial volume drained, syneresis rate, and the loss of proteins in drainage was studied. The volume drained as a function of the curd incubation time (up to 60 min) was adjusted to a first-order kinetic reaction. The k values (drained rate) and the initial volume obtained applying the equation were compared to establish the possible influence of the studied factors. In general, for all the factors studied, the syneresis rate of curd from caprine and ovine milk did not differ from those described previously in the literature for the curds from bovine milk. However, for each studied factor the pattern of syneresis rate was significantly different among the species in most of the experiments.

  1. Evaluating the virulence of a Brucella melitensis hemagglutinin gene in the caprine model.

    PubMed

    Perry, Quinesha L; Hagius, Sue D; Walker, Joel V; Elzer, Philip H

    2010-10-01

    With the completion of the genomic sequence of Brucella melitensis 16M, a putative hemagglutinin gene was identified which is present in 16M and absent in Brucella abortus. The possibility of this hemagglutinin being a potential virulence factor was evaluated via gene replacement in B. melitensis yielding 16MΔE and expression in trans in B. abortus 2308-QAE. Utilizing the caprine brucellosis model, colonization and pathogenesis studies were performed to evaluate these strains. B. melitensis 16M hemagglutinin gene expression in trans in 2308-QAE revealed a significant (p≤0.05) increase in colonization and abortion rates when compared to B. abortus 2308, mimicking B. melitensis 16M virulence in pregnant goats. The B. melitensis disruption mutant's colonization and abortion rates demonstrated no attenuation in colonization but displayed a 28% reduction in abortions when compared to parental B. melitensis 16M.

  2. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles.

  3. In vitro inhibition of caprine herpesvirus 1 by acyclovir and mizoribine.

    PubMed

    Elia, G; Camero, M; Decaro, N; Lovero, A; Martella, V; Tempesta, M; Buonavoglia, C; Crescenzo, G

    2015-04-01

    Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in goats induces genital vesicular-ulcerative lesions that strictly resemble the lesions induced by herpesvirus 2 in the human host. The immunosuppressive drug Mizoribine (MIZ) was found to increase the antiviral activity of Acyclovir (ACV) against herpesvirus infections, raising interesting perspectives on new combined therapeutic strategies. In this study the anti-CpHV-1 activity in vitro of ACV alone or in combination with MIZ was characterized. When applied alone at non-toxic concentrations, ACV had a slight effect on CpHV-1 replication while in combination with MIZ a dose-dependent inhibition of the virus yield was observed with an IC50 of ACV of 28.5 µM. These findings suggest that combined therapy of ACV and MIZ is potentially exploitable in the treatment of genital infection by herpesviruses.

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of peptides derived from caprine kefir.

    PubMed

    Quirós, A; Hernández-Ledesma, B; Ramos, M; Amigo, L; Recio, I

    2005-10-01

    In this study, a potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity was found in a commercial kefir made from caprine milk. The low molecular mass peptides released from caseins during fermentation were mainly responsible for this activity. Sixteen peptides were identified by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Two of these peptides, with sequences PYVRYL and LVYPFTGPIPN, showed potent ACE-inhibitory properties. The impact of gastrointestinal digestion on ACE-inhibitory activity of kefir peptides was also evaluated. Some of these peptides were resistant to the incubation with pepsin followed by hydrolysis with Corolase PP. The ACE-inhibitory activity after simulated digestion was similar to or slightly lower than unhydrolyzed peptides, except for peptide beta-casein f(47-52) (DKIHPF), which exhibited an activity 8 times greater after hydrolysis.

  5. Enhancement of the antiviral activity against caprine herpesvirus type 1 of Acyclovir in association with Mizoribine.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Lucente, Maria Stella; Losurdo, Michele; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Trerotoli, Paolo; Casalino, Elisabetta; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Tempesta, Maria

    2017-02-16

    Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in goats is responsible for genital lesions resembling the lesions induced by herpesvirus 2 in humans (HHV-2). The immunosuppressive drug Mizoribine (MIZ) is able to increase the antiviral activity of Acyclovir (ACV) against herpesvirus infections, raising interesting perspectives on new combined therapeutic strategies. In this study the anti-CpHV-1 activity in vitro of ACV alone or in combination with MIZ was evaluated. ACV (100μg/ml) displayed an antiviral effect on CpHV-1 replication. This inhibitory effect was higher when ACV (100μg/ml) was used in association with MIZ (20μg/ml). Other combinations of ACV and MIZ in various concentrations were not as effective as ACV 100μg/ml/MIZ 20μg/ml. These findings suggest that the association of ACV and MIZ is potentially useful for treatment of genital infection by herpesviruses.

  6. Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Maurizio, Estefanía

    2017-01-01

    Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock’s productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between “Malta fever” and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China), sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula) the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity. PMID:28817647

  7. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-08

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed.

  8. Purification and Characterization of a Sperm Motility Inhibiting Factor from Caprine Epididymal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 µg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility. PMID:20706623

  9. In Vitro Fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides by bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Thum, Caroline; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Otter, Don E; Cookson, Adrian L

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37°C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants. PMID:26587678

  10. Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Carlos A; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Maurizio, Estefanía

    2017-08-01

    Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock's productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between "Malta fever" and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China), sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula) the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity.

  11. Diagnostic validation of ovine and caprine brucellosis using serum- and milk-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Bosnakovski, J; Mitrov, D; Naletoski, I

    2010-01-01

    To introduce and validate the new method of diagnosing ovine and caprine brucellosis in a rapid, accurate and inexpensive manner by using i-ELISA (serum/milk) technique. Serum and milk samples from brucella RB and CFT negative (n=881) and positive (n=755) animals were used. Standardization of tests was through the Bommeli ELISA-BESW (Brucella Bang) standard and our Institute's (MKD) working standards (positive serum and milk based on B. melitensis antigen). Validation of serum/milk ELISA for detecting ovine and caprine brucellosis was completed. The specificity obtained for the serum ELISA was 99.0% for the Bommeli system (at cut-off of 30% of positivity--PP) and 99.4% for the MKD system (at cut-off 15% PP). The sensitivities of serum ELISAs at the same cut-off were 98.5% for the Bommeli and 96.6% for the MKD test. Parallel milk samples from the same animals showed a specificity of 99.5% in the Bommeli system (at cut-of 30% PP) and 99.8% in the MKD system (at cut-off 25% PP). The sensitivity of the milk ELISAs were 94.6% for the Bommeli test and 95.6% for the MKD test. The Bommeli ELISA and MKD ELISA were successfully standardized and validated as confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of B. melitensis in sheep and goat samples (milk/sera). Using our Institute's milk standard, we confirmed successful screening of brucellosis in pooled milk samples from 100 sheep and 100 goats.

  12. Degradation of spent craft brewer's yeast by caprine rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Harlow, B E; Bryant, R W; Cohen, S D; O'Connell, S P; Flythe, M D

    2016-10-01

    Spent yeast from craft beers often includes more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) secondary metabolites than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. The objective was to determine if the hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast (CY; ~ 3·5 mg g(-1) hops acids) would protect it from degradation by caprine rumen bacteria and HAB when compared to a baker's yeast (BY; no hops acids). Cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated goats, straining and differential centrifugation. The cells were re-suspended in media with BY or CY. After 24 h (39°C), HAB were enumerated and ammonia was measured. Fewer HAB and less ammonia was produced from CY than from BY. Pure culture experiments were conducted with Peptostreptococcus anaerobiusBG1 (caprine HAB). Ammonia production by BG1 from BY was greater than from CY. Ammonia production was greater when exogenous amino acids were included, but similar inhibition was observed in CY treatments. These results indicate that rumen micro-organisms deaminated the amino acids in CY to a lesser degree than BY. Spent brewer's yeast has long been included in ruminant diets as a protein supplement. However, modern craft beers often include more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. This study demonstrated that hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast protected protein from destruction by HABin vitro. These results suggest that the spent yeast from craft breweries, a source of beneficial hops secondary metabolites, could have value as rumen-protected protein. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk.

  14. Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal

    PubMed Central

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Castresana, Jose; Sampietro, Lourdes; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2005-01-01

    Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs), plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 ± 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 ± 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree. PMID:16332256

  15. The Southwestern fringe of Europe as an important reservoir of caprine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Amparo M; Gama, Luis T; Delgado, Juan V; Cañón, Javier; Amills, Marcel; de Sousa, Carolina Bruno; Ginja, Catarina; Zaragoza, Pilar; Manunza, Arianna; Landi, Vincenzo; Sevane, Natalia

    2015-11-05

    Portugal and Spain, with six and 22 officially recognized caprine breeds, encompass 25 % of the European Union goat census. Many of these populations have suffered strong demographic declines because of competition with exotic breeds and the phasing-out of low income rural activities. In this study, we have investigated the consequences of these and other demographic processes on the genetic diversity, population structure and inbreeding levels of Iberian and Atlantic goats. A sample of 975 individuals representing 25 officially recognized breeds from Portugal and Spain, two small populations not officially recognized (Formentera and Ajuí goats) and two ecotypes of the Tinerfeña and Blanca Celtibérica breeds were genotyped with a panel of 20 microsatellite markers. A wide array of population genetics methods was applied to make inferences about the genetic relationships and demography of these caprine populations. Genetic differentiation among Portuguese and Spanish breeds was weak but significant (FST = 0.07; P < 0.001), which is probably the consequence of their short splitting times and extensive gene flow due to transhumance. In contrast, Canarian goats were strongly differentiated because of prolonged geographic isolation. Most populations displayed considerable levels of diversity (mean He = 0.65). High diversity levels and weak population structures are distinctive features of Portuguese and Spanish breeds. In general, these local breeds have a reduced census, but are still important reservoirs of genetic diversity. These findings reinforce the need for the implementation of management and breeding programs based on genetic data in order to minimize inbreeding, maintain overall genetic and allelic diversities and breed identities, while at the same time taking into account the within-breed genetic structure.

  16. Osmotic tolerance and freezability of isolated caprine early-staged follicles.

    PubMed

    Santos, Regiane R; van Haeften, Theo; Roelen, Bernard A J; Knijn, Hiemke M; Colenbrander, Ben; Gadella, Bart M; van den Hurk, Rob

    2008-08-01

    Isolated caprine early-staged follicles were submitted to osmotic tolerance tests in the presence of sucrose, ethylene glycol (EG), or NaCl solutions and were exposed to and cryopreserved (by slow or rapid cooling) in MEM alone or MEM supplemented with sucrose, EG (1.0 or 4.0 M), or both. When follicles were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, only 2% of the follicles were viable, whereas 87% of the follicles were viable after exposure to 4.0 M EG. Regarding exposure time, the highest percentage of viable follicles was obtained when follicles were exposed for 10 min to 1.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose; exposure for 60 s to 4.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose also maintained high percentage viability in follicles. Slow cooling in the presence of 1.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose (75%) or rapid cooling in the presence of 4.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose (71%) resulted in a significantly higher proportion of viable follicles than all other treatments (P < 0.05). A 24-h culture of frozen-thawed follicles was used to assess survival; only slow-frozen follicles showed viability rates similar to control follicles (64% vs. 69% respectively; P > 0.05). Interestingly, the percentage of viable rapid-cooled follicles (59%) was similar to that obtained after in vitro culture of conventional slow-cooled follicles but was significantly lower than that in controls. Thus, in addition to determining improved procedures for the exposure of follicles to EG and sucrose before and after freezing of caprine early-staged follicles, we report the development of rapid- and slow-cooling protocols.

  17. The changing epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis and New data: the implications for New recommendations for Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Connor, Bradley; Bunn, William B

    2017-01-01

    The epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis and risk to the traveler has changed and continues to evolve. The spread of Japanese Encephalitis virus into new environments, changes in agricultural practice and animal vectors, climate change, peri-urban growth, changes in international travel to Asia, personal risk factors, mosquito vector free transmission, interactions with other flaviviruses and better information on infections without encephalitis and other factors make Japanese Encephalitis an underappreciated risk. There has also been a change in the incidence of Japanese Encephalitis cases that questions the current travel duration and geographic based recommendations. A safe, effective vaccine (Ixiaro) that may be administered in a short course regimen is now available in the United States without the risks of the previous vaccine. However, the vaccine is significantly underutilized. These changes in the epidemiology and new data on the risks of the Japanese Encephalitis virus require a review of the practice guidelines and expert recommendations that do not reflect the current state of knowledge.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Bissel, Stephanie J.; Kofler, Julia; Nyaundi, Julia; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Wiley, Clayton A.

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients but also increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We previously identified YKL40 as a potential cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker of lentiviral central nervous system (CNS) disease in HIV-infected patients and in the macaque model of HIV encephalitis. The aim of this study was to define the specificity and sensitivity along with the predictive value of YKL40 as a biomarker of encephalitis and to assess its relationship to CSF viral load. CSF YKL40 and SIV RNA concentrations were analyzed over the course of infection in 19 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques and statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship to encephalitis. Using these relationships, CSF alterations of 31 neuroimmune markers were studied pre-infection, during acute and asymptomatic infection, at the onset of encephalitis, and at necropsy. YKL40 CSF concentrations above 1122 ng/ml were found to be a specific and sensitive biomarker for the presence of encephalitis and were highly correlated with CSF viral load. Macaques that developed encephalitis had evidence of chronic CNS immune activation during early, asymptomatic, and end stages of infection. At the onset of encephalitis, CSF demonstrated a rise of neuroimmune markers associated with macrophage recruitment, activation and interferon response. CSF YKL40 concentration and viral load are valuable biomarkers to define the onset of encephalitis. Chronic CNS immune activation precedes the development of encephalitis while some responses suggest protection from CNS lentiviral disease. PMID:27059917

  19. Infectious encephalitis: Management without etiological diagnosis 48hours after onset.

    PubMed

    Fillatre, P; Crabol, Y; Morand, P; Piroth, L; Honnorat, J; Stahl, J P; Lecuit, M

    2017-05-01

    The etiological diagnosis of infectious encephalitis is often not established 48hours after onset. We aimed to review existing literature data before providing management guidelines. We performed a literature search on PubMed using filters such as "since 01/01/2000", "human", "adults", "English or French", and "clinical trial/review/guidelines". We also used the Mesh search terms "encephalitis/therapy" and "encephalitis/diagnosis". With Mesh search terms "encephalitis/therapy" and "encephalitis/diagnosis", we retrieved 223 and 258 articles, respectively. With search terms "encephalitis and corticosteroid", we identified 38 articles, and with "encephalitis and doxycycline" without the above-mentioned filters we identified 85 articles. A total of 210 articles were included in the analysis. Etiological investigations must focus on recent travels, animal exposures, age, immunodeficiency, neurological damage characteristics, and potential extra-neurological signs. The interest of a diagnosis of encephalitis for which there is no specific treatment is also to discontinue any empirical treatments initially prescribed. Physicians must consider and search for autoimmune encephalitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute encephalitis as initial presentation of primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Añón, Rosário Pazos; Àguas, Maria João

    2012-07-03

    Acute encephalitis is a life-threatening condition. A wide variety of infectious agents are implicated and in many patients no cause is found. HIV acute seroconversion illness can rarely present as acute encephalitis. Although most experts agree in starting antiretroviral treatment in severe acute HIV infection, the evidence of the benefits are still lacking. The authors report a case of severe acute encephalitis as a primary presentation of HIV infection in which introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in clinical recovery. This case highlights the need to consider HIV infection in the differential diagnosis of treatable viral encephalitis.

  1. Frequent rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Jangsup; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation and provocation factors of rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Among the 16 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in our institutional cohort, nine patients had elevated CK enzyme levels and clinical evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis was more frequent after immunotherapy. The use of dopamine receptor blocker (DRB) increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. None of the patients without rhabdomyolysis received DRBs. Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent complication in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and more common after immunotherapy and the use of DRBs increases the risk. Therefore, DRBs should be administered carefully in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  2. Herpes simplex encephalitis with thalamic, brainstem and cerebellar involvement.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meenal; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Udwadia Hegde, Anaita

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Differentiation from Japanese encephalitis may be difficult in these patients, especially in endemic areas, and may necessitate the use of relevant investigations in all patients.

  3. Etiology of Encephalitis in Australia, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Huppatz, Clare; Levi, Christopher; Dalton, Craig; Williams, David; Clements, Mark S.; Kelly, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Encephalitis is a clinical syndrome commonly caused by emerging pathogens, which are not under surveillance in Australia. We reviewed rates of hospitalization for patients with encephalitis in Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales, from January 1990 through December 2007. Encephalitis was the primary discharge diagnosis for 5,926 hospital admissions; average annual hospitalization rate was 5.2/100,000 population. The most commonly identified pathogen was herpes simplex virus (n = 763, 12.9%). Toxoplasma encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis showed notable declines. The average annual encephalitis case-fatality rate (4.6%) and the proportion of patients hospitalized with encephalitis with no identified pathogen (69.8%, range 61.5%–78.7%) were stable during the study period. The nonnotifiable status of encephalitis in Australia and the high proportion of this disease with no known etiology may conceal emergence of novel pathogens. Unexplained encephalitis should be investigated, and encephalitis hospitalizations should be subject to statutory notification in Australia. PMID:19788802

  4. Sarcocystis neurona encephalitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Cooley, A J; Barr, B; Rejmanek, D

    2007-11-01

    A 1.5-year-old male Feist dog was presented to a veterinarian for reluctance to stand on the hind legs. Treatment included dexamethasone and resulted in a favorable initial response, but posterior paresis returned and progressed to recumbency, hyperesthesia, and attempts to bite the owner. The dog was euthanized. The brain was negative for rabies by fluorescent antibody analysis. Multiple foci of encephalitis were found in the cerebrum and particularly in the cerebellum. Protozoa morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis sp. were identified at sites of intense inflammation and malacia. Additionally, multiple schizonts were identified in areas without inflammation. Immunohistochemistry using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for Sarcocystis neurona was strongly positive. No reaction to polyclonal antisera for Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum was found. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the protozoa were S. neurona. Additional aberrant hosts for S. neurona other than horses have been identified, but S. neurona encephalitis has not been documented previously in the dog.

  5. Influenza retinitis: association with influenza encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Shin; Wakakura, Masato; Inouye, Jiro

    2005-01-01

    To report an unusual case of retinitis caused by influenza virus. A 30-year-old male claimed partial color blindness after recovery from influenza encephalitis. Visual acuity was 0.3 in the right eye and 0.03 in the left. An ophthalmoscopic fundus examination looked normal, but fluorescein angiography revealed granular hyperfluorescence with multiple dark circular lesions at the posterior pole of both eyes. Serological testing revealed an influenza A virus infection. With corticosteroid pulse therapy (3 days) followed by oral methyl prednisolone for 1 month, visual acuity gradually recovered. Over the following 2-year period, visual acuity has recovered to 1.2 in both eyes, but color sensation still remains impaired. Influenza encephalitis can cause visual loss due to retinitis at the posterior pole. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Mumps encephalitis with akinesia and mutism.

    PubMed

    Suga, Kenichi; Goji, Aya; Shono, Miki; Matsuura, Sato; Inoue, Miki; Toda, Eiko; Miyazaki, Tatsushi; Kawahito, Masami; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Measles-rubella-mumps vaccination is routine in many countries, but the mumps vaccine remains voluntary and is not covered by insurance in Japan. A 5-year-old Japanese boy who had not received the mumps vaccine was affected by mumps parotitis. Several days later, he presented with various neurological abnormalities, including akinesia, mutism, dysphagia, and uncontrolled respiratory disorder. Mumps encephalitis was diagnosed. Despite steroid pulse and immunoglobulin treatment, the disease progressed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed necrotic changes in bilateral basal ganglia, midbrain, and hypothalamus. At 1 year follow up, he was bedridden and required enteral feeding through a gastric fistula and tracheostomy. Mumps vaccination should be made routine as soon as possible in Japan, because mumps encephalitis carries the risk of severe sequelae.

  7. Multiple paths to encephalization and technical civilizations.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    2011-12-01

    We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.

  8. Multiple Paths to Encephalization and Technical Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    2011-12-01

    We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.

  9. Sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in a rock pigeon.

    PubMed

    Ushio, Nanako; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Chambers, James K; Shibato, Tokuhiro; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-01

    A rock pigeon (Columba livia) caught in Akihabara, Tokyo, showed neurological symptoms, such as head tilt and circling. Pathological examinations revealed abundant Sarcocystic cysts in the skeletal muscle and myocardium with mild myositis, and numerous schizonts and sarcocysts with severe multifocal granulomatous T-lymphocytic infiltration in the central nervous system. A Sarcocystis calchasi-specific gene was detected in the muscle and brain. This case indicates S. calchasi was distributed in Japan and caused severe encephalitis to rock pigeons.

  10. Hashimoto's Encephalitis: Rare Manifestation of Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Bhattacharjee, Annesh; Kumar, Sukriti; Pushkar, Durgesh

    2017-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalitis is a rare, heterogeneous and completely treatable form of neuroendocrine disorder manifesting with seizures, stroke-like episodes, encephalopathy, dementia and variable neuropsychiatric manifestations. It is generally associated with a background of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, and the patient has high titers of antithyroid antibodies, especially antithyroid peroxidase antibodies. This entity responds dramatically to corticosteroids, hence should be always considered and excluded while treating a patient with encephalopathy in the background of a thyroid disease.

  11. [Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated with Malignant Tumors].

    PubMed

    Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis consists of limbic symptoms and signs associated with antibodies against neuronal cell-surface antigens or intracellular antigens. Some cases are known to be associated with anti-channel or anti-receptor-related molecule antibodies. Whether these cases are paraneoplastic depends on the kinds of antigens that the antibodies are produced against. Other cases due to well-characterized onco-neural antibodies are almost always paraneoplastic and are generally resistant to anti-tumor therapy and/or immunotherapy. An exception is anti-Ma2 antibody-positive encephalitis associated with a testicular tumor. Antibodies for intracellular antigens are considered not to be pathogenic. Rather, the T-cell response is thought to be responsible. These antibodies are useful markers for the diagnosis of paraneoplastic disorders and in the search for underlying cancer, as neurological symptoms often precede tumor diagnosis. There is a relationship among onco-neural antibodies, clinical features, tumor types, and response to immunotherapy. Here we describe the characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis cases with antibodies against different intracellular antigens, such as Hu, Ma2, CRMP5, or amphiphysin.

  12. Autoimmune encephalitis in psychiatric institutions: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bost, Chloe; Pascual, Olivier; Honnorat, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is a rare and newly described group of diseases involving autoantibodies directed against synaptic and neuronal cell surface antigens. It comprises a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tests such as cell-based assay are primordial for the detection of neuronal cell surface antibodies in patients’ cerebrospinal fluid or serum and determine the treatment and follow-up of the patients. As neurological symptoms are fairly well described in the literature, this review focuses on the nature of psychiatric symptoms occurring at the onset or during the course of the diseases. In order to help the diagnosis, the main neurological symptoms of the most representative synaptic and neuronal cell surface autoantibodies were detailed. Finally, the exploration of these autoantibodies for almost a decade allowed us to present an overview of autoimmune encephalitis incidence in psychiatric disease and the general guidelines for the management of psychiatric manifestations. For the majority of autoimmune encephalitis, the prognosis depends on the rapidity of the detection, identification, and the management of the disease. Because the presence of pronounced psychiatric symptoms drives patients to psychiatric institutions and can hinder the diagnosis, the aim of this work is to provide clues to help earlier detection by physicians and thus provide better medical care to patients. PMID:27822050

  13. [Tick-borne encephalitis--an update].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a systemic infectious disease with nonspecific symptoms and/or severe neurological disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis and myelitis. The disease is caused by TBE virus, an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the family of flaviviruses. Three subtypes are currently present in different parts of Europe and Asia. The TBE virus is transmitted to humans primarily by the tick bite of Ixodes species such as I. ricinus, but also by the ingestion of contaminated raw milk and raw milk products. In Germany, more than 75% of all TBE cases occur in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg (southern Germany). Depending on the region, 1 to 4% of adult I. ricinus ticks in southern Germany are infected with the central European TBE virus variant. Treatment of TBE is symptomatic and supportive, a specific antiviral therapy does not exist. TBE cases acquired in central European countries have usually a good prognosis. Mortality rates above 2% have been documented in cases of tick-borne encephalitis in the elderly. In endemic areas, active immunization with inactivated TBE virus vaccines provides the most secure protection against TBE. In addition, exposure prophylaxis (protection against tick bites) plays a crucial role for TBE prevention.

  14. Current recommendations for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Chang, Jia-Kan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection and an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific. Most people infected with the JE virus (JEV) are asymptomatic or seemingly suffer from a nonspecific, flu-like illness; in others, JE can cause illness ranging from fever and headache to severe encephalitis. Although it can cause significant morbidity and mortality, JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, and vaccination programs have proven most effective in preventing and diminishing the burden of disease. Such JE vaccines have been available for decades with four types of JE vaccines-live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine, inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine (JE-MB), inactivated Vero cell culture vaccine (JE-VC), and live attenuated chimeric vaccine (IMOJEV)-and are currently used in most countries. In some Asian countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Thailand, immunization programs have been conducted for children and so the ongoing incidence of JE has declined considerably in recent decades. Until quite recently, the primary JE vaccine in use internationally has been the JE-MB, which is now commonly replaced by cell culture-based vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed to help you learn more about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). You will learn how the diagnosis of ...

  16. In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of caprine cheese whey oligosaccharides in batch culture systems.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diana L; Costabile, Adele; Wilbey, R Andrew; Grandison, Alistair S; Duarte, Luis C; Roseiro, Luisa B

    2012-01-01

    The prebiotic effect of oligosaccharides recovered and purified from caprine whey, was evaluated by in vitro fermentation under anaerobic conditions using batch cultures at 37°C with human faeces. Effects on key gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which was used to determine a quantitative prebiotic index score. Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as fermentation end products was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Growth of Bifidobacterium spp was significantly higher (P ≥ 0.05) with the purified oligosaccharides compared to the negative control. Lactic and propionic acids were the main SCFAs produced. Antimicrobial activity of the oligosaccharides was also tested, revealing no inhibition though a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli growth. These findings indicate that naturally extracted oligosaccharides from caprine whey could be used as new and valuable source of prebiotics.

  17. Resistance of ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells to Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Rolfe, B E; Smith, N J; Thomas, A C; Kelly, W R

    1999-08-01

    Ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells were grown in vitro and challenged with Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin to compare their susceptibility to this toxin. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which are known to be susceptible to epsilon toxin, were used as a positive control. No morphological alterations were observed in any of the endothelial cell cultures tested, even after challenging with doses as high as 1200 MLD50/ml of epsilon toxin. MDCK cells showed contour rounding and nuclear condensation as early as 30 min after exposure to 100 MLD50/ml of epsilon toxin and after 60 min of exposure to 12.5 MLD50/ml of the same toxin. All the MDCK cells were dead after 3 h of exposure to all concentrations of epsilon toxin. The results indicate that ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells are not morphologically responsive to the action of epsilon toxin in vitro.

