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Sample records for caprylic acid precipitation

  1. Caprylic acid precipitation method for impurity reduction: an alternative to conventional chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Yigzaw, Yinges; Vedantham, Ganesh

    2012-10-01

    We report the use of caprylic acid based impurity precipitation as (1) an alternative method to polishing chromatography techniques commonly used for monoclonal antibody purification and (2) an impurity reduction step prior to harvesting the bioreactor. This impurity reduction method was tested with protein A purified antibodies and with cell culture fluid. First, the operational parameters influencing precipitation of host cell proteins and high molecular weight aggregate in protein A pools were investigated. When used as a polishing step, the primary factor affecting purification and yield was determined to be pH. Caprylic acid precipitation was comparable to polishing IEX chromatography in reducing host cell protein and aggregate levels. A virus reduction study showed complete clearance of a model retrovirus during caprylic acid precipitation of protein A purified antibody. Caprylic acid mediated impurity precipitation in cell culture showed that the impurity clearance was generally insensitive to pH and caprylic acid concentration whereas yield was a function of caprylic acid concentration. Protein A purification of caprylic acid precipitated cell culture fluid generated less turbid product pool with reduced levels of host cell proteins and high molecular weight aggregate. The results of this study show caprylic acid precipitation to be an effective purification method that can be incorporated into a production facility with minimal cost as it utilizes existing tanks and process flow. Eliminating flow through chromatography polishing step can provide process intensification by avoiding the process tank volume constraints for high titer processes.

  2. Purification of human immunoglobulins by sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Perosa, F; Carbone, R; Ferrone, S; Dammacco, F

    1990-03-27

    We have tested the usefulness of sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate to purify human monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulins from sera of 11 patients with monoclonal gammapathy (4 IgG kappa, 2 IgG lambda, 2 IgM kappa, 1 IgA kappa, 2 IgA lambda), four patients with autoimmune diseases and four healthy donors. In terms of purity and activity of Ig as well as execution time and cost, this two-step non-chromatographic procedure is highly efficient for the purification of IgG, IgA and IgM, thus offering several advantages over other methods of purification. Therefore, this procedure may have useful application in the preparation of human Ig for structural studies and therapeutic purposes.

  3. Fractionation of equine antivenom using caprylic acid precipitation in combination with cationic ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Raweerith, Rutai; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2003-11-01

    A combined process of caprylic acid (CA) precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose was studied as a means to fractionate pepsin-digested horse antivenom F(ab')(2) antibody. In the CA precipitation, the optimal concentration for fractionation of F(ab')(2) from pepsin-digested horse plasma was 2%, in which 89.61% of F(ab')(2) antibody activity was recovered in the supernatant with 1.5-fold purification. A significant amount of pepsin was not precipitated and remained active under these conditions. An analytical cation exchanger Protein-Pak SP 8HR HPLC column was tested to establish optimal conditions for the effective separation of IgG, albumin, pepsin and CA from the F(ab')(2) product. From these results, the supernatant from CA precipitation of pepsin-digested plasma was subjected to a SP-Sepharose column chromatography using a linear salt gradient. With stepwise elution, a peak containing F(ab')(2) antibody could be obtained by elution with 0.25 M NaCl. The total recovery of antibody was 65.56% with 2.91-fold purification, which was higher than that achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This process simultaneously and effectively removed residual pepsin, high molecular weight aggregates and CA in the final F(ab')(2) product, and should be suitable for large-scale fractionation of therapeutic equine antivenoms.

  4. Purification of IgG from serum with caprylic acid and ammonium sulphate precipitation is not superior to ammonium sulphate precipitation alone.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, J G; Elazhary, Y

    1989-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from bovine serum raised against Aeromonas Salmonicida was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (ASP) or caprylic acid treatment followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation (CAAS). Purity of IgG samples prepared by both methods were examined by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography, electrophoresis and antibody activity assay. Results suggest that IgG prepared by ASP is better than that obtained by CAAS method in terms of the yield of the IgG monomers and the recovery of the antibody activity.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and....1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various foods and is commercially prepared...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Caprylic acid. 184.1025 Section 184.1025 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1025 Caprylic acid. (a) Caprylic acid is the chemical name for octanoic acid. It is considered to be a short or medium chain fatty acid. It occurs normally in various...

