Science.gov

Sample records for caprolactam production phase

  1. Caprolactam production by direct solar flux

    SciTech Connect

    Talukdar, J.; Wong, E.H.S.; Mathur, V.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The use of solar energy for the photonitrozation of cyclohexane for the production of cyclohexanone oxime hydrochloride, an intermediate for the manufacture of caprolactam, is discussed. Experimental results show the technical feasibility of such a reaction in the presence of radiation of wavelength 350-550 nm simulating sunlight.

  2. Caprolactam

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Caprolactam ; CASRN 105 - 60 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  3. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    St.Martin, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

  4. Uptake of caprolactam and its influence on growth and oxygen production of Desmodesmus quadricauda algae.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana Pexová; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Novák, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The consumption of polyamides produced from caprolactam is increasing continuously, and for that reason the danger of environmental contamination by this lactam is also rising. This study's aim was to evaluate the influence of caprolactam on the growth and oxygen production of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda and on caprolactam uptake by this alga. The presence of caprolactam in water was observed to cause the algae significantly to increase its oxygen production. Caprolactam concentration of 5,000 mg/L stopped algae growth after 6 days and influenced coenobia structure (seen as disappearance of pyrenoids, deformation of cells) but did not decrease the number of cells in the coenobia. Caprolactam uptake is probably passive but relatively rapid. Maximum concentration in the algae was reached after 18-24 h.

  5. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  6. Purification of caprolactam from recycled nylon

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A method of removing 1,11-diamino-6-undecanone from the pyrolysis product of nylon comprising: a) pyrolyzing nylon-6 to form a pyrolyzate containing a caprolactam mixture; b) dissolving the caprolactam mixture in a solvent to form a solution; c) passing carbon dioxide gas through the solution to form a precipitate; d) removing the precipitate from the solution; and e) recovering the purified caprolactam from the solution.

  7. Purification of caprolactam from recycled nylon

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1999-07-06

    A method is disclosed of removing 1,11-diamino-6-undecanone from the pyrolysis product of nylon comprising: (a) pyrolyzing nylon-6 to form a pyrolyzate containing a caprolactam mixture; (b) dissolving the caprolactam mixture in a solvent to form a solution; (c) passing carbon dioxide gas through the solution to form a precipitate; (d) removing the precipitate from the solution; and (e) recovering the purified caprolactam from the solution. 3 figs.

  8. Design of a "green" one-step catalytic production of epsilon-caprolactam (precursor of nylon-6).

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig; Raja, Robert

    2005-09-27

    The ever-increasing industrial demand for nylon-6 (polycaprolactam) necessitates the development of environmentally benign methods of producing its precursor, epsilon-caprolactam, from cyclohexanone. It is currently manufactured in two popular double-step processes, each of which uses highly aggressive reagents, and each generates substantial quantities of largely unwanted ammonium sulfate as by-product. Here we describe a viable laboratory-scale, single-step, solvent-free process of producing epsilon-caprolactam using a family of designed bifunctional, heterogeneous, nanoporous catalysts containing isolated acidic and redox sites, which smoothly convert cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactam with selectivities in the range 65-78% in air and ammonia at 80 degrees C. The catalysts are microporous (pore diameter 7.3 A) aluminophosphates in which small fractions of the Al(III)O4(5-) and P(V)O4(3-) tetrahedra constituting the 4-connected open framework are replaced by Co(III)PO4(5-) and Si(IV)O4(4-) tetrahedra, which become the loci of the redox and acidic centers, respectively. The catalysts may be further optimized, and already may be so designed as to generate selectivities of approximately 80% for the intermediate oxime, formed from NH2OH, which is produced in situ within the pore system. The advantages of such designed heterogeneous catalysts, and their application to a range of other chemical conversions, are also adumbrated.

  9. Design of a “green” one-step catalytic production of ε-caprolactam (precursor of nylon-6)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John Meurig; Raja, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The ever-increasing industrial demand for nylon-6 (polycaprolactam) necessitates the development of environmentally benign methods of producing its precursor, ε-caprolactam, from cyclohexanone. It is currently manufactured in two popular double-step processes, each of which uses highly aggressive reagents, and each generates substantial quantities of largely unwanted ammonium sulfate as by-product. Here we describe a viable laboratory-scale, single-step, solvent-free process of producing ε-caprolactam using a family of designed bifunctional, heterogeneous, nanoporous catalysts containing isolated acidic and redox sites, which smoothly convert cyclohexanone to ε-caprolactam with selectivities in the range 65–78% in air and ammonia at 80°C. The catalysts are microporous (pore diameter 7.3 Å) aluminophosphates in which small fractions of the \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Al}}^{{\\mathrm{III}}}{\\mathrm{O}}_{4}^{5-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{P}}^{{\\mathrm{V}}}{\\mathrm{O}}_{4}^{3-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} tetrahedra constituting the 4-connected open framework are replaced by \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Co}}^{{\\mathrm{III}}}{\\mathrm{PO}}_{4}^{5-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage

  10. Spectroscopic study on the active site of a SiO2 supported niobia catalyst used for the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam.

    PubMed

    Maronna, M M; Kruissink, E C; Parton, R F; Soulimani, F; Weckhuysen, B M; Hoelderich, W F

    2016-08-10

    NbOx/SiO2 with a very high catalytic activity for the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam, was investigated by different spectroscopic methods in order to obtain new insights in the formation and nature of the active sites. FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with pyridine adsorption measurements revealed that the catalyst material contains Lewis-acidic sites, most probably related to the Nb[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups of isolated tetrahedral NbO4 surface species, whereas no Brønsted-acidic sites were observed. Results from in situ Raman and complementary FT-IR measurements strongly suggest that Brønsted-acidic Nb-OH sites can be generated from Nb[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups by reaction with ethanol. This is in agreement with the observation that ethanol is essential for obtaining a very good catalyst performance. However, the Brønsted-acidic sites can be detected in significant amounts in particular in the presence of a Lewis-base, e.g. pyridine, most probably because the formation and/or the stability of these Brønsted-acidic sites are enhanced by a basic molecule. Assuming that cyclohexanone oxime, being a base, can play a similar role as pyridine, we propose on the basis of the spectroscopic findings obtained in this work and our kinetic results published recently, a reaction scheme for the formation of the active site at the Nb[double bond, length as m-dash]O group as well as for the recovery of the Nb[double bond, length as m-dash]O site during the final stage of the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement.

  11. Bioremediation of epsilon-caprolactam from nylon-6 waste water by use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-407.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, R S; Kanekar, P P

    1998-09-01

    Nylon-6, a man-made polymer that finds its application in the manufacture of car tires, ropes, fabrics, automobile parts etc., is manufactured with epsilon-caprolactam. Waste water generated during production of nylon-6 contains the unreacted monomer. Owing to the polluting and toxic nature of epsilon-caprolactam, its removal from waste streams is necessary. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-407 was isolated from activated sludge used to treat waste from a factory producing nylon-6. This organism was able to remove epsilon-caprolactam with simultaneous reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). The degradation of epsilon-caprolactam in waste water was found to be optimal over a wide range of pH from 5.0 to 9.0, temperature of 30 degrees C, and under shake or aerated conditions, with an inoculum density of 10(5) cells/ml and with an incubation period of 24 - 48 h. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-407 isolated from the activated sludge exposed to epsilon-caprolactam may play an important role in the bioremediation of epsilon-caprolactam from the waste waters of industries manufacturing nylon-6.

  12. Biologic activity of epsilon-caprolactam.

    PubMed

    Gross, P

    1984-01-01

    In general, this literature review indicates that epsilon-caprolactam has a relatively low toxicity to humans. This low-degree of toxicity is attributable in part to its rapid elimination as demonstrated by experimental studies on animals. Human studies are mostly those based on workers in Russian factories. Although reporting physicians attributed such symptoms as general weakness, irritability, headaches, and insomnia, and such diagnoses as neurosis, neurasthenia, rapid mood shifts as well as others to excessive caprolactam exposures, the widely recognized Russian national scourge of alcoholism, particularly among working populations was not considered as a possible factor. Some of the reports recognized the complicating existence of multiple exposures in the factories such as excessively high temperatures and humidity, high noise levels, and other chemicals - including mixtures of diphenyl and diphenyl oxide, cyclohexane, benzene, and others, but most reports gave scant or no consideration to them.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a novel ε-caprolactam-degrading microbe, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, from industrial wastewater by chemostat-enrichment.

    PubMed

    Rajoo, Sasikumar; Ahn, Jung Oh; Lee, Hong Weon; Jung, Joon Ki

    2013-12-01

    For the isolation of a ε-caprolactam-degrading microbe from wastewaters of a factory producing caprolactam, we applied a chemostat-enrichment technique with a selective medium containing caprolactam as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. This allowed for the isolation of a novel caprolactam-degrading microbe, identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The strain had a critical tolerance of 19 g caprolactam l(-1) in minimal medium, which is higher than any previously reported caprolactam-degrading microbe. A. calcoaceticus also decreased the caprolactam content in medium by 65 % within 72 h despite the high caprolactam content (10 g l(-1)). This study highlights the potential use of A. calcoaceticus strain for the bioremediation of recalcitrant synthetic polymers, such as caprolactam.

  14. Reusable task-specific ionic liquids for a clean ε-caprolactam synthesis under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Turgis, Raphaël; Estager, Julien; Draye, Micheline; Ragaini, Vittorio; Bonrath, Werner; Lévêque, Jean-Marc

    2010-12-17

    Brønsted-acidic ionic liquids that bear a sulfonic acid group, known as Forbes acids, show a good catalytic activity for the Beckmann rearrangement, used to prepare ε-caprolactam, which is a precursor of Nylon 6. The activity essentially stems from the acidity of the sulfonic acid group. Although these task specific ionic liquids suffer from a high viscosity, this drawback can be circumvented at higher temperatures. A combination of the hydrogen sulfate anion and the sulfonic acid group of the cation is needed to obtain the rearrangement product rapidly under mild conditions. When using an excess of ionic liquid, we postulate that the internal pressure of the ionic medium, generated by the high viscosity and the high number of hydrogen-bonds, is strong enough to contribute to a decrease of the thermodynamic barrier. In accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry," we have developed a synthesis of ε-caprolactam that requires no additional chemicals except cyclohexanone oxime and the reusable TSIL.

  15. Identification of ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea in polyvinylpyrrolidone powders by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Amini, A

    2014-03-01

    A sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar electrokinetic chromatography (SDS-MEKC) method for the simultaneous separation and identification of ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea deliberately added to polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone) products has been developed. All samples to be analyzed contained paracetamol as an internal marker (IM). The optimized separations were performed in 50mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 2% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in fused silica capillaries with UV absorption detection at 200nm. The method was validated with respect to repeatability and intermediate precision, selectivity and robustness with satisfactory results. The relative migration times (RMT) were found to be between 0.03% and 0.13% for intra-day precision and between 0.50% and 0.60% for inter-day precision in four days. The detection limits were determined to be 1.3 (11.5μM), 0.4 (3.5μM) and 41μg/ml (0.4mM) for ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea, respectively.

  16. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants.

  17. Tensile Properties of Poly (N-vinyl caprolactam) Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgret, Leslie D.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    N-vinyl caprolactam was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate using a free-radical initiator in alcohol/water solution. The resulting gels were thermally-responsive in water, undergoing an approximate fivefold reversible volume shrinkage between room temperature and ca. 50 C. Tensile testing showed that the stress-strain behavior was qualitatively different in the collapsed state above the temperature-induced transition. At the higher temperature, gels were stiffer, more ductile, and showed greater time dependence. Implications for the design of gel actuators are briefly discussed.

  18. Economic evaluation and comparison of the industrial photosynthesis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactam via solar or lamp operated photooximation of cyclohexane

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, C.; Mueller, F.J.; Riffelmann, K.J.; Ortner, J.; Funken, K.H.

    1999-07-01

    A solar photochemical plant was drawn up for the manufacture of {var_epsilon}-caprolactam which is the base chemical for nylon-6. For the design and for the calculation of costs the lamp operated concept of Toray Ltd. was adapted to solar requirements. In a base case a unit with a capacity of 10,000 t/a was considered. Using that concept and economic evaluation was made to check the cost of solar production against the equivalent lamp-operated process. The results of the economic calculations suggest that solar production of {var_epsilon}-caprolactam may be profitable and large areas in the world are suitable for industrial solar photochemistry.

  19. Comparative Theoretical Study of the Ring-Opening Polymerization of Caprolactam vs Caprolactone Using QM/MM Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Elsasser, Brigitta M.; Schoenen, Iris; Fels, Gregor

    2013-06-07

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) efficiently catalyzes the ring-opening polymerization of lactones to high molecular weight products in good yield. In contrast, an efficient enzymatic synthesis of polyamides has so far not been described in the literature. This obvious difference in enzyme catalysis is the subject of our comparative study of the initial steps of a CALB catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε- caprolactone and ε-caprolactam. We have applied docking tools to generate the reactant state complex and performed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) PBE0 level of theory to simulate the acylation of Ser105 by the lactone and the lactam, respectively, via the corresponding first tetrahedral intermediates. We could identify a decisive difference in the accessibility of the two substrates in the ring-opening to the respective acyl enzyme complex as the attack of ε-caprolactam is hindered because of an energetically disfavored proton transfer during this part of the catalytic reaction while ε-caprolactone is perfectly processed along the widely accepted pathway using the catalytic triade of Ser105, His224, and Asp187. Since the generation of an acylated Ser105 species is the crucial step of the polymerization procedure, our results give an explanation for the unsatisfactory enzymatic polyamide formation and opens up new possibilities for targeted rational catalyst redesign in hope of an experimentally useful CALB catalyzed polyamide synthesis.

  20. Denitrification with epsilon-caprolactam by acclimated mixed culture and by pure culture of bacteria isolated from polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Wang, C C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate denitrifying bacteria utilizing epsilon-caprolactam as the substrate, from a polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system. The aim is also to compare the performance of PAN (polyacrylonitrile) mixed bacteria cultures acclimated to epsilon-caprolactam and isolated pure strain for treating different initial epsilon-caprolactam concentrations from synthetic wastewater under anoxic conditions. The result showed that the PAN mixed bacteria cultures acclimated to epsilon-caprolactam could utilize 1538.5 mg/l of epsilon-caprolactam as a substrate for denitrification. Sufficient time and about 2200 mg/l of nitrate were necessary for the complete epsilon-caprolactam removal. Paracoccus thiophilus was isolated from the polyacrylonitrile fibre manufactured wastewater treatment system and it could utilize 1722.5 mg/l of epsilon-caprolactam as a substrate for denitrification. About 3500 mg/l of nitrate was necessary for the complete removal of epsilon-caprolactam. When the initial epsilon-caprolactam concentration was below 784.3 mg/l, the removal efficiency of epsilon-caprolactam by Paracoccus thiophilus was better than that for the PAN mixed bacteria cultures. The growth of Paracoccus thiophilus was better. However, when the initial epsilon-caprolactam concentration was as high as 1445.8 mg/l, both the epsilon-caprolactam removal efficiency by Paracoccus thiophilus and Paracoccus thiophilus specific growth rate were similar to the PAN mixed bacteria cultures. PMID:15137443

  1. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  2. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  3. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  4. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  5. Catalytic conversion of γ-valerolactone to ε-caprolactam: towards nylon from renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Rood, Marcus T M; Buijze, Florine K W; Drent, Eite; Bouwman, Elisabeth

    2014-07-01

    The conversion of γ-valerolactone (GVL) in three atom-efficient steps to the important polymer precursor ε-caprolactam is reported. The bio-based GVL can be converted to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenoates (MP) via trans-esterification with methanol with 94% yield (ratio of 3-MP/4-MP=3:1); subsequent aminolysis with ammonia leads to a mixture of pentenamides (PA) almost quantitatively (99% conversion). The resulting pentenamides are ultimately converted into ε-caprolactam via a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamidomethylation reaction, comprising an initial hydroformylation of the alkene moiety of PA and subsequent ring-closing reductive amidation of the resulting aldehyde with the amide functionality. A promising yield of caprolactam of about 90% can be obtained with a Rh/xantphos catalyst system in a two-stage hydroformylation-reductive amidation using pure 4-PA as feedstock. The use of 3-PA as a substrate not only results in a significantly lower regioselectivity for the 7-membered lactam, but also in the formation of high amounts of valeramide (VA). Consequently, a best overall yield of caprolactam of nearly 40% could be demonstrated with a Rh/POP-xantphos [POP-xantphos=4,5-bis(2,8-dimethyl-10-phenoxaphosphino)-9,9,-dimethylxanthene] catalyst system based on the 3:1 mixture of 3-PA/4-PA directly obtainable from GVL. PMID:24938779

  6. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Caprolactam-Degrading Pseudomonas putida Strain SJ3

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kown; Park, Yeong-Jun; Yoo, Na-Kyung; Lee, Changhee; Park, Choi Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain SJ3, which possesses caprolactam-degrading ability, was isolated from dyeing industry wastewater in Daegu, Republic of Korea. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of the strain. The 5,596,765-bp-long genome contains 4,293 protein-coding genes and 68 RNA genes with 61.70% G+C content. PMID:26205864

  8. Absorption of NO and NO2 in caprolactam tetrabutyl ammonium halide ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Duan, Erhong; Guo, Bin; Zhang, Dandan; Shi, Long; Sun, Hua; Wang, Yanan

    2011-12-01

    To explore environmentally benign solvents for the absorption of NO and NO2, a series of caprolactam tetrabutyl ammonium halide ionic liquids were synthesized. The solubility of NO and NO2 was measured at temperatures ranging from 298.2 to 363.2 K and atmospheric pressure, and the following trend in the solubility of NO and NO2 in ionic liquids with various halide anions was observed, respectively: F > Br > Cl and Br > Cl > F. Moreover, as the temperature increased from 308.15 to 363.15 K and the mole ratio of caprolactam increased from 2:1 to 6:1, the solubility of NO increased. Alternatively, the solubility of NO2 decreased as the temperature increased from 298.15 to 363.15 K, and the mole ratio of caprolactam increased from 2:1 to 6:1. The absorption and desorption of NO and NO2 was practically reversible in the ionic liquids, which was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. The method, which is at least partially reversible, offers interesting possibilities for the removal of NO and NO2.

  9. Isolation of the epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2007-06-25

    epsilon-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating epsilon-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539mg/l epsilon-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete epsilon-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. PMID:17161908

  10. Phase dynamics and particle production in preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Charters, T.

    2005-04-15

    We study a simple model of a massive inflaton field {phi} coupled to another scalar field {chi} with interaction term g{sup 2}{phi}{sup 2}{chi}{sup 2}. We use the theory developed by Kofman et al. [L. Kofman, A. D. Linde, and A. A. Starobinsky, Phys. Rev. D 56, 3258 (1997).] for the first stage of preheating to give a full description of the dynamics of the {chi} field modes, including the behavior of the phase, in terms of the iteration of a simple family of circle maps. The parameters of this family of maps are a function of time when expansion of the Universe is taken into account. With this more detailed description, we obtain a systematic study of the efficiency of particle production as a function of the inflaton field and coupling parameters, and we find that for g < or approx. 3x10{sup -4} the broad resonance ceases during the first stage of preheating.

  11. Crystal structure and explosive performance of a new CL-20/caprolactam cocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Changyan; Zhang, Haobin; Wang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jinjiang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Hui; Sun, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Co-crystallization is an effective way to improve performance of the high explosive 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20). A new CL-20/caprolactam (CPL) cocrystal has been prepared by a rapid solvent evaporation method, and the crystal structure investigations show that the cocrystal is formed by strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interaction. The cocrystal can only be prepared with low moisture content of the air, because water in the air has a profound effect on the cocrystal formation, and it can lead to crystal form conversion of CL-20, but not the formation of cocrystal. The CL20/CPL explosive possess very low sensitivity, and may be used as additive in explosives formulation to desensitize other high explosives.

  12. Gas and particulate phase products from the ozonolysis of acenaphthylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, Matthieu; Healy, Robert M.; Tomaz, Sophie; Flaud, Pierre-Marie; Perraudin, Emilie; Wenger, John C.; Villenave, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in the urban atmosphere. In this work, the gas-phase ozonolysis of acenaphthylene was investigated in an atmospheric simulation chamber using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and an aerosol time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) for on-line characterization of the oxidation products in the gas and particle phases, respectively. SOA samples were also collected on filters and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS). The major gas-phase products included a range of oxygenated naphthalene derivatives such as 1,8-naphthalic anhydride, naphthalene 1,8-dicarbaldehyde and naphthaldehyde, as well as a secondary ozonide. Possible reaction mechanisms are proposed for the formation of these products and favoured pathways have been suggested. Many of these products were also found in the particle phase along with a range of oligomeric compounds. The same range of gas and particle phase products was observed in the presence and absence of excess cyclohexane, an OH scavenger, indicating that OH radical production from the ozonolysis of acenaphthylene is negligible. SOA yields in the range 23-37% were determined and indicate that acenaphthylene ozonolysis may contribute to part of the SOA observed in urban areas.

  13. Applicability of the theory of volume filling of micropores to adsorption of caprolactam from aqueous solutions with active carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Khodorov, E.I.; Kazakov, V.A.; Semerikova, V.V.; Surinova, S.I.

    1985-06-10

    The absence of a scientifically based method of selecting adsorbents in the extraction of organic substances from waste water and solution which would allow for their multicycle use in adsorption-desorption stages often prevents the introduction of adsorption technology into industrial practice. This paper demonstrates the possibility of calculating the adsorption equilibrium of highly soluble organic compounds with the theory of volume filling of micropores equations in consideration of the activities of the extracted component in the solution and the change in the partial affinity coefficient with the degree of filling of the adsorption volume on the example of extraction of caprolactam from aqueous solutions.

  14. Development of advanced zeolite catalysts for the vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lian-Xin; Iwaki, Yoshihide; Koyama, Katsuyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    1997-11-01

    The vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ɛ-caprolactam catalyzed by various zeolites was studied. The catalytic performance was greatly affected by both the zeolite structure and diluent solvent. When 1-hexanol was used in place of benzene, the catalytic performance of all catalysts except silicalite-1 was greatly improved. In particular, the selectivity and stability of H-LTL and H-OFF-ERI zeolites remarkably increased; both catalysts exhibited ca. 100% oxime conversion and ɛ-caprolactam selectivity of >95% for 6 h.

  15. Multiple phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry using product cubic phase function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) involves multi-directional illumination of an object to measure the in-plane and out-of plane displacements simultaneously. This results in multiple interference phases which have to be reliably estimated. The paper proposes a method where the interference field is represented as sum of multicomponent quadratic phase signal. Subsequently, product cubic phase function (PCPF) is used to estimate the quadratic coefficients. Using these coefficients multiple interference phases are estimated. The applicability of this method in DHI is demonstrated with simulation results.

  16. Investigation of HNO2 Production in Solvent Extraction Organic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin

    2014-09-01

    This document is a letter report that was prepared to meet FCR&D level 4 milestone M4FT-14IN0304054, “Investigate HNO2 production in solvent extraction organic phases.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Fundamental Radiation Chemistry FCR&D work package. This document reports on an initial tests performed to follow HNO2 formation in reference flowsheet relevant organic phases.

  17. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  18. Hydrogen bond driven chemical reactions: Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime into epsilon-caprolactam in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Boero, Mauro; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Liew, Chee Chin; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Parrinello, Michele

    2004-05-26

    Recent experiments have shown that supercritical water (SCW) has the ability to accelerate and make selective synthetic organic reactions, thus replacing the common but environmentally harmful acid and basic catalysts. In an attempt to understand the intimate mechanism behind this observation, we analyze, via first-principles molecular dynamics, the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime into epsilon-caprolactam in supercritical water, for which accurate experimental evidence has been reported. Differences in the wetting of the hydrophilic parts of the solute, enhanced by SCW, and the disrupted hydrogen bond network are shown to be crucial in triggering the reaction and in making it selective. Furthermore, the enhanced concentrations of H(+) in SCW play an important role in starting the reaction.

  19. Treatment of glycerol phase formed by biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel produced by transesterification and is contained in the glycerol phase together with many other materials such as soaps, remaining catalyst, water, and esters formed during the process. The content of glycerol is approximately 30-60 wt.%. In this paper, treatments of the glycerol phase to obtain glycerol with a purity of 86 wt.% (without distillation) and a mixture of fatty acids with esters (1:1) or only a mixture of fatty acids with a purity of 99 wt.% are presented. The treatment was carried out by removing of alkaline substances and esters. Fatty acids were produced by saponification of the remaining esters and subsequent neutralization of alkaline substances by phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, or acetic acids. Salts are by-products and, in the case of phosphoric acid can be used as potash-phosphate fertilizer. The process of treatment is easy and environmentally friendly, because no special chemicals or equipment are required and all products are utilizable.

  20. Abundant rich phase transitions in step-skew products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, L. J.; Gelfert, K.; Rams, M.

    2014-09-01

    We study phase transitions for the topological pressure of geometric potentials of transitive sets. The sets considered are partially hyperbolic having a step-skew product dynamics over a horseshoe with one-dimensional fibres corresponding to the central direction. The sets are genuinely non-hyperbolic, containing intermingled horseshoes of different hyperbolic, behaviour (contracting and expanding centre). We construct for every k ⩾ 1 a diffeomorphism F with a transitive set Λ as above such that the pressure map P(t) = P(t φ) of the potential \\varphi= -log \\,\\Vert \\rmd F|_{E^c}\\Vert (Ec the central direction) defined on Λ has k rich phase transitions. This means that there are parameters tℓ, ℓ = 0, …, k - 1, where P(t) is not differentiable and this lack of differentiability is due to the coexistence of two equilibrium states of tℓ φ with positive entropy and different Birkhoff averages. Each phase transition is associated with a gap in the central Lyapunov spectrum of F on Λ.

  1. Freeze concentration of dairy products: Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.; Woolf, H.

    1995-10-01

    Conventional dairy industry evaporators convert an estimated 60 billion pounds of milk and whey products annually into dairy powders. However, many evaporators currently used by dairy processors are old and inefficient and damage the dairy powders through heat abuse. This results in lost organoleptic and functional qualities in the finished dairy products. EPRI report EM-5232 indicated that substitution of freeze concentration for evaporation and distillation in all feasible industry applications could save customers $5.5 billion annually, while increasing electric power consumption by 20 billion kWt/yr. EPRI CU-6292 reported on Phase I work, concluding that freeze concentration of dairy products was technically feasible based on pilot plant studies. The semicommercial-scale Process development units was successfully installed and brought up to 3-A processing standards. This unit achieved continuous runs of up to 510 hours. An expert safety panel affirmed the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of freeze-concentrated milk ingredients, which were used in formulating ice cream, cream cheese, milk chocolate, and other products for consumer evaluation. Consumer evaluations documented that the functional and organoleptic properties of reconstituted freeze-concentrated skim milk are equal or superior to those of fresh skim milk, skim milk concentrates, or nonfat dry milk powders.

  2. Economical Production of Pu-238: NIAC Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Crawford, Douglas; Navarro, Jorge; O'Brien, Robert C.; Katalenich, Jeff; Ring, Terry

    2016-01-01

    All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238 (Pu-238). The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. Potentially, the front end capital costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. In the Phase I NIAC (NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts) grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. Finally, as the study progressed, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

  3. Hydrogen production by aqueous phase reforming of light oxygenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabaker, John William

    Aqueous phase reforming (APR) of renewable oxygenated hydrocarbons (e.g., methanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, glucose) is a promising new technology for the catalytic production of high-purity hydrogen for fuel cells and chemical processing. Supported Pt catalysts are effective catalysts for stable and rapid H2 production at temperatures near 500 K (H 2 turnover frequencies near 10 min-1). Inexpensive Raney Ni-based catalysts have been developed using a combination of fundamental and high-throughput studies that have similar catalytic properties as Pt-based materials. Promotion of Raney Ni with Sn by controlled surface reaction of organometallic tin compounds is necessary to control formation of thermodynamically-favorable alkane byproducts. Detailed characterization by Mossbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy, adsorption studies, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA) has shown that NiSn alloys are formed during heat treatment, and may be responsible for enhanced stability and selectivity for hydrogen production. Detailed kinetic studies led to the development of a kinetic mechanism for the APR reaction on Pt and NiSn catalysts, in which the oxygenate decomposes through C--H and O--H cleavage, followed by C--C cleavage and water gas shift of the CO intermediate. The rate limiting step on Pt surfaces is the initial dehydrogenation, while C--C cleavage appears rate limiting over NiSn catalysts. Tin promotion of Raney Ni catalysts suppresses C--O bond scission reactions that lead to alkane formation without inhibiting fast C--C and C--H cleavage steps that are necessary for high rates of reforming. A window of operating temperature, pressure, and reactor residence time has been identified for use of the inexpensive NiSn catalysts as a Pt substitute. Concentrated feed stocks and aggressive pretreatments have been found to counteract catalyst deactivation by sintering in the hydrothermal APR environment and allow stable, long-term production of H

  4. Off-equilibrium photon production during the chiral phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Michler, Frank; Hees, Hendrik van; Dietrich, Dennis D.; Leupold, Stefan; Greiner, Carsten

    2013-09-15

    In the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions chiral symmetry is restored temporarily. During this so-called chiral phase transition, the quark masses change from their constituent to their bare values. This mass shift leads to the spontaneous non-perturbative creation of quark–antiquark pairs, which effectively contributes to the formation of the quark–gluon plasma. We investigate the photon production induced by this creation process. We provide an approach that eliminates possible unphysical contributions from the vacuum polarization and renders the resulting photon spectra integrable in the ultraviolet domain. The off-equilibrium photon numbers are of quadratic order in the perturbative coupling constants while a thermal production is only of quartic order. Quantitatively, we find, however, that for the most physical mass-shift scenarios and for photon momenta larger than 1 GeV the off-equilibrium processes contribute less photons than the thermal processes. -- Highlights: •We investigate first-order photon emission arising from the chiral mass shift. •We provide an ansatz eliminating possible unphysical vacuum contributions. •Our ansatz leads to photon spectra being integrable in the ultraviolet domain.

  5. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning…

  6. Oligomeric epoxide–amine adducts based on 2-amino-N-isopropylacetamide and α-amino-ε-caprolactam: Solubility in presence of cyclodextrin and curing properties

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Summary 2-Amino-N-isopropylacetamide and α-amino-ε-caprolactam were reacted with glycerol diglycidyl ether to give novel oligomeric thermoresponsive epoxide–amine adducts. These oligomers exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior in water. The solubility properties were influenced with randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD) and the curing properties of the amine–epoxide mixtures were analyzed by oscillatory rheology and differential scanning calorimetry, whereby significant differences in setting time, viscosity, and stiffness were observed. PMID:24367444

  7. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Enedy

    2001-12-14

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant.

  8. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  9. Estimating production and consumption of solid reactive Fe phases in marine sediments from concentration profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    1D diffusion models may be used to estimate rates of production and consumption of dissolved metabolites in marine sediments, but are applied less often to the solid phase. Here we used a numerical inverse method to estimate solid phase Fe(III) and Fe(II) consumption and product...

  10. Solid phase synthesis of complex natural products and libraries thereof.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Pfefferkorn, J A

    2001-01-01

    Natural products have served as an important source of medicinal compounds and pharmaceutical leads over the last century. Within the last 10 years, significant interest has developed in applying combinatorial chemistry techniques to the study of natural products and their biological activities. In this review, we examine several representative efforts wherein natural product skeletons have been constructed or immobilized on solid support and subsequently derivatized, giving rise to analog libraries useful in understanding the structure-activity relationships of the parent natural product. Issues such as target selection, library design, linker development, automation, and library characterization are addressed. PMID:11774224

  11. Entropy production in the early-cosmology pionic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobado, Antonio; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Rodríguez Fernández, David

    2016-07-01

    We point out that in the early universe, for temperatures in the approximate interval 150-80 MeV (after the quark-gluon plasma), pions carried a large share of the entropy and supported the largest inhomogeneities. Its thermal conductivity (previously calculated) allows the characterization of entropy production due to equilibration (damping) of thermal fluctuations. Simple model distributions of thermal fluctuations are considered and the associated entropy production evaluated.

  12. Freeze concentration of dairy products, Phase 1: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luksas, A.; Ahmed, S.; Johnson, T.A.

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore freeze concentration as a process to replace thermal evaporation in the dairy industry. The goals of the study were to save energy by converting concentration processes to an efficient, electrically powered, refrigeration system, and to create higher quality and innovative products that might bring new life to a nature dairy market. A small freeze concentration pilot plant was used to concentrate products for quality comparisons, for physical and chemical analytical determinations, and to discover any equipment/product attributes or limitations. Data was correlated to compare operating economics of freeze concentrations superior to the fresh feedstock in sensory and functionality tests upon reconstitution. Laboratory testing showed equal or superior quality in resulting spray dried powders from freeze concentrates. Freeze concentration was shown to be economically competitive with thermal processes and second generation freezing technology is projected to produce a substantially less expensive product and offer other advantages over current thermally produced goods. 31 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Application of phase-trafficking methods to natural products research.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan J; Montenegro, Gloria; Mitscher, Lester A; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-09-24

    A novel simultaneous phase-trafficking approach using spatially separated solid-supported reagents for rapid separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds from organic plant extracts with minimum labor is reported. Acidic and basic ion-exchange resins were physically separated into individual sacks ("tea bags") for trapping basic and acidic compounds, respectively, leaving behind in solution neutral components of the natural mixtures. Trapped compounds were then recovered from solid phase by appropriate suspension in acidic or basic solutions. The feasibility of the proposed separation protocol was demonstrated and optimized with an "artificial mixture" of model compounds. In addition, the utility of this methodology was illustrated with the successful separation of the alkaloid skytanthine from Skytanthus acutus Meyen and the main catechins and caffeine from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze). This novel approach offers multiple advantages over traditional extraction methods, as it is not labor intensive, makes use of only small quantities of solvents, produces fractions in adequate quantities for biological assays, and can be easily adapted to field conditions for bioprospecting activities.

  14. Thematic Mapper Image Production in the Engineering Checkout Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, D.; Lyon, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data processing during LANDSAT 4's first year was performed on an engineering evaluation basis. Fully corrected products were created for some 282 scenes during this period using software and systems based upon the intended full production systems to become operational following the evaluation period. The engineering systems included substantial software and procedures for assessing spacecraft, instrument and ground processing algorithmic behavior. The data systems are described in terms of performance objectives, processing organization and data flow, quality assurance measurements and achievement of goals. The a priori implementation of TM radiometric and geometric corrections is described. Changes to processing suggested by or implemented on the basis of on-orbit data analysis are discussed. Spacecraft, instrument and algorithmic performance are evaluated.

  15. Growth of ɛ-caprolactam crystals from the melt: The influence of cyclohexanone on the {1 1 1¯} and {1 1 0} forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, E. P. G.; Bögels, G.; Arkenbout, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    The (1 1 1¯) and (1 1 0) facets of ɛ-caprolactam growing from the melt appear to grow with different mechanisms. This is caused by the different molecular structure of the (1 1 1¯) and the (1 1 0) facets. Moreover, the cyclohexanone impurity concentration in front of the interface changes the growth mechanism leading to different distribution coefficients for each facet. Usually, in industry overall distribution coefficients are used and the crystal form is only of interest because of the filterability of the crystals. Here it is shown that a second factor, the growth mechanism of each facet has to be taken into account when considering the optimal conditions for growing pure crystals.

  16. Enthalpy and mass flowrate measurements for two-phase geothermal production by Tracer dilution techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hirtz, Paul; Lovekin, Jim; Copp, John; Buck, Cliff; Adams, Mike

    1993-01-28

    A new technique has been developed for the measurement of steam mass flowrate, water mass flowrate and total enthalpy of two-phase fluids produced from geothermal wells. The method involves precisely metered injection of liquid and vapor phase tracers into the two-phase production pipeline and concurrent sampling of each phase downstream of the injection point. Subsequent chemical analysis of the steam and water samples for tracer content enables the calculation of mass flowrate for each phase given the known mass injection rates of tracer. This technique has now been used extensively at the Coso geothermal project, owned and operated by California Energy Company. Initial validation of the method was performed at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal project on wells producing to individual production separators equipped with orificeplate flowmeters for each phase.

  17. Irreversible entropy production in two-phase flows with evaporating drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Okong'o, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    A derivation of the irreversible entropy production, that is the dissipation, in two-phase flows is presented for the purpose of examining the effect of evaporative-drop modulation of flows having turbulent features.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, FRANCE COMPRESSOR PRODUCTS EMISSIONS PACKING, PHASE I REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents results of a Phase I test of emissions packing technology offered by France Compressor Products which is designed to reduce methane leaks from compressor rod packing when a compressor is in a standby and pressurized state. This Phase I test was executed betwee...

  19. Tegress™ Urethral Implant Phase III Clinical Experience and Product Uniqueness

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowski, Roger R

    2005-01-01

    Advances in materials technology, coupled with a heightened understanding of wound healing and tissue-materials interactions in the lower urinary tract, have led to the development of a variety of new urethral bulking agents that are expected to be available in the near future. Experience with such bulking agents continues to grow and study results are disseminated as more clinical trials are initiated and completed. The intention of this report is to review the characteristics and initial clinical results for one of these new agents: Tegress™ Urethral Implant (C. R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ). This material, with unique phase-change properties upon exposure to body temperature fluids, offers ease of injection and requires less volume for clinical effect than bovine collagen. Additionally, Tegress Urethral Implant performance in clinical trials has suggested improved durability and correspondingly higher continence and improvement rates versus bovine collagen. As these materials evolve, an understanding of preferential implant techniques is being gained also. Delivery method and implant site may prove to substantially alter the biologic activity of these compounds. As outlined in this review, experience with Tegress Implant resulted in changes in delivery technique that translated into improved materials and tissue interaction. PMID:16985873

  20. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my... (OGOR-A) for your lease under § 216.53. All gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A... only gas production from qualified wells on your lease, regardless of their depth, for which you...

  1. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lease under 30 CFR 1210.102. All gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production not subject to royalty, counts toward the total lease RSV earned by both deep or ultra-deep wells... production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease or in...

  2. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lease under 30 CFR 1210.102. All gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production not subject to royalty, counts toward the total lease RSV earned by both deep or ultra-deep wells... production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease or in...

  3. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lease under 30 CFR 1210.102. All gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production not subject to royalty, counts toward the total lease RSV earned by both deep or ultra-deep wells... production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease or in...

  4. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease not be applied... perforated deeper than 15,000 feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other... condensate) volumes; or (d) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling...

  5. Comparative assessment of olive oil mill effluents from three-phase and two-phase systems, treated for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Rouvalis, A; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J

    2010-10-01

    By-products of a two-phase and a three-phase olive oil mill process treated in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production, were evaluated by three bioassays: the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test and two microbiotests, Thamnotoxkit F and Daphtoxkit F™ pulex. Samples from both processes were classified as "very toxic" with LC(50) values ranging from 1.52% (T. platyurus 24 h test) to 4.48% (D. pulex 48 h-LC₅₀). Toxicity values were differently correlated to physicochemical parameters showing different degree of influence. The treated effluents of both process systems remained very toxic showing the necessity for further treatment, aiming to environmentally safe discharges.

  6. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat, phase 1 design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final product of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.

  7. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Nutrient control for stationary phase cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30.

    PubMed

    Callow, Nicholas V; Ray, Christopher S; Kelbly, Matthew A; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the use of nutrient limitations with Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 to obtain a prolonged stationary phase cellulase production. This period of non-growth may allow for dependable cellulase production, extended fermentation periods, and the possibility to use pellet morphology for easy product separation. Phosphorus limitation was successful in halting growth and had a corresponding specific cellulase production of 5±2 FPU/g-h. Combined with the addition of Triton X-100 for fungal pellet formation and low shear conditions, a stationary phase cellulase production period in excess of 300 h was achieved, with a constant enzyme production rate of 7±1 FPU/g-h. While nitrogen limitation was also effective as a growth limiter, it, however, also prevented cellulase production.

  9. Irreversible Entropy Production in Two-Phase Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a study of dissipation (irreversible production of entropy) in three-dimensional, temporal mixing layers laden with evaporating liquid drops. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of evaporating drops on the development of turbulent features in flows. Direct numerical simulations were performed to analyze transitional states of three mixing layers: one without drops, and two that included drops at different initial mass loadings. Without drops, the dissipation is essentially due to viscous effects. It was found that in the presence of drops, the largest contribution to dissipation was made by heating and evaporation of the drops, and that at large length scales, this contribution is positive (signifying that the drops reduce turbulence), while at small scales, this contribution is negative (the drops increase turbulence). The second largest contribution to dissipation was found to be associated with the chemical potential, which leads to an increase in turbulence at large scales and a decrease in turbulence at small scales. The next smaller contribution was found to be that of viscosity. The fact that viscosity effects are only third in order of magnitude in the dissipation is in sharp contrast to the situation for the mixing layer without the drops. The next smaller contribution - that of the drag and momentum of the vapor from the drops - was found to be negative at lower mass loading but to become positive at higher mass loading.

  10. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-03-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  11. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  12. Three-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction of organophosphorous nerve agent degradation products from complex samples.

    PubMed

    Desoubries, Charlotte; Chapuis-Hugon, Florence; Bossée, Anne; Pichon, Valérie

    2012-07-01

    Degradation products of chemical warfare agents are considered as important environmental and biological markers of chemical attacks. Alkyl methylphosphonic acids (AMPAs), resulting from the fast hydrolysis of nerve agents, such as sarin and soman, and the methylphosphonic acid (MPA), final degradation product of AMPAs, were determined from complex matrices by using an emergent and miniaturized extraction technique, the hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), before their analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). After studying different conditions of separation in the reversed phase LC-MS analysis, the sample treatment method was set up. The three-phase HF-LPME was carried out by using a porous polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber impregnated with 1-octanol that separates the donor and acceptor aqueous media. Various extraction parameters were evaluated such as the volume of the sample, the effect of the pH and the salt addition to the sample, the pH of the acceptor phase, the extraction temperature, the stirring speed of the sample, the immersion time in the organic solvent and the time of extraction. The optimum conditions were applied to the determination of MPA and five AMPAs in real samples, such as surface waters and urine. Compounds were extracted from a 3 mL acidified sample into only 6 μL of alkaline water without any other pretreatment of the complex matrices. Enrichment factors (EFs) higher than 170 were obtained for three less polar AMPAs. Limits of quantification (LOQs) in the 0.013-5.3 ng mL(-1) range were obtained after microextraction of AMPAs from river water and in the range of 0.056-4.8 ng mL(-1) from urine samples with RSD values between 1 and 9%. PMID:22705170

  13. Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the ozonolysis of ten different terpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.; Keywood, Melita D.; Gao, Song; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Bahreini, Roya; Ng, Nga L.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-04-01

    The ozonolyses of six monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and myrcene), two sesquiterpenes (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene), and two oxygenated terpenes (methyl chavicol and linalool) were conducted individually in Teflon chambers to examine the gas-phase oxidation product and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from these reactions. Particle size distribution and number concentration were monitored and allowed for the calculation of the SOA yield from each experiment, which ranged from 1 to 54%. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to monitor the evolution of gas-phase products, identified by their mass to charge ratio (m/z). Several gas-phase oxidation products, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, acetic acid, and nopinone, were identified and calibrated. Aerosol yields, and the yields of these identified and calibrated oxidation products, as well as many higher m/z oxidation products observed with the PTR-MS, varied significantly between the different parent terpene compounds. The sum of measured oxidation products in the gas and particle phase ranged from 33 to 77% of the carbon in the reacted terpenes, suggesting there are still unmeasured products from these reactions. The observations of the higher molecular weight oxidation product ions provide evidence of previously unreported compounds and their temporal evolution in the smog chamber from multistep oxidation processes. Many of the observed ions, including m/z 111 and 113, have also been observed in ambient air above a Ponderosa pine forest canopy, and our results confirm they are consistent with products from terpene + O3 reactions. Many of these products are stable on the timescale of our experiments and can therefore be monitored in field campaigns as evidence for ozone oxidative chemistry.

  14. Using in situ airborne measurements to evaluate three cloud phase products derived from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Winker, D.; Getzewich, B.; Cai, X.; Jourdan, O.; Mioche, G.; Okamoto, H.; Hagihara, Y.; Noel, V.; Reverdy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We compare the cloud detection and cloud phase determination of three independent climatologies based on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) to airborne in situ measurements. Our analysis of the cloud detection shows that the differences between the satellite and in situ measurements mainly arise from three factors. First, averaging CALIPSO Level l data along track before cloud detection increases the estimate of high- and low-level cloud fractions. Second, the vertical averaging of Level 1 data before cloud detection tends to artificially increase the cloud vertical extent. Third, the differences in classification of fully attenuated pixels among the CALIPSO climatologies lead to differences in the low-level Arctic cloud fractions. In another section, we compare the cloudy pixels detected by colocated in situ and satellite observations to study the cloud phase determination. At midlatitudes, retrievals of homogeneous high ice clouds by CALIPSO data sets are very robust (more than 94.6% of agreement with in situ). In the Arctic, where the cloud phase vertical variability is larger within a 480 m pixel, all climatologies show disagreements with the in situ measurements and CALIPSO-General Circulation Models-Oriented Cloud Product (GOCCP) report significant undefined-phase clouds, which likely correspond to mixed-phase clouds. In all CALIPSO products, the phase determination is dominated by the cloud top phase. Finally, we use global statistics to demonstrate that main differences between the CALIPSO cloud phase products stem from the cloud detection (horizontal averaging, fully attenuated pixels) rather than the cloud phase determination procedures.

  15. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Abir; Brooks, Scott C; Miller, Carrie L; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yin, Xiangping Lisa; Drake, Meghan M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24h before sampling (late addition) resulted in {approx}2x greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to {approx}3x more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  16. Bacterial growth phase influences methylmercury production by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Abir; Brooks, Scott C; Miller, Carrie L; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yin, Xiangping L; Drake, Meghan M

    2011-09-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2× greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3× more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  17. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Abir; Brooks, Scott C; Miller, Carrie L; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yin, Xiangping Lisa; Drake, Meghan M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg: SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2 greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid-and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3 more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  18. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  19. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  20. The Production Phase for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) Modular Coil Winding Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzenroeder, P.; Brown, T.; Neilson, G.; Malinowski, F.; Sutton, L.; Nelson, B.; Williamson, D.; Horton, N.; Goddard, B.; Edwards, J.; Bowling, K.; Hatzilias, K.

    2005-10-20

    The production phase for the NCSX modular coil winding forms has been underway for approximately one year as of this date. This is the culmination of R&D efforts performed in 2001-4. The R&D efforts included limited manufacturing studies while NCSX was in its conceptual design phase followed by more detailed manufacturing studies by two teams which included the fabrication of full scale prototypes. This provided the foundation necessary for the production parts to be produced under a firm price and schedule contract that was issued in September 2004. This paper will describe the winding forms, the production team and team management, details of the production process, and the achievements for the first year.

  1. Chemical characterization of the main products formed through aqueous-phase photonitration of guaiacol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanovski, Z.; Čusak, A.; Grgić, I.; Claeys, M.

    2014-08-01

    Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives can be emitted into the atmosphere by thermal degradation (i.e., burning) of wood lignins. Due to its volatility, guaiacol is predominantly distributed atmospherically in the gaseous phase. Recent studies have shown the importance of aqueous-phase reactions in addition to the dominant gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions of guaiacol, in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. The main objectives of the present study were to chemically characterize the main products of the aqueous-phase photonitration of guaiacol and examine their possible presence in urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous-phase reactions were carried out under simulated sunlight and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. The formed guaiacol reaction products were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and then purified with semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fractionated individual compounds were isolated as pure solids and further analyzed with liquid-state proton, carbon-13 and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and direct infusion negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry ((-)ESI-MS/MS). The NMR and product ion (MS2) spectra were used for unambiguous product structure elucidation. The main products of guaiacol photonitration are 4-nitroguaiacol (4NG), 6-nitroguaiacol (6NG), and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol (4,6DNG). Using the isolated compounds as standards, 4NG and 4,6DNG were unambiguously identified in winter PM10 aerosols from the city of Ljubljana (Slovenia) by means of HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS. Owing to the strong absorption of ultraviolet and visible light, 4,6DNG could be an important constituent of atmospheric "brown" carbon, especially in regions affected by biomass burning.

  2. Sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product and preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr; Pickus, Milton R.

    1979-01-01

    A sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product characterized by a grain oriented morphology. The grain oriented morphology is obtained by magnetically aligning powder particles of the magnetostrictive alloy prior to sintering. Specifically disclosed are grain oriented sintered compacts of Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2 and their method of preparation. The present sintered products have enhanced magnetostrictive properties.

  3. The health significance of gas- and particle-phase terpene oxidation products: a review.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette C

    2013-10-01

    The reactions between terpenes and ozone (or other oxidants) produce a wide variety of both gas- and particle-phase products. Terpenes are biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are also contained in many consumer products. Ozone is present indoors since it infiltrates into the indoor environment and is emitted by some office and consumer equipment. Some of the gaseous products formed are irritating to biological tissues, while the condensed-phase products have received attention due to their contribution to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its respective health significance. Despite common scientific questions, the indoor and ambient air research communities have tended to operate in isolation regarding this topic. This review critically evaluates the literature related to terpene oxidation products and attempts to synthesize results of indoor and ambient air studies to better understand the health significance of these materials and identify knowledge gaps. The review documents the results of a literature search covering terpene oxidation chemistry, epidemiological, toxicological, and controlled human exposure studies, as well as health studies focused more generically on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The literature shows a clear role for gas-phase terpene oxidation products in adverse airway effects at high concentrations; however, whether these effects occur at more environmentally relevant levels is unclear. The evidence for toxicity of particle-phase products is less conclusive. Knowledge gaps and future research needs are outlined, and include the need for more consistency in study designs, incorporation of reaction product measurements into epidemiological studies conducted in both indoor and ambient settings, and more focused research on the toxicity of SOA, especially SOA of biogenic origin.

  4. Nonsedimentable Microvesicles from Senescing Bean Cotyledons Contain Gel Phase-Forming Phospholipid Degradation Products 1

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kening; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Thompson, John E.

    1991-01-01

    A mixture of liquid-crystalline and gel-phase lipid domains is detectable by wide angle x-ray diffraction in smooth microsomal membranes isolated from senescent 7-day-old cotyledons, whereas corresponding membranes from young 2-day-old cotyledons are exclusively liquid-crystalline. The gel-phase domains in the senescent membranes comprise phospholipid degradation products including diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, long-chain aldehydes, and long-chain hydrocarbons. The same complement of phospholipid degradation products is also present in nonsedimentable microvesicles isolated from senescent 7-day-old cotyledons by filtration of a 250,000g, 12-hour supernatant through a 300,000 dalton cut-off filter. The phospholipid degradation products in the microvesicles form gel-phase lipid domains when reconstituted into phospholipid liposomes. Nonsedimentable microvesicles of a similar size, which are again enriched in the same gel-phase-forming phospholipid degradation products, are also generated in vitro from smooth microsomal membranes isolated from 2-day-old cotyledons when Ca2+ is added to activate membrane-associated lipolytic enzymes. The Ca2+-treated membranes do not contain detectable gel-phase domains, suggesting that the phospholipid degradation products are completely removed by microvesiculation. The observations collectively indicate that these nonsedimentable microvesicles serve as a vehicle for moving phospholipid degradation products out of membrane bilayers into the cytosol. As noted previously (Yao K, Paliyath G, Humphrey RW, Hallett FR, Thompson JE [1991] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 2269-2273), the term “deteriosome” connotes this putative function and would serve to distinguish these microvesicles from other cytoplasmic microvesicles unrelated to deterioration. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668427

  5. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1998-03-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. A three-phase study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate high-volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products as alternates to landfilling. Phase 1 characterized the chemical, physical, mineralogical, and engineering properties of FGD by-products from 13 coal-fired boilers, and provided a preliminary evaluation of the economic feasibility of various FGD by-product applications. This report covers Phase 2 of the study, which included (1) laboratory and greenhouse studies to evaluate the use of dry FGD by-products as a soil conditioning amendment for acidic minespoils and agricultural soils, (2) field studies to test several high-volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) development and preliminary application of a basic methodological framework for estimation of the economic costs and benefits to society of various beneficial reuse options.

  6. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required. PMID:25494838

  7. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  8. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  9. Effects of inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% (vol/vol)) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

  10. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  11. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION FOR TRACE LEVEL ANALYSIS OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on the development of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)/ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) method for the analysis of semivolatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water in the low ug/L range. These DBPs were selected ...

  12. Phase transition of the one-dimensional coagulation-production process

    SciTech Connect

    Odor, Geza

    2001-06-01

    Recently an exact solution has been found by M. Henkel and H. Hinrichsen [J. Phys. A >34, 1561 (2001)] for the one-dimensional coagulation-production process: 2A{r_arrow}A, A0A{r_arrow}3A with equal diffusion and coagulation rates. This model evolves into the inactive phase independently of the production rate with t{sup {minus}1/2} density decay law. This paper shows that cluster mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations predict a continuous phase transition for higher diffusion/coagulation rates as considered by the exact solution. Numerical evidence is given that the phase transition universality agrees with that of the annihilation-fission model with low diffusions.

  13. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  14. Particle Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the SPS and the QCD Phase Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Blume, Christoph

    2011-05-23

    Results of the NA49 experiment on particle production in the energy regime of the CERN-SPS are reviewed. In order to collect information on the properties of the QCD phase diagram systematic studies of the energy dependence of particle production in heavy ion collisions have been performed. Net-baryon distributions and results on strangeness production are discussed. Recent attempts to search for a critical point, such as multiplicity fluctuations and the transverse mass dependence of anti-baryon/baryon ratios are reviewed.

  15. Production of heralded pure single photons from imperfect sources using cross-phase-modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, Thomas; Nock, Michael; Scherer, Artur; Audretsch, Juergen

    2006-09-15

    Realistic single-photon sources do not generate single photons with certainty. Instead they produce statistical mixtures of photons in Fock states |1> and vacuum (noise). We describe how to eliminate the noise in the output of the sources by means of another noisy source or a coherent state and cross-phase-modulation (XPM). We present a scheme that announces the production of pure single photons and thus eliminates the vacuum contribution. This is done by verifying a XPM-related phase shift with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  16. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  17. Acetylenic polymers for hair styling products.

    PubMed

    Martiny, S

    2002-06-01

    This paper looks at the basic requirements of hair styling products from a consumer's perspective before moving onto a very brief outline of the various chemistries available to the formulator. It then discusses the manufacture of vinyl pyrrolidone from acetylene. The properties of polyvinyl pyrrolidone are described, followed by the features and benefits of some vinyl pyrrolidone copolymers and terpolymers. The instrumental analysis of the hold, flexibility, tack and combing properties of polymer films is discussed in some detail, along with the effect of application type on these measurable properties concentrating upon vinyl caprolactam/vinyl pyrrolidone/dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide acrylates copolymer.