  18. Acute pediatric encephalitis neuroimaging: single-institution series as part of the California encephalitis project.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, Julie; Kruk, Peter; Gold, Jeffrey J; Glaser, Carol A; Sheriff, Heather; Crawford, John R

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosing pediatric encephalitis is challenging because of varied clinical presentation, nonspecific neuroimaging features, and rare confirmation of causality. We reviewed acute neuroimaging of children with clinically suspected encephalitis to identify findings that may correlate with etiology and length of stay. Imaging of 141 children with clinically suspected encephalitis as part of The California Encephalitis Project from 2005 to 2012 at a single institution was reviewed to compare the extent of neuroimaging abnormalities to patient age, gender, length of stay, and unknown, possible, or confirmed pathogen. Scan review was blinded and categorized by extent and distribution of abnormal findings. Abnormal findings were evident on 23% (22/94) of computed tomography and 50% (67/134) of magnetic resonance imaging studies in the acute setting. Twenty children with normal admission computed tomography had abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging performed within 2 days. Length of stay was significantly longer among children with abnormal acute magnetic resonance imaging (P < 0.001) and correlated with increased complexity (Spearman rho = 0.4, P < 0.001) categorized as: no imaging abnormality, meningeal enhancement and/or focal nonenhancing lesion, multifocal lesions, confluent lesions, and lesions plus diffusion restriction, hemorrhage, or hydrocephalus. There was no correlation between neuroimaging findings and an identifiable pathogen (P = 0.8). Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings are more common than abnormal computed tomography findings in pediatric encephalitis. Increasing complexity of magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated with disease severity as evidenced by longer length of stay, but were not specific for an identifiable pathogen using a standardized diagnostic encephalitis panel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Infectious arthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mateo Soria, L; Miquel Nolla Solé, J; Rozadilla Sacanell, A; Valverde García, J; Roig Escofet, D

    1992-01-01

    Eleven cases of infectious arthritis occurring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are reported. Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in eight patients. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus agalactiae in one patient each, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in two patients. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 16 days in patients with pyogenic arthritis. The diagnosis of joint infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was especially delayed (57 days). Four patients died; they were found to have a longer time to diagnosis and two of them had multiple joint infection. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the microorganism most often affecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis, infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis must also be considered in such patients. PMID:1575593

  20. How undifferentiated arthritis evolves into chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, D; Toes, R E M; Scherer, H U

    2014-08-01

    Undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is a frequently occurring clinical presentation with a variable outcome. While some forms of UA will spontaneously remit, other forms will progress to chronic arthritis; an outcome that would preferably be prevented. Which immunological factors are normally at the basis of resolution of inflammation, and what, on the other hand, causes inflammation to persist? This review provides an overview of the immunological mechanisms involved in these two scenarios, including specific examples of how these mechanisms apply, or can be influenced in rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, what do we know about risk factors for chronic arthritis, such as the development of autoantibodies? The recent years have provided many insights concerning risk factors for autoantibody-positive versus autoantibody-negative rheumatoid arthritis, which are discussed along with a possible pathophysiological model incorporating autoantibodies into the larger process of disease development. Finally, the evolution of the autoantibody response over time is described.

  1. Molecular characterization and polymorphisms of the caprine Somatostatin (SST) and SST Receptor 1 (SSTR1) genes that are linked with growth traits.

    PubMed

    Jin, Q J; Sun, J J; Fang, X T; Zhang, C L; Yang, L; Chen, D X; Shi, X Y; Du, Y; Lan, X Y; Chen, H

    2011-06-01

    Somatostatin (SST) and its receptors (SSTR1-5) appear to be important in central regulation of many metabolic systems that affect growth, adiposity and nutrient absorption. In this study, we investigated polymorphisms within the caprine SST and SSTR1 genes and determined their relationship with growth traits. As there were no sequence information of the caprine SST and SSTR1 genes, we explored their DNA sequence and genomic organizations. The caprine SST gene is organized in two exons and is transcribed into an mRNA containing 351 bp of sequence coding for a protein of 116 amino acids. Its protein sequences showed substantial similarity (97-99%) to its respective orthologs from cattle, human and mouse. We also cloned and sequenced a 1.2 kb DNA fragment which contained the major part of the coding region and 3' UTR of the caprine SSTR1 gene. We then detected the polymorphisms in these determined sequences by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in 459 goats from four breeds. Four SNPs (GU014693:g.647T>C, GU014693:g.844A>C, GU014693:g.970T>C, GU014693:g.1039T>A), segregating as two haplotypes (T-A-T-T and C-C-C-A), were identified in intron 1 of the caprine SST gene and showed the associations to body length and body height (P < 0.05). Two SNPs (GU014695:g.801 C>T, GU014695:g.948 C>T) were identified in the caprine SSTR1 gene. Significant associations between the three genotypes of GU014695:801 C>T and body length, body height, and chest circumference was observed (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the caprine SST and SSTR1 genes are strong candidate genes that influence growth traits in goat.

  2. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  3. Simulated-physiological loading conditions preserve biological and mechanical properties of caprine lumbar intervertebral discs in ex vivo culture.

    PubMed

    Paul, Cornelis P L; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J; van de Ven, Peter M; Smit, Theo H; Helder, Marco N; van Royen, Barend J; Mullender, Margriet G

    2012-01-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions.In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties.Lumbar caprine IVDs (n = 175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content.IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group.In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and

  4. Simulated-Physiological Loading Conditions Preserve Biological and Mechanical Properties of Caprine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in Ex Vivo Culture

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.; van Royen, Barend J.; Mullender, Margriet G.

    2012-01-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions. In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n = 175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content. IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group. In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and

  5. Infections and arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Ashish Jacob; Ravindran, Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites can all cause arthritis of either acute or chronic nature, which can be divided into infective/septic, reactive, or inflammatory. Considerable advances have occurred in diagnostic techniques in the recent decades resulting in better treatment outcomes in patients with infective arthritis. Detection of emerging arthritogenic viruses has changed the epidemiology of infection-related arthritis. The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis is increasingly being recognized. We discuss the various causative agents of infective arthritis and emphasize on the approach to each type of arthritis, highlighting the diagnostic tests, along with their statistical accuracy. Various investigations including newer methods such as nucleic acid amplification using polymerase chain reaction are discussed along with the pitfalls in interpreting the tests.

  6. When is arthritis reactive?

    PubMed Central

    Hamdulay, S S; Glynne, S J; Keat, A

    2006-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is an important cause of lower limb oligoarthritis, mainly in young adults. It is one of the spondyloarthropathy family; it is distinguishable from other forms of inflammatory arthritis by virtue of the distribution of affected sites and the high prevalence of characteristic extra‐articular lesions. Many terms have been used to refer to this and related forms of arthritis leading to some confusion. Reactive arthritis is precipitated by an infection at a distant site and genetic susceptibility is marked by possession of the HLA‐B27 gene, although the mechanism remains uncertain. Diagnosis is a two stage process and requires demonstration of a temporal link with a recognised “trigger” infection. The identification and management of “sexually acquired” and “enteric” forms of reactive arthritis are considered. Putative links with HIV infection are also discussed. The clinical features, approach to investigation, diagnosis, and management of reactive arthritis are reviewed. PMID:16822921

  7. “Of Sheep and Men”: Earliest Direct Evidence of Caprine Domestication in Southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)

    PubMed Central

    Pleurdeau, David; Imalwa, Emma; Détroit, Florent; Lesur, Joséphine; Veldman, Anzel; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Marais, Eugène

    2012-01-01

    The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast. PMID:22808138

  8. Effect of Co-transfection of Anti-myostatin shRNA Constructs in Caprine Fetal Fibroblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Hati Boruah, Jyoti Lakshmi; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gogoi, Hamen; Pandey, Saurabh Kumar; Kumar, Dharmendra; Phukan, Amlan Jyoti; Bori, Joygeswar; Sarkhel, Bikash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Knockdown of myostatin gene (MSTN), transforming growth factor-β superfamily, and a negative regulator of the skeletal muscle growth, by RNA interference (RNAi), has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammals. The current study was aimed to cotransfect two anti-MSTN short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs in caprine fetal fibroblast cells for transient silencing of MSTN gene. In the present investigation, approximately 89% MSTN silencing was achieved in transiently transfected caprine fetal fibroblast cells by cotransfection of two best out of four anti-MSTN shRNA constructs. Simultaneously, we also monitored the induction of IFN responsive genes (IFN), pro-apoptotic gene (caspase3) and anti-apoptotic gene (MCL-1) due to cotransfection of different anti-MSTN shRNA constructs. We observed induction of 0.66-19.12, 1.04-4.14, 0.50-3.43, and 0.42-1.98 for folds IFN-β, OAS1, caspase3, and MCL-1 genes, respectively (p < 0.05). This RNAi based cotransfection method could provide an alternative strategy of gene knockout and develop stable caprine fetal fibroblast cells. Furthermore, these stable cells can be used as a cell donor for the development of transgenic cloned embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique.

  9. Caprine Endometrial Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cell: Multilineage Potential, Characterization, and Growth Kinetics in Breeding and Anestrous Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zarezadeh, Younes; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Zare, Shahrokh

    2017-01-01

    The endometrial layer of the uterus contains a population of cells with similar characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, caprine endometrial mesenchymal stromal stem cells (En-MSCs) characters and differentiation potential to chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic cell lines as well as their growth kinetics in breeding and anestrous stages were evaluated. En-MSCs were enzymatically isolated from endometrial layer of the uterus of adult goats and were cultured and subcultured until passage 4. The growth kinetics and population doubling time (PDT) of caprine En-MSCs in breeding and anestrous stages were determined. En-MSCs in passage 4 were used for the karyotyping and differentiation into chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. The PDT in anestrus phase was 40.6 h and in cyclic goats was 53 h. En-MSCs were fibroblast-like in all passages. The number of chromosomes was normal (2n = 60) with no chromosomal instability. Chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation of En-MSCs was confirmed by staining with Alcian blue, Alizarin red, and Oil Red O, respectively. Caprine En-MSCs demonstrated to be an alternative source of MSCs for cell therapy purposes in regenerative medicine. PMID:28357151

  10. Targeting essential Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae sporozoite ligands for caprine host endothelial cell invasion with a phage display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Pérez, D; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Taubert, A; Jacobs-Lorena, M; Vega-Rodríguez, J; López, A M; Hermosilla, C

    2015-11-01

    Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae is an important coccidian parasite of goats which causes severe diarrhoea in young animals. Specific molecules that mediate E. ninakohlyakimovae host interactions and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis are still unknown. Although strong circumstantial evidence indicates that E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoite interactions with caprine endothelial host cells (ECs) are specific, hardly any information is available about the interacting molecules that confer host cell specificity. In this study, we describe a novel method to identify surface proteins of caprine umbilical vein endothelial cells (CUVEC) using a phage display library. After several panning rounds, we identified a number of peptides that specifically bind to the surface of CUVEC. Importantly, caprine endothelial cell peptide 2 (PCEC2) and PCEC5 selectively reduced the infection rate by E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites. These preliminary data give new insight for the molecular identification of ligands involved in the interaction between E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites and host ECs. Further studies using this phage approach might be useful to identify new potential target molecules for the development of anti-coccidial drugs or even new vaccine strategies.

  11. Quantification of minerals and trace elements in raw caprine milk using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Garg, V K; Sharma, Anshu; Singh, Balvinder; Sharma, Himanshu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports minerals and trace elements quantification in raw caprine milk of Beetal breed, reared in Northern India and their feed, fodder & water using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. The mineral and trace elements' concentration in the milk was in the order: K > Ca > Na > Fe > Zn > Cu. The results showed that minerals concentration in caprine milk was lesser than reference values. But trace elements concentration (Fe and Zn) was higher than reference values. Multivariate statistical techniques, viz., Pearsons' correlation, Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to analyze the interdependences within studied variables in caprine milk. Significantly positive correlations were observed between Fe - Zn, Zn - K, Ca - Na and Ca - pH. The results of correlation matrix were further supported by Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis as primary cluster pairs were found for Ca - pH, Ca - Na and Fe - Zn in the raw milk. No correlation was found between mineral & trace elements content of the milk and feed.

  12. Ultrasound in Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Plagou, Athena; Teh, James

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound is currently performed in everyday rheumatologic practice. It is used for early diagnosis, to monitor treatment results, and to diagnose remission. The spectrum of pathologies seen in arthritis with ultrasound includes early inflammatory features and associated complications. This article discusses the spectrum of ultrasound features of arthritides seen in rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases in adults, such as Sjögren syndrome, lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ultrasound findings in spondyloarthritis, osteoarthritis, and crystal-induced diseases are presented. Ultrasound-guided interventions in patients with arthritis are listed, and the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genotype III Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus Outbreak, Argentina, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Ré, Viviana; Almirón, Walter R.; Farías, Adrián; Vázquez, Ana; Sanchez-Seco, María Paz; Aguilar, Javier; Spinsanti, Lorena; Konigheim, Brenda; Visintin, Andrés; García, Jorge; Morales, Maria Alejandra; Tenorio, Antonio; Contigiani, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-six years after it was last detected, Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) genotype III reemerged in 2005 in Córdoba, Argentina, where it caused an outbreak. Two genotype III SLEV strains were isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus. A 71.43% prevalence for neutralizing antibodies was found in domestic fowl in the homestead of a patient with encephalitis. PMID:17283629

  14. Nominal dysphasia and euphoria caused by EBV encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Yakut, Ayten; Ekici, Arzu; Isikay, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    Encephalitis is an uncommon neurological complication of Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and usually presents with confusion, decreased level of consciousness, fever, epileptic seizure, emotional instability and chorea. We present a patient with EBV encephalitis, characterised by nominal dysphasia, euphoria and personality changes. PMID:23307455

  15. Encephalitis-Associated Human Metapneumovirus Pneumonia in Adult, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mateevici, Cristina; Lin, Belinda; Chandra, Ronil V.; Chong, Victor H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus pneumonia, most commonly found in children, was diagnosed in an adult with encephalitis. This case suggests that testing for human metapneumovirus RNA in nasopharyngeal aspirate and cerebrospinal fluid samples should be considered in adults with encephalitis who have a preceding respiratory infection, PMID:26488420

  16. Cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jung-Ick; Lee, Soon-Tae; Moon, Jangsup; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Shin, Jung-Won; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Lim, Jung-Ah; Shin, Yong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Park, Kyung-Il; Jung, Ki-Young; Lee, Sang Kun; Chu, Kon

    2015-12-01

    Patients with anti-NMDA receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis frequently suffer from autonomic dysfunctions, which can cause substantial morbidity. This study assessed cardiac autonomic functions in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. This was a retrospective single-center case-control study. Eleven patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were included in this study. To ensure that autonomic dysfunction does not occur in any encephalitis, we additionally analyzed HRV of 9 patients with herpes encephalitis (HSE) and compared with that of NMDAR encephalitis patients and controls. Five minute resting stationary electrocardiogram was collected from each subject, and HRV was analyzed. Total power and low frequency (LF) power were lower in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients than those in controls (p=0.005, 0.001 respectively), indicating cardiac autonomic dysfunction especially in sympathetic system. Patients with HSE showed no significant difference in HRV parameters compared with that of controls. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction was associated with 3 month functional outcome in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients.

  17. A case of late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Andrea; Lauria, Giuseppe; Mantero, Vittorio; Salmaggi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Late relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis, defined as recurrence more than 3 months after the first initial encephalitic episode, is a rare condition. We describe the case of an adult patient who presented a relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis 8 years after the first episode occurred at the age of 57 years and review the literature of this topic.

  18. Hyperleukocytosis in a premature infant with intrauterine herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, M A; Wartell, A E; Borghese, R A

    2012-06-01

    Herpes encephalitis is a rare but devastating infection in premature infants. We report a 29 week gestation infant with severe intrauterine cutaneous and central nervous system herpes accompanied by hyperleukocytosis. Leukemoid reactions are not uncommon in this population, but the association of herpes encephalitis and a leukemoid reaction or hyperleukocytosis has not been reported previously.

  19. Encephalitis Surveillance through the Emerging Infections Program, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis is a devastating illness that commonly causes neurologic disability and has a case fatality rate >5% in the United States. An etiologic agent is identified in <50% of cases, making diagnosis challenging. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Encephalitis Project established syndromic surveillance for encephalitis in New York, California, and Tennessee, with the primary goal of increased identification of causative agents and secondary goals of improvements in treatment and outcome. The project represents the largest cohort of patients with encephalitis studied to date and has influenced case definition and diagnostic evaluation of this condition. Results of this project have provided insight into well-established causal pathogens and identified newer causes of infectious and autoimmune encephalitis. The recognition of a possible relationship between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid paralysis with myelitis underscores the need for ongoing vigilance for emerging causes of neurologic disease. PMID:26295485

  20. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis misdiagnosed as Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli-Badenier, M; Biancheri, R; Morana, G; Fornarino, S; Siri, L; Celle, M E; Veneselli, E; Vincent, A; Gaggero, R; Mancardi, M M

    2014-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a well-defined autoimmune disorder. Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a still controversial entity, lacking definite diagnostic criteria. We described a 14-year-old-girl presenting with a clinical picture consistent with the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, confirmed by NMDAR antibody testing. Four years earlier, she had presented a similar episode of acute encephalopathy diagnosed as HE. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis and HE share similar clinical features so that the differential diagnosis can be difficult if specific antibodies are not tested. The correct diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is crucial to plan the appropriate management and follow-up, namely in term of oncological screening, since it can be paraneoplastic in origin. We suggest to re-evaluate the clinical history of all subjects with previous HE diagnosis in order to evaluate the possible diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis and plan the appropriate management of these patients.

  1. A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Graus, Francesc; Titulaer, Maarten J; Balu, Ramani; Benseler, Susanne; Bien, Christian G; Cellucci, Tania; Cortese, Irene; Dale, Russell C; Gelfand, Jeffrey M; Geschwind, Michael; Glaser, Carol A; Honnorat, Jerome; Höftberger, Romana; Iizuka, Takahiro; Irani, Sarosh R; Lancaster, Eric; Leypoldt, Frank; Prüss, Harald; Rae-Grant, Alexander; Reindl, Markus; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Rostásy, Kevin; Saiz, Albert; Venkatesan, Arun; Vincent, Angela; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Waters, Patrick; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis. Because autoantibody test results and response to therapy are not available at disease onset, we based the initial diagnostic approach on neurological assessment and conventional tests that are accessible to most clinicians. Through logical differential diagnosis, levels of evidence for autoimmune encephalitis (possible, probable, or definite) are achieved, which can lead to prompt immunotherapy. PMID:26906964

  2. Insights into pediatric herpes simplex encephalitis from a cohort of 21 children from the California Encephalitis Project, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    To, Tu M; Soldatos, Ariane; Sheriff, Heather; Schmid, D Scott; Espinosa, Natasha; Cosentino, Giorgio; Preas, Christopher P; Glaser, Carol A

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-one children with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were identified in the California Encephalitis Project.Noteworthy features included 6 (29%) patients with an initial negative herpes simplex virus cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction test and 13 (62%) patients with extratemporal lobe involvement identified by neuroimaging [corrected]. Eleven cases were <4 years of age, but all 4 fatal cases occurred in adolescents.

  3. Profile of arthritis disability.

    PubMed Central

    Verbrugge, L. M.; Juarez, L.

    2001-01-01

    Using the 1994-95 National Health Interview Supplement Disability Supplement, the authors study levels of disabilities and accommodations among US adults with arthritis disability, compared to people with disability due to other conditions. Arthritis-disabled people are defined in two ways. One definition covers a broad range of arthritis and rheumatic conditions, and the other concentrates solely on arthritis. The authors find that arthritis-disabled people have more total disabilities than other-disabled peop e. However, their disabilities are less severe, have shorter durations, and accumulate more gradually over time. Despite more disabilities, people with arthritis disability use fewer assistive and service accommodations than other-disabled people. They do use more mobility aids. Because arthritis is the leading chronic condition for middle-aged and older adults, th s profile of extensive but mild-to-moderate disability is experienced by many millions of adults. Accommodations for arthritis may also be extensive but aimed more toward self-care than toward assistive and medical services. PMID:11889283

  4. Living with Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone might fall or be injured in a car accident. Then, years after the individual’s knee has apparently healed, he might get arthritis in his knee joint. Rheumatoid arthritis happens when the body’s own defense system doesn’t work properly. It affects joints and bones (often of ...

  5. Eastern equine encephalitis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y; Haddow, Andrew D; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2013-08-22

    The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.).

  6. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y.; Haddow, Andrew D.; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G.; da Rosa, Amelia P. Travassos; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. METHODS We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. CONCLUSIONS Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.) PMID:23964935

  7. Early recognition of encephalitis in acute settings.

    PubMed

    Mower, Kellie-Ann

    2017-04-13

    Encephalitis is a life-threatening condition in which inflammation of the brain tissue occurs. Although it is relatively rare, misdiagnosis or delays in recognition and treatment can have devastating consequences for patients, and there is a high mortality rate. People who survive are often left with neuropsychological impairment. This article describes the pathophysiology of the condition, as well as clinical presentation and treatment, and explains why it can be easily missed. It includes a case study that describes a situation in which the condition was not considered initially as a differential diagnosis, and considers implications for practice.

  8. ANTIGENIC VARIANTS OF EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Casals, Jordi

    1964-01-01

    A study by hemagglutination-inhibition test showed that 19 strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus grouped themselves in two main types, which have been designated North American and South American. The former consists of ten strains from the eastern half of the United States, from Massachusetts to Florida; Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and, subject to confirmation, Thailand. The South American type comprises nine strains from Panama, Trinidad, British Guiana, Brazil, and Argentina. The strains were isolated from different natural hosts over a period of 30 years. PMID:14151098

  9. Identification and Profiling of microRNAs and Their Target Genes from Developing Caprine Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xingtang; Zhao, Yulong; Chen, Xiaohui; Sun, Jiajie; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jianjin; Wang, Yongan; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Goat is an important agricultural animal for meat production. Functional studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although studies on miRNAs expression profiles have been performed in various animals, relatively limited information about goat muscle miRNAs has been reported. To investigate the miRNAs involved in regulating different periods of skeletal muscle development, we herein performed a comprehensive research for expression profiles of caprine miRNAs during two developmental stages of skeletal muscles: fetal stage and six month-old stage. As a result, 15,627,457 and 15,593,721 clean reads were obtained from the fetal goat library (FC) and the six month old goat library (SMC), respectively. 464 known miRNAs and 83 novel miRNA candidates were identified. Furthermore, by comparing the miRNA profile, 336 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and then the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. To understand the regulatory network of miRNAs during muscle development, the mRNA expression profiles for the two development stages were characterized and 7322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Then the potential targets of miRNAs were compared to the DEGs, the intersection of the two gene sets were screened out and called differentially expressed targets (DE-targets), which were involved in 231 pathways. Ten of the 231 pathways that have smallest P-value were shown as network figures. Based on the analysis of pathways and networks, we found that miR-424-5p and miR-29a might have important regulatory effect on muscle development, which needed to be further studied. This study provided the first global view of the miRNAs in caprine muscle tissues. Our results help elucidation of complex regulatory networks between miRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of muscle development. PMID

  10. [Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Sbiti, Mohammed; Bouhamidi, Bahia; Louzi, Lhoussaine

    2017-01-01

    Acute septic arthritis is rare. It is associated with poor prognosis in terms of mortality and morbidity. We report the case of a 61-year old patient with spontaneous Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis. He suffered from complicated diabetes associated with positive blood cultures and synovial fluid cultures. Patient's evolution was favorable thanks to early diagnosis and initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy. Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis is rare. On that basis we conducted a literature review of cases of Proteus mirabilis pyogenic arthritis to highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment and evolution of these diseases. Diagnosis is commonly based on microbiological analysis, early articular puncture biopsy is performed before the initiation of antibiotic treatment, direct examination, culture and antibiogram which are useful as guidance for antibiotic therapy. Septic arthritis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency; early management of this disease allows total healing without after-effects.

  11. [Human Herpesvirus-6 Encephalitis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masao

    2015-07-01

    The reactivation of human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) is common after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and it is sporadically associated with the development of HHV-6 encephalitis. HHV-6 encephalitis typically develops around 2-6 weeks after allo-HCT, and it is characterized by short-term memory loss. Magnetic resonance imaging typically shows bilateral signal abnormalities in the limbic system. The incidence of HHV-6 encephalitis is reportedly 0-11.6% after bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and 4.9-21.4% after cord blood transplantation. The mortality of HHV-6 encephalitis is high, and survivors are often left with serious sequelae. Antiviral therapy using foscarnet or ganciclovir is recommended for the treatment of HHV-6 encephalitis, but the efficacy of the currently available treatment is insufficient once HHV-6 encephalitis has developed. The elucidation of the pathogenesis of HHV-6 encephalitis and the establishment of preventative therapy are needed to overcome this disease.

  12. [Viral encephalitis. Experiences with 53 patients in Middle Hessia].

    PubMed

    Büttner, T; Dorndorf, W

    1988-10-01

    Clinical symptoms, course of disease, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cranial CT of 53 patients suffering from acute or subacute encephalitis were evaluated retrospectively. The virus could be identified in 21 (39%) patients. Nine of them had herpes simplex virus-encephalitis. 16 patients, eight with herpes simplex virus-encephalitis, died due to the disease. Complete restitution could be observed in 73% of survivors. Disturbance of consciousness and severe focal neurological deficit worsened prognosis towards letality and functional recovery. Most patients had initially elevated number of cellular elements and/or pathological protein concentration in CSF. CSF protein profile showed disturbance of blood-CSF-barrier function in a great number of patients during the first week of the disease whereas autochthonous production of immunoglobulin G was observed predominantly during the second and third week. Elevated concentration of CSF-lactate was seen in herpes simplex virus-encephalitis and in letal cases. 28 (53%) patients had pathological CT-findings. Generalized brain edema, focal hypodensities, focal and cortical contrast enhancement and hemorrhagic imbibation were observed. With one exception patients with herpes simplex virus-encephalitis had hypodense lesions in the temporal lobe. Besides this CT-findings did not allow conclusions regarding the etiology of encephalitis. Prognosis of encephalitis caused by other than herpes simplex virus was worse in case of pathological CT.

  13. Neuronal Surface Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, Jenny J.; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, many autoimmune encephalitides have been identified, with specific clinical syndromes and associated antibodies against neuronal surface antigens. There is compelling evidence that many of these antibodies are pathogenic and most of these encephalitides are highly responsive to immunotherapies. The clinical spectra of some of these antibody-mediated syndromes, especially those reported in only a few patients, are evolving. Others, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, are well characterized. Diagnosis involves recognizing the specific syndromes and identifying the antibody in a patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum. These syndromes are associated with variable abnormalities in CSF, magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography. Treatment is often multidisciplinary and should be focused upon neutralizing the effects of antibodies and eliminating their source. Overlapping disorders have been noted, with some patients having more than one neurologic autoimmune disease. In other patients, viral infections such as herpes simplex virus encephalitis trigger robust antineuronal autoimmune responses. PMID:25369441

  14. Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ali S; Alam, Maryam; Adetutu, Ebun; Thakur, Richa; Gottlich, Caleb; DeBacker, Danielle L; Marks, Lianne

    2016-07-05

    Hashimoto's encephalitis (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), can be a debilitating manifestation of an autoimmune reaction against the thyroid that is often under-diagnosed primarily due to a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This is a case of a 52-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with HE after presenting with recurrent and severe psychosis in conjunction with paranoia and a thyroidopathy. Her symptoms are chronic, having first been documented as presenting 15 years prior and showing progressive exacerbation in both frequency and severity. The patient's paranoia often manifested as delusions involving family members or close friends and consequently introduced an opportunity for harm to herself and others. She showed great conviction with self-diagnoses that were proven incorrect, resulting in occasional non-compliance. Between episodes, the patient did not show evidence of symptoms. This patient struggled with several incorrect diagnoses and treatments for several years before the correct diagnosis of HE was made and displayed extreme improvement upon corticosteroid administration. This case illustrates the importance of increasing awareness of HE as well as including HE in a differential diagnosis when any patient presents with psychosis and concurrent thyroidopathy. Hashimoto's encephalitis follows putative characteristics of autoimmune diseases, exhibiting a higher incidence in women as compared to men, presenting with increased titers of autoantibodies, and showing dramatic amelioration when treated with corticosteroids.