  10. Caprylic acid-induced impurity precipitation from protein A capture column elution pool to enable a two-chromatography-step process for monoclonal antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji; Wang, Lu; Twarowska, Barbara; Laino, Sarah; Sparks, Colleen; Smith, Timothy; Russell, Reb; Wang, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the use of caprylic acid (CA) to precipitate impurities from the protein A capture column elution pool for the purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the objective of developing a two chromatography step antibody purification process. A CA-induced impurity precipitation in the protein A column elution pool was evaluated as an alternative method to polishing chromatography techniques for use in the purification of mAbs. Parameters including pH, CA concentrations, mixing time, mAb concentrations, buffer systems, and incubation temperatures were evaluated on their impacts on the impurity removal, high-molecular weight (HMW) formation and precipitation step yield. Both pH and CA concentration, but not mAb concentrations and buffer systems, are key parameters that can affect host-cell proteins (HCPs) clearance, HMW species, and yield. CA precipitation removes HCPs and some HMW species to the acceptable levels under the optimal conditions. The CA precipitation process is robust at 15-25°C. For all five mAbs tested in this study, the optimal CA concentration range is 0.5-1.0%, while the pH range is from 5.0 to 6.0. A purification process using two chromatography steps (protein A capture column and ion exchange polishing column) in combination with CA-based impurity precipitation step can be used as a robust downstream process for mAb molecules with a broad range of isoelectric points. Residual CA can be effectively removed by the subsequent polishing cation exchange chromatography.

  11. Application of Capmul MCM and caprylic acid for the development of danazol-loaded SEDDS.

    PubMed

    Li, Suhua; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2014-07-25

    Abstract The feasibility of using Capmul MCM and caprylic acid (medium-chain triglyceride pre-digestion products) as the lipid phase was investigated for the development of self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) as a carrier system to enhance solubilization of poorly water-soluble danazol. The composition of SEDDS was first evaluated by phase diagrams of lipid/surfactant/water systems. Thereafter, danazol-loaded SEDDS was formulated and subjected to dispersion/precipitation study in distilled water, HCl buffer, phosphate buffer, or biorelevant aqueous media. The mechanism of danazol dispersion was investigated by comparing the solubilization capacity of blank SEDDS dispersed in various aqueous media with respective dispersion/precipitation profiles obtained. Phase diagrams showed that at least 30% (w/w) Cremophor RH40, as the surfactant, was needed to properly emulsify Capmul MCM:caprylic acid (1:1), as the lipid phase. Different extent of danazol precipitation was observed upon the dispersion of danazol-loaded SEDDS in different aqueous media. Danazol precipitation was dominated by the solubilization capacity of danazol, which was influenced by the ratio of Capmul MCM:CA and Cremophor RH40, pH of aqueous media, gastrointestinal composition, and blank SEDDS concentration.

  12. Single-reagent one-step procedures for the purification of ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab antivenoms by caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Casewell, Nicholas R; Landon, John

    2014-01-15

    Antivenoms are typically produced in horses or sheep and often purified using salt precipitation of immunoglobulins or F(ab')2 fragments. Caprylic (octanoic) acid fractionation of antiserum has the advantage of not precipitating the desired antibodies, thereby avoiding potential degradation that can lead to the formation of aggregates, which may be the cause of some adverse reactions to antivenoms. Here we report that when optimising the purification of immunoglobulins from ovine antiserum raised against snake venom, caprylic acid was found to have no effect on the activity of the enzymes pepsin and papain, which are employed in antivenom manufacturing to digest immunoglobulins to obtain F(ab')2 and Fab fragments, respectively. A "single-reagent" method was developed for the production of F(ab')2 antivenom whereby whole ovine antiserum was mixed with both caprylic acid and pepsin and incubated for 4h at 37°C. For ovine Fab antivenom production from whole antiserum, the "single reagent" comprised of caprylic acid, papain and l-cysteine; after incubation at 37°C for 18-20h, iodoacetamide was added to stop the reaction. Caprylic acid facilitated the precipitation of albumin, resulting in a reduced protein load presented to the digestion enzymes, culminating in substantial reductions in processing time. The ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab products obtained using these novel caprylic acid methods were comparable in terms of yield, purity and specific activity to those obtained by multi-step conventional salt fractionation with sodium sulphate.

  13. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh-cut produce by caprylic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caprylic acid (CA) was evaluated for reducing E. coli O157: H7 and Salmonella on spinach and lettuce leaves. Spinach, Romaine lettuce and Iceberg lettuce leaves were inoculated with a cocktail of five E. coli O157: H7 or Salmonella strains, air dried for 30 min, and then dipped in caprylic acid (10,...

  14. The natural feed additive caprylic acid reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in market aged broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter causes human food-borne illness and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products as a significant source of human infection. Reducing Campylobacter in the poultry intestinal tract would reduce contamination of poultry products. Caprylic acid, is a medium chain fatt...