  18. Applications of liquid-phase microextraction techniques in natural product analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yunyan; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong

    2014-11-14

    Over the last years, liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) as a simple, rapid, practical and effective sample-preparation technique, coupled with various instrumental analytical methods, has been increasingly and widely used to research and determine trace or ultra-micro-levels of both inorganic and organic analytes from different matrix-complex samples. In this review, different kinds of LPMEs such as single drop liquid-phase microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction are summarized and recent applications of LPMEs in trace compounds in vivo and in vitro from different natural product matrice analysis such as tea, vegetables, seeds, herbs, and galenical are also discussed. Finally, future developments and applications of LPMEs in complex sample analysis are prospected.

  19. Applications of liquid-phase microextraction techniques in natural product analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yunyan; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong

    2014-11-14

    Over the last years, liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) as a simple, rapid, practical and effective sample-preparation technique, coupled with various instrumental analytical methods, has been increasingly and widely used to research and determine trace or ultra-micro-levels of both inorganic and organic analytes from different matrix-complex samples. In this review, different kinds of LPMEs such as single drop liquid-phase microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction are summarized and recent applications of LPMEs in trace compounds in vivo and in vitro from different natural product matrice analysis such as tea, vegetables, seeds, herbs, and galenical are also discussed. Finally, future developments and applications of LPMEs in complex sample analysis are prospected. PMID:25441339

  20. Novel module production methods for the CMS pixel detector, upgrade phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, T.; Caselle, M.; Weber, M.; Kudella, S.; Colombo, F.; Hansen, K.; Arab, S.

    2015-02-01

    For the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), phase I, the CMS pixel detector needs to be replaced. In order to improve the tracking resolution even at high luminosity the pixel detector is upgraded by a fourth barrel layer. This paper describes the production process and results for the fourth barrel layer for the CMS silicon pixel detector, upgrade phase I. The additional barrel layer will be produced by KIT and DESY. Both research centers have commonly developed and investigated new production processes, including SAC solder bump jetting, gold stud bumping and "Precoat by Powder Processes" (PPS) to bump the sensor tiles and prepare them for the flip-chip process. First bare modules have been produced with the new digital ROC.

  1. piRNA-Guided Transposon Cleavage Initiljates Zucchini-Dependent, Phased piRNA Production

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2015-01-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germline by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon ‘junkyards’ (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the “Ping-Pong” pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nt of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt becomes the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The Ping-Pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence. PMID:25977554

  2. Improved electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) belt press for food products. Phase 3, Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Battelle`s electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process improves the performance of mechanical dewatering processes for several food products (such as corn fiber) by superimposing electric and ultrasonic fields. EAD has the potential to save 0.027 to 0.035 quad/yr energy by 1995 in the food processing industry, which consumed 0.15 to 0.18 quad in 1986. This report covers Phase III for demonstrating the EAD prototype on corn wet milling products (corn fiber and gluten); only Task 1 (prototype preparation and planning) was completed. EAD performance was examined in the laboratory; availability of a test site was examined. The single-roll, postdewatering EAD belt press prototype can accept material predewatered by a screw press, centrifuge, or any other mechanical dewatering device. The two-belt system, utilizing a copper-polymer cathode belt, performed as well as the three-belt system used in Phase II.

  3. [Determination of main degradation products of lignin using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhijing; Zhu, Junjun; Li, Xin; Lian, Zhina; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the separation and quantitative determination of main degradation products of lignin (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde) during the steam exploded pretreatment for corn stovers. The separation was carried out on a C18 column with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (containing 1.5% acetic acid) at 30 degrees C at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and the detection wavelengths of 254 and 280 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the correlation coefficients of the 6 compounds were between 0.999 9 and 1.000 0. The recoveries of the 6 compounds were all above 96% and the relative standard deviations (n = 6) were less than 2.5%. This method is suitable for the determination of the main degradation products of lignin during the steam exploded pretreatment of lignocellulosics.

  4. Microbial and sponge loops modify fish production in phase-shifting coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Silva-Lima, Arthur W; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Marques, Jomar S M; Almeida, Marcelo G; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Moura, Rodrigo L; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-10-01

    Shifts from coral to algae dominance of corals reefs have been correlated to fish biomass loss and increased microbial metabolism. Here we investigated reef benthic and planktonic primary production, benthic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release and bacterial growth efficiency in the Abrolhos Bank, South Atlantic. Benthic DOC release rates are higher while water column bacterial growth efficiency is lower at impacted reefs. A trophic model based on the benthic and planktonic primary production was able to predict the observed relative fish biomass in healthy reefs. In contrast, in impacted reefs, the observed omnivorous fish biomass is higher, while that of the herbivorous/coralivorous fish is lower than predicted by the primary production-based model. Incorporating recycling of benthic-derived carbon in the model through microbial and sponge loops explains the difference and predicts the relative fish biomass in both reef types. Increased benthic carbon release rates and bacterial carbon metabolism, but decreased bacterial growth efficiency could lead to carbon losses through respiration and account for the uncoupling of benthic and fish production in phase-shifting reefs. Carbon recycling by microbial and sponge loops seems to promote an increase of small-bodied fish productivity in phase-shifting coral reefs.

  5. Continuous fermentative hydrogen production using a two-phase reactor system with recycle.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2005-05-15

    The effects of effluent recycle were examined in a two-phase anaerobic system where the first phase was operated for fermentative hydrogen production and the second for methanogenesis. The hydrogen reactor was operated as a chemostat at 35 degrees C and pH 5.5 with a 10 h hydraulic retention time, and the methane reactor was operated as an up-flow reactor at 28 degrees C and pH between 6.9 and 7.2. Two recycle ratios were examined: 0 and 0.98. Effluent recycle reduced the required alkalinity for pH control by approximately 40%. The H2 productivity metric, with a basis in electrons and incorporating both gaseous and dissolved H2, was developed as a more fundamental reporting method than the molar H2 yield. Without recycle, the H2 productivity was 0.115 g of H2 COD/g of feed COD, but decreased to 0.015 q of H2 COD/g of feed COD with recycle (COD = chemical oxygen demand). Mass balances indicated the lower H2 productivity during recycle was due to electrons being partitioned to methane and less-oxidized soluble constituents such as propionic acid, ethanol, and butanol. The results indicated that achieving high H2 productivity with nonsterile wastewaters will be challenging and membrane filtration of the recycle liquid may be required to exclude the return of hydrogen-consuming organisms.

  6. Gas-phase reaction of ( E)-β-farnesene with ozone: Rate coefficient and carbonyl products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Bejan, Iustinian; Sodeau, John R.; Wenger, John C.

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of ( E)-β-farnesene was investigated in a 3.91 m 3 atmospheric simulation chamber at 296 ± 2 K and relative humidity of around 0.1%. The relative rate method was used to determine the reaction rate coefficient of (4.01 ± 0.17) × 10 -16 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, where the indicated errors are two least-squares standard deviations and do not include uncertainties in the rate coefficients for the reference compounds (γ-terpinene, cis-cyclooctene and 1,5-cyclooctadiene). Gas phase carbonyl products were collected using a denuder sampling technique and analyzed with GC/MS following derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA). The reaction products detected were acetone, 4-oxopentanal, methylglyoxal, 4-methylenehex-5-enal, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, and ( E)-4-methyl-8-methylenedeca-4,9-dienal. A detailed mechanism for the gas-phase ozonolysis of ( E)-β-farnesene is proposed, which accounts for all of the products observed in this study. The results of this work indicate that the atmospheric reaction of ( E)-β-farnesene with ozone has a lifetime of around 1 h and is another possible source of the ubiquitous carbonyls, acetone, 4-oxopentanal and 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one in the atmosphere.

  7. Lignin solubilization and aqueous phase reforming for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Zakzeski, Joseph; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2011-03-21

    The solubilization and aqueous phase reforming of lignin, including kraft, soda, and alcell lignin along with sugarcane bagasse, at low temperatures (T≤498 K) and pressures (P≤29 bar) is reported for the first time for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen. Analysis of lignin model compounds and the distribution of products obtained during the lignin aqueous phase reforming revealed that lignin was depolymerized through disruption of the abundant β-O-4 linkages and, to a lesser extent, the 5-5' carbon-carbon linkages to form monomeric aromatic compounds. The alkyl chains contained on these monomeric compounds were readily reformed to produce hydrogen and simple aromatic platform chemicals, particularly guaiacol and syringol, with the distribution of each depending on the lignin source. The methoxy groups present on the aromatic rings were subject to hydrolysis to form methanol, which was also readily reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The composition of the isolated yields of monomeric aromatic compounds and overall lignin conversion based on these isolated yields varied from 10-15% depending on the lignin sample, with the balance consisting of gaseous products and residual solid material. Furthermore, we introduce the use of a high-pressure autoclave with optical windows and an autoclave with ATR-IR sentinel for on-line in situ spectroscopic monitoring of biomass conversion processes, which provides direct insight into, for example, the solubilization process and aqueous phase reforming reaction of lignin. PMID:21246746

  8. Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

  9. Validation of models for predicting formaldehyde concentrations in residences due to pressed wood products. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, R.A.; Silberstein, S.; Ishiguro, K.

    1985-09-01

    The interim report describes procedures and presents results of the first phase of a laboratory project undertaken at the National Bureau of Standards for the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The purpose of the project is to assess the accuracy of emission and indoor-air-quality models to be used by CPSC in predicting formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in residences due to pressed-wood products made with urea-formaldehyde bonding resins, namely particleboard underlayment, hardwood-plywood paneling and medium-density fiberboard (MDF). In phase I, these products were characterized in medium-size dynamic measuring chambers by measuring their HCHO surface emission rates over a range of HCHO concentrations, at 23C and 50% RH. They were then installed in a two-room prototype house and the equilibrium HCHO concentrations were monitored as a function of air exchange rate. Excellent agreement was obtained between measured HCHO concentrations and those predicted by a mass-balance indoor air quality model. In the next phase, the study will be repeated at various different temperatures and relative humidities so that models predicting HCHO surface emission rate as a function of temperature and humidity can be tested.

  10. Lignin solubilization and aqueous phase reforming for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Zakzeski, Joseph; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2011-03-21

    The solubilization and aqueous phase reforming of lignin, including kraft, soda, and alcell lignin along with sugarcane bagasse, at low temperatures (T≤498 K) and pressures (P≤29 bar) is reported for the first time for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen. Analysis of lignin model compounds and the distribution of products obtained during the lignin aqueous phase reforming revealed that lignin was depolymerized through disruption of the abundant β-O-4 linkages and, to a lesser extent, the 5-5' carbon-carbon linkages to form monomeric aromatic compounds. The alkyl chains contained on these monomeric compounds were readily reformed to produce hydrogen and simple aromatic platform chemicals, particularly guaiacol and syringol, with the distribution of each depending on the lignin source. The methoxy groups present on the aromatic rings were subject to hydrolysis to form methanol, which was also readily reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The composition of the isolated yields of monomeric aromatic compounds and overall lignin conversion based on these isolated yields varied from 10-15% depending on the lignin sample, with the balance consisting of gaseous products and residual solid material. Furthermore, we introduce the use of a high-pressure autoclave with optical windows and an autoclave with ATR-IR sentinel for on-line in situ spectroscopic monitoring of biomass conversion processes, which provides direct insight into, for example, the solubilization process and aqueous phase reforming reaction of lignin.

  11. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  12. ENTROPY PRODUCTION IN COLLISIONLESS SYSTEMS. II. ARBITRARY PHASE-SPACE OCCUPATION NUMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Eric I.; Williams, Liliya L. R. E-mail: llrw@astro.umn.edu

    2012-04-01

    We present an analysis of two thermodynamic techniques for determining equilibria of self-gravitating systems. One is the Lynden-Bell (LB) entropy maximization analysis that introduced violent relaxation. Since we do not use the Stirling approximation, which is invalid at small occupation numbers, our systems have finite mass, unlike LB's isothermal spheres. (Instead of Stirling, we utilize a very accurate smooth approximation for ln x{exclamation_point}.) The second analysis extends entropy production extremization to self-gravitating systems, also without the use of the Stirling approximation. In addition to the LB statistical family characterized by the exclusion principle in phase space, and designed to treat collisionless systems, we also apply the two approaches to the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) families, which have no exclusion principle and hence represent collisional systems. We implicitly assume that all of the phase space is equally accessible. We derive entropy production expressions for both families and give the extremum conditions for entropy production. Surprisingly, our analysis indicates that extremizing entropy production rate results in systems that have maximum entropy, in both LB and MB statistics. In other words, both thermodynamic approaches lead to the same equilibrium structures.

  13. Entropy Production in Collisionless Systems. II. Arbitrary Phase-space Occupation Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Eric I.; Williams, Liliya L. R.

    2012-04-01

    We present an analysis of two thermodynamic techniques for determining equilibria of self-gravitating systems. One is the Lynden-Bell (LB) entropy maximization analysis that introduced violent relaxation. Since we do not use the Stirling approximation, which is invalid at small occupation numbers, our systems have finite mass, unlike LB's isothermal spheres. (Instead of Stirling, we utilize a very accurate smooth approximation for ln x!.) The second analysis extends entropy production extremization to self-gravitating systems, also without the use of the Stirling approximation. In addition to the LB statistical family characterized by the exclusion principle in phase space, and designed to treat collisionless systems, we also apply the two approaches to the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) families, which have no exclusion principle and hence represent collisional systems. We implicitly assume that all of the phase space is equally accessible. We derive entropy production expressions for both families and give the extremum conditions for entropy production. Surprisingly, our analysis indicates that extremizing entropy production rate results in systems that have maximum entropy, in both LB and MB statistics. In other words, both thermodynamic approaches lead to the same equilibrium structures.

  14. Hydrothermal transformation of Chinese privet seed biomass to gas-phase and semi-volatile products.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Thomas L; Catallo, W James; Shupe, Todd F

    2010-06-01

    Hydrothermal (HT) treatment of seeds from Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), a non-native and invasive species in the southeastern United States, was examined with respect to the generation of gas-phase and semi-volatile organic chemicals of industrial importance from a lipid-rich biomass resource. Aqueous seed slurries were transformed into biphasic liquid systems comprised of a milky aqueous phase overlain by a black organic layer. Present in the headspace were elevated levels of CO(2) and acetic acid. Analysis of the semi-volatiles by GC-MS showed the formation of alkyl substituted benzenes, oxygenated cyclic alkenes, phenol, substituted phenolics, and alkyl substituted pyridines. Compared to immature seeds, mature seeds gave high relative amounts of oxygenated cyclic alkenes (cyclopentenones) and alkyl pyridines. The presence of fatty acids in the HT products likely resulted from both lipid hydrolysis reactions and the inherent stability of fatty acids under HT treatment conditions. Estimates of lignin and protein contents showed no definite trend that could be linked to the HT data. The proportion of aromatic HT products appeared to derive primarily from the proportion of extractives. Thus, variations in extractives yields impact HT product yields and thereby demonstrate the importance of timing in feedstock collection to favor targeted HT products. PMID:20149648

  15. Repair, sidetrack, drilling, and completion of EE-2A for Phase 2 reservoir production service

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.S.; Cocks, G.G.; Nicholson, R.W.; Thomson, J.C.

    1989-08-01

    Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy well EE-2 at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was sidetracked and redrilled into the HDR Phase II reservoir after two unsuccessful attempts to repair damage in the lower wellbore. Before sidetracking was begun, six cement slurries were pumped to plug the abandoned lower wellbore and to support the production casing where drilling wear was predicted and where sidetracking was to occur. This work and the redrill of EE-2A were completed in November 1987. Specifications were prepared for a state-of-the-art tie-back casing, which was procured, manufactured, and delivered to Fenton Hill in May 1988. The well was then completed in June 1988 for hot-water production service by cementing in a liner and the upper section of production casing and installing and cementing a tie-back casing string. 24 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Production of computer-generated phase holograms using graphic devices: application to correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Andres; Campos, Juan; Yzuel, Maria J.; Pascual, Inmaculada V.; Fimia, Antonio; Belendez, Augusto

    2000-06-01

    An available and low-cost method for the production of computer-generated phase holograms is presented. Firstly, binary masks are produced by a high-resolution graphic device. The factors that affect the fidelity of the holograms are analyzed. Secondly, enhanced light efficiency is obtained in copies made on holographic emulsions by bleaching them. The reproduction of low spatial frequencies, the usual ones with graphic devices, has been studied using diffraction gratings. We propose the super-Gaussian function to simulate the grating profile. The results obtained with that function present good agreement with the experimental results. The use of this model has enabled us to design a method that has been used to obtain the phase modulation in the bleached emulsion as a function of exposure. Through this study the bleached emulsion has been validated as a good phase material for low spatial frequencies, and has been applied for the production of optical correlation filters. We conclude that the bleached holographic filter improves the efficiency of the master with no significant loss of quality.

  17. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  18. Secondary organic aerosol (trans)formation through aqueous phase guaiacol photonitration: chemical characterization of the products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgić, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran; Kroflič, Ana; Čusak, Alen

    2014-05-01

    One of the largest primary sources of organic aerosol in the atmosphere is biomass burning (BB) (Laskin et al. 2009); in Europe its contribution to annual mean of PM10 is between 3 and 14 % (Maenhaut et al. 2012). During the process of wood burning many different products are formed via thermal degradation of wood lignin. Hardwood burning produces mainly syringol (2,6-dimetoxyphenol) derivatives, while softwood burning exclusively guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives. Taking into account physical properties of methoxyphenols only, their concentrations in atmospheric waters might be underestimated. So, their aqueous phase reactions can be an additional source of SOA, especially in regions under significant influence of wood combustion. An important class of compounds formed during physical and chemical aging of the primary BBA in the atmosphere is nitrocatechols, known as strong absorbers of UV and Vis light (Claeys et al. 2012). Very recently, methyl-nitrocatechols were proposed as suitable markers for highly oxidized secondary BBA (Iinuma et al. 2010, Kitanovski et al. 2012). In the present work, the formation of SOA through aqueous phase photooxidation and nitration of guaiacol was examined. The key objective was to chemically characterize the main low-volatility products and further to check their possible presence in the urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous phase reactions were performed in a thermostated reactor under simulated sunlight in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. Guaiacol reaction products were first concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then subjected to semi-preparative liquid chromatography.The main product compounds were fractionated and isolated as pure solids and their structure was further elucidated by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C and 2D NMR) and direct infusion negative ion electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (( )ESI-MS/MS). The main photonitration products of guaiacol (4

  19. Tracer dilution measurements for two-phase geothermal production: Comparative testing and operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hirtz, P.; Lovekin, J.

    1995-12-31

    The tracer dilution technique for the measurement of steam and water mass flowrates and total enthalpy of two-phase geothermal fluids has been in routine use in the U.S.A. for almost three years. The tracer technique was first tested and adopted on a field-wide basis at the Coso geothermal field in California. Validation of the method was performed at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal project in Utah and the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal projects in California by direct comparison to orifice-plate flowmeter measurements of the separated phases. Production well mass flowrates and total enthalpy are now regularly measured by this technique in the Coso, Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields. Implementation of the tracer method is currently underway for the Tiwi and Bulalo geothermal fields in the Philippines. This paper presents the conceptual design of the measurement process, the results of field validations, and operating experience during field-wide testing in Coso.

  20. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis of imatinib mesylate and impurity product in Glivec capsules.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Medenica, M; Jancic, B; Malenovic, A

    2004-02-01

    The reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of imatinib mesylate and of the impurity product in Glivec capsules (Novartis, Switzerland). Separations were performed on a X Terra 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm particle size column at 25 degrees C. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol-water-triethylamine (25:74:1, v/v/v) with flow rate of 1.0 ml min(-1). pH value of water-triethylamine (TEA) was adjusted to 2.4 with orthophosphoric acid before adding of methanol. UV detection was performed at 267 nm. Acetaminophen was used as an internal standard. The method was validated statistically for its selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. Due to its speed and accuracy, the method may be used for quality control analyses.

  1. Mass spectrometry studies of fission product behavior: 2, Gas phase species

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, P.E.; Johnson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Revaporization of fission products from reactor system surfaces has become a complicating factor in source term definition. Critical to this phenomena is understanding the nature and behavior of the vapor phase species. This study characterizes the stability of the CsI . CsOH vapor phase complex. Vapor pressures were measured with a mass spectrometer. Thermodynamic data were obtained for CsOH(g), Cs/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/(g), CsI(g), Cs/sub 2/I/sub 2/(g) and CsI . CsOH(g). Activity coefficients were derived for the CsI-CsOH system. The relative ionization cross section of CsOH is about ten times the cross section of CsI(g). CsI . CsOH fragments to Cs/sub 2/OH/sup +/ and an iodine atom. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Phase 1 of the North Site cleanup: Definition of product streams. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.; Merriam, N.

    1994-03-01

    Various materials and equipment have accumulated at the Western Research Institute (WRI) North Site Facility since its commissioning in 1968. This facility was built by the US Bureau of Mines, transferred to the US Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) in 1976, and transferred once again to the US Department of Energy (DOE) shortly thereafter. In 1983, the North Site Facility became part of WRI. The materials that have accumulated over the years at the site have been stored in drums, tanks, and open piles. They vary from oil shale, tar sand, and coal feedstocks to products and materials associated with in situ simulation and surface process developments associated with these feedstocks. The majority of these materials have been associated with DOE North Site activities and work performed at the North Site under DOE-WRI cooperative agreement contracts. In phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project, these materials were sampled and evaluated to determine their chemical characteristics for proper disposal or use in accordance with current local, state, and federal regulations. Phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project involved dividing the stored materials into product streams and dividing each product stream into composite groups. Composite groups contain materials known to be similar in composition, source, and process exposure. For each composite group, materials, which are representative of the composite, were selected for sampling, compositing, and analysis.

  3. Effect of DMMP on the pyrolysis products of polyurethane foam materials in the gaseous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.; He, J.; Gao, N.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) has been used as a flame retardant containing phosphorus to decrease the flammability of the polyurethane foam material (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results show that LOI values of all PUF/DMMP samples are higher than that of the neat PUF sample and the LOI value of the samples increases with both DMMP concentration and the %P value. Thermal analysis indicates that flame retardant PUF shows a dominant condensed flame retardant activity during combustion. Thermogravimetric analysis-infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR) has been used to study the influence of DMMP on the pyrolysis products in the gaseous phase during the thermal degradation of the PUF sample. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) spectra of the PUF sample at the maximum evolution rates and the generated trends of water and the products containing -NCO have been examined to obtain more information about the pyrolysis product evolutions of the samples at high temperature. These results reveal that although DMMP could improve the thermal stability of PUF samples through the formation of the residual char layer between fire and the decomposed materials, the influence of DMMP on the gaseous phase can be also observed during the thermal degradation process of materials.

  4. Hydrogen production with immobilized sewage sludge in three-phase fluidized-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Yii; Lin, Chi-Num; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge was immobilized with a modified alginate gel entrapment method, and the immobilized cells were used to produce hydrogen gas in a three-phase fluidized bed. The hydrogen-producing fluidized beds were operated at different liquid velocity (U(0)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The results show that in response to operating liquid velocities, the fluidized-bed system had three flow regimes, namely, plug flow, slug flow, and free bubbling. Pressure fluctuation analysis was used to analyze the hydrodynamic properties in this three-phase fluidized bed when it was under a steady-state production of biogas. With a steady-state biogas production rate (U(g)) of 0.196 mL/s/L, a transition state occurred at a liquid velocity (U(0)) of 0.85 cm/s. As U(0) < 0.85 cm/s, the system was basically a nonhomogeneous fluidized bed, whereas the bed became homogeneous when U(0) was higher than 0.85 cm/s. The fluidized bed can be stably carried out at high loading rates (HRT as low as 2 h). Hydrogen fermentation results show that the maximal hydrogen production rate was 0.93 L/h/L and the best yield (Y(H)2(/sucrose)) was 2.67 mol H(2)/mol sucrose.

  5. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.7 Section 82.7 Protection of... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the...

  6. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.7 Section 82.7 Protection of... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the...

  7. A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Wei-Kao Lu

    2006-02-01

    The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  8. Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol

    DOEpatents

    Bonnell, Leo W.; Perka, Alan T.; Roberts, George W.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

  9. Quantum phase transitions in composite matrix product states of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing-Min

    2015-02-01

    For matrix product states of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains, we investigate the properties of quantum phase transition of the proposed composite system. We find that the system has three different ferromagnetic phases, one line of the two ferromagnetic phases coexisting equally describes the paramagnetic state, and the other two lines of two ferromagnetic phases coexisting equally describe the ferrimagnetic states, while the three phases coexisting equally point describes the ferromagnetic state. Whether on phase transition lines or at the phase transition point, the system is always in an isolated mediate-coupling state, the physical quantities are discontinuous and the system has long-range correlation and has long-range classical correlation and long-range quantum correlation. We believe that our work is helpful for comprehensively and profoundly understanding the quantum phase transitions, and of some certain guidance and enlightening on the classification and measure of quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems.

  10. Aqueous phase reforming of glycerol over Ni-based catalysts for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Hyun; Moon, Dong Ju

    2011-08-01

    Aqueous phase reforming of glycerol over Ni-based catalysts for hydrogen production was carried out at 225 degrees C, 23 bar and LHSV = 4 h(-1). The Ni-based catalyst was prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts before and after the reaction were characterized by N2 physisorption, CO chemisorption, XRD, TPR, SEM and TEM techniques. It was found that Ni(20 wt%)-Co(3 wt%)/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst showed higher glycerol conversion and hydrogen selectivity than Ni(20 wt%)/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. There are no major changes in Ni particles after the reaction over Ni-Co/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. The results suggest that the Ni-Co/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst can be applied to the hydrogen production system using APR of glycerol. PMID:22103184

  11. Major Effects in the Thermodynamics of Detonation Products: Phase Segregation versus Ionic Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, S; Fried, L E

    2010-03-09

    Water (H{sub 2}O) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) are major detonation products of high explosives and it has long been conjectured that they may phase segregate at high enough temperatures and pressures to influence detonation properties of common explosives. We analyze the phase diagram of H{sub 2}O-N{sub 2} mixtures using a thermodynamic theory for polar-nonpolar mixtures and find that phase segregation is unlikely to occur above approximately 1600K. Therefore, H{sub 2}O-N{sub 2} immiscibility is not likely to be relevant for detonation predictions. We propose instead that the high pressure ionic dissociation of water plays an important role in detonation, and model it using a new ionic thermodynamics. We employ this model in chemical equilibrium calculations of standard high explosives, e.g. PETN, HMX and RDX, and find that it performs very well under a wide range of conditions. Thus, although it may require further development, it is likely that explicitly ionic thermodynamics will become a standard tool for explosives modeling.

  12. Renewable stationary phase liquid magnetochromatography: determining aspartame and its hydrolysis products in diet soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Barrado, E; Rodríguez, J A; Castrillejo, Y

    2006-08-01

    A new chromatographic modality that does not require high pressures and also allows renewal of the stationary phase as desired is reported. The technique is based on a thin layer paramagnetic stationary phase (Fe3O4-SiO2) retained on the inner wall of a minicolumn through the action of an external magnetic field, which also plays an important role in separating the analytes. Accordingly, the name "renewable stationary phase liquid magnetochromatography", or RSP-LMC, has been proposed for it. The technique was used to separate and quantify the sugar substitute alpha-aspartame and its constituent amino acids (hydrolysis products), L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine, in diet fizzy soft drinks. When the results obtained for alpha-aspartame were compared with those obtained using HPLC as a reference method, no significant differences were observed. The system proposed is fully automated, making it an economic, competitive alternative to conventional methods of determining alpha-aspartame and its amino acid components.

  13. Valorisation of wastewater from two-phase olive oil extraction in fired clay brick production.

    PubMed

    de la Casa, José A; Lorite, Miguel; Jiménez, Juan; Castro, Eulogio

    2009-09-30

    Wastewater issued from oil-washing stage (OWW) in the two-phase olive oil extraction method was used to replace fresh water in clay brick manufacture. The extrusion trials were performed with one of the ceramic bodies currently being used in a local brick factory for red facing bricks (RB) production. Fresh water or OWW was added to a final consistency of 2.4 kg/cm(2), the same value as used at industrial scale for this kind of clay mixture. Comparative results of technological properties of facing bricks are presented. Results show that the products obtained with olive oil wastewater are comparable to traditional ones in terms of extrusion performance and technological properties of end products. Even dry-bending strength of the body formed by wastewater improves by 33% compared to fresh water body. In addition, heating requirements can be reduced in the range 2.4-7.3% depending on the final product. This application can alleviate environmental impacts from the olive oil extraction industry and, at the same time, result in economic savings for the brick manufacturing industry.

  14. Two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for biohythane production treating biowaste: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Giuliano, A; Pavan, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of a two-phase anaerobic process treating biowaste for hydrogen and methane production. Neither physical nor chemical pre-treatments were used to optimize the process. The work was carried out at pilot scale, using two CSTRs (200 and 380 L working volume respectively) both maintained at thermophilic temperature (55 C) and fed semi-continuously with biowaste. The experiment was divided into three periods; during the first two periods the organic loading rate was maintained at 20 kg TVS/m3 d and the hydraulic retention time was changed from 6.6 to 3.3 days, while in the last period the digestate of the second reactor was recirculated to the first reactor in order to buffer the system and control pH at levels around 5. The HRT was maintained at 3.3 days and the OLR was decreased at 16.5 kg TVS/m3 d. The best yield was obtained in the last period where a specific hydrogen production of 50.9 L/kg VSfed was reached, with a H2 content in biogas from the first reactor of 36%. The methanogenic stage after the hydrogen conversion reached a specific biogas production of 0.62 m3/kg VSfed and an overall organic removal above 70%, without any stability problem. The overall biogas production was some 1.5 m3 per day with a gas composition of 10% H2 and 50% CH4.

  15. Aqueous Phase Photo-Oxidation of Succinic Acid: Changes in Hygroscopic Properties and Reaction Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P. K.; Ninokawa, A.; Hofstra, J.; de Lijser, P.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have been identified as important factors in understanding climate change. The extent to which aerosols affect climate is determined, in part, by hygroscopic properties which can change as a result of atmospheric processing. Dicarboxylic acids, components of atmospheric aerosol, have a wide range of hygroscopic properties and can undergo oxidation and photolysis reactions in the atmosphere. In this study, the hygroscopic properties of succinic acid aerosol, a non-hygroscopic four carbon dicarboxylic acid, were measured with a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and compared to reaction products resulting from the aqueous phase photo-oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide and succinic acid. Reaction products were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a function of hydrogen peroxide:succinic acid concentration ratio and photolysis time. Although reaction products include larger non-hygroscopic dicarboxylic acids (e.g. adipic acid) and smaller hygroscopic dicarboxylic acids (e.g. malonic and oxalic acids), comparison of hygroscopic growth curves to Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) predictions suggests that the hygroscopic properties of many of the product mixtures are largely independent of the hygroscopicity of the individual components. This study provides a framework for future investigations to fully understand and predict the role of chemical reactions in altering atmospheric conditions that affect climate.

  16. Coral–algal phase shifts alter fish communities and reduce fisheries production

    PubMed Central

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic stress has been shown to reduce coral coverage in ecosystems all over the world. A phase shift towards an algae-dominated system may accompany coral loss. In this case, the composition of the reef-associated fish assemblage will change and human communities relying on reef fisheries for income and food security may be negatively impacted. We present a case study based on the Raja Ampat Archipelago in Eastern Indonesia. Using a dynamic food web model, we simulate the loss of coral reefs with accompanied transition towards an algae-dominated state and quantify the likely change in fish populations and fisheries productivity. One set of simulations represents extreme scenarios, including 100% loss of coral. In this experiment, ecosystem changes are driven by coral loss itself and a degree of habitat dependency by reef fish is assumed. An alternative simulation is presented without assumed habitat dependency, where changes to the ecosystem are driven by historical observations of reef fish communities when coral is lost. The coral–algal phase shift results in reduced biodiversity and ecosystem maturity. Relative increases in the biomass of small-bodied fish species mean higher productivity on reefs overall, but much reduced landings of traditionally targeted species. PMID:24953835

  17. Coral-algal phase shifts alter fish communities and reduce fisheries production.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic stress has been shown to reduce coral coverage in ecosystems all over the world. A phase shift towards an algae-dominated system may accompany coral loss. In this case, the composition of the reef-associated fish assemblage will change and human communities relying on reef fisheries for income and food security may be negatively impacted. We present a case study based on the Raja Ampat Archipelago in Eastern Indonesia. Using a dynamic food web model, we simulate the loss of coral reefs with accompanied transition towards an algae-dominated state and quantify the likely change in fish populations and fisheries productivity. One set of simulations represents extreme scenarios, including 100% loss of coral. In this experiment, ecosystem changes are driven by coral loss itself and a degree of habitat dependency by reef fish is assumed. An alternative simulation is presented without assumed habitat dependency, where changes to the ecosystem are driven by historical observations of reef fish communities when coral is lost. The coral-algal phase shift results in reduced biodiversity and ecosystem maturity. Relative increases in the biomass of small-bodied fish species mean higher productivity on reefs overall, but much reduced landings of traditionally targeted species.

  18. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maneschg, Werner; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ∼15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  19. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  20. Kinetic and Product Yields of the Gas-Phase Reactions of Isoprene Hydroperoxides with Atmospheric Oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Lozano, E. I.; Maitra, S.; Manning, D. M.; Cervantes, R.; Hasson, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Isoprene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is emitted into the atmosphere by plants and trees. It has the largest emission rate of any non-methane VOC and is very reactive, and therefore has a major impact on the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Isoprene Hydroperoxides (IHP) are formed in the atmosphere from the chemical degradation of isoprene. These compounds can then potentially react in the atmosphere with atmospheric oxidants (ozone, OH, NO3) to produce secondary products. This chemistry is potentially important as it may contribute to particle growth and to mediation of ozone concentrations. In this work, the kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of two IHPs with ozone were investigated. IHPs were synthesized and purified, and were characterized by NMR and HPLC. The gas phase chemistry of these compounds was then studied in chamber experiments using PTRMS as the primary analytical tool. The rate coefficients for reaction with ozone were measured at room temperature and 1 atmosphere using the relative rate technique, and yields of major gas phase reaction products were measured. Implications of these results will be discussed.

  1. Coral-algal phase shifts alter fish communities and reduce fisheries production.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic stress has been shown to reduce coral coverage in ecosystems all over the world. A phase shift towards an algae-dominated system may accompany coral loss. In this case, the composition of the reef-associated fish assemblage will change and human communities relying on reef fisheries for income and food security may be negatively impacted. We present a case study based on the Raja Ampat Archipelago in Eastern Indonesia. Using a dynamic food web model, we simulate the loss of coral reefs with accompanied transition towards an algae-dominated state and quantify the likely change in fish populations and fisheries productivity. One set of simulations represents extreme scenarios, including 100% loss of coral. In this experiment, ecosystem changes are driven by coral loss itself and a degree of habitat dependency by reef fish is assumed. An alternative simulation is presented without assumed habitat dependency, where changes to the ecosystem are driven by historical observations of reef fish communities when coral is lost. The coral-algal phase shift results in reduced biodiversity and ecosystem maturity. Relative increases in the biomass of small-bodied fish species mean higher productivity on reefs overall, but much reduced landings of traditionally targeted species. PMID:24953835

  2. TEC Fluctuations Map - pilot phase of the new IGS Ionospheric Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieradzki, Rafal; Krankowski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    Since 1998 Ionospheric Working Group of the International GNSS Service has been creating the reliable global VTEC maps. Currently the ionospheric maps are generated with 2 hour time resolution and show the mean state of the Total Electron Content for this period.They cannot demonstrate the whole dynamic of the electron concentration especially during the storm-time periods for the equatorial region and at high latitudes. However, in the last few years the number of the permanent GNSS station around North Geomagnetic Pole increased systematically and nowadays it is possible to create the map of ionospheric variability for this region. Importance of this topic has turned up in the latest IGS Ionosphere Working Group resolution passed during the International GNSS Service Workshop 2012. At the beginning 2013 the IGS is planning to start the pilot phase of the new ionospheric product - TEC Fluctuations map, which are generated at GRL/UWM Center in Olsztyn. The maps are created based on phase observations from over 150 permanent GNSS stations belong to IGS/EPN, PBO and POLENET Networks located over 45th degree of the north geomagnetic latitude. In order to estimate the level of the ionospheric variability ROT Index is used. The presentation shows the applied algorithm, the example maps for different ionospheric conditions and plans. In the future other IGS Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers will also create maps of ionospheric variability for routine generation IGS combined product.

  3. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  4. Intensification of β-poly(L: -malic acid) production by Aureobasidium pullulans ipe-1 in the late exponential growth phase.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weifeng; Luo, Jianquan; Zhao, Juan; Qiao, Changsheng; Ding, Luhui; Qi, Benkun; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua

    2012-07-01

    β-Poly(malic acid) (PMLA) has attracted industrial interest because this polyester can be used as a prodrug or for drug delivery systems. In PMLA production by Aureobasidium pullulans ipe-1, it was found that PLMA production was associated with cell growth in the early exponential growth phase and dissociated from cell growth in the late exponential growth phase. To enhance PMLA production in the late phase, different fermentation modes and strategies for controlling culture redox potential (CRP) were studied. The results showed that high concentrations of produced PMLA (above 40 g/l) not only inhibited PMLA production, but also was detrimental to cell growth. Moreover, when CRP increased from 57 to 100 mV in the late exponential growth phase, the lack of reducing power in the broth also decreased PMLA productivity. PMLA productivity could be enhanced by repeated-batch culture to maintain cell growth in the exponential growth phase, or by cell-recycle culture with membrane to remove the produced PMLA, or by maintaining CRP below 70 mV no matter which kind of fermentation mode was adopted. Repeated-batch culture afforded a high PMLA concentration (up to 63.2 g/l) with a productivity of 1.15 g l(-1) h(-1). Cell-recycle culture also confirmed that PMLA production by the strain ipe-1 was associated with cell growth.

  5. Phase space matching and finite lifetime effects for top-pair production close to threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Reisser, Christoph J.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2010-07-01

    The top-pair tt production cross section close to threshold in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions is strongly affected by the small lifetime of the top quark. Since the cross section is defined through final states containing the top decay products, a consistent definition of the cross section depends on prescriptions of how these final states are accounted for the cross section. Experimentally, these prescriptions are implemented, for example, through cuts on kinematic quantities such as the reconstructed top quark invariant masses. As long as these cuts do not reject final states that can arise from the decay of a top and an antitop quark with a small off-shellness compatible with the nonrelativistic power counting, they can be implemented through imaginary phase space matching conditions in nonrelativistic QCD. The prescription-dependent cross section can then be determined from the optical theorem using the e{sup +}e{sup -} forward scattering amplitude. We compute the phase space matching conditions associated to cuts on the top and antitop invariant masses at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order and partially at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order in the nonrelativistic expansion accounting also for higher order QCD effects. Together with finite lifetime and electroweak effects known from previous work, we analyze their numerical impact on the tt cross section. We show that the phase space matching contributions are essential to make reliable nonrelativistic QCD predictions, particularly for energies below the peak region, where the cross section is small. We find that irreducible background contributions associated to final states that do not come from top decays are strongly suppressed and can be neglected for the theoretical predictions.

  6. Mineralogical composition and phase-to-phase relationships in natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement - raw materials and burnt products revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard; Racek, Martin; Přikrylová, Jiřina

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to modern process of production of cement clinker, traditional burning of natural hydraulic lime below sintering temperature relied on the formation of new phases from ion migration between neighbouring mineral grains composing raw material. The importance of the mineralogical composition and spatial distribution of rock-forming minerals in impure limestones used as a raw material for natural hydraulic lime presents not well explored issue in the scientific literature. To fill this gap, the recent study focuses in detailed analysis of experimentally burnt impure limestones (mostly from Barrandian area, Bohemian Massif). The phase changes were documented by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) coupled with x-ray elemental mapping. The latest allowed for visualization of distribution of elements within raw materials and burnt products. SEM/EDS study brought valuable data on the presence of transitional and/or minor phases, which were poorly detectable by other methods.

  7. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    PubMed

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production.

  8. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    PubMed

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production. PMID:27474855

  9. Biogas production with horse dung in solid-phase digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Sigrid; Oechsner, Hans; Jungbluth, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Experiments on methanogenesis from horse dung were conducted in laboratory-scale batch reactors in order to determine the substrate performance in a solid-phase digestion process, more specifically in terms of potential energy recovery and suitable process technology. Dung from a horse stable with straw bedding was used. The temperature was kept in the mesophilic range. In the percolation process (with process water sprinkled over the stacked biomass) a proportion of 10-20% of solid inoculum (pre-digested horse dung) was found to be suitable. Comparative experiments with both percolation and flooding revealed a higher biogas production per volume for the flooded process, as no addition of solid inoculum was necessary. Methane yield from fresh material was similar in both processes: around 170 L(N) CH(4) per kg VS added was obtained in six-week cycles with untreated material under optimized conditions. Methane production was increased after chopping the substrate. Pre-aeration resulted in decreased methane production.

  10. Chemical Reactivity of alpha-Pinene-derived Products in the Aqueous Phase: Implications on the Fate of Organic Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindelaub, J. D.; Hostetler, M. A.; Lipton, M. A.; Shepson, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The production of organic nitrates has significant atmospheric importance due to the impact on regional air quality by influencing NOx lifetimes and ozone formation. Additionally, these low volatility compounds readily partition into the particle phase and are important contributors to secondary organic aerosol. Once in the aerosol phase, organic nitrates undergo further chemical reactions that govern their fate in the atmosphere and, consequently, their impact on air quality. Recent research indicates that the presence of water on aerosol particles has a major impact on the reactivity of organic nitrates and that condensed phase hydrolysis leads to the destruction of organic nitrate species, depending on structure. Despite this knowledge, the chemical mechanisms, products, product reactivity and volatility are still uncertain, negatively impacting our understanding of aerosol phase processing and the contribution to air quality. To further understand the atmospheric impact of aerosol phase hydrolysis, we analyzed both condensed phase hydrolysis reactions involving alpha-pinene-derived standards and alpha-pinene photochemical chamber reaction filter samples, using a suite of spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. We were able to measure the pH-dependent hydrolysis rate constants for several types of organic nitrates and identify specific reaction products. The chemistry involved exhibits a strong dependence on pH, providing important mechanistic clues. The results of this study will significantly contribute to our knowledge of aerosol phase chemistry and the impact on regional air quality with respect to the fate of organic nitrate species.

  11. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the following... allowances apportioned to him under §§ 82.5 and 82.6 of this subpart. Control period Class I substances...

  12. Two-phase anaerobic digestion for production of hydrogen-methane mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Michael; Maynard, Nathan; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Benemann, John

    2007-10-01

    An anaerobic digestion process to produce hydrogen and methane in two sequential stages was investigated, using two bioreactors of 2 and 15 L working volume, respectively. This relative volume ratio (and shorter retention time in the second, CH(4)-producing reactor) was selected, in part, to test the assumption that separation of phase can enhance metabolism in the second methane producing reactor. The reactor system was seeded with conventional anaerobic digester sludge, fed with a glucose-yeast extract--peptone medium and operated under conditions of relatively low mixing, to simulate full scale operation. A total of nine steady states were investigated, spanning a range of feed concentrations, dilution rates, feed carbon to nitrogen ratios and degree of integration of the two stages. The performance of this two-stage process and potential practical applications for the production of clean-burning hydrogen-methane mixtures are discussed.

  13. Novel two-phase upflow digestion of wet-carbonized peat product water

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, A.; Henry, M.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Mensinger, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the development and operating results of a novel two-phase upflow anaerobic digestion process for the conversion of organic matter present in the process effluent generated during the wet-carbonization processing of peat. It exhibited a methane yield of 3.0 SCF/lb chemical oxygen demand (COD) added during thermophilic (55/degree/C) digestion at a short hydraulic retention time of (HRT) 3 days. This yield represents approximately 90% of the ultimate methane yield for this process effluent. About 80% of the feed biological oxygen demand (BOD) and 65% of COD was converted during the anaerobic digestion process. This innovative process has a substantive beneficial impact on the production of net energy and availability of surplus digester methane for conversion to other energy forms such as hot water or low-pressure steam for in-process use. 12 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. NOAA GCOM-W1/AMSR2 Oceanic Environmental Products: Phase-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenak, Z.; Alsweiss, S.; Chang, P.; Park, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Passive microwave radiometry is a special application of microwave communications technology for the purpose of collecting Earth's electromagnetic radiation. With the use of radiometers onboard earth orbiting satellites, scientists are able to monitor the Earth's environment and climate system on both short- and long-term temporal scales with near global coverage. The Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is part of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) broader commitment toward global and long-term observation of the Earth's environment. GCOM consists of two polar orbiting satellite series, GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate), with 1-year overlap between them for inter-calibration. AMSR2 onboard GCOM-W1 is a microwave radiometer system that measures dual polarized radiances at 6.9, 7.3, 10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz. It is a sun-synchronous orbiter that acquires microwave radiances by conically scanning the Earth's surface at a nominal earth incidence angle of 55 degrees that results in a wide swath of 1450 km. As a part of Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) GCOM-W1 product development and validation project will provide NOAA's users access to critical geophysical products derived from AMSR-2. These products, which are detailed in NOAA's JPSS Level 1 Requirements Document Supplement, include: microwave brightness temperature, total precipitable water, cloud liquid water, precipitation type/rate, sea surface temperature, and Sea Surface Wind Speed. Phase-1 of the AMSR-2 project at NOAA included inter-calibration of AMSR-2 measured brightness temperatures with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager as the reference radiometer. The second phase of the project utilized the calibrated brightness temperatures in a robust Bayesian network to retrieve more accurate geophysical parameters over the ocean surface. It can handle retrievals even with missing channels and

  15. Insights into gas-phase reaction mechanisms of small carbon radicals using isomer-resolved product detection.

    PubMed

    Trevitt, Adam J; Goulay, Fabien

    2016-02-17

    For reactive gas-phase environments, including combustion, extraterrestrials atmospheres and our Earth's atmosphere, the availability of quality chemical data is essential for predictive chemical models. These data include reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions. This perspective overviews recent isomer-resolved production detection experiments for reactions of two of the most reactive gas phase radicals, the CN and CH radicals, with a suite of small hydrocarbons. A particular focus is given to flow-tube experiments using synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Coupled with computational studies and other experiment techniques, flow tube isomer-resolved product detection have provided significant mechanistic details of these radical + neutral reactions with some general patterns emerging.

  16. Two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for biohythane production treating biowaste: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Giuliano, A; Pavan, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of a two-phase anaerobic process treating biowaste for hydrogen and methane production. Neither physical nor chemical pre-treatments were used to optimize the process. The work was carried out at pilot scale, using two CSTRs (200 and 380 L working volume respectively) both maintained at thermophilic temperature (55 C) and fed semi-continuously with biowaste. The experiment was divided into three periods; during the first two periods the organic loading rate was maintained at 20 kg TVS/m3 d and the hydraulic retention time was changed from 6.6 to 3.3 days, while in the last period the digestate of the second reactor was recirculated to the first reactor in order to buffer the system and control pH at levels around 5. The HRT was maintained at 3.3 days and the OLR was decreased at 16.5 kg TVS/m3 d. The best yield was obtained in the last period where a specific hydrogen production of 50.9 L/kg VSfed was reached, with a H2 content in biogas from the first reactor of 36%. The methanogenic stage after the hydrogen conversion reached a specific biogas production of 0.62 m3/kg VSfed and an overall organic removal above 70%, without any stability problem. The overall biogas production was some 1.5 m3 per day with a gas composition of 10% H2 and 50% CH4. PMID:22097052

  17. Hydrogen production through aqueous-phase reforming of ethylene glycol in a washcoated microchannel.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, M Fernanda Neira; Ordomsky, Vitaly; Paunovic, Violeta; van der Schaaf, John; Schouten, Jaap C; Nijhuis, T Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of biocarbohydrates is conducted in a catalytically stable washcoated microreactor where multiphase hydrogen removal enhances hydrogen efficiency. Single microchannel experiments are conducted following a simplified model based on the microreactor concept. A coating method to deposit a Pt-based catalyst on the microchannel walls is selected and optimized. APR reactivity tests are performed by using ethylene glycol as the model compound. Optimum results are achieved with a static washcoating technique; a highly uniform and well adhered 5 μm layer is deposited on the walls of a 320 μm internal diameter (ID) microchannel in one single step. During APR of ethylene glycol, the catalyst layer exhibits high stability over 10 days after limited initial deactivation. The microchannel presents higher conversion and selectivity to hydrogen than a fixed-bed reactor. The benefits of using a microreactor for APR can be further enhanced by utilizing increased Pt loadings, higher reaction temperatures, and larger carbohydrates (e.g., glucose). The use of microtechnology for aqueous-phase reforming will allow for a great reduction in the reformer size, thus rendering it promising for distributed hydrogen production. PMID:23592593

  18. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium. PMID:25575763

  19. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium.

  20. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 < λ (nm) < 550. Including witness samples, a suite of 170 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  1. Products of the gas-phase reactions of O{sub 3} with alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Tuazon, E.C.; Aschmann, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    Selected products of the gas-phase reactions of a series of alkenes (1-pentene, 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene, 2,3-dimethyl-l-butene, cyclopentene and 1-methylcyclohexene) with O{sub 3} have been identified and quantified by gas chromatography and in situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. Because OH radicals are formed in these O{sub 3} reactions, experiments were carried out in the presence of sufficient cyclohexane or n-octane to scavenge > 90 % of the OH radicals formed. OH radical formation yields from the O{sub 3}-alkene reactions were derived from the amounts of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol formed in O{sub 3}-alkene-cyclohexane-air mixtures. The molar yields of the carbonyls products R{sub 1}C(O)R{sub 2} plus HCHO from the O{sub 3} reactions with the five 1-alkenes (R{sub 1}R{sub 2}C=CH{sub 2}) studied were 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.1, as expected from the presently accepted reaction mechanism.

  2. [Determination of aflatoxins in hot chilli products by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping; Sheng, Xuan; Yu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Yanyun

    2006-01-01

    A new method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction with neutral alumina and co-column purification with graphitized carbon black has been developed to determine aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in hot chilli products. The method includes liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection with on-line post-column derivatization with bromine. Optimization of different parameters, such as the type of solid supports for matrix dispersion and co-column clean-up was carried out. The recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were 95.4%, 87.3%, 91.5% and 92.6%, respectively, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.3% to 6.1%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.10 ng/g (B2, G2) to 0.25 ng/g (B1, G1). In addition, the comparison of the extraction and purification effect of MSPD with immunity affinity column showed that, MSPD is a valid method to analyze aflatoxins in hot chilli products.

  3. Use Of Phase Measuring Interferometry In Quantity Production Of High Quality Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, P. R., Jr.; Grosso, R. P.; Crane, R.

    1982-05-01

    The advantages of Phase Measuring Interferometry (PMI) over conventional half-wave fringe contour measurements are well known. They include greater sensitivity through reduced fringe-to-fringe interval, ease of minimizing instrumental errors, shorter turnaround time to process results and data averaging to circumvent random environmental effects. Prior publications have described typical designs of PMI devices as well as some of their applications in the optical industry. At Perkin-Elmer, we have found that only through the use of advanced PMI technology can quantity production of very high quality optics be achieved on a timely and cost-effective basis. In this paper, we report some experiences with PMI as the primary method of in-process and final testing of a variety of optical components currently being manufactured in production quantity. Component apertures are as large as 47 cm. Measurements are typically made to precisions of the order of 0.01k (X/100) peak-to-peak and 0.001λ (λ/1000) rms. Examples include three types of reflecting optics of widely differing sizes and configurations: an Amici-type roof mirror, a concave spherical mirror and a convex spherical mirror.

  4. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry analysis of cholesterol and phytosterol oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Grün, Christian H; Besseau, Sophie

    2016-03-25

    During thermal processing of sterols, complex mixtures of sterol oxidation products may be formed. Here, a new method for the separation and detection of such products is described. The method is based on normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) for separation and atmospheric-pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (APPI-MS) for detection. The method was optimized using commercial cholesterol oxidation products and tested on an experimentally derived mixture of phytosterol oxidation products. The investigated parameters include solvent and dopant selection, dopant concentration, polar modifiers, the type of stationary phase, and flow rate. Best chromatographic separation and highest sensitivity were achieved using a diol-bonded silica column, employing a solvent system consisting of hexane and isopropanol. The dopant of choice was chlorobenzene, added post-column to the solvent stream at 10% of the flow rate. The developed NPLC-APPI-MS method proved to be a valuable tool for the separation and detection of sterol oxidation products. PMID:26774121

  5. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry analysis of cholesterol and phytosterol oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Grün, Christian H; Besseau, Sophie

    2016-03-25

    During thermal processing of sterols, complex mixtures of sterol oxidation products may be formed. Here, a new method for the separation and detection of such products is described. The method is based on normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) for separation and atmospheric-pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (APPI-MS) for detection. The method was optimized using commercial cholesterol oxidation products and tested on an experimentally derived mixture of phytosterol oxidation products. The investigated parameters include solvent and dopant selection, dopant concentration, polar modifiers, the type of stationary phase, and flow rate. Best chromatographic separation and highest sensitivity were achieved using a diol-bonded silica column, employing a solvent system consisting of hexane and isopropanol. The dopant of choice was chlorobenzene, added post-column to the solvent stream at 10% of the flow rate. The developed NPLC-APPI-MS method proved to be a valuable tool for the separation and detection of sterol oxidation products.

  6. Partition of actinides and fission products between metal and molten salt phases: Theory, measurement, and application to IFR pyroprocess development

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-10-01

    The chemical basis of Integral Fast Reactor fuel reprocessing (pyroprocessing) is partition of fuel, cladding, and fission product elements between molten LiCl-KCl and either a solid metal phase or a liquid cadmium phase. The partition reactions are described herein, and the thermodynamic basis for predicting distributions of actinides and fission products in the pyroprocess is discussed. The critical role of metal-phase activity coefficients, especially those of rare earth and the transuranic elements, is described. Measured separation factors, which are analogous to equilibrium constants but which involve concentrations rather than activities, are presented. The uses of thermodynamic calculations in process development are described, as are computer codes developed for calculating material flows and phase compositions in pyroprocessing.