  15. Autoimmune Schizophrenia? Psychiatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Maryam; Adetutu, Ebun; Thakur, Richa; Gottlich, Caleb; DeBacker, Danielle L; Marks, Lianne

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalitis (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), can be a debilitating manifestation of an autoimmune reaction against the thyroid that is often under-diagnosed primarily due to a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This is a case of a 52-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with HE after presenting with recurrent and severe psychosis in conjunction with paranoia and a thyroidopathy. Her symptoms are chronic, having first been documented as presenting 15 years prior and showing progressive exacerbation in both frequency and severity. The patient’s paranoia often manifested as delusions involving family members or close friends and consequently introduced an opportunity for harm to herself and others. She showed great conviction with self-diagnoses that were proven incorrect, resulting in occasional non-compliance. Between episodes, the patient did not show evidence of symptoms. This patient struggled with several incorrect diagnoses and treatments for several years before the correct diagnosis of HE was made and displayed extreme improvement upon corticosteroid administration. This case illustrates the importance of increasing awareness of HE as well as including HE in a differential diagnosis when any patient presents with psychosis and concurrent thyroidopathy. Hashimoto’s encephalitis follows putative characteristics of autoimmune diseases, exhibiting a higher incidence in women as compared to men, presenting with increased titers of autoantibodies, and showing dramatic amelioration when treated with corticosteroids. PMID:27672526

  16. Balint's syndrome in subacute HIV encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Schnider, A; Landis, T; Regard, M

    1991-01-01

    A 45 year old patient with AIDS is described in whom Balint's syndrome developed over several days without other higher cognitive defects. Radiological findings were typical of subacute HIV encephalitis involving mainly the white matter of the occipital lobes with extension into the parietal and temporal lobe on the left side and into the temporal lobe on the right side. While the patient could usually recognise only one single component within her visual field, her performance in reading much improved if she was allowed to observe the examiner writing. This finding is attributed to well preserved movement perception in our patient, which may have helped her in directing her visual attention. The preservation of movement perception despite damage to the lateral temporo-occipital area may be due to the distinct pathology of subacute HIV encephalitis, which leaves the cortex and adjacent subcortical white matter virtually intact and therefore allows information transfer between primary visual areas in the occipital lobe and movement specific areas in the lateral temporo-occipital area through U-fibres. Images PMID:1955902

  17. Japanese encephalitis: the virus and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development.

  18. Serological Analysis of Tuberculosis in Goats by Use of the Enferplex Caprine TB Multiplex Test.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Amanda; Whelan, Clare; Clarke, John B; Hayton, Alastair; Watt, Neil J; Harkiss, Gordon D

    2017-02-01

    Tuberculosis in goats is usually diagnosed clinically, at postmortem, or by a positive skin test. However, none of these approaches detects all infected animals. Serology offers an additional tool to identify infected animals missed by current tests. We describe the use of the Enferplex Caprine TB serology test to aid the management of a large dairy goat herd undergoing a tuberculosis breakdown. Initial skin and serology testing showed that IgG antibodies were present in both serum and milk from 100% of skin test-positive animals and in serum and milk from 77.8 and 95.4% of skin test-negative animals, respectively. A good correlation was observed between serum and milk antibody levels. The herd had been vaccinated against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, but no direct serological cross-reactions were found. Subsequent skin testing revealed 13.7% positive animals, 64.9% of which were antibody positive, while 42.1% of skin test-negative animals were seropositive. Antibody responses remained high 1 month later (57.1% positive), and the herd was slaughtered. Postmortem analysis of 20 skin test-negative goats revealed visible lesions in 6 animals, all of which had antibodies to six Mycobacterium bovis antigens. The results provide indirect evidence that serology testing with serum or milk could be a useful tool in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in goats. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    PubMed

    Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Amores, J; Prats-van der Ham, M; Sánchez, A; de la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, Á

    2016-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 17 antimicrobials against 41 Spanish caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) obtained from different specimens (milk, external auricular canal and semen) were determined using a liquid microdilution method. For half of the isolates, the MIC was also estimated for seven of the antimicrobials using an epsilometric test (ET), in order to compare both methods and assess the validity of ET. Mutations in genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, which have been recently described in Mmc, were investigated using PCR. The anatomical origin of the isolate had no effect on its antimicrobial susceptibility. Moxifloxacin and doxycycline had the lowest MIC values. The rest of the fluoroquinolones studied (except norfloxacin), together with tylosin and clindamycin, also had low MIC values, although the MMC obtained for clindamycin was higher than for the other antimicrobials. For all the aminoglycosides, spiramycin and erythromycin, a notable level of resistance was observed. The ET was in close agreement with broth microdilution at low MICs, but not at intermediate or high MICs. The analysis of the genomic sequences revealed the presence of an amino acid substitution in codon 83 of the gene gyrA, which has not been described previously in Mmc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paleogenomics in a temperate environment: shotgun sequencing from an extinct Mediterranean caprine.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Oscar; Gigli, Elena; Bover, Pere; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Castresana, Jose; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2009-05-22

    Numerous endemic mammals, including dwarf elephants, goats, hippos and deers, evolved in isolation in the Mediterranean islands during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Most of them subsequently became extinct during the Holocene. Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies could provide a unique tool for retrieving genomic data from these extinct species, making it possible to study their evolutionary history and the genetic bases underlying their particular, sometimes unique, adaptations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: A DNA extraction of a approximately 6,000 year-old bone sample from an extinct caprine (Myotragus balearicus) from the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean, has been subjected to shotgun sequencing with the GS FLX 454 platform. Only 0.27% of the resulting sequences, identified from alignments with the cow genome and comprising 15,832 nucleotides, with an average length of 60 nucleotides, proved to be endogenous. A phylogenetic tree generated with Myotragus sequences and those from other artiodactyls displays an identical topology to that generated from mitochondrial DNA data. Despite being in an unfavourable thermal environment, which explains the low yield of endogenous sequences, our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain genomic data from extinct species from temperate regions.

  1. Development and Characterization of a Caprine Aerosol Infection Model of Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Soffler, Carl; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Aboellail, Tawfik A.; Marolf, Angela J.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, which often presents as a serious suppurative infection that is typically fatal without intensive treatment and is a significant emerging infectious disease in Southeast Asia. Despite intensive research there is still much that remains unknown about melioidosis pathogenesis. New animal models of melioidosis are needed to examine novel aspects of pathogenesis as well as for the evaluation of novel therapeutics. The objective of the work presented here was to develop a subacute to chronic caprine model of melioidosis and to characterize the progression of disease with respect to clinical presentation, hematology, clinical microbiology, thoracic radiography, and gross and microscopic pathology. Disease was produced in all animals following an intratracheal aerosol of 104 CFU delivered, with variable clinical manifestations indicative of subacute and chronic disease. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia was apparent microscopically by day 2 and radiographically and grossly apparent by day 7 post infection (PI). Early lesions of bronchopneumonia soon progressed to more severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia with pyogranuloma formation. Extrapulmonary dissemination appeared to be a function of pyogranuloma invasion of pulmonary vasculature, which peaked around day 7 PI. Histopathology indicated that leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the central step in dissemination of B. pseudomallei from the lungs as well as in the establishment of new lesions. While higher doses of organism in goats can produce acute fatal disease, the dose investigated and resulting disease had many similarities to human melioidosis and may warrant further development to provide a model for the study of both natural and bioterrorism associated disease. PMID:22916225

  2. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-02-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health.

  3. Paleogenomics in a Temperate Environment: Shotgun Sequencing from an Extinct Mediterranean Caprine

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Oscar; Gigli, Elena; Bover, Pere; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Castresana, Jose; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous endemic mammals, including dwarf elephants, goats, hippos and deers, evolved in isolation in the Mediterranean islands during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Most of them subsequently became extinct during the Holocene. Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies could provide a unique tool for retrieving genomic data from these extinct species, making it possible to study their evolutionary history and the genetic bases underlying their particular, sometimes unique, adaptations. Methodology/Principals Findings A DNA extraction of a ∼6,000 year-old bone sample from an extinct caprine (Myotragus balearicus) from the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean, has been subjected to shotgun sequencing with the GS FLX 454 platform. Only 0.27% of the resulting sequences, identified from alignments with the cow genome and comprising 15,832 nucleotides, with an average length of 60 nucleotides, proved to be endogenous. Conclusions A phylogenetic tree generated with Myotragus sequences and those from other artiodactyls displays an identical topology to that generated from mitochondrial DNA data. Despite being in an unfavourable thermal environment, which explains the low yield of endogenous sequences, our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain genomic data from extinct species from temperate regions. PMID:19461892

  4. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  5. Interaction between melatonin and follicle-stimulating hormone promotes in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R M P; Lima, L F; Alves, A M C V; Celestino, J J H; Matos, M H T; Lima-Verde, I B; Bernuci, M P; Lopes, C A P; Báo, S N; Campello, C C; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on the in vitro culture of goat preantral follicles. Ovarian fragments were cultured for 7 d in α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM(+)) containing melatonin (100, 250, 500, or 1,000 pM), FSH (50 ng/mL), or a combination of the 2 hormones and further analyzed by histology and transmission electron and fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that after 7 d of culture, tissues cultured in α-MEM(+) alone or supplemented with FSH alone, melatonin (500 and 1,000 pM), or the combination of FSH and melatonin (1,000 pM) maintained percentages of normal preantral follicles similar to the fresh control. In contrast to the noncultured tissues, the percentage of developing follicles was increased under all culture conditions after 7 d (P < 0.05). The addition of 1,000 pM melatonin associated with FSH to the culture medium increased follicular and oocyte diameters compared with α-MEM(+) alone after 7 d of culture (P < 0.05). Ultrastructural and fluorescent analyses confirmed the integrity of follicles cultured with 1,000 pM of melatonin plus FSH for 7 d. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the interaction between melatonin and FSH maintains ultrastructural integrity and stimulates further growth of cultured caprine preantral follicles.

  6. Complementary tools for the control and eradication of caprine and ovine brucellosis in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Crespo León, F; Sáez Llorente, J L; Reviriego Gordejo, F J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Durán Ferrer, M

    2012-12-01

    Caprine and ovine brucellosis is one of the most serious and complex animal health problems faced by Veterinary Services in countries where the disease is endemic. Various geographical factors and the nature of the disease itself influence its epidemiology, encouraging widespread distribution and, at the same time, impeding the ability of animal health programmes to prevent, control and eradicate it. Although strategies against brucellosis have traditionally been based on two specific tools (namely, vaccination of the at-risk population and testing and slaughter of animals which are suspected of or test positive for the disease), other complementary tools of a technical or administrative nature should also be considered. Experience in the European Union has shown that these tools are necessary to guarantee sustainable progress and success against this disease. However, these complementary tools have not always received sufficient attention during the strategic planning and subsequent implementation of animal health programmes, with consequent reductions in efficiency. The aim of this article is to review these complementary tools, in order to facilitate their adoption and use by official Veterinary Services, according to the resources available.

  7. In vitro antiviral activity of Ficus carica latex against caprine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Lovero, Angela; Elia, Gabriella; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to possess antiviral properties against some human viruses. To determine the ability of F. carica latex (F-latex) to interfere with the infection of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) in vitro, F-latex was resuspended in culture media containing 1% ethanol and was tested for potential antiviral effects against CpHV-1. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The study suggests that the F-latex is able to interfere with the replication of CpHV-1 in vitro on MDBK cells and future studies will determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed antiviral activity.

  8. Serological Analysis of Tuberculosis in Goats by Use of the Enferplex Caprine TB Multiplex Test

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Amanda; Whelan, Clare; Clarke, John B.; Hayton, Alastair; Watt, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis in goats is usually diagnosed clinically, at postmortem, or by a positive skin test. However, none of these approaches detects all infected animals. Serology offers an additional tool to identify infected animals missed by current tests. We describe the use of the Enferplex Caprine TB serology test to aid the management of a large dairy goat herd undergoing a tuberculosis breakdown. Initial skin and serology testing showed that IgG antibodies were present in both serum and milk from 100% of skin test-positive animals and in serum and milk from 77.8 and 95.4% of skin test-negative animals, respectively. A good correlation was observed between serum and milk antibody levels. The herd had been vaccinated against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, but no direct serological cross-reactions were found. Subsequent skin testing revealed 13.7% positive animals, 64.9% of which were antibody positive, while 42.1% of skin test-negative animals were seropositive. Antibody responses remained high 1 month later (57.1% positive), and the herd was slaughtered. Postmortem analysis of 20 skin test-negative goats revealed visible lesions in 6 animals, all of which had antibodies to six Mycobacterium bovis antigens. The results provide indirect evidence that serology testing with serum or milk could be a useful tool in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in goats. PMID:27974399

  9. Isolation of caprine herpesvirus 1 from a major outbreak of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in goats.

    PubMed

    Piper, K L; Fitzgerald, C J; Ficorilli, N; Studdert, M J

    2008-04-01

    We describe an outbreak of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis caused by Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV1) in a group of approximately 200, 8 month old virgin does that were imported to Victoria from New Zealand. CpHV1 was isolated in cell cultures from vaginal swabs from three of three affected does but not from two bucks that had been with the does. The identity of the virus as a herpesvirus was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. Restriction endonuclease DNA fingerprint analysis showed that the DNA fingerprints were similar, but not identical, to previously described CpHV1 isolates made in New Zealand, New South Wales, and in other parts of the world. Acute and convalescent phase sera from selected does supported the diagnosis of CpHV1 infection. It is most likely that the disease was initiated by reactivation of latent virus in at least one of four bucks that served the does, since each was positive for CpHV neutralising antibody when first tested. This is the first report of CpHV infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in goats in Victoria and to our knowledge appears to be one of the largest outbreaks recorded anywhere.

  10. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreak in captive wild ungulates at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Arif, Abdi; Schulz, Julia; Thiaucourt, François; Taha, Abid; Hammer, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica), and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings and was confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species, especially in the Middle East, where it is enzootic because of its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping.

  11. Prenatal caprine milk oligosaccharide consumption affects the development of mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, Warren C.; Young, Wayne; Cookson, Adrian L.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    1 Scope The composition of the gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota, particularly in early life, influences the development of metabolic diseases later in life. The maternal microbiota is the main source of bacteria colonising the infant GIT and can be modified by dietary prebiotics. Our objective was to determine the effects of prenatal consumption of prebiotic caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) on the large intestine of female mice, milk composition, and offspring's development. 2 Methods and results C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet, CMO diet, or galacto‐oligosaccharide diet from mating to weaning. From weaning, some pups nursed by CMO, GOS, and control‐dams were fed the control diet for 30 days. CMO or GOS‐fed dams had increased colon length and milk protein concentration compared to control‐fed dams. At weaning, pups from CMO‐fed dams had increased body weight and colon length and increased proportions of colonic Bifidobacterium spp compared to the pups from control‐fed dams. Thirty days after weaning, pups from CMO‐fed dams had increased visceral fat weight compared to pups from control‐fed dams. 3 Conclusion Consumption of CMO by the dams during gestation and lactation improved the development of the pups, and the relative abundance of bifidobacteria and butyric acid in the colon, at weaning. PMID:27067267

  12. Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic profiles among caprine and ovine Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae strains.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Z; De la Fe, C; Amores, J; Gómez-Martín, Á; Rifatbegović, M

    2017-02-18

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (Movp) is considered to be one of the most important mycoplasmas causing respiratory disease in small ruminants. Most epidemiologic and characterisation studies have been conducted on strains collected from sheep. Information on the presence and characteristics of Movp in healthy and pneumonic goats is limited. Phenotypic or genotypic differences between sheep and goat isolates have never been studied. The objective of our study was to characterise and compare the similarities and differences between caprine and ovine Movp strains isolated from affected and asymptomatic animals in order to elucidate phenotypic and genotypic variability. Four different techniques were used on a set of 23 Movp isolates. These included SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, random amplified polymorphic DNA and the heat shock protein 70 gene sequence-based method. A high degree of phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Movp strains was demonstrated in this study. Our results demonstrated differences between goat and sheep strains, revealing not only a link between strains and host ruminant species, but by geographical origin as well. However, the finding of immunodominant antigens of molecular masses 36, 38, 40 and 70 kDa (±3 kDa) in Movp isolates from sheep and goats foretells their potential use in the development of serological diagnostic tests and vaccines.

  13. Effect of frozen storage on the proteolytic and rheological properties of soft caprine milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Park, Y W

    2005-06-01

    Freezing and long-term frozen storage had minimal impact on the rheology and proteolysis of soft cheese made from caprine milk. Plain soft cheeses were obtained from a grade A goat dairy in Georgia and received 4 storage treatments: fresh refrigerated control (C), aged at 4 degrees C for 28 d; frozen control (FC), stored at -20 degrees C for 2 d before being thawed and aged in the same way as C cheese; and 3-mo frozen (3MF), or 6-mo frozen (6MF), stored at -20 degrees C for 3 or 6 mo before being thawed and aged. Soft cheeses had fragile textures that showed minimal change after freezing or over 28 d of aging at 4 degrees C. The only exceptions were the FC cheeses, which, after frozen storage and aging for 1 d at 4 degrees C, were significantly softer than the other cheeses, and less chewy than the other frozen cheeses. Moreover, after 28 d of aging at 4 degrees C, the FC cheeses tended to have the lowest viscoelastic values. Slight variation was noted in protein distribution among the storage treatment, although no significant proteolysis occurred during refrigerated aging. The creation and removal of ice crystals in the cheese matrix and the limited proteolysis of the caseins showed only slight impact on cheese texture, suggesting that frozen storage of soft cheeses may be possible for year-round supply with minimal loss of textural quality.

  14. Electroencephalography for diagnosis and prognosis of acute encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Raoul; Kaplan, Peter W; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Thakur, Kiran T; Asemota, Anthony O; Venkatesan, Arun; Geocadin, Romergryko G

    2015-08-01

    To confirm the previously identified EEG characteristics for HSV encephalitis and to determine the diagnostic and predictive value of electroencephalography (EEG) features for etiology and outcome of acute encephalitis in adults. In addition, we sought to investigate their independence from possible clinical confounders. This study was performed in the Intensive Care Units of two academic tertiary care centers. From 1997 to 2011, all consecutive patients with acute encephalitis who received one or more EEGs were included. Examination of the diagnostic and predictive value of EEG patterns regarding etiology, clinical conditions, and survival was performed. The main outcome measure was in-hospital death. Of 103 patients with encephalitis, EEGs were performed in 76 within a median of 1 day (inter quartile range 0.5-3) after admission. Mortality was 19.7%. Higher proportions of periodic discharges (PDs) (p=0.029) and focal slowing (p=0.017) were detected in Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis as compared to non-HSV encephalitis, while clinical characteristics did not differ. Normal EEG remained the strongest association with a low relative risk for death in multivariable analyses (RR<0.001, p<0.001) adjusting for confounders as coma, global cerebral edema and mechanical ventilation. None of the patients with a normal EEG had a GCS of 15. Normal EEG predicted survival independently from possible confounders, highlighting the prognostic value of EEG in evaluating patients with encephalitis. EEG revealed higher proportions of PDs along with focal slowing in HSV encephalitis as compared to other etiologies. EEG significantly adds to clinical, diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with acute encephalitis. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Overlapping demyelinating syndromes and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Titulaer, Maarten J.; Höftberger, Romana; Iizuka, Takahiro; Leypoldt, Frank; McCracken, Lindsey; Cellucci, Tania; Benson, Leslie A.; Shu, Huidy; Irioka, Takashi; Hirano, Makito; Singh, Gagandeep; Calvo, Alvaro Cobo; Kaida, Kenichi; Morales, Pamela S.; Wirtz, Paul W.; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Reindl, Markus; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Graus, Francesc; Saiz, Albert; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical, radiological, and immunological association of demyelinating disorders with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods Clinical and radiological analysis of a cohort of 691 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Determination of antibodies to NMDAR, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) was performed using brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays. Results Twenty-three of 691 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis had prominent MRI and/or clinical features of demyelination. Group 1 included 12 patients in whom anti-NMDAR encephalitis was preceded or followed by independent episodes of NMO-spectrum disorder (5 cases, 4 anti-AQP4-positive), or brainstem or multifocal demyelinating syndromes (7 cases, all anti-MOG-positive). Group 2 included 11 patients in whom anti-NMDAR encephalitis occurred simultaneously with MRI and symptoms compatible with demyelination (5 AQ4-positive, 2 MOG-positive). Group 3 (136 controls) included 50 randomly selected patients with typical anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 56 with NMO, and 30 with multiple sclerosis: NMDAR-antibodies were detected only in the 50 anti-NMDAR patients, MOG-antibodies in 3/50 anti-NMDAR and 1/56 NMO patients, and AQP4-antibodies in 48/56 NMO and 1/50 anti-NMDAR patients (p<0.0001 for all comparisons with Groups 1 and 2). Most patients improved with immunotherapy, but compared with anti-NMDAR encephalitis the demyelinating episodes required more intensive therapy and resulted in more residual deficits. Only 1/23 NMDAR patients with signs of demyelination had ovarian teratoma compared with 18/50 anti-NMDAR controls (p=0.011) Interpretation Patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis may develop concurrent or separate episodes of demyelinating disorders, and conversely patients with NMO or demyelinating disorders with atypical symptoms (e.g., dyskinesias, psychosis) may have anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:24700511

  16. Global emergence of Alphaviruses that cause arthritis in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Obanda, Vincent; Bucht, Göran; Mosomtai, Gladys; Otieno, Viola; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may cause severe emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to human and animal health in the world today. These infectious diseases range from mild febrile illnesses, arthritis, and encephalitis to haemorrhagic fevers. It is postulated that certain environmental factors, vector competence, and host susceptibility have a major impact on the ecology of arboviral diseases. Presently, there is a great interest in the emergence of Alphaviruses because these viruses, including Chikungunya virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, Sindbis virus, Ross River virus, and Mayaro virus, have caused outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and America. Some of these viruses are more common in the tropics, whereas others are also found in temperate regions, but the actual factors driving Alphavirus emergence and re-emergence remain unresolved. Furthermore, little is known about the transmission dynamics, pathophysiology, genetic diversity, and evolution of circulating viral strains. In addition, the clinical presentation of Alphaviruses may be similar to other diseases such as dengue, malaria, and typhoid, hence leading to misdiagnosis. However, the typical presence of arthritis may distinguish between Alphaviruses and other differential diagnoses. The absence of validated diagnostic kits for Alphaviruses makes even routine surveillance less feasible. For that purpose, this review describes the occurrence, genetic diversity, clinical characteristics, and the mechanisms involving Alphaviruses causing arthritis in humans. This information may serve as a basis for better awareness and detection of Alphavirus-caused diseases during outbreaks and in establishing appropriate prevention and control measures. PMID:26689654

  17. Global emergence of Alphaviruses that cause arthritis in humans.

    PubMed

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Obanda, Vincent; Bucht, Göran; Mosomtai, Gladys; Otieno, Viola; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may cause severe emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to human and animal health in the world today. These infectious diseases range from mild febrile illnesses, arthritis, and encephalitis to haemorrhagic fevers. It is postulated that certain environmental factors, vector competence, and host susceptibility have a major impact on the ecology of arboviral diseases. Presently, there is a great interest in the emergence of Alphaviruses because these viruses, including Chikungunya virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, Sindbis virus, Ross River virus, and Mayaro virus, have caused outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and America. Some of these viruses are more common in the tropics, whereas others are also found in temperate regions, but the actual factors driving Alphavirus emergence and re-emergence remain unresolved. Furthermore, little is known about the transmission dynamics, pathophysiology, genetic diversity, and evolution of circulating viral strains. In addition, the clinical presentation of Alphaviruses may be similar to other diseases such as dengue, malaria, and typhoid, hence leading to misdiagnosis. However, the typical presence of arthritis may distinguish between Alphaviruses and other differential diagnoses. The absence of validated diagnostic kits for Alphaviruses makes even routine surveillance less feasible. For that purpose, this review describes the occurrence, genetic diversity, clinical characteristics, and the mechanisms involving Alphaviruses causing arthritis in humans. This information may serve as a basis for better awareness and detection of Alphavirus-caused diseases during outbreaks and in establishing appropriate prevention and control measures.

  18. Toxoplasmic Encephalitis with Untreated Hairy Cell Leukemia Variant

    PubMed Central

    Ikebe, Taichi; Sasaki, Hitohiro; Takata, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yasuhiko; Ohtsuka, Eiichi; Saburi, Yoshio; Ogata, Masao; Shirao, Kuniaki

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a rare infectious complication in patients with hematological malignancy except for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We herein report a case of possible toxoplasmic encephalitis with untreated hairy cell leukemia variant. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple nodules with surrounding edema in the entire cerebrum. A polymerase chain reaction analysis for Toxoplasma gondii was negative. Her signs and symptoms fully recovered by empirical therapy with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Toxoplasmic encephalitis may occur in patients who undergo non-allogeneic HSCT for hematological malignancies, even in those who have not been treated. PMID:27803415

  19. Toxoplasmic Encephalitis with Untreated Hairy Cell Leukemia Variant.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, Taichi; Sasaki, Hitohiro; Takata, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yasuhiko; Ohtsuka, Eiichi; Saburi, Yoshio; Ogata, Masao; Shirao, Kuniaki

    Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a rare infectious complication in patients with hematological malignancy except for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We herein report a case of possible toxoplasmic encephalitis with untreated hairy cell leukemia variant. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple nodules with surrounding edema in the entire cerebrum. A polymerase chain reaction analysis for Toxoplasma gondii was negative. Her signs and symptoms fully recovered by empirical therapy with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Toxoplasmic encephalitis may occur in patients who undergo non-allogeneic HSCT for hematological malignancies, even in those who have not been treated.

  20. The Involvement of Microglial Cells in Japanese Encephalitis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thongtan, Thananya; Thepparit, Chutima; Smith, Duncan R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective vaccines, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infections remain a leading cause of encephalitis in many Asian countries. The virus is transmitted to humans by Culex mosquitoes, and, while the majority of human infections are asymptomatic, up to 30% of JE cases admitted to hospital die and 50% of the survivors suffer from neurological sequelae. Microglia are brain-resident macrophages that play key roles in both the innate and adaptive immune responses in the CNS and are thus of importance in determining the pathology of encephalitis as a result of JEV infection. PMID:22919405

  1. Behaviour disturbances during recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, R; Bhalla, A; Gordon, A; Roberts, J

    1983-01-01

    Bizarre behaviour disturbances in four patients occurring during incomplete recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Some aspects of their behaviour were similar to that originally described by Klüver and Bucy in monkeys following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Previous reports of behavioural disturbances in man after herpes simplex encephalitis are reviewed and attention drawn to the aggressive and disruptive behaviour that is often seen. With the reduced mortality in herpes simplex encephalitis in recent years it is possible that behaviour disturbances such as those described here will be seen more frequently. Images PMID:6619889

  2. Septic arthritis after ureteroneocystostomy.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R

    1979-04-01

    Acute infectious arthritis is an uncommon disease that is most commonly caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or gram-positive cocci. Gram-negative bacteria are an infrequent and highly virulent cause of septic arthritis and most commonly enter the circulation through the urinary tract, as in this case after ureteroneocystostomy. The resulting arthritis carries a mortality of 25% and a morbidity of 80%. Early recognition and treatment with appropriate antibiotics and mechanical drainage is imperative. Needle drainage of the affected joint has been shown superior to open surgical drainage.

  3. Psoriasis and arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cats, A

    1990-10-01

    The exact association between psoriasis and arthritis remains an enigma. Some investigators consider that the two disorders constitute a disease entity, psoriatic arthritis, while others support the thesis that psoriasis and arthritis are common diseases and occur simultaneously by chance. The author upholds the latter view as viable. To underscore his viewpoint he presents a comprehensive overview of the controversial opinions through an historical perspective as well as reporting on his epidemiologic and clinical findings from large population studies in the Netherlands. Therapeutic regimens for the management of both skin and joint problems are presented.

  4. Anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Severe, Potentially Reversible Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cai-yun; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ma, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is potentially lethal, but it is also a treatable autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. It is often accompanied with teratoma or other neoplasm, especially in female patients. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are characteristic features of the disease, thereby suggesting a pathogenic role in the disease. Here, we summarize recent studies that have clearly documented that both clinical manifestations and the antibodies may contribute to early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care. The clinical course of the disorder is reversible and the relapse could occur in some patients. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis coexisting with demyelinating disorders makes the diagnosis more complex; thus, clinicians should be aware of the overlapping diseases. PMID:28698711

  5. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of viral encephalitis and bioterrorism-related viral encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

    2004-12-15

    Most of the viruses involved in causing encephalitis are arthropod-borne viruses, with the exception of arenaviruses that are rodent-borne. Even if little information is available, there are indications that, most of these encephalitis-associated viruses could be used by aerosolisation during a bioterrorist attack. Viral transfer from blood to the CNS through the olfactory tract has been suggested. Another possible route of contamination is by vector-borne transmission such as infected mosquitoes or ticks. Alphaviruses are the most likely candidates for weaponisation. The clinical course of the diseases caused by these viruses is usually not specific, but differentiation is possible by using an adequate diagnostic tool. There is no effective drug therapy for the treatment of these diseases and treatment is mainly supportive, but vaccines protecting against some of these viruses do exist.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes encephalitis mimicking Herpes Simplex virus encephalitis: the differential diagnostic importance of cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Fatehpuria, Ritu; Eisenstein, Lawrence E

    2007-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a common cause of bacterial meningitis in elderly patients and in those with impaired cellular immunity. The most common central nervous system infection caused by L. monocytogenes is acute bacterial meningitis; meningoencephalitis is uncommon and encephalitis is rare. Early diagnosis of L. monocytogenes meningitis is difficult because only 50% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stains are negative. L. monocytogenes is one of the few central nervous system pathogens associated with red blood cells in the CSF. When L. monocytogenes presents as encephalitis with red blood cells in the CSF, the clinical presentation mimics most closely herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 encephalitis. Because the therapies for L. monocytogenes and HSV-1 are different, early diagnostic differentiation is clinically important. The CSF lactic acid is the best way to rapidly differentiate between these two entities; the CSF lactic acid level is elevated in L. monocytogenes but is not elevated in HSV-1 encephalitis. The case presented is an elderly man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with encephalitis. Advanced age and chronic lymphocytic leukemia predispose him to a wide variety of pathogens, but the rapidity and severity of his clinical presentation made L. monocytogenes and HSV-1 encephalitis the most likely diagnostic possibilities. The CSF Gram stain was negative, but the elevated CSF lactic acid levels with encephalitis and red blood cells in the CSF indicated L. monocytogenes as the most likely pathogen. We present a case of L. monocytogenes encephalitis mimicking HSV-1 encephalitis. While receiving ampicillin therapy, the patient remained unresponsive for more than 1 week and then suddenly regained consciousness and recovered without neurologic sequelae.