  15. Therapeutic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Campylobacter jejuni in Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter causes human food-borne illness and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products to be a significant source of human infection. Reducing Campylobacter in the poultry intestinal tract would reduce contamination of poultry products. Caprylic acid, a medium chain fatt...

  16. Water administration of medium-chain fatty acid caprylic acid produced variable efficacy against cecal Campylobacter jejuni concentrations in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, and poultry is considered a primary source of Campylobacter infections. Caprylic acid, an eight-carbon fatty acid, has been shown in previous studies to reduce enteric cecal Campylobacter concentrations in poultry when administere...

  17. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  18. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of caprylic acid in combination with citric acid against both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and indigenous microflora in carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The identification of novel, effective, and non-thermal decontamination methods is imperative for the preservation of unpasteurized and fresh vegetable juices. The aim of this study was to examine the bactericidal effects of caprylic acid + citric acid against the virulent pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the endogenous microflora in unpasteurized fresh carrot juice. Carrot juice was treated with either caprylic acid, citric acid, or a combination of caprylic acid + citric acid at mild heating temperature (45 °C or 50 °C). The color of the treated carrot juice as well as microbial survival was examined over time. Combined treatment was more effective than individual treatment in terms of both color and microbial survival. Caprylic acid + citric acid treatment (each at 5.0 mM) at 50 °C for 5 min resulted in 7.46 and 3.07 log CFU/ml reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 and endogenous microflora populations, respectively. By contrast, there was no apparent reduction in either population following individual treatment. A validation assay using a low-density E. coli O157:H7 inoculum (3.31 log CFU/ml) showed that combined treatment with caprylic acid (5.0 mM) + citric acid (2.5 mM) at 50 °C for >5 min or with caprylic acid + citric acid (both at 5.0 mM) at either 45 °C or 50 °C for >5 min completely destroyed the bacteria. Combined treatment also increased the redness of the juice, which is a perceived indication of quality. Taken together, these results indicate that combined treatment with low concentrations of caprylic acid and citric acid, which are of biotic origin, can eliminate microorganisms from unpasteurized carrot juice.

  19. Minipool Caprylic Acid Fractionation of Plasma Using Disposable Equipment: A Practical Method to Enhance Immunoglobulin Supply in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Ekiaby, Magdy; Vargas, Mariángela; Sayed, Makram; Gorgy, George; Goubran, Hadi; Radosevic, Mirjana; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need. Methodology/Principal Findings IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at <-20°C. The resulting preparation had a mean protein content of 60.5 g/L, 90.2% immunoglobulins, including 83.2% IgG, 12.4% IgA, and 4.4% IgM, and residual albumin. There was fourfold to sixfold enrichment of anti-hepatitis B and anti-rubella antibodies. Analyses of aggregates (<3%), prekallicrein (5-7 IU/mL), plasmin (26.3 mU/mL), thrombin (2.5 mU/mL), thrombin-like activity (0.011 U/g), thrombin generation capacity (< 223 nM), and Factor XI (<0.01 U/mL) activity, Factor XI/XIa antigen (2.4 ng/g) endotoxin (<0.5 EU/mL), and general safety test in rats showed the in vitro safety profile. Viral validation revealed >5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment. Conclusions/Significance 90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients

  20. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  1. Comparison between therapeutic antitoxin F(ab)2 fractionated with ammonium sulfate and caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M

    2006-01-01

    To date, animal derived therapeutic antibodies represent the best and only choice source of antitoxins, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, this industry needs to develop a production protocol to achieve safer products. Recently, several laboratories changed their production protocol from ammonium sulfate (AS) protocol to caprylic acid (CA) fractionation. Our results showed that using the CA protocol leads to improvement in the product quality, as assessed by the albumin and protein content decrease (from 4.75 to 3.54 g/dL and 0.64 to 0.18 g/dL, respectively), which yielded a purer antitoxin product. The F(ab)2 protein aggregate formation and turbidity have been significantly reduced, 4.60 versus 2.55 and 0.046 versus 0.021 (p < 0.01), respectively. However, the anti-complementary activity was also reduced, from 42 to 33. The total IgG content was higher in CA fractionated products than AS materials. The endotoxin content was worrisome in some F(ab)2 products.

  2. A study on the use of caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate in combination for the fractionation of equine antivenom F(ab')(2).