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF CO PRODUCTION IN COMETARY COMAE: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM GAS-PHASE PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Donna M.; A'Hearn, Michael F. E-mail: ma@astro.umd.ed

    2010-07-20

    Understanding the sources of CO in cometary comae is important for understanding comet chemistry and the roles comets have played in the development of the solar system. Among comets sampled to date, the CO abundances vary widely and no direct correlation of CO abundance with other known comet properties has been identified. The picture is complicated further by the discovery of CO production in the comae of some comets, most notably comets Halley and Hale-Bopp. In this study, we investigate the conditions under which CO can be produced in the coma via gas-phase phenomena. We include photochemistry of several parent molecules, as well as two-body chemical reactions that involve the parents and their photodissociative daughter and granddaughter products. We also consider the level of excitation of 'hot' hydrogen (H*) and O({sup 1}D) in the network, because the level of excitation of these reactants strongly influences reaction rates. Our results suggest that the dominant gas-phase contributor to CO formation is the photodissociation of H{sub 2}CO. Even though typical abundances of H{sub 2}CO are at {approx}1% relative to water in the coma, it produces more CO than other processes due to its relatively short photodissociation lifetime. Because other studies have shown H{sub 2}CO to have a distributed source as well, it suggests that at least some CO formation in the coma is connected to the H{sub 2}CO distributed source. We take the time to examine the CO{sub 2}/CO ratio and note that while the CO{sub 2}/CO ratio in comets Halley, Hale-Bopp, and Hyakutake are noticeably different when only native CO is considered, the CO{sub 2}/CO ratios show greater similarity when total CO is considered. Although this sample is relatively small, should the relatively similar CO{sub 2}/CO{sub Total} ratio of {approx}0.25 indeed be constant for comets with distributed CO sources, it suggests that the extended CO source of these comets is tied directly to the overall C, H, O chemistry

  8. Variations in short term products of inorganic carbon fixation in exponential and stationary phase cultures of Aphanocapsa 6308.

    PubMed

    Weathers, P J; Allen, M M

    1978-03-01

    Aphanocapsa 6308 metabolizes both NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. The short term incorporation (5-s) metabolic pattern and the patterns of incorporation of bicarbonate for exponential versus stationary phase cultures differ, however. Cells were equilibrated for 10 min in air and distilled water prior to injection of either NaH14CO3 at pH 8.0, or Na214CO3 at pH 11.0. Hot ethanol extracts were analyzed via paper chromatography and autoradiography for products of CO2 fixation. At 5 s, malate (51.5%) predominates slightly as a primary bicarbonate fixation product over 3-phosphoglycerate (40.3%); 3-phosphoglycerate is the primary product of carbonate fixation. At 60 s, the carbonate and bicarbonate labelling patterns are similar. Cells in stationary phase fix in 5 s a greater proportion of bicarbonate into malate (36% vs. 14% for 3-phosphoglycerate) than do cells in exponential growth. Likewise, 60 s incorporations show a large amount of bicarbonate fixed into aspartate (30.9%) in stationary phase cells over that of exponential phase (11.6%). These data suggest an operative C4 pathway for purposes not related to carbohydrate synthesis but rather as compensation for the incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle in cyanobacteria. The enhancement of both aspartate fixation and CO2 fixation into citrulline in stationary phase correlates with an increase in cyanophycin granule production which requires both aspartate and arginine. PMID:417691

  9. Direct observation of single stationary-phase bacteria reveals a surprisingly long period of constant protein production activity

    PubMed Central

    Gefen, Orit; Fridman, Ofer; Ronin, Irine; Balaban, Nathalie Q.

    2014-01-01

    Exponentially growing bacteria are rarely found in the wild, as microorganisms tend to spend most of their lifetime at stationary phase. Despite this general prevalence of stationary-phase bacteria, they are as yet poorly characterized. Our goal was to quantitatively study this phase by direct observation of single bacteria as they enter into stationary phase and by monitoring their activity over several days during growth arrest. For this purpose, we devised an experimental procedure for starving single Escherichia coli bacteria in microfluidic devices and measured their activity by monitoring the production rate of fluorescent proteins. When amino acids were the sole carbon source, the production rate decreased by an order of magnitude upon entry into stationary phase. We found that, even while growth-arrested, bacteria continued to produce proteins at a surprisingly constant rate over several days. Our identification of this newly observed period of constant activity in nongrowing cells, designated as constant activity stationary phase, makes possible the conduction of assays that require constant protein expression over time, and are therefore difficult to perform under exponential growth conditions. Moreover, we show that exogenous protein expression bears no fitness cost on the regrowth of the population when starvation ends. Further characterization of constant activity stationary phase—a phase where nongrowing bacteria can be quantitatively studied over several days in a reproducible manner—should contribute to a better understanding of this ubiquitous but overlooked physiological state of bacteria in nature. PMID:24344288

  10. Ethanol production via fungal decomposition and fermentation of biomass. Phase II (FY 1981) annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A. A.; Wene, E. G.

    1981-10-01

    This program has as its main goal the isolation and development of Fusarium strains that can efficiently and economically decompose plant polysaccharides to pentoses and hexoses and ferment them to ethanol for fuel purposes. During Phase II (FY 1981) of this program, more than 800 new Fusarium isolates were isolated and screened. All showed cellulolytic activity. The Fusarium mutant ANL 3-72181 (derived after uv exposure of ANL 22 isolate) produced 2.45 iu cellulase after 14 days. This cellulase activity was achieved in the presence of 0.7 mg/mL extracellular protein. In separate tests, the use of both proteose peptone and yeast extract with 1% cellulose increased the production of extracellular protein three times over that on cellulose alone. Initial fermentation by Fusarium strains on 1% glucose produced up to 4.2 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. All Fusarium isolates and mutants found during this period were screened for xylose fermentation. Ethanol production during early experimentation required from 120 to 144 hours to yield 4.0 to 4.5 mg/mL ethanol from 1% xylose solutions. Through continuous selection of isolates, this time was reduced to 66 hours. By recycling Fusarium cell mass, fermentations of 1% xylose yielded 4.0 to 4.3 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. Consecutive fermentations of 2% xylose produced an average of 8.1 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. Fermentation of a 4.5% xylose + 2% glucose solution produced 21 mg/mL ethanol and 0.8 mg/mL acetic acid, while fermentation of a 7% xylose + 2% glucose solution yielded 25.5 mg/mL ethanol and 0.85 mg/mL acetic acid; these fermentations were aerated at a rate of 0.03 v/v-min.

  11. Identification of unwanted photoproducts of cosmetic preservatives in personal care products under ultraviolet-light using solid-phase microextraction and micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2015-04-17

    The photochemical transformation of widely used cosmetic preservatives including benzoates, parabens, BHA, BHT and triclosan has been investigated in this work applying an innovative double-approach strategy: identification of transformation products in aqueous photodegradation experiments (UV-light, 254nm), followed by targeted screening analysis of such photoproducts in UV-irradiated cosmetic samples. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, using different fiber coatings, in order to widen the range of detectable photoproducts in water, whereas UV-irradiated personal care products (PCPs) containing the target preservatives were extracted by micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (micro-MSPD). Both SPME and micro-MSPD-based methodologies were successfully optimized and validated. Degradation kinetics of parent species, and photoformation of their transformation by-products were monitored by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty nine photoproducts were detected in aqueous photodegradation experiments, being tentatively identified based on their mass spectra. Transformation pathways between structurally related by-products, consistent with their kinetic behavior were postulated. The photoformation of unexpected photoproducts such as 2- and 4-hydroxybenzophenones, and 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in PCPs are reported in this work for the first time.

  12. High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Yenny; Nicolosi, Valeria; Lotya, Mustafa; Blighe, Fiona M; Sun, Zhenyu; De, Sukanta; McGovern, I T; Holland, Brendan; Byrne, Michele; Gun'Ko, Yurii K; Boland, John J; Niraj, Peter; Duesberg, Georg; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Goodhue, Robbie; Hutchison, John; Scardaci, Vittorio; Ferrari, Andrea C; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2008-09-01

    Fully exploiting the properties of graphene will require a method for the mass production of this remarkable material. Two main routes are possible: large-scale growth or large-scale exfoliation. Here, we demonstrate graphene dispersions with concentrations up to approximately 0.01 mg ml(-1), produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone. This is possible because the energy required to exfoliate graphene is balanced by the solvent-graphene interaction for solvents whose surface energies match that of graphene. We confirm the presence of individual graphene sheets by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Our method results in a monolayer yield of approximately 1 wt%, which could potentially be improved to 7-12 wt% with further processing. The absence of defects or oxides is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. We are able to produce semi-transparent conducting films and conducting composites. Solution processing of graphene opens up a range of potential large-area applications, from device and sensor fabrication to liquid-phase chemistry.

  13. Specific growth rate observer for the growing phase of a Polyhydroxybutyrate production process.

    PubMed

    Jamilis, Martín; Garelli, Fabricio; Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Volcke, Eveline; De Battista, Hernán

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the specific growth rate estimation problem in a Polyhydroxybutyrate bioplastic production process by industrial fermentation. The kinetics of the process are unknown and there are uncertainties in the model parameters and inputs. During the first hours of the growth phase of the process, biomass concentration can be measured online by an optical density sensor, but as cell density increases this method becomes ineffective and biomass measurement is lost. An asymptotic observer is developed to estimate the growth rate for the case without biomass measurement based on corrections made by a pH control loop. Furthermore, an exponential observer based on the biomass measurement is developed to estimate the growth rate during the first hours, which gives the initial condition to the asymptotic observer. Error bounds and robustness to uncertainties in the models and in the inputs are found. The estimation is independent of the kinetic models of the microorganism. The characteristic features of the observer are illustrated by numerical simulations and validated by experimental results. PMID:25307471

  14. Chemical characterization of the main secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products formed through aqueous-phase photonitration of guaiacol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanovski, Z.; Čusak, A.; Grgić, I.; Claeys, M.

    2014-04-01

    Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives can be emitted into the atmosphere by thermal degradation (i.e. burning) of wood lignins. Due to its volatility, guaiacol is predominantly distributed in the atmospheric gaseous phase. Recent studies have shown the importance of aqueous-phase reactions in addition to the dominant gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions of guaiacol, in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. The main objectives of the present study were to chemically characterize the low-volatility SOA products of the aqueous-phase photonitration of guaiacol and examine their possible presence in urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous-phase reactions were carried out under simulated sunlight and in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. The formed guaiacol reaction products were concentrated by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then purified by means of semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fractionated individual compounds were isolated as pure solids and further analyzed with liquid-state 1H, 13C and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and direct infusion negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry ((-)ESI-MS/MS). The NMR and product ion (MS2) spectra were used for unambiguous product structure elucidation. The main products of guaiacol photonitration are 4-nitroguaiacol (4NG), 6-nitroguaiacol (6NG), and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol (4,6DNG). Using the isolated compounds as standards, 4NG and 4,6DNG were unambiguously identified in winter PM10 aerosols from the city of Ljubljana (Slovenia) by means of HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS. Owing to the strong absorption of UV and visible light, 4,6DNG could be an important constituent of atmospheric "brown" carbon, especially in regions affected by biomass burning.

  15. Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Christini

    1999-12-30

    A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

  16. Two-phase bioconversion product recovery by microfiltration I. Steady state studies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, P B; Lee, S S

    1998-03-20

    Recovery of an aqueous bioconversion product from complex, two-phase Pseudomonas putida broths containing 20% (v/v) soybean oil presents a significant challenge for downstream processing. Although not used before in multiple-phase separation for complex biotech products, crossflow filtration employing ceramic filters is one of the most attractive options which allow the design of integrated, continuous bioconversion processes. As a first attempt, we studied multichannel, monolithic ceramic membranes of different nominal pore sizes and lumen diameters under steady-state conditions. The best performance was obtained with 0.2-microm-pore/3-mm-lumen membrane, which completely rejected both cells and oil droplets from the permeate, creating a clear aqueous product stream. Although the same separation was achieved, the 50K molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafilter showed greater irreversible but similar reversible resistance, in addition to an order-of-magnitude higher membrane resistance. Larger nominal pore microfilters, such as 0.45 and 1.0 microm, experienced both cell and oil leakage even at low transmembrane pressure (10 psig). Attributed to greater shear at the same recirculation rate, smaller lumen filters did provide greater permeate flux. However, for practical purposes, the 0. 2-microm-pore/4-mm-lumen ceramic membrane was chosen for further evaluation. Transmembrane pressures up to 50 psig provided only marginal gains in filtration performance, whereas increasing shear rate resulted in linear increases in steady-state flux, presumably due to formation of shear-sensitive, complex gel/oil/cell layer near the membrane surface. A nominal shear rate of 9200 s-1 and 20 psig transmembrane pressure were chosen as optimal operating conditions. Additional studies in a clean system revealed that as low as 5% (v/v) soybean oil in deionized (DI) water resulted in an order-of-magnitude decline in steady-state permeate flux. Breakthrough of oil droplets occurred at 35 psig

  17. Mixing in a three-phase system: Enhanced production of oil-wet reservoirs by CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín.; Porter, Mark L.; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Carey, J. William; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2016-01-01

    We recreate three-phase reservoir conditions (high-pressure/temperature) using a microfluidics system and show that the use of scCO2 for restimulation operations, such as hydraulic fracturing, can enhance mixing and production. The results inform hydrocarbon extraction from deep shale formations, which has recently generated an energy boom that has lowered hydrocarbon costs. However, production decreases rapidly and methods to increase efficiency or allow restimulation of wells are needed. In our experiments, the presence of residual brine from initial production creates spatiotemporal variability in the system that causes the injected scCO2 to more effectively interact-mix with trapped hydrocarbon, thereby increasing recovery. We apply volume-averaging techniques to upscale brine saturation, which allows us to analyze the complex three-phase system in the framework of well characterized two-phase systems. The upscaled three-phase system behaves like a two-phase system: greater mixing with larger non-wetting content and higher heterogeneity. The results are contrary to previous observations in water-wet systems.

  18. The gas chromatographic analysis of the reaction products of the partial isobutane oxidation as a two phase process.

    PubMed

    Willms, Thomas; Kryk, Holger; Hampel, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The partial oxidation of isobutane to t-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) has been studied analytically for the first time as a two-phase process in a capillary micro reactor. In order to obtain detailed information on products, yields, selectivities and reaction pathways, the products have been investigated by GC/MS. An Rxi-5ms column and a PTV-injector have been used to analyze the liquid products. TBHP, di-t-butyl peroxide (DTBP), t-butanol (TBA), and propanone as main products as well as further by-products e.g. methanal, isopropanol, isobutanol and isobutanal in minor quantities have been identified by MS. The liquid products have been obtained by quenching the reaction and vaporizing the isobutane afterwards by pressure reduction using a mass flow controller allowing a constant mass flow. For all liquid reaction products calibrations, a validation of the method including limits of quantification and detection as well as calculation of uncertainties has been performed. The results have been applied successfully for the investigation of the selectivities of the main products (TBHP, DTBP, TBA, propanone) of the isobutane oxidation. In the frame of the analytical investigation of this reaction a correlation coefficient of r(2)>0.999 for TBHP and DTBP, which is necessary to perform a validation, has been obtained for the first time. The gaseous phase has been analyzed using a GASPRO column, a DEANS switch, a mole sieve column and a TCD detector. Apart from the gaseous reactants, isobutene has been found. PMID:27378248

  19. Solid-phase synthesis and anti-infective activity of a combinatorial library based on the natural product anisomycin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuhao; Zhu, Shirong; Gerritz, Samuel W; Esposito, Kim; Padmanabha, Ramesh; Li, Wenying; Herbst, John J; Wong, Henry; Shu, Yue Zhong; Lam, Kin S; Sofia, Michael J

    2005-09-15

    The solid-phase synthesis of a library based on the natural product anisomycin is described. The resulting library was tested against a panel of bacterial and fungal targets, and active compounds were identified in a Staphylococcus aureus whole-cell assay and an efflux-deficient fungal whole-cell assay.

  20. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  1. Orofacial muscular activity and related skin movement during the preparatory and sustained phases of tone production on the French horn.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takeshi; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated activity of the embouchure-related orofacial muscles during pre- and postattack phases of sound production by 10 trained French-horn players. Surface electromyogram (EMG) from five selected facial muscles, and related facial skin kinematics were examined in relation to pitch and intensity of a tone produced. No difference in EMGs and facial kinematics between the two phases was found, indicating importance of appropriate formation of preattack embouchure. EMGs in all muscles during the postattack phase increased linearly with an increase in pitch, and they also increased with tone intensity without interacting with the pitch effect. Orofacial skin movement remained constant across all pitches and intensities except for lateral retraction of the lips during high-pitch tone production. Contraction of the orofacial muscles is fundamentally isometric by which tension on the lips and the cheeks is regulated for flexible sound parameter control.

  2. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  3. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1 ultra-deep... this section, all gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production that... first qualified well that earns your lease the RSV begins production (other than test production)....

  4. Regulatory function of organic carbon supplementation on biodiesel production during growth and nutrient stress phases of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Rohit, M V; Swamy, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    Critical role of organic carbon supplementation on the lipid synthesis during growth and nutrient deprived stress phase was investigated in present study. Mixotrophic cultivation showed relatively higher biomass productivity at lower carbon loading condition (500mgCOD/l). Nutrient deprivation induced physiological stress and glucose supplementation with 2000mgCOD/l supported higher lipid accumulation (26%). Glucose supplementation in mixotrophic growth phase showed distinct influence on biomass growth whereas glucose supplementation in nutrient starvation resulted in higher lipid storage. Compositional variation in FAME profile was observed with respect to saturated fatty acids when operated with increasing glucose concentrations. Mixotrophic mode of cultivation showed remarkable benefits of nutrient removal and organic carbon supplementation influenced greatly on biodiesel production which can be easily scaled up to pilot plant and large scale production facilities.

  5. The Phase Behavior Effect on the Reaction Engineering of Transesterification Reactions and Reactor Design for Continuous Biodiesel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csernica, Stephen N.

    transitions from two phases to a single phase, or pseudo-single phase. The transition to a single phase or pseudo-single phase is a function of the methanol content. Regardless, the maximum observed reaction rate occurs at the point of the phase transition, when the concentration of triglycerides in the methanol phase is largest. The phase transition occurs due to the accumulation of the primary product, biodiesel methyl esters. Through various experiments, it was determined that the rate of the triglyceride mass transfer into the methanol phase, as well as the solubility of triglycerides in methanol, increases with increasing methyl ester concentration. Thus, there exists some critical methyl ester concentration which favors the formation of a single or pseudo-single phase system. The effect of the by-product glycerol on the reaction kinetics was also investigated. It was determined that at low methanol to triglyceride molar ratios, glycerol acts to inhibit the reaction rate and limit the overall triglyceride conversion. This occurs because glycerol accumulates in the methanol phase, i.e. the primary reaction volume. When glycerol is at relatively high concentrations within the methanol phase, triglycerides become excluded from the reaction volume. This greatly reduces the reaction rate and limits the overall conversion. As the concentration of methanol is increased, glycerol becomes diluted and the inhibitory effects become dampened. Assuming pseudo-homogeneous phase behavior, a simple kinetic model incorporating the inhibitory effects of glycerol was proposed based on batch reactor data. The kinetic model was primarily used to theoretically compare the performance of different types of continuous flow reactors for continuous biodiesel production. It was determined that the inhibitory effects of glycerol result in the requirement of very large reactor volumes when using continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The reactor volume can be greatly reduced using tubular style

  6. Neddylation is required for herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1)-induced early phase interferon-beta production

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueying; Ye, Zhenjie; Pei, Yujun; Qiu, Guihua; Wang, Qingyang; Xu, Yunlu; Shen, Beifen; Zhang, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-β) play essential roles in the host innate immune response to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection. The transcription of type I interferon genes is controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members including IRF3. NF-κB activation depends on the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB), which triggers its ubiqitination and degradation. It has been reported that neddylation inhibition by a pharmacological agent MLN4924 potently suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production with the accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα. However, the role of neddylation in type I interferon expression remains unknown. Here, we report that neddylation inhibition with MLN4924 or upon UBA3 deficiency led to accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα, impaired IκBα degradation, and impaired NF-κB nuclear translocation in the early phase of HSV-1 infection even though phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were not affected. The blockade of NF-κB nuclear translocation by neddylation inhibition becomes less efficient at the later time points of HSV-1 infection. Consequently, HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production significantly decreased upon MLN4924 treatment and UBA3 deficiency. NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 mimicked the effects of neddylation inhibition in the early phase of HSV-1 infection. Moreover, the effects of neddylation inhibition on HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production diminished in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23. Thus, neddylation contributes to HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production through, at least partially, promoting NF-κB activation. PMID:27593482

  7. Neddylation is required for herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1)-induced early phase interferon-beta production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueying; Ye, Zhenjie; Pei, Yujun; Qiu, Guihua; Wang, Qingyang; Xu, Yunlu; Shen, Beifen; Zhang, Jiyan

    2016-09-01

    Type I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-β) play essential roles in the host innate immune response to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection. The transcription of type I interferon genes is controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members including IRF3. NF-κB activation depends on the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB), which triggers its ubiqitination and degradation. It has been reported that neddylation inhibition by a pharmacological agent MLN4924 potently suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production with the accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα. However, the role of neddylation in type I interferon expression remains unknown. Here, we report that neddylation inhibition with MLN4924 or upon UBA3 deficiency led to accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα, impaired IκBα degradation, and impaired NF-κB nuclear translocation in the early phase of HSV-1 infection even though phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were not affected. The blockade of NF-κB nuclear translocation by neddylation inhibition becomes less efficient at the later time points of HSV-1 infection. Consequently, HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production significantly decreased upon MLN4924 treatment and UBA3 deficiency. NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 mimicked the effects of neddylation inhibition in the early phase of HSV-1 infection. Moreover, the effects of neddylation inhibition on HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production diminished in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23. Thus, neddylation contributes to HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production through, at least partially, promoting NF-κB activation. PMID:27593482

  8. Dissociation of a Product of a Surface Reaction in the Gas Phase: XeF2 Reaction with Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefty, R. C.; Holt, J. R.; Tate, M. R.; Gosalvez, D. B.; Bertino, M. F.; Ceyer, S. T.

    2004-05-01

    Xenon difluoride interacts with Si(100)2×1 by atom abstraction, whereby a dangling bond abstracts a F atom from XeF2, scattering the complementary XeF. Partitioning of the reaction exothermicity produces sufficient XeF rovibrational excitation for dissociation to occur. The resulting F and Xe atoms are shown to arise from dissociation of XeF in the gas phase by demonstrating that the angle-resolved velocity distributions of F, Xe, and XeF conserve momentum, energy, and mass. This experiment documents the first observation of dissociation of a surface reaction product in the gas phase.

  9. Occurrence assessment for disinfectants and disinfection by-products (phase 6A) in public drinking water. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-03

    The EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water is developing national primary drinking water regulations for disinfectant and disinfection by-product contaminants. Thirteen contaminants are being considered to be regulated under Phase 6. These contaminants, referred to as Phase 6a, are the subject of the report. The information is important for setting the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for a contaminant. The exposure information also is used to estimate the baseline health impact assessment of current levels and for evaluation of the health benefits of the regulatory alternatives.

  10. [Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in leather products by solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiya; Wan, Xin; Li, Lixia; Wang, Chengyun; Jin, Shupei; Xing, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are the additives frequently used in the leather production in China, but they have been put into the list of forbidden chemicals issued by European Union recently. In fact, there is not a commonly recognized method for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products due to the serious matrix interferences from the leather products and the complex chemical structures of the SCCPs. A method of solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) was established for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products after the optimization of the SPE conditions. It was found that the interferences from the leather products were thor- oughly separated from the analyte of the SCCPs on a home-made solid phase extraction (SPE) column filled with silica packing while eluted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). With this method, the recoveries for the SCCPs spiked in the real leather samples varied from 90.47% to 99.00% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.7%, and the limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.069 and 0.110 mg/kg. This method is suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCCPs in the leather products.

  11. Modeling and estimation of production rate for the production phase of non-growth-associated high cell density processes.

    PubMed

    Jamilis, Martín; Garelli, Fabricio; Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Castañeda, Teresita; De Battista, Hernán

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses the estimation of the specific production rate of intracellular products and the modeling of the bioreactor volume dynamics in high cell density fed-batch reactors. In particular, a new model for the bioreactor volume is proposed, suitable to be used in high cell density cultures where large amounts of intracellular products are stored. Based on the proposed volume model, two forms of a high-order sliding mode observer are proposed. Each form corresponds to the cases with residual biomass concentration or volume measurement, respectively. The observers achieve finite time convergence and robustness to process uncertainties as the kinetic model is not required. Stability proofs for the proposed observer are given. The observer algorithm is assessed numerically and experimentally.

  12. Modeling and estimation of production rate for the production phase of non-growth-associated high cell density processes.

    PubMed

    Jamilis, Martín; Garelli, Fabricio; Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Castañeda, Teresita; De Battista, Hernán

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses the estimation of the specific production rate of intracellular products and the modeling of the bioreactor volume dynamics in high cell density fed-batch reactors. In particular, a new model for the bioreactor volume is proposed, suitable to be used in high cell density cultures where large amounts of intracellular products are stored. Based on the proposed volume model, two forms of a high-order sliding mode observer are proposed. Each form corresponds to the cases with residual biomass concentration or volume measurement, respectively. The observers achieve finite time convergence and robustness to process uncertainties as the kinetic model is not required. Stability proofs for the proposed observer are given. The observer algorithm is assessed numerically and experimentally. PMID:26149912

  13. Functional Nanomaterials for Gas-Phase Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Toward Efficient Solar Fuel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Laura Brennan

    Harnessing abundant solar energy to facilitate the capture and conversion of greenhouse gas CO2 into carbon-based fuels and chemical feedstocks represents a significant scientific challenge with implications for both climate change and sustainable energy production. Herein, we have demonstrated that highly defected indium oxide, In2O3-x(OH)y, nanoparticles can function as effective gas-phase photocatalysts for CO 2 reduction to CO via the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Significantly we have found that the presence of both oxygen vacancies and surface hydroxide groups are necessary to facilitate the reaction. Using transient absorption spectroscopy we demonstrated that these defects play a significant role in the excited state charge relaxation pathways, with higher defect concentrations resulting in longer excited state lifetimes, which is attributed to electron and hole trapping in oxygen vacancies and surface hydroxide groups, respectively. This supports the proposed surface Frustrated Lewis Pair (FLP) reaction mechanism, in which a surface active site composed of a Lewis acidic, coordinatively unsaturated indium atom, created by the presence of an oxygen vacancy, adjacent to a Lewis basic hydroxide, assists the adsorption and heterolytic dissociation of H2, which then enables the adsorption and reaction of CO 2 to form CO and H2O. Preliminary results indicate that photogenerated electron and hole localization in these defects enhances their Lewis acidity and basicity, lowering the activation energy for the RWGS reaction under illumination. Finally, we demonstrated that by evenly dispersing In2O3-x (OH)y nanoparticles on vertically aligned silicon nanowires (SiNW), we can increase reaction rates by improving reflective losses and facilitating light trapping in the region of the solar spectrum where In 2O3-x(OH)y absorbs. Further, by using the photothermal properties of the SiNWs, the light energy not absorbed by In2O 3-x(OH)y can be converted into

  14. Exploring the Possible Role That Solid Phase LNAPL Biodegradation End Products Have on Electrical Biogeophysical Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, A. L.; McGuffy, C.; Slater, L. D.; Bekins, B. A.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prior biogeophysical research at sites contaminated by Light Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) has attributed electrical conductivity anomalies in the smear zone to increases in pore fluid specific conductance driven by the production of inorganic acids and associated mineral dissolution. However, data to support this interpretation are lacking and research at the Bemidji site suggests an alternative interpretation. Ongoing research at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site in Bemidji, MN, provides an opportunity to study the biogeophysical signatures of a mature hydrocarbon spill with a unique supporting inventory of geochemical and hydrological data. Previous biogeophysical research at this site identified a strong magnetic susceptibility (MS) signal in the smear zone, primarily due to the presence of magnetite, which is presumably driven by biotic iron reduction processes associated with long-term natural attenuation. We hypothesize that it is possible that the conductivity enhancement previously observed at hydrocarbon sites is, at least in part driven by precipitation of metallic minerals in the smear zone. This process could also explain recently reported induced polarization anomalies observed in the smear zone at other sites. In order to test our hypothesis, a dense array of electrodes spanning a 5 m interval was installed in boreholes at two locations: [1] centered on the smear zone at a contaminated location (where oil pooling is known to be thickest); [2] centered on the water table at an uncontaminated location for control. We constructed arrays composed of 66 electrodes spaced between 7.5 and 10 cm apart in order to examine fine-scale resistivity and induced polarization structure of the smear zone. Electrical measurements were acquired using a Wenner-type configuration with multiple unit electrode spacings. Results from these arrays were compared with MS and magnetite concentration data from both borehole logs and cores

  15. The ILC engineering design phase: Towards the production of an engineering design report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Marc; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In August 2007, the International Linear Collider-Global Design Effort (ILC-GDE) published the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR) which contains a description of the design of the linear collider and a ''value'' cost estimate. The RDR was developed over a 2 year period starting in August 2005 with the creation of the GDE at the Second ILC workshop, held at Snowmass, Colorado. The design described in the RDR and its associated estimate allow the GDE to plan and prioritize the next phase of the ILC, the creation of an Engineering Design and the production, by mid 2010, of an Engineering Design Report (EDR). The EDR will contain, in addition to a more mature design and an updated value estimate, a plan for executing the ILC Project. The purpose of the EDR is to facilitate formal international negotiations at government level on siting, funding, organization and execution of the ILC project with a timescale consistent with the start of construction in 2012. The creation of the ILC Engineering Design will include: (1) Basic R&D to demonstrate that all components can be engineered; (2) R&D into alternative solutions to mitigate remaining risk; (3) An overall design to allow machine construction to start within 3 years following its completion; (4) selection between high tech options to allow industrialization efforts; (5) A comprehensive value-engineering exercise; (6) A complete value cost estimate for the machine, including a funding profile consistent with the project schedule; (7) A project execution plan including a realistic schedule; (8) Designs for facilities shared between different ''area systems'', and for site-specific infrastructure. The designs must include the level of detail needed for regions to estimate the cost to host; and (9) All necessary information must be provided to regions to evaluate project technical and financial risks in support of a bid to host. With the completion of the EDR, the ILC-GDE leadership will be able to seek approval of the ILC

  16. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad

    2014-05-01

    -ToF-MS) were used to quantify OA and VOC emissions, respectively. SOA production potential of the different emissions was quantified by introducing them into the PSI mobile smog chamber and a potential aerosol chamber (PAM) where they were photochemically aged. The measurements of primary emissions suggest that the COA factor identified in ambient atmospheric aerosols is mostly related to fat release from frying with vegetable oils or grilling fatty-meats. In contrast, vegetable cooking (boiling and frying) was associated with significant VOC emissions. The VOC emissions from frying consist mainly of aldehydes which are formed through breaking of fatty acids. Gas phase composition, emission factors and SAPP from all these processes will be presented. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation as well as the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n.° 290605 (COFUND: PSI-FELLOW). J. Allan et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 647-668 (2010) X.-F. Huang et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 8933-8945 (2010) Y.-L. Sun et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1581-1602 (2011)

  17. Liquid-phase ozonation of vitrinites of coals of various metamorphic stages: Product composition

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Semenova; Y.F. Patrakov; O.N. Fedyaeva; L.M. Pokrovskii

    2007-04-15

    The fractionated products of ozonation of vitrinites of Kuznetsk coals of different metamorphic stages in chloroform have been characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. High-molecular-mass compounds insoluble in water prevail in the products. Water-soluble products are ketones, oxyalkanols, lower aliphatic acids, and hydroxy- and dicarboxylic aromatic acids.

  18. Subpicosecond electron bunch train production using a phase-space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E.; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Our recent experimental demonstration of a photoinjector electron bunch train with sub-picosecond structures is reported in this paper. The experiment is accomplished by converting an initially horizontal beam intensity modulation into a longitudinal phase space modulation, via a beamline capable of exchanging phase-space coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. The initial transverse modulation is produced by intercepting the beam with a multislit mask prior to the exchange. We also compare our experimental results with numerical simulations.

  19. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production. PMID:26897414

  20. Simultaneous determination of four anti-dandruff agents including octopirox in shampoo products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chao, L

    2001-06-01

    A method based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitative determination of four anti-dandruff agents such as salicylic acid, ketoconazole, climbazole, octopirox in commercial anti-dandruff shampoo products. A symmetry C18 column (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) was used at temperature of 35 degrees C, mobile phase with flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) was acetonitrile: water (containing 10 mm potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 4.0, adjusted with orthophosphoric acid) = 60 : 40 (V/V) and UV detection at 224 nm and 305 nm. Samples were extracted with mobile phase by stirring and ultrasonic method. The average recoveries of four anti-dandruff agents were 98.0-104.1%. The relative standard deviations for samples were 0.11-0.90%. The method is simple, rapid and reproducible. PMID:18498472

  1. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production.

  2. Enhancement of a novel extracellular uricase production by media optimization and partial purification by aqueous three-phase system.

    PubMed

    Ram, Senthoor K; Raval, Keyur; JagadeeshBabu, P E

    2015-01-01

    Uricase (urate: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.7.3.3), an enzyme belonging to the class of oxidoreductases, catalyzes the enzymatic oxidation of uric acid to allantoin and finds a wide variety of application as therapeutic and clinical reagent. In this study, uricase production ability of the bacterial strains isolated from deep litter poultry soil is investigated. The strain with maximum extracellular uricase production capability was identified as Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on uricase productivity was investigated. The uricase production for this strain was optimized using statistically based experimental designs and resulted in uricase activity of 306 U/L, which is 2 times higher than initial uricase activity. Two-step purification, such as ammonium sulfate precipitation and aqueous two-phase system, was carried out and a twofold increase in yield and specific activity was observed.

  3. Products of the OH radical-initiated gas-phase reaction of fluorene in the presence of NO x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, Detlev; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger; Harger, William P.; McElroy, Patricia A.

    The products of the OH radical-initiated gas-phase reaction of fluorene in the presence of NO x were investigated in a 6400 ℓ all-Teflon chamber. Teh reaction products identified were fluorenone, 1-, 2-, 3- 4-nitrofluorene, three hydroxyfluorene isomers, three nitrofluorenone isomers and three hydroxynitrofluorene isomers. Of the reaction products identified, fluorenone was formed in the highest yield (9 ± 5%). The formation yields of the individual nitrofluorenes were in the order 3-nitrofluorene > 1- nitrofluorene > 4-nitrofluorene > 2-nitrofluorene, with the average 3-nitrofluorene yield being 1.4% and the total nitrofluorene yield being 2.5%. Diesel soot and ambient particulate matter showed relatively low concentrations of total nitrofluorenes when compared with the other nitro-PAH present. The measured ambient atmospheric concentrations of the nitrofluorenes were compared with levels expected on the basis of the nitrofluorene product yields from the OH radical-initiated reaction of fluorene.

  4. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Hua; Yen, Shih-Yang; Su, Li-Sheng; Chen, Junghui

    2010-09-01

    In comparison with the general stirring batch reactor, the membrane reactor has been reported to have higher molar ratios of methanol to oil but ultralow catalyst concentration in the biodiesel production. In this research, the methanolysis of canola oil is conducted in a stirring batch reactor in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. Based on the investigation of the effects of operating conditions, including methanol to oil molar ration, catalyst concentrations and temperatures, the time course of the reaction path for the reactant composition in the ternary phase diagram of oil-FAME-MeOH offers an effective way to understand the operation of membrane reactors in the biodiesel production. The results show that increasing the residence time of the whole reactant system within the two-phase zone is good for the separation operation through the membranes.

  5. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided transposon cleavage initiates Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA production.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2015-05-15

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germ line by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon "junkyards" (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the "ping-pong" pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nucleotides (nt) of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt become the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The ping-pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence. PMID:25977554

  6. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided transposon cleavage initiates Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA production.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2015-05-15

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germ line by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon "junkyards" (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the "ping-pong" pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nucleotides (nt) of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt become the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The ping-pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence.

  7. Ion pair-reversed phase HPLC approach facilitates subcloning of PCR products and screening of recombinant colonies.

    PubMed

    Shaw-Bruha, C M; Lamb, K A

    2000-04-01

    The isolation of a single DNA molecule for cloning is technically difficult, and the subsequent screening of colonies for recombinant DNA clones is time consuming. Ion pair-reversed phase HPLC (IP-RP-HPLC) analysis of nucleic acids improves the resolution and isolation of PCR products to be cloned. We demonstrate that PCR products analyzed and collected using the IP-RP-HPLC approach (WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis System) can be cloned directly into a plasmid vector. In addition, we demonstrate that when IP-RP-HPLC analysis is extended to the colony screening process, the time required for these procedures is reduced.

  8. Response of a catalytic reaction to periodic variation of the CO pressure: increased CO2 production and dynamic phase transition.

    PubMed

    Machado, Erik; Buendía, Gloria M; Rikvold, Per Arne; Ziff, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the dynamical response of a Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model for CO oxidation with CO desorption to periodic variation of the CO pressure. We use a square-wave periodic pressure variation with parameters that can be tuned to enhance the catalytic activity. We produce evidence that, below a critical value of the desorption rate, the driven system undergoes a dynamic phase transition between a CO2 productive phase and a nonproductive one at a critical value of the period and waveform of the pressure oscillation. At the dynamic phase transition the period-averaged CO2 production rate is significantly increased and can be used as a dynamic order parameter. We perform a finite-size scaling analysis that indicates the existence of power-law singularities for the order parameter and its fluctuations, yielding estimated critical exponent ratios beta/nu approximately 0.12 and gamma/nu approximately 1.77. These exponent ratios, together with theoretical symmetry arguments and numerical data for the fourth-order cumulant associated with the transition, give reasonable support for the hypothesis that the observed nonequilibrium dynamic phase transition is in the same universality class as the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model.

  9. Use of in situ solid-phase adsorption in microbial natural product fermentation development.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Thomas; Chase, Matthew; Wagner, Stephanie; Renzi, Chris; Powell, Marcella; DeAngelo, Joseph; Michels, Peter

    2013-05-01

    It has been half a century since investigators first began experimenting with adding ion exchange resins during the fermentation of microbial natural products. With the development of nonionic polymeric adsorbents in the 1970s, the application of in situ product adsorption in bioprocessing has grown slowly, but steadily. To date, in situ product adsorption strategies have been used in biotransformations, plant cell culture, the production of biofuels, and selected bulk chemicals, such as butanol and lactic acid, as well as in more traditional natural product fermentation within the pharmaceutical industry. Apart from the operational gains in efficiency from the integration of fermentation and primary recovery, the addition of adsorbents during fermentation has repeatedly demonstrated the capacity to significantly increase titers by sequestering the product and preventing or mitigating degradation, feedback inhibition and/or cytotoxic effects. Adoption of in situ product adsorption has been particularly valuable in the early stages of natural product-based drug discovery programs, where quickly and cost-effectively generating multigram quantities of a lead compound can be challenging when using a wild-type strain and fermentation conditions that have not been optimized. While much of the literature involving in situ adsorption describes its application early in the drug development process, this does not imply that the potential for scale-up is limited. To date, commercial-scale processes utilizing in situ product adsorption have reached batch sizes of at least 30,000 l. Here we present examples where in situ product adsorption has been used to improve product titers or alter the ratios among biosynthetically related natural products, examine some of the relevant variables to consider, and discuss the mechanisms by which in situ adsorption may impact the biosynthesis of microbial natural products.

  10. Use of in situ solid-phase adsorption in microbial natural product fermentation development.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Thomas; Chase, Matthew; Wagner, Stephanie; Renzi, Chris; Powell, Marcella; DeAngelo, Joseph; Michels, Peter

    2013-05-01

    It has been half a century since investigators first began experimenting with adding ion exchange resins during the fermentation of microbial natural products. With the development of nonionic polymeric adsorbents in the 1970s, the application of in situ product adsorption in bioprocessing has grown slowly, but steadily. To date, in situ product adsorption strategies have been used in biotransformations, plant cell culture, the production of biofuels, and selected bulk chemicals, such as butanol and lactic acid, as well as in more traditional natural product fermentation within the pharmaceutical industry. Apart from the operational gains in efficiency from the integration of fermentation and primary recovery, the addition of adsorbents during fermentation has repeatedly demonstrated the capacity to significantly increase titers by sequestering the product and preventing or mitigating degradation, feedback inhibition and/or cytotoxic effects. Adoption of in situ product adsorption has been particularly valuable in the early stages of natural product-based drug discovery programs, where quickly and cost-effectively generating multigram quantities of a lead compound can be challenging when using a wild-type strain and fermentation conditions that have not been optimized. While much of the literature involving in situ adsorption describes its application early in the drug development process, this does not imply that the potential for scale-up is limited. To date, commercial-scale processes utilizing in situ product adsorption have reached batch sizes of at least 30,000 l. Here we present examples where in situ product adsorption has been used to improve product titers or alter the ratios among biosynthetically related natural products, examine some of the relevant variables to consider, and discuss the mechanisms by which in situ adsorption may impact the biosynthesis of microbial natural products. PMID:23526181

  11. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation

    PubMed Central

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. PMID:26574523

  12. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation.

    PubMed

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-12-28

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions.

  13. Production method of carbamazepine/saccharin cocrystal particles by using two solution mixing based on the ternary phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    In the pharmaceutical field, improvement of drug solubility is required, and an interest in cocrystals is growing. Crystallization methods for industrial production of cocrystals have not been developed enough whereas many cocrystals have been prepared in order to find a new crystal form by screening in the laboratory. The objective of this study was the development of the crystallization method which is useful for the industrial production of cocrystal particles based on the phase diagram. A cocrystal of carbamazepine and saccharin was selected as a model substance. The ternary phase diagram of carbamazepine and saccharin in methanol at 303 K was measured. A cocrystallization method of mixing two kinds of different eutectic solutions was designed based on the ternary phase diagram. In order to adjust the cocrystallization conditions, the determination method of the driving force for cocrystal deposition such as supersaturation based on mass balance was proposed. The cocrystal particles were obtained under all the conditions of the five mixing ratios. From these experimental results, the relationship between the supersaturation and the induction time for nucleation was confirmed as well as conventional crystallization. In conclusion, the crystallization method for industrial production of cocrystal particles including the determination of the supersaturation was suggested.

  14. The production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of municipal solid wastes and slaughterhouse waste: A two-phase process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, X.; Morán, A.; Cuetos, M. J.; Sánchez, M. E.

    A two-phase fermentation process for the treatment of waste, intended for the recovery of hydrogen for energy use, was investigated in its initial fermentation phase. Hydrogen production was obtained from a mixed culture based on an active mesophilic inoculum without any selective treatment being applied. The liquid stream generated by the hydrogen fermentation process was stabilized in the following, methanogenic, phase for the recovery of methane and further breaking down of the waste stream. The whole process was carried out at a temperature in the mesophilic range (34 °C). The substrate used was an unsterilized mixture of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and slaughterhouse waste from a poultry-processing plant. The hydrogen-producing phase was capable of stable performance under the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) evaluated (3 and 5 days). No methane was detected in the first phase at any point during the whole period of the experiment and the hydrogen yield showed no symptoms of declining as time elapsed. The amount of hydrogen obtained from the fermentation process was in the range of 52.5-71.3 N L kg -1 VS rem.

  15. Increased production of megakaryocytes near purity from cord blood CD34+ cells using a short two-phase culture system.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Lucie; Robert, Amélie; Proulx, Chantal; Pineault, Nicolas

    2008-03-20

    Expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) ex vivo remains an important focus in fundamental and clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of such expansion phase in a two-phase culture strategy prior to the induction of megakaryocyte (Mk) differentiation would increase the yield of Mks produced in cultures. Toward this end, we first characterized the functional properties of five cytokine cocktails to be tested in the expansion phase on the growth and differentiation kinetics of CD34+-enriched cells, and on their capacity to expand clonogenic progenitors in cultures. Three of these cocktails were chosen based on their reported ability to induce HPC expansion ex vivo, while the other two represented new cytokine combinations. These analyses revealed that none of the cocktails tested could prevent the differentiation of CD34+ cells and the rapid expansion of lineage-positive cells. Hence, we sought to determine the optimum length of time for the expansion phase that would lead to the best final Mk yields. Despite greater expansion of CD34+ cells and overall cell growth with a longer expansion phase, the optimal length for the expansion phase that provided greater Mk yield at near maximal purity was found to be 5 days. Under such settings, two functionally divergent cocktails were found to significantly increase the final yield of Mks. Surprisingly, these cocktails were either deprived of thrombopoietin or of stem cell factor, two cytokines known to favor megakaryopoiesis and HPC expansion, respectively. Based on these results, a short resource-efficient two-phase culture protocol for the production of Mks near purity (>95%) from human CD34+ CB cells has been established.

  16. Lyotropic liquid crystalline L3 phase silicated nanoporous monolithic composites and their production

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, Kathryn M.; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2003-10-28

    A mesoporous ceramic material is provided having a pore size diameter in the range of about 10-100 nanometers produced by templating with a ceramic precursor a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase consisting of a three-dimensional, random, nonperiodic network packing of a multiple connected continuous membrane. A preferred process for producing the inesoporous ceramic material includes producing a template of a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase by mixing a surfactant, a co-surfactant and hydrochloric acid, coating the template with an inorganic ceramic precursor by adding to the L.sub.3 phase tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and then converting the coated template to a ceramic by removing any remaining liquids.

  17. Pre-Launch Phase 1 Calibration and Validation Rehearsal of Geophysical Data Products of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Dunbar, R.; Das, N. N.; Kim, S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J.; Liu, Q.; Kimball, J. S.; Yi, Y.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.; Crow, W. T.; Dang, L.; Yueh, S. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate onboard the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. SMAP measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The SMAP science data product suite of geophysical parameters will include estimates of surface (top 5 cm) and root-zone (down to 1-m depth) soil moisture, net ecosystem exchange, and classification of the frozen/non-frozen state of the landscape. The primary validation reference of the data products will be ground-based measurements. Other remote sensing and model-based products will be used as additional resources. The post-launch timeline of the mission requires that the geophysical data products are validated (with respect to the mission requirements) within 12 months after a 3-month in-orbit check-out phase. SMAP is taking several preparatory steps in order to meet this schedule. One of the main steps consists of running a rehearsal to exercise calibration and validation procedures planned for the Cal/Val Phase. The rehearsal is divided into two stages. Phase 1, which was conducted in June-August 2013, focused on validation methodologies for the geophysical data products. Phase 2, which will be conducted in May-June 2014, includes operational aspects including a fully functioning SMAP Science Data System. (Note that the rehearsals do not include an airborne field

  18. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  19. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES -(PHASE I) - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual report summarizes the activities of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on clean products and processes for 2002, including the proceedings of the 2002 annual meeting held in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report presents a wealth of information on cleaner production activities in ove...

  20. Passive solar energy effects on egg production and feed efficiency phase II

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The production efficiency of a small solar heated hen house are compared to those of a large commercial operation. The solar hen house proved to give higher egg production than the larger commercial operation. Feed efficiencies for the commercial operation are better than the solar hen house in reporting grain used per dozen eggs. 6 refs.

  1. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  2. Alterations of acute phase reaction and cytokine production in patients following severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Dehne, Marius G; Sablotzki, Armin; Hoffmann, Andreas; Mühling, Jörg; Dietrich, Friedrich E; Hempelmann, Gunter

    2002-09-01

    To determine the acute immunologic reaction, mediated by cytokines, interleukines (ILs) and growth factors and the susceptibility to infections and sepsis after severe burn injury a prospective, single unit, longitudinal study of acute phase reactants and mediators who performed. After approval by the ethics committee of our hospital, we investigated the plasma concentrations of IL-2, -6, -8, -10, and -13, the soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and the acute phase proteins procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at admission and every 3 days in 24 patients over a time course of 28 days after thermal injury and categorized by percent burn: < or =30% (group 1; n=12) and >30% (group 2; n=12). Shortly after burn injury we found higher concentrations of IL-2, -6, -10 and PCT in those patients >30% TBSA. During the study period, we found significant higher levels of acute phase proteins, IL-6 and -8 in patients >30% TBSA. The incidence of SIRS and MODS was three times increased in patients >30% TBSA. Our results show different patterns of cytokines and acute phase proteins in patients with different burned surface areas over a long time and continuous monitoring of a more distinct inflammatory response in these patients.

  3. Across-phase biomass pyrolysis stoichiometry, energy balance, and product formation kinetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predictive correlations between reactions occurring in the gas-, liquid- and solid-phases are necessary to economically utilize the thermochemical conversion of agricultural wastes impacting the food, water, and energy nexus. On the basis of an empirical mass balance (99.7%), this study established...

  4. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  5. Chemical composition of gas-phase organic carbon emissions from motor vehicles and implications for ozone production.

    PubMed

    Gentner, Drew R; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Davis, Laura C; Dallmann, Timothy R; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Goldstein, Allen H; Harley, Robert A

    2013-10-15

    Motor vehicles are major sources of gas-phase organic carbon, which includes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other compounds with lower vapor pressures. These emissions react in the atmosphere, leading to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). With more chemical detail than previous studies, we report emission factors for over 230 compounds from gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles in summer 2010. Second, we use a fuel composition-based approach to quantify uncombusted fuel components in exhaust using the emission factor for total uncombusted fuel in exhaust together with detailed chemical characterization of liquid fuel samples. There is good agreement between the two methods except for products of incomplete combustion, which are not present in uncombusted fuels and comprise 32 ± 2% of gasoline exhaust and 26 ± 1% of diesel exhaust by mass. We calculate and compare ozone production potentials of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and nontailpipe gasoline emissions. Per mass emitted, the gas-phase organic compounds in gasoline exhaust have the largest potential impact on ozone production with over half of the ozone formation due to products of incomplete combustion (e.g., alkenes and oxygenated VOCs). When combined with data on gasoline and diesel fuel sales in the U.S., these results indicate that gasoline sources are responsible for 69-96% of emissions and 79-97% of the ozone formation potential from gas-phase organic carbon emitted by motor vehicles.

  6. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OH• generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OH• was removed. This suggests that OH• radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures. PMID:27346977

  7. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OHrad) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OHrad generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OHrad was removed. This suggests that OHrad radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures.

  8. Production of non-gaussianities through a positive spatial curvature bouncing phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xian; Lilley, Marc; Peter, Patrick E-mail: marc.lilley@uct.ac.za

    2014-07-01

    We compute the level of non-gaussianities produced by a cosmological bouncing phase in the minimal non-singular setup that lies within the context of General Relativity when the matter content consists of a simple scalar field with a standard kinetic term. Such a bouncing phase is obtained by requiring that the spatial sections of the background spacetime be positively curved. We restrict attention to the close vicinity of the bounce by Taylor expanding the scale factor a(η), the scalar field φ(η) and the potential V(φ) in powers of the conformal time η around the bounce. We find that possibly large non-gaussianities are generically produced at the bounce itself and also discuss which shapes of non-gaussianities are most likely to be produced.

  9. Unraveling the CP phase of top-Higgs coupling in associated production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindani, Saurabh D.; Sharma, Pankaj; Shivaji, Ambresh

    2016-10-01

    We study the sensitivity of top polarization observables to the CP phase ζt in the top Yukawa coupling in the process pp → thj at the 14 TeV high-luminosity run of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). We calculate the top polarization in this process as well as an azimuthal asymmetry of the charged lepton arising from the decay of the top in the lab frame. We find that the dependence of this lab-frame azimuthal asymmetry on the phase ζt closely resembles the dependence of the top polarization on ζt. As compared to the cross section, which is sensitive to ζt for larger values, the lepton azimuthal asymmetry can provide a sensitive measurement of ζt for smaller values.

  10. One-phase methods for accelerating the production of biodiesel methyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Boocock, D.G.B.; Konar, S.K.; Mao, V.

    1995-11-01

    The base-catalysed (methoxide or hydroxide) methanolysis of vegetable oils (6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio), such as soybean, occurs 15-20 times slower than butanolysis because the former starts out as a two-phase system, in which the solubility of the oil in the methanol phase, where the catalyst is located, is very low. The addition of a cosolvent, such as 1.27 volumes of tetrahydrofuran (THF) per volume of methanol, forms an oil-rich, one phase system in which methanolysis is as fast as butanolysis. Other suitable cosolvents include 1,4-dioxane, diethyl ether and t-butyl methyl ether. THF has a boiling point very close to that of methanol and can be flashed and recycled along with unused alcohol. Glycerol separation usually occurs faster in the presence of cosolvent (4-5 times faster in the case of THF). The sudden and abnormal slowing of both hydroxide and alkoxide transesterifications may be caused by a number of factors including polarity of the mixture, the formation of undesired intermediates and structural differences in the substrates. Simple appropriate measures can dramatically lower 98% conversion times to twenty minutes and less, in which case continuous processes employing centrifuges for glycerol separation become very attractive.

  11. Chemical and Phase Evolution of Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Catalysts for Electrochemical Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Chul; Benck, Jesse D; Tsai, Charlie; Park, Joonsuk; Koh, Ai Leen; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Jaramillo, Thomas F; Sinclair, Robert

    2016-01-26

    Amorphous MoSx is a highly active, earth-abundant catalyst for the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction. Previous studies have revealed that this material initially has a composition of MoS3, but after electrochemical activation, the surface is reduced to form an active phase resembling MoS2 in composition and chemical state. However, structural changes in the MoSx catalyst and the mechanism of the activation process remain poorly understood. In this study, we employ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to image amorphous MoSx catalysts activated under two hydrogen-rich conditions: ex situ in an electrochemical cell and in situ in an environmental TEM. For the first time, we directly observe the formation of crystalline domains in the MoSx catalyst after both activation procedures as well as spatially localized changes in the chemical state detected via electron energy loss spectroscopy. Using density functional theory calculations, we investigate the mechanisms for this phase transformation and find that the presence of hydrogen is critical for enabling the restructuring process. Our results suggest that the surface of the amorphous MoSx catalyst is dynamic: while the initial catalyst activation forms the primary active surface of amorphous MoS2, continued transformation to the crystalline phase during electrochemical operation could contribute to catalyst deactivation. These results have important implications for the application of this highly active electrocatalyst for sustainable H2 generation. PMID:26624225

  12. The Equivalence of Dissipation from Gibbs’ Entropy Production with Phase-Volume Loss in Ergodic Heat-Conducting Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Puneet Kumar; Hoover, William Graham; Hoover, Carol Griswold; Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Gibbs’ thermodynamic entropy is given by the logarithm of the phase volume, which itself responds to heat transfer to and from thermal reservoirs. We compare the thermodynamic dissipation described by (i) phase-volume loss with (ii) heat-transfer entropy production. Their equivalence is documented for computer simulations of the response of an ergodic harmonic oscillator to thermostated temperature gradients. In the simulations one or two thermostat variables control the kinetic energy or the kinetic energy and its fluctuation. All of the motion equations are time-reversible. We consider both strong and weak control variables. In every case, the time-averaged dissipative loss of phase-space volume coincides with the entropy produced by heat transfer. Linear-response theory nicely reproduces the small-gradient results obtained by computer simulation. The thermostats considered here are ergodic and provide simple dynamical models, some of them with as few as three ordinary differential equations, while remaining capable of reproducing Gibbs’ canonical phase-space distribution and are precisely consistent with irreversible thermodynamics.