  7. Severe Encephalitis in Cynomolgus Macaques Exposed to Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    the illness. The onset of illness was dose dependent, but once a febrile response was observed, macaques were moribund within 36 h. Simultaneously, a...high mortality caused by a group of arboviruses found in the eastern half of North America and por- tions of Central and South America [1]. EEE viruses...encepha- litis (VEE) and western equine encephalitis (WEE) viruses, EEE viruses are mosquito transmitted and circulate through a natural reservoir

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient evaluation of herpes simplex encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sawlani, Vijay

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate (a) the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in differentiating necrotising herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and non-necrotising Japanese encephalitis (JE) and (b) to correlate the ADC values with the duration of illness. Forty-five confirmed cases of encephalitis (38 patients with JE and 7 patients with HSE) underwent MR imaging. IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM MAC-ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were performed in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) sample to confirm the diagnosis of JE and HSE respectively. MRI findings were recorded in terms of site of involvement, extent of lesions, visibility of each lesion on T2W, DWI and FLAIR sequences and ADC calculations. To observe the changes in ADC with duration of illness, patients with JE and HSE were regrouped on the basis of time since clinical presentation. Mean of the ADC value in each patient was noted and subjected for statistical analysis. In HSE lesions there was a significant restricted diffusion with low average ADC values observed in acute stage and facilitated diffusion with high average ADC values observed in chronic stage. Whereas JE lesions did not show restricted diffusion and significant low ADC values in acute stage, though facilitated diffusion and high ADC values were observed in chronic stage. The diffusion abnormality and conspicuity of lesions on DWI may be different in various acute encephalitis (HSE and JE). The ADC values are different in the acute stages of HSE and JE reflecting the difference in the degree of diffusability of water molecule. These observations may suggest that there may be an abundance of cytotoxic oedema in HSE and paucity of cytotoxic oedema in JE, in acute stage.

  9. Replicon particles of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus as a reductionist murine model for encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Alexandra; Whitmore, Alan C; Konopka, Jennifer L; Johnston, Robert E

    2009-05-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) were used to model the initial phase of VEE-induced encephalitis in the mouse brain. VRP can target and infect cells as VEE, but VRP do not propagate beyond the first infected cell due to the absence of the structural genes. Direct intracranial inoculation of VRP into mice induced acute encephalitis with signs similar to the neuronal phase of wild-type VEE infection and other models of virus-induced encephalitis. Using the previously established VRP-mRNP tagging system, a new method to distinguish the host responses in infected cells from those in uninfected bystander cell populations, we detected a robust and rapid innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) by infected neurons and uninfected bystander cells. Moreover, this innate immune response in the CNS compromised blood-brain barrier integrity, created an inflammatory response, and directed an adaptive immune response characterized by proliferation and activation of microglia cells and infiltration of inflammatory monocytes, in addition to CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that a naïve CNS has an intrinsic potential to induce an innate immune response that could be crucial to the outcome of the infection by determining the composition and dynamics of the adaptive immune response. Furthermore, these results establish a model for neurotropic virus infection to identify host and viral factors that contribute to invasion of the brain, the mechanism(s) whereby the adaptive immune response can clear the infection, and the role of the host innate response in these processes.

  10. Differential splicing of pre-messenger RNA produces multiple forms of mature caprine alpha(s1)-casein.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, P; Addeo, F; Malorni, A; Chianese, L; Leroux, C; Martin, P

    1997-10-01

    The identity of multiple forms of caprine alpha(s1)-casein in variants A, B, and C has been determined by structural characterisation using mass spectrometry, automated Edman degradation and peptide mapping. Mature goat alpha(s1)-casein exists as a mixture of at least four molecular species which differ in peptide chain length. The main component corresponds to the 199-residues form already described. The other three, in lesser amounts, were shorter forms of alpha(s1)-casein and differed for the deleted peptides 141-148, as shown previously for ovine alpha(s1)-casein, peptide 110-117, or Gln78. Analysis of alpha(s1)-casein mRNA from milk somatic cells demonstrated that these forms originated from skipping events at the level of exon 13 (codifying for peptide 110-117) and 16 (codifying for peptide 141-148) and from the presence of a cryptic splice site within exon 11 (whose first CAG triplet encodes Gln78) during primary transcript processing. The finding of these splicing abnormalities in the three common variants A, B, and C suggests that this is a general feature of alpha(s1)-casein in goat. A further source of heterogeneity of caprine alpha(s1)-casein was identified in the discrete phosphorylation of seryl residues. Eight serine residues (at positions 44, 46, 64 to 68 and 75) are fully phosphorylated (except in variant A because of the replacement Glu77-->Gln which prevents phosphorylation of Ser75). Conversely, Ser115 and Ser41 are phosphorylated only to about 50% and 20%, respectively. Ser12, although located in a consensus triplet, is never phosphorylated, similarly to the ovine alpha(s1)-casein variants. These results confirm that there are stabilised mechanisms of simultaneous synthesis of alpha(s1)-casein at different length and of post-translational modification in both caprine and ovine species.

  11. In vitro production of a caprine embryo from a preantral follicle cultured in media supplemented with growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, D M; Duarte, A B G; Araújo, V R; Brito, I R; Soares, T G; Lima, I M T; Lopes, C A P; Campello, C C; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of growth hormone (GH) on the survival, growth, maturation, and fertilization of oocytes derived from caprine preantral ovarian follicles cultured in vitro. Preantral follicles were isolated from the cortex of caprine ovaries and individually cultured for 18 d in the absence (control) or presence of bovine GH at concentrations of 10 or 50 ng/mL (GH10 and GH50, respectively). Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of survival, antral cavity formation, diameter increase, and the presence of healthy cumulus-oocyte complexes and mature oocytes. After culture, oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). The rate of antrum formation after Day 6 of culture was higher in both GH10 and GH50 than in the control (81.0, 92.7, and 47.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Percentages of grown oocytes that were acceptable for IVM were also higher (P < 0.05) in GH-treated groups than in the control (54.8, 48.8, and 11.9% for GH10, GH50, and Control). A higher percentage of oocytes in the GH50 treatment underwent meiotic resumption (50.0%), produced mature oocytes, and enabled production of an embryo after IVF than in the control group (0.0%; P < 0.05). In conclusion, GH promoted in vitro growth and maturation of goat preantral follicle oocytes and enabled production of an embryo. Furthermore, this study was apparently the first to produce a caprine embryo by in vitro fertilization of oocytes derived from preantral follicles grown in vitro.

  12. Noncytopathic Replication of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicons in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Petrakova, Olga; Volkova, Eugenia; Gorchakov, Rodion; Paessler, Slobodan; Kinney, Richard M.; Frolov, Ilya

    2005-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses are important, naturally emerging zoonotic viruses. They are significant human and equine pathogens which still pose a serious public health threat. Both VEE and EEE cause chronic infection in mosquitoes and persistent or chronic infection in mosquito-derived cell lines. In contrast, vertebrate hosts infected with either virus develop an acute infection with high-titer viremia and encephalitis, followed by host death or virus clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, EEE and VEE infection in vertebrate cell lines is highly cytopathic. To further understand the pathogenesis of alphaviruses on molecular and cellular levels, we designed EEE- and VEE-based replicons and investigated their replication and their ability to generate cytopathic effect (CPE) and to interfere with other viral infections. VEE and EEE replicons appeared to be less cytopathic than Sindbis virus-based constructs that we designed in our previous research and readily established persistent replication in BHK-21 cells. VEE replicons required additional mutations in the 5′ untranslated region and nsP2 or nsP3 genes to further reduce cytopathicity and to become capable of persisting in cells with no defects in alpha/beta interferon production or signaling. The results indicated that alphaviruses strongly differ in virus-host cell interactions, and the ability to cause CPE in tissue culture does not necessarily correlate with pathogenesis and strongly depends on the sequence of viral nonstructural proteins. PMID:15919912

  13. Noncytopathic replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus replicons in Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Petrakova, Olga; Volkova, Eugenia; Gorchakov, Rodion; Paessler, Slobodan; Kinney, Richard M; Frolov, Ilya

    2005-06-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses are important, naturally emerging zoonotic viruses. They are significant human and equine pathogens which still pose a serious public health threat. Both VEE and EEE cause chronic infection in mosquitoes and persistent or chronic infection in mosquito-derived cell lines. In contrast, vertebrate hosts infected with either virus develop an acute infection with high-titer viremia and encephalitis, followed by host death or virus clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, EEE and VEE infection in vertebrate cell lines is highly cytopathic. To further understand the pathogenesis of alphaviruses on molecular and cellular levels, we designed EEE- and VEE-based replicons and investigated their replication and their ability to generate cytopathic effect (CPE) and to interfere with other viral infections. VEE and EEE replicons appeared to be less cytopathic than Sindbis virus-based constructs that we designed in our previous research and readily established persistent replication in BHK-21 cells. VEE replicons required additional mutations in the 5' untranslated region and nsP2 or nsP3 genes to further reduce cytopathicity and to become capable of persisting in cells with no defects in alpha/beta interferon production or signaling. The results indicated that alphaviruses strongly differ in virus-host cell interactions, and the ability to cause CPE in tissue culture does not necessarily correlate with pathogenesis and strongly depends on the sequence of viral nonstructural proteins.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Identifies Multiple Genomic Regions Associated with Susceptibility to and Control of Ovine Lentivirus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-17

    2010) Small ruminant lentiviruses and human immunodeficiency virus: cousins that take a long view. Curr HIV Res 8: 26–52. 3. Cutlip RC, Lehmkuhl HD...1543. 8. Blacklaws BA (2012) Small ruminant lentiviruses: immunopathogenesis of visna- maedi and caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus. Comp...Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 35: 259–269. 9. Reina R, Berriatua E, Lujan L, Juste R, Sanchez A, et al. (2009) Prevention strategies against small ruminant

  15. Arthritis and the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... beans that may play a role. Psoriatic arthritis: Psoriasis is often thought of as a skin disorder, ... affect the joints as well. On the skin, psoriasis appears as dry, scaly patches. Not all people ...

  16. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vein that are done regularly at the hospital. Physical Therapy An appropriate physical therapy program is essential to the management of any type of arthritis. A physical therapist will explain the importance of certain activities ...

  17. Arthritis in hip (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cartilage normally protects the joint, allowing for smooth movement. Cartilage also absorbs shock when pressure is placed on ... like when walking. Arthritis involves the breakdown of cartilage. Without the usual amount of cartilage, the bones ...

  18. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  19. [Two pediatric cases of anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Ben Azoun, M; Tatencloux, S; Deiva, K; Blanc, P

    2014-11-01

    Although less frequent than viral encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a frequent form of acute pediatric encephalitis. After a prodromal phase of flu-like symptoms, psychiatric symptoms predominate - agitation, anxiety, hallucinations - and can make correct diagnosis more difficult. Also noted are abnormal dyskinesia and dystonia-like movements, partial seizures, difficulties talking or memorizing, and autonomic manifestations. The presentation of two cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis illustrates the symptoms of this disease. Although the CSF abnormalities are not highly specific of this disease, and MRI most often normal, EEG shows more specific signs. These observations enable us to discuss different treatment options and understand the progression of this disease.

  20. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious infection caused by the Japanese ... long periods of time. • Most people infected with JE virus don’t have any symptoms. Others might ...

  1. Rehabilitation in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lubrano, Ennio; Spadaro, Antonio; Parsons, Wendy J; Atteno, Mariangela; Ferrara, Nicola

    2009-08-01

    This article summarizes the state of the art of rehabilitation in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Very little evidence was available to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation. Some data were borrowed from studies on ankylosing spondylitis. Covering certain aspects of the disease by the standard measure of functioning was difficult. However, rehabilitation was considered by the GRAPPA Group (Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis), as part of treatment of axial PsA.

  2. Osteoporosis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Del Puente, Antonio; Esposito, Antonella; Parisi, Anna; Atteno, Mariangela; Montalbano, Simona; Vitiello, Maria; Esposito, Carmela; Bertolini, Nicoletta; Foglia, Francesca; Costa, Luisa; Scarpa, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. The prevalence of OP in the general population is very high as established in several studies, and OP represents one of the possible aspects of bone involvement in arthritis. In psoriatic arthritis this involvement is particularly complex because it affects not only mechanisms of bone loss but also of bone formation. We will discuss these aspects and the available epidemiological data.

  3. [Arthritis and infections].

    PubMed

    Cimaz, R; Meregalli, E; Biggioggero, M; Casadei, A; Careddu, P

    2005-08-01

    Arthritis caused by infectious agents can be secondary to direct invasion of the joint space or to immune mechanisms (subsequent to or concomitant to an infection). Septic arthritis refers to a situation when bacteria can be cultured in synovial fluid. Arthritis can complicate for example meningococcemia or infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Haemophilus influenzae. Reactive (postinfectious) arthritides are an important diagnostic category within a pediatric rheumatology practice. Yersinia and, less frequently, Salmonella, play an important role in postdiarrheal disorders. The arthritis that can ensue is usually oligoarticular and occurs 1-2 weeks after the enteric infection. Reiter's syndrome, rare in the pediatric age, is characterized by the triad urethritis-conjunctivitis-arthritis. Postviral arthritides can occur after a variety of viral infections, including Parvovirus B19, rubella, and others (e.g. hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus, chickenpox, mumps). Especially in patients with acute arthritis, the presence of preceding infections should always be investigated. Although the majority of postinfectious arthritides are self-limiting in nature and do not require specific treatment, conditions such as Lyme borreliosis and rheumatic fever can be associated with significant morbidity, and sometimes can be even lethal.

  4. A biometeorological model of an encephalitis vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple linear regression techniques and seven years of data were used to build a biometeorological model of Winnipeg's mean daily levels of Culex tarsalis Coquillett. An eighth year of data was used to test the model. Hydrologic accounting of precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff provided estimates of wetness while the warmness of the season was gauged in terms of the average temperature difference from normal and a threshold antecedent temperature regime. These factors were found to be highly correlated with the time-series of Cx. tarsalis counts. The impact of mosquito adulticiding measures was included in the model via a control effectiveness parameter. An activity-level adjustment, based on mean daily temperatures, was also made to the counts. This model can, by monitoring the weather, provide forecasts of Cx. tarsalis populations for Winnipeg with a lead-time of three weeks, thereby, contributing to an early warning of an impending Western Equine Encephalitis outbreak.

  5. Encephalitis lethargica in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Vilensky, Joel A; Mukhamedzyanov, Ravil Z; Gilman, Sid

    2008-01-01

    Although encephalitis lethargica (EL) appeared in epidemic form in the Soviet Union during the 1920s as it did in most of the world, the Western literature, particularly English, contains little information about the manifestations of the disease there. Here we summarize articles by prominent Russian neurologists who wrote about the disease as they viewed it during the epidemic period. As in the West, Russian clinicians found EL to be remarkably polymorphic, although some signs and symptoms, especially those pertaining to the psychological aspects of the disease, seemed to be more prevalent or were described better and perhaps more frequently by these clinicians. Some Russian clinicians emphasized an increased prevalence of EL among Jews and a relationship with illness and trauma, whereas others found strong evidence for contagion, especially in rural areas. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Selective language aphasia from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ku, A; Lachmann, E A; Nagler, W

    1996-09-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old right-handed Chinese/English bilingual patient who developed herpes simplex encephalitis involving the left temporal lobe, with resultant aphasia. His native language was Mandarin, but he had received extensive training in English for 6 years after moving to the United States and was fluent in English. One week after admission, he could not speak, comprehend, repeat, name, read, or write in English, but he had relative preservation of most of these facilities in Mandarin. He could not write in Mandarin, and his syntax was simplified. Two months later, along with intensive bilingual speech therapy, his reading, writing, and naming in English had almost recovered.

  7. Naming deficit in herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E; Laiacona, M

    1996-04-01

    The preferential involvement of living categories in naming impairment is well recognised in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE). In this paper we describe naming, neuropsychological and neuroradiological findings with seven fresh HSE cases. Patients were given a picture naming task that included 60 items belonging to 6 different categories (three living, i.e. fruits, vegetables and animals and three non-living, i.e. furniture, vehicles and tools). In the statistical analysis several possible sources of bias as the frequency of the target word, the familiarity with the objects to name, the image complexity and other parameters were taken into account. Four out of seven patients were significantly more impaired with living things. We describe their general cognitive profile and discuss the anatomo-functional aspects of category dissociation. Language impairment, disproportionately severe for the naming of living exemplars, is frequently observed in HSE, is clinically relevant and should be specifically investigated.

  8. Degradation of Japanese encephalitis virus by neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    SRIVASTAVA, SONILIKA; KHANNA, NIVEDITA; SAXENA, S K; SINGH, ADITI; MATHUR, ASHA; DHOLE, T N

    1999-01-01

    The ability of neutrophils to degrade the phagocytosed Japanese encephalitis (JE) virion, via triggering of the respiratory burst and generation of toxic radicals has been investigated. JEV or JEV-induced macrophage derived factor (MDF) induces increase in intracellular oxidative signals with generation of superoxide anion (O−2), via activation of cytosolic NADPH and subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide, with maximum activity on day 7 post infection. The response was sensitive to anti-MDF antibody treatment. Further, the study revealed rapid degradation of phagocytosed JE viral protein and nucleic acid. The viral protein degradation was partially dependent on the generation of toxic oxygen species as it could be abrogated by pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine. PMID:10365083

  9. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, José G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

    2004-01-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  10. Fifteen minute consultation: Managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, K; Menson, Esse; Patel, Deepak; Lim, Ming; Lyall, Hermione; Herberg, Jethro

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood. PMID:25112286

  11. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis during treatment with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Crusio, Robbert H J; Singson, Stephanie V; Haroun, Faysal; Mehta, Hetal H; Parenti, David M

    2014-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. They are associated with an increased risk for infections. We report a case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis in a patient receiving etanercept and review the literature on TNF-α and TNF-α inhibitors, and their importance in the pathophysiology of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  12. The role of birds in the epizootiology of eastern encephalitis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1962-01-01

    Eastern encephalitis is a disease of horses, man, birds, and reptiles caused by a virus that in some hosts results in an inflammation of the brain. The causative virus belongs to a group classified as mosquito-borne encephalitides. This disease, more commonly called eastern equine encephalitis in the past, occurs from Wisconsin and Texas to the Atlantic coast and is particularly prevalent on our eastern seaboard.

  13. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in viral encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Solbrig, Marylou V; Fan, Yijun; Hazelton, Paul

    2013-11-06

    Cannabinoids are promising therapies to support neurogenesis and decelerate disease progression in neuroinflammatory and degenerative disorders. Whether neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids are sustainable during persistent viral infection of the CNS is not known. Using a rodent model of chronic viral encephalitis based on Borna Disease (BD) virus, in which 1 week treatment with the general cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 has been shown to be neuroprotective (Solbrig et al., 2010), we examine longer term (2 week treatment) effects of a general (CB1 and CB2) cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1mg/kg ip twice per day) or a specific (CB2) cannabinoid receptor agonist HU-308 (5mg/kg ip once daily) on histopathology, measures of frontostriatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and viral load. We find that WIN and HU-308 differ in their ability to protect new BrdU(+) cells. The selective CB2 agonist HU increases BrdU(+) cells in prefrontal cortex (PFC), significantly increases BrdU(+) cells in striatum, differentially regulates polydendrocytes vs. microglia/macrophages, and reduces immune activation at a time WIN-treated rats appear tolerant to the anti-inflammatory effect of their cannabinoid treatment. WIN and HU had little direct viral effect in PFC and striatum, yet reduced viral signal in hippocampus. Thus, HU-308 action on CB2 receptors, receptors known to be renewed during microglia proliferation and action, is a nontolerizing mechanism of controlling CNS inflammation during viral encephalitis by reducing microglia activation, as well as partially limiting viral infection, and uses a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid agonist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic variation of St. Louis encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    May, Fiona J; Li, Li; Zhang, Shuliu; Guzman, Hilda; Beasley, David W C; Tesh, Robert B; Higgs, Stephen; Raj, Pushker; Bueno, Rudy; Randle, Yvonne; Chandler, Laura; Barrett, Alan D T

    2008-08-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) has been regularly isolated throughout the Americas since 1933. Previous phylogenetic studies involving 62 isolates have defined seven major lineages (I-VII), further divided into 14 clades. In this study, 28 strains isolated in Texas in 1991 and 2001-2003, and three older, previously unsequenced strains from Jamaica and California were sequenced over the envelope protein gene. The inclusion of these new sequences, and others published since 2001, has allowed better delineation of the previously published SLEV lineages, in particular the clades of lineage II. Phylogenetic analysis of 106 isolates identified 13 clades. All 1991 and 2001-2003 isolates from Nueces, Jefferson and Harris Counties (Texas Gulf Coast) group in clade IIB with other isolates from these counties isolated during the 1980s and 1990s. This lack of evidence for introduction of novel strains into the Texas Gulf Coast over a long period of time is consistent with overwintering of SLEV in this region. Two El Paso isolates, both from 2002, group in clade VA with recent Californian isolates from 1998-2001 and some South American strains with a broad temporal range. Overall, these data are consistent with multiple introductions of SLEV from South America into North America, and provide support for the hypothesis that in most situations, SLEV circulates within a locality, with occasional incursions from other areas. Finally, SLEV has much lower nucleotide (10.1 %) and amino acid variation (2.8 %) than other members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex (maximum variation 24.6 % nucleotide and 11.8 % amino acid).

  15. Genetic variation of St. Louis encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    May, Fiona J.; Li, Li; Zhang, Shuliu; Guzman, Hilda; Beasley, David W. C.; Tesh, Robert B.; Higgs, Stephen; Raj, Pushker; Bueno, Rudy; Randle, Yvonne; Chandler, Laura; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2008-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) has been regularly isolated throughout the Americas since 1933. Previous phylogenetic studies involving 62 isolates have defined seven major lineages (I–VII), further divided into 14 clades. In this study, 28 strains isolated in Texas in 1991 and 2001–2003, and three older, previously unsequenced strains from Jamaica and California were sequenced over the envelope protein gene. The inclusion of these new sequences, and others published since 2001, has allowed better delineation of the previously published SLEV lineages, in particular the clades of lineage II. Phylogenetic analysis of 106 isolates identified 13 clades. All 1991 and 2001–2003 isolates from Nueces, Jefferson and Harris Counties (Texas Gulf Coast) group in clade IIB with other isolates from these counties isolated during the 1980s and 1990s. This lack of evidence for introduction of novel strains into the Texas Gulf Coast over a long period of time is consistent with overwintering of SLEV in this region. Two El Paso isolates, both from 2002, group in clade VA with recent Californian isolates from 1998–2001 and some South American strains with a broad temporal range. Overall, these data are consistent with multiple introductions of SLEV from South America into North America, and provide support for the hypothesis that in most situations, SLEV circulates within a locality, with occasional incursions from other areas. Finally, SLEV has much lower nucleotide (10.1 %) and amino acid variation (2.8 %) than other members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex (maximum variation 24.6 % nucleotide and 11.8 % amino acid). PMID:18632961

  16. [Clinical evaluation of six patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Horino, Asako; Shiomi, Masashi; Inoue, Takeshi; Nukui, Megumi; Kuki, Ichiro; Okazaki, Shin; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Amo, Kiyoko; Togawa, Masao

    2014-07-01

    We examined the clinical course and the prognosis of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who has distinctive clinical features as anti-NMDAR encephalitis based on their medical records. There were two male and four female patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. They were aged between 13 and 16 years. One of the six, 14 years female patient was negative for anti-NMDAR antibody. All four female patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis had an ovarian tumor. Neurocognitive dysfunction and epilepsy remained in one female patient with right temporal lobe lesion and one male patient with celebellar abnormalities had mild mental impairment. In three patients including two patients who were examined abdominal MRI for the first time after recovery from the encephalitis, overian tumors became apparent during follow-up. In one of other patients, overian tumors had a tendency to increase in size after recovery. Sequellae were seen in two cases that have abnormalities in brain MRI. As to ovarian tumor, it was considered to be necessary to checkup pelvic MRI for at least four years after the onset of encephalitis.

  17. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic.

  18. Cortical hypometabolism demonstrated by PET in relapsing NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Sekhar C; Gill, Deepak; Webster, Richard; Howman-Giles, Robert; Dale, Russell C

    2010-09-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a newly defined type of autoimmune encephalitis. Two girls (age 3 years, case 1, and 7 years, case 2) with relapsing NMDA receptor encephalitis each had the classic clinical features of encephalopathy, movement disorders, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, insomnia, and mild autonomic dysfunction. Both patients had persistent neuropsychiatric disability, despite immune therapies. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed during clinical relapse at 6 weeks (case 1) and 5 months (case 2). In both cases, the scans demonstrated reduced fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism in the cerebral cortex, with the temporal regions being most affected. PET imaging was more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging in these patients. In contrast, the one previous report of acute NMDA receptor encephalitis indicated cortical hypermetabolism. Thus, NMDA receptor encephalitis may be associated with variable PET findings, possibly dependent upon the timing of the study, or other factors. Future studies should investigate whether cortical hypometabolism is associated with a relapsing course, and whether it is predictive of a poorer outcome in NMDA receptor encephalitis.

  19. [Two cases of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazue; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsuoka, Tadasu; Kido, Mikio; Uehara, Takashi; Suzuki, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, reported by Dalmau et al., is a paraneoplastic encephalitis frequently associated with ovarian teratoma. After the manifestation of schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms in the initial stage, serious neurological symptoms such as convulsions and central hypoventilation develop. We report two cases of 17-year-old girls with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis who exhibited different clinical courses. Case 1 showed a typical course of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis associated with sustained consciousness disturbance requiring long-term artificial respiration. Case 2 underwent surgery for an ovarian teratoma in the early stages of the disorder, did not show convulsions or central hypoventilation, and recovered without any sequelae. Early resection of the ovarian teratoma and the immune suppression therapy may have contributed to the rapid recovery and favorable outcome in case 2. Psychiatrists are the first to see a majority of patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis because of psychiatric symptoms and behavioral changes observed in the initial stage. For successful treatment, psychiatrists need to cooperate with neurologists and gynecologists early in the course of this disorder. Psychiatrists' knowledge of the symptoms and clinical course of this form of encephalitis is essential for early detection and adequate treatment, which may be life-saving and contribute to good functional outcomes.

  20. Effects of volatile fatty acids on propionate metabolism and gluconeogenesis in caprine hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

    1987-12-01

    Isolated caprine hepatocytes were incubated with fatty acids of various chain lengths. Short-chain fatty acids effects on rates of gluconeogenesis and oxidation from (2-/sup 14/C) propionate were determined. Additions of glucose (2.5 mM) had no effect on hepatic (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate metabolism in the presence and absence of amino acids. A complete mixture of amino acids increased label incorporation from (2-/sup 14/C) propionate into (/sup 14/C) glucose by 22%. Butyrate inhibited (2-/sup 14/C) propionate metabolism and increased the apparent Michaelis constant for (2-/sup 14/C) propionate incorporation into (/sup 14/C) glucose from 2.4 +/- 1.5 to 5.6 +/- .9 mM. Butyrate's effects on propionate were similar in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (1 mM). Isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and valerate (1.25 mM) had no effect on (/sup 14/C) glucose production but decreased /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production to 57, 61, and 54% of the control (2-/sup 14/C) propionate (1.25 mM). This inhibition on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not competitive. Isovalerate had no effect on either (2-/sup 14/C) propionate incorporation into glucose of CO/sub 2/. An increase in ratio of (/sup 14/C) glucose to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate demonstrated that short-chain fatty acids other than butyrate do not inhibit gluconeogenesis from propionate. In addition, fatty acids that generate a net synthesis of intracellular oxaloacetate may partition propionate carbons toward gluconeogenic rather than oxidative pathways in goat hepatocytes.