    PubMed

    Simsiriwong, Pavinee; Eursakun, Sukanya; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2012-09-01

    This study involved the fractionation of equine antivenom F(ab')(2) by combined stepwise ammonium sulfate (AS) and caprylic acid (CA) precipitation without intermediate separation of precipitate. Using a microplate format, 55 conditions with combinations of AS (0-20% saturation) and CA (0-5% v/v), were tested. AS significantly reduced the turbidity raised by CA. High specific antibody activity was observed in the area containing 2-5% CA and 10-20% AS. From these results, 12 precipitation conditions were selected for detailed quantitative studies. Two combinations, one with 4% CA and 15% AS and another with 5% CA and 20% AS, gave the highest fold-purification (1.79 and 1.83) with antibody recoveries at 68% and 59%, respectively. These combinations offered a benefit over CA alone in reducing the turbidity and in increasing the purity but not the recovery of antibody. The conditions giving more favorable overall results were with 2% CA alone and another with a combination of 1.5% CA and 10% AS. These preparations of F(ab')(2) were homogeneous and without protein aggregate under size-exclusion HPLC. Lastly, 1 h precipitation showed better results than those of overnight precipitation. These results could be useful for the production of therapeutic antivenoms.

  3. Role of the adenosine system and glucose restriction in the acute anticonvulsant effect of caprylic acid in the 6 Hz psychomotor seizure test in mice.

    PubMed

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Wlaź, Piotr

    2015-03-03

    Although several studies have reported the acute anticonvulsant activity of caprylic acid in animal seizure models, little is known about the mechanism underlying this effect. Recently, the role of adenosine in the efficacy of the ketogenic diet has been postulated. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the possible involvement of the adenosine system (in non-fasted mice) as well as the role of glucose restriction (in fasted and non-fasted mice) in the acute anticonvulsant activity of caprylic acid in the 6 Hz psychomotor seizure threshold test. We showed that the anticonvulsant effect of caprylic acid (30 mmol/kg, p.o.) was reversed by a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 1mg/kg, i.p.) and a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (KW-6002, 1 mg/kg, p.o.) but not by glibenclamide (1 pg/mouse, i.c.v.) - the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of caprylic acid (20 mmol/kg) with an ineffective dose of adenosine transporter inhibitor (dipyridamole, 50 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly raised the threshold for the 6 Hz-induced seizures. A high dose of glucose (2 g/kg) significantly only diminished the anticonvulsant effect of caprylic acid (30 mmol/kg) in non-fasted mice, and this was accompanied by an increase in blood glucose level and no changes in ketone body level as compared to the caprylic acid-treated group. In both fasted and non-fasted mice treated with glucose and caprylic acid, a significant decrease in trunk blood pH occurred as compared to the control group. No alternations in motor coordination or muscular strength were noted with any drug treatment, apart from the caprylic acid and glibenclamide combination, where a significant decrease in the muscle strength was observed. The present study provides a new insight into the role of the adenosine system and low glucose usage in the mechanisms underlying the anticonvulsant effects of caprylic acid in the 6 Hz seizure test.

  4. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  5. Use of Caprylic Acid in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hovorková, Petra; Skřivanová, Eva

    2015-08-01

    The effect of caprylic acid (CA) on Campylobacter jejuni in chickens was evaluated using two approaches: dietary supplementation or surface treatment of chilled chicken carcasses. To analyze the dietary effect of CA, individually housed broiler chickens (n = 48) were artificially infected with C. jejuni VFU612 (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/bird) on the 21st and 35th days of life. Dietary CA (2.5 and 5 g/kg of feed, fed throughout the entire experiment) significantly decreased C. jejuni shedding (p<0.05). However, the effect only lasted for 3-7 days after infection. The numbers of Campylobacter shed by the positive control birds reached its maximum on the 37th day of life, while on that same day, both Treatment I and Treatment II groups shed significantly lower (p<0.05) numbers of Campylobacter (by 0.8 and 1.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Also, peak shedding was delayed by 1 day in both treated groups. After euthanasia of each chicken on the 42nd day of life, no differences in Campylobacter counts in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were found between the positive control and the treated groups (p>0.05). Surface contamination of the chilled chicken halves was performed with C. jejuni VFU612 (clinical isolate) and CCM6214 (collection strain). Surface treatment with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL for 1 min significantly reduced C. jejuni VFU612 contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05) by 0.29-0.53 and 1.14-1.58 log10 CFU/g of skin, respectively. Counts of C. jejuni CCM6214 were reduced by 0.68-1.65 log10 CFU/g of skin). In conclusion, dietary CA affected numbers of C. jejuni in the gastrointestinal contents of chickens, whereas surface treatment reduced C. jejuni contamination in processed chicken carcasses.