  13. Re-utilization of Industrial CO2 for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Brian

    2014-03-31

    This is the final report of a 36-month Phase II cooperative agreement. Under this project, Touchstone Research Laboratory (Touchstone) investigated the merits of incorporating a Phase Change Material (PCM) into an open-pond algae production system that can capture and re-use the CO2 from a coal-fired flue gas source located in Wooster, OH. The primary objective of the project was to design, construct, and operate a series of open algae ponds that accept a slipstream of flue gas from a coal-fired source and convert a significant portion of the CO2 to liquid biofuels, electricity, and specialty products, while demonstrating the merits of the PCM technology. Construction of the pilot facility and shakedown of the facility in Wooster, OH, was completed during the first two years, and the focus of the last year was on operations and the cultivation of algae. During this Phase II effort a large-scale algae concentration unit from OpenAlgae was installed and utilized to continuously harvest algae from indoor raceways. An Algae Lysing Unit and Oil Recovery Unit were also received and installed. Initial parameters for lysing nanochloropsis were tested. Conditions were established that showed the lysing operation was effective at killing the algae cells. Continuous harvesting activities yielded over 200 kg algae dry weight for Ponds 1, 2 and 4. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source and the resulting lipid productivity of the algae. Lipid content and total fatty acids were unaffected by culture system and nutrient source, indicating that open raceway ponds fed diluted anaerobic digestion effluent can obtain similar lipid productivities to open raceway ponds using commercial nutrients. Data were also collected with respect to the performance of the PCM material on the pilot-scale raceway ponds. Parameters such as evaporative water loss, temperature differences, and growth/productivity were

  14. The Phase Behavior Effect on the Reaction Engineering of Transesterification Reactions and Reactor Design for Continuous Biodiesel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csernica, Stephen N.

    transitions from two phases to a single phase, or pseudo-single phase. The transition to a single phase or pseudo-single phase is a function of the methanol content. Regardless, the maximum observed reaction rate occurs at the point of the phase transition, when the concentration of triglycerides in the methanol phase is largest. The phase transition occurs due to the accumulation of the primary product, biodiesel methyl esters. Through various experiments, it was determined that the rate of the triglyceride mass transfer into the methanol phase, as well as the solubility of triglycerides in methanol, increases with increasing methyl ester concentration. Thus, there exists some critical methyl ester concentration which favors the formation of a single or pseudo-single phase system. The effect of the by-product glycerol on the reaction kinetics was also investigated. It was determined that at low methanol to triglyceride molar ratios, glycerol acts to inhibit the reaction rate and limit the overall triglyceride conversion. This occurs because glycerol accumulates in the methanol phase, i.e. the primary reaction volume. When glycerol is at relatively high concentrations within the methanol phase, triglycerides become excluded from the reaction volume. This greatly reduces the reaction rate and limits the overall conversion. As the concentration of methanol is increased, glycerol becomes diluted and the inhibitory effects become dampened. Assuming pseudo-homogeneous phase behavior, a simple kinetic model incorporating the inhibitory effects of glycerol was proposed based on batch reactor data. The kinetic model was primarily used to theoretically compare the performance of different types of continuous flow reactors for continuous biodiesel production. It was determined that the inhibitory effects of glycerol result in the requirement of very large reactor volumes when using continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The reactor volume can be greatly reduced using tubular style

  15. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1 ultra-deep wells on my... qualified wells on or after May 3, 2004, reported on the OGOR-A for your lease under 30 CFR 1210.102, as and... section, all gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production that is...

  16. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1 ultra-deep wells on my... qualified wells on or after May 3, 2004, reported on the OGOR-A for your lease under 30 CFR 1210.102, as and... section, all gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production that is...

  17. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1 ultra-deep wells on my... qualified wells on or after May 3, 2004, reported on the OGOR-A for your lease under 30 CFR 1210.102, as and... section, all gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production that is...

  18. The inclusion of ergonomic tools in the informational, conceptual and preliminary phases of the product design methodology.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ivan Luiz de; Batiz, Eduardo Concepción

    2012-01-01

    The process of product development has received special attention as it is being recognized as a source of competitive gain. Through its systematic use companies reduce costs, increase quality and decrease development time. However, one can find products being launched on the market that cause dissatisfaction to its users, and in consequence if the customer feels harmed or injured he will no longer purchase a product from the same brand. This in regard only to the commercial aspect; usually the danger of an accident or injury is not even thought about. This paper is the basis of the dissertation master's degree and used a literature research to build the repertoire, analyzing the methodologies applied by product design engineers, designers and ergonomists. The analysis results demonstrate the inefficiency of the design methodologies ergonomic issues. The contribution of this work lies in the suggestion to include ergonomic tools in all phases of product development and the presentation of a table with the tools that points out its most suitable time of application and results.

  19. High hydrogen peroxide concentration in the feed-zone affects bioreactor cell productivity with liquid phase oxygen supply strategy.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Pritish; Ghosh, Kaushik; Suraishkumar, G K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid phase oxygen supply strategy (LPOS), in which hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is used to supply oxygen to the bioreactor, leads to low cell productivity despite high specific productivities of relevant metabolites. We hypothesized that high H(2)O(2) concentrations in the feed-zone led to local cell death, which in turn, lead to lower cell productivity. To test the hypothesis, a mathematical model was developed. Bacillus subtilis 168 was used as the model system in this study. The model simulations of cell concentrations in the bioreactor-zone were verified with the experimental results. The feed-zone H(2)O(2) concentrations remained 12-14 times higher than bulk bioreactor concentrations. The high local concentrations are expected to cause local cell killing, which explains the decrease in overall cell production by 50% at 300 rpm compared to conventional cultivation. Further, among the four different feed strategies studied using the model, dissolved oxygen (DO) controlled H(2)O(2) feed strategy caused least local cell killing and improved overall cell production by 34%.

  20. Citronellal reactions with ozone and OH radical: Rate constants and gas-phase products detected using PFBHA derivatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. C.; Ham, J. E.; Wells, J. R.

    The bimolecular rate constants, kOH+citronellal, (150±40)×10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and, k+citronellal, (3.5±1.2)×10 -16 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, were measured using the relative rate technique for the reactions of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O 3) with 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-al ((R)-(+)-citronellal) at (297±3) K and 1 atm total pressure. To more clearly define part of citronellal's indoor environment degradation mechanism, the products of the citronellal+OH and citronellal+O 3 reactions were also investigated. The positively identified citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction products were: 3-methylhexanedial HC( dbnd O)CH 2CH 2CH(CH 3)CH 2C( dbnd O)H and 2-oxopropanal (methylglyoxal, CH 3C( dbnd O)C( dbnd O)H). The use of derivatizing agent O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) was used to propose 3-methylhexanedial as a major citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction product. The elucidation of this reaction product was facilitated by mass spectrometry of the derivatized reaction products coupled with plausible citronellal/OH and citronellal/O 3 reaction mechanisms based on previously published volatile organic compound/OH and volatile organic compound/O 3 gas-phase reaction mechanisms.

  1. Analysis of Historic Data for Juvenile and Adult Salmonid Production. Phase 1, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hilborn, Ray; Pascual, Miguel; Donnelly, Robert; Coronado-Hernadez, Claribel

    1993-11-01

    Survival of hatchery reared Columbia River chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon from release to return is highly variable and thought to be related to river flow during juvenile outmigration in the spring. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between survival of coded-wire-tagged (CWT) Columbia River salmonids and in-river flow and other freshwater factors. This report covers Phase 1, in which two methods to estimate survival were developed and evaluated, and criteria for data selection were established.

  2. Particulate and gas-phase products from the atmospheric degradation of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Vázquez, Mónica; Vera, Teresa; Muñoz, Amalia

    2015-12-01

    The phosphorothioate structure is highly present in several pesticides. However, there is a lack of information about its degradation process in air and the secondary pollutants formed. Herein, the atmospheric reactions of chlorpyrifos, one of the most world-used insecticide, and its main degradation product - chlorpyrifos-oxon - are described. The photo-oxidation under the presence of NOx was studied in a large outdoor simulation chamber for both chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon, observing a rapid degradation (Half lifetime < 3.5 h for both compounds). Also, the photolysis reactions of both were studied. The formation of particulate matter (aerosol mass yield ranged 6-59%) and gaseous products were monitored. The chemical composition of minor products was studied, identifying 15 multi-oxygenated derivatives. The most abundant products were ring-retaining molecules such as 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol and ethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl hydrogen phosphate. An atmospheric degradation mechanism has been amplified based on an oxidation started with OH-nucleophilic attack to Pdbnd S bond.

  3. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE I) 2000 ANNUAL REPORT, NUMBER 242

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the Third Annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the area of research of clean products and processes, life cycle analysis, computer tools and pollution prevention.

  4. AMMONIA REMOVAL AND NITROUS OXIDE PRODUCTION IN GAS-PHASE COMPOST BIOFILTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofiltration technology is widely utilized for treating ammonia gas (NH3), with one of its potential detrimental by-products being nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas approximately 300 times more reactive to infrared than CO2. The present work intends to provide the relation between NH3 removal d...

  5. NOVEL CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND CARBON SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six acetanilide herbicides are currently registered for use in the U.S. Over the past several years, ethanesufonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OA) degradatoin products of these acetanilide herbicides have been found in U.S. ground waters and surface waters. "Alachlor ESA and ...

  6. Experimental productivity rate optimization of rare earth element separation through preparative solid phase extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Max-Hansen, Mark; Jönsson, Christian; Borg, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

    2014-06-27

    Separating individual rare earth elements from a complex mixture with several elements is difficult and this is emphasized for the middle elements: Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium. In this study we have accomplished an overloaded one-step separation of these rare earth elements through preparative ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with an bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid impregnated column and nitric acid as eluent. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry unit was used for post column element detection. The main focus was to optimize the productivity rate, subject to a yield requirement of 80% and a purity requirement of 99% for each element, by varying the flow rate and batch load size. The optimal productivity rate in this study was 1.32kgSamarium/(hmcolumn(3)), 0.38kgEuropium/(hmcolumn(3)) and 0.81kgGadolinium/(hmcolumn(3)).

  7. Modeling of the last stage of production phase of oxytetracycline fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Xu, C; Fang, C; Ma, Z

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to disclose the reason why, during the last stage of FBOFP (fed-batch oxytetracycline fermentation processes) its specific production rate in general decreases notably, the authors started with the modeling of the process based on operation data, and thus reached the conclusion that this is due to too low residual nitrogen in the substrate. This inference is quite unacceptable to the current practice of the process operations. It was finally realized that the trouble lies in that our old measurement method of residual nitrogen is misleading. Upon using improved measuring method, it was found that while the total residual nitrogen is plentiful, the available nitrogen notably decreases with time, and thus confirmed the authors' conclusions. Experiments on industrial fermentators showed that the product can be increased by 1%, and the titer reaches 3200 micrograms/ml.

  8. Liquid phase products and solid deposit formation from thermally stressed model jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between solid deposit formation and liquid degradation product concentration was studied for the high temperature (400 C) stressing of three hydrocarbon model fuels. A Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester was used to simulate actual engine fuel system conditions. The effects of fuel type, dissolved oxygen concentration, and hot surface contact time (reaction time) were studied. Effects of reaction time and removal of dissolved oxygen on deposit formation were found to be different for n-dodecane and for 2-ethylnaphthalene. When ten percent tetralin is added to n-dodecane to give a simpler model of an actual jet fuel, the tetralin inhibits both the deposit formation and the degradation of n-dodecane. For 2-ethylnaphthalene primary product analyses indicate a possible self-inhibition at long reaction times of the secondary reactions which form the deposit precursors. The mechanism of the primary breakdown of these fuels is suggested and the primary products which participate in these precursor-forming reactions are identified. Some implications of the results to the thermal degradation of real jet fuels are given.

  9. COMMERCIALIZATION OF AN ATMOSPHERIC IRON-BASED CDCL PROCESS FOR POWER PRODUCTION. PHASE I: TECHNOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) is an advanced oxy-combustion technology that has potential to enable substantial reductions in the cost and energy penalty associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-fired power plants. Through collaborative efforts, the Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and The Ohio State University (OSU) developed a conceptual design for a 550 MWe (net) supercritical CDCL power plant with greater than 90% CO2 capture and compression. Process simulations were completed to enable an initial assessment of its technical performance. A cost estimate was developed following DOE’s guidelines as outlined in NETL’s report “Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance”, (2011/1455). The cost of electricity for the CDCL plant without CO2 Transportation and Storage cost resulted in $ $102.67 per MWh, which corresponds to a 26.8 % increase in cost of electricity (COE) when compared to an air-fired pulverized-coal supercritical power plant. The cost of electricity is strongly depending on the total plant cost and cost of the oxygen carrier particles. The CDCL process could capture further potential savings by increasing the performance of the particles and reducing the plant size. During the techno-economic analysis, the team identified technology and engineering gaps that need to be closed to bring the technology to commercialization. The technology gaps were focused in five critical areas: (i) moving bed reducer reactor, (ii) fluidized bed combustor, (iii) particle riser, (iv) oxygen-carrier particle properties, and (v) process operation. The key technology gaps are related to particle performance, particle manufacturing cost, and the operation of the reducer reactor. These technology gaps are to be addressed during Phase II of project. The project team is proposing additional lab testing to be completed on the particle and a 3MWth pilot facility

  10. Comparison of the MODIS Multilayer Cloud Detection and Thermodynamic Phase Products with CALIPSO and CloudSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Gala; Holz, Robert E.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Nagle, Fred W.

    2008-01-01

    CALIPSO and CloudSat, launched in June 2006, provide global active remote sensing measurements of clouds and aerosols that can be used for validation of a variety of passive imager retrievals derived from instruments flying on the Aqua spacecraft and other A-Train platforms. The most recent processing effort for the MODIS Atmosphere Team, referred to as the "Collection 5" stream, includes a research-level multilayer cloud detection algorithm that uses both thermodynamic phase information derived from a combination of solar and thermal emission bands to discriminate layers of different phases, as well as true layer separation discrimination using a moderately absorbing water vapor band. The multilayer detection algorithm is designed to provide a means of assessing the applicability of 1D cloud models used in the MODIS cloud optical and microphysical product retrieval, which are generated at a 1 h resolution. Using pixel-level collocations of MODIS Aqua, CALIOP, and CloudSat radar measurements, we investigate the global performance of the thermodynamic phase and multilayer cloud detection algorithms.

  11. Declines in polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination of San Francisco Bay following production phase-outs and bans.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sedlak, Margaret D; Yee, Donald; Davis, Jay A; Crane, David; Grace, Richard; Arsem, Nirmela

    2015-01-20

    California has implemented unique consumer product flammability standards. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants were once widely incorporated into products to meet these standards, but concerns regarding toxicity and accumulation in humans and biota led to nationwide phase-outs and state bans. A decade of PBDE monitoring in San Francisco Bay has resulted in a data set that covers periods during and after PBDE use and consists of hundreds of measurements of water, sediment, and biota. While PBDEs remain widely detected in biota, levels have declined by nearly half in sport fish and 74-95% in bivalves and bird eggs. Concentrations of BDE-47 in sediment have dropped by over one-third from 2002 to 2012; in water, a decline is not yet evident. The dominant congener in sediment, DecaBDE component BDE-209, showed no temporal trend. U.S. production of DecaBDE ended in 2013; future monitoring may reveal declines. Overall, the data indicate that reduced production can result in relatively rapid reductions in the concentrations of some hydrophobic contaminants in biota and sediment, particularly when implemented after only a few decades of heavy use. Recent changes to California's flammability standards may lessen the use of other flame retardants and similarly reduce Bay contamination. PMID:25544014

  12. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  13. Separation of phenolic compounds with modified adsorption resin from aqueous phase products of hydrothermal liquefaction of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaifei; Lyu, Hang; Hao, Shilai; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2015-04-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction can be used to convert rice straw into an aqueous phase product that contains valuable phenolic compounds. In experiments, commercial adsorption resin XAD-4 was modified by a benzene ring - α,α'-dichloro-p-xylene (DCX) - in order to separate the phenolic compounds from the aqueous phase product; and, the optimal conditions for separation were explored. The results showed that, after modification of the resin, its adsorption capacity improved by 50%, due to increases in surface area, pore volume and micropore volume. The selectivity of the resin increased when the benzene ring was introduced as the ring formed hydrogen bonds with the compounds. The optimal conditions for separation were desorption agent of 40%, 45% and 55% ethanol solution, a flow rate of 2.5-5 mL/min, and a ratio of the sample volume to the column volume was 1:1. The total content of phenolic compounds in aqueous solution increased from 18% to 78% after separation.

  14. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  15. Gas phase formation of extremely oxidized pinene reaction products in chamber and ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Lönn, G.; Schobesberger, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Trimborn, A.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2012-06-01

    High molecular weight (300-650 Da) naturally charged negative ions have previously been observed at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The long-term measurements conducted in this work showed that these ions are observed practically every night between spring and autumn in Hyytiälä. The ambient mass spectral patterns could be reproduced in striking detail during additional measurements of α-pinene (C10H16) oxidation at low-OH conditions in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). The ions were identified as clusters of the nitrate ion (NO3-) and α-pinene oxidation products reaching oxygen to carbon ratios of 0.7-1.3, while retaining most of the initial ten carbon atoms. Attributing the ions to clusters instead of single molecules was based on additional observations of the same extremely oxidized organics in clusters with HSO4- (Hyytiälä) and C3F5O2- (JPAC). The most abundant products in the ion spectra were identified as C10H14O7, C10H14O9, C10H16O9, and C10H14O11. The mechanism responsible for forming these molecules is still not clear, but the initial reaction is most likely ozone attack at the double bond, as the ions are mainly observed under dark conditions. β-pinene also formed highly oxidized products under the same conditions, but less efficiently, and mainly C9 compounds which were not observed in Hyytiälä, where β-pinene on average is 4-5 times less abundant than α-pinene. Further, to explain the high O/C together with the relatively high H/C, we propose that geminal diols and/or hydroperoxide groups may be important. We estimate that the night-time concentration of the sum of the neutral extremely oxidized products is on the order of 0.1-1 ppt (~106-107 molec cm-3). This is in a similar range as the amount of gaseous H2SO4 in Hyytiälä during day-time. As these highly oxidized organics are roughly 3 times heavier, likely with extremely low vapor pressures, their role in the initial steps of new aerosol particle formation and

  16. Gas phase formation of extremely oxidized pinene reaction products in chamber and ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Lönn, G.; Schobesberger, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Trimborn, A.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2012-02-01

    High molecular weight (300-650 Da) naturally charged negative ions have previously been observed at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The long-term measurements conducted in this work showed that these ions are observed practically every night during spring and summer in Hyytiälä. The ambient mass spectral patterns could be reproduced in striking detail during additional measurements of α-pinene (C10H16) oxidation at low-OH conditions in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). The ions were identified as clusters of the nitrate ion (NO3-) and α-pinene oxidation products reaching oxygen to carbon ratios of 0.7-1.3, while retaining most of the initial ten carbon atoms. Attributing the ions to clusters instead of single molecules was based on additional observations of the same extremely oxidized organics in clusters with HSO4- (Hyytiälä) and C3F5O2- (JPAC). The most abundant products in the ion spectra were identified as C105H14O7, C10H14O9, C10H16O9, and C10H14O11. The mechanism responsible for forming these molecules is still not clear, but the initial reaction is most likely ozone attack at the double bond, as the ions are mainly observed under dark conditions. β-pinene also formed highly oxidized products under the same conditions, but less efficiently, and mainly C9 compounds which were not observed in Hyytiälä, where β-pinene on average is 4-5 times less abundant than α-pinene. Further, to explain the high O/C together with the relatively high H/C, we propose that geminal diols and/or hydroperoxide groups may be important. We estimate that the night-time concentration of the sum of the neutral extremely oxidized products is on the order of 0.1-1 ppt (~106-107 molec cm-3). This is in a similar range as the amount of gaseous H2SO4 in Hyytiälä during day-time. As these highly oxidized organics are roughly 3 times heavier, likely with extremely low vapor pressures, their role in the initial steps of new aerosol particle formation and

  17. Evaluation of Selected Chemical Processes for Production of Low-cost Silicon, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The construction of the 50 MT Si/year experimental process system development unit was deferred until FY 1980, and the fluidized bed, zinc vaporizer, by-product condenser, and electrolytic cell were combined with auxiliary units, capable of supporting 8-hour batchwise operation, to form the process development unit (PDU), which is scheduled to be in operation by October 1, 1979. The design of the PDU and objectives of its operation are discussed. Experimental program support activities described relate to: (1) a wetted-wall condensor; (2) fluidized-bed modeling; (3) zinc chloride electrolysis; and (4) zinc vaporizer.

  18. Maggot excretion products from the blowfly Lucilia sericata contain contact phase/intrinsic pathway-like proteases with procoagulant functions.

    PubMed

    Kahl, M; Gökçen, A; Fischer, S; Bäumer, M; Wiesner, J; Lochnit, G; Wygrecka, M; Vilcinskas, A; Preissner, K T

    2015-08-01

    For centuries, maggots have been used for the treatment of wounds by a variety of ancient cultures, as part of their traditional medicine. With increasing appearance of antimicrobial resistance and in association with diabetic ulcers, maggot therapy was revisited in the 1980s. Three mechanisms by which sterile maggots of the green bottle fly Lucilia sericata may improve healing of chronic wounds have been proposed: Biosurgical debridement, disinfecting properties, and stimulation of the wound healing process. However, the influence of maggot excretion products (MEP) on blood coagulation as part of the wound healing process has not been studied in detail. Here, we demonstrate that specific MEP-derived serine proteases from Lucilia sericata induce clotting of human plasma and whole blood, particularly by activating contact phase proteins factor XII and kininogen as well as factor IX, thereby providing kallikrein-bypassing and factor XIa-like activities, both in plasma and in isolated systems. In plasma samples deficient in contact phase proteins, MEP restored full clotting activity, whereas in plasma deficient in either factor VII, IX, X or II no effect was seen. The observed procoagulant/intrinsic pathway-like activity was mediated by (chymo-) trypsin-like proteases in total MEP, which were significantly blocked by C1-esterase inhibitor or other contact phase-specific protease inhibitors. No significant influence of MEP on platelet activation or fibrinolysis was noted. Together, MEP provides contact phase bypassing procoagulant activity and thereby induces blood clotting in the context of wound healing. Further characterisation of the active serine protease(s) may offer new perspectives for biosurgical treatment of chronic wounds. PMID:25948398

  19. Maggot excretion products from the blowfly Lucilia sericata contain contact phase/intrinsic pathway-like proteases with procoagulant functions.

    PubMed

    Kahl, M; Gökçen, A; Fischer, S; Bäumer, M; Wiesner, J; Lochnit, G; Wygrecka, M; Vilcinskas, A; Preissner, K T

    2015-08-01

    For centuries, maggots have been used for the treatment of wounds by a variety of ancient cultures, as part of their traditional medicine. With increasing appearance of antimicrobial resistance and in association with diabetic ulcers, maggot therapy was revisited in the 1980s. Three mechanisms by which sterile maggots of the green bottle fly Lucilia sericata may improve healing of chronic wounds have been proposed: Biosurgical debridement, disinfecting properties, and stimulation of the wound healing process. However, the influence of maggot excretion products (MEP) on blood coagulation as part of the wound healing process has not been studied in detail. Here, we demonstrate that specific MEP-derived serine proteases from Lucilia sericata induce clotting of human plasma and whole blood, particularly by activating contact phase proteins factor XII and kininogen as well as factor IX, thereby providing kallikrein-bypassing and factor XIa-like activities, both in plasma and in isolated systems. In plasma samples deficient in contact phase proteins, MEP restored full clotting activity, whereas in plasma deficient in either factor VII, IX, X or II no effect was seen. The observed procoagulant/intrinsic pathway-like activity was mediated by (chymo-) trypsin-like proteases in total MEP, which were significantly blocked by C1-esterase inhibitor or other contact phase-specific protease inhibitors. No significant influence of MEP on platelet activation or fibrinolysis was noted. Together, MEP provides contact phase bypassing procoagulant activity and thereby induces blood clotting in the context of wound healing. Further characterisation of the active serine protease(s) may offer new perspectives for biosurgical treatment of chronic wounds.

  20. Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongping; Chen, Shulin; Li, Xiujiu

    2010-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system was conducted in laboratory scale. Four influents of R0, R1, R2, and R3 were tested, which were made by mixing food waste with dairy manure at different ratios of 0:1, 1:1, 3:1, and 6:1, respectively. For each influent, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13 days but different HRT for acidification (1, 2, and 3 days) and methanogenesis (12, 11, and 10 days) in two-phase digesters. The results showed that the gas production rate (GPR) of co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure was enhanced by 0.8-5.5 times as compared to the digestion with dairy manure alone. Appropriate HRT for acidification was mainly determined by the biodegradability of the substrate digested. Three-, 2-, and 1-day HRT for acidification were found to be optimal for the digestion of R0, R1, and R2/R3, respectively, when overall HRT of 13 days was used. The highest GPR of 3.97 L/L.day was achieved for R3(6:1) in Run 1 (1 + 12 days), therefore, the mixing ratio of 6:1 and HRT of 1 day for acidification were considered to be the optimal ones and thus recommended for co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure. There were close correlations between degradation of organic matters and GPR. The highest VS removal rate was achieved at the same HRT for acidification and mixing ratio of food waste and dairy manure as GPR in the co-digestion. The two-phase digestion system showed good stability, which was mainly attributed to the strong buffering capacity with two-phase system and the high alkalinity from dairy manure when co-digested with food waste. PMID:19214795

  1. CMS pixel upgrade for the phase I: Module production and qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñano Moya, M.

    2016-09-01

    The present CMS pixel detector has been designed to be fully efficient up to an LHC luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1. However, the luminosity will increase by a factor of two in the coming years. Therefore it is planned to build and install a new detector in the extended year-end technical stop in 2016-17. Barrel pixel modules are in production since spring/summer 2015 in five different centers. Module production requires bump bonding, wire bonding and gluing processes to finally assemble a full module. To have a uniform performance of all modules standard qualification procedures have been developed. All modules will be subjected to 10 thermal cycles between +17 °C and -25 °C and then electrically tested. In addition, module performance will be verified under high rate X-rays, and internal calibrate signals used for electrical tests will be calibrated in units of electrons using well defined X-ray fluorescence lines from different target materials. The qualification criteria, based on which modules are selected to be used in the final system, will be explained in detail.

  2. Gas phase oxidation of monoethanolamine (MEA) with OH radical and ozone: kinetics, products, and particles.

    PubMed

    Borduas, Nadine; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Murphy, Jennifer G

    2013-06-18

    Monoethanolamine (MEA) is currently the benchmark solvent in carbon capture and storage (CCS), a technology aimed at reducing CO2 emissions in large combustion industries. To accurately assess the environmental impact of CCS, a sound understanding of the fate of MEA in the atmosphere is necessary. Relative and absolute rate kinetic experiments were conducted in a smog chamber using online proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to follow the decay of MEA. The room temperature (295 ± 3K) kinetics of oxidation with hydroxyl radicals from light and dark sources yield an average value of (7.02 ± 0.46) × 10(-11) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with previously published data. For the first time, the rate coefficient for MEA with ozone was measured: (1.09 ± 0.05) × 10(-18) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1). An investigation into the oxidation products was also conducted using online chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-TOFMS) where formamide, isocyanic acid as well as higher order products including cyclic amines were detected. Significant particle numbers and mass loadings were observed during the MEA oxidation experiments and accounted for over 15% of the fate of MEA-derived nitrogen.

  3. Kinetics and Product Yields of the Gas-Phase Reactions of Isoprene Hydroxynitrates and Isoprene Carbonynitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhamid, A.; Addala, R.; Vizenor, N.; Scruggs, A.; Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.; Le, T.; Cardenas, E.; Maitra, S.; Hasson, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Isoprene nitrates are formed in the troposphere from the reactions of isoprene with OH in the presence of NOx during the day and with NO3 during the night. Depending on their subsequent reactions, these compounds may be reservoirs or sinks for NOx, and may contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation. In this work, two isoprene hydroxynitrates (CH2=CHC(ONO2)(CH3)CH2OH, 1,2-IHN and CH2OHCH(ONO2)C(CH3)=CH2, 4,3-IHN ) and one isoprene carbonyl nitrate (CH2=CHC(ONO2)(CH3)CHO, ICN)) were synthesized. The kinetics and product yields from their reaction with O3, OH, NO3 and Cl were then investigated in a photochemical reactor using a combination of long-path Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Measured rate coefficients are consistent with reaction with OH and NO3 as the major chemical sinks for these compounds. Measured product yields imply that NOx is not released from these compounds in their reactions with atmospheric oxidants.

  4. DNase I Inhibits a Late Phase of Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Munafo, Daniela B.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Brzezinska, Agnieszka A.; Ellis, Beverly A.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Catz, Sergio D.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils kill bacteria on extracellular complexes of DNA fibers and bactericidal proteins known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The NET composition and the bactericidal mechanisms they use are not fully understood. Here, we show that treatment with deoxyribonuclease (DNase I) impairs a late oxidative response elicited by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also by phorbol ester. Isoluminol-dependent chemiluminescence elicited by opsonized Listeria monocytogenes-stimulated neutrophils was inhibited by DNase I, and the DNase inhibitory effect was also evident when phagocytosis was blocked, suggesting that DNase inhibits an extracellular mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The DNase inhibitory effect was independent of actin polymerization. Phagocytosis and cell viability were not impaired by DNase I. Immunofluorescence analysis shows that myeloperoxidase is present on NETs. Furthermore, granular proteins were detected in NETs from Rab27a-deficient neutrophils which have deficient exocytosis, suggesting that exocytosis and granular protein distribution on NETs proceed by independent mechanisms. NADPH oxidase subunits were also detected on NETs, and the detection of extracellular trap-associated NADPH oxidase subunits was abolished by treatment with DNase I and dependent on cell stimulation. In vitro analyses demonstrate that MPO and NADPH oxidase activity are not directly inhibited by DNase I, suggesting that its effect on ROS production depends on NET disassembly. Altogether, our data suggest that inhibition of ROS production by microorganism-derived DNase would contribute to their ability to evade killing. PMID:20375609

  5. City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

  6. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; El Badawy, Amro M; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Adkins, Renata; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2015-09-01

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78 BHD samples collected from 13 different SAP facilities across the U.S. were investigated. The XRD semi-quantitative analysis of BHD samples suggests the presence of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel, elpasolite as well as diaspora. BHD also contains halite, sylvite and fluorite, which are used as fluxes in SAP activities. Total aluminum (Al) in the BHD samples averaged 18% by weight. Elevated concentrations of trace metals (>100 μg L(-1) As; >1000 μg L(-1) Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Mn and Zn) were also detected in the leachate. The U.S. toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that some samples leached above the toxicity limit for Cd, Pb and Se. Exceeding the TCLP limits in all sample is independent of facilities generating the BHD. From the metal content perspective only, it appears that BHD has a higher potential to exhibit toxicity characteristics than salt cake (the largest waste stream generated by SAP facilities). PMID:25898346

  7. Ethanol production via fungal decomposition and fermentation of biomass, Phase 1. Progress report, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.; Wene, E.G.

    1980-09-01

    This work was motivated by recorded evidence that Fusarium strains decompose cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, and lignin, and also ferment both pentoses and hexoses to ethanol. During FY 1980, research efforts in this program's Phase I focused on: (a) collecting and reviewing relevant bibliographic materials for a forthcoming publication; (b) isolating, culturing, and maintaining Fusarium, Trichoderma, and actinomycetous strains for biochemical screening and evaluation; (c) manipulating the genetic constitution of promising Fusarium strains to develop more effective strains for the decomposition and fermentation of biomass; (d) screening for potentially cellulolytic Fusarium and Trichoderma strains; (e) searching for lignolytic and hemicellulolytic Fusarium strains; and (f) screening for effective pentose- and hexose-fermenting Fusarium strains. By September 1980, more than 500 Fusarium strains and about 150 Trichoderma strains had been isolated and screened; all showed cellulolytic activity, with forty-five of the Fusarium strains being exceptionally potent. Several Fusarium strains grown on xylan show a dimorphism (formation of fusoid cells) that may increase their fermenting ability. Several isolated Fusarium strains were active in fermenting pentose and hexose.

  8. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; El Badawy, Amro M; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Adkins, Renata; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2015-09-01

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78 BHD samples collected from 13 different SAP facilities across the U.S. were investigated. The XRD semi-quantitative analysis of BHD samples suggests the presence of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel, elpasolite as well as diaspora. BHD also contains halite, sylvite and fluorite, which are used as fluxes in SAP activities. Total aluminum (Al) in the BHD samples averaged 18% by weight. Elevated concentrations of trace metals (>100 μg L(-1) As; >1000 μg L(-1) Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Mn and Zn) were also detected in the leachate. The U.S. toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that some samples leached above the toxicity limit for Cd, Pb and Se. Exceeding the TCLP limits in all sample is independent of facilities generating the BHD. From the metal content perspective only, it appears that BHD has a higher potential to exhibit toxicity characteristics than salt cake (the largest waste stream generated by SAP facilities).

  9. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) production in hemorrhagic shock requires both the ischemic and resuscitation phase.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, C; Kelly, E; Billiar, T R; Tweardy, D J

    1997-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the cytokine that is critical for polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocyte (PMN) production as well as being a potent agonist of PMN activation. We have recently reported that in the lung and the liver of rats resuscitated after hemorrhagic shock (HS) G-CSF mRNA expression is induced. It is not known if both phases of HS, the ischemic and the reperfusion phase, are required for G-CSF mRNA induction. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the upregulation of G-CSF mRNA expression is the consequence of HS followed by resuscitation and that ischemia alone is insufficient to induce G-CSF mRNA expression in the affected organs. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to resuscitated and unresuscitated shock protocols of varying severity. Control animals were subjected to anesthesia and all surgical preparations except for hemorrhage. Lungs and livers were isolated and their RNA extracted. Using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we demonstrated that G-CSF mRNA was induced in the lung and liver of shock animals above the level observed in control animals. Upregulation of G-CSF mRNA relative to controls occurred only in animals undergoing resuscitated HS and not in ones subjected to unresuscitated HS. These results indicate that G-CSF production specific for the hemorrhage component of shock is dependent on resuscitation. As a consequence, the production of this cytokine may be decreased through modifications in the resuscitation protocols.

  10. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing

  11. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.; Seifert, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A Process Development Unit (PDU), which consisted of the four major units of the process, was designed, installed, and experimentally operated. The PDU was sized to 50MT/Yr. The deposition took place in a fluidized bed reactor. As a consequences of the experiments, improvements in the design an operation of these units were undertaken and their experimental limitations were partially established. A parallel program of experimental work demonstrated that Zinc can be vaporized for introduction into the fluidized bed reactor, by direct induction-coupled r.f. energy. Residual zinc in the product can be removed by heat treatment below the melting point of silicon. Current efficiencies of 94 percent and above, and power efficiencies around 40 percent are achievable in the laboratory-scale electrolysis of ZnCl2.

  12. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blocher, J. M.; Browning, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    A miniplant, consisting of a 5 cm-diameter fluidized-bed reactor and associated equipment was used to study the deposition parameters, temperature, reactant composition, seed particle size, bed depth, reactant throughput, and methods of reactant introduction. It was confirmed that the permissible range of fluidized-bed temperature was limited at the lower end by zinc condensation (918 C) and at higher temperatures by rapidly decreasing conversion efficiency. Use of a graded bed temperature was shown to increase the conversion efficiency over that obtained in an isothermal bed. Other aspects of the process such as the condensation and fused-salt electrolysis of the ZnCl2 by-product for recycle of zinc and chlorine were studied to provide information required for design of a 50 MT/year experimental facility. In view of the favorable technical and economic indications obtained, it was recommended that construction and operation of the 50 MT/year experimental facility be implemented.

  13. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon, phase 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.; Seifert, D. A.

    1981-03-01

    A Process Development Unit (PDU), which consisted of the four major units of the process, was designed, installed, and experimentally operated. The PDU was sized to 50MT/Yr. The deposition took place in a fluidized bed reactor. As a consequences of the experiments, improvements in the design an operation of these units were undertaken and their experimental limitations were partially established. A parallel program of experimental work demonstrated that Zinc can be vaporized for introduction into the fluidized bed reactor, by direct induction-coupled r.f. energy. Residual zinc in the product can be removed by heat treatment below the melting point of silicon. Current efficiencies of 94 percent and above, and power efficiencies around 40 percent are achievable in the laboratory-scale electrolysis of ZnCl2.

  14. Statistical modeling of phenological phases in Poland based on coupling satellite derived products and gridded meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernecki, Bartosz; Jabłońska, Katarzyna; Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to create and evaluate different statistical models for reconstructing and predicting selected phenological phases. This issue is of particular importance in Poland where national-wide phenological monitoring was abandoned in the middle of 1990s and the reactivated network was established in 2006. Authors decided to evaluate possibilities of using a wide-range of statistical modeling techniques to create synthetic archive dataset. Additionally, a robust tool for predicting the most distinguishable phenophases using only free of charge data as predictors was created. Study period covers the years 2007-2014 and contains only quality-controlled dataset of 10 species and 14 phenophases. Phenological data used in this study originates from the manual observations network run by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB). Three kind of data sources were used as predictors: (i) satellite derived products, (ii) preprocessed gridded meteorological data, and (iii) spatial properties (longitude, latitude, altitude) of the monitoring site. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level-3 vegetation products were used for detecting onset dates of particular phenophases. Following indices were used: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR). Additionally, Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) products were chosen to detect occurrence of snow cover. Due to highly noisy data, authors decided to take into account pixel reliability information. Besides satellite derived products (NDVI, EVI, FPAR, LAI, Snow cover), a wide group of observational data and agrometeorological indices derived from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) were used as a potential predictors: cumulative growing degree days (GDD), cumulative growing precipitation days (GPD

  15. Analysis of malachite green in aquatic products by carbon nanotube-based molecularly imprinted - matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Ligang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbents for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from aquatic products was developed. The MIPs were prepared by using carbon nanotube as support, MG as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and methylene chloride as solvent. The MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The isothermal adsorption, kinetics absorption and selective adsorption experiments were carried out. We optimized the extraction conditions as follows: the ratio of MIPs to sample was 2:3, the dispersion time was 15min, washing solvent was 4mL 50% aqueous methanol and elution solvent was 3mL methanol-acetic acid (98: 2, v/v). Once the MSPD process was completed, the MG extracted from aquatic products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of MG was 0.7μgkg(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were obtained in the range of 0.9%-4.7% and 3.4%-9.8%, respectively. In order to evaluate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it was applied to determine MG in different aquatic products samples including fish, shrimp, squid and crabs. The satisfied recoveries were in the range of 89.2%-104.6%. The results showed that this method is faster, simpler and makes extraction and purification in the same system.

  16. An assessment of potential degradation products in the gas-phase reactions of alternative fluorocarbons in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niki, Hiromi

    1990-01-01

    Tropospheric chemical transformations of alternative hydrofluorocarbons (HCF's) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) are governed by hydroxyl radical initiated oxidation processes, which are likely to be analogous to those known for alkanes and chloroalkanes. A schematic diagram is used to illustrate plausible reaction mechanisms for their atmospheric degradation, where R, R', and R'' denote the F- and/or Cl-substituted alkyl groups derived from HCF's and HCFC's subsequent th the initial H atom abstraction by HO radicals. At present, virtually no kinetic data exist for the majority of these reactions, particularly for those involving RO. Potential degradation intermediates and final products include a large variety of fluorine- and/or chlorine-containing carbonyls, acids, peroxy acids, alcohols, hydrogen peroxides, nitrates and peroxy nitrates, as summarized in the attached table. Probably atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds were also estimated. For some carbonyl and nitrate products shown in this table, there seem to be no significant gas-phase removal mechanisms. Further chemical kinetics and photochemical data are needed to quantitatively assess the atmospheric fate of HCF's and HCFC's, and of the degradation products postulated in this report.

  17. Analysis of malachite green in aquatic products by carbon nanotube-based molecularly imprinted - matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Ligang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbents for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from aquatic products was developed. The MIPs were prepared by using carbon nanotube as support, MG as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and methylene chloride as solvent. The MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The isothermal adsorption, kinetics absorption and selective adsorption experiments were carried out. We optimized the extraction conditions as follows: the ratio of MIPs to sample was 2:3, the dispersion time was 15min, washing solvent was 4mL 50% aqueous methanol and elution solvent was 3mL methanol-acetic acid (98: 2, v/v). Once the MSPD process was completed, the MG extracted from aquatic products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of MG was 0.7μgkg(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were obtained in the range of 0.9%-4.7% and 3.4%-9.8%, respectively. In order to evaluate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it was applied to determine MG in different aquatic products samples including fish, shrimp, squid and crabs. The satisfied recoveries were in the range of 89.2%-104.6%. The results showed that this method is faster, simpler and makes extraction and purification in the same system. PMID:26319302

  18. Production of the biopesticide azadirachtin by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in liquid-phase bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Batch cultivation of Azadirachta indica hairy roots was carried out in different liquid-phase bioreactor configurations (stirred-tank, bubble column, bubble column with polypropylene basket, and polyurethane foam disc as root supports) to investigate possible scale-up of the A. indica hairy root culture for in vitro production of the biopesticide azadirachtin. The hairy roots failed to grow in the conventional bioreactor designs (stirred tank and bubble column). However, modified bubble column reactor (with polyurethane foam as root support) configuration facilitated high-density culture of A. indica hairy roots with a biomass production of 9.2 g l(-1)dry weight and azadirachtin yield of 3.2 mg g(-1) leading to a volumetric productivity of azadirachtin as 1.14 mg l(-1) day(-1). The antifeedant activity in the hairy roots was also evaluated by no choice feeding tests with known concentrations of the hairy root powder and its solvent extract separately on the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The hairy root powder and its solvent extract demonstrated a high level of antifeedant activity (with an antifeedant index of 97 % at a concentration of 2 % w/v and 83 % at a concentration of 0.05 % (w/v), respectively, in ethanol).

  19. Optimization of two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biowaste for hydrogen and methane production through reject water recirculation.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, C; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Cecchi, F; Pavan, P

    2011-09-01

    The optimization of a two-phase thermophilic anaerobic process treating biowaste for hydrogen and methane production was carried out at pilot scale using two stirred reactors (CSTRs) and without any physical/chemical pre-treatment of inoculum. During the experiment the hydrogen production at low hydraulic retention time (3d) was tested, both with and without reject water recirculation and at two organic loading rate (16 and 21 kgTVS/m3 d). The better yields were obtained with recirculation where the pH reached an optimal value (5.5) thanks to the buffering capacity of the recycle stream. The specific gas production of the first reactor was 51 l/kgVS(fed) and H2 content in biogas 37%. The mixture of gas obtained from the two reactors met the standards for the biohythane mix only when lower loading rate were applied to the first reactor, with a composition of 6.7% H2, 40.1% CO2 and 52.3% CH4 the overall SGP being 0.78 m3/kgVS(fed).

  20. Productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens in the late phase of production as influenced by level and source of calcium in the diet.

    PubMed

    Safaa, H M; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Frikha, M; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Mateos, G G

    2008-10-01

    A total of 1,152 Lohmann Brown laying hens were used to study the influence of level (3.5 and 4.0%) and source (coded FIN, COA, and OYS) of Ca in the diet on productive performance and egg quality from 58 to 73 wk of age. The FIN diet contained all the Ca carbonate as fine limestone (LIM). In the COA and OYS diets, 40% of the fine LIM was substituted with either coarse LIM or oyster shell. Each treatment was replicated 8 times (24 hens). Productive performance and egg quality traits were recorded every 4 wk, and tibia characteristics and shell quality traits were determined at 73 wk of age. An increase in Ca intake from 4.08 to 4.64 g/hen per day improved egg production (71.2 vs. 74.9%; P < 0.001), egg mass (49.0 vs. 51.4 g; P < 0.05), and feed conversion ratio (2.43 vs. 2.30 kg of feed/kg of egg; P < 0.001). In addition, an increase in Ca intake improved shell weight (9.98 vs. 10.20%; P < 0.05), shell thickness (0.342 vs. 0.351 mm; P < 0.01), and shell density (82.0 vs. 83.8 mg/cm2; P < 0.001). Calcium source had no effect on productive performance, tibia characteristics, or egg quality except for shell density, which was greater for hens fed COA than for hens fed FIN, with hens fed OYS being intermediate (81.9 vs. 84.0 vs. 82.7 mg/cm2, respectively; P < 0.05). It was concluded that Brown egg-laying hens in the late phase of production require more than 3.5% Ca in the diet (4.08 g of Ca/hen per day) and that the substitution of 40% of fine LIM with COA or OYS does not affect productive performance and has little impact on shell quality and tibia characteristics.

  1. Products and mechanisms of the reaction of gas phase ozone with organic colorants

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. ); Druzik, J.R. ); Sensharma, D.K. ); Whitmore, P.M.; DeMoor, C.P.; Cass, G.R. )

    1988-09-01

    Studies carried out in this laboratory have shown that many artists organic colorants fade substantially when exposed to ozone in the dark. These studies typically involved pigment exposure for 12 weeks to purified air containing 0.3-0.4 ppm of ozone at ambient temperature and humidity. These laboratory conditions are equivalent to about six years of exposure inside a typical air-conditioned building in Los Angeles, and the observed fading is therefore directly relevant to possible damage to works of arts in museum settings. Organic colorants that were most ozone-fugitive included natural colorants, such as curcumin and indigo, as well as modern synthetic colorants such as alizarin lakes and triphenylmethane dyes. Thus, these colorants were selected for further study with emphasis on the nature of the reaction products. Exposures were carried out on different substrates including watercolor paper, cellulose, silica gel, and Teflon. The experiments involved long-term exposure to low levels of ozone (e.g. {approximately} 0.3 ppm for 90 days) or shorter-term exposure to higher ozone concentrations (e.g. 10 ppm for 24 hours). Exposed and control samples, along with solvent and substrate blanks, were analyzed by mass spectrometry using a Kratos Scientific Instruments MS25 hexapole mass spectrometer operated in either methane chemical ionization (CI) or electron impact (EI) modes.

  2. THE IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF ANTIBODY BY DELAYED PHASE CORNEAL LIMBAL LYMPHOID FOCI

    PubMed Central

    Leibowitz, Howard M. I.; Parks, James J.

    1963-01-01

    The intracorneal inoculation of a sufficient quantity of a soluble protein antigen into the eye of a rabbit produces a biphasic allergic reaction in that cornea. The earlier stage, characterized by a diffuse corneal clouding, is a manifestation of delayed hypersensitivity and is accompanied by a limbal infiltrate composed predominantly of lymphocytic-mononuclear elements. The later response, known as the Wessely Phenomenon, is a ring of opacification in the cornea which is visible in the gross. This reaction is dependent upon the presence of specific circulating antibodies and is therefore classified among the immediate types of hypersensitivity. It is accompanied by a dense limbal infiltration of plasma cells. Intervening between the two reactions is a period of several days during which the eye appears relatively normal. Explants containing large numbers of infiltrating lymphocytic-mononuclear elements were removed from the corneal-scleral junction of experimental eyes during the height of the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction and maintained in vitro in tissue culture. At a later date the overlay fluid in which the explants were maintained was shown to contain specific humoral antibodies, demonstrating the capability of cells present at a delayed reaction for the later production of antibodies. The possible linkage of the two modes of immune phenomena is discussed. PMID:13929408

  3. 30 CFR 203.33 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Deep Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.33 To which production do I apply... § 216.53. All gas production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production not... production from all the qualified wells in the unit participating area would be allocated to your lease...

  4. Consumer-phase Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis risk assessment for egg-containing food products.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Amirhossein; Moore, Christina M; Yang, Hong; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Morales, Roberta; Cates, Sheryl C; Cowen, Peter

    2006-06-01

    We describe a one-dimensional probabilistic model of the role of domestic food handling behaviors on salmonellosis risk associated with the consumption of eggs and egg-containing foods. Six categories of egg-containing foods were defined based on the amount of egg contained in the food, whether eggs are pooled, and the degree of cooking practiced by consumers. We used bootstrap simulation to quantify uncertainty in risk estimates due to sampling error, and sensitivity analysis to identify key sources of variability and uncertainty in the model. Because of typical model characteristics such as nonlinearity, interaction between inputs, thresholds, and saturation points, Sobol's method, a novel sensitivity analysis approach, was used to identify key sources of variability. Based on the mean probability of illness, examples of foods from the food categories ranked from most to least risk of illness were: (1) home-made salad dressings/ice cream; (2) fried eggs/boiled eggs; (3) omelettes; and (4) baked foods/breads. For food categories that may include uncooked eggs (e.g., home-made salad dressings/ice cream), consumer handling conditions such as storage time and temperature after food preparation were the key sources of variability. In contrast, for food categories associated with undercooked eggs (e.g., fried/soft-boiled eggs), the initial level of Salmonella contamination and the log10 reduction due to cooking were the key sources of variability. Important sources of uncertainty varied with both the risk percentile and the food category under consideration. This work adds to previous risk assessments focused on egg production and storage practices, and provides a science-based approach to inform consumer risk communications regarding safe egg handling practices.

  5. Dynamic fabric phase sorptive extraction for a group of pharmaceuticals and personal care products from environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Lakade, Sameer S; Borrull, Francesc; Furton, Kenneth G; Kabir, Abuzar; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Fontanals, Núria

    2016-07-22

    This paper describes for the first time the use of a new extraction technique, based on fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE). This new mode proposes the extraction of the analytes in dynamic mode in order to reduce the extraction time. Dynamic fabric phase sorptive extraction (DFPSE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was evaluated for the extraction of a group of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from environmental water samples. Different parameters affecting the extraction were optimized and best conditions were achieved when 50mL of sample at pH 3 was passed through 3 disks and analytes retained were eluted with 10mL of ethyl acetate. The recoveries were higher than 60% for most of compounds with the exception of the most polar ones (between 8% and 38%). The analytical method was validated with environmental samples such as river water and effluent and influent wastewater, and good performance was obtained. The analysis of samples revealed the presence of some PPCPs at low ngL(-1) concentrations. PMID:27295962

  6. Biological treatment of two-phase olive mill wastewater (TPOMW, alpeorujo): polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production by Azotobacter strains.

    PubMed

    Cerrone, Federico; Sánchez-Peinado, Maria del Mar; Juárez-Jimenez, Belén; González-López, Jesús; Pozo, Clementina

    2010-03-01

    Azotobacter chroococcum H23 (CECT 4435), Azotobacter vinelandii UWD, and Azotobacter vinelandii (ATCC 12837), members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, were used to evaluate their capacity to grow and accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using two-phase olive mill wastewater (TPOMW, alpeorujo) diluted at different concentrations as the sole carbon source. The PHAs amounts (g/l) increased clearly when the TPOMW samples were previously digested under anaerobic conditions. The MNR analysis demonstrated that the bacterial strains formed only homopolymers containing beta-hydroxybutyrate, either when grown in diluted TPOMW medium or diluted anaerobically digested TPOMW medium. COD values of the diluted anaerobically digested waste were measured before and after the aerobic PHA-storing phase, and a clear reduction (72%) was recorded after 72 h of incubation. The results obtained in this study suggest the perspectives for using these bacterial strains to produce PHAs from TPOMW, and in parallel, contribute efficiently to the bioremediation of this waste. This fact seems essential if bioplastics are to become competitive products. PMID:20372033

  7. Solid-phase microextraction for qualitative and quantitative determination of migrated degradation products of antioxidants in an organic aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Burman, Lina; Albertsson, Ann-Christine; Höglund, Anders

    2005-07-01

    Low molecular weight aromatic substances may migrate out from plastic packaging to their contents, especially if they consist of organic aqueous solutions or oils. It is, therefore, extremely important to be able to identify and quantify any migrated substances in such solutions, even at very low concentrations. We have in this work investigated and evaluated the use of solid-phase microextraction for the specific task of extraction from an organic aqueous solution such as a simulated pharmaceutical solution consisting of 10 vol.% ethanol in water. The goal was furthermore to investigate the possibility of simultaneously identifying and quantifying the substances in spite of differences in their chemical structures. Methods were developed and evaluated for extraction both with direct sampling and with headspace sampling. Difficulties appeared due to the ethanol in the solution and the minute amounts of substances present. We have shown that a simultaneous quantification of migrated low molecular weight degradation products of antioxidants using only one fibre is possible if the extraction method and temperature are adjusted in relation to the concentration levels of the analytes. Comparions were made with solid-phase extraction. PMID:16008048

  8. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Oxidation Products from Biogenic Sources in the Southeast US during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Massoli, P.; Thompson, S.; Yatavelli, L. R.; Mohr, C.; Brophy, P.; Murschell, T.; Hu, W.; Canagaratna, M.; Krechmer, J.; Junninen, H.; Hakala, J. P.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Ortega, A. M.; Kimmel, J.; Cubison, M.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Thornton, J. A.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E.; Farmer, D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reduced species emitted to the atmosphere are chemically transformed by atmospheric oxidants. The measurement of the large number of resulting oxidized compounds is crucial to understand and quantify these transformation processes. We analyzed datasets from four high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometers (HRToF-CIMS) during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in June and July 2013 at the Alabama Supersite in the Southeast U.S. These datasets allow specification and quantification of the multiple gas-phase compounds produced by chemical oxidation. The mass spectrometers used different reagent ions, nitrate (NO3-), acetate (CH3COO-), and iodide (I-). In this study, we will present the chemical composition of isoprene and terpene oxidation products as measured by the different techniques. When comparing the concentration and composition at different conditions (e.g., time of day, NOx levels, aerosol loading, RH), differences in gas-phase composition provide indications of both the changes in chemical processing arising from the different conditions as well as different sensitivities of the reagent ions. We will discuss these differences in terms of bulk chemical parameters such as carbon oxidation state, carbon number and oxygen-to-carbon ratio.