  1. Identification of Brucella melitensis 16M genes required for bacterial survival in the caprine host.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Michel S; Hagius, Sue D; Walker, Joel V; Elzer, Philip H

    2006-01-01

    Brucella species are gram-negative bacteria which belong to alpha-Proteobacteria family. These organisms are zoonotic pathogens that induce abortion and sterility in domestic mammals and chronic infections in humans known as Malta fever. The virulence of Brucella is dependent upon its ability to enter and colonize the cells in which it multiplies. The genetic basis of this aspect is poorly understood. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was used to identify potential Brucella virulence factors. PCR amplification has been used in place of DNA hybridization to identify the STM-generated attenuated mutants. A library of 288 Brucella melitensis 16M tagged mini-Tn5 Km2 mutants, in 24 pools, was screened for its ability to colonize spleen, lymph nodes and liver of goats at three weeks post-i.v. infection. This comparative screening identified 7 mutants (approximately 5%) which were not recovered from the output pool in goats. Some genes were known virulence genes involved in biosynthesis of LPS (lpsA gene) or in intracellular survival (the virB operon). Other mutants included ones which had a disrupted gene homologous to flgF, a gene coding for the basal-body rod of the flagellar apparatus, and another with a disruption in a gene homologous to ppk which is involved in the biosynthesis of inorganic polyphosphate (PolyP) from ATP. Other genes identified encoded factors involved in DNA metabolism and oxidoreduction metabolism. Using STM and the caprine host for screening, potential virulence determinants in B. melitensis have been identified.

  2. Varying Dietary Levels of Molybdenum Inducing Cell Apoptosis of Spleen Under Cadmium Stress in Caprine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingyang; Zhang, Caiying; Gu, Xiaolong; Zhuang, Yu; Luo, Junrong; Liu, Ping; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Cao, Huabin

    2016-07-01

    The present experiment aims at evaluating chronic toxic effects of the combination of cadmium (Cd) and molybdenum (Mo) according to residual element contents, apoptosis gene expression, and ultrastructure and histopathology changes of caprine spleen. In total, 36 Boer goats were randomly divided into four groups with the equal number in each group. The control group was orally administered with deionized water while the experimental groups I, II, and III were administered with the equal quantity of CdCl2 (1 mg kg(-1) BW) and (NH4)6·Mo7O24·4H2O including 15, 30, and 45 mg·Mo kg(-1) BW, respectively. Three individuals from each group were treated with euthanasia on days 0, 25, and 50. The data showed that the content of splenic residual Mo and Cd increased (P < 0.05) in the experimental groups on days 25 and 50, while no significant difference was observed in the content of Cu. The apoptosis-related gene expression levels including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Smac, and ceruloplasmin (CP) were also determined. Results showed that significant reductions were observed in Bcl-2 and CP expressions (P < 0.01), while Caspase-3 gene was up-regulated (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in Smac and Bax expressions. Furthermore, on day 50, spleen tissues were presented to observe ultrastructural changes in lesions by means of transmission electron microscopy, with fragmentized nucleus, vesiculation of cytoplasm, mitochondria hyperplasia, and increasing lysosomes included. In addition, histopathology results corroborated the toxicity by showing cell hemorrhage, thickening central arteries, and enhanced capsule thickness. To sum up, our study revealed that the combination of Cd and Mo could induce remarkable damage to the spleen of goats by promoting cell apoptosis in the mitochondrial pathway and affecting the deposition of Mo and Cd.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Cell Apoptosis in Caprine Liver Induced by Molybdenum and Cadmium in Combination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Caiying; Zhuang, Yu; Gu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Qingyang; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Cao, Huabin

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of co-exposure to molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) on oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in caprine livers, 36 Boer goats were randomly divided into four groups with nine goats in each group. Three groups were randomly assigned with one of three oral treatments of CdCl2 (0.5 mg Cd kg(-1)·BW) and [(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O] (15 mg Mo kg(-1)·BW, 30 mg Mo kg(-1)·BW, 45 mg Mo kg(-1)·BW), while the control group received deionized water. Liver tissues on days 0, 25, and 50 were subjected to determine antioxidant activity indexes and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of ceruloplasmin (CP), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (caspase-3), second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac), and cytochrome-C (Cyt-C) genes. The results showed that significant reductions were observed in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities (P < 0.05), while activities or contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were increased (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of CP, caspase-3, Smac, and Cyt-C genes were upregulated (P < 0.05). In addition, histopathological lesions showed different degrees of vacuolar degeneration and edematous and mitochondrial swelling. The results suggest that co-exposure to Mo and Cd could induce oxidative stress and cell apoptosis possibly associated with mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in goat liver and show possible synergistic effects between the two elements.

  4. Production enhancement and refolding of caprine growth hormone expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Sadaf, Saima; Sajjad, Muhammad; Waheed Akhtar, M

    2009-11-01

    This study describes comparison between IPTG and lactose induction on expression of caprine growth hormone (cGH), enhancing cell densities of Escherichia coli cultures and refolding the recombinant cGH, produced as inclusion bodies, to biologically active state. 2-3 times higher cell densities were obtained in shake flask cultures when induction was done with lactose showing almost same level of expression as in case of IPTG induction. With lactose induction highest cell densities were achieved in TB (OD(600) 16.3) and M9NG (OD(600) 16.1) media, producing 885 and 892 mg cGH per liter of the culture, respectively. Lactose induction done at mid-exponential stage resulted in a higher cell density and thus higher product yield. cGH over-expressed as inclusion bodies was solubilized in 50 mM Tris-Cl buffer (pH 12.5) containing 2 M urea, followed by dilution and lowering the pH in a step-wise manner to obtain the final solution in 50mM Tris-Cl (pH 9.5). The cGH was purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography followed by gel filtration with a recovery yield of 39% on the basis of total cell proteins. The product thus obtained showed a single band by SDS-PAGE analysis. MALDI-TOF analysis showed a single peak with a mass of 21,851 dalton, which is very close to its calculated molecular weight. A bioassay based on proliferation of Nb2 rat lymphoma cells showed that the purified cGH was biologically active.

  5. In vitro growth and development of isolated secondary follicles from vitrified caprine ovarian cortex.

    PubMed

    Leal, Érica S S; Vieira, Luis A; Sá, Naíza A R; Silva, Gerlane M; Lunardi, Franciele O; Ferreira, Anna C A; Campello, Cláudio C; Alves, Benner G; Cibin, Francielli W S; Smitz, Johan; Figueiredo, José R; Rodrigues, Ana P R

    2017-08-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability, antrum formation and in vitro development of isolated secondary follicles from vitrified caprine ovarian cortex in a medium previously established for fresh isolated secondary follicles, in the absence (α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM+) alone) or presence of FSH and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; α-MEM++FSH+VEGF). Ovarian fragments were distributed among five treatments (T1 to T5): fresh follicles were fixed immediately (T1), follicles from fresh tissue were cultured in vitro in α-MEM+ (T2) or α-MEM++FSH+VEGF (T3) and follicles from vitrified tissue were cultured in vitro in α-MEM+ (T4) or α-MEM++FSH+VEGF (T5). After 6 days of culture, treated follicles (T2, T3, T4 and T5) were evaluated for morphology, viability and follicular development (growth, antrum formation and proliferation of granulosa cells by Ki67 and argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region (AgNOR) staining). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the culture media were also assessed. Overall, morphology of vitrified follicles was altered (P<0.05) compared with the fresh follicles. Follicular viability, antrum formation and ROS were similar between treatments (P>0.05). The average overall and daily follicular growth was highest (P<0.05) in T3. Granulosa cells in all treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) stained positive for Ki67. However, fresh follicles from T3 had significantly higher AgNOR staining (P<0.05) compared with follicles of T1, T2, T4 and T5. In conclusion, secondary follicles can be isolated from vitrified and warmed ovarian cortex and survive and form an antrum when growing in an in vitro culture for 6 days.

  6. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reactive arthritis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease arthritis: a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Trabulo, D; Mangualde, J; Cremers, I; Oliveira, A P

    2014-01-01

    Reactive arthritis comprises a subgroup of infection-associated arthritis which occurs after genitourinary or gastrointestinal tract infection in genetically susceptible hosts. Studies have proposed Salmonella, Shigella or Yersinia infection as the microorganisms responsible for the post-dysenteric form. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is a well recognised best-known predisposing factor. We report a case of HLA-B27-associated reactive arthritis after Salmonella goldcoast enteritis, mimicking inflammatory bowel disease arthritis.

  8. G3BP–Caprin1–USP10 complexes mediate stress granule condensation and associate with 40S subunits

    PubMed Central

    Panas, Marc D.; Achorn, Christopher A.; Lyons, Shawn; Tisdale, Sarah; Hickman, Tyler; Thomas, Marshall; Lieberman, Judy; McInerney, Gerald M.; Ivanov, Pavel; Anderson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian stress granules (SGs) contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes that are assembled into discrete granules by specific RNA-binding proteins such as G3BP. We now show that cells lacking both G3BP1 and G3BP2 cannot form SGs in response to eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation or eIF4A inhibition, but are still SG-competent when challenged with severe heat or osmotic stress. Rescue experiments using G3BP1 mutants show that phosphomimetic G3BP1-S149E fails to rescue SG formation, whereas G3BP1-F33W, a mutant unable to bind G3BP partner proteins Caprin1 or USP10, rescues SG formation. Caprin1/USP10 binding to G3BP is mutually exclusive: Caprin binding promotes, but USP10 binding inhibits, SG formation. G3BP interacts with 40S ribosomal subunits through its RGG motif, which is also required for G3BP-mediated SG formation. We propose that G3BP mediates the condensation of SGs by shifting between two different states that are controlled by the phosphorylation of S149 and by binding to Caprin1 or USP10. PMID:27022092

  9. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  10. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Research Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of ... a project plan to address relevant challenges for rheumatoid arthritis. Read Part 1 on Lupus in MedlinePlus magazine, ...

  11. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... debilitating when it affects the hands and fingers. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common forms of ...

  12. Psoriatic arthritis update.

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis occurring in up to 30% of patients with psoriasis. Its clear distinction from rheumatoid arthritis has been described clinically, genetically, and immunohistologically. Updated classification criteria have been recently derived from a large international study. Key pathophysiologic cellular processes are being elucidated, increasing our understanding of potential targets of therapy. Therapies that target cells, such as activated T cells, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), are rational to pursue. Outcome measures have been "borrowed" from rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis studies. A variety of domains are assessed including joints, skin, enthesium, dactylitis, spine, function, quality of life, and imaging assessment of disease activity and damage. The performance qualities of outcome measures in these various domains is being evaluated by the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA), and improved measures are being developed and validated specifically for psoriatic arthritis. Traditional therapies for psoriatic arthritis have included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, oral immunomodulatory drugs, topical creams, and light therapy. These therapies have been helpful in controlling both musculoskeletal and dermatologic aspects of the disease, but they may not be fully effective in all disease domains, may eventually show diminished benefit, and may produce treatment-limiting toxicities. In the past several years, use of biologic agents has generally yielded greater benefit across more domains, yielding significant and enduring benefits for clinical manifestations, function, and quality of life, and especially with the anti-TNF agents, inhibition of structural damage. Adverse effects with these agents can be significant but are usually manageable. Cost is also significant, but cost-effectiveness analysis is demonstrating reasonable

  13. Cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Walsmith, Joseph; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2002-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a debilitating, chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that causes destruction of joint cartilage and bone. It generally occurs between the fourth and sixth decades of life, and affects two to three times more women than men. It is characterized by joint stiffness, pain, and swelling, and is accompanied by a loss of body cell mass. This loss of cell mass, known as rheumatoid cachexia, predominates in skeletal muscle, but also occurs in the viscera and immune system. Thus, rheumatoid cachexia leads to muscle weakness and a loss of functional capacity, and is believed to accelerate morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. Currently there is no established mechanism for rheumatoid cachexia, but it is accompanied by elevated resting energy expenditure, accelerated whole-body protein catabolism, and excess production of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is probably the central mediator of muscle wasting in rheumatoid arthritis, and is known to act synergistically with interleukin-1beta to promote cachexia. In general, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta are thought to alter the balance between protein degradation and protein synthesis in rheumatoid arthritis to cause muscle wasting. The precise mechanism by which they do this is not known. Reduced peripheral insulin action and low habitual physical activity are important consequences of rheumatoid arthritis, and have also been implicated as mediators of rheumatoid cachexia. Insulin inhibits muscle protein degradation. Consequently, reduced peripheral insulin action in rheumatoid arthritis is thought to be permissive to cytokine-driven muscle loss. The cause of reduced peripheral insulin action in rheumatoid arthritis is not known, but tumor necrosis factor-alpha has been shown to interfere with insulin receptor signaling and is probably an important contributor. Low habitual physical

  14. Acute septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Mader, Jon T

    2002-10-01

    Acute septic arthritis may develop as a result of hematogenous seeding, direct introduction, or extension from a contiguous focus of infection. The pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis is multifactorial and depends on the interaction of the host immune response and the adherence factors, toxins, and immunoavoidance strategies of the invading pathogen. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus are used in discussing the host-pathogen interaction in the pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis. While diagnosis rests on isolation of the bacterial species from synovial fluid samples, patient history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and imaging studies are also important. Acute nongonococcal septic arthritis is a medical emergency that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prompt recognition, rapid and aggressive antimicrobial therapy, and surgical treatment are critical to ensuring a good prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis and treatment, high mortality and morbidity rates still occur. In contrast, gonococcal arthritis is often successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy alone and demonstrates a very low rate of complications and an excellent prognosis for full return of normal joint function. In the case of prosthetic joint infections, the hardware must be eventually removed by a two-stage revision in order to cure the infection.

  15. Qigong Exercise and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Marks, Ray

    2017-09-27

    Background: Arthritis is a chronic condition resulting in considerable disability, particularly in later life. Aims: The first aim of this review was to summarize and synthesize the research base concerning the use of Qigong exercises as a possible adjunctive strategy for promoting well-being among adults with arthritis. A second was to provide related intervention directives for health professionals working or who are likely to work with this population in the future. Methods: Material specifically focusing on examining the nature of Qigong for minimizing arthritis disability, pain and dependence and for improving life quality was sought. Results: Collectively, despite almost no attention to this topic, available data reveal that while more research is indicated, Qigong exercises-practiced widely in China for many centuries as an exercise form, mind-body and relaxation technique-may be very useful as an intervention strategy for adults with different forms of painful disabling arthritis. Conclusion: Health professionals working with people who have chronic arthritis can safely recommend these exercises to most adults with this condition with the expectation they will heighten the life quality of the individual, while reducing pain and depression in adults with this condition.

  16. Neonatal septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dan, M

    1983-11-01

    To assess and correlate the microbiology of neonatal septic arthritis with the clinical presentation, we reviewed the records of nine infants with neonatal septic arthritis (NSA) diagnosed at Edmonton hospitals between 1964 and 1981, and evaluated 92 other cases reported in the English literature since 1960. Our analysis revealed that the microbiology of NSA seemed to be dependent on whether it was hospital or community acquired. In the hospital-acquired cases, staphylococci were the predominant isolates (62%), followed by Candida species (17%) and gram-negative enteric bacilli (15%). Community-acquired arthritis was caused most often by streptococci (52%), followed by staphylococci (26%) and gonococci (17%). Since 1970, the relative infrequency of staphylococcal (5%) in favor of streptococcal (75%) isolates in community-acquired NSA is even more pronounced.

  17. Dermatoglyphics in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Roopa; Shubha, R; Nagesh, H V; Johnson, Job; Rajangam, Sayee

    2003-10-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been referred to Division of Human Genetics for counselling. Qualitative dermatoglyphics comprising of finger print pattern, interdigital pattern, hypothenar pattern and palmar crease were studied on 26 female and 11 male rheumatoid arthritis patients. Comparison between patient male and control male; and patient female and control female has been done. 'Chi' square test was performed. In male patients, with hands together, arches were increased, loops/ whorls were decreased. Partial Simian crease was significantly increased. In the right hand, patterns were increased in the 3rd interdigital area. On the other hand, in female patients there was a significant increase in whorls and decrease in loops on the first finger on both the hands, increase in arches on the 3rd finger; both arches and whorls on the 4th finger of left hand. Present study has emphasized that dermatoglyphics could be applied as a diagnostic tool to patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. [Arthritis and clinical history].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S

    2011-01-01

    In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms.

  19. Arthritis in Roman Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Thould, A K; Thould, B T

    1983-01-01

    The pattern of arthritis in Roman Britain was investigated by examining the skeletons of 416 adults from the Roman cemetery at Poundbury Camp near Dorchester, Dorset. The mean height of the people was not much less than that of the current British population, and the prevalence of right handedness was similar to our own. There was a high prevalence of osteoarthritis for such a relatively young community, with particularly severe changes in the vertebral column. The pattern of joints affected by osteoarthritis was different from that seen now, but the prevalence of vertebral ankylosing hyperostosis was much the same. Rheumatoid arthritis was seen as often as the expected rat would indicate, given that the population died young, but it was rare. Other forms of arthritis, including gout and ankylosing spondylitis, were not seen. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:6418269

  20. Anti-NMDA Receptor antibody encephalitis with concomitant detection of Varicella zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Solís, Natalia; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-10-01

    The typical presentation of anti-NMDA (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate) receptor encephalitis involves young women with psychiatric, neurologic and autonomic symptoms; it is often associated with mature ovarian teratomas. NMDA receptor encephalitis has been described following Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. This case describes a classic presentation of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with the concomitant presence of Varicella zoster virus in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  1. Primary viraemia responses of herons to experimental infection with Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Boyle, D B; Dickerman, R W; Marshall, I D

    1983-12-01

    Rufous night herons, Pacific herons, little egrets and intermediate egrets were experimentally infected with Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin or Japanese encephalitis viruses. Viraemias of at least one day's duration were detected in all birds except two intermediate egrets inoculated with a very low dose of Kunjin virus and one rufous night heron inoculated with Japanese encephalitis virus. there was usually a viraemia of 3 to 5 days' duration commencing on the first or second day and continuing until day 5 or 6 and rarely until day 7. Maximum titres tended to be higher in young birds, up to 2-5 months of age (10(4)-10(5) mouse LD50/ml), than in older birds more than 8 months of age (10(3)-10(4) mouse LD50/ml). Significant differences in maximum viraemia titres were not observed in the different species or between Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses. Japanese encephalitis viraemias were significantly lower, but this was probably due to the high mouse brain passage level of the strain used. The onset of viraemia was earlier in intermediate egrets than in rufous night herons inoculated with similar doses of Murray Valley encephalitis virus, but no difference in the susceptibility to infection was observed. With Kunjin virus there was a significant difference in the susceptibility of intermediate egrets and rufous night herons, with rufous night herons being more susceptible to infection with low doses of virus. This difference in threshold of infection, if it extends to other species with both Kunjin and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses, may, in part, be an explanation for the greater incidence of natural infections observed in rufous night herons compared with other species and orders of water birds.

  2. Arthritis-associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Osial, T A; Cash, J M; Eisenbeis, C H

    1993-12-01

    There are a number of diseases characterized by inflammatory arthropathy that, although not as commonly seen as rheumatoid arthritis, often present to the family physician as difficult diagnostic problems. The diagnosis is frequently most difficult during the early course of these diseases. During recent years, new and altered concepts have arisen regarding both diagnostic and therapeutic management of this challenging group of arthropathies. This article presents a review of the more common arthritis-associated syndromes with emphasis on the differential diagnosis and medicinal therapeutics.

  3. Vasculitis and inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Watts, Richard A; Scott, David G I

    2016-10-01

    Vasculitis has been described in most types of inflammatory arthritis. The best described and most widely recognised form is rheumatoid vasculitis. The incidence of systemic rheumatoid vasculitis has declined significantly following the general early use of methotrexate in the 1990s, and it is now a rare form of vasculitis. Treatment of rheumatoid vasculitis is conventionally with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide, but there is an increasing role for rituximab similar to that in other types of vasculitis. Despite these developments the mortality of rheumatoid vasculitis remains high. Vasculitis in other types of inflammatory arthritis is less well described and the treatment remains empirical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sarcopaenia and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Targowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    In October 2016 a new independent disease called sarcopaenia (according to ICD-10 classification) appeared. According to the recommendation of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), sarcopaenia is defined as abnormally low muscle mass plus low skeletal muscle strength or low physical performance. Sarcopaenia, as a primary disease, is mainly observed in older people, but it can also appear in younger adults in the course of many clinical chronic conditions. One of the most frequent chronic diseases associated with chronic inflammation and functional limitation of skeletal system is rheumatoid arthritis. In the present article, current knowledge on the epidemiology of sarcopaenia and its association with rheumatoid arthritis is presented.

  5. Rasmussen’s encephalitis: clinical features, pathobiology, and treatment advances

    PubMed Central

    Varadkar, Sophia; Bien, Christian G; Kruse, Carol A; Jensen, Frances E; Bauer, Jan; Pardo, Carlos A; Vincent, Angela; Mathern, Gary W; Cross, J Helen

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen’s encephalitis is a rare chronic neurological disorder, characterised by unilateral inflammation of the cerebral cortex, drug-resistant epilepsy, and progressive neurological and cognitive deterioration. Neuropathological and immunological studies support the notion that Rasmussen’s encephalitis is probably driven by a T-cell response to one or more antigenic epitopes, with potential additional contribution by autoantibodies. Careful analysis of the association between histopathology and clinical presentation suggests that initial damage to the brain is mediated by T cells and microglia, suggesting a window for treatment if Rasmussen’s encephalitis can be diagnosed early. Advances in neuroimaging suggest that progression of the inflammatory process seen with MRI might be a good biomarker in Rasmussen’s encephalitis. For many patients, families, and doctors, choosing the right time to move from medical management to surgery is a real therapeutic dilemma. Cerebral hemispherectomy remains the only cure for seizures, but there are inevitable functional compromises. Decisions of whether or when surgery should be undertaken are challenging in the absence of a dense neurological deficit, and vary by institutional experience. Further, the optimum time for surgery, to give the best language and cognitive outcome, is not yet well understood. Immunomodulatory treatments seem to slow rather than halt disease progression in Rasmussen’s encephalitis, without changing the eventual outcome. PMID:24457189

  6. [Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. An interdisciplinary clinical picture].

    PubMed

    Prüss, H; Dalmau, J; Arolt, V; Wandinger, K-P

    2010-04-01

    Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis is a severe and considerably underdiagnosed form of encephalitis with characteristic clinical features including psychiatric symptoms, decreased levels of consciousness, hypoventilation, epileptic seizures, autonomic dysfunction and dyskinesias. Most patients are primarily seen by psychiatrists, often on the assumption of a drug-induced psychosis. Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis had initially been described in young women with ovarian teratoma, but is also common in women without tumour, in men and in children. The diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinical picture, supporting findings of brain MRI, electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the presence of highly specific autoantibodies directed against the NR1 subunit of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the serum or CSF. In particular, anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis must be excluded in patients with 'encephalitis of unknown cause'. In principle, the prognosis is favourable and recovery from symptoms can be expected even after prolonged intensive care treatment and mechanical ventilation. However, improvement correlates with prompt identification of the disorder, early immunotherapy and - in the case of a malignancy - with complete tumour removal. Patient care requires an interdisciplinary approach including neurologists, psychiatrists, paediatricians, oncologists and gynaecologists.

  7. A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Graus, Francesc; Titulaer, Maarten J; Balu, Ramani; Benseler, Susanne; Bien, Christian G; Cellucci, Tania; Cortese, Irene; Dale, Russell C; Gelfand, Jeffrey M; Geschwind, Michael; Glaser, Carol A; Honnorat, Jerome; Höftberger, Romana; Iizuka, Takahiro; Irani, Sarosh R; Lancaster, Eric; Leypoldt, Frank; Prüss, Harald; Rae-Grant, Alexander; Reindl, Markus; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Rostásy, Kevin; Saiz, Albert; Venkatesan, Arun; Vincent, Angela; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Waters, Patrick; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis. Because autoantibody test results and response to therapy are not available at disease onset, we based the initial diagnostic approach on neurological assessment and conventional tests that are accessible to most clinicians. Through logical differential diagnosis, levels of evidence for autoimmune encephalitis (possible, probable, or definite) are achieved, which can lead to prompt immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical manifestations of Japanese encephalitis in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuang Ming; Tsai, Hung Chin; Sy, Cheng Len; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Liu, Yung Ching; Wann, Shue Ren; Wang, Yung Hsing; Mai, Ming Hsin; Chen, Jei Kuang; Wu, Kuan Sheng; Chen, Yi Jan; Chen, Yao Shen

    2009-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus infection is a sporadic infectious disease in Taiwan. Despite progress in laboratory examinations and imaging studies, diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis remains underestimated. This study was conducted to identify clinical symptoms and laboratory findings that may assist in early identification of this disease. This retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with Japanese encephalitis at Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital from January 2000 through December 2007. Epidemiologic data, predisposing factors, neurological and non-neurological signs and symptoms, laboratory data, and treatment were analyzed. Outcomes and neurological complications were evaluated. Eleven patients had Japanese encephalitis, and 10 had sufficient information for enrolment into the study. Nine patients presented with non-significant constitutional symptoms of fever, nausea, or headache. Other signs and symptoms included rhinorrhea, sore throat, abdominal pain, cough, myalgia, or arthralgia. Eight patients had lymphocytic pleocytosis with elevated protein and borderline low glucose levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Leptomeningeal enhancement and low density lesions were the most common computed tomography findings. T2 hyperintensity lesions and leptomeningeal enhancement were seen in 5 patients. Two patients presenting with acute flaccid paralysis had high intensity lesions on the thalamus and basal ganglion. There were no correlations between clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. None of the patients had neurological sequelae. Presentations, laboratory examination, and clinical signs are not specific for Japanese encephalitis. Sporadic cases are usually seen from May to August, which are associated with monsoon rains. Hence increased awareness of this disease is recommended during these periods.

  9. VGKC antibodies in pediatric encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, J; Brenner, T; Gill, D; Brilot, F; Antony, J; Vincent, A; Lang, B; Dale, R C

    2011-04-05

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC Ab) are associated with limbic encephalitis and neuromyotonia in adults. There have been no systematic investigations in children to date. We looked for antibodies that are associated with CNS syndromes in adults including antibodies to VGKCs, NMDARs, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and glycine receptor (GlyR) in the stored acute serum from 10 children with unexplained encephalitis presenting with encephalopathy and status epilepticus. We also looked for antibodies to leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (Lgi1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), which are now known to be tightly complexed with VGKCs in vivo. Sixty-nine pediatric controls were used for comparison. An elevated VGKC Ab (>100 pM) was detected in 4/10 patients with encephalitis compared to only 1/69 controls (p < 0.001). The outcome in the 4 VGKC Ab-positive patients with encephalitis was variable including good recovery (n = 1), cognitive impairment (n = 3), temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 2), and mesial temporal sclerosis (n = 1). No other antibodies were detected, including those to Lgi1 and Caspr2. Encephalitis associated with VGKC Ab occurs in children and presents with status epilepticus and focal epilepsy. These antibodies are not directed against Lgi1 or Caspr2.