  6. Inhibitory effect of combinations of caprylic acid and nisin on Listeria monocytogenes in queso fresco.

    PubMed

    Gadotti, Camila; Nelson, Laura; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Queso fresco (QF), a fresh Hispanic cheese has been linked to outbreaks and recalls caused by Listeria contamination. The use antimicrobial treatments may be a potential solution. The goal of this research was to test the addition of nisin (N), caprylic acid (CA) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CN) as anti-listerial ingredients in QF. QF batches were inoculated with approx. 10(4) CFU/g of 5- or 6-strain mixtures of Listeria monocytogenes and treated with antimicrobials. Samples were stored at 4 °C for three weeks and Listeria counts were determined by plating on PALCAM agar. The impact on the QF's natural indicator microorganisms was also assessed during refrigerated storage. All N and CA combinations (≥0.4 g/kg each) were effective against L. monocytogenes and reduced the final counts by at least 3 log CFU/g after 20 days of storage compared to controls. The levels of most strain mixtures were reduced immediately after treatment and their numbers remained below 10(3) CFU/g during storage. CN (1.2 g/kg) was bacteriostatic against L. monocytogenes, but it did not reduce initial counts. The addition of CN to the combination of N and CA did not enhance their antimicrobial effect. Results indicated that combinations of N and CA could control L. monocytogenes in QF with little impact on the natural flora of the cheese, providing a solution to control post processing L. monocytogenes contamination of QF.

  7. Potential use of caprylic acid in broiler chickens: effect on Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Skřivanová, Eva; Hovorková, Petra; Čermák, Ladislav; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dietary caprylic acid (CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as the surface treatment of chicken skin contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. To evaluate the dietary effect of CA on Salmonella Enteritidis, the individually housed broiler chickens (n=48) were divided into 4 groups (positive control, negative control, 2.5 g/kg of CA in the feed, and 5 g/kg of CA in the feed). The feed of all groups, except the negative control, was artificially contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (10(7) colony-forming units/100 g of feed). Both concentrations of dietary CA significantly decreased counts of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and cecum of experimental chickens (p<0.05). The effect of CA in the crop contents was more pronounced than in the cecum. Surface treatment of chilled chicken halves with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL significantly decreased Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the skin and meat showed that treatment of the skin with 1.25 mg/mL of CA worsened odor and appearance of the chicken skin, while sensory traits of chicken meat were not significantly affected. Taste and overall acceptability was not influenced by CA in both meat and skin. Treatment of the skin with 2.5 mg/mL of CA resulted in more pronounced changes of the skin odor and appearance. In conclusion, dietary CA reduced carriage of Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens, whereas surface-treatment reduced or eliminated Salmonella Enteritidis contamination in the processed bird.

  8. Estimate of colostral immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry without or with caprylic acid fractionation.

    PubMed

    Morrill, K M; Conrad, E; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2012-07-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the use of refractometry as a means of estimating immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration of bovine maternal colostrum (MC) and determine if fractionation of MC using caprylic acid (CA) improved estimates of IgG. Samples (n=85) of MC were collected from a single dairy in California and used to determine the method of CA fraction that produced the best prediction of IgG based on CA fractionation followed by refractometry. Subsequently, samples of MC (n=827) were collected from 67 farms in 12 states to compare refractometry with or without CA fractionation as methods to estimate IgG concentration. Samples were collected from the feeding pool and consisted of fresh (n=196), previously frozen (n=479), or refrigerated (n=152) MC. Samples were further classified by the number freeze-thaw cycles before analysis. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1 mL of MC to a tube containing 75 μL of CA and 1 mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube was shaken and allowed to react for 1 min. Refractive index of the IgG-rich supernatant (nDf) was determined using a digital refractometer. Whole, nonfractionated MC was analyzed for IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID) and refractive index (nDw). The relationship between nDf and IgG (r=0.53; n=805) was weak, whereas that between nDw and IgG was stronger (r=0.73; n=823). Fresh samples analyzed by refractometry that subsequently went through 1 freeze-thaw cycle before RID analysis resulted in the strongest relationship between IgG and nDf or nDw (r=0.93 and 0.90, respectively). The MC samples collected fresh on the farm but frozen 2 or more times before analysis by refractometry or RID had low correlations between IgG and nDf and nDw (r=0.09 and 0.01). Samples refrigerated or frozen on the farm before analysis had weaker relationships between RID and nDf or nDw (r=0.38 to 0.80), regardless of the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Breed and lactation number did not affect the accuracy of either test. These

  9. Caprylic acid reduces enteric Campylobacter colonization in market-aged broiler chickens but does not appear to alter cecal microbial populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of food-borne illness in the United States, and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products to be a significant source of human Campylobacter infections. Caprylic acid, an 8-carbon medium chain fatty acid, can reduce Campylobacter colon...