  9. Comprehensive separation of secondary metabolites in natural products by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a three-phase solvent system.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Akio; Yamakawa, Yutaka; Noji, Ryoko; Oda, Ako; Shindo, Heisaburo; Ito, Yoichiro; Shibusawa, Yoichi

    2007-06-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using the three-phase solvent system n-hexane-methyl acetate-acetonitrile-water at a volume ratio of 4:4:3:4 was applied to the comprehensive separation of secondary metabolites in several natural product extracts. A wide variety of secondary metabolites in each natural product was effectively extracted with the three-phase solvent system, and the filtered extract was directly submitted to the HSCCC separation using the same three-phase system. In the HSCCC profiles of crude natural drugs listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, several physiologically active compounds were clearly separated from other components in the extracts. The HSCCC profiles of several tea products, each manufactured by a different process, clearly showed their compositional difference in main compounds such as catechins, caffeine, and pigments. These HSCCC profiles also provide useful information about hydrophobic diversity of whole components present in each natural product.

  10. [Industrial hygiene studies in the production of various fibers and plastics].

    PubMed

    Spasovski, M; Khristeva, V; Gincheva, N; Stamova, N; Nasko, M

    1983-01-01

    The results from the labour-hygienic and clinical laboratory studies on working environment and workers engaged in production of polyamide (PAS) and polyacrylnitrile fibres (PAN) are summed up as well as in the production and processing of polyvinylchloride resin, polyurethan, polysterene and glass fibre laminates. The main deleterious factors in those productions are the chemical ones: caprolactam, acrylonitrile,tolyl diisocyanate, vinylchloride, styrene, etc. Noise and microclimate are the other unfavourable on-the-job factors. The concentrations of the toxic substances in the air of the working environment are pointed to be far over MAC, in spite of the new plants. Experiments are reported aiming at the determination of the real exposure of the workers - via individual sample collecting and elaboration of BMAC. The measures for the improvement of the conditions of the working environment in the production of synthetic fibres and plastics are summed up as well as the reduction of occupation risk of the workers.

  11. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  12. Singular Values for Products of Complex Ginibre Matrices with a Source: Hard Edge Limit and Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Liu, Dang-Zheng

    2016-05-01

    The singular values squared of the random matrix product {Y = {Gr G_{r-1}} ldots G1 (G0 + A)}, where each {Gj} is a rectangular standard complex Gaussian matrix while A is non-random, are shown to be a determinantal point process with the correlation kernel given by a double contour integral. When all but finitely many eigenvalues of A* A are equal to bN, the kernel is shown to admit a well-defined hard edge scaling, in which case a critical value is established and a phase transition phenomenon is observed. More specifically, the limiting kernel in the subcritical regime of {0 < b < 1} is independent of b, and is in fact the same as that known for the case b = 0 due to Kuijlaars and Zhang. The critical regime of b = 1 allows for a double scaling limit by choosing {{b = (1 - τ/√{N})^{-1}}}, and for this the critical kernel and outlier phenomenon are established. In the simplest case r = 0, which is closely related to non-intersecting squared Bessel paths, a distribution corresponding to the finite shifted mean LUE is proven to be the scaling limit in the supercritical regime of {b > 1} with two distinct scaling rates. Similar results also hold true for the random matrix product {Tr T_{r-1} ldots T1 (G0 + A)}, with each {Tj} being a truncated unitary matrix.

  13. Gas-phase production of single-walled carbon nanotubes from carbon monoxide: a review of the hipco process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolaev, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    The latest process for producing large quantities of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to emerge from the Rice University, dubbed HiPco, is living up to its promise. The current production rates approach 450 mg/h (or 10 g/day), and nanotubes typically have no more than 7 mol % of iron impurities. Second-generation HiPco apparatus can run continuously for 7-10 days at a time. In the HiPco process nanotubes grow in high-pressure, high-temperature flowing CO on catalytic clusters of iron. Catalyst is formed in situ by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl, which is delivered intact within a cold CO flow and then rapidly mixed with hot CO in the reaction zone. Upon heating, the Fe(CO)5 decomposes into atoms that condense into larger clusters. SWNTs nucleate and grow on these particles in the gas phase via CO disproportionation: CO + CO --> CO2 + C (SWNT), catalyzed by the Fe surface. The concentration of CO2 produced in this reaction is equal to that of carbon and can therefore serve as a useful real-time feedback parameter. It was used to study and optimize SWNT production as a function of temperature, pressure, and Fe(CO)5 concentration. The results of the parametric study are in agreement with current understanding of the nanotube formation mechanism.

  14. Vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents against four stored-product pests.

    PubMed

    Hymavathi, Atmakur; Devanand, Peta; Suresh Babu, Katragadda; Sreelatha, Thonthula; Pathipati, Usha Rani; Madhusudana Rao, Janaswamy

    2011-03-01

    The vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents was evaluated against four stored-product pests ( Callosobruchus chinensis L., Sitophilus oryzae L., Rhyzopertha dominica L., and Tribolium castaneum H.) using fumigation bioassays and compared to those of commonly used insecticides. The structures of all constituents of were characterized by spectroscopic analyses [nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry]. The sensitivity of the test insect to compounds varied with exposure time, concentration, and insect species. Over 100% mortality after 24 h was achieved with the compounds osajin (2), scandinone (5), sphaerobioside (8), and genistein (9) against all of the test insects, while laxifolin (3) and lupalbigenin (4) showed 100% mortality after 72 h against T. csataneum and R. dominica . Scandenone (1), scandenin A (6), and scandenin (7) were less effective. Among the insects, C. chinensis , S. oryzae , and R. dominica were more susceptible to the treatments, whereas T. castaneum was less susceptible. The results of fumigation tests indicated that compounds from D. scandens whole plant extract are potential candidates to control stored-product pests. PMID:21314138

  15. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... perforated deeper than 15,000 feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other... condensate) volumes; or (d) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned...

  16. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... perforated deeper than 15,000 feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other... condensate) volumes; or (d) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned...

  17. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other lease, except as...) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before: (1) March 26, 2003... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned...

  18. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... perforated deeper than 15,000 feet TVD SS; (b) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well on any other... condensate) volumes; or (d) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false To which production may an RSV earned...

  19. Condensed-phase pyrolysis of n-tetradecane at elevated pressures for long duration -- Product distribution and reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Lai, W.C.; Schobert, H.H. . Fuel Science Program)

    1994-03-01

    For pyrolysis of n-tetradecane at 450 C under elevated pressures (about 2--9 MPa) for 6--480 min, the major products in the early stage are n-alkanes in the carbon number range of C[sub 1]-C[sub 11] and 1-alkenes in the carbon number range of C[sub 2]-C[sub 14]. Formation of the olefinic product with 13 carbon atoms is very limited, but 1-C[sub 12]H[sub 24] is as abundant as the 1-alkenes in the range of C[sub 2]-C[sub 11]. As compared to the well-known gas-phase pyrolysis, the molar ratios of alkenes to alkanes are much smaller ([le]1), except the ratio for the group with 12 carbon atoms where the 1-C[sub 12]H[sub 24]/n-C[sub 12]H[sub 26] ratio can be as high as 9 in the early stage. This is because 1-C[sub 12]H[sub 24] is produced from [beta]-scission of a secondary 4-C[sub 14]H[sub 29] radical, whereas n-C[sub 12]H[sub 26] is formed from a primary 1-C[sub 14]H[sub 29] radical, whose population is much less than the secondary radical due to both higher activation energy and the competing isomerization reaction. There appeared a preferential formation of 1-C[sub 6]H[sub 12] and 1-C[sub 5]H[sub 10] among the 1-alkenes formed after 12 min. This may be attributed to the 1,5-shift and 1,4-shift isomerization of primary radicals formed during tetradecane pyrolysis. The peak of carbon number distribution shifts toward 2 for paraffinic products and toward 3 for olefinic products, and the ratios of alkenes to alkanes decrease with increasing residence time up to 60 min. The general reaction mechanism is characterized by the one-step decomposition of secondary radicals and the 1,5 and 1,4-shift isomerization of primary radicals to secondary radicals. The substrate alkane molecules are the source for hydrogen abstraction in the early stage, but in the later stages the olefinic products also undergo the H-abstraction reactions, which lead to the formation of cyclic alkenes/alkanes and alkylaromatics.

  20. Integrated two-liquid phase bioconversion and product-recovery processes for the oxidation of alkanes: Process design and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathys, R.G.; Schmid, A.; Witholt, B.

    1999-08-20

    Pseudomonas oleovorans and recombinant strains containing the alkane oxidation genes can product alkane oxidation genes can produce alkane oxidation products in two-liquid phase bioreactor systems. In these bioprocesses the cells, which grow in the aqueous phase, oxidize apolar, non-water soluble substrates. The apolar products typically accumulate in the emulsified apolar phase. The authors have studied both the bioconversion systems and several downstream processing systems to separate and purify alkanols from these two-liquid phase media. Based on the information generated in these studies, the authors have now designed bioconversion and downstream processing systems for the production of 1-alkanols from n-alkanes on a 10 kiloton/yr scale, taking the conversion of n-octane to 1-octanol as a model system. Here, the authors describe overall designs of fed-batch and continuous-fermentation processes for the oxidation of octane to 1-octanol by Pseudomonas oleovoran, and the authors discuss the economics of these processes. The overall performance of each of these two systems has been modeled with Aspen software. Although the continuous process is about 10% more expensive than the fed-batch process, improvements to reduce overall cost can be achieved more easily for continuous than for fed-batch fermentation by decreasing the dilution rate while maintaining near constant productivity. Improvements relevant to both processes can be achieved by increasing the biocatalyst performance, which results in improved overall efficiency, decreased capital investment, and hence, decreased production cost.

  1. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal screening of natural products sourced from Australian fungi and characterisation of pestalactams D-F.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Karren D; Ellwood, Nicola; Kumar, Rohitesh; Yang, Xinzhou; Healy, Peter C; Choomuenwai, Vanida; Quinn, Ronald J; Elliott, Alysha G; Huang, Johnny X; Chitty, Jessica L; Fraser, James A; Cooper, Matthew A; Davis, Rohan A

    2016-04-01

    Eighteen natural products sourced from Australian micro- or macro-fungi were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. This focused library was comprised of caprolactams, polyamines, quinones, and polyketides, with additional large-scale isolation studies undertaken in order to resupply previously identified compounds. Chemical investigations of the re-fermented culture from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. yielded three caprolactam analogues, pestalactams D-F, along with larger quantities of the known metabolite pestalactam A, which was methylated using diazomethane to yield 4-O-methylpestalactam A. The chemical structures of the previously undescribed fungal metabolites were determined by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The structure of 4-O-methylpestalactam A was confirmed following single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of all compounds was assessed, which identified three compounds, (1S,3R)-austrocortirubin, (1S,3S)-austrocortirubin, and 1-deoxyaustrocortirubin with mild activity (100 μM) against Gram-positive isolates and one compound, 2-hydroxy-6-methyl-8-methoxy-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylic acid, with activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii at 50 μM.

  3. A (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer)-dispersed sustained-release tablet for imperialine to simultaneously prolong the drug release and improve the oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Fu, Yu; Li, Jia; Qu, Mengke; Deng, Li; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-11-15

    Imperialine, extracted from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, is an efficient antitussive and expectorant medicine. However, its short half-life and stomach degradation limited imperialine from further clinical use. The current study was conducted to develop a sustained-release tablet for imperialine both to prolong absorption time and to improve the oral bioavailability of the drug. The tablets were prepared by a direct compression method formulated on optimized solid dispersion (SD) for imperialine based on polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus(®)) with imperialine/Soluplus(®) ratio of 1:8 (w/w). In order to obtain the optimized formulation, factors that affected the drug release were investigated by in vitro dissolution studies in the media of pH1.2, 5.8, 7.0 and 7.4. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope confirmed that the imperialine in SD was amorphous instead of crystalline, and still stayed amorphous even after the direct compression. And besides, pharmacokinetic study in Beagle dogs was performed to inspect the in vivo sustained release. Plasma concentration-time curves and pharmacokinetic parameters were gained. As a result, the Cmax of imperialine was one-fold reduced and Tmax was two-fold prolonged, and the mean AUC0-24 was expressed as 89.581±21.243μgh/L, which showed that the oral bioavailability of imperialine was 2.46-fold improved. Moreover, the in vitro-in vivo correlation was recommended to carry out, demonstrating the percentages of drug release in vitro were well-correlated with the absorptive fraction in vivo with the correlation coefficients above 0.9900. By mathematically modeling and moment imaging of the drug release, Peppas equation was selected as the most fitted model for the sustained-release tablets with the diffusional coefficient in the range of 0.59-0.62, indicating the release of imperialine from the sustained-release tablets was an anomalous process involving

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin and in situ product separation in thermally induced reversible phase-separation of ionic liquids/water mixture.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ngoc Lan; Koo, Yoon-Mo

    2014-09-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid, key intermediate for the production of semisynthetic β-lactam antibiotics, is one of the most relevant example of industrial implementation of biocatalysts. The hydrolysis reaction is traditionally carried out in aqueous buffer at pH 7.5-8. However, the aqueous rout exhibits several drawbacks in enzyme stability and product recovery. In this study, several ionic liquids (ILs) have been used as media for enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G. The results indicated that hydrophobic ILs/water two-phase system were good media for the reaction. In addition, a novel aqueous two-phase system based on the lower critical solution temperature type phase changes of amino acid based ILs/water mixture was developed for in situ penicillin G hydrolysis and product separation. For instance, hydrolysis yield of 87.13% was obtained in system containing 30 wt% [TBP][Tf-ILe] with pH control (pH 7.6). Since the phase-separation of this medium system can be reversible switched from single to two phases by slightly changing the solution temperature, enzymatic hydrolytic reaction and product recovery were more efficient than those of aqueous system. In addition, the ILs could be reused for at least 5 cycles without significant loss in hydrolysis efficiency. PMID:25039057

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin and in situ product separation in thermally induced reversible phase-separation of ionic liquids/water mixture.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ngoc Lan; Koo, Yoon-Mo

    2014-09-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid, key intermediate for the production of semisynthetic β-lactam antibiotics, is one of the most relevant example of industrial implementation of biocatalysts. The hydrolysis reaction is traditionally carried out in aqueous buffer at pH 7.5-8. However, the aqueous rout exhibits several drawbacks in enzyme stability and product recovery. In this study, several ionic liquids (ILs) have been used as media for enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G. The results indicated that hydrophobic ILs/water two-phase system were good media for the reaction. In addition, a novel aqueous two-phase system based on the lower critical solution temperature type phase changes of amino acid based ILs/water mixture was developed for in situ penicillin G hydrolysis and product separation. For instance, hydrolysis yield of 87.13% was obtained in system containing 30 wt% [TBP][Tf-ILe] with pH control (pH 7.6). Since the phase-separation of this medium system can be reversible switched from single to two phases by slightly changing the solution temperature, enzymatic hydrolytic reaction and product recovery were more efficient than those of aqueous system. In addition, the ILs could be reused for at least 5 cycles without significant loss in hydrolysis efficiency.

  6. Aqueous-phase oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Product identification from methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, Amie K.; Ehrenhauser, Franz S.; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Anastasio, Cort; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2015-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into the atmosphere by vegetation. BVOCs produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via gas-phase reactions, but little is known of their aqueous-phase oxidation as a source of SOA. GLVs can partition into atmospheric water phases, e.g., fog, mist, dew or rain, and be oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (˙OH). These reactions in the liquid phase also lead to products that have higher molecular weights, increased polarity, and lower vapor pressures, ultimately forming SOA after evaporation of the droplet. To examine this process, we investigated the aqueous, ˙OH-mediated oxidation of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and methyl salicylate (MeSa), two GLVs that produce aqueous-phase SOA. High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to monitor product formation. The oxidation products identified exhibit higher molecular mass than their parent GLV due to either dimerization or the addition of oxygen and hydroxyl functional groups. The proposed structures of potential products are based on mechanistic considerations combined with the HPLC/ESI-MS data. Based on the structures, the vapor pressure and the Henry's law constant were estimated with multiple methods (SPARC, SIMPOL, MPBPVP, Bond and Group Estimations). The estimated vapor pressures of the products identified are significantly (up to 7 orders of magnitude) lower than those of the associated parent compounds, and therefore, the GLV oxidation products may remain as SOA after evaporation of the water droplet. The contribution of the identified oxidation products to SOA formation is estimated based on measured HPLC-ESI/MS responses relative to previous aqueous SOA mass yield measurements.

  7. Simultaneous separation and determination of process-related substances and degradation products of venlafaxine by reversed-phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Nageswara Rao, R; Narasa Raju, A

    2006-12-01

    A simple and rapid gradient RP HPLC method for simultaneous separation and determination of venlafaxine and its related substances in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. As many as four process impurities and one degradation product of venlafaxine have been separated on a Kromasil KR100-5C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm; particle size 5 microm) column with gradient elution using 0.3% diethylamine buffer (pH 3.0) and ACN/methanol (90:10 v/v) as a mobile phase. The column was maintained at 40 degrees C and the eluents were monitored with photo diode array detection at 225 nm. The chromatographic behaviour of all the compounds was examined under variable compositions of different solvents, temperatures, buffer concentrations and pH. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision and linearity as per ICH guidelines. The inter- and intraday assay precision was < 4.02% (%RSD) and the recoveries were in the range of 96.19-101.14% with %RSD < 1.15%. The correlation coefficients (r2) for calibration curves of venlafaxine as well as impurities were in the range of 0.9942-0.9999. The proposed RP-LC method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial formulations and the recoveries of venlafaxine were in the range of 99.32-100.67 with %RSD <0.58%. The method could be of use not only for rapid and routine evaluation of the quality of venlafaxine in bulk drug manufacturing units but also for the detection of its impurities in pharmaceutical formulations. Forced degradation of venlafaxine was carried out under thermal, photo, acidic, basic and peroxide conditions and the acid degradation products were characterized by ESI-MS/MS, 1H NMR and FT-IR spectral data.

  8. New process for fungal delignification of sugar-cane bagasse and simultaneous production of laccase in a vapor phase bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Meza, Juan Carlos; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Lomascolo, Anne; Navarro, David; Auria, Richard

    2006-05-31

    We propose a new process using a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) to simultaneously (i) delignify sugar-cane bagasse, a residue of sugar production that can be recycled in paper industry, and (ii) produce laccase, an enzyme usable to bleach paper pulp. Ethanol vapor, used as laccase inducer, was blown up through a VPB packed with bagasse and inoculated with Pycnoporus cinnabarinusss3, a laccase-hyperproducing fungal strain. After 28 days, the laccase activity in the ethanol-treated bagasse was 80-fold higher (80 U g(ds)(-)(1)) and the bagasse delignification percentage was 12-fold (12%) higher than in the reference samples produced in the absence of ethanol, corresponding to a high overall pulp yield of 96.1%. In the presence of ethanol, the total soluble phenols amount was 2.5-fold (3 mg FA g(ds)(-)(1)) higher than that without ethanol. Six monomeric phenols were detected: p-coumaric (4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic), ferulic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-2-propenoic), syringic (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic), vanillic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, and 2-methoxyhydroquinone. Higher concentrations of phenolic compounds were observed when ethanol vapor was added, confirming a more efficient bagasse delignification. After 28 days, the fungal-treated bagasse (with ethanol addition) was pulped and refined. For a freeness of 81 mL CSF, this processing required 50% less energy than with untreated bagasse (without inoculation and ethanol addition), which indicated a significant potential economy for the pulp and paper industry. Handsheets were made from pulp obtained after fungal-treated and untreated bagasse. Comparison of bagasse-pulp characteristics for freeness of 35 and 181 mL CSF showed an average increment by 35% for tensile index and breaking strength and length. VPB allowed a simultaneous production of laccase (90 U g(ds)(-)(1), after pressing of the bagasse) that improved the overall profitability of the process.

  9. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  10. New process for fungal delignification of sugar-cane bagasse and simultaneous production of laccase in a vapor phase bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Meza, Juan Carlos; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Lomascolo, Anne; Navarro, David; Auria, Richard

    2006-05-31

    We propose a new process using a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) to simultaneously (i) delignify sugar-cane bagasse, a residue of sugar production that can be recycled in paper industry, and (ii) produce laccase, an enzyme usable to bleach paper pulp. Ethanol vapor, used as laccase inducer, was blown up through a VPB packed with bagasse and inoculated with Pycnoporus cinnabarinusss3, a laccase-hyperproducing fungal strain. After 28 days, the laccase activity in the ethanol-treated bagasse was 80-fold higher (80 U g(ds)(-)(1)) and the bagasse delignification percentage was 12-fold (12%) higher than in the reference samples produced in the absence of ethanol, corresponding to a high overall pulp yield of 96.1%. In the presence of ethanol, the total soluble phenols amount was 2.5-fold (3 mg FA g(ds)(-)(1)) higher than that without ethanol. Six monomeric phenols were detected: p-coumaric (4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic), ferulic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-2-propenoic), syringic (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic), vanillic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, and 2-methoxyhydroquinone. Higher concentrations of phenolic compounds were observed when ethanol vapor was added, confirming a more efficient bagasse delignification. After 28 days, the fungal-treated bagasse (with ethanol addition) was pulped and refined. For a freeness of 81 mL CSF, this processing required 50% less energy than with untreated bagasse (without inoculation and ethanol addition), which indicated a significant potential economy for the pulp and paper industry. Handsheets were made from pulp obtained after fungal-treated and untreated bagasse. Comparison of bagasse-pulp characteristics for freeness of 35 and 181 mL CSF showed an average increment by 35% for tensile index and breaking strength and length. VPB allowed a simultaneous production of laccase (90 U g(ds)(-)(1), after pressing of the bagasse) that improved the overall profitability of the process. PMID:16719506

  11. Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by ammonium ions (NH4(+)).

    PubMed

    Nozière, Barbara; Dziedzic, Pawel; Córdova, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Glyoxal, a common atmospheric gas, has been reported to be depleted in some regions of the atmosphere. The corresponding sink could be accounted for by reactions in or at the surface of atmospheric particles, but these reactions were not identified. Recently, we showed that inorganic ammonium ions, NH(4)(+), are efficient catalysts for reactions of carbonyl compounds, including glyoxal, in the liquid phase. To determine whether ammonium-catalyzed reactions can contribute to depletion of glyoxal in the atmosphere, the reactivity of this compound in aqueous solutions containing ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and phosphate) at 298 K has been studied. The products identified by LC-HRMS and UV absorption revealed a mechanism involving two distinct pathways: a Bronsted acid pathway and an iminium pathway. The kinetics of the iminium pathway was studied by monitoring formation of a specific product. This pathway was second order in glyoxal in most of the solutions studied and should therefore be second order in most ammonium-containing aerosols in the atmosphere. The corresponding rate constant, k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)), increased strongly with ammonium ion activity, a(NH(4)(+)), and pH: k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-10) exp((1.5 +/- 0.8)aNH(4)(+)) exp((2.5 +/- 0.2)pH). This iminium pathway is a lower limit for the ammonium-catalyzed consumption of glyoxal, but the contribution of the acid pathway is expected to be small in tropospheric aerosols. With these results the reactive uptake of glyoxal on ammonium-containing aerosols was estimated and shown to be a possible explanation for depletion of this compound in Mexico City.

  12. Continuous, farm-scale, solid-phase fermentation process for fuel ethanol and protein feed production from fodder beets

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.; Dobbs, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel ethanol (95%) was produced from fodder beets in two farm-scale processes. In the first process, involving conventional submerged fermentation of the fodder beets in a mash, ethanol and a feed (PF) rich in protein, fat, and fiber were produced. Ethanol yields of 70 L/metric ton (17 gal/ton) were obtained; however, resulting beers had low ethanol concentrations )3-5% (v/v)). The high viscosity of medium and low sugar, beet mashes caused mixing problems which prevented any further increase of beet sugar in the mash. This severely limited the maximum attainable ethanol concentration during fermentation, thereby making the beer costly to distill into fuel ethanol and the process energy inefficient. In order to achieve distillably worthwhile ethanol concentrations of 8-10% (v/v), a solid phase fermentation process (continuous) was developed and tested. In preliminary trials, this system produced fermented pulp with over 8% (v/v) ethanol corresponding to an ethanol yield of 87 L/metric ton (21 gal/ton). Production costs with this novel process are $0.47/L ($1.77/gal) and the energy balance is 2.11. These preliminary cost estimates indicate that fodder beets are potentially competitive with corn as an ethanol feedstock. Additional research, however, is warranted to more precisely refine individual costs, energy balances and the actual value of the PF.

  13. Intermediate-scale, semicontinuous solid-phase fermentation process for production of fuel ethanol from sweet sorghum. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.; Dobbs, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    A novel, semicontinuous solid-phase fermentation system was used to produce fuel ethanol from sweet sorghum. The process was at an intermediate scale. In the process, dried and shredded sweet sorghum was rehydrated to 70% moisture, acidified to pH 2.0 to 3.0, and either pasteurized (12 h at 70 to 80/sup 0/C) or not pasteurized before spray inoculation with a broth culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermented pulp exited the semicontinuous fermentor after a retention time of 72 h and contained approximately 6% (vol/vol) ethanol. Ethanol yields from dry sweet sorghum were 176 to 179 liters/10/sup 3/kg (85% of theoretical). Production costs for a greatly scaled-up (x1400) conceptual version of this system were projected by calculation to average $0.47/liter for 95% ethanol. The calculated energy balance (energy output/energy input ratio) was estimated to be 1.05 when pasteurization was included and 1.31 when pasteurization was omitted. In calculating the energy balances, the output energy of the protein feed byproduct and the input energy for growing the sweet sorghum were not considered. A design for the scaled-up plant (farm scale) is provided.

  14. Sustainable production of acrylic acid: alkali-ion exchanged beta zeolite for gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Tao, Li-Zhi; Liang, Yu; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid (LA) to acrylic acid (AA) was investigated over alkali-exchanged β zeolite (M(x)Na(1-x)β, M=Li(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)) of different exchange degrees (x). The reaction was conducted under varying conditions to understand the catalyst selectivity for AA production and trends of byproduct formation. The nature and exchange degree of M(+) were found to be critical for the acid-base properties and catalytic performance of the exchanged zeolite. K(x)Na(1-x)β of x=0.94 appeared to be the best performing catalyst whereas Li(x)Na(1-x)β and Naβ were the poorest in terms of AA selectivity and yield. The AA yield as high as 61 mol % (selectivity: 64 mol %) could be obtained under optimized reaction conditions for up to 8 h over the best performing K0.94Na0.06β. The acid and base properties of the catalysts were probed, respectively by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of adsorbed NH3 and CO2, and were related to the electrostatic potentials of the alkali ions in the zeolite, which provided a basis for the discussion of the acid-base catalysis for sustainable AA formation from LA.

  15. Intermediate-Scale, Semicontinuous Solid-Phase Fermentation Process for Production of Fuel Ethanol from Sweet Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, William R.; Westby, Carl A.; Dobbs, Thomas L.

    1986-01-01

    A novel, semicontinuous solid-phase fermentation system was used to produce fuel ethanol from sweet sorghum. The process was at an intermediate scale. In the process, dried and shredded sweet sorghum was rehydrated to 70% moisture, acidified to pH 2.0 to 3.0, and either pasteurized (12 h at 70 to 80°C) or not pasteurized before spray inoculation with a broth culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermented pulp exited the semicontinuous fermentor after a retention time of 72 h and contained approximately 6% (vol/vol) ethanol. Ethanol yields from dry sweet sorghum were 176 to 179 liters/103 kg (85% of theoretical). Production costs for a greatly scaled-up (×1,400) conceptual version of this system were projected by calculation to average $0.47/liter for 95% ethanol. The calculated energy balance (energy output/energy input ratio) was estimated to be 1.05 when pasteurization was included and 1.31 when pasteurization was omitted. In calculating the energy balances, the output energy of the protein feed byproduct and the input energy for growing the sweet sorghum were not considered. A design for the scaled-up plant (farm scale) is provided. PMID:16346960

  16. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 2. Application for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.V.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt was optimized using the solvent gradient method. This method was applied for the analysis of Loy Yang coal oxidation products. It was confirmed that the analytical data using this method were consistent with those determined using gas chromatography.

  17. Investigation of the formation of benzoyl peroxide, benzoic anhydride, and other potential aerosol products from gas-phase reactions of benzoylperoxy radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strollo, Christen M.; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products of the reaction of benzaldehyde with Cl atoms and with OH radicals in air in the absence of NOx were investigated in an environmental chamber in order to better understand the possible role of organic peroxy radical self-reactions in SOA formation. SOA products and authentic standards were analyzed using mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography, and results show that the yields of benzoyl peroxide (C6H5C(O)OO(O)CC6H5) and benzoic anhydride (C6H5C(O)O(O)CC6H5), two potential products from the gas-phase self-reaction of benzoylperoxy radicals (C6H5C(O)OO·), were less than 0.1%. This is in contrast to results of recent studies that have shown that the gas-phase self-reactions of β-nitrooxyperoxy radicals formed from reactions of isoprene with NO3 radicals form dialkyl peroxides that contribute significantly to gas-phase and SOA products. Such reactions have also been proposed to explain the gas-phase formation of extremely low volatility dimers from autooxidation of terpenes. The results obtained here indicate that, at least for benzoylperoxy radicals, the self-reactions form only benzoyloxy radicals. Analyses of SOA composition and volatility were inconclusive, but it appears that the SOA may consist primarily of oligomers formed through heterogeneous/multiphase reactions possibly involving some combination of phenol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and peroxybenzoic acid.

  18. PRODUCTS OF THE GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF THE OH RADICAL WITH N-BUTYL METHYL ETHER AND 2-ISOPROPOXYETHANOL: REACTIONS OF ROC(O)< RADICALS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The products of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with n-butyl methyl ether and 2-isopropoxyethanol in the presence of NO have been investigated at 298 ? 2 K and 740 Torr total pressure of air by gas chromatography and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization...

  19. Experience from design, prototyping and production of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schmitz, S.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS collaboration has adopted a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the Phase-1 Upgrade of its pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters with a conversion ratio of around 3 are installed on the support structures, outside of the sensitive tracking region, requiring a re-design of the low and high voltage distribution to the pixel modules. After several years of R&D, the project has entered the production phase. A total of 1800 DC-DC converters are being produced, and rigorous quality assurance and control is being employed during the production process. The testing program is outlined, results from mass production are presented and issues that have been encountered are described. In addition, two system level challenges, namely the choice of output voltage in the presence of large, load-dependent voltage drops, and the thermal management required to remove the heat load caused by the DC-DC converters, are discussed.

  20. Kronecker-product periodic systems of small gas-phase molecules and the search for order in atomic ensembles of any phase.

    PubMed

    Hefferlin, Ray

    2008-11-01

    The periodic law, manifested in the chart of the elements, is so fundamental in chemistry and related areas of physics that the question arises "Might periodicity among molecules also be embodied in a periodic system?" This review paper details how a particular periodic system of gas-phase diatomic molecules, allowing for the forecasting of thousands of new data, was developed. It can include ionized and even quarked-nuclei molecules and it coincides with locality (averaging) and the additivity found in some data; it has interesting vector properties, and it may be related in challenging ways to partial order. The review then explains how periodic systems for triatomic and four-atomic species are evolving along a similar path. The systems rest largely upon exhaustive comparisons of tabulated data, relate to some extent to the octet rule, and include reducible representations of the dynamic group SO(4) in higher spaces. Finally, the paper shows how periodicity can be quantified in data for larger molecules. Data for properties of homologous or substituted molecules, in any phase, are quantified with a vector index, and the index for one set can be transformed into that for another set.

  1. Coenzyme Q(10) production by immobilized Sphingomonas sp. ZUTE03 via a conversion-extraction coupled process in a three-phase fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lequan; Ding, Hanbing; Wang, Weijian; Kong, Zhuoyi; Li, Xuanzhen; Shi, Yuping; Zhong, Weihong

    2012-02-10

    A three-phase fluidized bed reactor (TPFBR) was designed to evaluate the potential of CoQ(10) production by gel-entrapped Sphingomonas sp. ZUTE03 via a conversion-extract coupled process. In the reactor, the CoQ(10) yield reached 46.99 mg/L after 8 h of conversion; a high-level yield of about 45 mg/L was maintained even after 15 repetitions (8 h/batch). To fully utilize the residual precursor (para-hydroxybenzoic acid, PHB) in the aqueous phase, the organic phase was replaced with new solution containing 70 mg/L solanesol for each 8 h batch. The CoQ(10) yield of each batch was maintained at a level of about 43 mg/L until the PHB ran out. When solid solanesol was fed to the organic phase for every 8 h batch, CoQ(10) could accumulate and reach a yield of 171.52 mg/L. When solid solanesol and PHB were fed to the conversion system after every 8 h batch, the CoQ(10) yield reached 441.65 mg/L in the organic phase after 20 repetitions, suggesting that the conversion-extract coupled process could enhance CoQ(10) production in the TPFBR.

  2. A strategy for the systematic development of a liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric screening method for polymer electrolyte membrane degradation products using isocratic and gradient phase optimized liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zedda, M; Tuerk, J; Teutenberg, T; Peil, S; Schmidt, T C

    2009-12-18

    Within the scope of research for target and non-target LC-MS/MS analysis of membrane degradation products of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, a systematic method development for the separation of structurally similar compounds was performed by phase optimized liquid chromatography. Five different stationary phases with different selectivities were used. Isocratic separation for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-formylbenzoic acid was achieved on a C18 and a Phenyl phase. Using the PRISMA model the separation efficiency was optimized. This was achieved on a serially connected mixed stationary phase composed of 30 mm C18, 150 mm Phenyl and 60 mm C30. For the LC-MS screening of unknown degradation products from polymer electrolyte membranes in the product water of a fuel cell, a solvent gradient is mandatory for less polar or later eluting compounds. By means of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid it could be shown that a solvent gradient can be applied in order to elute later eluting compounds in a short time. The adaptability of this method for the qualitative analysis by target and non-target LC-MS/MS screening has been shown by means of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The combination of solvent gradient and isocratic conditions makes this approach attractive for the purpose of a screening method for known and unknown analytes in a water sample.

  3. Simple Heat Treatment for Production of Hot-Dip Galvanized Dual Phase Steel Using Si-Al Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Equihua-Guillén, F.; García-Lara, A. M.; Muñíz-Valdes, C. R.; Ortíz-Cuellar, J. C.; Camporredondo-Saucedo, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents relevant metallurgical considerations to produce galvanized dual phase steels from low cost aluminum-silicon steels which are produced by continuous strip processing. Two steels with different contents of Si and Al were austenized in the two-phase field ferrite + austenite (α + γ) in a fast manner to obtain dual phase steels, suitable for hot-dip galvanizing process, under typical parameters of continuous annealing processing line. Tensile dual phase properties were obtained from specimens cooled from temperature below Ar3, held during 3 min, intermediate cooling at temperature above Ar1 and quenching in Zn bath at 465 °C. The results have shown typical microstructure and tensile properties of galvanized dual phase steels. Finally, the synergistic effect of aluminum, silicon, and residual chromium on martensite start temperature ( M s), critical cooling rate ( C R), volume fraction of martensite, and tensile properties has been studied.

  4. High performance liquid chromatographic separations of gas oil samples and their hydrotreated products using commercial normal phases.

    PubMed

    Oro, Nicole E; Lucy, Charles A

    2011-10-28

    Three commercially available high performance liquid chromatography columns are used in normal phase or quasi-normal phase mode for the separation of gas oil samples. The columns are tested with 20 analytical standards to determine their suitability for separations of petroleum samples and their ability to separate the nitrogen group-types (pyrrole and pyridine) found in petroleum. The columns studied are polymeric hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HGN), a biphenyl phase, and a Chromegabond "DNAP" column from ES Industries. The HGN column separates gas oils based on both ring structure and heteroatom, while the biphenyl phase has low retention of most compounds studied in quasi-normal phase mode. The "DNAP" column is selective for nitrogen-containing compounds, separating them from PAHs as well as oxygen and sulphur compounds. Retention data of standards on all three columns is shown, along with chromatograms of gas oil samples on the HGN and "DNAP" columns.

  5. An induction Linac approach to phase rotation of a muon bunch in the production region of {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.

    1995-11-22

    The possibility of using an induction linac for phase rotation, or equivalently flattening the head to tail mean energy sweep, of a muon bunch in the production region of a {mu}{sup +} {minus} {mu}{sup {minus}} is examined. Axial spreading of an accelerating bunch is analyzed and the form of appropriate induction cell voltage waveforms is derived. A set of parametric equations for the induction accelerator structure is given and specific solutions are presented which demonstrate the technological feasibility of the induction linac approach to phase rotation.

  6. Importance of Solvation in Understanding the Chiroptical Spectra of Natural Products in Solution Phase: Garcinia Acid Dimethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Jeirath, Neha; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Habel, Deenamma; Nair, Divya Sadasivan; Haleema, Simimole

    2013-01-01

    The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190–250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190–250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties. PMID:21114277

  7. Importance of solvation in understanding the chiroptical spectra of natural products in solution phase: garcinia acid dimethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Prasad L; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo; Jeirath, Neha; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Habel, Deenamma; Nair, Divya Sadasivan; Haleema, Simimole

    2011-03-25

    The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190-250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190-250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties. PMID:21114277

  8. Quantification of Sunscreen Ethylhexyl Triazone in Topical Skin-Care Products by Normal-Phase TLC/Densitometry

    PubMed Central

    Sobanska, Anna W.; Pyzowski, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Ethylhexyl triazone (ET) was separated from other sunscreens such as avobenzone, octocrylene, octyl methoxycinnamate, and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate and from parabens by normal-phase HPTLC on silica gel 60 as stationary phase. Two mobile phases were particularly effective: (A) cyclohexane-diethyl ether 1 : 1 (v/v) and (B) cyclohexane-diethyl ether-acetone 15 : 1 : 2 (v/v/v) since apart from ET analysis they facilitated separation and quantification of other sunscreens present in the formulations. Densitometric scanning was performed at 300 nm. Calibration curves for ET were nonlinear (second-degree polynomials), with R > 0.998. For both mobile phases limits of detection (LOD) were 0.03 and limits of quantification (LOQ) 0.1 μg spot−1. Both methods were validated. PMID:22629203

  9. Releasing intracellular product to prepare whole cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments in water-edible oil two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minglue; Zhang, Xuehong; Wang, Zhilong

    2016-11-01

    Selective releasing intracellular product in Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution to prepare whole cell biocatalyst is a novel strategy for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments, in which cell suspension culture exhibits some advantages comparing with the corresponding growing cell submerged culture. In the present work, the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was successfully replaced by edible plant oils for releasing intracellular Monascus pigments. High concentration of Monascus pigments (with absorbance nearly 710 AU at 470 nm in the oil phase, normalized to the aqueous phase volume approximately 142 AU) was achieved by cell suspension culture in peanut oil-water two-phase system. Furthermore, the utilization of edible oil as extractant also fulfills the demand for application of Monascus pigments as natural food colorant.

  10. Releasing intracellular product to prepare whole cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments in water-edible oil two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minglue; Zhang, Xuehong; Wang, Zhilong

    2016-11-01

    Selective releasing intracellular product in Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution to prepare whole cell biocatalyst is a novel strategy for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments, in which cell suspension culture exhibits some advantages comparing with the corresponding growing cell submerged culture. In the present work, the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was successfully replaced by edible plant oils for releasing intracellular Monascus pigments. High concentration of Monascus pigments (with absorbance nearly 710 AU at 470 nm in the oil phase, normalized to the aqueous phase volume approximately 142 AU) was achieved by cell suspension culture in peanut oil-water two-phase system. Furthermore, the utilization of edible oil as extractant also fulfills the demand for application of Monascus pigments as natural food colorant. PMID:27470059

  11. Direct stereochemical resolution of aspartame stereoisomers and their degradation products by high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral crown ether based stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Motellier, S; Wainer, I W

    1990-09-21

    The direct stereochemical resolution of the four stereoisomers of aspartame (N-DL-alpha-aspartyl-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester) and their degradation products was achieved on a high-performance liquid chromatography chiral stationary phase based upon a chiral crown ether. The chromatographic conditions included a mobile phase composed of aqueous perchloric acid adjusted to a pH of 2.8 and modified with 1.5% of 2-propanol and a temperature gradient. The active L,L-isomer (sold under the brand name NutraSweet) was measured in a diet cola and coffee sweetened with NutraSweet. Degradation products of NutraSweet were also detected but no racemization of stereochemical contamination was observed.

  12. Enhancement of L-phenylalanine production by engineered Escherichia coli using phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding combined with nitrogen source optimization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peipei; Cao, Weijia; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen source optimization combined with phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding was employed to enhance L-phenylalanine production by a tyrosine-auxotroph strain, Escherichia coli YP1617. The absence of (NH4)2SO4, the use of corn steep powder and yeast extract as composite organic nitrogen source were more suitable for cell growth and L-phenylalanine production. Moreover, the optimal initial L-tyrosine level was 0.3 g L(-1) and exponential L-tyrosine feeding slightly improved L-phenylalanine production. Nerveless, L-phenylalanine production was greatly enhanced by a strategy of phased exponential L-tyrosine feeding, where exponential feeding was started at the set specific growth rate of 0.08, 0.05, and 0.02 h(-1) after 12, 32, and 52 h, respectively. Compared with exponential L-tyrosine feeding at the set specific growth rate of 0.08 h(-1), the developed strategy obtained a 15.33% increase in L-phenylalanine production (L-phenylalanine of 56.20 g L(-1)) and a 45.28% decrease in L-tyrosine supplementation.

  13. Isolation of saccharides in dairy and soy products by solid-phase extraction coupled with analysis by ligand-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Kelsey R; Green, David B

    2012-10-15

    The present study reports an improved method to quickly and reproducibly isolate the saccharides from a variety of dairy and soy products utilizing reversed-phase solid-phase extraction to quantitatively remove fats, fatty acids, and lipids followed by desalination and deproteinization by ion-exchange solid-phase extraction with no loss of saccharides during extraction. Analysis of the isolated saccharides was performed by ligand-exchange HPLC. The method presented requires no prolonged heating (thus protecting the saccharides from hydrolysis or isomerization), uses benign reagents, and realizes a significant time savings over existing methods. The isolation and analysis of monosaccharides (glucose, galactose and fructose), disaccharides (lactose and sucrose), and polysaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) from dairy products (whole, reduced fat, and lactose-free milk and yogurt), infant formula (powdered and premixed), and soy beverages were studied in this investigation with recoveries ranging from 88% to 110% in all products studied. We also applied the method to quickly discriminate authentic soy milk from a soy beverage, branded as soy milk.

  14. Production of gas phase NO₂ and halogens from the photochemical oxidation of aqueous mixtures of sea salt and nitrate ions at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Richards, Nicole K; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2012-10-01

    Nitrate and halide ions coexist in a number of environmental systems, including sea salt particles, the Arctic snowpack, and alkaline dry lakes. However, little is known about potential synergisms between halide and nitrate ions. The effect of sea salt on NO(3)(-) photochemistry at 311 nm was investigated at 298 K using thin films of deliquesced NaNO(3)-synthetic sea salt mixtures. Gas phase NO(2), NO, and halogen products were measured as a function of photolysis time using NO(y) chemiluminescence and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API-MS). The production of NO(2) increases with the halide-to-nitrate ratio, and is similar to that for mixtures of NaCl with NaNO(3). Gas phase halogen production also increased with the halide-to-nitrate ratio, consistent with NO(3)(-) photolysis yielding OH which oxidizes halide ions in the film. Yields of gas phase halogens and NO were strongly dependent on the acidity of the solution, while that of NO(2) was not. An additional halogen formation mechanism in the dark involving molecular HNO(3) is proposed that may be important in other systems such as reactions on surfaces. These studies show that the yield of Br(2) relative to NO(2) during photolysis of halide-nitrate mixtures could be as high as 35% under some atmospheric conditions.

  15. Multi-phase glass-ceramics as a waste form for combined fission products: alkalis, alkaline earths, lanthanides, and transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2012-04-01

    In this study, multi-phase silicate-based glass-ceramics were investigated as an alternate waste form for immobilizing non-fissionable products from used nuclear fuel. Currently, borosilicate glass is the waste form selected for immobilization of this waste stream, however, the low thermal stability and solubility of MoO{sub 3} in borosilicate glass translates into a maximum waste loading in the range of 15-20 mass%. Glass-ceramics provide the opportunity to target durable crystalline phases, e.g., powellite, oxyapatite, celsian, and pollucite, that will incorporate MoO{sub 3} as well as other waste components such as lanthanides, alkalis, and alkaline earths at levels 2X the solubility limits of a single-phase glass. In addition a glass-ceramic could provide higher thermal stability, depending upon the properties of the crystalline and amorphous phases. Glass-ceramics were successfully synthesized at waste loadings of 42, 45, and 50 mass% with the following glass additives: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and SiO{sub 2} by slow cooling form from a glass melt. Glass-ceramics were characterized in terms of phase assemblage, morphology, and thermal stability. The targeted phases: powellite and oxyapatite were observed in all of the compositions along with a lanthanide borosilicate, and cerianite. Results of this initial investigation of glass-ceramics show promise as a potential waste form to replace single-phase borosilicate glass.

  16. Phase engineering of Schrodinger cat states and nonadiabatic production of squeezed states in Bose-Einstein Condensates in multiple wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Mary Ann

    2004-03-01

    We propose a model for the generation of Schrödinger cat states of BEC in multiple wells, and also show how squeezed states can be produced nonadiabatically. The condensate in the multiple well evolves, starting with a certain initial phase difference between the neighboring wells, to a state with a well defined entanglement. We propose a general formula for the initial phase difference: j 2 pi/N where j=1,2,..,N-1, and N is the number of wells. We show the generation of cat states for these different phase configurations in two, three and four wells, and thus generalize this method to any number of wells, even or odd. In addition to the macroscopic superposition states, the method can also be used to generate squeezed states in a nonadiabatic fashion. This work was supported by NSF grant PHY-0140091 and the Computational Science Graduate Fellowship program.

  17. [Contribution of different processes in wetland soil N2O production in different restoration phases of the Yellow River estuary, China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Guang; Sun, Zhi-Gao; Gan, Zhuo-Ting; Sun, Wan-Long; Wang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    By using the method of time-space mutual substitution, the contribution of different processes in wetland soil N2O production was studied in the un-restoration wetland (R0), restoration wetland since 2007 (R2007) and restoration wetland since 2002 (R2002) of the Yellow River estuary to evaluate the effectiveness of the restoration projects. Results showed wetland soil total N2O production had a significant difference in different restoration phases, but the N2O release was the main source. The N2O production in restoration wetland was higher than that in un-restoration wetland. The N2O production wss mainly due to the nitrification and nitrifier denitrification processes, while the denitrification process had great weakening effects on N2O production, which was closely related to the physical and chemical properties of wetland soils in different restoration phases. The non-biological processes made greater contributions to N2O production and these were mainly due to that iron was reductive, while the Yellow River estuary was an area of highly active iron. Although N2O production in wetland soils was the results of biological processes combined with non-biological processes in different restoration phases, non-biological processes had larger influences and should be paid a special attention. There were different influences on wetland soil processes generating N2O between temperature and water content, indicating responses of soil microbial activities to temperature and water content were different. In addition, the N2O production contents ranged from 0.37 +/- 0.08 nmol x (kg x h) (-1) to 9.75 +/- 7.64 nmol x (kg x h) (-1) in marshes of the Yellow River estuary, which was slightly higher than those in the S. alterniflora wetland soils of the Min River estuary, but significantly lower than those in the C. malaccensis wetland soils of the Min River estuary, the grassland soils and the aerobic forest soils. We found that the long-term implements of ecological

  18. [Contribution of different processes in wetland soil N2O production in different restoration phases of the Yellow River estuary, China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Guang; Sun, Zhi-Gao; Gan, Zhuo-Ting; Sun, Wan-Long; Wang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    By using the method of time-space mutual substitution, the contribution of different processes in wetland soil N2O production was studied in the un-restoration wetland (R0), restoration wetland since 2007 (R2007) and restoration wetland since 2002 (R2002) of the Yellow River estuary to evaluate the effectiveness of the restoration projects. Results showed wetland soil total N2O production had a significant difference in different restoration phases, but the N2O release was the main source. The N2O production in restoration wetland was higher than that in un-restoration wetland. The N2O production wss mainly due to the nitrification and nitrifier denitrification processes, while the denitrification process had great weakening effects on N2O production, which was closely related to the physical and chemical properties of wetland soils in different restoration phases. The non-biological processes made greater contributions to N2O production and these were mainly due to that iron was reductive, while the Yellow River estuary was an area of highly active iron. Although N2O production in wetland soils was the results of biological processes combined with non-biological processes in different restoration phases, non-biological processes had larger influences and should be paid a special attention. There were different influences on wetland soil processes generating N2O between temperature and water content, indicating responses of soil microbial activities to temperature and water content were different. In addition, the N2O production contents ranged from 0.37 +/- 0.08 nmol x (kg x h) (-1) to 9.75 +/- 7.64 nmol x (kg x h) (-1) in marshes of the Yellow River estuary, which was slightly higher than those in the S. alterniflora wetland soils of the Min River estuary, but significantly lower than those in the C. malaccensis wetland soils of the Min River estuary, the grassland soils and the aerobic forest soils. We found that the long-term implements of ecological

  19. INCORPORATION OF PENTAVALENT NEPTUNIUM INTO URANYL PHASES THAT MAY FORM AS ALTERATION PRODUCTS OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-06-21

    Laboratory-scale simulations and studies of natural analogues have shown that alteration of spent nuclear fuel in a moist, oxidizing environment results in the formation of a variety of uranyl phases. Neptunium-237 has a half-life of 2.14 million years, and the pentavalent oxidation state is soluble in groundwater. Release of Np-237 from spent nuclear fuel in a geological repository may significantly impact the long-term performance of such a repository. Incorporation of Np, in the pentavalent oxidation state, into uranyl phases by substitution for hexavalent U is likely because of the similarity of the coordination environments of these two cations, but a charge-balance mechanism is required for substitution. A preliminary study has shown incorporation of pentavalent Np into powders of the uranyl silicate uranophane, and Na-compreignacite, a uranyl oxyhydrate [1]. Using synthesis experiments under mild hydrothermal conditions, we are examining the incorporation of pentavalent Np into selected uranyl oxyhydrates and silicates as a function of temperature and the pH of the mother solution. Analyses of powders of these uranyl phases has demonstrated both temperature and pH dependences for incorporation. Experiments are underway directed at the synthesis of single crystals of uranyl phases in the presence of 500-750 ppm pentavalent Np. The intent is to develop a basic understanding of the crystallographic and crystal chemical factors that impact incorporation of pentavalent Np into uranyl phases. Following synthesis, crystals are analyzed for Np using laser ablation ICP-MS. Preliminary results for Na-substituted metaschoepite indicate significant Np has been incorporated into the crystals. Additional phases under study include compreignacite, becquerelite, soddyite, zippeite, and (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}.

  20. Infrared mediated production of C-Co-Pd nanocomposites under different annealing temperature and it's structural and phase composition analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtsova, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study C-Co-Pd nanocomposites were prepared via Infrared annealing mediated method using precursor such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN), CoCl2 • 6H2O and PdCl2. In addition the effect annealing temperatures such as 200, 250, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C on phase composition and structural characterization was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results reveals that the increase in temperature drastically influenced the phase and size of the C-Co-Pd nanocomposites.

  1. Are You Ready Phase Two? Pricing Changes and Commercial Products Added to DOE High-Performance Windows Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.

    2011-05-01

    This article, for publication in Door and Window Manufacturer magazine, describes DOE's High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program, WVPP, and how PNNL, which manages the program for DOE, is assisting DOE in the transition to the next phase (Phase II), which begins in May. While the foundation of the program will remain relatively unchanged, PNNL is employing several new strategies to continue the momentum built during the program's first full year of implementation. The program helps buyers and manufacturers to develop a market for highly insulating windows and low-E storm windows at affordable prices and thereby overcome the principal barrier of cost.

  2. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation.

  3. TVA/DOE integrated onfarm alcohol production system. Phase II. Progress report, October 1981-February 1982. Circular Z-134

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Burch, D.W.; Mays, D.A.; Lewis, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Equipment and procedures necessary for using a grain (corn) feedstock for onfarm alcohol production were refined and documented to provide benchmark data. Also, significant progress was made in developing technology to convert other agricultural crops into 190-proof alcohol with the farm-sized alcohol production facility. This was achieved by modifying the base alcohol-from-grain facility to process the nongrain feedstocks (Irish potatoes, sweet sorghum, sweet potatoes, sugar beets, fodder beets, and Jerusalem artichokes) being evaluated in field production trials by TVA. Alcohol production capacities of cull potatoes, water chestnuts, and cull apples were also tested. A computerized investment model was refined to predict rapidly the economic implications for alcohol production levels, feedstocks, and various system components.

  4. Detection of aqueous phase chemical warfare agent degradation products by negative mode ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry [IM(tof)MS].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Wes E; Harden, Charles S; Hong, Feng; Klopsch, Steve J; Hill, Herbert H; McHugh, Vincent M

    2006-02-01

    The use of negative ion monitoring mode with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer [IM(tof)MS] to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products from aqueous phase samples has been determined. Aqueous phase sampling used a traditional electrospray ionization (ESI) source for sample introduction and ionization. Certified reference materials (CRM) of CWA degradation products for the detection of Schedule 1, 2, or 3 toxic chemicals or their precursors as defined by the chemical warfare convention (CWC) treaty verification were used in this study. A mixture of six G-series nerve related CWA degradation products (EMPA, IMPA, EHEP, IHEP, CHMPA, and PMPA) and their related collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions (MPA and EPA) were found in each case to be clearly resolved and detected using the IM(tof)MS instrument in negative ion monitoring mode. Corresponding ions, masses, drift times, K(o) values, and signal intensities for each of the CWA degradation products are reported. PMID:16413205

  5. Effect of high-temperature stress on microalgae at the end of the logarithmic phase for the efficient production of lipid.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Han, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Ma, Guixia

    2016-10-01

    Efficient production of microalgae lipid is significant for the production of renewable biodiesel. In the present study, the high temperature of 40°C as stress environment was tested for stimulating lipid accumulation after the microalgae (Scenedesmus quadricauda) cells in suitable conditions grew to the end of the logarithmic phase. Different stress cultivation times of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days were studied. Interestingly, the lipid content and productivity reached 33.5% and 23.2 mg/L d after one day stress cultivation, showing substantial improvements of 39.6% and 33.3% compared with that in the untreated (day 0) microalgae cells, respectively. Longer stress time led to the decrease of biomass and lipid content compared with the untreated microalgae. However, a maximum protein content of 58.7% was obtained after six days. The stress cultivation at the end of the microalgae exponential phase for one day at a high temperature of 40°C could be a very useful industrial approach for efficiently promoting lipid content and biodiesel production. PMID:26930246

  6. Effect of high-temperature stress on microalgae at the end of the logarithmic phase for the efficient production of lipid.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Han, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Ma, Guixia

    2016-10-01

    Efficient production of microalgae lipid is significant for the production of renewable biodiesel. In the present study, the high temperature of 40°C as stress environment was tested for stimulating lipid accumulation after the microalgae (Scenedesmus quadricauda) cells in suitable conditions grew to the end of the logarithmic phase. Different stress cultivation times of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days were studied. Interestingly, the lipid content and productivity reached 33.5% and 23.2 mg/L d after one day stress cultivation, showing substantial improvements of 39.6% and 33.3% compared with that in the untreated (day 0) microalgae cells, respectively. Longer stress time led to the decrease of biomass and lipid content compared with the untreated microalgae. However, a maximum protein content of 58.7% was obtained after six days. The stress cultivation at the end of the microalgae exponential phase for one day at a high temperature of 40°C could be a very useful industrial approach for efficiently promoting lipid content and biodiesel production.