  10. Fatal Infection with Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus Imported from Australia to Canada, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Daniel J.; Afra, Kevin; Iftinca, Mircea; Tellier, Raymond; Fonseca, Kevin; Kramer, Andreas; Safronetz, David; Holloway, Kimberly; Drebot, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), a flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, can cause severe clinical manifestations in humans. We report a fatal case of MVEV infection in a young woman who returned from Australia to Canada. The differential diagnosis for travel-associated encephalitis should include MVEV, particularly during outbreak years. PMID:28098530

  11. Anethole improves the in vitro development of isolated caprine secondary follicles.

    PubMed

    Sá, N A R; Araújo, V R; Correia, H H V; Ferreira, A C A; Guerreiro, D D; Sampaio, A M; Escobar, E; Santos, F W; Moura, A A; Lôbo, C H; Ceccatto, V M; Campello, C C; Rodrigues, A P R; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Figueiredo, J R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three concentrations of anethole (30, 300, and 2000 μg/mL) on survival, antrum formation, follicular diameter, and oocyte maturation in the caprine species. The study also evaluated the effects of anethole on transcripts of ICAM-1, CAV-1, TIMP-2, and PAI-1 genes and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in isolated goat preantral ovarian follicles before and after in vitro culture for 18 days. Preantral follicles were isolated from goat ovaries and individually cultured in alpha minimum essential medium modified (α-MEM(+)), defined as the control treatment, α-MEM(+) supplemented with ascorbic acid at a concentration of 100 μg/mL (AA), or α-MEM(+) supplemented with three different concentrations of anethole (30, 300, 2000 μg/mL) for a period of 18 days. Treatments were named as α-MEM(+), AA, AN30, AN300, and AN2000, respectively. After culture, the follicles were opened, the cumulus oocytes complex (COCs) were removed and matured in vitro. The walls of the follicles were used for the quantitation of mRNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Finally, the medium collected at the end of culture was used for the measurements of ROS. After 18 days of culture, the AA treatment showed the percentage of intact follicles and follicular diameter significantly higher compared with the other treatments. However, daily growth rate, antrum formation, and also oocyte diameter were similar among the treatments. In addition, compared with AA, the rate of oocytes for in vitro maturation (diameter ≥ 110 μm) and the meiosis resumption rate were significantly higher in the treatments AN30 and AN2000, respectively. When assessing gene related to remodeling of the basement membrane, significant differences in mRNA levels for ICAM-1, CAV-1, TIMP-2, and PAI-1 were observed in comparison with Day 0, i.e., in the noncultured control. In addition, the ROS from Day 12, all treatments with the addition

  12. The impact of climate on Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S M; Yen, A M F; Chen, T H H

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the change of seasonal pattern of Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases in the post-vaccination period and to elucidate whether the lagged climate variables (precipitation and temperature) were associated with occurrence of JE after adjustment for seasonal pattern, time trend, geographic areas, pig density, vaccination coverage rate for humans, and time dependence of time-series numbers of JE cases. A total of 287 confirmed JE cases between 1991 and 2005 were collected, together with monthly data on socio-ecological archival data including climate, pig density and vaccination. A time-series generalized autoregressive Poisson regression model was used to achieve the objectives. The rate of JE increased from 1998 onwards. The seasonal pattern on occurrence of JE cases clustered between May and August during the period from 1991 to 2005 in Taiwan. In each geographic area, monitoring temperature and precipitation, two possible proxy variables for mosquito density, in conjunction with seasonal factors and pig density is of assistance in forecasting JE epidemics.

  13. Henipavirus Encephalitis: Recent Developments and Advances.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2015-09-01

    The genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae includes the Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) which were discovered in the 1990s in Australia and Malaysia, respectively, after emerging to cause severe and often fatal outbreaks in humans and animals. While HeV is confined to Australia, more recent NiV outbreaks have been reported in Bangladesh, India and the Philippines. The clinical manifestations of both henipaviruses in humans appear similar, with a predominance of an acute encephalitic syndrome. Likewise, the pathological features are similar and characterized by disseminated, multi-organ vasculopathy comprising endothelial infection/ulceration, vasculitis, vasculitis-induced thrombosis/occlusion, parenchymal ischemia/microinfarction, and parenchymal cell infection in the central nervous system (CNS), lung, kidney and other major organs. This unique dual pathogenetic mechanism of vasculitis-induced microinfarction and neuronal infection causes severe tissue damage in the CNS. Both viruses can also cause relapsing encephalitis months and years after the acute infection. Many animal models studied to date have largely confirmed the pathology of henipavirus infection, and provided the means to test new therapeutic agents and vaccines. As the bat is the natural host of henipaviruses and has worldwide distribution, spillover events into human populations are expected to occur in the future.

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis in eastern France.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Yves; Pierre Gut, Jean; Remy, Veronique; Martinot, Martin; Allard Witz, Marie; Christmann, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Each y a few cases of TBE infection are described in Alsace, France which lies at the occidental limit of the endemic zone of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Hence we carried out a retrospective epidemiological and clinical study of TBE infection in Alsace. Data were collected from serological results sent to the Institut de Virologie (Université Louis Pasteur) in Strasbourg. All samples positive for specific IgM against TBE were retained. The physician in charge of each patient was asked to provide clinical, epidemiological and biological data and with his agreement the medical file was referred to us. Since 1968, 64 cases of TBE infection, occurring between April and November, had been described. In 56% of cases, flu-like symptoms preceded neurological symptoms. Most patients had meningitis (54%) or meningoencephalitis (34%). There was no death due to TBE. Two areas were more highly endemic for the disease: the Guebwiller valley in low mountain country and the Neuhof forest, near Strasbourg in the plain of Alsace. In the last 2 y of the study, a third zone seemed to emerge, in the Munster valley. This epidemiological survey revealed the existence in Alsace of 2 endemic zones of TBE with a third zone possibly emerging in the last few y. The survey must be continued to follow the evolution of the disease.

  15. Geographic dynamics of viral encephalitis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Timothy J; Hutchaleelaha, Sombat; Jiwariyavej, Vitaya; Barbazan, Philippe; Nitatpattana, Narong; Yoksan, Sutee; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2003-06-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) continues to be a major disease in Asia, causing serious illness which may result in death or have neurological sequelae. This study involves an ecological analysis of the climatic, geographic and seasonal patterns of clinically reported VE in Thailand from 1993 to 1998 to investigate regional and seasonal differences in disease incidence. Three thousand eight hundred and twenty nine cases of VE were clinically diagnosed nationwide during the study period by the Thai Ministry of Public Health. Spearman rank correlations of temporal, spatial and geographic variables with disease incidence were performed. The monthly incidence of VE correlated significantly with seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and rainfall in the north-northeast region of Thailand (P < 0.001), whereas incidence in the south-central region correlated only with relative humidity (P = 0.003). Spatial analysis revealed a positive correlation of disease with elevation (P < 0.001), and negative correlations with rice-field cover (P < 0.001), agricultural land-use (P < 0.001) and temperature (P = 0.004) in the north-northeast region. No significant spatial correlation was identified in the south-central region. The spatial distribution of VE suggests that etiologic variations may be responsible, in part, for the geographic patterns of disease. Active etiologic surveillance is necessary in a variety of geographic settings in order to provide physicians with information necessary for disease prevention and clinical management.

  16. THE PATHOGENESIS OF HERPES VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard T.

    1964-01-01

    The pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis and myelitis was studied in suckling mice using routine titration procedures and fluorescent antibody staining for the identification of infected cells. After intracerebral inoculation virus was shown to disperse rapidly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), multiply in meninges and ependyma, and then invade the underlying parenchyma infecting both neurons and glia. Following extraneural inoculation virus gained access to the central nervous system (CNS) by both hematogenous and neural pathways. After intraperitoneal and intranasal inoculation virus was found to multiply in viscera and produce viremia; foci of CNS infection then developed around small cerebral vessels. After subcutaneous and intranasal inoculation neural spread of virus was demonstrated along corresponding peripheral and cranial nerves. This spread resulted from the centripetal infection of endoneural cells (Schwann cells and fibroblasts). Antigen was not found in axons even after infection of the corresponding ganglion cell perikaryon. Subsequent spread within the CNS was unrelated to neural tracts, and there was no evidence of axonal spread of virus in the host-virus system studied. These findings are discussed in relation to previous and current theories of the viral "blood-brain barrier" and neural pathways of infection. PMID:14164487

  17. Acute encephalitis syndrome following scrub typhus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Ayan; Dhanaraj, M.; Dedeepiya, Devaprasad; Harikrishna, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to find the incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) secondary to scrub infection and to observe the clinical, biochemical, radiological profile, and outcomes in these patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients of AES were evaluated for scrub infection using scrub typhus immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay positivity along with the presence or absence of an eschar. Clinical profile, routine laboratory tests, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and neuroimaging were analyzed. Patients were treated with doxycycline and followed-up. Results: Among 20 consecutive patients with AES, 6 (30%) were due to scrub infection. They presented with acute onset fever, altered sensorium, seizures. Eschar was seen in 50% of patients. CSF done in two of them was similar to consistent with viral meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed cerebral edema, bright lesions in the putamen and the thalamus on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Renal involvement was seen in all patients. All patients responded well to oral doxycycline. Conclusion: AES is not an uncommon neurological presentation following scrub typhus infection. It should be suspected in all patients with fever, altered sensorium, and renal involvement. Oral doxycycline should be started as early as possible for better outcomes. PMID:25097358

  18. Eastern equine encephalitis: a classical case.

    PubMed

    Baig, Basarat; Mehta, Tapan; Khalid, Nauman; Chhabra, Lovely

    2014-10-01

    We present the case of a 40-year-old man with rapidly deteriorating acute meningoencephalitis, finally diagnosed as eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). The course and timing in this patient are quite characteristic. EEE is an arthropod borneviral illness in which the mosquito serves as the vector. It is amongst the most severe of the arbovirus encephalitides and has a high mortality and morbidity. In nonfatal cases, residual neurological deficits are often severe and permanent. North American lineage of EEE is mainly found in the northeast especially along the coastal areas. EEE is primarily found in horses and other domestic mammals that remain outdoors nocturnally. In humans, symptoms range from nonspecific constitutional features to catastrophic neurological sequelae including death. Hyponatremia and increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count are independent predictors of poor outcomes. Diagnosis is suggestive by demonstrating IgM antibody in blood or CSF samples and can be confirmed by other serologic assay including immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Measures recommended by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) for prevention include using repellents, protective clothing, screens, and eradication of mosquito breeding areas. EEE remains without cure and prevention is the best medicine.

  19. Japanese encephalitis can trigger anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiannan; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Li

    2017-06-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is usually a monophasic disease; however, in rare cases, patients with JE may have an early relapse after a partial recovery, giving rise to a biphasic pattern for the disease. In this study, we report three pediatric cases in which post-JE relapse was characterized by movement disorder and/or behavioral problems, and was related to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) immunoglobulin G (IgG). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were examined for anti-NMDAR IgG in three patients who had confirmed JE and then developed relapsing symptoms which were similar to those of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The main symptoms of the two young children were choreoathetosis, irritability, and sleep disorder; while for the teenager, agitation, mutism, rigidity, and sleep disorder were the main symptoms. Samples of cerebrospinal fluid from all patients were positive for anti-NMDAR IgG, and all patients gradually improved with immunotherapy. Testing for NMDAR antibodies is highly recommend in patients with JE, especially those with a relapsing syndrome involving movement disorder and/or behavioral problems, as these patients may benefit from immunotherapy.

  20. Detection and comparison of microRNAs in the caprine mammary gland tissues of colostrum and common milk stages.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinxing; An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Cao, Binyun; Yang, Heping; Zhang, Zhou; Shen, Wenzheng; Li, Yunpu

    2017-05-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a great influence on various physiological functions. A lot of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) research on miRNAs has been executed in the caprine mammary gland at different lactation periods (common milk lactation and dry period), but little is known about differentially expressed miRNAs in the caprine mammary gland of colostrum and peak lactation periods. This study identified 131 differentially expressed miRNAs (P < 0.05 and log2 colostrum normalized expression (NE)/peak lactation NE > 1 or log2 colostrum NE/peak lactation NE < -1), including 57 known miRNAs and 74 potential novel miRNAs in the colostrum and peak lactation libraries. In addition, compared with differentially expressed miRNAs in the peak lactation period, 45 miRNAs in the colostrum lactation period were remarkably upregulated, whereas 86 miRNAs were markedly downregulated (P < 0.05 and log2 colostrum NE/peak lactation NE > 1 or log2 colostrum NE/peak lactation NE < -1). The expressions of 10 randomly selected miRNAs was analyzed through stem-loop real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Their expression patterns were the same with Solexa sequencing results. Pathway analysis suggested that oestrogen, endocrine, adipocytokine, oxytocin and MAPK signalling pathways act on the development of mammary gland and milk secretion importantly. In addition, the miRNA-target-network showed that the bta-miR-574 could influence the development of mammary gland and lactation by leptin receptor (LEPR), which was in the adipocytokine signalling pathway. Chr5_3880_mature regulated mammary gland development and lactation through Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase (PPP1CA), which was in the oxytocin signalling pathway. Our finding suggested that the profiles of miRNAs were related to the physiological functions of mammary gland in the colostrum and peak lactation periods. The biological features of these miRNAs may help to clarify the molecular mechanisms of lactation

  1. [Two cases of herpes encephalitis with normal cerebrospinal fluid findings].

    PubMed

    Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Yapar, Nur; Sezak, Nurbanu; Alp Cavuş, Sema; Kuruüzüm, Ziya; Sayiner, Arzu; Ada, Emel; Cakir, Nedim; Yüce, Ayşe

    2006-01-01

    In this report, characteristics of two cases of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings at the time of admission have been discussed and the current literature has been reviewed. The diagnosis of the cases (one was 23 years old male, and the other was 75 years old female patient) was made on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings concordant with HSV encephalitis, together with HSV-1 DNA positivity by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Both of the patients were treated with acyclovir (3 x 750 mg/day) lasting for 15 days and 21 days, respectively. The first male patient recovered with mild neurological defects, whereas the second female patient died because of nosocomial pneumonia and septicemia. In conclusion, even the CSF findings are normal, in cases considered to be HSV encephalitis, MRI should be the first radiological diagnostic step and the diagnosis should be confirmed by the detection of HSV DNA in CSF by PCR.

  2. Diagnosis of Jamestown Canyon encephalitis by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Campbell, W; Grady, L; Kirouac, I; LaForce, F M

    1999-06-01

    In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been under study as a potential technique to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of suspected central nervous system viral infections. We describe a case of severe encephalitis in a previously healthy 20-year-old woman from New York who presented with headache, fever, and photophobia. Her illness was characterized by progressive worsening of her neurological status, leading to confusion, delirium, and status epilepticus. The diagnosis of Jamestown Canyon encephalitis was established by positive reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and nucleic acid sequencing of the band from both cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue. The nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of the Jamestown Canyon virus from this patient were very similar to Jamestown Canyon virus isolates from mosquito pools in New York. This report suggests that RT-PCR assays could be important tools in the diagnostic workup of cases of encephalitis.

  3. Astrovirus Encephalitis in Boy with X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Phenix-Lan; Wagner, Thor A.; Briese, Thomas; Torgerson, Troy R.; Hornig, Mady; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Firth, Cadhla; Palacios, Gustavo; Baisre-De-Leon, Ada; Paddock, Christopher D.; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Egholm, Michael; Zaki, Sherif R.; Goldman, James E.; Ochs, Hans D.

    2010-01-01

    Encephalitis is a major cause of death worldwide. Although >100 pathogens have been identified as causative agents, the pathogen is not determined for up to 75% of cases. This diagnostic failure impedes effective treatment and underscores the need for better tools and new approaches for detecting novel pathogens or determining new manifestations of known pathogens. Although astroviruses are commonly associated with gastroenteritis, they have not been associated with central nervous system disease. Using unbiased pyrosequencing, we detected an astrovirus as the causative agent for encephalitis in a 15-year-old boy with agammaglobulinemia; several laboratories had failed to identify the agent. Our findings expand the spectrum of causative agents associated with encephalitis and highlight unbiased molecular technology as a valuable tool for differential diagnosis of unexplained disease. PMID:20507741

  4. West Nile virus encephalitis with myositis and orchitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger D; Konoplev, Sergiej; DeCourten-Myers, Gabrielle; Brown, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the hospital course and autopsy findings of a 43-year-old man with a renal allograft who died of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis. Central nervous system (CNS) findings were those of severe necrotizing and hemorrhagic encephalitis affecting gray matter regions limited to the diencepahlon, rhombencephalon, spinal cord, and limbic system. The bilateral process exhibited preferential involvement of motor neurons. Brain imaging obtained 6 days before death demonstrated an unusual pattern of involvement corresponding with the autopsy findings, confirming that imaging may be a specific diagnostic guide in WNV encephalitis. Extra-CNS findings include myositis with T-lymphocyte infiltration of nerve fibers, suggesting that the virus may reach the CNS via peripheral nerves. Orchitis with dense T-lymphocyte infiltration and syncytial cell formation thought to be due to WNV were also noted.

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HASHEMIAN, Somayh; ASHRAFZADEH, Farah; AKHONDIAN, Javad; BEIRAGHI TOOSI, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Many neurologic manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection have been documented, including encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, transverse myelitis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These manifestations can occur alone or coincidentally with the clinical picture of infectious mononucleosis. EBV encephalitis is rare and is indicated as a wide range of clinical manifestations. We report a 10-year-old girl presented with fever, gait disturbance, and bizarre behavior for one week. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable. The diagnosis of EBV encephalitis was made by changes in titers of EBV specific antibodies and MRI findings. A cranial MRI demonstrated abnormal high signal intensities in the basal ganglia and the striatal body, especially in the putamen and caudate nucleus. EBV infection should be considered when lesions are localized to the basal ganglia. PMID:25767548

  6. Neonatal septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Halder, D; Seng, Q B; Malik, A S; Choo, K E

    1996-09-01

    Neonatal septic arthritis has always been considered as separate from its counterpart in older children. The condition is uncommon but serious. Affected neonates usually survive, but with permanent skeletal deformities. Ten cases of neonatal septic arthritis were diagnosed between January 1989 and December 1993 in the neonatal intensive care units of two referral hospitals in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. All except one neonate was born prematurely. The mean age of presentation was 15.6 days. Joint swelling (10/10), increased warmth (7/10) and erythema of the overlying skin (7/10) were the common presenting signs. Vague constitutional symptoms preceded the definitive signs of septic arthritis in all cases. The total white cell counts were raised with shift to the left. The knee (60%) was not commonly affected, followed by the hip (13%) and ankle (13%). Three neonates had multiple joint involvement. Coexistence of arthritis with osteomyelitis was observed in seven neonates. The commonest organism isolated was methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9/10). Needle aspiration was performed in nine neonates and one had incision with drainage. Follow up data was available for five neonates and two of these had skeletal morbidity. Early diagnosis by frequent examination of the joints, prompt treatment and control of nosocomial infection are important for management.

  7. Arthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... If arthritis is due to damaged ligaments, the support structures of the joint may be unstable or “loose.” ... dominant hand is affected • Your personal goals, home support structure, and ability to understand the treatment and comply ...

  8. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the possible causes of juvenile arthritis. They are studying genetic and environmental factors that they think are involved. They are also trying to improve current treatments and find new medicines that will work better with fewer side effects. Research supported by ...

  9. Dapsone in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, D J; Lamothe, M; Stevens, R M; Sigal, L H

    1996-06-01

    Dapsone, a synthetic sulfone with chemical similarities to sulfapyridine, has been used for a number of years to treat leprosy and dermatitis herpetiformis. Recently, a number of prospective, randomized, double-blind trials have shown their success in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, with dapsone being superior to placebo and comparable to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Its mode of anti-inflammatory actions in rheumatoid arthritis is not clearly understood, but modulation of neutrophil activity or inhibition of neutrophil inflammatory product formation or release appear to play a role. The major limiting side effect is hemolytic anemia, which may be mitigated through careful patient selection, conservative drug dosing, close monitoring, and possibly, concurrent administration of antioxidants or cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Methemoglobinemia is another common finding among patients receiving dapsone therapy, but rarely does it result in prominent symptoms other than transient pallor. Less common adverse events to dapsone include the idiosyncratic reactions of leukopenia and agranulocytosis, cutaneous eruptions, peripheral neuropathy, psychosis, toxic hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, nephrotic syndrome, renal papillary necrosis, severe hypoalbuminemia without proteinuria, an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome, and minor neurological and gastrointestinal complaints. In this report, two patients with advanced rheumatoid arthritis, who were safely and effectively treated with dapsone after failure with other second-line agents, are described and the literature is reviewed. We suggest that dapsone is an effective second-line agent in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis in the Philippines: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Roque, Vito G.; Tandoc, Amado O.; Sy, Ava Kristy; Espino, Fe Esperanza; DeQuiroz-Castro, Maricel; Jee, Youngmee; Ducusin, Maria Joyce; Fox, Kimberley K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia, with high case fatality rates and often significant neurologic sequelae among survivors. The epidemiology of JE in the Philippines is not well defined. To support consideration of JE vaccine for introduction into the national schedule in the Philippines, we conducted a systematic literature review and summarized JE surveillance data from 2011 to 2014. Methods We conducted searches on Japanese encephalitis and the Philippines in four databases and one library. Data from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and JE surveillance and from the national reference laboratory from January 2011 to March 2014 were tabulated and mapped. Results We identified 29 published reports and presentations on JE in the Philippines, including 5 serologic surveys, 18 reports of clinical cases, and 8 animal studies (including two with both clinical cases and animal data). The 18 clinical studies reported 257 cases of laboratory-confirmed JE from 1972 to 2013. JE virus (JEV) was the causative agent in 7% to 18% of cases of clinical meningitis and encephalitis combined, and 16% to 40% of clinical encephalitis cases. JE predominantly affected children under 15 years of age and 6% to 7% of cases resulted in death. Surveillance data from January 2011 to March 2014 identified 73 (15%) laboratory-confirmed JE cases out of 497 cases tested. Summary This comprehensive review demonstrates the endemicity and extensive geographic range of JE in the Philippines, and supports the use of JE vaccine in the country. Continued and improved surveillance with laboratory confirmation is needed to systematically quantify the burden of JE, to provide information that can guide prioritization of high risk areas in the country and determination of appropriate age and schedule of vaccine introduction, and to measure the impact of preventive measures including immunization against this important public health threat

  11. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in the Philippines: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Aldaba, Josephine G; Roque, Vito G; Tandoc, Amado O; Sy, Ava Kristy; Espino, Fe Esperanza; DeQuiroz-Castro, Maricel; Jee, Youngmee; Ducusin, Maria Joyce; Fox, Kimberley K

    2015-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia, with high case fatality rates and often significant neurologic sequelae among survivors. The epidemiology of JE in the Philippines is not well defined. To support consideration of JE vaccine for introduction into the national schedule in the Philippines, we conducted a systematic literature review and summarized JE surveillance data from 2011 to 2014. We conducted searches on Japanese encephalitis and the Philippines in four databases and one library. Data from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and JE surveillance and from the national reference laboratory from January 2011 to March 2014 were tabulated and mapped. We identified 29 published reports and presentations on JE in the Philippines, including 5 serologic surveys, 18 reports of clinical cases, and 8 animal studies (including two with both clinical cases and animal data). The 18 clinical studies reported 257 cases of laboratory-confirmed JE from 1972 to 2013. JE virus (JEV) was the causative agent in 7% to 18% of cases of clinical meningitis and encephalitis combined, and 16% to 40% of clinical encephalitis cases. JE predominantly affected children under 15 years of age and 6% to 7% of cases resulted in death. Surveillance data from January 2011 to March 2014 identified 73 (15%) laboratory-confirmed JE cases out of 497 cases tested. This comprehensive review demonstrates the endemicity and extensive geographic range of JE in the Philippines, and supports the use of JE vaccine in the country. Continued and improved surveillance with laboratory confirmation is needed to systematically quantify the burden of JE, to provide information that can guide prioritization of high risk areas in the country and determination of appropriate age and schedule of vaccine introduction, and to measure the impact of preventive measures including immunization against this important public health threat.

  12. Roseolovirus-associated encephalitis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.

    PubMed

    Ongrádi, Joseph; Ablashi, Dharam V; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Stercz, Balázs; Ogata, Masao

    2017-02-01

    The roseoloviruses, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, can cause severe encephalitis or encephalopathy. In immunocompetent children, primary HHV-6B infection is occasionally accompanied by diverse clinical forms of encephalitis. Roseolovirus coinfections with heterologous viruses and delayed primary HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults result in very severe neurological and generalized symptoms. Recovery from neurological sequelae is slow and sometimes incomplete. In immunocompromised patients with underlying hematological malignancies and transplantation, frequent single or simultaneous reactivation of roseoloviruses elicit severe, lethal organ dysfunctions, including damages in the limbic system, brain stem, and hippocampus. Most cases have been due to HHV-6B with HHV-6A accounting for 2-3%. The most severe manifestation of HHV-6B reactivation is post-transplantation limbic encephalitis. Seizures, cognitive problems, and abnormal EEG are common. Major risk factors for HHV-6B-associated encephalitis include unrelated cord blood cell transplantation and repeated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Rare genetic disorders, male gender, certain HLA constellation, and immune tolerance to replicating HHV-6 in persons carrying chromosomally integrated HHV-6 might also predispose an individual to roseolovirus-associated brain damage. At this time, little is known about the risk factors for HHV-7-associated encephalitis. Intrathecal glial cell destruction due to virus replication, overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, and viral mimicry of chemokines all contribute to brain dysfunction. High virus load in the cerebrospinal fluid, hippocampal astrogliosis, and viral protein expression in HHV-6B-associated cases and multiple microscopic neuronal degeneration in HHV-7-associated cases are typical laboratory findings. Early empirical therapy with ganciclovir or foscarnet might save the life of a patient with roseolovirus-associated encephalitis.

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis.

  14. Neuroleptic intolerance in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lejuste, Florian; Thomas, Laure; Picard, Géraldine; Desestret, Virginie; Ducray, François; Rogemond, Veronique; Psimaras, Dimitri; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Groc, Laurent; Leboyer, Marion; Honnorat, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    To precisely describe the initial psychiatric presentation of patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies encephalitis (anti-NMDAR encephalitis) to identify potential clues enhancing its early diagnosis. We retrospectively studied the French Reference Centre medical records of every adult patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis to specify the patients' initial psychiatric symptoms leading to hospitalization in a psychiatric department and the reasons underlying the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The medical records of 111 adult patients were reviewed. Psychiatric features were the initial presentation in 65 patients (59%). Among them, several psychiatric manifestations were observed, including visual and auditory hallucinations (n = 26, 40%), depression (n = 15, 23%), mania (n = 5, 8%), acute schizoaffective episode (n = 15, 23%), and eating disorder or addiction (n = 4; 6%). Forty-five patients (40% of total cohort) were first hospitalized in a psychiatric institution (91% women), with a median duration of stay of 9 days (range 0.25-239 days). Among them, 24 patients (53%) had associated discreet neurologic signs at the first evaluation, while 17 additional patients (38%) developed neurologic signs within a few days. Twenty-one patients (47%) were transferred to a medical unit for a suspicion of antipsychotic intolerance characterized by high temperature, muscle rigidity, mutism or coma, and biological results suggesting rhabdomyolysis. Several psychiatric presentations were observed in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, although none was specific; however, patients, mostly women, also had discreet neurologic signs that should be carefully assessed as well as signs of antipsychotic intolerance that should raise suspicion for anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  15. Neuroleptic intolerance in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lejuste, Florian; Thomas, Laure; Picard, Géraldine; Desestret, Virginie; Ducray, François; Rogemond, Veronique; Psimaras, Dimitri; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Groc, Laurent; Leboyer, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To precisely describe the initial psychiatric presentation of patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies encephalitis (anti-NMDAR encephalitis) to identify potential clues enhancing its early diagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively studied the French Reference Centre medical records of every adult patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis to specify the patients' initial psychiatric symptoms leading to hospitalization in a psychiatric department and the reasons underlying the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Results: The medical records of 111 adult patients were reviewed. Psychiatric features were the initial presentation in 65 patients (59%). Among them, several psychiatric manifestations were observed, including visual and auditory hallucinations (n = 26, 40%), depression (n = 15, 23%), mania (n = 5, 8%), acute schizoaffective episode (n = 15, 23%), and eating disorder or addiction (n = 4; 6%). Forty-five patients (40% of total cohort) were first hospitalized in a psychiatric institution (91% women), with a median duration of stay of 9 days (range 0.25–239 days). Among them, 24 patients (53%) had associated discreet neurologic signs at the first evaluation, while 17 additional patients (38%) developed neurologic signs within a few days. Twenty-one patients (47%) were transferred to a medical unit for a suspicion of antipsychotic intolerance characterized by high temperature, muscle rigidity, mutism or coma, and biological results suggesting rhabdomyolysis. Conclusions: Several psychiatric presentations were observed in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, although none was specific; however, patients, mostly women, also had discreet neurologic signs that should be carefully assessed as well as signs of antipsychotic intolerance that should raise suspicion for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:27606355

  16. Effects of EPA and DHA on lipid droplet accumulation and mRNA abundance of PAT proteins in caprine monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Cristina; Invernizzi, Guido; Agazzi, Alessandro; Modina, Silvia; Sartorelli, Paola; Savoini, Giovanni; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro effects on caprine monocytes of two ω-3 PUFAs, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on lipid droplet formation, an emerging process of fundamental importance in innate immunity regulation. The mRNA abundance of PAT protein family (PLIN1, PLIN2 and PLIN3), involved in the formation and trafficking of the droplets, was also assessed. The effects of EPA and DHA on monocyte apoptosis were studied as well. The number of lipid droplets per cell was found to be dependent on both type and concentration of fatty acid. ω-3 PUFAs upregulated PLIN3 and PLIN2 gene expression, as well as apoptosis rate. The present findings suggest that PUFA might modify innate immune functions of goat monocytes by interfering with the formation of lipid droplets and by upregulating proteins belonging to PAT protein family.