  10. Estimate of serum immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry with or without caprylic acid fractionation.

    PubMed

    Morrill, K M; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2013-07-01

    Objectives of this study were to develop a rapid calf-side test to determine serum IgG concentrations using caprylic acid (CA) fractionation, followed by refractometry of the IgG-rich supernatant and compare the accuracy of this method with results obtained using refractometry using raw serum. Serum samples (n=200) were obtained from 1-d-old calves, frozen (-20°C), and shipped to the laboratory. Samples were allowed to thaw for 1h at room temperature. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1mL of serum to a tube containing 45, 60, or 75µL of CA and 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube contents were mixed well, allowed to react for 1 min, and then centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 0, 10, or 20 min at 25°C. The %Brix and refractive index of the fractionated supernatant were determined using a digital refractometer. Nonfractionated serum was analyzed for %Brix (BRn), refractive index (nDn), and IgG concentration by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration was 19.0 mg/mL [standard deviation (SD)=9.7], with a range of 3.5 to 47.0 mg/mL. The mean serum BRn was 8.6 (SD=0.91), with a range of 6.8 to 11.0. The mean serum nDn was 1.34566 (SD=0.00140), with a range of 1.34300 to 1.34930. Serum nDn was positively correlated with IgG concentration (correlation coefficient=0.86; n=185). Fractionated samples treated with 1mL 0.6 M acetic acid and 60µL of CA and not centrifuged before analysis resulted in a strong relationship between the refractive index of the fractionated supernatant and IgG (correlation coefficient=0.80; n=45). Regression was used to determine cut points indicative of 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <10 mg/mL at 24 h old). The nDn were 1.34414, 1.34448, and 1.34480 to predict 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL of serum, respectively. The BRn cut points were 7.6, 7.8, and 8.0, respectively. The nDn cut points of 1.34448 and

  11. Reducing Colonization and Eggborne Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in Layer Chickens by In-Feed Supplementation of Caprylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Nair, Meera S; Bhattaram, Varun K; Karumathil, Deepti; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Khan, Mazhar I; Darre, Michael J; Curtis, Patricia A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for causing gastrointestinal infections in humans, predominantly due to the consumption of contaminated eggs. In layer hens, SE colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, thereby leading to egg yolk and shell contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of caprylic acid (CA), a medium-chain fatty acid, in reducing SE colonization and egg contamination in layers. Caprylic acid was supplemented in the feed at 0%, 0.7%, or 1% (vol/wt) from day 1 of the experiment. Birds were challenged with 10(10) log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of SE by crop gavage on day 10, and re-inoculated (10(10) log CFU/mL) on day 35. After 7 days post first inoculation, eggs were collected daily and tested for SE on the shell and in the yolk separately. The birds were sacrificed on day 66 to determine SE colonization in the ceca, liver, and oviduct. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by triangle test. The experiment was replicated twice. In-feed supplementation of CA (0.7% and 1%) to birds consistently decreased SE on eggshell and in the yolk (p<0.05). Supplementation of CA at 1.0% decreased SE population to ≈14% on the shell and ≈10% in yolk, when compared to control birds, which yielded ≈60% positive samples on shell and ≈43% in yolk. Additionally, SE populations in the cecum and liver were reduced in treated birds compared to control (p<0.05). No significant difference in egg production, body weight, or sensory properties of eggs was observed (p>0.05). The results suggest that CA could potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce eggborne transmission of SE.

  12. A randomized blinded clinical trial of two antivenoms, prepared by caprylic acid or ammonium sulphate fractionation of IgG, in Bothrops and Porthidium snake bites in Colombia: correlation between safety and biochemical characteristics of antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Gutiérrez, J M; Rojas, G; Núñez, V; Díaz, A; Miranda, E; Uribe, A F; Silva, J F; Ospina, J G; Medina, Y; Toro, M F; García, M E; León, G; García, M; Lizano, S; De La Torre, J; Márquez, J; Mena, Y; González, N; Arenas, L C; Puzón, A; Blanco, N; Sierra, A; Espinal, M E; Lozano, R