  7. Preparation and application of reversed phase chromatorotor for the isolation of natural products by centrifugal preparative chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of preparation of Chromatorotor or plates with a reversed phase (RP) solid silica gel sorbent layer has been developed for preparative centrifugal chromatography. The RP-rotor plates consist of binder free RP solid SiO2 sorbent layers of different thicknesses paked between two supported cir...

  8. Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

  9. "Brief Report: Increase in Production of Spoken Words in Some Children with Autism after PECS Teaching to Phase III"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Felce, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The context for this work was an evaluation study [Carr, D., & Felce, J. A. (in press)] of the early phases of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) [Frost, L. A., & Bondy, A. S. (1994). "The picture exchange communication system training manual." Cherry Hill, NJ: Pyramid Educational Consultants, Inc.; Frost, L. A., & Bondy, A. S.…

  10. Bioethanol production from corn stover using aqueous ammonia pretreatment and two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P

    2010-08-01

    An integrated bioconversion process was developed to convert corn stover derived pentose and hexose to ethanol effectively. In this study, corn stover was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which retained glucan ( approximately 100%) and xylan (>80%) in the solids. The pretreated carbohydrates-rich corn stover was converted to ethanol via two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF). This single-reactor process employed sequential simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), i.e. pentose conversion using recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 in the first phase, followed by hexose conversion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A in the second phase. In the first phase, 88% of xylan digestibility was achieved through the synergistic action of xylanase and endo-glucanase with minimal glucan hydrolysis (10.5%). Overall, the TPSSF using 12-h SAA-treated corn stover resulted in the highest ethanol concentration (22.3g/L), which was equivalent to 84% of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the total carbohydrates (glucan+xylan) in the untreated corn stover.

  11. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Daumit, K. E.; Hunter, J. F.; et al

    2015-07-16

    We measured a large suite of gas- and particle-phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas andmore » particle phases, the latter being detected by temperature-programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO–HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50 % of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from high molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e., multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50 % of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle-phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption-temperature-based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas-particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the

  12. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A.; Daumit, K.; Hunter, J.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gasmore » and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the

  13. Product study of the gas-phase reactions of monoterpenes with the OH radical in the presence of NO(x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger; Aschmann, Sara M.

    1990-10-01

    Hydroxyl radical reactions play an important role in the removal of monoterpenes from the troposphere during daytime hours, but there are few data available to date concerning the products of these reactions. From the gas-phase reactions of B-pinene and d-limonene with the OH radical in the presence of NO(x), the predicted products, 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)-heptan-2-one and 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene, respectively, were observed with formation yields of 30.0 + or - 4.5 percent and 17.4 + or - 2.8 percent. On the basis of mass spectral data a number of ketone and keto-aldehyde products were tentatively identified in irradiated CH3ONO-NO-air-monoterpene mixtures of d-limonene, alpha-pinene, Delta(3)-carene, sabinene, and terpinolene.

  14. Gas chromatographic determination of N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, and melamine in milk and dairy products using an automatic solid-phase extraction system.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sanchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2011-07-13

    A reliable analytical method was presented for the simultaneous determination of six N-nitrosamines, nine aromatic amines, and melamine in milk and dairy products using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The sample treatment includes the precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile, centrifugation, solvent changeover by evaporation, and continuous solid-phase extraction for cleanup and preconcentration purposes. Samples (5 g) containing 0.15-500 ng of each amine were analyzed, and low detection limits (15-130 ng/kg) were achieved. Recoveries for milk and dairy products samples spiked with 1, 10, and 50 μg/kg ranged from 92% to 101%, with intraday and interday relative standard deviation values below 7.5%. The method was successfully applied to determine amine residues in several milk types (human breast, cow, and goat) and dairy products.

  15. Production of bio-hydrogen by mesophilic anaerobic fermentation in an acid-phase sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L; Stevens, David K

    2007-02-15

    The pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) were varied to optimize the conversion of carbohydrate-rich synthetic wastewater into bio-hydrogen. A full factorial design using evolutionary operation (EVOP) was used to determine the effect of the factors and to find the optimum condition of each factor required for high hydrogen production rate. Experimental results from 20 runs indicate that a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4,460-5,540 mL/L/day under the volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR) of 75 g-COD/L/day obtained at an observed design point of HRT = 8 h and pH = 5.7. The hydrogen production rate was strongly dependent on the HRT, and the effect was statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, no significant effect (P > 0.05) was found for the pH on the hydrogen production rate. When the ASBR conditions were set for a maximum hydrogen production rate, the hydrogen production yield and specific hydrogen production rate were 60-74 mL/g-COD and 330-360 mL/g-VSS/day, respectively. The hydrogen composition was 43-51%, and no methanogenesis was observed. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, caproate, and ethanol were major liquid intermediate metabolites during runs of this ASBR. The dominant fermentative types were butyrate-acetate or ethanol-acetate, representing the typical anaerobic pathway of Clostridium species. This hydrogen-producing ASBR had a higher hydrogen production rate, compared with that produced using continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). This study suggests that the hydrogen-producing ASBR is a promising bio-system for prolonged and stable hydrogen production.

  16. Stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe from their combination drug products.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Bharat G; Patel, Natvarlal M; Shah, Paresh B; Patel, Laxman J; Patel, Vipul P

    2007-01-01

    A simple, precise, and rapid stability-indicating reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin (ATV) and ezetimibe (EZE) from their combination drug product. The proposed RP-LC method utilizes a LiChrospher 100 C18, 5 microm, 250 x 4.0 mm id column at ambient temperature; the optimum mobile phase consists of acetonitrile-water-methanol (45 + 40 + 15, v/v/v) with apparent pH adjusted to 4.0 +/- 0.1; mobile phase flow rate of 1.0 mL/min; and UV detection at 250 nm. ATV, EZE, and their combination drug product were exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. There were no other coeluting, interfering peaks from excipients, impurities, or degradation products due to variable stress conditions, and the method is specific for the estimation of ATV and EZE in the presence of degradation products. The response was linear over the concentration range of 1-80 microg/mL for ATV and EZE. The mean recoveries were 99.27 and 98.5% for ATV and EZE, respectively. The intermediate precision data were obtained under different experimental conditions, and the calculated value of the coefficient of variation was found to be less than the critical value. The proposed method can be useful in the quality control of bulk manufacturing and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  17. Identification of hydroxyl radical oxidation products of N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yiling; Frey, Rebecca L; Ferry, John L; Ferguson, P Lee

    2009-04-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the characterization of hydroxyl radical oxidation products of N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), a member of the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) class of microbial quorum-sensing signaling molecules identified in many Gram-negative strains of bacteria. Six products were identified: four with molecular weight (MW) of 213 and two with MW of 260. The characteristic product ions formed through collision-induced dissociation (CID) provided diagnostic structural information. One of the photolysis products was determined to be N-(3-oxohexanoyl)homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL), a highly active quorum-sensing signal, by comparison with a reference standard. Three structural isomers with the same mass as 3OC6-HSL were identified as acyl side chain oxidized C6-HSL (keto/enol functionalized) by accurate mass measurement and the structures of these products were proposed from CID spectral interpretation. Two structural isomers formed from concurrent oxidation and nitration of C6-HSL were also observed and their structures were postulated based on CID spectra. In addition to the six hydroxyl radical oxidation products formed from the C6-HSL precursor, five additional compounds generated from combined oxidation and lactonolysis of C6-HSL were identified and structures were postulated.

  18. Viscosity of hydrogel pharmaceutical products and the rate of diffusion of ibuprofen hydrotropic binding through model phase boundary in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejska, Justyna; Nachajski, Michał Jakub

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the carried out investigations was to establish relation between rheological parameters of market hydrogels containing ibuprofen and therapeutic agent diffusion coefficient dependent on their prescription. An attempt was made to estimate rheological parameters (structural viscosity, kinetics of volatile components loss) effect on pharmaceutical availability Q and the order of the process of mass exchange through artificial and natural phase boundary. Designed for skin anti-inflammatory hydrogels containing ibuprofen in the form of hydrotropic adduct with lysine (Ibufen, Dolofast), in the form of sodium salt (Nurofen) and in the form of molecular fragmentation of acidic form (Dolgit) were tested. The rate of volatile components loss was estimated with gravimetric method, viscosity measurements of therapeutic agents aqueous solutions were performed with Ubbelohde viscosimeter, while hydrogels rheological parameters - with cone-plate digital rheometer. The rate of ibuprofen penetration through phase boundary (Viscing dialysis membrane and pig perimastoid dermis) into dialysis fluid was determined in vitro. The kinetics of this process was monitored by measuring electric conduction Deltalambda = f(t) of model dialysis fluid. Viscometric measurements of aqueous solutions of ibuprofen lysine salt and ibuprofen sodium salt, by determining boundary viscosity gradient GLL(eta) and calculation of hydrodynamic radius Robs, enabled the applicative solution of Einstein-Smoluchowski equation (D = kT/6Pi r eta) and the estimation of structural value of therapeutic agent diffusion coefficient. Tracing the dependence between diffusion coefficient and shear rate enabled to recognize the preferences of preparations to the process of mass exchange on the phase boundary. An association was confirmed between the determined and calculated rheological parameters and the process of mass exchange on phase boundary through selected dialysis membranes. Mass exchange on phase

  19. Effect of Ni content on the diffusion-controlled growth of the product phases in the Cu(Ni)-Sn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baheti, Varun A.; Islam, Sarfaraj; Kumar, Praveen; Ravi, Raju; Narayanan, Ramesh; Hongqun, Dong; Vuorinen, Vesa; Laurila, Tomi; Paul, Aloke

    2016-01-01

    A strong influence of Ni content on the diffusion-controlled growth of the (Cu,Ni)3Sn and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 phases by coupling different Cu(Ni) alloys with Sn in the solid state is reported. The continuous increase in the thickness ratio of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 to (Cu,Ni)3Sn with the Ni content is explained by combined kinetic and thermodynamic arguments as follows: (i) The integrated interdiffusion coefficient does not change for the (Cu,Ni)3Sn phase up to 2.5 at.% Ni and decreases drastically for 5 at.% Ni. On the other hand, there is a continuous increase in the integrated interdiffusion coefficient for (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 as a function of increasing Ni content. (ii) With the increase in Ni content, driving forces for the diffusion of components increase for both components in both phases but at different rates. However, the magnitude of these changes alone is not large enough to explain the high difference in the observed growth rate of the product phases because of Ni addition. (iv) Kirkendall marker experiments indicate that the Cu6Sn5 phase grows by diffusion of both Cu and Sn in the binary case. However, when Ni is added, the growth is by diffusion of Sn only. (v) Also, the observed grain refinement in the Cu6Sn5 phase with the addition of Ni suggests that the grain boundary diffusion of Sn may have an important role in the observed changes in the growth rate.

  20. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation. PMID:26117418

  1. Fisetin inhibits osteoclastogenesis through prevention of RANKL-induced ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Eiko; Shimada-Sugawara, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Fumimoto, Reiko; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclasts (OCLs) are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that are differentiated by stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We recently demonstrated that regulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a stress-induced cytoprotective enzyme, also functions in OCL differentiation. In this study, we investigated effects of fisetin, a natural bioactive flavonoid that has been reported to induce HO-1 expression, on the differentiation of macrophages into OCLs. Fisetin inhibited the formation of OCLs in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of OCLs. Moreover, fisetin-treated OCLs showed markedly decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, and Jun N-terminal kinase, but fisetin did not inhibit p38 phosphorylation. Fisetin up-regulated mRNA expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes including HO-1 and interfered with RANKL-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Studies with RNA interference showed that suppression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor for phase II antioxidant enzymes, rescued fisetin-mediated inhibition of OCL differentiation. Furthermore, fisetin significantly decreased RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of cFos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a transcription factor critical for osteoclastogenic gene regulation. Therefore, fisetin inhibits OCL differentiation through blocking RANKL-mediated ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Appropriate conditions for applying NaOH-pretreated two-phase olive milling waste for codigestion with food waste to enhance biogas production.

    PubMed

    Al-Mallahi, Jumana; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    2016-02-01

    The high methane gas production potential of two phase olive milling waste (2POMW) makes its application to biogas plants in business an economical process to increase the productivity of the plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate conditions for the codigestion of NaOH-pretreated 2POMW with food waste. NaOH pretreatment can increase the methane production by increasing the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), but it may cause inhibition because of higher levels of alkalinity, sodium ion, volatile fatty acids and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Therefore, the first experimental phase of this study aimed to investigate the effect of different mixing ratios of 2POMW to food waste. A continuous stirred tank reactor experiment with different mixing ratios of 3%, 4.3%, 5.7% and 8.3% (2POMW: food waste) was conducted. NaOH pretreatment in the range of 6-20% was used. A mixing ratio up to 4.3%, when 10% NaOH pretreatment was used, caused no inhibition and increased methane production by 445.9mL/g-VS(2POMW). For this mixing ratio an additional experimental phase was conducted with the 20% NaOH pretreatment as the 20% NaOH pretreatment had the highest sCOD. The methane gas production was increased by 503.6mL/g-VS(2POMW). However, pH adjustment was required for applying this concentration of the high alkalinity 20% NaOH-pretreated 2POMW. Therefore, we consider using 10% NaOH pretreatment in a mixing ratio of 4.3% to be more applicable. The increase in methane gas production was correlated to the oleic acid concentration inside the reactors. The high oleic acid concentration of 61.8mg/L for the 8.3% mixing ratio was responsible for the strong inhibition. This study showed that adjusting the appropriate mixing ratio of the NaOH-pretreated 2POMW could increase the electricity production of a reactor that regularly receives food waste.

  3. Appropriate conditions for applying NaOH-pretreated two-phase olive milling waste for codigestion with food waste to enhance biogas production.

    PubMed

    Al-Mallahi, Jumana; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    2016-02-01

    The high methane gas production potential of two phase olive milling waste (2POMW) makes its application to biogas plants in business an economical process to increase the productivity of the plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate conditions for the codigestion of NaOH-pretreated 2POMW with food waste. NaOH pretreatment can increase the methane production by increasing the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), but it may cause inhibition because of higher levels of alkalinity, sodium ion, volatile fatty acids and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Therefore, the first experimental phase of this study aimed to investigate the effect of different mixing ratios of 2POMW to food waste. A continuous stirred tank reactor experiment with different mixing ratios of 3%, 4.3%, 5.7% and 8.3% (2POMW: food waste) was conducted. NaOH pretreatment in the range of 6-20% was used. A mixing ratio up to 4.3%, when 10% NaOH pretreatment was used, caused no inhibition and increased methane production by 445.9mL/g-VS(2POMW). For this mixing ratio an additional experimental phase was conducted with the 20% NaOH pretreatment as the 20% NaOH pretreatment had the highest sCOD. The methane gas production was increased by 503.6mL/g-VS(2POMW). However, pH adjustment was required for applying this concentration of the high alkalinity 20% NaOH-pretreated 2POMW. Therefore, we consider using 10% NaOH pretreatment in a mixing ratio of 4.3% to be more applicable. The increase in methane gas production was correlated to the oleic acid concentration inside the reactors. The high oleic acid concentration of 61.8mg/L for the 8.3% mixing ratio was responsible for the strong inhibition. This study showed that adjusting the appropriate mixing ratio of the NaOH-pretreated 2POMW could increase the electricity production of a reactor that regularly receives food waste. PMID:26489795

  4. Kinetic and products study of the gas-phase reaction of Lewisite with ozone under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Zhang, Yuanpeng; Guo, Xiaodi; Shao, Yusheng; Gao, Runli; Liang, Dejian; Sun, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The rate constant for the gas-phase reaction of O3 and Lewisite was studied in air using the smog chamber technique. The experiments were carried out under pseudo-first-order reaction conditions with [O3]≪[Lewisite]. The observed rate constant of O3 with Lewisite was (7.83 ± 0.38) × 10(-19)cm(3)/(molecule·sec) at 298 ± 2K. Lewisite was discussed in terms of reactivity with O3 and its relationship with the ionization potential. Our results show that the rate constant for the gas-phase reaction of O3 with Lewisite is in line with the trend of the rate constants of O3 with haloalkenes. PMID:26969539

  5. The effect of continuous Ni(II) exposure on the organic degradation and soluble microbial product (SMP) formation in two-phase anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Duan, Tengteng; Song, Hailiang; Li, Yan; Yu, Ang; Zhang, Long; Li, Aimin

    2015-07-01

    A two-phase anaerobic reactor fed with glucose substrate (3 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L) was used to investigate the effects of toxic metals on the degradation of organics and the soluble microbial product (SMP) formation. Low concentrations of Ni(II) (5 and 10 mg/L) promoted the acid phase, whereas high concentrations (15, 20, and 25 mg/L) exhibited an inhibitory effect on, but did not alter the fermentative method, which mainly involved the fermentation of propionic acid. The methanogenic microorganism exhibited a strong capability adapting constantly increased Ni(II) levels. The acid phase was an accumulation stage of SMP. In the absence of Ni(II), the high-molecular-weight material in the effluent SMP mainly contained polysaccharide, tryptophan, and casein. Methanogens metabolized most of the polysaccharide, the whole tryptophan content, and part of the casein, leading to the presence of humic acid and protein in effluent. After Ni(II) dosage, the protein and polysaccharide of the acid phase increased, and tryptophan changed, while casein remained stable. More protein than polysaccharide was produced, suggesting the prominent function of protein when addressing the negative effect of toxic metals. The analysis of DNA confirmed the change of bacterial activity. PMID:26141880

  6. Offline solid-phase extraction for preconcentration of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in environmental water and their simultaneous determination using the reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    G Archana; Dhodapkar, Rita; Kumar, Anupama

    2016-09-01

    The present study reports a precise and simple offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of five representative and commonly present pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), a new class of emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment. The target list of analytes including ciprofloxacin, acetaminophen, caffeine benzophenone and irgasan were separated by a simple HPLC method. The column used was a reversed-phase C18 column, and the mobile phase was 1 % acetic acid and methanol (20:80 v/v) under isocratic conditions, at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). The analytes were separated and detected within 15 min using the photodiode array detector (PDA). The linearity of the calibration curves were obtained with correlation coefficients 0.98-0.99.The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy and ruggedness demonstrated the reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity of the developed method. Prior to the analysis, the SPE was performed using a C18 cartridge to preconcentrate the targeted analytes from the environmental water samples. The developed method was applied to evaluate and fingerprint PPCPs in sewage collected from a residential engineering college campus, polluted water bodies such as Nag river and Pili river and the influent and effluent samples from a sewage treatment plant (STP) situated at Nagpur city, in the peak summer season. This method is useful for estimation of pollutants present in microquantities in the surface water bodies and treated sewage as compared to nanolevel pollutants detected by mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. PMID:27502523

  7. Anthropogenic Sulfur Perturbations on Biogenic Oxidation: SO2 Additions Impact Gas-Phase OH Oxidation Products of α- and β-Pinene.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Beth; Brophy, Patrick; Brune, William H; Farmer, Delphine K

    2016-02-01

    In order to probe how anthropogenic pollutants can impact the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic emissions, we investigated how sulfur dioxide (SO2) perturbations impact the oxidation of two monoterpenes, α-and β-pinene. We used chemical ionization mass spectrometry to examine changes in both individual molecules and gas-phase bulk properties of oxidation products as a function of SO2 addition. SO2 perturbations impacted the oxidation systems of α-and β-pinene, leading to an ensemble of products with a lesser degree of oxygenation than unperturbed systems. These changes may be due to shifts in the OH:HO2 ratio from SO2 oxidation and/or to SO3 reacting directly with organic molecules. Van Krevelen diagrams suggest a shift from gas-phase functionalization by alcohol/peroxide groups to functionalization by carboxylic acid or carbonyl groups, consistent with a decreased OH:HO2 ratio. Increasing relative humidity dampens the impact of the perturbation. This decrease in oxygenation may impact secondary organic aerosol formation in regions dominated by biogenic emissions with nearby SO2 sources. We observed sulfur-containing organic compounds following SO2 perturbations of monoterpene oxidation; whether these are the result of photochemistry or an instrumental artifact from ion-molecule clustering remains uncertain. However, our results demonstrate that the two monoterpene isomers produce unique suites of oxidation products.

  8. Efficient biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd by isolated Aspergillus versicolor, excreting β-glucosidase in the spore production phase of solid culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fujian; Guo, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-11-01

    Ginsenosides are the major pharmacological components in ginseng. Microorganisms from a ginseng field were isolated to identify transformation of ginsenosides. Based on HPLC and LC-MS analysis, strain LFJ1403 showed strong activities to transform ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd as the sole product. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA indicated that LFJ1403 belonged to Aspergillus versicolor. Through comparing four systems of transforming Rb1 to Rd, strain LFJ1403 was found to secrete ginsenoside-converting enzymes in the spore production phase of plate culture. This result suggested that the enzyme could be directly obtained from the plate. The spore suspension, which contained the exocrine enzyme, was easy to prepare and efficient for biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd. Further study showed that the maximum bioconversion rate was 96% (w/w) in shake flasks when a spore suspension system was used with optimized biotransformation conditions. Scale-up of this system to 2L resulted in an 85% conversion rate. The ginsenoside Rb1 converting enzyme was separated by gradient HPLC with Q-Sepharose column, and its β-glucosidase activity and Rb1-converting ability was assayed by the 4-Nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) method and HPLC with C18 column, respectively. We obtained 130 U ml(-1) enzymatic activity with the purified β-glucosidase. This is the first report on efficiently converting ginsenoside using extracellular enzyme directly from the fungus spore production phase of solid culture.

  9. Fast quantification of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in dietary health products utilizing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: teaching an old method new tricks.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jing-Ru; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Yang, Yuan-Han; Wu, Tung-Ying; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Wu, Shyh-Jong; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wu, Jiumn-Yih; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-02-01

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine is a ubiquitous methyl donor in living bodies. It is known to participate in several physiological processes including homocysteine metabolism and glutathione synthesis regulation, and cellular antioxidant mechanism. S-adenosyl-L-methionine containing dietary supplements has been prescribed recently for the treatment of depression, arthritis, and liver diseases with encouraging results. The development of an efficient analytical protocol for S-adenosyl-L-methionine containing dietary supplements is crucial for maintaining product quality and consumer health. In this study, the S-adenosyl-L-methionine content of several yeast products and commercial healthy food product samples was quantitatively analyzed utilizing HPLC. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase column and 2 % acetonitrile with a 98 % ammonium-acetate mobile phase under pH 4.5, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The wavelength used for detection with the UV detector was 254 nm. The total analysis time was short and the target compound showed a well-defined peak. The correlation coefficient of the regression curve showed good linearity and sensitivity with r = 0.999. All experiments were replicated five times and the relative standard deviations as well as the relative error values were all less than 3 %. Moreover, the achieved precision and accuracy values were high with 97.4-100.9 % recovery. Qualitative determination of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the tested products was achieved using NMR and LC-MS techniques. The developed protocol is robust, fast, and suitable for the quality control analysis of yeast and commercial S-adenosyl-L-methionine products. PMID:24488716

  10. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p < 0.05) by SFM treatment. Egg production rate was improved in hens fed the SFM diet (p < 0.05), as well as the percentage of medium-size eggs that was higher for SFM treatment (p < 0.05). Steroid hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  11. Design of a surface-based factory for the production of life support and technology support products. Phase 2: Integrated water system for a space colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of a conceptual design of an integrated water treatment system to support a space colony is presented. This includes a breathable air manufacturing system, a means of drilling for underground water, and storage of water for future use. The system is to supply quality water for biological consumption, farming, residential and industrial use and the water source is assumed to be artesian or subsurface and on Mars. Design criteria and major assumptions are itemized. A general block diagram of the expected treatment system is provided. The design capacity of the system is discussed, including a summary of potential users and the level of treatment required; and, finally, various treatment technologies are described.

  12. Evaluation of Selected Chemical Processes for Production of Low-cost Silicon, Phase 3. [using a fluidized bed reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The construction and operation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) for the production of granular semiconductor grade silicon by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles is presented. The construction of the process development unit (PDU) is reported. The PDU consists of four critical units of the EPSDU: the fluidized bed reactor, the reactor by product condenser, the zinc vaporizer, and the electrolytic cell. An experimental wetted wall condenser and its operation are described. Procedures are established for safe handling of SiCl4 leaks and spills from the EPSDU and PDU.

  13. The stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS, regulates the production of a carbapenem antibiotic, a bioactive prodigiosin and virulence in the enterobacterial pathogen Serratia sp. ATCC 39006.

    PubMed

    Wilf, Nabil M; Salmond, George P C

    2012-03-01

    Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is virulent in plant (potato) and invertebrate animal (Caenorhabditis elegans) models. It produces two secondary metabolite antibiotics, a prodigiosin and a carbapenem, and the exoenzymes pectate lyase and cellulase. We showed previously that deletion of the RNA chaperone Hfq abolished antibiotic production and attenuated virulence in both animal and plant hosts. Hfq and dependent small RNAs (sRNAs) are known to regulate the post-transcriptional expression of rpoS, which encodes σ(S), the stationary phase sigma factor subunit of RNA polymerase. An S39006 hfq deletion mutant showed decreased transcript levels of rpoS. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether the phenotypes regulated by Hfq were mediated through its control of rpoS. Whereas loss of Hfq abolished prodigiosin and carbapenem production and attenuated virulence in both C. elegans and potato, characterization of an S39006 rpoS mutant showed unexpectedly elevated prodigiosin and carbapenem production. Furthermore, the rpoS mutant exhibited attenuated animal pathogenesis, but not plant pathogenesis. Additionally, a homologue of the Hfq-dependent sRNA, RprA, was identified and shown to regulate prodigiosin production in a manner consistent with its role in positively regulating translation of rpoS mRNA. Combined, these results demonstrate that Hfq regulation of secondary metabolism and plant pathogenesis is independent of RpoS and establishes RpoS and RprA as regulators of antibiotic production.

  14. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Dagnac, Thierry; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria

    2012-12-28

    In this work, the development of a new efficient methodology applying, for the first time, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of sensitizer isothiazolinone biocides in cosmetics and household products - 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BzI) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI) - is described. The main factors affecting the MSPD extraction procedure, the dispersive phase and the elution solvent, are assessed and optimized through a multicategorical experimental design, using a real cosmetic sample. The most suitable extraction conditions comprise the use of 2g of florisil as dispersive phase and 5 mL of methanol as elution solvent. Subsequently, the extract is readily analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS without any further clean-up or concentration steps. Method performance was evaluated demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9980) and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) at the low nanogram per gram level, which are well below the required limits for UE regulation compliance. Satisfactory recoveries above 80%, except for MI (mean values close to 60%), were obtained. In all cases, the method precision (% RSD) was lower than 7%, making this low cost extraction method reliable for routine control. The validated methodology was finally applied to the analysis of a wide variety of cosmetics and household products. Most of the real samples analyzed have been shown to comply with the current European Cosmetic Regulation, although the results obtained for some rinse-off cosmetics (e.g. baby care products) revealed high isothiazolinone content. PMID:23182288

  15. Purine biosynthesis, riboflavin production, and trophic-phase span are controlled by a Myb-related transcription factor in the fungus Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Laura; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José L; Santos, María A

    2006-07-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a natural riboflavin overproducer used in the industrial production of the vitamin. We have isolated an insertional mutant exhibiting higher levels of riboflavin production than the wild type. DNA analysis of the targeted locus in the mutant strain revealed that a syntenic homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAS1 gene, a member of the Myb family of transcription factors, was inactivated. Directed gene disruption of AgBAS1 confirmed the phenotype observed for the insertional mutant, and the Deltabas1 mutant also showed auxotrophy for adenine and several growth defects, such as a delay in the germination of the spores and an abnormally prolonged trophic phase. Additionally, we demonstrate that the DNA-binding domain of AgBas1p is able to bind to the Bas1-binding motifs in the AgADE4 promoter; we also show a clear nuclear localization of a green fluorescent protein-Bas1 fusion protein. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses comparing the wild type and the Deltabas1 mutant revealed that AgBAS1 was responsible for the adenine-mediated regulation of the purine and glycine pathways, since the transcription of the ADE4 and SHM2 genes was virtually abolished in the Deltabas1 mutant. Furthermore, the transcription of ADE4 and SHM2 in the Deltabas1 mutant did not diminish during the transition from the trophic to the productive phase did not diminish, in contrast to what occurred in the wild-type strain. A C-terminal deletion in the AgBAS1 gene, comprising a hypothetical regulatory domain, caused constitutive activation of the purine and glycine pathways, enhanced riboflavin overproduction, and prolonged the trophic phase. Taking these results together, we propose that in A. gossypii, AgBAS1 is an important transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of different physiological processes, such as purine and glycine biosynthesis, riboflavin overproduction, and growth. PMID:16820505

  16. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Dagnac, Thierry; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria

    2012-12-28

    In this work, the development of a new efficient methodology applying, for the first time, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of sensitizer isothiazolinone biocides in cosmetics and household products - 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BzI) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI) - is described. The main factors affecting the MSPD extraction procedure, the dispersive phase and the elution solvent, are assessed and optimized through a multicategorical experimental design, using a real cosmetic sample. The most suitable extraction conditions comprise the use of 2g of florisil as dispersive phase and 5 mL of methanol as elution solvent. Subsequently, the extract is readily analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS without any further clean-up or concentration steps. Method performance was evaluated demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9980) and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) at the low nanogram per gram level, which are well below the required limits for UE regulation compliance. Satisfactory recoveries above 80%, except for MI (mean values close to 60%), were obtained. In all cases, the method precision (% RSD) was lower than 7%, making this low cost extraction method reliable for routine control. The validated methodology was finally applied to the analysis of a wide variety of cosmetics and household products. Most of the real samples analyzed have been shown to comply with the current European Cosmetic Regulation, although the results obtained for some rinse-off cosmetics (e.g. baby care products) revealed high isothiazolinone content.

  17. THE GAS PHASE REACTION OF OZONE WITH 1,3-BUTADIENE: FORMATION YIELDS OF SOME TOXIC PRODUCTS. (R826236)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product yields. In separa...

  18. APPLICATION OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION GC/MS TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROPHILIC DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has given high priority to research aimed at developing methods to extract hydrophilic disinfection by-products (DBPs) from drinking water. Public water supplies are treated with a variety of chemicals aimed at reducing or eliminating inf...

  19. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE 1) 1998 ANNUAL REPORT (EPA/600/R-98/065)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the first annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Cincinnati in March 1998. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, life cycle analysis, ecolabeling, and pollution prevention tools.

  20. Final Report of NATO/SPS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes (Phase I and II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early in 1998 the NATO Committee for Challenges to Modern Society (SPS) (Science for Peace and Security) approved the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes for an initial period of five years. The pilot was to provide a forum for member country representatives to discuss t...

  1. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  2. Comprehensive analysis of pharmaceutical products using simultaneous mixed-mode (ion-exchange/reversed-phase) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Soisungnoen, Phimpha; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax; Paull, Brett

    2014-08-01

    Liquid chromatographic assays were developed using a mixed-mode column coupled in sequence with a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column to allow the simultaneous comprehensive analysis of inorganic/organic anions and cations, active pharmaceutical ingredients, and excipients (carbohydrates). The approach utilized dual sample injection and valve-mediated column switching and was based upon a single high-performance liquid chromatography gradient pump. The separation consisted of three distinct sequential separation mechanisms, namely, (i) ion-exchange, (ii) mixed-mode interactions under an applied dual gradient (reversed-phase/ion-exchange), and (iii) hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Upon first injection, the Scherzo SS C18 column (Imtakt) provided resolution of inorganic anions and cations under isocratic conditions, followed by a dual organic/salt gradient to elute active pharmaceutical ingredients and their respective organic counterions and potential degradants. At the top of the mixed-mode gradient (high acetonitrile content), the mobile phase flow was switched to a preconditioned hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column, and the standard/sample was reinjected for the separation of hydrophilic carbohydrates, some of which are commonly known excipients in drug formulations. The approach afforded reproducible separation and resolution of up to 23 chemically diverse solutes in a single run. The method was applied to investigate the composition of commercial cough syrups (Robitussin®), allowing resolution and determination of inorganic ions, active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients, and numerous well-resolved unknown peaks. PMID:24890905

  3. Concentration characteristics of VOCs and acids/bases in the gas phase and water-soluble ions in the particle phase at an electrical industry park during construction and mass production.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun H; Huang, Yao S; Shieh, Zhu X; Chiang, Hung L

    2011-01-01

    The electronics industry is a major business in the Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP). Particulate samples and 11 water-soluble ionic species in the particulate phase were measured by ionic chromatography (IC). Additionally, acid and base gases were sampled by denuder absorption and analyzed by IC. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in stainless-steel canisters four times daily and analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ozone formation potential (OFP) was measured using maximum increment reactivity. In addition, airborne pollutants during (1) construction and (2) mass production were measured. Particulate matter concentration did not increase significantly near the optoelectronic plant during construction, but it was higher than during mass production. SO(2), HNO(2) and NH(3) were the dominant gases in the denuder absorption system. Nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium ions predominated both in PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5); but calcium ion concentration was significantly higher in PM(10-2.5) samples during construction. Toluene, propane, isopentane, and n-butane may have come from vehicle exhaust. Construction equipment emitted high concentrations of ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and toluene. During mass production, methyl ethyl ketone), acetone and ethyl acetate were significantly higher than during construction, although there was continuous rain. The aromatic group constituted >50% of the VOC concentration totals and contributed >70% of OFP.

  4. Phase 2: Seminars to US industry of TDA feasibility study. US export potential for oil and gas suppliers to Russian production associations. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-18

    The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Russian Production Association Varyeganneftegas Joint Stock Company (VNG JSC). It is a report Phase II of the Russian Oilfield Study, and it had two main objectives. The first was to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. private sector in sales of oilfield equipment and services; the second goal was to assist the World Bank and VNG JSC in efforts to rehabilitate their oilfields by familiarizing VNG representatives with U.S. production and service capabilities in the petroleum sector. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Background; (2) The Planning Stage; (3) The Implementation Stage; and (4) Conclusions.

  5. Production of xylitol and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol from xylan in napier grass by a hydrothermal process with phosphorus oxoacids followed by aqueous phase hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Takata, Eri; Tsuruoka, Tatsushi; Tsutsumi, Ken; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Tabata, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    The production of xylitol and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA) from napier grass was studied using two steps: a hydrothermal process with phosphorus oxoacids followed by aqueous phase hydrogenation with Pd/C. Xylose obtained from the napier grass by the hydrothermal treatment with 3.0 wt% phosphorous acid was subsequently converted into xylitol at 51.6% yield of the xylan in napier grass by hydrogenation with 5.0 wt% Pd/C. The furfural produced from napier grass with a 3.0 wt% phosphoric acid treatment was also directly subjected to the hydrogenation as a hydrolysate to yield 41.4% THFA based on the xylan in napier grass. The yields of xylitol and THFA obtained by hydrogenation using the napier grass hydrolysate containing xylose or furfural were almost the same as those of hydrogenation using commercial materials. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the production of THFA in high yield by hydrogenation directly from biomass hydrolysate.

  6. Atmospheric reactivity of hydroxyl radicals with guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), a biomass burning emitted compound: Secondary organic aerosol formation and gas-phase oxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauraguais, Amélie; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Cassez, Andy; Deboudt, Karine; Fourmentin, Marc; Choël, Marie

    2014-04-01

    Methoxyphenols are low molecular weight semi-volatile polar aromatic compounds produced from the pyrolysis of wood lignin. The reaction of guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) with hydroxyl radicals has been studied in the LPCA simulation chamber at (294 ± 2) K, atmospheric pressure, low relative humidity (RH < 1%) and under high-NOx conditions using CH3ONO as OH source. The aerosol production was monitored using a SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer); the SOA yields were in the range from 0.003 to 0.87 and the organic aerosol formation can be expressed by a one-product gas/particle partitioning absorption model. Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM) Electron Microscopy observations were performed to characterize the physical state of SOA produced from the OH reaction with guaiacol; they display both liquid and solid particles (in an amorphous state). GC-FID (Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) analysis show the formation of nitroguaiacol isomers as main oxidation products in the gas- and aerosol-phases. In the gas-phase, the formation yields were (10 ± 2) % for 4-nitroguaiacol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-nitrobenzene; 4-NG) and (6 ± 2) % for 3- or 6-nitroguaiacol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-3-nitrobenzene or 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-nitrobenzene; 3/6-NG; the standards are not commercially available so both isomers cannot be distinguished) whereas in SOA their yield were much lower (≤0.1%). To our knowledge, this work represents the first identification of nitroguaiacols as gaseous oxidation products of the OH reaction with guaiacol. As the reactivity of nitroguaiacols with atmospheric oxidants is probably low, we suggest using them as biomass burning emission gas tracers. The atmospheric implications of the guaiacol + OH reaction are also discussed.

  7. Direct thermal water splitting by concentrated solar radiation for hydrogen production. Phase O: Proof of concept experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genequand, P.

    1980-01-01

    The direct production of hydrogen from water and solar energy concentrated into a high temperature aperture is described. A solar powered reactor able to dissociate water vapor and to separate the reaction product at high temperature was developed, and direct water splitting has been achieved in a laboratory reactor. Water vapor and radiative heating from a carbon dioxide laser are fed into the reactor, and water vapor enriched in hydrogen and water vapor enriched in oxygen are produced. The enriched water vapors are separated through a separation membrane, a small disc of zirconium dioxide heated to a range of 1800 k to 2800 k. To avoid water vapor condensation within the reactor, the total pressure within the reactor was limited to 0.15 torr. A few modifications would enable the reactor to be operated at an increased pressure of a few torrs. More substantial modifications would allow for a reaction pressure of 0.1 atmosphere.

  8. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  9. Final report on the power production phase of the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the evaluations of the power production testing of Solar One, the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Pilot Plant, a cooperative project of the US Department of Energy and utility firms led by the Southern California Edison Company, began a three year period of power production operation in August 1984. During this period, plant performance indicators, such as capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability, were studied to assess the operational capability of the Pilot Plant to reliably supply electrical power. Also studied was the long-term performance of such key plant components as the heliostats and the receiver. During the three years of power production, the Pilot Plant showed an improvement in performance. Considerable increases in capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability were achieved. Heliostat operation was reliable, and only small amounts of mirror corrosion were observed. Receiver tube leaks did occur, however, and were the main cause of the plant's unscheduled outages. The Pilot Plant provided valuable lessons which will aid in the design of future solar central receiver plants. 53 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Gas-phase reaction products and yields of terpinolene with ozone and nitric oxide using a new derivatization agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Jason E.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Harrison, Joel C.; Wells, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The new derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX) was used to investigate the carbonyl reaction products from terpinolene ozonolysis. With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, four carbonyl compounds were detected: methylglyoxal (MG), 4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, (4MCH), 6-oxo-3-(propan-2-ylidene) heptanal (6OPH), and 3,6-dioxoheptanal (36DOH). The tricarbonyl 36DOH has not been previously observed. Using cyclohexane as a hydroxyl radical (OHrad) scavenger, the yields of 6OPH and 36DOH were reduced indicating the influence secondary OHrad radicals have on terpinolene ozonolysis products. However, the MG yield increased and the 4MCH yield was unchanged when OHrad radicals were scavenged suggesting they are only made by the terpinolene + O3 reaction. The detection of 36DOH using TBOX highlights the advantages of a smaller molecular weight derivatization agent for the detection of multi-carbonyl compounds. The product yields from terpinolene ozonolysis experiments conducted in the presence of 20 ppb nitric oxide (NO) remained unchanged except for MG which decreased. However, in experiments where O3 was kept constant at 50 ppb and NO was varied (20, 50, 100 ppb) MG, 6OPH, 36DOH decreased with increasing NO while 4MCH increased with increasing NO. The use of TBOX derivatization if combined with other derivatization agents may address a recurring need to simply and accurately detect multi-functional oxygenated species in air.

  11. Silicification of wood adopted for barrel production using pure silicon alkoxides in gas phase to avoid microbial colonisation.

    PubMed

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Widmann, Giacomo; Bertoldi, Daniela; Nardin, Tiziana; Callone, Emanuela; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a new approach, covering wood with silica-based material in order to protect it from spoilage due to microbial colonisation and avoiding the loss of the natural features of the wood. Wood specimens derived from wine barrels were treated with methyltriethoxysilane in gas phase, leading to the deposition of a silica nanofilm on the surface. (29)Si and (13)C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis observations showed the formation of a silica polymeric film on the wood samples, directly bonding with the wood constituents. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy quantification of Si showed a direct correlation between the treatment time and silica deposition on the surface of the wood. The silica-coated wood counteracted colonisation by the main wine spoilage microorganisms, without altering the migration from wood to wine of 21 simple phenols measured using a HPLC-Electrochemical Coulometric Detection.

  12. Production of low-density poly (4-methyl-1-pentene) foam via phase inversion from binary solvent/nonsovent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Simandl, R.F.; Robinson, D.N.; Bolinger, W.L.; Davis, W.E.

    1991-11-01

    Phase inversion from durene/naphthalene, durene/tmpdo, and durene/hexadecanol binary solvent/nonsolvent systems produced well interconnected, radiographically homogeneous, open-celled poly (4- methyl-1-pentene) or pmp foams. These foams ranged in density from 5 to 50 mg/cm{sup 2}. Foam homogeneity and casting efficiency were dependent on casting scheme, durene quality, solvent-to-nonsolvent ratio, and quench temperature. Foam density tracked linearly with dissolved-polymer content. Homogeneous, ultralow-density (5 to 6 mg/cm{sup 3}) foams were produced by using a 49/51 durene/naphthalene solvent eutectic. Foam hardness or firmness tracked somewhat linearly with foam density. Foams with densities above 20 mg/cm{sup 3} were too fragile to handle without damage.

  13. Silicification of wood adopted for barrel production using pure silicon alkoxides in gas phase to avoid microbial colonisation.

    PubMed

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Widmann, Giacomo; Bertoldi, Daniela; Nardin, Tiziana; Callone, Emanuela; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a new approach, covering wood with silica-based material in order to protect it from spoilage due to microbial colonisation and avoiding the loss of the natural features of the wood. Wood specimens derived from wine barrels were treated with methyltriethoxysilane in gas phase, leading to the deposition of a silica nanofilm on the surface. (29)Si and (13)C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis observations showed the formation of a silica polymeric film on the wood samples, directly bonding with the wood constituents. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy quantification of Si showed a direct correlation between the treatment time and silica deposition on the surface of the wood. The silica-coated wood counteracted colonisation by the main wine spoilage microorganisms, without altering the migration from wood to wine of 21 simple phenols measured using a HPLC-Electrochemical Coulometric Detection. PMID:25481070

  14. [Determination of deoxynivalenol in grain and its products by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Chen, Guosong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chongyu; Lü, Chen; Wu, Bin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Huilan; Ding, Tao

    2012-11-01

    A method was established for the determination of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in grain and its products based on solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was firstly extracted by acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v). The extract was then cleaned-up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x4. 6 mm, 2.6 microm) with a gradient elution using 0.3% per hundred ammonia solution-acetonitrile as mobile phases. The analysis of deoxynivalenol was performed under electrospray negative ionization mode. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N= 3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were 20 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg, respectively. A good linearity (r > 0.99) was achieved for the target compound over the range of 20-1000 pg/L. The recoveries at the three spiked levels (50, 100, 500 microg/kg) in the blank matrices such as flour, barley, soybean, rice, cornmeal, cassava and wheat, were varied from 75.6% to 111.0% with the relative standard deviations no more than 13. 0%. The method is accurate, efficient, sensitive and practical. The cost of pretreatment is obviously reduced by replacing immunoaffinity columns and Mycosep columns with HLB columns which have the same purification effect. PMID:23451526

  15. [Determination of deoxynivalenol in grain and its products by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Chen, Guosong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chongyu; Lü, Chen; Wu, Bin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Huilan; Ding, Tao

    2012-11-01

    A method was established for the determination of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in grain and its products based on solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was firstly extracted by acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v). The extract was then cleaned-up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x4. 6 mm, 2.6 microm) with a gradient elution using 0.3% per hundred ammonia solution-acetonitrile as mobile phases. The analysis of deoxynivalenol was performed under electrospray negative ionization mode. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N= 3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were 20 microg/kg and 50 microg/kg, respectively. A good linearity (r > 0.99) was achieved for the target compound over the range of 20-1000 pg/L. The recoveries at the three spiked levels (50, 100, 500 microg/kg) in the blank matrices such as flour, barley, soybean, rice, cornmeal, cassava and wheat, were varied from 75.6% to 111.0% with the relative standard deviations no more than 13. 0%. The method is accurate, efficient, sensitive and practical. The cost of pretreatment is obviously reduced by replacing immunoaffinity columns and Mycosep columns with HLB columns which have the same purification effect.

  16. Cloning of Toluene 4-Monooxygenase Genes and Application of Two-Phase System to the Production of the Anticancer Agent, Indirubin.

    PubMed

    Wongsaroj, Lampet; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Dubbs, James M; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Loprasert, Suvit

    2015-08-01

    Indirubin is a strong inhibitor of several eukaryotic cell signaling pathways and shows promise as a treatment for myelocytic leukemia and Alzheimer's disease. The tmoABCDEF operon, encoding the components of a novel toluene 4-monooxygenase from the paint factory soil isolate, Pseudomonas sp. M4, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. E. coli::pKSR12 expressing the tmo genes was used to develop a two-phase [dioctyl phthalate (DOP)/aqueous medium] culture system that was optimized to obtain maximal yields of indirubin from the starting substrate, indole. DOP was used as the organic phase to solubilize and sequester the toxic indole substrate, making possible the use of high indole concentrations that would otherwise interfere with growth in aqueous media. A 50 % (v/v) DOP two-phase system using tryptophan medium containing 3 mM cysteine, 5 mM indole, and 1 mM isatin yielded 102.4 mg/L of indirubin with no conversion of indole to the less valuable alternate product, indigo. PMID:25779640

  17. Economic analysis of uricase production under uncertainty: Contrast of chromatographic purification and aqueous two-phase extraction (with and without PEG recycle).

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, Mario A; Aguilar-Yáñez, José M; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    Uricase is the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of uric acid, the key molecule leading to gout in humans, into allantoin, but it is absent in humans. It has been produced as a PEGylated pharmaceutical where the purification is performed through three sequential chromatographic columns. More recently an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was reported that could recover Uricase with high yield and purity. Although the use of ATPS can decrease cost and time, it also generates a large amount of waste. The ability, therefore, to recycle key components of ATPS is of interest. Economic modelling is a powerful tool that allows the bioprocess engineer to compare possible outcomes and find areas where further research or optimization might be required without recourse to extensive experiments and time. This research provides an economic analysis using the commercial software BioSolve of the strategies for Uricase production: chromatographic and ATPS, and includes a third bioprocess that uses material recycling. The key parameters that affect the process the most were located via a sensitivity analysis and evaluated with a Monte Carlo analysis. Results show that ATPS is far less expensive than chromatography, but that there is an area where the cost of production of both bioprocesses overlap. Furthermore, recycling does not impact the cost of production. This study serves to provide a framework for the economic analysis of Uricase production using alternative techniques.

  18. Hexagonal phase WO{sub 3} nanorods: Hydrothermal preparation, formation mechanism and its photocatalytic O{sub 2} production under visible-light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tianyou; Ke, Dingning; Xiao, Jiangrong; Wang, Li; Hu, Jun; Zan, Ling

    2012-10-15

    WO{sub 3} with various morphologies and crystal phases were prepared via a hydrothermal process in the presence of different Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentrations. Experimental results indicated that the preferred growth face ((200) crystal plane) of hexagonal WO{sub 3} could adsorb abundant Na{sup +}, which induced the WO{sub 3} growing along [001] crystal direction to form nanorods, and hexagonal phase WO{sub 3} nanorods with diameter of 30-150 nm and length of 0.5-5 {mu}m were obtained in the presence of 0.25 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while excessive Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} led to a mixed crystal consisting of cubic H{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} and hexagonal WO{sub 3}. The photoactivities for O{sub 2} evolution for various products were investigated by using Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as a sacrificial reagent under visible-light irradiation, and the hexagonal phase WO{sub 3} nanorods show a better photoactivity than the other products with different morphologies and crystal phases due to its fast three-dimensional photogenerated carrier transfer along its special rod-shaped structure. - Graphical abstract: As a preferred growth plane, (200) plane of h-WO{sub 3} can adsorb abundant of Na{sup +}, which induces the WO{sub 3} growing along [001] direction to form nanorods with high length-diameter ratio. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3} with various morphologies were hydrothermally prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanorods with diameter of 30-150 nm can be obtained from 0.25 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanorods show a better photoactivity than the other products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The good photoactivity can be due to its fast carrier transfer along its rod-shaped structure.

  19. Influences of TiO2 phase structures on the structures and photocatalytic hydrogen production of CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanxu; Wang, Zhonglei; Huang, Weixin

    2016-12-01

    CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts employing TiO2 with different phase structures as well as P25 as supports were prepared, and their structures and activity for photocatalytic H2 production in methanol/water solution under simulated solar light were comparatively studied. Structural characterization results demonstrated that the TiO2 phase structure strongly affects the CuOx-TiO2 interaction and copper species in various CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts. The Cu2O-rutile TiO2 interaction is much stronger than the Cu2O-anatase TiO2 interaction, facilitates the interfacial charge transfer process within the Cu2O-rutile TiO2 heterojunction but disables supported Cu2O to catalyze the hole-participated methanol oxidation. The Cu2O-anatase TiO2 heterojunction with the appropriate Cu2O-anatase TiO2 interaction and thus the balancing efficiencies between the interfacial charge transfer process and hole-participated methanol oxidation is most photocatalytic active, and CuOx/P25 with the largest population of Cu2O-anatase TiO2 heterojunction exhibits the highest photocatalytic H2 production. These results provide novel insights in the applied surface science of CuOx/TiO2 photocatalysts.

  20. Simultaneous determination of triclosan, triclocarban, and transformation products of triclocarban in aqueous samples using solid-phase micro-extraction-HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jermiah Y; Chang, Matt S; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Wu, Gaston J

    2012-10-01

    The presence of triclosan and triclocarban, two endocrine-disrupting chemicals and antimicrobial agents, and transformation products of triclocarban, 1,3-di(phenyl)urea, 1,3-bis(4-chlorophenyl)urea and 1,3-bis(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea, in tap water, treated household drinking water, bottled water, and river water samples were investigated using solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with-HPLC-MS/MS, a rapid, green, and sensitive method. Factors influencing the quantity of the analytes extracted onto the solid-phase micro-extraction fiber, such as addition of salt, sample pH, extraction time, desorption time, and sample volume, were optimized using solid-phase micro-extraction-HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that the method gave satisfactory sensitivities and precisions for analyzing sub-part-per-trillion levels of triclosan, triclocarban, and transformation products of triclocarban in samples collected locally. The recoveries of analytes ranged from 97 to 107% for deionized water samples, and 99 to 110% for river water samples, and limits of detection were in the range of 0.32-3.44 and 0.38-4.67 ng/L for deionized water and river water samples, respectively. On average, the daily consumption of triclosan and triclocarban by an adult by consuming 2 liters of different types of drinking water were estimated to be in the range of 6.13-425 ng/day as a result of the concentrations of triclosan and triclocarban measured in this study.

  1. 1Alpha,25-(OH)2D3 acts in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation to enhance mineralization via accelerated production of mature matrix vesicles.

    PubMed

    Woeckel, V J; Alves, R D A M; Swagemakers, S M A; Eijken, M; Chiba, H; van der Eerden, B C J; van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2010-11-01

    1Alpha,25-dihydroxyitamin D(3) (1,25D3) deficiency leads to impaired bone mineralization. We used the human pre-osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO, which forms within 19 days of culture an extracellular matrix that starts to mineralize around day 12, to examine the mechanism by which 1,25D3 regulates osteoblasts and directly stimulates mineralization. Time phase studies showed that 1,25D3 treatment prior to the onset of mineralization, rather than during mineralization led to accelerated and enhanced mineralization. This is supported by the observation of unaltered stimulation by 1,25D3 even when osteoblasts were devitalized just prior to onset of mineralization and after 1,25D3 treatment. Gene Chip expression profiling identified the pre-mineralization and mineralization phase as two strongly distinctive transcriptional periods with only 0.6% overlap of genes regulated by 1,25D3. In neither phase 1,25D3 significantly altered expression of extracellular matrix genes. 1,25D3 significantly accelerated the production of mature matrix vesicles (MVs) in the pre-mineralization. Duration rather than timing determined the extent of the 1,25D3 effect. We propose the concept that besides indirect effects via intestinal calcium uptake 1,25D3 directly accelerates osteoblast-mediated mineralization via increased production of mature MVs in the period prior to mineralization. The accelerated deposition of mature MVs leads to an earlier onset and higher rate of mineralization. These effects are independent of changes in extracellular matrix protein composition. These data on 1,25D3, mineralization, and MV biology add new insights into the role of 1,25D3 in bone metabolism and emphasize the importance of MVs in bone and maintaining bone health and strength by optimal mineralization status.

  2. Experimental and theoretical understanding of the gas phase oxidation of atmospheric amides with OH radicals: kinetics, products, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Borduas, Nadine; da Silva, Gabriel; Murphy, Jennifer G; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-05-14

    Atmospheric amides have primary and secondary sources and are present in ambient air at low pptv levels. To better assess the fate of amides in the atmosphere, the room temperature (298 ± 3 K) rate coefficients of five different amides with OH radicals were determined in a 1 m(3) smog chamber using online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Formamide, the simplest amide, has a rate coefficient of (4.44 ± 0.46) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1) against OH, translating to an atmospheric lifetime of ∼1 day. N-methylformamide, N-methylacetamide and propanamide, alkyl versions of formamide, have rate coefficients of (10.1 ± 0.6) × 10(-12), (5.42 ± 0.19) × 10(-12), and (1.78 ± 0.43) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1), respectively. Acetamide was also investigated, but due to its slow oxidation kinetics, we report a range of (0.4-1.1) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1) for its rate coefficient with OH radicals. Oxidation products were monitored and quantified and their time traces were fitted using a simple kinetic box model. To further probe the mechanism, ab initio calculations are used to identify the initial radical products of the amide reactions with OH. Our results indicate that N-H abstractions are negligible in all cases, in contrast to what is predicted by structure-activity relationships. Instead, the reactions proceed via C-H abstraction from alkyl groups and from formyl C(O)-H bonds when available. The latter process leads to radicals that can readily react with O2 to form isocyanates, explaining the detection of toxic compounds such as isocyanic acid (HNCO) and methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO). These contaminants of significant interest are primary oxidation products in the photochemical oxidation of formamide and N-methylformamide, respectively.