  17. [Juvenile idiopathic systemic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Baksiene, Dalia; Kasparaviciene, Jūrate; Zebiene, Migla; Puteliene, Brigita

    2003-01-01

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY was to evaluate the peculiarities of the clinical features, laboratory parameters and tactics of treatment in juvenile idiopatic systematic arthritis. A retrospective data review of 41 children (26 boys and 15 girls) who underwent treatment for systemic arthritis (according to ILAR criteria) in our institution between 1992 and 2002 was performed. The disease started with fever of unknown origin in all cases. In 73% of patients it lasted longer than one month, in 54% fever was with twice daily spikers in the morning and in the evening. The rash during the rise of temperature appeared in 49%, in most cases (70%) there was a maculo-papular rash. Lymphadenopathy and serositis were observed in 32%, hepatomegaly in 29%, and splenomegaly in 24%. Arthritis coincided with the fever in 29% of patients, in majority of cases it was progressing to a severe persistent arthritis after the systematic phase. There was no specific laboratory findings: neutrophilic leucocytosis was found in 73%, anemia - in 80.5%, trombocytosis - in 36.6%, elevated CRP - in 63.4%, dysproteinemia - in 79% of patients. Antinuclear factors were absent in all examined children. For all patients intravenous methylprednisolone pulses have been administered (10-22 mg/kg/infusion). Prednisolone was also continued orally (1-2 mg/kg/day). 24.4% of patients required in addition immunosupressive agents such as methotrexate, azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. Puls-therapy of methylprednisolone is a safe and sufficiently effective method of treatment in most cases of the systematic juvenile arthritis.

  18. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis: past, present, and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanyu; Liang, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of severe viral encephalitis that affects individuals in Asia, western Pacific countries, and northern Australia. Although 67,900 JE cases have been estimated among 24 JE epidemic countries annually, only 10,426 have been reported in 2011. With the establishment of JE surveillance and vaccine use in some countries, the JE incidence rate has decreased; however, serious outbreaks still occur. Understanding JE epidemics and identifying the circulating JE virus genotypes will improve JE prevention and control. This review summarizes the current epidemiology data in these countries. PMID:25848290

  19. An atypical Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis with involvement of spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, Gian Luca; Grazzini, Irene; Guadagni, Martina; Venturini, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Amedeo

    2016-10-01

    Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a rare neurological disease that generally has a good prognosis. We describe an atypical case of a patient with severe BBE; the presentation was uncommon because of the lack of ophthalmoplegia and because of evidence of both peripheral neuropathy and brainstem encephalitis. The article reports clinical and biochemical evaluation and focuses on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in diagnosis and management of the patient. Notably, we found a previously unreported dramatic spinal cord involvement on MRI. We believe these findings could add to diagnostic tools, and that this case may represent a new variant of BBE with more aggressive behavior. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, autoimmunity, and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-09-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently-discovered synaptic autoimmune disorder in which auto-antibodies target NMDARs in the brain, leading to their removal from the synapse. Patients manifest with prominent psychiatric symptoms - and in particular psychosis - early in the disease course. This presentation converges with long-standing evidence on multiple fronts supporting the glutamatergic model of schizophrenia. We review mechanisms underlying disease in anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and discuss its role in furthering our understanding of neural circuit dysfunction in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anterior opercular syndrome induced by Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Takashi; Nishioka, Kenya; Tanaka, Ryota; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old female presenting with fever, drooling, anarthria, and voluntary facial movement disruption, characteristic of anterior opercular syndrome (AOS). Serological examination revealed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection following acute encephalitis with severe ataxia. A single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) examination indicated hypoperfusion in the left perisylvian region, bilateral thalamus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum. This is the first report of AOS related to EBV encephalitis. SPECT was a useful method for detecting the damaged region of the operculum. In addition, AOS is a clinically distinct entity that may help us understand the mechanisms of language circuits within the operculum.

  2. Luxury perfusion phenomenon in acute herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Uesugi, M; Igeta, Y; Kondo, S; Sun, X; Hirai, S

    1995-02-01

    In a patient with acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis, positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated increased cerebral blood flow in the affected temporal lobe accompanied by reduction in the cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, i.e., luxury perfusion. Follow-up PET studies showed reduction in cerebral perfusion until it was more closely coupled with oxygen metabolism after the resolution of the acute inflammation. These findings support previous single photon emission computed tomographic data and provide a pathophysiological background for the occurrence of hyperperfusion in HSV encephalitis. This is an interesting example of the luxury perfusion phenomenon occurring in a disease other than cerebral ischemia.

  3. Ketogenic diet therapy is effective in encephalitis with refractory seizures.

    PubMed

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Kurata, Tomoko; Deguchi, Shoko; Yamashita, Toru; Deguchi, Kentaro; Abe, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Although ketogenic diet therapy is effective in refractory seizures in childhood, its effect on adult encephalitis with similar refractory seizures and prolonged encephalopathy has not been well reported. We report here a case of a 22-year-old man with acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS). Partial seizures of the face developed to repeated generalized convulsions, which were refractory against anti-epileptic drugs and a high dose of propofol. After struggling for 9 months, he dramatically recovered after ketogenic diet therapy. Ketogenic diet therapy may be an important tool to help cure AERRPS.

  4. Intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of childhood encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Iro, Mildred A; Martin, Natalie G; Absoud, Michael; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-10-02

    Encephalitis is a syndrome of neurological dysfunction due to inflammation of the brain parenchyma, caused by an infection or an exaggerated host immune response, or both. Attenuation of brain inflammation through modulation of the immune response could improve patient outcomes. Biological agents such as immunoglobulin that have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties may therefore be useful as adjunctive therapies for people with encephalitis. To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as add-on treatment for children with encephalitis. The Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the CNS group's Information Specialist searched the following databases up to 30 September 2016: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO ICTRP Search Portal. In addition, two review authors searched Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) & Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) (Web of Science Core Collection, Thomson Reuters) (1945 to January 2016), Global Health Library (Virtual Health Library), and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IVIG in addition to standard care versus standard care alone or placebo. Two review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, extracted relevant data, and assessed quality of trials. We resolved disagreements by discussion among the review authors. Where possible, we contacted authors of included studies for additional information. We presented results as risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The search identified three RCTs with 138 participants. All three trials included only children with viral encephalitis, one of these included only children with Japanese encephalitis, a specific form of viral encephalitis. Only the trial of Japanese encephalitis (22 children) contributed to the primary outcome of this review and follow-up in that study

  5. Interaction between estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone promotes in vitro survival and development of caprine preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Lima-Verde, I B; Matos, M H T; Saraiva, M V A; Bruno, J B; Tenório, S B; Martins, F S; Rossetto, R; Cunha, L D; Name, K P O; Báo, S N; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on survival and growth of caprine preantral follicles. Pieces of ovarian tissue were cultured for 1 or 7 days in minimum essential medium (MEM) containing estradiol (1, 5, 10, 20 or 40 pg/ml), FSH (50 ng/ml), or a combination of the two hormones. Cultured and noncultured control ovarian tissues were processed for histological and ultrastructural studies. The results showed that after 7 days of culture, the treatments that yielded the highest percentage of normal follicles relative to MEM alone were those that combined FSH with estradiol at 1, 5 or 20 pg/ml. The addition of FSH to 1-day cultures containing 1 pg/ml estradiol or to 7-day cultures with 1 or 5 pg/ml estradiol increased the percentage of normal follicles compared to estradiol alone at the same concentrations. After 7 days of culture, all treatments generated higher percentages of developing follicles as compared to control and MEM alone. The addition of either FSH or 10 pg/ml of estradiol to the culture media or estradiol (1, 5, 10 or 20 pg/ml) and FSH in combination significantly increased follicular diameter as compared with MEM alone following 7 days of culture. Ultrastructural studies confirmed follicular integrity after 7 days of culture in the presence of 1 pg/ml estradiol plus FSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the interaction between estradiol and FSH maintains ultrastructural integrity and stimulates activation and further growth of cultured caprine preantral follicles.

  6. A new African fossil caprin and a combined molecular and morphological Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of caprini (Mammalia: Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Bibi, F; Vrba, E; Fack, F

    2012-09-01

    Given that most species that have ever existed on Earth are extinct, no evolutionary history can ever be complete without the inclusion of fossil taxa. Bovids (antelopes and relatives) are one of the most diverse clades of large mammals alive today, with over a hundred living species and hundreds of documented fossil species. With the advent of molecular phylogenetics, major advances have been made in the phylogeny of this clade; however, there has been little attempt to integrate the fossil record into the developing phylogenetic picture. We here describe a new large fossil caprin species from ca. 1.9-Ma deposits from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. To place the new species phylogenetically, we perform a Bayesian analysis of a combined molecular (cytochrome b) and morphological (osteological) character supermatrix. We include all living species of Caprini, the new fossil species, a fossil takin from the Pliocene of Ethiopia (Budorcas churcheri), and the insular subfossil Myotragus balearicus. The combined analysis demonstrates successful incorporation of both living and fossil species within a single phylogeny based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Analysis of the combined supermatrix produces superior resolution than with either the molecular or morphological data sets considered alone. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the data set are also compared and shown to produce similar results. The combined phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new fossil species is nested within Capra, making it one of the earliest representatives of this clade, with implications for molecular clock calibration. Geographical optimization indicates no less than four independent dispersals into Africa by caprins since the Pliocene. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs for the treatment of caprine cartilage defects, including distribution of laminin and type IV collagen.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Lily; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of (1) cartilage tissue-engineered constructs; and (2) the tissue filling cartilage defects in a goat model into which the constructs were implanted, particularly for the presence of the basement membrane molecules, laminin and type IV collagen. Basement membrane molecules are localized to the pericellular matrix in normal adult articular cartilage, but have not been examined in tissue-engineered constructs cultured in vitro or in tissue filling cartilage defects into which the constructs were implanted. Cartilaginous constructs were engineered in vitro using caprine chondrocyte-seeded type II collagen scaffolds. Autologous constructs were implanted into 4-mm-diameter defects created to the tidemark in the trochlear groove in the knee joints of skeletally mature goats. Eight weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed. Constructs underwent immunohistochemical and histomorphometric evaluation. Widespread staining for the two basement membrane molecules was observed throughout the extracellular matrix of in vitro and in vivo samples in a distribution unlike that previously reported for cartilage. At sacrifice, 70% of the defect site was filled with reparative tissue, which consisted largely of fibrous tissue and some fibrocartilage, with over 70% of the reparative tissue bonded to the adjacent host tissue. A novel finding of this study was the observation of laminin and type IV collagen in in vitro engineered cartilaginous constructs and in vivo cartilage repair samples from defects into which the constructs were implanted, as well as in normal caprine articular cartilage. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of basement membrane molecules during cartilage repair and regeneration.

  8. Herpes simplex encephalitis and subsequent cytomegalovirus encephalitis after chemoradiotherapy for central nervous system lymphoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroshi I; Hangaishi, Akira; Hosoya, Noriko; Watanabe, Takuro; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-06-01

    Neurological complications during the treatment of hematological malignancies have a wide range of causes. Treatment-related leukoencephalopathy has been recognized as a major complication of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, and can complicate the diagnosis of CNS infection. Herein, we present a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who developed herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and subsequent cytomegalovirus encephalitis after chemoradiotherapy for CNS relapse. Although cerebrospinal fluid examination (CSF) showed no significant pleocytosis, brain magnetic resonance imaging and polymerase chain reaction analysis of the CSF were useful in the diagnosis. With a review of the literature on the association between HSE and radiotherapy for CNS malignancies, our case suggests that an awareness of viral encephalitis is important in the differential diagnosis of acute neurologic disturbance during chemoradiotherapy for CNS lymphoma.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  10. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Eyes?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects ...

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects joints, it sometimes causes lung disease ...

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Rheumatoid Arthritis: In Depth Share: On This Page Key Points ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory autoimmune disease—a ...

  13. Rasmussen encephalitis with dual pathology in a patient without seizures: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Mazur, Marcus D; Mohila, Carrie A; Sweney, Matthew T; Hersh, Aimee; Bollo, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis without seizures is rare. We report a case of Rasmussen encephalitis and cortical dysplasia without epilepsy as well as describe the imaging, pathology, and clinical course and review the literature to investigate whether this may represent a rare subset of Rasmussen encephalitis. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with a history of cognitive decline and right arm weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse left hemispheric cortical and subcortical atrophy suggestive of Rasmussen encephalitis. The patient had no clinical history of seizures, and electroencephalography did not demonstrate epileptiform abnormalities. Craniotomy for open brain biopsy was performed, and histopathologic evaluation identified Rasmussen encephalitis with cortical dysplasia (dual pathology). To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of Rasmussen encephalitis diagnosed by both imaging and histopathology that had no clinical or electroencephalographic evidence of seizures and is the only case of Rasmussen encephalitis with cortical dysplasia without epilepsy.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PATHOLOGY OF EXPERIMENTAL VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS

    PubMed Central

    Flexner, Simon; Amoss, Harold L.

    1925-01-01

    In this paper we have sought to show that unequivocal strains of herpes virus exist in man, which, in the rabbit, exhibit a degree of encephalitogenic power not exceeded, and perhaps rarely equalled, by any strain of the so called encephalitis virus. The fact that such highly encephalitogenic strains of the herpes virus exist in nature has, at the moment, theoretical and practical importance. Until recently, the view has been accepted by certain workers in the field that two biologically distinct viruses of this class occur—one inducing epidemic encephalitis and the other febrile herpes in man. This view, is, indeed, being supplanted at the present time by the notion, advocated by Levaditi, Nicolau, and Poincloux, of a group of closely related virus organisms for which the name "herpetico-encephalitic" is proposed. Within this group they distinguish strains of virus displaying special affinities for the central nervous organs and others exhibiting equal affinities for skin and membrane (cornea) structures. The first mentioned strains are responsible, under suitable circumstances, for epidemics of encephalitis in man; the others give rise to ordinary attacks of febrile herpes. The H. F. virus described in this paper does not conform to the classification indicated. While being a true febrile herpes strain, it possesses, nevertheless) a high degree of power to attack the central nervous system as well as marked capacity to implant itself on the skin and the cornea of the rabbit. Not only does virus encephalitis follow invariably upon the intracranial injection of the H. F. virus, but as regularly upon corneal, skin, nasal, blood, and testicular modes of inoculation. The symptoms of virus encephalitis thus provoked and the character of the brain lesions induced are precisely those, in all their detail and variety, including the presence of intracellular inclusion bodies, which have been described for the so called virus of encephalitis. Moreover, the H. F. virus is

  15. Pathogenetic difference between collagen arthritis and adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Daily treatment with cyclosporin at a dose of 25 mg/kg for 14 d gave complete suppression of the development of collagen arthritis and adjuvant arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rats during an observation period of 45 d. To study whether the immunologic unresponsiveness produced by cyclosporin is antigen specific, we rechallenged the cyclosporin- protected rats with either type II collagen or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) after discontinuation of cyclosporin treatment. Type II collagen-immunized, cyclosporin-protected rats did not develop arthritis in response to reimmunization with type II collagen, but, they did develop arthritis in response to a subsequent injection of CFA. Similarly, CFA-injected, cyclosporin-protected rats showed a suppressed arthritogenic reaction in response to reinjection of CFA, whereas their response to a subsequent immunization with type II collagen was unaffected. On the other hand, the rats that were treated with cyclosporin without any prior antigenic challenge could develop arthritis in response to a subsequent injection of CFA or type II collagen after cessation of cyclosporin treatment. These results indicate that specific immunologic unresponsiveness can be induced by cyclosporin in the two experimental models of polyarthritis, collagen arthritis and adjuvant arthritis, and that there is no cross-reactivity between type II collagen and the mycobacterial cell wall components. The results further indicate that immunity to type II collagen plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of collagen arthritis but that its pathogenetic role in adjuvant arthritis is insignificant. PMID:6201583

  16. Hydrolysis of bovine and caprine milk fat globules by lipoprotein lipase. Effects of heparin and skim milk on lipase distribution and on lipolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sundheim, G.; Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.

    1987-12-01

    Heparin can dissociate lipoprotein lipase from casein micelles, and addition of heparin enhances lipolysis in bovine but not in caprine milk. Heparin shortened the lag-time for binding of lipoprotein lipase to milk fat globules and for lipolysis. Heparin counteracted the inhibitory effects of skim milk on binding of lipase and on lipolysis. Heparin stimulated lipolysis in all bovine milk samples when added before cooling and in spontaneously lipolytic milk samples also when added after cooling. Heparin enhanced lipolysis of isolated milk fat globules. Hence, its effect is not solely due to dissociation of lipoprotein lipase from the casein micelles. Cooling of goat milk caused more marked changes in the distribution of lipase than cooling of bovine milk; the fraction of added /sup 125/I-labeled lipase that bound to cream increased from about 8 to 60%. In addition, caprine skim milk caused less inhibition of lipolysis than bovine skim milk. These observations provide an explanation for the high degree of cold storage lipolysis in goat milk. Heparin had only small effects on the distribution of lipoprotein lipase in caprine milk, which explains why heparin has so little effect on lipolysis in caprine milk. The distribution of /sup 35/S-labeled heparin in bovine milk was studied. In warm milk less than 10% bound to the cream fraction, but when milk was cooled, binding of heparin to cream increased to 45%. These results suggest that there exists in the skim fraction a relatively small amount of a heparin-binding protein, which on cooling of milk adsorbs to the milk fat, or suggests that cooling induces a conformational change in a membrane protein such that its affinity for heparin increases.

  17. Caprine PrP variants harboring Asp-146, His-154 and Gln-211 alleles display reduced convertibility upon interaction with pathogenic murine prion protein in scrapie infected cells.

    PubMed

    Kanata, Eirini; Arsenakis, Minas; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2016-09-02

    Scrapie, the prion disease of sheep and goats, is a devastating malady of small ruminants. Due to its infectious nature, epidemic outbreaks may occur in flocks/herds consisting of highly susceptible animals. Field studies identified scrapie-protective caprine PrP variants, harboring specific single amino acid changes (Met-142, Arg-143, Asp-146, Ser-146, His-154, Gln-211 and Lys-222). Their effects are under further evaluation, and aim to determine the most protective allele. We assessed some of these variants (Asp-146, His-154, Gln-211 and Lys-222), after their exogenous expression as murine-caprine chimeras in a scrapie- infected murine cell line. We report that exogenously expressed PrPs undergo conformational conversion upon interaction with the endogenous pathological murine prion protein (PrP(SC)), which results in the detection of goat-specific and partially PK-resistant moieties. These moieties display a PK-resistance pattern distinct from the one detected in natural goat scrapie cases. Within this cellular model, distinct conformational conversion potentials were assigned to the tested variants. Molecules carrying the Asp-146, His-154 and Gln-211 alleles showed significantly lower conversion levels compared to wild type, confirming their protective effects against scrapie. Although we utilized a heterologous conversion system, this is to our knowledge, the first study of caprine PrP variants in a cellular context of scrapie, that confirms the protective effects of some of the studied alleles.

  18. Caprine PrP variants harboring Asp-146, His-154 and Gln-211 alleles display reduced convertibility upon interaction with pathogenic murine prion protein in scrapie infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanata, Eirini; Arsenakis, Minas; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scrapie, the prion disease of sheep and goats, is a devastating malady of small ruminants. Due to its infectious nature, epidemic outbreaks may occur in flocks/herds consisting of highly susceptible animals. Field studies identified scrapie-protective caprine PrP variants, harboring specific single amino acid changes (Met-142, Arg-143, Asp-146, Ser-146, His-154, Gln-211 and Lys-222). Their effects are under further evaluation, and aim to determine the most protective allele. We assessed some of these variants (Asp-146, His-154, Gln-211 and Lys-222), after their exogenous expression as murine-caprine chimeras in a scrapie- infected murine cell line. We report that exogenously expressed PrPs undergo conformational conversion upon interaction with the endogenous pathological murine prion protein (PrPSC), which results in the detection of goat-specific and partially PK-resistant moieties. These moieties display a PK-resistance pattern distinct from the one detected in natural goat scrapie cases. Within this cellular model, distinct conformational conversion potentials were assigned to the tested variants. Molecules carrying the Asp-146, His-154 and Gln-211 alleles showed significantly lower conversion levels compared to wild type, confirming their protective effects against scrapie. Although we utilized a heterologous conversion system, this is to our knowledge, the first study of caprine PrP variants in a cellular context of scrapie, that confirms the protective effects of some of the studied alleles. PMID:27537339

  19. Fragile X mental retardation protein interacts with the RNA-binding protein Caprin1 in neuronal RiboNucleoProtein complexes [corrected].

    PubMed

    El Fatimy, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Dury, Alain Y; Solomon, Samuel; De Koninck, Paul; Schrader, John W; Khandjian, Edouard W

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein. FMRP is associated with messenger RiboNucleoParticles (mRNPs) present in polyribosomes and its absence in neurons leads to alteration in synaptic plasticity as a result of translation regulation defects. The molecular mechanisms by which FMRP plays a role in translation regulation remain elusive. Using immunoprecipitation approaches with monoclonal Ab7G1-1 and a new generation of chicken antibodies, we identified Caprin1 as a novel FMRP-cellular partner. In vivo and in vitro evidence show that Caprin1 interacts with FMRP at the level of the translation machinery as well as in trafficking neuronal granules. As an RNA-binding protein, Caprin1 has in common with FMRP at least two RNA targets that have been identified as CaMKIIα and Map1b mRNAs. In view of the new concept that FMRP species bind to RNA regardless of known structural motifs, we propose that protein interactors might modulate FMRP functions.

  20. Targeting a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the caprin-1 protein and the c-Myc mRNA suppresses tumor growth in mice: an identification of a novel oncotarget.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ya-Qi; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Yue-Zhi; Yang, Ruey-Bing; Lee, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Hsing-Yu; Chang, Chien-Chung; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2015-02-10

    Tylophorine compounds have been the focus of drug development for decades. Tylophorine derivatives exhibit anti-cancer activities but their cellular targets remain unknown. We used a biotinylated tylophorine derivative to probe for the interacting cellular target(s) of tylophorine. Tylophorine directly binds to caprin-1 and consequently enhances the recruitment of G3BP1, c-Myc mRNA, and cyclin D2 mRNA to form a ribonucleoprotein complex. Subsequently, this tylophorine targeted ribonucleoprotein complex is sequestered to the polysomal fractions and the protein expressions of the associated mRNA-transcripts are repressed. Caprin-1 depleted carcinoma cells become more resistant to tylophorine, associated with decreased formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex targeted by tylophorine. Consequently, tylophorine downregulates c-Myc and cyclins D1/D2, causing hypophosphorylation of Rb and suppression of both processing-body formation and the Warburg effect. Gene expression profiling and gain-of-c-Myc-function experiments also revealed that the downregulated c-Myc contributes to the anti-oncogenic effects of tylophorine compounds. Furthermore, the potent tylophorine derivative dibenzoquinoline-33b elicited a similar effect, as c-Myc protein levels were also decreased in xenograft tumors treated with dibenzoquinoline-33b. Thus, tylophorine compounds exert anti-cancer activity predominantly by targeting and sequestering the caprin-1 protein and c-Myc mRNA associated ribonucleoprotein complex.

  1. Targeting a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the caprin-1 protein and the c-Myc mRNA suppresses tumor growth in mice: an identification of a novel oncotarget

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ya-Qi; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Yue-Zhi; Yang, Ruey-Bing; Lee, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Hsing-Yu; Chang, Chien-Chung; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Tylophorine compounds have been the focus of drug development for decades. Tylophorine derivatives exhibit anti-cancer activities but their cellular targets remain unknown. We used a biotinylated tylophorine derivative to probe for the interacting cellular target(s) of tylophorine. Tylophorine directly binds to caprin-1 and consequently enhances the recruitment of G3BP1, c-Myc mRNA, and cyclin D2 mRNA to form a ribonucleoprotein complex. Subsequently, this tylophorine targeted ribonucleoprotein complex is sequestered to the polysomal fractions and the protein expressions of the associated mRNA-transcripts are repressed. Caprin-1 depleted carcinoma cells become more resistant to tylophorine, associated with decreased formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex targeted by tylophorine. Consequently, tylophorine downregulates c-Myc and cyclins D1/D2, causing hypophosphorylation of Rb and suppression of both processing-body formation and the Warburg effect. Gene expression profiling and gain-of-c-Myc-function experiments also revealed that the downregulated c-Myc contributes to the anti-oncogenic effects of tylophorine compounds. Furthermore, the potent tylophorine derivative dibenzoquinoline-33b elicited a similar effect, as c-Myc protein levels were also decreased in xenograft tumors treated with dibenzoquinoline-33b. Thus, tylophorine compounds exert anti-cancer activity predominantly by targeting and sequestering the caprin-1 protein and c-Myc mRNA associated ribonucleoprotein complex. PMID:25669982

  2. Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Nitatpattana, Narong; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Souris, Marc; Barbazan, Philippe; Yoksan, Sutee; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003–2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype I, which shows a switch from genotype III incidence that started during the 1980s. PMID:18976565

  3. Encephalitis-Associated Hospitalizations among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Mehal, Jason M.; Holman, Robert C.; Vora, Neil M.; Blanton, Jesse; Gordon, Paul H.; Cheek, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Encephalitis produces considerable morbidity in the United States, but morbidity rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have not been described. Hospitalization records listing an encephalitis diagnosis were analyzed by using Indian Health Service direct/contract inpatient data. For 1998–2010, there were 436 encephalitis-associated hospitalizations among AI/AN people, an average annual age-adjusted hospitalization rate of 3.1/100,000 population. The rate for infants (11.9) was more than double that for any other age group. Death occurred for 4.1% of hospitalizations. Consistent with reports for the general U.S. population, the rate was high among infants and most (53.9%) hospitalizations were of unexplained etiology. The average annual rate during the study period appeared lower than for the general U.S. population, due particularly to lower rates in the elderly. Future community-based surveillance and mortality studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine reasons underlying the low rates of encephalitis in AI/AN people. PMID:24515941

  4. Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Acute Epidemic Encephalitis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Franklin G.

    2007-01-01

    In reviewing the enormous number of articles on all phases of acute epidemic encephalitis one cannot help being impressed by the lack of attention paid to children who have suffered from this disease. This is especially true of the important neuropsychiatric sequelae. During the past few months, seventeen patients have been referred to the…

  5. Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Acute Epidemic Encephalitis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Franklin G.

    2007-01-01

    In reviewing the enormous number of articles on all phases of acute epidemic encephalitis one cannot help being impressed by the lack of attention paid to children who have suffered from this disease. This is especially true of the important neuropsychiatric sequelae. During the past few months, seventeen patients have been referred to the…

  6. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis: state-of-the-art].

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, M; Alekseev, V V; Lipnitskiĭ, A V

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides the currently available data on the global prevalence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), its epidemiology, clinical picture, and specific prevention in human beings. It also discussed the problem of potential use of the causative agent of VEE as a subject of bioterrorism.

  7. Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus, California, 2015

    PubMed Central

    White, Gregory S.; Symmes, Kelly; Sun, Pu; Fang, Ying; Garcia, Sandra; Steiner, Cody; Smith, Kirk; Reisen, William K.

    2016-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was detected in summer 2015 in southern California after an 11-year absence, concomitant with an Arizona outbreak. Sequence comparisons showed close identity of California and Arizona isolates with 2005 Argentine isolates, suggesting introduction from South America and underscoring the value of continued arbovirus surveillance. PMID:27869600

  8. Fulminant encephalitis associated with a vaccine strain of rubella virus.

    PubMed

    Gualberto, Felipe Augusto Souza; de Oliveira, Maria Isabel; Alves, Venancio A F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Sato, Helena Keico; Arantes, Benedito A F; Curti, Suely Pires; Figueiredo, Cristina Adelaide

    2013-12-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system is common in measles, but rare in rubella. However, rubella virus (RV) can cause a variety of central nervous system syndromes, including meningitis, encephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and sub acute sclerosing panencephalitis. We report the occurrence of one fatal case of the encephalitis associated with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine during an immunization campaign in São Paulo, Brazil. A 31 year-old-man, previously in good health, was admitted at emergency room, with confusion, agitation, inability to stand and hold his head up. Ten days prior to admission, he was vaccinated with combined MR vaccine (Serum Institute of India) and three days later he developed 'flu-like' illness with fever, myalgia and headache. Results of clinical and laboratory exams were consistent with a pattern of viral encephalitis. During hospitalization, his condition deteriorated rapidly with tetraplegia and progression to coma. On the 3rd day of hospitalization he died. Histopathology confirmed encephalitis and immunohistochemistry was positive for RV on brain tissue. RV was also detected by qPCR and virus isolation in cerebrospinal fluid, brain and other clinical samples. The sequence obtained from the isolated virus was identical to that of the RA 27/3 vaccine strain.