    1999-06-01

    A randomized blinded clinical trial was performed in 53 patients bitten by Bothrops sp. and Porthidium sp. in Antioquia and Chocó, Colombia, in order to compare the efficacy and safety of two antivenoms made of whole IgG obtained by either ammonium sulphate (monovalent anti-B. atrox) or caprylic acid (polyvalent) fractionation. Additionally, antivenoms were compared by electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses and anticomplementary activity in vitro. With a protocol of 2, 4 and 6 antivenom vials for the treatment of mild, moderate and severe envenomings, respectively, both antivenoms were equally efficient to neutralize the most relevant signs of envenoming and to clear serum venom levels in patients from the first hour and later on. Three patients with severe envenoming and initially treated with less than six vials on admission had persistent or recurrent venom antigenemia within 12-48 h. Monovalent antivenom fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation had higher amounts of protein aggregates and nonimmunoglobulin proteins than polyvalent antivenom fractionated by caprylic acid precipitation. Both antivenoms presented anticomplementary activity in vitro, being higher in the monovalent product. In agreement, monovalent antivenom induced a significantly higher incidence of early antivenom reactions (52%) than polyvalent antivenom (25%).

  13. Effect of caprylic acid and Yucca schidigera extract on production performance, egg quality, blood characteristics, and excreta microflora in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Kim, I H

    2011-12-01

    1. A total of 240 Hy-line brown laying hens (36-week-old), were used in this 8 week experiment to evaluate the effect of caprylic acid and Yucca schidigera extract (CY) on production performance, egg quality, blood characteristics, and excreta microflora. 2. Layers were divided into 5 dietary treatment groups which consisted of: (1) NC, basal diet; (2) PC, basal diet + 110 mg/kg of tylosin; (3) CY1, basal diet + 30 mg/kg caprylic acid + 30 mg/kg Yucca extract; (4) CY2, basal diet + 60 mg/kg caprylic acid + 60 mg/kg Yucca extract; (5) CY3, basal diet + 120 mg/kg caprylic acid + 120 mg/kg Yucca extract. The Yucca extract contained 12·5% saponins. 3. Egg production was unaffected, whereas egg weights and feed efficiency were linearly improved by the addition of CY. There were no differences in the egg quality parameters throughout the experimental period. Plasma total triglyceride and cholesterol concentration in plasma and egg yolk were decreased as utilisation of CY increased. The Escherichia coli counts were linearly inhibited by the CY treatments when compared with the NC treatment at both the 5 and 8 week stages. No difference was observed on the Lactobacillus population through the whole experimental period. 4. In conclusion, the addition of 120 mg/kg caprylic acid and 120 mg/kg Yucca extract exerted positive effects on egg weight and feed efficiency, decreased the serum and yolk cholesterol concentration and reduced the proliferation of Escherichia coli.

  14. Chemical and physical properties of butterfat-vegetable oil blend spread prepared with enzymatically transesterified canola oil and caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

    2005-06-15

    Structured Lipid was synthesized from canola oil and caprylic acid with sn-1,3 specific lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Cold spreadable butter was made by blending butterfat with the SL at a weight ratio of 80:20. Its chemical and physical properties were compared with pure butter and butterfat-canola oil 80:20 blend spread. The butterfat-SL blend had lower contents of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (FAs) and the lowest atherogenic index (AI) as compared to the others. Melting and crystallization behaviors of butterfat-SL blend were similar to those of butterfat-canola oil blend above 0 degrees C. It showed solid fat contents (SFCs) similar to butterfat-canola oil blend but lower than pure butterfat. The butterfat-SL blend was shown to crystallize in the beta' form. There were no differences between the hardness of butterfat-SL blend spread and butterfat-canola oil blend spread. Rheological analysis showed that butterfat-SL blend spread lost its elastic behavior at 5 degrees C, a lower temperature than pure butter.

  15. Polymorphism, crystallinity and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of stearic acid and stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglyceride matrices for production of stable nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Severino, Patrícia; Pinho, Samantha C; Souto, Eliana B; Santana, Maria H A

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in lipid nanoparticles because of their suitability for several administration routes. Thus, it becomes even more relevant the physicochemical characterization of lipid materials with respect to their polymorphism, lipid miscibility and stability, as well as the assessment of the effect of surfactant on the type and structure of these nanoparticles. This work focuses on the physicochemical characterization of lipid matrices composed of pure stearic acid or of mixtures of stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglycerides, for drug delivery. The lipids were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) in combination with selected surfactants to determine the best solid-to-liquid ratio. Based on the results obtained by DSC and WAXD, the selected qualitative and quantitative composition contributed for the production of stable nanoparticles, since the melting and the tempering processes provided important information on the thermodynamic stability of solid lipid matrices. The best HLB value obtained for stearic acid-capric/caprylic triglycerides was 13.8, achieved after combining these lipids with accepted surfactants (trioleate sorbitan and polysorbate 80 in the ratio of 10:90). The proposed combinations were shown useful to obtain a stable emulsion to be used as intermediate form for the production of lipid nanoparticles.