  3. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  4. Reactivity of OH and CH3OH Between 22 and 64 K: Modelling the Gas Phase Production of CH3O in Barnard 1B

    PubMed Central

    Antiñolo, M.; Agúndez, M.; Jiménez, E.; Ballesteros, B.; Canosa, A.; Dib, G. El; Albaladejo, J.; Cernicharo, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, ultra-low temperature chemical kinetic experiments have demonstrated that some gas-phase reactions are much faster than previously thought. One example is the reaction between OH and CH3OH, which has been recently found to be accelerated at low temperatures yielding CH3O as main product. This finding opened the question of whether the CH3O observed in the dense core Barnard 1b could be formed by the gas-phase reaction of CH3OH and OH. Several chemical models including this reaction and grain-surface processes have been developed to explain the observed abundance of CH3O with little success. Here we report for the first time rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of OH and CH3OH down to a temperature of 22 K, very close to those in cold interstellar clouds. Two independent experimental set-ups based on the supersonic gas expansion technique coupled to the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique were used to determine rate coefficients in the temperature range 22-64 K. The temperature dependence obtained in this work can be expressed as k(22-64 K) = (3.6 ± 0.1) × 10−12(T/300 K)−(1.0±0.2) cm3 molecule−1 s−1. Implementing this expression in a chemical model of a cold dense cloud results in CH3O/CH3OH abundance ratios similar or slightly lower than the value of ∼ 3 × 10−3 observed in Barnard 1b. This finding confirms that the gas-phase reaction between OH and CH3OH is an important contributor to the formation of interstellar CH3O. The role of grain-surface processes in the formation of CH3O, although it cannot be fully neglected, remains controversial. PMID:27279655

  5. Reactivity of OH and CH3OH between 22 and 64 K: Modeling the Gas Phase Production of CH3O in Barnard 1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiñolo, M.; Agúndez, M.; Jiménez, E.; Ballesteros, B.; Canosa, A.; El Dib, G.; Albaladejo, J.; Cernicharo, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, ultra-low temperature chemical kinetic experiments have demonstrated that some gas-phase reactions are much faster than was previously thought. One example is the reaction between OH and CH3OH, which has recently been found to be accelerated at low temperatures yielding CH3O as its main product. This finding raised the question of whether or not the CH3O observed in the dense core Barnard 1b could be formed by the gas-phase reaction of CH3OH and OH. Several chemical models including this reaction and grain-surface processes have been developed to explain the observed abundance of CH3O, but they have met with little success. Here, we report for the first time the rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of OH and CH3OH down to a temperature of 22 K, which is very close to the temperature in cold interstellar clouds. Two independent experimental set-ups based on the supersonic gas expansion technique coupled to the pulsed laser photolysis laser-induced fluorescence technique were used to determine the rate coefficients in the temperature range 22-64 K. The temperature dependence obtained in this work can be expressed as k(22-64 K) = {(3.6+/- 0.1)× {10}-12(T/300{{K}})}-(1.0+/- 0.2) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Implementing this expression in a chemical model of a cold, dense cloud results in CH3O/CH3OH abundance ratios similar to or slightly lower than the value of ˜3 × 10-3 observed in Barnard 1b. This finding confirms that the gas-phase reaction between OH and CH3OH is an important contributor to the formation of interstellar CH3O. The role of grain-surface processes in the formation of CH3O, although it cannot be fully neglected, remains controversial.

  6. [Bio-hydrogen production from different pretreated sludge by Pseudomonas sp. GL1 and changes in the liquid phases].

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Guo, Liang; Li, Xiao-ming; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Yong-lin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Liu, Jing-jin; Yang, Zhi-qiang

    2008-04-01

    Batch tests of anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production by Pseudomonas sp. GL1 were investigated using sterilization, microwave and ultrasonication pretreated sludge as substrate. The profiles of soluble COD, protein, carbohydrate and pH value during the fermentation process were monitored. The results showed that only hydrogen and carbon dioxide were produced and methane was not observed during the process. A maximal hydrogen yield (30.07 mL x g(-1)) and bio-hydrogen content (81.45%) were obtained from the sterilization pretreated sludge run. The shortest lag time for hydrogen production was in ultrasonication pretreated sludge run (3 h), while the longest one was in sterilization pretreated sludge run (15 h), and the medial one was in microwave pretreated sludge run (12 h). It was found that the changes of sludge substrates (soluble COD, protein, carbohydrate and pH value) were various with different pretreated sludge during the fermentation process, especially in the sterilization sludge run, which implied that the pretreatment method could affect substrate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. GL1.

  7. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  8. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils. Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnsorg, R.W.; Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Lau, S.K.; Ko, F.K.; Schatz, K.

    1995-04-01

    As reinforcements for composites, VLS SiC fibrils have attractive mechanical properties including high-strength, high modulus, and excellent creep resistance. To make use of their excellent mechanical properties in a composite, a significant volume fraction (>10%) of aligned, long fibrils (>2 mm) needs to be consolidated in the ceramic matrix. The fibrils must be processed into an assembly that will allow for composite fabrication while maintaining fibril alignment and length. With Advanced Product Development (APD) as the yam fabrication subcontractor, Carborundum investigated several approaches to achieve this goaL including traditional yam-forming processes such as carding and air-vortex spinning and nontraditional processes such as tape forming and wet casting. Carborundum additionally performed an economic analysis for producing 500 and 10,000 pounds of SiC fibrils annually using both conservative and more aggressive processing parameters. With the aggressive approach, the projected costs for SiC fibril production for 500 and 10,000 pounds per year are $1,340/pound and $340/pound, respectively.

  9. DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu; Kool, Eric T

    2013-08-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as Δ(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation.

  10. High-throughput downstream process development for cell-based products using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Sarah; Gretzinger, Sarah; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Scheeder, Christian; Zimmermann, Philipp K; Oelmeier, Stefan A; Gottwald, Eric; Bogsnes, Are; Hansson, Mattias; Staby, Arne; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-09-16

    As the clinical development of cell-based therapeutics has evolved immensely within the past years, downstream processing strategies become more relevant than ever. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) enable the label-free, scalable, and cost-effective separation of cells, making them a promising tool for downstream processing of cell-based therapeutics. Here, we report the development of an automated robotic screening that enables high-throughput cell partitioning analysis in ATPS. We demonstrate that this setup enables fast and systematic investigation of factors influencing cell partitioning. Moreover, we examined and optimized separation conditions for the differentiable promyelocytic cell line HL-60 and used a counter-current distribution-model to investigate optimal separation conditions for a multi-stage purification process. Finally, we show that the separation of CD11b-positive and CD11b-negative HL-60 cells is possible after partial DMSO-mediated differentiation towards the granulocytic lineage. The modeling data indicate that complete peak separation is possible with 30 transfers, and >93% of CD11b-positive HL-60 cells can be recovered with >99% purity. The here described screening platform facilitates faster, cheaper, and more directed downstream process development for cell-based therapeutics and presents a powerful tool for translational research. PMID:27567679

  11. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for the production of hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming of sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Neira D'Angelo, M F; Ordomsky, V; Schouten, J C; van der Schaaf, J; Nijhuis, T A

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of the membrane serves to avoid water loss and to minimize the interaction between the ceramic support and water, thus reducing the risks of membrane degradation upon operation. The permeation of hydrogen is dominated by the diffusivity of the hydrogen in water. Thus, higher operation temperatures result in an increase of the flux of hydrogen. The differential pressure has a negative effect on the flux of hydrogen due to the presence of liquid in the larger pores. The membrane was suitable for use in APR, and yielded 2.5 times more hydrogen than a reference reactor (with no membrane). Removal of hydrogen through the membrane assists in the reaction by preventing its consumption in undesired reactions. PMID:24989121

  12. Preparation and application of reversed phase Chromatorotor for the isolation of natural products by centrifugal preparative chromatography.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Ilias; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Machumi, Francis; Zakia, Mohamed Ahmed; Mohammed, Rabab; Hetta, Mona H; Gillum, Van

    2013-03-01

    A method of preparation of rotors with a reversed phase (RP) solid silica gel sorbent layer has been developed for centrifugal preparative chromatography (CPC), also known as rotational planar chromatography (RPC). The rotors consist of binder free RP solid SiO2 layers of different thicknesses packed between two supported circular glass discs and can be used in any appropriate device for centrifugal chromatography, like Chromatotron and CycloGraph. Polar and /or semi-polar compounds with close R(f) values, as well as extracts and column fractions were separated and/or purified in a preparative and/or semi-preparative scale using the RP rotors, eluted with mixtures of aqueous-based solvents. We herein report three examples of its application, using RP Chromatorotors, for the isolation of the diastereoisomeric alkaloids banistenosides I and II from Banisteriopsis caapi, saponins III and IV from Fagonia cretica, and the sesquiterpenes artemisinin (V) and artemisinic acid (VI) from Artemisia annua. PMID:23678798

  13. Solid-Phase Enrichment and Analysis of Azide-Labeled Natural Products: Fishing Downstream of Biochemical Pathways.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Alexander J; Wesche, Frank; Adihou, Hélène; Bode, Helge B

    2016-01-11

    Many methods have been devised over the decades to trace precursors of specific molecules in cellular environments as, for example, in biosynthesis studies. The advent of click chemistry has facilitated the powerful combination of tracing and at the same time sieving the highly complex metabolome for compounds derived from simple or complex starting materials, especially when the click reaction takes place on a solid support. While the principle of solid-phase click reactions has already been successfully applied for selective protein and peptide enrichment, the successful enrichment of much smaller primary and secondary metabolites, showing great structural diversity and undergoing many different biosynthetic steps, has seen only little development. For bacterial secondary metabolism, a far broader tolerance for "clickable" precursors was observed than in ribosomal proteinogenesis, thus making this method a surprisingly valuable tool for the tracking and discovery of compounds within the cellular biochemical network. The implementation of this method has led to the identification of several new compounds from the bacterial genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, clearly proving its power.

  14. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for the production of hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming of sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Neira D'Angelo, M F; Ordomsky, V; Schouten, J C; van der Schaaf, J; Nijhuis, T A

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of the membrane serves to avoid water loss and to minimize the interaction between the ceramic support and water, thus reducing the risks of membrane degradation upon operation. The permeation of hydrogen is dominated by the diffusivity of the hydrogen in water. Thus, higher operation temperatures result in an increase of the flux of hydrogen. The differential pressure has a negative effect on the flux of hydrogen due to the presence of liquid in the larger pores. The membrane was suitable for use in APR, and yielded 2.5 times more hydrogen than a reference reactor (with no membrane). Removal of hydrogen through the membrane assists in the reaction by preventing its consumption in undesired reactions.

  15. Ethanol production via fungal decomposition and fermentation of biomass. Phase II. Semiannual progress report, October 1980-March 1981. [To ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.; Wene, E.G.

    1981-03-01

    A literature review reveals that Fusarium strains decompose cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, as well as ferment five- and six-carbon sugars to ethanol. During the first part of Phase II (first half of FY 1981) in this program, research efforts focused mainly on continuing the: (a) isolating, culturing, and maintaining of Fusarium strains for biochemical evaluation; (b) screening for potentially cellulolytic F. strains; (c) searching for lignolytic and hemicellulolytic F. strains; (d) screening for effective pentose- and hexose-fermenting F. strains; and (e) evaluating various methods and materials for the optimization of certain fermentation parameters. Approximately 200 additional Fusarium isolates were isolated and screened; all showed cellulolytic activity, with 50 showing increased activity. Several isolates that formed fusoid to spheroid spores and cells on xylan media were observed to retain their morphology in cellulose suspensions. All tested isolates were found to ferment glucose to ethanol; some yielded amounts of ethanol approaching those produced by yeast. In screening more than 600 isolates for xylose fermentation, 25 were identified as effective fermenters. Reutilization of inoculum during consecutive fermentations was employed to facilitate higher ethanol yields from xylose. A few Fusarium isolates indicated relatively high ethanol tolerability.

  16. Production of biogenic amines "in vitro" in relation to the growth phase by Enterobacteriaceae species isolated from traditional sausages.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Gómez, María; Franco, Inmaculada; Carballo, Javier

    2010-11-01

    Histidine, lysine, ornithine and tyrosine decarboxylase activities were tested in 79 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (41 of Hafnia alvei, 17 of Serratia liquefaciens, 5 of Enterobacter cloacae, 4 of Citrobacter braakii, 2 of Proteus vulgaris, 2 of Proteus mirabilis, 2 of Providencia stuartii, 2 of Klebsiella terrigena, 1 of Rahnella aquatilis, 1 of Salmonella arizonae, 1 of Citrobacter youngae and 1 of Escherichia coli) isolated from Botillo, a Spanish traditional sausage. In general, the strains were positive for all four activities, with the exception of two strains of H. alvei and the E. coli strain, which did not display histidine decarboxylase activity. The strains of P. mirabilis and P. stuartii did not exhibit any of the four activities tested. Accumulation of putrescine and cadaverine was studied throughout growth of the 75 strains that displayed ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activities. Biogenic amines were produced particularly in the exponential phase, with maximum accumulation occurring after between 12 to 72 h, depending on the biogenic amine and microbial species considered. Maximum accumulation of putrescine varied greatly between species and within the same species, and ranged from 18 mg/l in the R. aquatilis strain to 7325 mg/l in a H. alvei strain. Maximum accumulation of cadaverine varied less than that of putrescine, and ranged from 30 mg/l in the R. aquatilis strain to 1935 mg/l in a S. liquefaciens strain. PMID:20673614

  17. SUPERGLASS. Engineering field tests - Phase 3. Production, market planning, and product evaluation for a high-thermal-performance insulating glass design utilizing HEAT MIRROR transparent insulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilford, C L

    1982-11-01

    HEAT MIRROR transparent window insulation consists of a clear polyester film two mils (.002'') thick with a thin, clear low-emissivity (.15) coating deposited on one side by state-of-the-art vacuum deposition processes. This neutral-colored invisible coating reflects long-wave infrared energy (heat). When mounted by being stretched with a 1/2'' air-gap on each side of the film, the resulting unit reduces heat loss by 60% compared to dual insulating glass. Southwall Corporation produces HEAT MIRROR transparent insulation and markets it to manufacturers of sealed insulating glass (I.G.) units and window and building manufacturers who make their own I.G. These companies build and sell the SUPERGLASS sealed glazing units. Units made and installed in buildings by six customers were visited. These units were located in many geographic regions, including the Pacific Northwest, Rocky Mountains, New England, Southeast, and West Coast. As much as could be obtained of their history was recorded, as was their current condition and performance. These units had been in place from two weeks to over a year. All of the units were performing thermally very well, as measured by taking temperature profiles through them and through adjacent conventional I.G. units. Some units had minor visual defects (attributed to I.G. assembly techniques) which are discussed in detail. Overall occupant acceptance was enthusiastically positive. In addition to saving energy, without compromise of optical quality or appearance, the product makes rooms with large glazing areas comfortable to be in in cold weather. All defects observed were present when built; there appears to be no in-field degradation of quality at this time.

  18. Experimental and theoretical understanding of the gas phase oxidation of atmospheric amides with OH radicals: kinetics, products, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Borduas, Nadine; da Silva, Gabriel; Murphy, Jennifer G; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-05-14

    Atmospheric amides have primary and secondary sources and are present in ambient air at low pptv levels. To better assess the fate of amides in the atmosphere, the room temperature (298 ± 3 K) rate coefficients of five different amides with OH radicals were determined in a 1 m(3) smog chamber using online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Formamide, the simplest amide, has a rate coefficient of (4.44 ± 0.46) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1) against OH, translating to an atmospheric lifetime of ∼1 day. N-methylformamide, N-methylacetamide and propanamide, alkyl versions of formamide, have rate coefficients of (10.1 ± 0.6) × 10(-12), (5.42 ± 0.19) × 10(-12), and (1.78 ± 0.43) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1), respectively. Acetamide was also investigated, but due to its slow oxidation kinetics, we report a range of (0.4-1.1) × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1) for its rate coefficient with OH radicals. Oxidation products were monitored and quantified and their time traces were fitted using a simple kinetic box model. To further probe the mechanism, ab initio calculations are used to identify the initial radical products of the amide reactions with OH. Our results indicate that N-H abstractions are negligible in all cases, in contrast to what is predicted by structure-activity relationships. Instead, the reactions proceed via C-H abstraction from alkyl groups and from formyl C(O)-H bonds when available. The latter process leads to radicals that can readily react with O2 to form isocyanates, explaining the detection of toxic compounds such as isocyanic acid (HNCO) and methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO). These contaminants of significant interest are primary oxidation products in the photochemical oxidation of formamide and N-methylformamide, respectively. PMID:25019427

  19. Waste-heat mariculture of striped bass for population enhancement and food production. Final report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Olst, J.C.; Carlberg, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    Biological and economic data were obtained to determine whether the culture of striped bass (Morona saxatilis) in power plant thermal effluent could be a cost-effective means of utilizing an otherwise wasted energy resource to provide additional supplies of high-quality seafood. Experiments were conducted to provide some of the data necessary to predict tank-carrying capacity, food-conversion efficiency, and water flow requirements for striped bass cultured at high density in future commercial-scale operations. Computer models were developed for several modes of operation of a theoretical commercial production facility, and return-on-investment calculations were made which indicated that substantial profits are possible. At these sites, no heating or pumping of water would be required, and an annual return-on-operating costs of 103% was estimated.

  20. Production of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides in the gas phase reactions of ozone with natural alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Simonaitis, R.; Olszyna, K.J.; Meagher, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and organic peroxides in the reaction of O{sub 3} with trans-2-butene and naturally occurring alkenes has been studied using a 31 m{sup 3} reaction chamber. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and organic peroxides were found to be products of the O{sub 3} reaction with trans-2-butene, isoprene, {alpha} and {beta}-pinene, and limonene. Water is necessary for the formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and most of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed via a route that does not involve HO{sub 2} radicals. These results indicate that the reaction of O{sub 3} with natural alkenes may be a significant source of atmospheric H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, particularly in forest and rural areas.

  1. Products of the gas-phase reactions of 1,3-butadiene with OH and NO{sub 3} radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, E.C.; Alvarado, A.; Aschmann, S.M.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1999-10-15

    1,3-Butadiene is emitted into the atmosphere from a number of sources including combustion sources and is listed in the US as a hazardous air pollutant. In the atmosphere, 1,3-butadiene reacts with OH radicals, NO{sub 3} radicals, and O{sub 3} with the dominant tropospheric removal processes being daytime reaction with the OH radical and nighttime reaction with the NO{sub 3} radical. The authors have used gas chromatography, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy, and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS) to identify and quantify the products formed from the reactions of 1,3-butadiene with OH radicals (in the presence of NO) and NO{sub 3} radicals. Acrolein, formaldehyde, and furan were identified and quantified from the OH radical-initiated reaction, with formation yields of 0.58 {+-} 0.04, 0.62 {+-} 0.05, and 0.03--0.04, respectively. Organic nitrates were observed by FT-IR spectroscopy with an estimated yield of 0.07 {+-} 0.03, and the API-MS analyses indicated that these organic nitrates are mainly the hydroxynitrate HOCH{sub 2}CH=CHCH{sub 2}ONO{sub 2} and/or its isomers. API-MS analyses showed the formation of a hydroxycarbonyl with the formula C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}, attributed to HOCH{sub 2}CH=CHCHO and/or its isomers. The major products of the NO{sub 3} radical-initiated reaction were organic nitrates; the API-MS analyses indicated the formation of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene, and unsaturated C{sub 4}-hydroxycarbonyls, hydroxynitrates, carbonyl nitrates, and nitrooxyhydroperoxides. Acrolein, HCHO, and furan were again quantified by gas chromatographic and FT-IR analyses. The data is compared with previous literature studies, and detailed reaction mechanisms are presented and discussed.

  2. Analysis of plasticizers and synthetic musks in cosmetic and personal care products by matrix solid-phase dispersion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Llompart, Maria; Celeiro, Maria; Pablo Lamas, J; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for the rapid determination of 18 plasticizers (phthalates and adipates), 7 polycyclic musks and 5 nitromusks, which makes a total of 30 targets, in both rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic formulations. The MSPD method was miniaturized and customized to avoid or minimize risks of phthalate contamination and to reduce residues and costs. The amount of sample and extraction solvent employed were 0.1g and 1mL, respectively. The procedure was optimized by means of an experimental design and under the optima conditions it showed satisfactory linearity, repeatability and intermediate precision. LOQs were, in general, in the low ngg(-1), and recoveries were quantitative for all the 18 plasticizers and the 12 fragrances. Twenty-six cosmetic products such as creams, emulsions, lotions, gels for the skin, bath and shower preparations, deodorants, hair-setting, hair-cleansing and hair-conditioning products, shaving products, and sunbathing products, were analyzed. Twenty-five out of thirty targets were detected in the samples. The most frequently found compounds were galaxolide and tonalide reaching concentrations above 0.1% (1000μgg(-1)), and diethyl phthalate (between 0.7 and 357μgg(-1)). The presence of banned substances (Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009) such as dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dimethoxyethyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, diisopentyl phthalate and dipentyl phthalate, musk ambrette and musk tibetene was confirmed in sixteen of the twenty-six personal care products (62%).

  3. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  4. Cloning of a Serratia marcescens DNA fragment that induces quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase-mediated gluconic acid production in Escherichia coli in the presence of stationary phase Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, P U; Goldstein, A H

    2001-12-18

    Serratia marcescens ER2 was isolated from an endorhizosphere sample based on its high level of mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) activity. This phenotype was correlated with expression of the direct oxidation pathway. An ER2 plasmid library constructed in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha was screened for MPS activity. A recombinant clone DH5alpha (pKG3791) was capable of gluconic acid (GA) production and tricalcium phosphate solubilization but only in the presence of stationary phase ER2 cells. GA production in DH5alpha (pKG3791) was apparently the result of the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase activity because AG121 (a Tn5 knockout of gcd) carrying pKG3791 did not produce GA under the same conditions. GA production by DH5alpha (pKG3791) was not observed when ER2 was replaced by another PQQ-producing strain bacterium. These data add to a growing body of evidence that E. coli contains some type of PQQ biosynthesis pathway distinct from those previously characterized in Gram-negative bacteria and that these genes may be induced under appropriate conditions.

  5. Molten salt synthesis (MSS) of Cu{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}-New way for large-scale production of Chevrel phases

    SciTech Connect

    Lancry, E. . E-mail: eli.lancry@intel.com; Levi, E.; Mitelman, A.; Malovany, S.; Aurbach, D.

    2006-06-15

    The Chevrel phase (CP), Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}, was found to be an excellent cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries. Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} is obtained by a leaching process of Cu{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}, which removes the copper. A new method of Cu{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} production was developed. In contrast to the well-known solid-state synthesis of CP, the method is based on the reaction in a molten salt media (KCl). A fast kinetics of this reaction allows using less active, but more convenient precursors (sulfides instead of sulfur), decreasing temperature and synthesis duration, as well as operation in the inert atmosphere instead of dynamic evacuated systems. It was shown that the composition and the electrochemical behavior of the products obtained by MSS and by the solid-state synthesis are identical. Thus, the molten salt method is extremely attractive for the large-scale production of the active materials for Mg batteries. - Graphical abstract: The layout of the molten salt synthesis system.

  6. Production of extra-cellular slime by Staphylococcus epidermidis during stationary phase of growth: its association with adherence to implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Bayston, R; Rodgers, J

    1990-10-01

    A method of optimising slime production produced by Staphylococcus epidermis and its quantitative assay was developed, which gave a preliminary indication of its identity and an assessment of the correlation between slime production and adherence of the organism to implants. After inducing vigorous growth in brain heart infusion broth to stationary phase, all nutrients were removed by washing and the organisms resuspended in sterile deionised water with added magnesium. After further incubation the culture was centrifuged and the supernatant reacted with alcian blue in 50 mM magnesium chloride/sodium acetate solution, and the amount of bound dye was measured spectrophotometrically at 620 nm after its resolubilisation using sodium dodecyl sulphate. Large quantities of slime were produced by some, but not all, strains. Preliminary electrophoresis of the slime showed mobility and staining similar to that of the glycosaminoglycans. Adherence was tested by growing strains in wells of tissue culture plates and aspirating the supernatant after incubation. After fixation and staining of adherent growth the amount of bound stain was determined spectrophotometrically after its elution with ethanol. In this series of organisms there was no correlation between the result of tests for adherence or production of extracellular slime, and no correlation between either of these and the clinical source of the organisms. PMID:2229437

  7. Production of Seamless Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities from Ultra-fine Grained Niobium, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Crooks, Ph.D., P.E.

    2009-10-31

    The positron and electron linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) will require over 14,000, nine-cell, one meter length, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities [ILC Reference Design Report, 2007]. Manufacturing on this scale will benefit from more efficient fabrication methods. The current methods of fabricating SRF cavities involve deep drawing of the halves of each of the elliptical cells and joining them by high-vacuum, electron beam welding, with at least 19 circumferential welds per cavity. The welding is costly and has undesirable effects on the cavity surfaces, including grain-scale surface roughening at the weld seams. Hydroforming of seamless tubes avoids welding, but hydroforming of coarse-grained seamless tubes results in strain-induced surface roughening. Surface roughness limits accelerating fields, because asperities prematurely exceed the critical magnetic field and become normal conducting. This project explored the technical and economic feasibility of an improved processing method for seamless tubes for hydroforming. Severe deformation of bulk material was first used to produce a fine structure, followed by extrusion and flow-forming methods of tube making. Extrusion of the randomly oriented, fine-grained bulk material proceeded under largely steady-state conditions, and resulted in a uniform structure, which was found to be finer and more crystallographically random than standard (high purity) RRR niobium sheet metal. A 165 mm diameter billet of RRR grade niobium was processed into five, 150 mm I.D. tubes, each over 1.8 m in length, to meet the dimensions used by the DESY ILC hydroforming machine. Mechanical properties met specifications. Costs of prototype tube production were approximately twice the price of RRR niobium sheet, and are expected to be comparable with economies of scale. Hydroforming and superconducting testing will be pursued in subsequent collaborations with DESY and Fermilab. SRF Cavities are used to construct

  8. Effect of Production Phase on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Feed Selection of Broilers Raised on Vegetable Protein Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. A.; Islam, A. F.; Iji, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study consisted of two experiments, conducted to assess the impact of phase at which vegetable protein (VP) diets are introduced to broiler chicks, and preference of birds for diets based on soybean or canola meal (CM). Two hundred and ten day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary groups in the main experiment. One group was fed on animal protein (AP) diet all through to 21 days of age; two other groups were started on AP diet for 7 days and then switched to diets containing soybean meal (AP-SBM) or AP-CM, while two other diets (SBM-AP and CM-AP) were started on one of the VP diets for 7 days and then switched to AP diet. A sub-experiment on thirty birds raised on a commercial diet to 7 days was used in a feed selection test to quantify the preference of birds for the diets containing mainly CM or SBM. Chicks were reared under similar care and management conditions and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results of the main experiment showed that chicks on CM-AP diet ate more (p<0.05) than those on the other diets up to day 7. Body weight gain was highest (p<0.001) on the AP-SBM diet while birds on the CM-AP diet weighed the least at 7 d. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, bone growth, visceral organ development, and activities of digestive enzymes were similar between the groups from hatch to 21 days of age. Results of the second sub-experiment showed that chicks preferred the CM-based diets to the SBM-based diets at 8 to 14 d (p<0.001) and 15 to 21 d (p<0.01) when given a choice. Overall, the birds were not affected by the nature of the starter diet although they tended to prefer the canola to soybean diets. PMID:25358319

  9. Monitoring Domoic Acid production by Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking off the Santa Cruz Municipal Warf, Santa Cruz, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.; Ziccarelli, L.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Certain species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia are producers of the neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA). DA is known to cause amnesic shellfish poisoning also known as domoic acid poisoning, which can lead to permanent brain damage in humans and marine mammals. DA accumulates at higher trophic levels, generally due to consumption of toxic cells or through trophic transfer, and can potentially cause death of both humans and marine wildlife. The Santa Cruz Municipal Warf experiences periodic rises in DA concentrations, which can reach toxic levels in shellfish, fish, and other marine organisms. While these increases in toxicity often occur during Pseudo-nitzschia blooms, several periods of elevated DA have occurred when diatom abundance is restricted and/or dominated by non-toxic species, and there is increasing evidence that DA dissolved in seawater may be prevalent. One theory suggests that senescent or dead Pseudo-nitzschia cells sink to the benthos while retaining their toxin and are buried in sediment following the death of a bloom. Therefore, DA may accumulate in the benthos, where it is eventually released during storms or wave and tide conditions that disturb the sediment. We sampled DA in situ using Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) bags SPATT uses a synthetic resin to capture dissolved DA, allowing for the determination of integrated DA concentrations at known time intervals. The alternative method is mussel biotoxin monitoring, but it is less accurate due to uncertainties in the time of DA accumulation within the mussel, and the lack of uptake of dissolved DA by the mussel. We deployed and collected SPATT off the Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf at multiple depths beginning in February 2013. We expect to see increasing DA following the death of a harmful algal bloom. Under pre-bloom conditions, little to no DA has been detected in mussels or surface SPATT, but DA from SPATT is frequently observed at depth, suggesting that the sediment is exposed to

  10. Stability of catechins in green tea nutraceutical products: application of solid phase extraction-thin layer chromatography densitometry.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, Heba-Alla H; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Zaazaa, Hala E; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2014-08-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a powerful antioxidant and commonly used nutraceutical. Accelerated stability of EGCG in tablet formulations was investigated. LLE and SPE were employed for sample clean-up and enrichment of EGCG over caffeine. Samples were analysed after spiking with fixed concentration of gallic acid (GA), in order to verify reproducibility of analysis. A TLC-densitometric assay was developed and validated for determination of % loss EGCG. EGCG, GA and caffeine were resolved with Rf values 0.54, 0.69 and 0.80, respectively. LC-MS/MS was used to verify identity and purity of the EGCG band. Determination was carried out over a concentration range of 0.50-5.00μg/band and 0.20-2.40μg/band for GA and caffeine, respectively. Results showed significant reduction in EGCG content after one, three and six months: 24.00%, 28.00% and 52.00% respectively. Results continue to demonstrate that stability of nutraceutical products should be investigated in-depth using industry-oriented protocols before granting marketing authorisation. PMID:24629943

  11. Stability of catechins in green tea nutraceutical products: application of solid phase extraction-thin layer chromatography densitometry.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, Heba-Alla H; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Zaazaa, Hala E; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2014-08-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a powerful antioxidant and commonly used nutraceutical. Accelerated stability of EGCG in tablet formulations was investigated. LLE and SPE were employed for sample clean-up and enrichment of EGCG over caffeine. Samples were analysed after spiking with fixed concentration of gallic acid (GA), in order to verify reproducibility of analysis. A TLC-densitometric assay was developed and validated for determination of % loss EGCG. EGCG, GA and caffeine were resolved with Rf values 0.54, 0.69 and 0.80, respectively. LC-MS/MS was used to verify identity and purity of the EGCG band. Determination was carried out over a concentration range of 0.50-5.00μg/band and 0.20-2.40μg/band for GA and caffeine, respectively. Results showed significant reduction in EGCG content after one, three and six months: 24.00%, 28.00% and 52.00% respectively. Results continue to demonstrate that stability of nutraceutical products should be investigated in-depth using industry-oriented protocols before granting marketing authorisation.

  12. Laboratory and Ambient Studies of the Products of Gas-Phase Hydroxyl and Nitrate Ion Radical-Initiated Reactions with Selected PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Kathryn Jean

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) product distributions from the gas-phase hydroxyl (OH) and nitrate (NO3) radical-initiated reactions with selected PAHs, as well as the heterogeneous reactions of surface-bound PAHs with N2O5 and HNO3, were investigated. Chapter 2 presents formation yields of nitro-PAHs from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reactions of 1,7- and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) as a function of NO 2 concentration over the range 0.04-0.14 ppmv. The measured formation yields of dimethylnitronaphthalenes (DMNNs) under conditions that the OH-DMN adducts reacted solely with NO2 were 0.252 ± 0.094% for Σ1,7-DMNNs and 0.010 ± 0.005% for Σ2,7-DMNNs. 1,7-dimethyl-5-nitronaphthalene (1,7DM5NN) was the major nitro-isomer formed, with a limiting high-NO 2 concentration yield of 0.212 ± 0.080% and with equal reactions of the 1,7-DMN-OH adduct with NO2 and O2 occurring in air at 60 ± 39 ppbv of NO2, indicating that the OH-DMN adduct reaction with NO2 can be important at NO2 concentrations commonly found in urban atmospheres. Although the yields of the DMNNs are low, ≤0.3%, the DMNN (and ethylnitronaphthalene) profiles from chamber experiments match well with those observed in polluted urban areas under conditions where OH radical-initiated chemistry is dominant, such as Mexico City, Mexico. Chapter 3 examines the nitro-PAH products of gas-phase OH and NO 3 radicals and heterogeneous N2O5 reactions with fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and triphenylene. Analysis of nitro-PAHs in the NIST diesel particulate SRM (1975) and selected ambient samples are also presented. 2-Nitrofluoranthene (2-NFL) was the most abundant nitro-PAH in Riverside, CA and Mexico City, and the mw 273 nitro-PAHs were observed in lower concentrations. However, in Tokyo, Japan, concentrations of 1- + 2-nitrotriphenylene (NTP) were more similar to those of 2-NFL. Comparing specific nitro-PAH ratios in ambient particulate samples from Tokyo, Mexico City

  13. A tobacco-free world: a call to action to phase out the sale of tobacco products by 2040.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Yach, Derek; Mackay, Judith; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-03-14

    The time has come for the world to acknowledge the unacceptability of the damage being done by the tobacco industry and work towards a world essentially free from the sale (legal and illegal) of tobacco products. A tobacco-free world by 2040, where less than 5% of the world's adult population use tobacco, is socially desirable, technically feasible, and could become politically practical. Three possible ways forward exist: so-called business-as-usual, with most countries steadily implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provisions; accelerated implementation of the FCTC by all countries; and a so-called turbo-charged approach that complements FCTC actions with strengthened UN leadership, full engagement of all sectors, and increased investment in tobacco control. Only the turbo-charged approach will achieve a tobacco-free world by 2040 where tobacco is out of sight, out of mind, and out of fashion--yet not prohibited. The first and most urgent priority is the inclusion of an ambitious tobacco target in the post-2015 sustainable development health goal. The second priority is accelerated implementation of the FCTC policies in all countries, with full engagement from all sectors including the private sector--from workplaces to pharmacies--and with increased national and global investment. The third priority is an amendment of the FCTC to include an ambitious global tobacco reduction goal. The fourth priority is a UN high-level meeting on tobacco use to galvanise global action towards the 2040 tobacco-free world goal on the basis of new strategies, new resources, and new players. Decisive and strategic action on this bold vision will prevent hundreds of millions of unnecessary deaths during the remainder of this century and safeguard future generations from the ravages of tobacco use.

  14. Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of natural mineral phases and their weathering products inside an abandoned zinc/lead mine.

    PubMed

    Goienaga, N; Arrieta, N; Carrero, J A; Olivares, M; Sarmiento, A; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2011-10-01

    Mining activities provide a good source of minerals of different nature. On the one hand, the primary minerals for whose formation a geological time-scale is required. On the other hand, secondary minerals, formed from removed products after the earlier weathering and alteration states. These are characteristic of the local geology and the environment context that commonly appears due to the low chemical stability of their original primary minerals. This work shows how quickly the reactions promoting secondary minerals may have taken place, due to the fact that these were found in newly formed solid materials called efflorescences. To achieve this purpose, the sampling is crucial. It was carried out in such a way that tried to guarantee that the samples collected consisted in the very top soil matter (first 2 cm depth). Thus, unlike the deeper soil, the material analysed may have been newly formed due to the interactions that they had with the place weathering agents (i.e. air oxygen, humidity, and microbial activities). Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a good and fast non-destructive technique that provides molecular information of the local mineralogy without the need of any pre-treatment of the samples. At the same time, the work looked for information on the variety of non-stable lead and-or zinc containing minerals due to the possible health and environmental risks they convey. Among the different minerals identified, 16 were of primary nature while 23 may be classified as secondary minerals, probably formed in the last decades as the result of the extractive activities.

  15. Atmospheric deposition—Another source of nutrients enhancing primary productivity in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean during positive Indian Ocean Dipole phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswanto, Eko

    2015-07-01

    This study used in situ and multisensor satellite data and combinations of various primary productivity (PP) and surface nitrate models to assess the contributions of upwelling and atmospheric deposition to modulating PP in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (ETIO) during positive phases of the Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD). Surprisingly, atmospheric deposition of nutrients from wildfires accounted for a higher portion of enhanced PP during +IODs than wind-driven nutrient upwelling. Substantial atmospheric nutrient deposition likely also maintains high PP postupwelling and postwildfire. Multiple regression analysis further supported the importance of atmospheric deposition in determining ETIO PP with a significantly large partial regression coefficient for aerosol optical thickness. It is possible that aerosols from major wildfire areas worldwide contribute nutrients that also nontrivially modulate PP in the oceans' main upwelling systems.

  16. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  17. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone. Phase two: analysis of research advances. Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    The initial objective of this work was to develop a methodology for analyzing the impact of technological advances as a tool to help establish priorities for R and D options in the field of biocatalysis. As an example of a biocatalyzed process, butanol/acetone fermentation (ABE process) was selected as the specific topic of study. A base case model characterizing the technology and economics associated with the ABE process was developed in the previous first phase of study. The project objectives were broadened in this second phase of work to provide parametric estimates of the economic and energy impacts of a variety of research advances in the hydrolysis, fermentation and purification sections of the process. The research advances analyzed in this study were based on a comprehensive literature review. The six process options analyzed were: continuous ABE fermentaton; vacuum ABE fermentation; Baelene solvent extraction; HRI's Lignol process; improved prehydrolysis/dual enzyme hydrolysis; and improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity. Of the six options analyzed, only improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity had a significant positive effect on energy efficiency and economics. This particular process option reduced the base case production cost (including 10% DCF return) by 20% and energy consumption by 16%. Figures and tables.

  18. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part II: Interpretation of the experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, R.; Barrachin, M.; Ducher, R.; Gavillet, D.; De Bremaecker, A.

    2014-10-01

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO2 fuel bundle and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 mm and 900 mm) of the test section previously reported are interpreted in the present paper. Solid state interactions between fuel and cladding have been compared with the characteristics of interaction identified in the previous separate-effect tests. Corium resulting from the interaction between fuel and cladding was formed. The uranium concentration in the corium is compared to analytical tests and a scenario for the corium formation is proposed. The analysis showed that, despite the rather low fuel burn up, the conditions of temperature and oxygen potential reached during the starvation phase are able to give an early very significant release fraction of caesium. A significant part (but not all) of the molybdenum was segregated at grain boundaries and trapped in metallic inclusions from which they were totally removed in the final part of the experiment. During the steam starvation phase, the conditions of oxygen potential were favourable for the formation of simple Ba and BaO chemical forms but the temperature was too low to provoke their volatility. This is one important difference with out-of-pile experiments such as VERCORS for which only a combination of high temperature and low oxygen potential induced a significant barium release. Finally another significant difference with analytical out-of-pile experiments comes from the formation of foamy zones due to the fission gas presence in FPT2-type experiments which give an additional possibility for the formation of stable fission product compounds.

  19. A half-century of production-phase greenhouse gas emissions from food loss & waste in the global food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen D; Reay, David S; Higgins, Peter; Bomberg, Elizabeth

    2016-11-15

    Research on loss & waste of food meant for human consumption (FLW) and its environmental impact typically focuses on a single or small number of commodities in a specific location and point in time. However, it is unclear how trends in global FLW and potential for climate impact have evolved. Here, by utilising the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheet data, we expand upon existing literature. Firstly, we provide a differentiated (by commodity, country and supply chain stage) bottom-up approach; secondly, we conduct a 50-year longitudinal analysis of global FLW and its production-phase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and thirdly, we trace food wastage and its associated emissions through the entire food supply chain. Between 1961 and 2011 the annual amount of FLW by mass grew a factor of three - from 540Mt to 1.6Gt; associated production-phase (GHG) emissions more than tripled (from 680Mt to 2.2Gt CO2e). A 44% increase in global average per capita FLW emissions was also identified - from 225kg CO2e in 1961 to 323kg CO2e in 2011. The regional weighting within this global average changing markedly over time; in 1961 developed countries accounted for 48% of FLW and less than a quarter (24%) in 2011. The largest increases in FLW-associated GHG emissions were from developing economies, specifically China and Latin America - primarily from increasing losses in fruit and vegetables. Over the period examined, cumulatively such emissions added almost 68Gt CO2e to the atmospheric GHG stock; an amount the rough equivalent of two years of emissions from all anthropogenic sources at present rates. Building up from the most granular data available, this study highlights the growth in the climate burden of FLW emissions, and thus the need to improve efficiency in food supply chains to mitigate future emissions. PMID:27432722

  20. A half-century of production-phase greenhouse gas emissions from food loss & waste in the global food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen D; Reay, David S; Higgins, Peter; Bomberg, Elizabeth

    2016-11-15

    Research on loss & waste of food meant for human consumption (FLW) and its environmental impact typically focuses on a single or small number of commodities in a specific location and point in time. However, it is unclear how trends in global FLW and potential for climate impact have evolved. Here, by utilising the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheet data, we expand upon existing literature. Firstly, we provide a differentiated (by commodity, country and supply chain stage) bottom-up approach; secondly, we conduct a 50-year longitudinal analysis of global FLW and its production-phase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and thirdly, we trace food wastage and its associated emissions through the entire food supply chain. Between 1961 and 2011 the annual amount of FLW by mass grew a factor of three - from 540Mt to 1.6Gt; associated production-phase (GHG) emissions more than tripled (from 680Mt to 2.2Gt CO2e). A 44% increase in global average per capita FLW emissions was also identified - from 225kg CO2e in 1961 to 323kg CO2e in 2011. The regional weighting within this global average changing markedly over time; in 1961 developed countries accounted for 48% of FLW and less than a quarter (24%) in 2011. The largest increases in FLW-associated GHG emissions were from developing economies, specifically China and Latin America - primarily from increasing losses in fruit and vegetables. Over the period examined, cumulatively such emissions added almost 68Gt CO2e to the atmospheric GHG stock; an amount the rough equivalent of two years of emissions from all anthropogenic sources at present rates. Building up from the most granular data available, this study highlights the growth in the climate burden of FLW emissions, and thus the need to improve efficiency in food supply chains to mitigate future emissions.

  1. Development of a Commercial Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide Fibrils - Draft Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, RD

    2002-10-24

    hydrochloric acid. Experimental results and scanning electron microscopy of the Fibril products are presented. Future work to improve on these results is discussed.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of phthalates and parabens in cosmetic products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Shen, Haoyu; Ying, Liyan; Cao, Yunfeng; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Lu

    2007-03-01

    Studies have been carried out on the simultaneous determination of 8 phthalates, i. e. di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) , di-propyl phthalate (DPP) , di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) , dibutyl phthalate (DBP) , benzyl butyl phthalate ( BBP) , di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) , di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and 4 parabens, i. e. methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propyl paraben (PPB), and butyl paraben (BPB) by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in electron ionisation mode (EI) with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method. The phthalates and parabens in 15 cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc. were determined. The determination of the samples were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol, cleaned up with an LC-C18 column (3 mL) and analyzed by GC/MS method. The base peak (m/z 149) of the phthalates and the base peak (m/z 121) of the parabens were selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions, m/z 121, 149, 177, 222 for DEP; m/z 149, 191, 209 for DPP; m/z 57, 149, 223 for DIBP; m/z 104, 149 for DBP; m/z 91, 132, 149, 206 for BBP; m/z 55, 149, 167 for DCHP; m/z 113, 149, 167, 279 for DEHP; m/z 149, 279 for DOP; m/z 65, 93, 121, 152 for MPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 166 for EPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 180 for PPB; and m/z 93, 121, 138, 194 for BPB were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are capable to detect phthalates and parabens at the level of 0. 1 -5. 0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 80% - 100% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The rest 14 samples were found to contain at least 3 or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates detected in the studied samples were MPB, PPB, DPP, DCHP and DEHP. The residue levels were at 1. 42 -4 278 mg/kg.

  3. The Production and Export of Bioavailable Iron from Ice Sheets - the Importance of Colloidal and Nanoparticulate Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkings, J.; Wadham, J. L.; Tranter, M.; Raiswell, R.; Benning, L. G.; Statham, P. J.; Tedstone, A.; Nienow, P. W.; Telling, J.; Bagshaw, E.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers cover approximately 10% of the world's land surface at present, but our knowledge of biogeochemical processes occurring beneath them is still limited, as is our understanding of their impact on downstream ecosystems via the export of nutrients in runoff. Recent work has suggested that glaciers are a primary source of nutrients to near coastal areas(1). For example, macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and micronutrients, such as iron, may support primary production(2,3). Nutrient limitation of primary producers is known to be prevalent in large sectors of the world's oceans and iron is a significant limiting nutrient in Polar waters(4,5). Significantly, large oceanic algal blooms have been observed in polar areas where glacial influence is large(6,7). Our knowledge of iron speciation, concentrations and export dynamics in glacial meltwater is limited due, in part, to problems associated with collecting trace measurements in remote field locations. For example, recent work has indicated large uncertainty in 'dissolved' meltwater iron concentrations (0.2 - 4000 μM(8,9)). There is currently a dearth of information about labile nanoparticulate iron in glacial meltwaters, as well as export dynamics from large ice sheet catchments. Existing research has focused on small catchment examples(8,10), which behave differently to larger catchments(11). Presented here is the first time series of daily variations in meltwater iron concentrations (dissolved, filterable colloidal/nanoparticulate and bioavailable suspended sediment bound) from two large contrasting glacial catchments in Greenland over the 2012 and 2013 summer melt seasons. We also present the first estimates of iron concentrations in Greenlandic icebergs, which have been identified as hot spots of biological activity in the open ocean(12,13). Budgets for ice sheets based on our data demonstrate the importance of glaciers in global nutrient cycles, and reveal a large and previously under

  4. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in fishery and aquaculture products using sequential solid phase extraction and large volume injection gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Xiong, Libei; Jin, Ying; Wang, Guoquan

    2014-01-15

    A new method was developed to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fishery and aquaculture products. Samples were extracted by an accelerated solvent extraction system and cleaned up by sequential solid phase extraction (SPE) including dispersive SPE (D-SPE) and tandem SPE. PBDEs and PCBs were analyzed by a large-volume injection gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-QqQ-MS/MS). Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9958) was achieved. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.16-3.3pgg(-1) (wet weight, ww) for PBDEs and 0.13-0.97pgg(-1)ww for PCBs. Mean recoveries were 60-140% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 20% in weever fish, scallop and shrimp samples spiked at a lower level of 13-31pgg(-1)ww and a higher level of 50-125pgg(-1)ww. Certified reference materials were analyzed with acceptable results. The method reduced solvent consumption, analytical time and labor, and is suitable for the routine analysis of PBDEs and PCBs in fishery and aquaculture products.

  5. Effect of different levels of dried citrus pulp on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in early phase of production.

    PubMed

    Nazok, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mansour; Sayyahzadeh, Hadi

    2010-04-01

    Utilization of agricultural wastes in animal nutrition is a matter of great concern. Dried citrus pulp (DCP) is a potential source of some valuable nutrients for animal and poultry. In an experiment with completely randomized design, the effect of different levels (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16%) of DCP was evaluated on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens from 25 to 37 weeks of age. The birds were randomly allocated to five groups with six replicates and three birds in each replicate. The results showed that with increasing the level of DCP up to 12%, there were no significant differences among treatments for feed intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, final body weight, yolk index, and yolk color. There were no significant differences between treatments in shell thickness, eggshell index, egg score, and Haugh unit. Utilization of DCP up to 16% significantly increased serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein and reduced cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Results of the present study indicated that use of 12% DCP in laying hen diets had no adverse effect on performance and egg quality of laying hens in early phase of production. PMID:19882229

  6. Comparison of solid-phase microextraction and dynamic headspace methods for the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of light-induced lipid oxidation products in milk.

    PubMed

    Marsili, R T

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive, rapid procedure for testing lipid oxidation products in milk is developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. SPME is as sensitive as dynamic headspace (DH) analysis for measuring the pentanal and hexanal produced in milk after exposure to light. Furthermore, compared with DH, SPME is less expensive and demonstrates better precision and accuracy. In addition, SPME does not exhibit carryover or septa artifact peaks. The linearity of calibration curves (based on the method of additions technique with an internal standard) is consistently better for SPME than for DH. Furthermore, replicate analyses of pentanal and hexanal spiked in skim milk and 2% milk at 2 ng/mL demonstrate significantly lower coefficients of variation using SPME. To further test the practicality of SPME for measuring light-induced chemical changes in milk, 2% milk and skim milk samples are exposed to fluorescent light (200 foot-candles) for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 17, 24, and 48 h and analyzed by SPME and DH. Pentanal and hexanal in all samples are measured by SPME and DH. Correlation coefficients of resulting plots indicate that SPME is more accurate than DH in measuring the quantity of lipid oxidation products in milk. PMID:9987853

  7. Production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Methylobacterium organophilum isolated from a methanotrophic consortium in a two-phase partition bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, C; Morales, M; Le Borgne, S; Revah, S

    2011-06-15

    The biodegradation of methane, a greenhouse gas, and the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) were studied using a methanotrophic consortium and an isolated strain thereof. The specific rates for methane consumption were 100 and [Formula: see text] for the isolate and the consortium, respectively. Also the effect of including 10% (vv(-1)) of silicone oil in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) was assayed for the elimination of 1% methane in air stream. TPPB allowed a 33-45% increase of methane elimination under growing conditions. Nitrogen limitation was assayed in bioreactors to promote PHB production. Under this condition, the specific methane degradation rate remained unchanged for the consortium and decreased to [Formula: see text] for the isolated strain. The accumulated PHB in the reactor was 34% and 38% (ww(-1)) for the consortium and the isolate, respectively. The highest productivity was obtained in the TPPB and was 1.61 mg(PHB)g(x)(-1) h(-1). The CZ-2 isolate was identified as Methylobacterium organophilum, this is the first study that reports this species as being able to grow on methane and accumulate up to 57% (ww(-1)) of PHB under nitrogen limitation in microcosm experiments. PMID:21530080

  8. Determination of dyes in cosmetic products by micro-matrix solid phase dispersion and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eugenia; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on micro-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid and simultaneous determination of nine regulated water-soluble dyes in personal care and decorative products. The proposed miniaturized extraction procedure was optimized by means of experimental designs in order to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. Under the optimal selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory performance in terms of linearity, sensitivity, and intra-day and inter-day precision. Recoveries were evaluated in different cosmetic matrices and they can be considered quantitative with average values between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, the validated method was applied to 24 samples of cosmetic and personal care products, including decorative makeup, lipsticks, lip gloss, toothpastes, regenerating creams, shampoos, and eye shadows, among others, to cover a broad range of commercial real samples. Seven of the analyzed dyes were detected, being declared all of them in the label list of ingredients. More than 50% of the samples contained at least two dyes. Tartrazine was the most frequently found (50% of the samples) at concentration levels of 0.243-79.9μgg(-1). Other targets were found in 1-9 samples, highlighting the presence of Quinoline at high concentration (>500μgg(-1)) in a toothpaste sample. PMID:26363949

  9. Magnetic Graphene-Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction for Preconcentration and Determination of Lead and Cadmium in Dairy Products and Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Ezoddin, M; Majidi, B; Abdi, K; Lamei, N

    2015-12-01

    A magnetic-dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE) was used for precocentration of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in milk, yoghurt and water samples. An appropriate amount of suspension containing the magnetic graphene and Triton X-114 was injected rapidly into the aqueous sample by a syringe. Triton X-114 was used to achieve stable suspension of graphene in solution. The structure of the resulting products was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry. The effects of various parameters were studied. A detection limit of 0.16 and 0.50 µg L(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) was obtained, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 10) of 50 µg L(-1) of Pb and Cd were 3.3 % and 2.1 %, respectively. The results indicated that the present method can be reliably used for determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in dairy products and water samples with good recoveries.

  10. Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate within a two-phase solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Heeg, Kathrin; Pohl, Marcel; Sontag, Mario; Mumme, Jan; Klocke, Michael; Nettmann, Edith

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate were investigated. Anaerobic digestion was carried out within an up-flow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor connected to an anaerobic filter (AF) by liquor recirculation. Two lab-scale reactor systems were operated simultaneously at 37 °C and 55 °C. The UASS reactors were fed at a fixed organic loading rate of 2.5 g L(-1) d(-1), based on volatile solids. Molecular genetic analyses of the bacterial and archaeal communities within the UASS reactors (digestate and effluent liquor) and the AFs (biofilm carrier and effluent liquor) were conducted under steady-state conditions. The thermophilic UASS reactor had a considerably higher biogas and methane yield in comparison to the mesophilic UASS, while the mesophilic AF was slightly more productive than the thermophilic AF. When the thermophilic and mesophilic community structures were compared, the thermophilic system was characterized by a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequence analysis. The composition of the archaeal communities was phase-separated under thermophilic conditions, but rather stage-specific under mesophilic conditions. Family- and order-specific real-time PCR of methanogenic Archaea supported the taxonomic distribution obtained by rrs sequence analysis. The higher anaerobic digestion efficiency of the thermophilic compared to the mesophilic UASS reactor was accompanied by a high abundance of Firmicutes and Methanosarcina sp. in the thermophilic UASS biofilm. PMID:25467556

  11. Gas phase fragmentation of eta2 coordinated aldehydes in [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]-: aldehyde structure dictates the nature of the products.