  9. Current approaches to the treatment of paraneoplastic encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Grisold, Wolfgang; Giometto, Bruno; Vitaliani, Roberta; Oberndorfer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) cover a wide range of diseases and involve both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. Paraneoplastic encephalitis comprises several diseases such as paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), limbic encephalitis (LE), paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM), brainstem encephalitis, opsomyoclonus syndrome, in addition to other even less frequently occurring entities. LE was the first historically identified CNS PNS, and similarities between other temporal lobe diseases such as herpes encephalitis have been elucidated. In the past few decades several autoantibodies have been described in association with LE. These encompass the classical ‘onconeuronal’ antibodies (abs) such as Hu, Yo, Ri and others, and now additionally abs towards either ion channels or surface antigens. The clinical core findings in LE are various mental changes such as amnesia or confusion, often associated with seizures. Careful characterization of psychiatric manifestations and/or associated neurological signs can help to characterize the syndrome and type of ab. The treatment options in LE depend on the aetiology. In LE caused by onconeuronal abs, the treatment options are poor. In two types of abs associated with LE, abs against ion channels and surface antigens (e.g. NMDA), immunomodulatory treatments seem effective, making these types of LE treatable conditions. However, LE can also occur without being associated with cancer, in which case only immunomodulation is required. Despite effective treatments, some patients’ residual deficits remain, and recurrences have also been described. PMID:21765874

  10. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox.

    PubMed

    Busi, Chiara; Martella, Vito; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Lelli, Davide; Alborali, G Loris; Gibelli, Lucia; Gelmetti, Daniela; Lavazza, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Boniotti, M Beatrice

    2017-09-01

    In 2011, a group A rotavirus was isolated from the brain of a fox with encephalitis and neurologic signs, detected by rabies surveillance in Italy. Intracerebral inoculation of fox brain homogenates into mice was fatal. Genome sequencing revealed a heterologous rotavirus of avian origin, which could provide a model for investigating rotavirus neurovirulence.

  11. Eastern equine encephalitis in moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Vermont.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Swope, Bethany N; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Graham, Alan C; Turmel, Jon P; Berl, Erica

    2012-10-01

    During fall 2010, 21 moose (Alces americanus) sera collected in northeastern Vermont were screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. Six (29%) were antibody positive. This is the first evidence of EEEV activity in Vermont, and the second report of EEEV antibodies in moose.

  12. Epidemiologic Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Tibet, China, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Li, Kun; Luo, Houqiang; Lan, Yanfang; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Lihong; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Zhu, Suolangsi; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Chamba, Yangzom; Li, Jia Kui

    2017-06-01

    We investigated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) prevalence in high-altitude regions of Tibet, China, by using standard assays to test mosquitoes, pigs, and humans. Results confirmed that JEV has spread to these areas. Disease prevention and control strategies should be used along with surveillance to limit spread of JEV in high-altitude regions of Tibet.

  13. Epidemiologic Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Tibet, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Li, Kun; Luo, Houqiang; Lan, Yanfang; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Lihong; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Zhu, Suolangsi; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Chamba, Yangzom

    2017-01-01

    We investigated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) prevalence in high-altitude regions of Tibet, China, by using standard assays to test mosquitoes, pigs, and humans. Results confirmed that JEV has spread to these areas. Disease prevention and control strategies should be used along with surveillance to limit spread of JEV in high-altitude regions of Tibet. PMID:28518046

  14. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru.

  15. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis (Hurst disease) associated with neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kałuza, J; Krygowska-Wajs, A; Czapiński, P

    1998-01-01

    Two cases that fulfil the clinical and neuropathological criteria of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis are described. Histological examination revealed additionally focal changes in the white matter characteristic for neuroaxonal dystrophy. The differences in the clinical course and morphological picture observed in both cases are discussed.

  16. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Trishna; Laskar, Basanta; Khan, Abdul M.; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013–2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death. PMID:27875108

  17. Cytomegalovirus encephalitis in an HIV-seropositive person.

    PubMed

    Stroup, Jeffrey S; Stephens, Johnny R; Bury, John; Hendrickson, Scott E

    2007-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in persons with HIV/AIDS. It can affect the eye, lung, liver, GI tract, and nervous system. It is also a common cause of blindness in persons infected with HIV. We report a case of CMV encephalitis in a person in whom AIDS was recently diagnosed who did not have CMV retinitis on ophthalmological examination.

  18. Oxidation in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hitchon, Carol A; El-Gabalawy, Hani S

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the course of cellular oxidative phosphorylation, and by activated phagocytic cells during oxidative bursts, exceed the physiological buffering capacity and result in oxidative stress. The excessive production of ROS can damage protein, lipids, nucleic acids, and matrix components. They also serve as important intracellular signaling molecules that amplify the synovial inflammatory–proliferative response. Repetitive cycles of hypoxia and reoxygenation associated with changes in synovial perfusion are postulated to activate hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and nuclear factor-κB, two key transcription factors that are regulated by changes in cellular oxygenation and cytokine stimulation, and that in turn orchestrate the expression of a spectrum of genes critical to the persistence of synovitis. An understanding of the complex interactions involved in these pathways might allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies for rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15535839

  19. Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Carette, Simon

    1984-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common disease, for which every physician should have a sound approach. This paper details the global management of the disease. Guidelines are given for educating the patient and assessing the level of disease activity. Common questions about the indications and uses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local corticosteroid injections, slow-acting agents, immunosuppressive drugs and steroids are discussed. PMID:21278947

  20. TLR3 deficiency in herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye Kyung; Seppänen, Mikko; Hautala, Timo; Ciancanelli, Michael J.; Itan, Yuval; Lafaille, Fabien G.; Dell, William; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Byun, Minji; Pauwels, Elodie; Rönnelid, Ylva; Cai, Xin; Boucherit, Soraya; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Paetau, Anders; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Tardieu, Marc; Abel, Laurent; Yildiran, Alisan; Vergison, Anne; Roivainen, Reina; Etzioni, Amos; Tienari, Pentti J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of children with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) displaying TLR3 deficiency, the extent of TLR3 allelic heterogeneity, and the specific clinical features of TLR3 deficiency. Methods: We determined the sequence of all exons of TLR3 in 110 of the 120 patients with HSE enrolled in our study who do not carry any of the previously described HSE-predisposing mutations of TLR3 pathway genes (TLR3, UNC93B1, TRIF, TRAF3, and TBK1). All the new mutant TLR3 alleles detected were characterized experimentally in-depth to establish the causal relationship between the genotype and phenotype. Results: In addition to the 3 previously reported TLR3-deficient patients from the same cohort, 6 other children or young adults with HSE carry 1 of 5 unique or extremely rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) missense TLR3 alleles. Two alleles (M374T, D592N) heterozygous in 3 patients are not deleterious in vitro. The other 3 are deleterious via different mechanisms: G743D+R811I and L360P heterozygous in 2 patients are loss-of-function due to low levels of expression and lack of cleavage, respectively, and R867Q homozygous in 1 patient is hypomorphic. The 3 patients' fibroblasts display impaired TLR3 responses and enhanced herpes simplex virus 1 susceptibility. Overall, TLR3 deficiency is therefore found in 6 (5%) of the 120 patients studied. There is high allelic heterogeneity, with 3 forms of autosomal dominant partial defect by negative dominance or haploinsufficiency, and 2 forms of autosomal recessive defect with complete or partial deficiency. Finally, 4 (66%) of the 6 TLR3-deficient patients had at least 1 late relapse of HSE, whereas relapse occurred in only 12 (10%) of the total cohort of 120 patients. Conclusions: Childhood-onset HSE is due to TLR3 deficiency in a traceable fraction of patients, in particular the ones with HSE recurrence. Mutations in TLR3 and TLR3 pathway genes should be searched and experimentally studied in children with

  1. [Sarcopenia in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Krajewska-Włodarczyk, Magdalena

    The clinical picture of rheumatoid arthritis covers the condition of chronic inflammation connected to the increased concentration of inflammatory mediators, reduced physical activity, immobilization caused by pain, stiffness and joint destruction as well as accompanying hormonal and metabolic disorders. It all may lead to extra-articular complications, also to the loss of muscle mass with the weakness of muscle strength, adding to the disability and significantly lowering the patients' quality of life. Sarcopenia is an advanced form of muscle mass loss which constitutes an independent and vital threat for dexterity. Attempts are made to define and classify sarcopenia basing on the measurements of muscle mass where the examinations are conducted by the method of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, absorptiometry of two X-ray beams of various energies, electric bioimpedance and anthropometric methods. The data gained in few studies conducted in order to estimate the reduction of muscle mass in patients with rheumatoid arthritis confirm the significant increase of sarcopenia occurence in this group. Procedure with rheumatoid arthritis covers primarily treatment of the inflammatory process with traditional and biological medicaments that modify the course of illness. Such treatment seems to diminish the risk of equal sarcopenia occurrence. The effectiveness of using anabolic medicaments and high protein diet has not been proved. Currently, regular physical activity including aerobic exercise and exercises with load is considered a good method of muscle mass loss prevention and a procedure in case of confirmed muscle mass loss.

  2. [Sport and rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Proschek, D; Rehart, S

    2014-06-01

    Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.

  3. The Frequency of Autoimmune N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Surpasses That of Individual Viral Etiologies in Young Individuals Enrolled in the California Encephalitis Project

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Heather; Dalmau, Josep; Tilley, Drake H.; Glaser, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. In 2007, the California Encephalitis Project (CEP), which was established to study the epidemiology of encephalitis, began identifying cases of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. Increasing numbers of anti-NMDAR encephalitis cases have been identified at the CEP, and this form rivals commonly known viral etiologies as a causal agent. We report here the relative frequency and differences among encephalitides caused by anti-NMDAR and viral etiologies within the CEP experience. Methods. Demographic, frequency, and clinical data from patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis are compared with those with viral encephalitic agents: enterovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and West Nile virus (WNV). All examined cases presented to the CEP between September 2007 and February 2011 and are limited to individuals aged ≤30 years because of the predominance of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in this group. The diagnostic costs incurred in a single case are also included. Results. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis was identified >4 times as frequently as HSV-1, WNV, or VZV and was the leading entity identified in our cohort. We found that 65% of anti-NMDAR encephalitis occurred in patients aged ≤18 years. This disorder demonstrated a predilection, which was not observed with viral etiologies, for females (P < .01). Seizures, language dysfunction, psychosis, and electroencephalographic abnormalities were significantly more frequent in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis (P < .05), and autonomic instability occurred exclusively in this group. Discussion. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis rivals viral etiologies as a cause of encephalitis within the CEP cohort. This entity deserves a prominent place on the encephalitic differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary diagnostic and treatment costs, and to permit a more timely treatment. PMID:22281844

  4. Imaging of Posttraumatic Arthritis, Avascular Necrosis, Septic Arthritis, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, and Cancer Mimicking Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rupasov, Andrey; Cain, Usa; Montoya, Simone; Blickman, Johan G

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the imaging of 5 discrete entities with a common end result of disability: posttraumatic arthritis, a common form of secondary osteoarthritis that results from a prior insult to the joint; avascular necrosis, a disease of impaired osseous blood flow, leading to cellular death and subsequent osseous collapse; septic arthritis, an infectious process leading to destructive changes within the joint; complex regional pain syndrome, a chronic limb-confined painful condition arising after injury; and cases of cancer mimicking arthritis, in which the initial findings seem to represent arthritis, despite a more insidious cause. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot surveillance for childhood encephalitis in Australia using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network.

    PubMed

    Britton, P N; Dale, R C; Elliott, E; Festa, M; Macartney, K; Booy, R; Jones, C A

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of active surveillance for hospitalized childhood encephalitis in New South Wales (NSW) using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network to inform methodology for the nationwide Australian childhood encephalitis (ACE) study. We piloted active surveillance for suspected encephalitis from May to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW. Cases were ascertained using four screening methods: weekday nurse screening of admission records (PAEDS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, and pharmacy dispensing records. Comprehensive clinical data were prospectively collected on consented participants and subsequently reviewed by an expert panel. Cases were categorized as confirmed encephalitis or 'not encephalitis'; encephalitis cases were sub-categorized as infectious, immune-mediated or unknown. We performed an ICD-10 diagnostic code audit of hospitalizations for the pilot period. We compared case ascertainment in the four screening methods and with the ICD code audit. Forty-eight cases of suspected encephalitis were identified by one or more methods. PAEDS was the most efficient mechanism (yield 34%), followed by MRI, CSF, and pharmacy audits (yield 14%, 12%, and 7% respectively). Twenty-five cases met the criteria for confirmed encephalitis. PAEDS was the most sensitive of the mechanisms for confirmed encephalitis (92%) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72%. The ICD audit was moderately sensitive (64%) but poorly specific (Sp 9%, PPV 14%). Of the 25 confirmed encephalitis cases, 19 (76%) were sub-categorized as infectious, three (12%) were immune-mediated, and three (12%) were 'unknown'. We identified encephalitis cases associated with two infectious disease outbreaks (enterovirus 71, parechovirus 3). PAEDS is an efficient, sensitive and accurate surveillance mechanism for detecting cases of childhood encephalitis including those

  6. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients.

  7. Kartagener syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rébora, Martin Esteban; Cuneo, Julia Ana; Marcos, Josefina; Marcos, Juan Carlos

    2006-02-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old female patient, affected with Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia), who developed seropositive and erosive rheumatoid arthritis. According to our review, there are only 6 cases reported so far with this association without a definite etiopathogenic linkage recognized in common. Chronic infections resulting from the ciliary dysfunction might be a trigger for rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Subchondral pseudocysts in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rennell, C; Mainzer, F; Multz, C V; Genant, H K

    1977-12-01

    Subchondral cyst formation (geode) is a not uncommon manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis which may at times impede correct radiologic interpretation. Four patients with rheumatoid arthritis who demonstrated striking subarticular cystic erosive disease are described. These cases emphasize the nature and appearance of this interesting finding.

  9. Axial disease in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Dafna D

    2007-12-01

    The definition of axial disease in psoriatic arthritis has varied from isolated unilateral grade 2 sacroiliitis to criteria similar to those used for ankylosing spondylitis. Depending on the definition used, the prevalence of axial disease varies from 25% to 70% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. This article reviews the prevalence, clinical and radiologic features, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment of psoriatic spondylitis.

  10. Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    with other inflam- matory rheumatic diseases, including gout (n 4), pseudogout (n 2), psoriatic arthritis (n 1), spondyloarthritis (n 3...Expression and function of CXCL16 in a novel model of gout . Arthritis Rheum 2010;62:2536–44. 23. Koch AE, Burrows JC, Marder R, Domer PH, Leibovich SJ

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PATHOLOGY OF EXPERIMENTAL VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS

    PubMed Central

    Flexner, Simon; Amoss, Harold L.

    1925-01-01

    In this paper is given an account of an inoculable virus disease produced in the rabbit with cerebrospinal fluid taken from a case of vascular and neural syphilis. The study which yielded the results presented was undertaken in the course of an investigation into the etiology of epidemic or lethargic encephalitis. Twenty-seven samples of cerebrospinal fluid, derived from cases of epidemic encephalitis, were tested by us upon rabbits without positive result. The one successful instance in which an inoculable disease was produced arose from the injection of one of three specimens of the cerebrospinal fluid taken from the case of syphilis. Following this success, two subsequent injections of the fluid, taken from the same patient, were made unsuccessfully. Although certain American and European investigators have reported securing a virus from the cerebrospinal fluid of cases of epidemic encephalitis, we have consistently failed in our endeavors to confirm their results. However, we believe that the finding of the J. B. virus may serve to clarify the obscurity and confusion now enveloping the so called virus of encephalitis. It had previously been shown that no biological differences could be detected between the herpes and the encephalitis strains of virus. The former, as is well known, is readily secured by inoculating rabbits with the contents of herpes vesicles, while the latter has, at best, been obtained with great difficulty. The J. B. virus agrees biologically with the herpes and encephalitis strains of virus. It is our opinion that the J. B. virus is merely a herpes virus which has gained access to the cerebrospinal fluid and, at the time of inoculation of the rabbits, was present in a concentration sufficing to induce virus encephalitis. The fact, if fact it is proved to be, that the herpes virus may find its way into the cerebrospinal fluid opens to question all the supposed instances of successful implantation of a virus of epidemic encephalitis upon the

  12. The microbiome and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Eppinga, Hester; Konstantinov, Sergey R; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Thio, H Bing

    2014-03-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, seen in combination with the chronic inflammatory skin disease psoriasis and belonging to the family of spondylarthritides (SpA). A link is recognized between psoriatic arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Environmental factors seem to induce inflammatory disease in individuals with underlying genetic susceptibility. The microbiome is a subject of increasing interest in the etiology of these inflammatory immune-mediated diseases. The intestinal microbiome is able to affect extra-intestinal distant sites, including the joints, through immunomodulation. At this point, evidence regarding a relationship between the microbiome and psoriatic arthritis is scarce. However, we hypothesize that common immune-mediated inflammatory pathways seen in the "skin-joint-gut axis" in psoriatic arthritis are induced or at least mediated by the microbiome. Th17 has a crucial function in this mechanism. Further establishment of this connection may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for psoriatic arthritis.

  13. Distinct Structural Features ofCaprin-1 Mediate Its Interaction with G3BP-1 and Its Induction of Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2α, Entry to Cytoplasmic Stress Granules, and Selective Interaction with a Subset of mRNAs▿

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Samuel; Xu, Yaoxian; Wang, Bin; David, Muriel D.; Schubert, Peter; Kennedy, Derek; Schrader, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Caprin-1 is a ubiquitously expressed, well-conserved cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that is needed for normal progression through the G1-S phase of the cell cycle and occurs in postsynaptic granules in dendrites of neurons. We demonstrate that Caprin-1 colocalizes with RasGAP SH3 domain binding protein-1 (G3BP-1) in cytoplasmic RNA granules associated with microtubules and concentrated in the leading and trailing edge of migrating cells. Caprin-1 exhibits a highly conserved motif, F(M/I/L)Q(D/E)Sx(I/L)D that binds to the NTF-2-like domain of G3BP-1. The carboxy-terminal region of Caprin-1 selectively bound mRNA for c-Myc or cyclin D2, this binding being diminished by mutation of the three RGG motifs and abolished by deletion of the RGG-rich region. Overexpression of Caprin-1 induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF-2α) through a mechanism that depended on its ability to bind mRNA, resulting in global inhibition of protein synthesis. However, cells lacking Caprin-1 exhibited no changes in global rates of protein synthesis, suggesting that physiologically, the effects of Caprin-1 on translation were limited to restricted subsets of mRNAs. Overexpression of Caprin-1 induced the formation of cytoplasmic stress granules (SG). Its ability to bind RNA was required to induce SG formation but not necessarily its ability to enter SG. The ability of Caprin-1 or G3BP-1 to induce SG formation or enter them did not depend on their association with each other. The Caprin-1/G3BP-1 complex is likely to regulate the transport and translation of mRNAs of proteins involved with synaptic plasticity in neurons and cellular proliferation and migration in multiple cell types. PMID:17210633

  14. Capillaroscopic pattern in inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lambova, Sevdalina Nikolova; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Background There are limited data about the role of nailfold capillaroscopy in inflammatory arthritis. Objectives To study the role of capillaroscopy in inflammatory arthritis — rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and early arthritis. Methods Patients from the following groups were included in the study: 62 patients with RA; 34 patients with PsA with involvement of the joints of the hands; 9 women with early arthritis. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed with videocapillaroscope. Results Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) was found in 30.6% (19/62) of RA patients, in 32.4% (11/34) of PsA patients and 44.4%, (4/9) of cases with early arthritis. The most frequent found capillaroscopic changes in RA patients were presence of elongated capillaries in 58% of cases (36/62) and prominent subpapillary plexus in 69% (43/62). Dilated capillaries were found in 78.9% (15/19) of patients with secondary RP and in 62.8% (27/43) of those without RP. “Scleroderma-like” capillaroscopic pattern was observed with low frequency in RA patients (14.5%/9/62). “Scleroderma-like” capillaroscopic pattern was also found in 11.1% (1/9) in the group of patients with early arthritis. The low frequency of the last type of capillaroscopic pattern in RA requires patients with such changes to be observed during regular follow-up for the development of systemic rheumatic disease different from inflammatory arthritis. In patients with PsA capillaries with specific morphology (tight terminal convolutions) were found in 58.8% (20/34) of cases. Conclusions Results from the present study confirm the necessity for inclusion of the nailfold capillaroscopy in the diagnostic algorithm in patients with inflammatory arthritis. PMID:22426123

  15. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Knut.

    PubMed

    Prüss, H; Leubner, J; Wenke, N K; Czirják, G Á; Szentiks, C A; Greenwood, A D

    2015-08-27

    Knut the polar bear of the Berlin Zoological Garden drowned in 2011 following seizures and was diagnosed as having suffered encephalitis of unknown etiology after exhaustive pathogen screening. Using the diagnostic criteria applied to human patients, we demonstrate that Knut's encephalitis is almost identical to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis which is a severe autoimmune disease representing the most common non-infectious encephalitis in humans. High concentrations of antibodies specific against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in Knut's cerebrospinal fluid. Histological examination demonstrated very similar patterns of plasma cell infiltration and minimal neuronal loss in affected brain areas. We conclude that Knut suffered anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis making his the first reported non-human case of this treatable disease. The results suggest that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be a disease of broad relevance to mammals that until now has remained undiagnosed.

  16. The Effect of Immunosuppression on Viral Encephalitis, with Special Reference to Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnik, I.; Smith, C. E. G.; Grant, D. P.; Peacock, S.

    1970-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide altered not only the pathological picture of virus encephalitis, but also enhanced the invasiveness of viruses and produced fatal forms of disease to which monkeys were otherwise resistant. Normal patas monkeys infected either i.c. or intranasally (i.n.) with louping ill developed clinical encephalitis from which they recovered, but when cyclophosphamide was administered the disease proved fatal. Normal rhesus monkeys inoculated i.n. with virulent western equine encephalitis virus developed neither clinical disease nor CNS lesions, but after treatment with cyclophosphamide they developed fatal encephalitis. The viruses of louping ill, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis when given without an immunosuppressant usually gave rise to acute inflammatory CNS pathology, but when the monkeys were given cyclophosphamide, the inflammatory reaction was replaced by a degenerative process causing both neuronal necrosis and spongy degeneration. ImagesFigs. 1-3 PMID:4991966

  17. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Knut

    PubMed Central

    Prüss, H.; Leubner, J.; Wenke, N. K.; Czirják, G. Á.; Szentiks, C. A.; Greenwood, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Knut the polar bear of the Berlin Zoological Garden drowned in 2011 following seizures and was diagnosed as having suffered encephalitis of unknown etiology after exhaustive pathogen screening. Using the diagnostic criteria applied to human patients, we demonstrate that Knut’s encephalitis is almost identical to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis which is a severe autoimmune disease representing the most common non-infectious encephalitis in humans. High concentrations of antibodies specific against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in Knut’s cerebrospinal fluid. Histological examination demonstrated very similar patterns of plasma cell infiltration and minimal neuronal loss in affected brain areas. We conclude that Knut suffered anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis making his the first reported non-human case of this treatable disease. The results suggest that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be a disease of broad relevance to mammals that until now has remained undiagnosed. PMID:26313569

  18. Review: A review on classical and atypical scrapie in caprine: Prion protein gene polymorphisms and their role in the disease.

    PubMed

    Curcio, L; Sebastiani, C; Di Lorenzo, P; Lasagna, E; Biagetti, M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep and goat. It has been known for ~250 years and is characterised by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of a host-encoded prion protein that leads to progressive neurodegeneration and death. Scrapie is recognised in two forms, classical and atypical scrapie. The susceptibility to both types of scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Sheep susceptibility or resistance to classical scrapie is strongly regulated by the polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the PRNP. The genetic role in atypical scrapie in sheep has been defined by polymorphisms at codons 141, 154 and 171, which are associated with different degrees of risk in the occurrence of the ovine disease. Progress has been achieved in the prevention of scrapie in sheep due to efficient genetic breeding programmes based on eradication and control of the disease. In Europe, the success of these programmes has been verified by applying eradication and genetic selection plans. In general terms, the ovine selection plans aim to eliminate and reduce the susceptible allele and to enrich the resistant allele ARR. During outbreaks all susceptible animals are slaughtered, only ARR/ARR resistant rams and sheep and semi-resistant females are preserved. In the occurrence of scrapie positive goats a complete cull of the flock (stamping out) is performed with great economic loss and severe risk of extinction for the endangered breeds. The ability to select scrapie-resistant animals allows to define new breeding strategies aimed to boost genetic progress while reducing costs during scrapie outbreaks. Allelic variants of PRNP can be protective for caprine scrapie, and the knowledge of their distribution in goats has become very important. Over the past few years, the integration of genetic information on goat populations could be used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genetic selection

  19. Two Mutations in the Caprine MTHFR 3'UTR Regulated by MicroRNAs Are Associated with Milk Production Traits

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuxuan; Gao, Teyang; Lei, Yingnan; Cao, Binyun

    2015-01-01

    Background 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in folate metabolism by irreversibly converting 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, a predominant circulating form of folate. Folate is reportedly important for milk protein synthesis, and MTHFR may be a key regulatory point of folate metabolism for milk protein synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. Prior to this study, polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were not associated with milk production traits from a breeding perspective. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at microRNA (miRNA) binding sites (miR-SNPs) can affect gene expression. This study aimed to identify the effects of miR-SNPs (g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G) in the caprine MTHFR 3' UTR on the milk production traits of dairy goats. Results Guanzhong dairy (GD, n = 325) goats were used to detect SNPs in the caprine MTHFR 3' UTR by DNA sequencing. Two novel SNPs (g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G) were identified in the said region. The homozygous haplotype A-G of the SNPs g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G was significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein levels in GD goats (P < 0.05). Functional assays indicated that the MTHFR 2244 A → G substitution could increase the binding activity of hsa-miR-1266 with the MTHFR 3' UTR. The MTHFR 2264 A → G substitution could decrease the binding activity of hsa-miR-616 with the MTHFR 3' UTR. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the MTHFR mRNA levels of homozygous haplotype A-G carriers relative to those of homozygous haplotype G-A carriers. These results indicated that both SNPs altered the MTHFR mRNA levels. These altered levels of MTHFR mRNA may account for the association of SNPs with milk production traits. Conclusions This study is the first to report that the g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G polymorphisms were associated with milk production traits in GD goats. Further investigations should explore the underlying miRNA-mediated mechanisms that are modified by

  20. Skin Manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, and Spondyloarthritides.

    PubMed

    Chua-Aguilera, Carolyn Jean; Möller, Burkhard; Yawalkar, Nikhil

    2017-07-27

    Extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and various spondyloarthritides including psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated spondyloarthritis often involve the skin and may occur before or after diagnosis of these rheumatic diseases. Cutaneous manifestations encompass a wide range of reactions that may have a notable negative impact not only on the physical but especially on the emotional and psychosocial well-being of these patients. Several cutaneous manifestations have been related to rheumatoid arthritis such as subcutaneous nodules including classical rheumatoid nodules, accelerated rheumatoid nodulosis, and rheumatoid nodulosis; vascular disorders like rheumatoid vasculitis, livedo racemosa, and Raynaud's phenomenon; and neutrophilic and/or granulomatous diseases like pyoderma gangrenosum, Sweet's syndrome, rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatitis, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis, as well as palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the main cutaneous manifestations include an evanescent rash, rheumatoid nodules, as well as plaque and guttate psoriasis. Plaque psoriasis is also the main skin disease involved in spondyloarthritides. Furthermore, other forms of psoriasis including guttate, inverse, erythrodermic, pustular, and particularly nail psoriasis may also occur. In addition, a variety of drug-induced skin reactions may also appear in these diseases. Early recognition and understanding of these different dermatologic manifestations together with an interdisciplinary approach are often needed to optimize management of these diseases.