    PubMed

    Waters, Tom; Khairallah, George N; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2009-09-28

    The gas phase fragmentation reactions of eta2 coordinated aldehydes in [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]-, which have previously been shown to play a role in the catalytic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, were examined using a combination of isotope labelling experiments and collision induced dissociation in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The experimental data were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations (DFT). The types of fragmentation reactions observed depend on the nature of the R group. When R = H, the dominant fragmentation channel involves formation of [VO2H2]-via loss of CO. Minor losses of H2 and CH2O are also observed. When R = Me, loss of H2 is observed to give rise to an ion at m/z 125 corresponding to the formula [V, O3, C2, H2]-. DFT calculations on the [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]- and their CID reaction products have identified minimum energy structures for all reactants and products involved. DFT calculations also provided insights into key intermediates on the potential energy surface associated with these fragmentation reactions, including: [(H2)VO2(CO)]- in the case of R = H; and [HVO2(eta1-OCHCH2)]- in the case of R = Me. The results presented provide insights into potential side reactions occurring during catalysis of alcohols over vanadium oxides, for instance, the over-oxidation of methanol to carbon monoxide. PMID:19727457

  12. Determination of dyes in cosmetic products by micro-matrix solid phase dispersion and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eugenia; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on micro-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid and simultaneous determination of nine regulated water-soluble dyes in personal care and decorative products. The proposed miniaturized extraction procedure was optimized by means of experimental designs in order to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. Under the optimal selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory performance in terms of linearity, sensitivity, and intra-day and inter-day precision. Recoveries were evaluated in different cosmetic matrices and they can be considered quantitative with average values between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, the validated method was applied to 24 samples of cosmetic and personal care products, including decorative makeup, lipsticks, lip gloss, toothpastes, regenerating creams, shampoos, and eye shadows, among others, to cover a broad range of commercial real samples. Seven of the analyzed dyes were detected, being declared all of them in the label list of ingredients. More than 50% of the samples contained at least two dyes. Tartrazine was the most frequently found (50% of the samples) at concentration levels of 0.243-79.9μgg(-1). Other targets were found in 1-9 samples, highlighting the presence of Quinoline at high concentration (>500μgg(-1)) in a toothpaste sample.

  13. Determination of butyltin and octyltin stabilizers in poly(vinyl chloride) products by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with flame-photometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qin-Ren; Whang, Chen-Wen

    2006-09-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) have been investigated for determination of butyltin and octyltin stabilizers in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) products. The organotin stabilizers were first released from the plastic matrix by dissolving the PVC sample in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The stabilizers were then hydrolyzed to the chloride forms, by treatment with 6 mol L(-1) HCl, then derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4) in 0.2 mol L(-1) sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) at 50 degrees C. HS-SPME was performed with a fused-silica fiber coated with a 100-microm film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The collected organotin compounds were then desorbed in the GC injector at 280 degrees C and analyzed by GC-FPD. Linearity (r > or =0.994) over a concentration of approximately two orders of magnitude was usually obtained. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the four organotin compounds studied, viz., monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monooctyltin (MOT), and dioctyltin (DOT), were in the range 0.3-1.0 ng Sn mL(-1). Recovery was >90% for butyltins and >80% for octyltins. The method was validated by analyzing two reference standard PVC sheets with known organotin content. The applicability of the method to analysis of organotin stabilizers in commercial PVC products was also demonstrated. PMID:16896617

  14. Assessment of two-phase olive mill solid waste and microalgae co-digestion to improve methane production and process kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M J; Rincón, B; Fermoso, F G; Jiménez, A M; Borja, R

    2014-04-01

    Olive mill solid waste (OMSW) is a pollutant waste coming from olive oil elaboration by the two-phase centrifugation system. OMSW has a high organic matter content and unbalanced carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, 31/1, which avoids obtaining high methane yields in the anaerobic digestion of this waste. In the present study a microalgae, Dunaliella salina, was employed as co-substrate for the OMSW anaerobic digestion in order to decrease the C/N ratio and increase its biodegradability. Different co-digestion mixtures (C/N ratios) were studied. The increase of D. salina from 25% to 50% in the co-digestion mixture clearly increased the biodegradability of the sole substrates. The highest biodegradability was found for the co-digestion mixture 50% OMSW-50% D. salina. Nevertheless, the maximum methane production, 330mLCH4/gVSadded, and the highest methane production rate were obtained for the co-digestion mixture 75% OMSW-25% D. salina, keeping a C/N ratio near to 26.7/1.

  15. Evaluation of solid-phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the headspace analysis of volatile compounds in cocoa products.

    PubMed

    Ducki, Sylvie; Miralles-Garcia, Javier; Zumbé, Albert; Tornero, Antonio; Storey, David M

    2008-02-15

    The aroma profile of cocoa products was investigated by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). SPME fibers coated with 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane coating (PDMS), 65 microm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coating (PDMS-DVB), 75 microm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane coating (CAR-PDMS) and 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen on polydimethylsiloxane on a StableFlex fiber (DVB/CAR-PDMS) were evaluated. Several extraction times and temperature conditions were also tested to achieve optimum recovery. Suspensions of the samples in distilled water or in brine (25% NaCl in distilled water) were investigated to examine their effect on the composition of the headspace. The SPME fiber coated with 50/30 microm DVB/CAR-PDMS afforded the highest extraction efficiency, particularly when the samples were extracted at 60 degrees C for 15 min under dry conditions with toluene as an internal standard. Forty-five compounds were extracted and tentatively identified, most of which have previously been reported as odor-active compounds. The method developed allows sensitive and representative analysis of cocoa products with high reproducibility. Further research is ongoing to study chocolate making processes using this method for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds contributing to the flavor/odor profile.

  16. Low-temperature synthesis of zeolite from perlite waste — Part I: review of methods and phase compositions of resulting products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Król, Magdalena; Morawska, Justyna; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Pichór, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    In this paper a review of the recent studies on the synthesis of zeolites from expanded perlite under hydrothermal conditions is presented. Attention is paid to possible outcomes of synthesis from low cost glass material, such as perlite. The study also investigates the phase composition of zeolitic materials obtained by modification of by-product derived from an expanded perlite production process. The synthesis was made using the hydrothermal method with sodium hydroxide under autogenous pressure at a temperature below 100 °C for 1 to 72 h. It was possible to obtain a zeolitic material at a temperature as low as 60 °C using 4.0 M NaOH. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the biggest peak intensity of zeolite X with 4.0 M NaOH at the temperature of 70 °C. During synthesis at higher temperature zeolite Na-P1 (with 3.0 M NaOH at 90 °C) and hydroxysodalite (with 5.0 M NaOH at 90 °C) were obtained.

  17. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology: Phase 1, Feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; White, J.; Groves, F.R.; Harrison, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This topical report de-scribes the results of Phase 1 research performed during the first six months of a three-year contract to study the feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Much effort has gone into the development of a high-temperature meal oxide sorbent process for removal of H{sub 2}S from the coal gas. A number of sorbents based upon metals such as zinc, iron, manganese and others have been studied. In order for high temperature desulfurization to be economical it is necessary that the sorbents be regenerated to permit multicycle operation. Current methods of sorbent regeneration involve oxidation of the metal sulfide to reform the metal oxide and free the sulfur as SO{sub 2}. An alternate regeneration process in which the sulfur is liberated in elemental form is preferable. The overall objective of the current research is to study simpler and economically superior processing of known sorbents capable of producing elemental sulfur during regeneration. This topical report summarizes the first steps of this effort. A literature search has been completed to identify possible regeneration concepts and to collect relevant thermodynamic, kinetic, and process data. Three concepts involving reaction with SO{sub 2}, partial oxidation using an O{sub 2} {minus} H{sub 2}O mixture, and steam regeneration have been identified. The first two concepts result in the direct production of elemental sulfur while H{sub 2}S is the product of steam regeneration. This concept is of potential interest, however, since existing Claus technology can be used to convert H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. Following the literature search, a thermodynamic analysis, based upon free-energy minimization was carried out to evaluate candidate sorbents for possible use with the three regeneration concepts.

  18. On-line pretreatment and determination of parabens in cosmetic products by combination of flow injection analysis, solid-phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; He, You-Zhao; Yu, Chang-Zhu

    2008-02-15

    A convenient and automated method for on-line pretreatment and determination of three parabens (i.e. methyl, ethyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate) in cosmetic products is proposed by using flow injection analysis (FIA), solid-phase extraction (SPE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). An improved split-flow interface is used to couple SPE on C(8)-bonded silica with MEKC separation, which can avoid running buffer contamination and reduce buffer consumption, especially, containing expensive reagents. The analytes are loaded onto a C(8) column at 0.6 mL/min for 60s and eluted with a mixed eluent of 40% (v/v) 10 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 9.3) and 60% (v/v) ethanol at 0.75 mL/min. The MEKC separation is accomplished with a running buffer of 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate (pH 9.3) containing 100 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 15 kV. For butyl p-hydroxybenzoate did not be detected in the cosmetic products, it was used as an internal standard (IS) added into the real samples. This FIA-SPE-MEKC method using IS allows the sample separation within 12 min and the sample throughput of five samples per hour with the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) less than 2.3% (n=5). The limits of detection (LOD) are in the range from 0.07 to 0.1 microg/mL (S/N=3 and n=11). The proposed method has been used to determine three parabens in real cosmetic products satisfactorily.

  19. Development of a multianalyte method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the analysis of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Guerra, Eugenia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2014-05-30

    An effective, simple and low cost sample preparation method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid simultaneous determination of 38 cosmetic ingredients, 25 fragrance allergens and 13 preservatives. All target substances are frequently used in cosmetics and personal care products and they are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements according to the EU Cosmetic Directive. The extraction procedure was optimized on real non-spiked rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic products by means of experimental designs. The final miniaturized process required the use of only 0.1g of sample and 1 mL of organic solvent, obtaining a final extract ready for analysis. The micro-MSPD method was validated showing satisfactory performance by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis. The use of GC coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection allowed to reach very low detection limits (low ng g(-1)) improving, at the same time, method selectivity. In an attempt to improve the chromatographic analysis of preservatives, the inclusion of a derivatization step was also assessed. The proposed method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products (shampoos, body milk, moisturizing milk, toothpaste, hand creams, gloss lipstick, sunblock, deodorants and liquid soaps among others), demonstrating the extended use of these substances. The concentration levels were ranging from the sub parts per million to the parts per mill. The number of target fragrance allergens per samples was quite high (up to 16). Several fragrances (linalool, farnesol, hexylcinnamal, and benzyl benzoate) have been detected at levels >0.1% (1,000 μg g(-1)). As regards preservatives, phenoxyethanol was the most frequently found additive reaching quite high concentration (>1,500 μg g(-1)) in five cosmetic products. BHT was detected in eight

  20. Development of a multianalyte method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the analysis of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Guerra, Eugenia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2014-05-30

    An effective, simple and low cost sample preparation method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid simultaneous determination of 38 cosmetic ingredients, 25 fragrance allergens and 13 preservatives. All target substances are frequently used in cosmetics and personal care products and they are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements according to the EU Cosmetic Directive. The extraction procedure was optimized on real non-spiked rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic products by means of experimental designs. The final miniaturized process required the use of only 0.1g of sample and 1 mL of organic solvent, obtaining a final extract ready for analysis. The micro-MSPD method was validated showing satisfactory performance by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis. The use of GC coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection allowed to reach very low detection limits (low ng g(-1)) improving, at the same time, method selectivity. In an attempt to improve the chromatographic analysis of preservatives, the inclusion of a derivatization step was also assessed. The proposed method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products (shampoos, body milk, moisturizing milk, toothpaste, hand creams, gloss lipstick, sunblock, deodorants and liquid soaps among others), demonstrating the extended use of these substances. The concentration levels were ranging from the sub parts per million to the parts per mill. The number of target fragrance allergens per samples was quite high (up to 16). Several fragrances (linalool, farnesol, hexylcinnamal, and benzyl benzoate) have been detected at levels >0.1% (1,000 μg g(-1)). As regards preservatives, phenoxyethanol was the most frequently found additive reaching quite high concentration (>1,500 μg g(-1)) in five cosmetic products. BHT was detected in eight

  1. Metabolic Engineering toward Sustainable Production of Nylon-6.

    PubMed

    Turk, Stefan C H J; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Ninaber, Dennis K; Kolen, Karin P A M; Knutova, Julia; Suir, Erwin; Schürmann, Martin; Raemakers-Franken, Petronella C; Müller, Monika; de Wildeman, Stefaan M A; Raamsdonk, Leonie M; van der Pol, Ruud; Wu, Liang; Temudo, Margarida F; van der Hoeven, Rob A M; Akeroyd, Michiel; van der Stoel, Roland E; Noorman, Henk J; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Trefzer, Axel C

    2016-01-15

    Nylon-6 is a bulk polymer used for many applications. It consists of the non-natural building block 6-aminocaproic acid, the linear form of caprolactam. Via a retro-synthetic approach, two synthetic pathways were identified for the fermentative production of 6-aminocaproic acid. Both pathways require yet unreported novel biocatalytic steps. We demonstrated proof of these bioconversions by in vitro enzyme assays with a set of selected candidate proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. One of the biosynthetic pathways starts with 2-oxoglutarate and contains bioconversions of the ketoacid elongation pathway known from methanogenic archaea. This pathway was selected for implementation in E. coli and yielded 6-aminocaproic acid at levels up to 160 mg/L in lab-scale batch fermentations. The total amount of 6-aminocaproic acid and related intermediates generated by this pathway exceeded 2 g/L in lab-scale fed-batch fermentations, indicating its potential for further optimization toward large-scale sustainable production of nylon-6.

  2. Bicontinuous cubic phase: a model for investigating the effects on a lipid bilayer due to a foreign substance.

    PubMed

    Engblom, J

    1996-12-20

    Biological effects of foreign substances are usually caused by their interaction within lipid bilayers with the membrane lipids. It is therefore desirable in many situations to determine the effects and the partition of xenobiotic substances, as well as drugs, added to amphiphile-water systems. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals provide three-dimensional isotropic matrices with symmetries easily obtained by X-ray diffraction, and were shown to be a useful tool for an initial investigation of the molecular properties possessed by a foreign substance. The concept is illustrated by adding the transdermal penetration enhancer Azone (n-dodecyl-caprolactam) to V2-phases in the glycerol monooleate (GMO)-water system. The weakly polar, water immiscible, Azone is known to favour reversed types of phases in liquid crystals. In the present investigation, Azone was shown to prefer the lipid bilayer interior, with about 19% anchored in the lipid-water interfacial region. Some dependence of its location on water concentration was indicated. The unexpected swelling behaviour of monoacylglycerols in water (L2-->L alpha-->V2) were postulated to result from the lipids changing their polar headgroup conformation, thus allowing for an increase in packing parameter upon increasing the water content.

  3. Isolation of α-linolenic acid biohydrogenation products by combined silver ion solid phase extraction and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Meadus, W J; Mapiye, C; Vahmani, P; López-Campos, Ó; Duff, P; Rolland, D C; Church, J S; Dugan, M E R

    2015-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids typically found in cattle feed include linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). In the rumen, microbes metabolize these resulting in the formation of biohydrogenation products (BHP), which can be incorporated into meat and milk. Bioactivities of LA-BHP, including conjugated linoleic acid (cis (c) 9,trans (t) 11-18:2 and t10,c12-18:2) and trans fatty acid isomers (t9-, t10- and t11-18:1) have been investigated, but effects of several BHP unique to ALA have not been extensively studied, and most ALA-BHP are not commercially available. The objective of the present research was to develop methods to purify and collect ALA-BHP using silver ion (Ag(+)) chromatography in sufficient quantities to allow for convenient bioactivity testing in cell culture. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared from perirenal adipose tissue from a cow enriched with ALA-BHP by feeding flaxseed. These were applied to Ag(+)-solid phase extraction, and eluted with hexane with increasing quantities of acetone (1, 2, 10, 20%) or acetonitrile (2%) to pre-fractionate FAME based on degree of unsaturation and double bond configuration. Fractions were collected, concentrated and applied to semi-preparative Ag(+)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the isolation and collection of purified isomers, which was accomplished using isocratic elutions with hexane containing differing amounts of acetonitrile (from 0.015 to 0.075%). Purified trans-18:1 isomers collected ranged in purity from 88 to 99%. Purity of the ALA-BHP dienes collected, including c9,t13-18:2, t11,c15-18:2 and t10,c15-18:2, exceeded 90%, while purification of other dienes may require the use of other complementary procedures (e.g. reverse phase HPLC). PMID:25579113

  4. Determination of the four major surfactant classes in cleaning products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using serially connected UV and evaporative light-scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Escrig-Doménech, Aarón; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2016-08-17

    A method for the simultaneous determination of the most frequently used surfactant families -linear alkyl benzenesulphonates (LAS), alkyl ether sulphates (AES), fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAE) and oleins (soaps, fatty acid salts) - in cleaning products, has been developed. The common reversed phase octyl (C8), pentafluorophenyl and biphenyl columns were not capable of separating the anionic LAS and AES classes; however, since only LAS absorbs in the UV, these two classes were independently quantified using a C8 column and serially connected UV and ELSD detection. The best compromise to resolve the four surfactant classes and the oligomers within the classes was achieved with a C8 column and an ACN/water gradient. To enhance retention of the anionic surfactants, ammonium acetate, as an ion-pairing agent compatible with ELSD detection, was used. Also, to shift the olein peaks with respect to that of the FAE oligomers, acetic acid was used. In the optimized method, modulation of the mobile phase, using ammonium acetate during elution of LAS and AES, and acetic acid after elution of LAS and AES, was provided. Quantitation of the overlapped LAS and AES classes was achieved by using the UV detector to quantitate LAS and the ELSD to determine AES by difference. Accuracy in the determination of AES was achieved by using a quadratic model, and by correcting the predicted AES concentration according to the LAS concentration previously established using the UV chromatogram. Another approach also leading to accurate predictions of the AES concentration was to increase the AES concentrations in the samples by adding a standard solution. In the samples reinforced with AES, correction of the predicted AES concentration was not required. FAE and olein were quantified using also quadratic calibration. PMID:27286775

  5. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  6. Nitrogen dioxide measurement by cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) and implications in ozone production efficiency and nitrate formation in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Baozhu; Sun, Yele; Liu, Ying; Dong, Huabin; Ji, Dongsheng; Jiang, Qi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa

    2013-08-01

    dioxide (NO2) is a key species in studying photochemical smog and formation mechanisms of nitrate in fine particles. However, the conventional commercially available chemiluminescence (CL)-based method often has uncertainties in measuring NO2 because of interferences with other reactive nitrogen species. In this study, an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Spectroscopy (CAPS) NO2 monitor that essentially has no interferences with nitrogen containing species was deployed in Beijing for the first time during August 2012. The CAPS NO2 monitor is highly sensitive with a detection limit (3σ) of 46.6 ppt for 1 min integration. The NO2 measured by CAPS shows overall agreement with that from CL, yet large differences up to 20% were also observed in the afternoon. Further, the discrepancies of NO2 measurements between CAPS and CL appear to be NOz dependent with larger differences at higher NOz concentrations (e.g., > 14 ppb). As a result, the ozone production efficiency of NOx (OPEx) derived from the correlations of Ox-NOz with the CL NO2 can be overestimated by 19-37% in Beijing. The daily OPEx calculated with the CAPS NO2 ranges from 1.0 to 6.8 ppb/ppb with an average (±1σ) of 2.6 (±1.3) for the entire study. The relatively low OPEx and the relationship between OPEx and NOx suggest that ozone production chemistry is VOC sensitive during summer in Beijing. Two case studies further show that high concentrations of NOx can significantly enhance the formation of nitrate in fine particles in the presence of high O3 and favorable meteorological conditions.

  7. Constructing the 'Best' Reliability Data for the Job - Developing Generic Reliability Data from Alternative Sources Early in a Product's Development Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Graber, Robert R.; DeMott, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability practitioners advocate getting reliability involved early in a product development process. However, when assigned to estimate or assess the (potential) reliability of a product or system early in the design and development phase, they are faced with lack of reasonable models or methods for useful reliability estimation. Developing specific data is costly and time consuming. Instead, analysts rely on available data to assess reliability. Finding data relevant to the specific use and environment for any project is difficult, if not impossible. Instead, analysts attempt to develop the "best" or composite analog data to support the assessments. Industries, consortia and vendors across many areas have spent decades collecting, analyzing and tabulating fielded item and component reliability performance in terms of observed failures and operational use. This data resource provides a huge compendium of information for potential use, but can also be compartmented by industry, difficult to find out about, access, or manipulate. One method used incorporates processes for reviewing these existing data sources and identifying the available information based on similar equipment, then using that generic data to derive an analog composite. Dissimilarities in equipment descriptions, environment of intended use, quality and even failure modes impact the "best" data incorporated in an analog composite. Once developed, this composite analog data provides a "better" representation of the reliability of the equipment or component. It can be used to support early risk or reliability trade studies, or analytical models to establish the predicted reliability data points. It also establishes a baseline prior that may updated based on test data or observed operational constraints and failures, i.e., using Bayesian techniques. This tutorial presents a descriptive compilation of historical data sources across numerous industries and disciplines, along with examples of contents

  8. Anthropogenic Sulfur Perturbations on Biogenic Oxidation: Impacts of Sulfur Dioxide Additions on Bulk Gas Phase OH Oxidation Products of Alpha and Beta Pinene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, B.; Brophy, P.; Brune, W. H.; Farmer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the atmosphere is impacted by concurrent emissions of anthropogenic pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which can impact air quality and SOA formation in regions of biogenic and anthropogenic influence. We present the impacts of anthropogenic perturbations in the form of sulfur dioxide on the oxidation systems of α- and β-pinene. An oxidative flow reactor simulated atmospheric aging by OH oxidation on the order of days, and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-CIMS) was utilized to identify gas-phase oxidation products and changes to the ensemble system as a function of the SO2 perturbation. Results show that the SO2 perturbation impacted the oxidation systems of α- and β-pinene, and that these perturbations affected the oxidation systems of α- and β-pinene differently. Bulk analysis comparing the perturbed system to the unperturbed system indicated a change in oxidation pathway or mechanism leading to an ensemble of products with a lesser degree of oxygenation, on the order of a 30% decrease in the bulk oxidation state and a 10% decrease in the bulk O:C ratio for both BVOC systems. Increasing the relative humidity in the oxidative flow reactor was found to dampen the impact of the perturbation. Experiments involving other anthropogenic emissions, such as NOx, as well as other pairs of BVOC structural isomers, were conducted to investigate if changes in the oxidation system were due to the BVOC structure or the specific anthropogenic pollutant.

  9. Production of high specific activity (195m) Pt-cisplatinum at South African Nuclear Energy Corporation for Phase 0 clinical trials in healthy individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Zeevaart, Jan Rijn; Wagener, Judith; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Sathekge, Mike; Soni, Nischal; Zinn, Christa; Perkins, Gary; Smith, Suzanne V

    2013-01-01

    Platinum agents continue to be the main chemotherapeutic agents used in the first-line and second-line treatments of cancer patients. It is important to fully understand the biological profile of these compounds in order to optimize the dose given to each patient. In a joint project with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation and the Nuclear Medicine Department at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation synthesized and supplied (195m) Pt-cisplatinum (commonly referred to as cisplatin) for a clinical pilot study on healthy volunteers. Enriched (194) PtCl2 was prepared by digestion of enriched (194) Pt metal (>95%) followed by thermal decomposition over a 3 h period. The (194) PtCl2 was then placed in a quartz ampoule, was irradiated in SAFARI-1 up to 200 h, then decay cooled for a minimum of 34 h prior to synthesis of final product. (195m) Pt(NH3 )2 I2 , formed with the addition of KI and NH4 OH, was converted to the diaqua species [(195m) Pt(NH3 )2 (H2 O)2 ](2+) by reaction with AgNO3 . The conversion to (195m) Pt-cisplatinum was completed by the addition of concentrated HCl. The final product yield was 51.7% ± 5.2% (n = 5). The chemical and radionuclidic purity in each case was >95%. The use of a high flux reactor position affords a higher specific activity product (15.9 ± 2.5 MBq/mg at end of synthesis) than previously found (5 MBq/mg). Volunteers received between 108 and 126 MBq of radioactivity, which is equivalent to 6.8-10.0 mg of carrier cisplatinum. Such high specific activities afforded a significant reduction (~50%) in the chemical dose of a carrier cisplatinum, which represents less than 10% of a typical chemotherapeutic dose given to patients. A good manufacturing practice GMP compliant product was produced and was administered to 10 healthy volunteers as part of an ethically approved Phase 0 clinical trial. The majority of the injected activity 27.5% ± 5.8% was excreted

  10. Multiresidue trace analysis of pharmaceuticals, their human metabolites and transformation products by fully automated on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Galán, María Jesús; Petrovic, Mira; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2016-09-01

    A novel, fully automated analytical methodology based on dual column liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-LC-MS(2)) has been developed and validated for the analysis of 12 pharmaceuticals and 20 metabolites and transformation products in different types of water (influent and effluent wastewaters and surface water). Two LC columns were used - one for pre-concentration of the sample and the second for separation and analysis - so that water samples were injected directly in the chromatographic system. Besides the many advantages of the methodology, such as minimization of the sample volume required and its manipulation, both compounds ionized in positive and negative mode could be analyzed simultaneously without compromising the sensitivity. A comparative study of different mobile phases, gradients and LC pre-concentration columns was carried out to obtain the best analytical performance. Limits of detection (MLODs) achieved were in the low ngL(-1) range for all the compounds. The method was successfully applied to study the presence of the target analytes in different wastewater and surface water samples collected near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain). Data on the environmental presence and fate of pharmaceutical metabolites and TPs is still scarce, highlighting the relevance of the developed methodology. PMID:27343613

  11. Ge Implantation to Improve Crystallinity and Productivity for Solid Phase Epitaxy Prepared by Atomic Mass Unit Cross Contamination-Free Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kong-Soo; Yoo, Dae-Han; Han, Jae-Jong; Son, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hun; Noh, Ju-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jae; Kim, Yong-Kwon; You, Young-Sub; Hyung, Yong-Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Deok

    2006-11-01

    Germanium (Ge) ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19% of (100) signal, which might be due to the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) on silicon layer. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers. It was confirmed that arsenic (As) atoms were incorporated into channel area during Ge ion implantation. Since the equipment for Ge PAI was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit (AMU) contamination during PAI of Ge with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of As with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use Ge isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination. It was effective to use enriched Ge source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity.

  12. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCNs in products of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of woody biomass--Distribution among solid, liquid and gaseous phases and effects of material composition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuju; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Cieplik, Mariusz; Gronnow, Mark; Jansson, Stina

    2016-02-01

    Microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) of lignocellulosic biomass is a technique that could potentially be used to produce and upgrade renewable energy carriers. However, there is no available information about the formation of dioxins and other organic pollutants in MAP treatment of woody biomass. In this study, MAP experiments were conducted in lab-scale using virgin softwood, bark, and impregnated wood as feedstocks. The non-condensable gas, liquid (fractionated into aqueous and oil phases), and char fractions generated during pyrolysis were collected and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and naphthalenes (PCNs). The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCNs in the pyrolysis products ranged from 0.52 to 43.7 ng kg(-1). All investigated compound groups were most abundant in the oil fraction, accounting for up to 68% (w/w) of the total concentrations. The highest PCDD, PCDF and PCN concentrations were found from the pyrolysis of bark, which has relatively high contents of chlorine and mineral matter, followed by impregnated wood, which contains organic and metal-based preservatives. The homologue profiles of all three compound groups were dominated by the less chlorinated homologues. The homologue abundance decreased as the degree of chlorination increased. This trend was observed for all three feedstocks.

  13. RECQ5 helicase associates with the C-terminal repeat domain of RNA polymerase II during productive elongation phase of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Huehn, Daniela; MacKellar, April; Menigatti, Mirco; Zheng, Lu; Urban, Vaclav; Shevelev, Igor; Greenleaf, Arno L.; Janscak, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    It is known that transcription can induce DNA recombination, thus compromising genomic stability. RECQ5 DNA helicase promotes genomic stability by regulating homologous recombination. Recent studies have shown that RECQ5 forms a stable complex with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in human cells, but the cellular role of this association is not understood. Here, we provide evidence that RECQ5 specifically binds to the Ser2,5-phosphorylated C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNAPII, RPB1, by means of a Set2–Rpb1-interacting (SRI) motif located at the C-terminus of RECQ5. We also show that RECQ5 associates with RNAPII-transcribed genes in a manner dependent on the SRI motif. Notably, RECQ5 density on transcribed genes correlates with the density of Ser2-CTD phosphorylation, which is associated with the productive elongation phase of transcription. Furthermore, we show that RECQ5 negatively affects cell viability upon inhibition of spliceosome assembly, which can lead to the formation of mutagenic R-loop structures. These data indicate that RECQ5 binds to the elongating RNAPII complex and support the idea that RECQ5 plays a role in the maintenance of genomic stability during transcription. PMID:20705653

  14. Determination of nine volatile N-nitrosamines in tobacco and smokeless tobacco products by dispersive solid-phase extraction with gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fang; Guo, Junwei; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Shimin; Cui, Huapeng; Liu, Xianjun; Chen, Li; Liu, Leiyu; Liu, Shaofeng; Xie, Fuwei

    2016-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of nine volatile N-nitrosamines in tobacco and smokeless tobacco products. The targets are N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosomorpholine, N-nitrosoethylmethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodipropylamine, N-nitrosobuylmethylmine, and N-nitrosodibutylamine. The samples were treated by dispersive solid-phase extraction using 1 g of primary secondary amine and 0.5 g of carbon and then analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry with an electron impact ion source. The recoveries for the targets ranged from 84 to 118%, with <16% relative standard deviations at three spiking levels of 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 ng/g. The limits of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.15 ng/g. With the use of the proposed method, we detected the presence of six nitrosamines in the range of 0.4-30.7 ng/g. The study demonstrated that the method could be used as a rapid, convenient, and high-throughput method for N-nitrosamines analysis in tobacco matrix. PMID:27059265

  15. Application of magnetic solid phase extraction for separation and determination of aflatoxins B ₁ and B₂ in cereal products by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Taherimaslak, Zohreh; Rashidi, Somayeh

    2014-06-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on the magnetic solid phase extraction with modified magnetic nanoparticles followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for extraction and determination of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and B2 (AFB2) in cereal products. Magnetic nanoparticle coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanthiol (TMSPT) and modified with 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AMT) was used as an antibody-free adsorbent. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves for AFB1 and AFB2 were linear in the ranges of 0.2-15 μg L(-1) and 0.04-3 μg L(-1), respectively. Detection limit was 0.041 μg L(-1) for AFB1 and 0.013 μg L(-1) for AFB2. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of AFB1 and AFB2 in spiked corn and rice samples with an average recovery of 93.5%. The results demonstrated that the developed method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, accurate and remarkably free from interference effects.

  16. Improvement of Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide Analysis in Meats and Meat Products by HPLC and LC-MS/MS with Solid-Phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Asako; Yamajima, Yukiko; Uematsu, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    A method for nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAA) analysis in meats was developed. NA and NAA were extracted from meats or meat products with metaphosphate aqueous solution. The extract was cleaned up with an Oasis MCX cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 2% acetic acid (v/v) and acetic acid-methanol solution. NA and NAA were eluted with ammonia-methanol solution. NA and NAA in the eluate were chromatographed on a Scherzo SM-C18 (3.0×150 mm, 3.0 μm) column with 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid-acetonitrile (97 : 3) as a mobile phase and were monitored at 261 nm. Quantification was performed by LC and LC-MS/MS. Calibration curves showed high linearity (correlation coefficient>0.998) between 1-25 μg/mL for LC and LC-MS/MS. Recoveries were 84-108% (CV≦5.8%) by HPLC and 79-105% (CV≦9.0%) by LC-MS/MS. The limit of quantitation for NA was 0.005-0.01 g/kg and that for NAA was 0.01-0.02 g/kg. PMID:27558227

  17. Improvement of Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide Analysis in Meats and Meat Products by HPLC and LC-MS/MS with Solid-Phase Extraction.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Asako; Yamajima, Yukiko; Uematsu, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    A method for nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAA) analysis in meats was developed. NA and NAA were extracted from meats or meat products with metaphosphate aqueous solution. The extract was cleaned up with an Oasis MCX cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 2% acetic acid (v/v) and acetic acid-methanol solution. NA and NAA were eluted with ammonia-methanol solution. NA and NAA in the eluate were chromatographed on a Scherzo SM-C18 (3.0×150 mm, 3.0 μm) column with 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid-acetonitrile (97 : 3) as a mobile phase and were monitored at 261 nm. Quantification was performed by LC and LC-MS/MS. Calibration curves showed high linearity (correlation coefficient>0.998) between 1-25 μg/mL for LC and LC-MS/MS. Recoveries were 84-108% (CV≦5.8%) by HPLC and 79-105% (CV≦9.0%) by LC-MS/MS. The limit of quantitation for NA was 0.005-0.01 g/kg and that for NAA was 0.01-0.02 g/kg.

  18. sbmC, a stationary-phase induced SOS Escherichia coli gene, whose product protects cells from the DNA replication inhibitor microcin B17.

    PubMed

    Baquero, M R; Bouzon, M; Varea, J; Moreno, F

    1995-10-01

    Microcin B17 (MccB17) is a ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic of 43 amino acids that induces double-strand breaking of DNA in a DNA gyrase-dependent reaction. As a consequence, the SOS regulon is induced and massive DNA degradation occurs. In this work we have characterized an Escherichia coli gene, sbmC, that in high copy number determines high cell resistance to MccB17. sbmC encodes a cytoplasmic polypeptide of 157 amino acids (M(r), 18,095) that has been visualized in SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The gene is located at min 44 of the E. coli genetic map, close to the sbcB gene. sbmC expression is induced by DNA-damaging agents and, also, by the entry of cells into the stationary growth phase. A G-->T transversion at the fifth nucleotide of the quasicanonical LexA-box preceding the gene makes recA cells 16-fold more resistant to exogenous MccB17. The gene product, SbmC, also blocks MccB17 export from producing cells. Altogether, our results suggest that SbmC recognizes and sequesters MccB17 in a reversible way.

  19. On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace determination of nerve agent degradation products in water samples.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent T; Sellevåg, Stig R; Lundanes, Elsa

    2013-01-25

    Three primary nerve agent degradation products (ethyl-, isopropyl- and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid) have been determined in water samples using on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) with electrospray ionisation. Porous graphitic carbon was employed for analyte enrichment followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Diethylphosphate was applied as internal standard for quantitative determination of the alkyl methylphosphonic acids (AMPAs). By treating the samples with strong cation-exhange columns on Ba, Ag and H form, the major inorganic anions in water were removed by precipitation prior to the SPE-LC-MS determination. The AMPAs could be determined in tap water with limits of detection of 0.01-0.07 μg L(-1) with the [M-H](-) ions extracted at an accuracy of ±5 mDa. The within and between assay precisions at analyte concentrations of 5 μg L(-1) were 2-3%, and 5-9% relative standard deviation, respectively. The developed method was employed for determination of the AMPAs in three natural waters and a simulated waste water sample, spiked at 5 μg L(-1). Recoveries of ethyl-, isopropyl- and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid were 80-91%, 92-103% and 99-106%, respectively, proving the applicability of the technique for natural waters of various origins. PMID:23312321

  20. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Bigham, J. M.; Soto, U. I.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Yibirin, H.

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  1. Tandem anion and cation exchange solid phase extraction for the enrichment of micropollutants and their transformation products from ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Ahmad A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-06-01

    The presence of organic micropollutants and their transformation products (TPs) from biotic and abiotic processes in aquatic environments is receiving intense public and scientific attention. Yet a suitable sample preparation method that would enable extraction and enrichment of a wide range of such compounds from water is missing. The focus of this paper was to develop an enhanced solid phase extraction (SPE) protocol which enabled isolation of parent compounds and low molecular weight transformation products (that are produced after treatment of water with ozone) from different water matrices. Ten SPE sorbents were evaluated with regard to their ability to extract acidic, neutral, and basic compounds from water at several pH values. Highest recoveries (91-99 %) for all analytes in pure water were obtained by combining strong anion and cation exchangers of two manufacturers in a tandem mode without pH adjustment. Tandem Oasis (MAX+MCX) was finally applied to extract the spiked analytes from tap water, surface water, and several wastewater samples. The efficiency of the used SPE procedure was examined using an optimized liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The occurrence of some of the investigated TPs in environmental water matrices was proven for the first time in this study. Method quantification limits (MQLs) for all compounds ranged from 3.7 to 15.3 ng/L in all matrices. Recoveries (%RE) were between 90 and 110 %. Intraday and interday precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, varied from 0.7 to 5.9 % and 1.8 to 10.3 %, respectively. Matrix effect (%ME) evaluation demonstrated that even complex sample matrices did not show significant ion suppression or enhancement. The applicability of the method was shown during two sampling campaigns at Ruhr river and a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with an ozonation step after regular

  2. Simultaneous analysis of 45 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sludge by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingyue; Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Lv, Min; Lin, Lifeng; Wu, Yang; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a class of emerging contaminants widely distributed in the wastewater treatment system. The simultaneous analysis of multiple PPCPs in the sludge, which is a complex matrix, is still not fully studied. In this study, a procedure based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of PPCPs from the sludge with determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was investigated. Forty-five PPCPs, including antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, β-blockers, antidepressants, antimicrobial agents, preservatives, UV filters, and so on, were studied. MSPD parameters, including the sorbent materials, the ratio of sample to sorbent, the eluent composition, and the elution volumes, were sequentially optimized. Best results were achieved by 0.1 g of sludge homogenized with 0.4 g of C18-bonded silica sorbent and elution by 6 mL methanol and 10 mL acetonitrile/5 % oxalic acid (8/2, v/v). The method quantification limits for the 45 PPCPs ranged 0.117-5.55 μg/kg. The PPCP recoveries ranged from 50.3 to 107 % with relative standard deviation lower than 15 %. The proposed method was applied to analyze PPCPs in the sludge collected from a domestic wastewater treatment plant over 1 year. Thirteen PPCPs were detected, with the concentrations of ofloxacin and triclocarban more than 1000 μg/kg. Temporal variations of the PPCP levels were observed. Thus, MSPD-LC-MS/MS method could achieve good sensitivity and recovery for the target PPCP analysis in the sludge samples, while MSPD provided one-step sample preparation which was easier and faster to perform compared to the commonly used methods. Graphical abstract Workflow of MSPD and LC-MS/MS chromatograms for PPCP analysis. PMID:27137519

  3. Solid-phase microextraction for predicting the bioavailability of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and its primary transformation products in sediment and water.

    PubMed

    Conder, Jason M; La Point, Thomas W

    2005-05-01

    Disposable solid-phase microextraction fibers (SPMEs) were used to measure the availability of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its two primary transformation products, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT). The SPMEs (85-microm polyacrylate) and sediment-dwelling oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex) were exposed to TNT-spiked sediment, to TNT-spiked sediment amended with activated carbon, and to TNT-, 2ADNT-, and 4ADNT-spiked water. Sediment concentration was a poor predictor of bioavailability in unamended and carbon-amended sediments (r2 = 0.14-0.73) The activated carbon amendment reduced the bioavailability of compounds in carbon-amended sediment, causing the relationships between Tubifex concentrations and sediment concentrations to differ significantly between unamended and carbon-amended sediment for all compounds. In contrast, SPME TNT concentrations predicted Tubifex TNT concentrations (r2 = 0.54-0.79). and regression models did not differ significantly among the three TNT-spiked matrices. The SPME 2ADNT and 4ADNT concentrations also were predictive of Tubifex 2ADNT and 4ADNT concentrations (r2 = 0.44-0.90). Relationships between Tubifex concentrations and SPME concentrations were the same between unamended and carbon-amended TNT-spiked sediments for 2ADNT and 4ADNT; however, the relationship in sediment (pooled data) differed from the relationship found in 2ADNT- and 4-ADNT-spiked water. The SPMEs provided carbon amendment-independent measures of ADNT availability in sediment and matrix-independent measures of TNT availability among the three matrices. The SPMEs show promise for predicting bioavailable organic compounds in sediment and water.

  4. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.43 To which production do I apply... production from qualified wells reported on the OGOR-A, including production that is not subject to royalty... production occurring on and after the later of: (i) May 3, 2004, for an RSV earned by a qualified deep...

  5. Determination of Glyphosate, its Degradation Product Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate, in Water by Isotope Dilution and Online Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Lee, Edward A.; Hinshaw, Gary H.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey method (0-2141-09) presented is approved for the determination of glyphosate, its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in water. It was was validated to demonstrate the method detection levels (MDL), compare isotope dilution to standard addition, and evaluate method and compound stability. The original method USGS analytical method 0-2136-01 was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantitation by standard addition. Lower method detection levels and increased specificity were achieved in the modified method, 0-2141-09, by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The use of isotope dilution for glyphosate and AMPA and pseudo isotope dilution of glufosinate in place of standard addition was evaluated. Stable-isotope labeled AMPA and glyphosate were used as the isotope dilution standards. In addition, the stability of glyphosate and AMPA was studied in raw filtered and derivatized water samples. The stable-isotope labeled glyphosate and AMPA standards were added to each water sample and the samples then derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate. After derivatization, samples were concentrated using automated online solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by elution in-line with the LC mobile phase; the compounds separated and then were analyzed by LC/MS/MS using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring. The deprotonated derivatized parent molecule and two daughter-ion transition pairs were identified and optimized for glyphosate, AMPA, glufosinate, and the glyphosate and AMPA stable-isotope labeled internal standards. Quantitative comparison between standard addition and isotope dilution was conducted using 473 samples analyzed between April 2004 and June 2006. The mean percent difference and relative standard deviation between the two quantitation methods was 7.6 plus or minus 6.30 (n = 179), AMPA 9.6 plus or minus 8

  6. EOSCUBE: A Constraint Database System for High-Level Specification and Efficient Generation of EOSDIS Products. Phase 1; Proof-of-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, Alexander; Segal, Victor E.

    1999-01-01

    The EOSCUBE constraint database system is designed to be a software productivity tool for high-level specification and efficient generation of EOSDIS and other scientific products. These products are typically derived from large volumes of multidimensional data which are collected via a range of scientific instruments.

  7. Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  8. Revised Phase II Plan for the National Education Practice File Development Project Including: Creation; Pilot Testing; and Evaluation of a Test Practice File. Product 1.7/1.8 (Product 1.6 Appended).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Gregory, Jr.; And Others

    A detailed work plan is presented for the conduct of Phase II activities, which are concerned with creating a pilot test file, conducting a test of it, evaluating the process and input of the file, and preparing the file management plan. Due to the outcomes of activities in Phase I, this plan was revised from an earlier outline. Included in the…

  9. PRODUCTION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LATE PHASE OF AN X CLASS FLARE IN A THREE-STAGE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Guo, Y.

    2013-08-20

    We report on observations of an X class flare on 2011 September 6 by the instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The flare occurs in a complex active region with multiple polarities. The Extreme-Ultraviolet (EUV) Variability Experiment observations in the warm coronal emission reveal three enhancements, the third of which corresponds to an EUV late phase. The three enhancements have a one-to-one correspondence to the three stages in flare evolution identified by the spatially resolved Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations, which are characterized by a flux rope eruption, a moderate filament ejection, and the appearance of EUV late phase loops, respectively. The EUV late phase loops are spatially and morphologically distinct from the main flare loops. Multi-channel analysis suggests the presence of a continuous but fragmented energy injection during the EUV late phase resulting in the warm corona nature of the late phase loops. Based on these observational facts, we propose a three-stage magnetic reconnection scenario to explain the flare evolution. Reconnections in different stages involve different magnetic fields but show a casual relationship between them. The EUV late phase loops are mainly produced by the least energetic magnetic reconnection in the last stage.

  10. Implementation of a Comprehensive On-Line Closed-Loop Diagnostic System for Roll-to-Roll Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Production: Phase I Annual Report, 23 April 2003--31 August 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, T.

    2004-08-01

    This subcontract report describes how Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., has developed and built 7 generations of roll-to-roll amorphous silicon PV production equipment. In the ECD/United Solar production process, we deposit about a 1-mm-thick, 12-layer coating consisting of a metal/oxide backreflector, a 9-layer a-Si/a-SiGe alloy triple-junction solar cell, and top transparent conductive oxide coating onto 125-mm-thick, 35.5-cm-wide stainless-steel webs in a series of three roll-to-roll deposition machines. In the PV Manufacturing R&D 6 program, ECD is building upon these accomplishments to enhance the operation of the present production machine, and lay the foundation for improvements in the next-generation machine. ECD has completed the Phase I work for the first two Tasks, and will complete the Phase I work for the second two tasks within the next two months. In the following report, we summarize the Phase I work in each of these tasks. We have involved United Solar production personnel in each of these Tasks. This is important for two reasons: First, the collaboration of ECD and United Solar personnel keeps the projects responsive to the developing needs at United Solar; and most of the tasks affect operations and consequently need the support of United Solar production and QA/QC managers. In the process we have developed a good working relationship between the production personnel, whose mantra is''change nothing,'' and the R&D personnel, who mantra is''change everything.''

  11. Effect of level of fiber of the rearing phase diets on egg production, digestive tract traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets differing in energy concentration.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Bouali, O; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-01

    This research studied the effects of additional fiber in the rearing phase diets on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets varying in energy concentration from 17 to 46 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 10 treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 factorial with 5 rearing phase diets and 2 laying phase diets. During the rearing phase, treatments consisted of a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal and 4 additional diets with a combination of 2 fiber sources (cereal straw and sugar beet pulp, SBP) at 2 levels (2 and 4%). During the laying phase, diets differed in energy content (2,650 vs. 2,750 kcal AMEn/kg) but had the same amino acid content per unit of energy. The rearing diet did not affect any production trait except egg production that was lower in birds fed SBP than in birds fed straw (91.6 and 94.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Laying hens fed the high energy diet had lower feed intake (P < 0.001), better feed conversion (P < 0.01), and greater BW gain (P < 0.05) than hens fed the low energy diet but egg production and egg weight were not affected. At 46 wk of age, none of the GIT traits was affected by previous dietary treatment. At this age, hen BW was positively related with body length (r = 0.500; P < 0.01), tarsus length (r = 0.758; P < 0.001), and body mass index (r = 0.762; P < 0.001) but no effects of type of diet on these traits were detected. In summary, the inclusion of up to 4% of a fiber source in the rearing diets did not affect GIT development of the hens but SBP reduced egg production. An increase in the energy content of the laying phase diet reduced ADFI and improved feed efficiency but did not affect any of the other traits studied.

  12. Effect of level of fiber of the rearing phase diets on egg production, digestive tract traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets differing in energy concentration.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Bouali, O; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-01

    This research studied the effects of additional fiber in the rearing phase diets on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets varying in energy concentration from 17 to 46 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 10 treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 factorial with 5 rearing phase diets and 2 laying phase diets. During the rearing phase, treatments consisted of a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal and 4 additional diets with a combination of 2 fiber sources (cereal straw and sugar beet pulp, SBP) at 2 levels (2 and 4%). During the laying phase, diets differed in energy content (2,650 vs. 2,750 kcal AMEn/kg) but had the same amino acid content per unit of energy. The rearing diet did not affect any production trait except egg production that was lower in birds fed SBP than in birds fed straw (91.6 and 94.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Laying hens fed the high energy diet had lower feed intake (P < 0.001), better feed conversion (P < 0.01), and greater BW gain (P < 0.05) than hens fed the low energy diet but egg production and egg weight were not affected. At 46 wk of age, none of the GIT traits was affected by previous dietary treatment. At this age, hen BW was positively related with body length (r = 0.500; P < 0.01), tarsus length (r = 0.758; P < 0.001), and body mass index (r = 0.762; P < 0.001) but no effects of type of diet on these traits were detected. In summary, the inclusion of up to 4% of a fiber source in the rearing diets did not affect GIT development of the hens but SBP reduced egg production. An increase in the energy content of the laying phase diet reduced ADFI and improved feed efficiency but did not affect any of the other traits studied. PMID:26976899

  13. Liquid-liquid two phase systems for the production of porous hydrogels and hydrogel microspheres for biomedical applications: A tutorial review

    PubMed Central

    Elbert, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Macroporous hydrogels may have direct applications in regenerative medicine as scaffolds to support tissue formation. Hydrogel microspheres may be used as drug delivery vehicles or as building blocks to assemble modular scaffolds. A variety of techniques exist to produce macroporous hydrogels and hydrogel microspheres. A subset of these relies on liquid-liquid two phase systems. Within this subset, vastly different types of polymerization processes are found. In this review, the history, terminology and classification of liquid-liquid two phase polymerization and crosslinking are described. Instructive examples of hydrogel microsphere and macroporous scaffold formation by precipitation/dispersion, emulsion and suspension polymerizations are used to illustrate the nature of these processes. The role of the kinetics of phase separation in determining the morphology of scaffolds and microspheres is also delineated. Brief descriptions of miniemulsion, microemulsion polymerization and ionotropic gelation are also included. PMID:20659596

  14. OZONATION BY-PRODUCTS 2. IMPROVEMENT OF AN AQUEOUS- PHASE DERIVITIZATION METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF FORMALDEHYDE AND OTHER CARBONYL COMPOUNDS FORMED BY THE OZONATION OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of low molecular weight aldehydes in water using aqueous-phase derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride has been improved by the use of high-resolution capillary GC. Detection limits with GC/ECD and GC/MS with ...

  15. XANES-EXAFS analysis of se solid-phase reaction products formed upon contacting Se(IV) with FeS2 and FeS.

    PubMed

    Breynaert, E; Bruggeman, C; Maes, A

    2008-05-15

    The solid-phase Se speciation after short-term (3 weeks) contact of selenite [Se(IV)] oxyanions with pyrite (FeS2) and troilite (FeS) was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS; X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy-extended X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES-EXAFS)). It was found that the nature of the sulfide mineral dictates the final speciation since respectively Se(0) and FeSe(x) were formed, meaning that the reaction mechanism is different and that these phases cannot be regarded as geochemically similar. The experimental results support the previously proposed sorption/ reduction mechanism for the reaction of selenite with pyrite. In the presence of troilite the reduction proceeds through the intermediate formation of Se(0) by reduction of selenite with dissolved sulfide. XAS data recorded for the FeS2 and FeS were compared with different Se reference phases, ranging in oxidation state from -II to +IV, used for validation of the XAS analysis methodology. This methodology can in principle be used to analyze Se phases formed in "in situ" geochemical conditions such as high-level radioactive waste disposal facilities.

  16. NASA/BLM Applications Pilot Test (APT), phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary. [vegetation mapping and production estimation in northwestern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data from LANDSAT, low altitude color aerial photography, and ground visits were combined and used to produce vegetation cover maps and to estimate productivity of range, woodland, and forest resources in northwestern Arizona. A planning session, two workshops, and four status reviews were held to assist technology transfer from NASA. Computer aided digital classification of LANDSAT data was selected as a major source of input data. An overview is presented of the data processing, data collection, productivity estimation, and map verification techniques used. Cost analysis and digital LANDSAT digital products are also considered.

  17. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of selected herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, J.L.; Thurman, E.M.; Scribner, E.A.; Zimmerman, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for the extraction and analysis of eight herbicides and five degradation products using solid-phase extraction from natural water samples followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. This method was developed for dimethenamid; flufenacet; fluometuron and its degradation products, demethylfluometuron (DMFM), 3-(trifluromethyl)phenylurea (TFMPU), 3-(trifluromethyl)-aniline (TFMA); molinate; norflurazon and its degradation product, demethylnorflurazon; pendamethalin; the degradation product of prometryn, deisopropylprometryn; propanil; and trifluralin. The eight herbicides are used primarily in the southern United States where cotton, rice, and soybeans are produced. The exceptions are dimethenamid and flufenacet, which are used on corn in the Midwest. Water samples received by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas, are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then passed through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica (C-18) to extract the compounds. The herbicides and their degradation products are removed from the column by ethyl acetate elution. The eluate is evaporated under nitrogen, and components then are separated, identified, and quantified by injecting an aliquot of the concentrated extract into a high-resolution, fused-silica capillary column of a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer under selected-ion mode. Method detection limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ?g/L for all compounds with the exception of TFMPU, which has a method detection limit of 0.32 ?g/L. The mean absolute recovery is 107 percent. This method for the determination of herbicides and their degradation products is valuable for acquiring information about water quality and compound fate and transport in water.

  18. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their chlorination by-products in drinking water and the coatings of water pipes by automated solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Hollard, Caroline; Bach, Cristina; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier

    2013-11-01

    In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100 ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635 mg/kg and 12-6295 mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985 mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration.

  19. Catalysis for biomass and CO2 use through solar energy: opening new scenarios for a sustainable and low-carbon chemical production.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, Paola; Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2014-11-21

    The use of biomass, bio-waste and CO2 derived raw materials, the latter synthesized using H2 produced using renewable energy sources, opens new scenarios to develop a sustainable and low carbon chemical production, particularly in regions such as Europe lacking in other resources. This tutorial review discusses first this new scenario with the aim to point out, between the different possible options, those more relevant to enable this new future scenario for the chemical production, commenting in particular the different drivers (economic, technological and strategic, environmental and sustainability and socio-political) which guide the selection. The case of the use of non-fossil fuel based raw materials for the sustainable production of light olefins is discussed in more detail, but the production of other olefins and polyolefins, of drop-in intermediates and other platform molecules are also analysed. The final part discusses the role of catalysis in establishing this new scenario, summarizing the development of catalysts with respect to industrial targets, for (i) the production of light olefins by catalytic dehydration of ethanol and by CO2 conversion via FTO process, (ii) the catalytic synthesis of butadiene from ethanol, butanol and butanediols, and (iii) the catalytic synthesis of HMF and its conversion to 2,5-FDCA, adipic acid, caprolactam and 1,6-hexanediol. PMID:24577063

  20. Catalysis for biomass and CO2 use through solar energy: opening new scenarios for a sustainable and low-carbon chemical production.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, Paola; Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2014-11-21

    The use of biomass, bio-waste and CO2 derived raw materials, the latter synthesized using H2 produced using renewable energy sources, opens new scenarios to develop a sustainable and low carbon chemical production, particularly in regions such as Europe lacking in other resources. This tutorial review discusses first this new scenario with the aim to point out, between the different possible options, those more relevant to enable this new future scenario for the chemical production, commenting in particular the different drivers (economic, technological and strategic, environmental and sustainability and socio-political) which guide the selection. The case of the use of non-fossil fuel based raw materials for the sustainable production of light olefins is discussed in more detail, but the production of other olefins and polyolefins, of drop-in intermediates and other platform molecules are also analysed. The final part discusses the role of catalysis in establishing this new scenario, summarizing the development of catalysts with respect to industrial targets, for (i) the production of light olefins by catalytic dehydration of ethanol and by CO2 conversion via FTO process, (ii) the catalytic synthesis of butadiene from ethanol, butanol and butanediols, and (iii) the catalytic synthesis of HMF and its conversion to 2,5-FDCA, adipic acid, caprolactam and 1,6-hexanediol.