  16. Glyceryl trinitrate and caprylic acid for the mitigation of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on C1018 carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, P; Cai, W; Rosenblatt, J S; Raad, I I; Xu, D; Gu, T

    2016-02-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), also known as biocorrosion, is caused by corrosive biofilms. MIC is a growing problem, especially in the oil and gas industry. Among various corrosive microbes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are often the leading culprit. Biofilm mitigation is the key to MIC mitigation. Biocide applications against biofilms promote resistance over time. Thus, it is imperative to develop new biodegradable and cost-effective biocides for large-scale field applications. Using the corrosive Desulfovibrio vulgaris (an SRB) biofilm as a model biofilm, this work demonstrated that a cocktail of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and caprylic acid (CA) was very effective for biofilm prevention and mitigation of established biofilms on C1018 carbon steel coupons. The most probable number sessile cell count data and confocal laser scanning microscope biofilm images proved that the biocide cocktail of 25 ppm (w/w) GTN + 0.1% (w/w) CA successfully prevented the D. vulgaris biofilm establishment on C1018 carbon steel coupons while 100 ppm GTN + 0.1% CA effectively mitigated pre-established D. vulgaris biofilms on C1018 carbon steel coupons. In both cases, the cocktails were able to reduce the sessile cell count from 10(6) cells/cm(2) to an undetectable level.

  17. Anticonvulsant profile of caprylic acid, a main constituent of the medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wlaź, Piotr; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J; Zarnowska, Iwona; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Czuczwar, Stanisław J; Gasior, Maciej

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute anticonvulsant effects of caprylic acid (CA), the main constituent of the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet (MCT KD), in seizure tests typically used in screening for potential antiepileptic drugs in mice. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between CA and valproate (VPA) were also investigated. CA (p.o.) and VPA (i.p.) were administered 30 min before testing. Acute effects on motor coordination were assessed in the chimney test. Total plasma and brain concentrations of CA and VPA, when administered alone or in combination, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. CA (10-30 mmol/kg) increased the threshold for i.v. pentylenetetrazole-induced myoclonic and clonic convulsions, but not tonic convulsions. CA (5-30 mmol/kg) increased the threshold for 6-Hz psychomotor seizures but was ineffective in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test. CA (10-60 mmol/kg p.o.) impaired motor performance in the chimney test (TD(50) value, 58.4 mmol/kg). Increasing doses of CA (5-30 mmol/kg) produced proportional increases in plasma and brain exposure with constant brain/plasma partitioning. CA increased anticonvulsant potency of VPA in the maximal electroshock seizure and 6-Hz seizure tests. Co-administration of CA and VPA had no effect on brain and plasma concentrations of either compound. In summary, CA exerts acute anticonvulsant effects and potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of VPA at doses that result in plasma exposures comparable to those reported in epileptic patients on the MCT KD. Thus, this acute anticonvulsant property of CA may benefit and add to the overall clinical efficacy of the MCT KD.

  18. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on alfalfa seeds by caprylic acid and monocaprylin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-sen; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2010-11-15

    Alfalfa and other seed sprouts have been implicated in several Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. human illness outbreaks in the U.S. Continuing food safety issues with alfalfa seeds necessitate the need for discovery and use of novel and effective antimicrobials. The potential use of caprylic acid (CA) and monocaprylin (MC) for reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. populations on alfalfa seeds was evaluated. The effectiveness of three concentrations of CA and MC (25, 50, and 75 mM) to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. populations in 0.1% peptone water and on alfalfa seeds was evaluated. Surviving populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. were enumerated by direct plating on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Non-inoculated alfalfa seeds were soaked for up to 120 min to evaluate the effect of CA and MC solutions on seed germination rate. For planktonic cells, the efficacy of the treatments was: 75 MC > 50 MC > 25 MC > 75 CA > 50 CA > 25 CA. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. were reduced to below the detection limit (0.6 log CFU/ml) within 10 min of exposure to 75 MC from initial populations of 7.65 ± 0.10 log CFU/ml and 7.71 ± 0.11 log CFU/ml, respectively. Maximum reductions of 1.56 ± 0.25 and 2.56 ± 0.17 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp., respectively, were achieved on inoculated alfalfa seeds (from initial populations of 4.74 ± 0.62 logCFU/g and 5.27±0.20logCFU/g, respectively) when treated with 75 MC for 90 min. Germination rates of CA or MC treated seeds ranged from 84% to 99%. The germination rates of CA or MC soaked seeds and water soaked seeds (control) were similar (P > 0.05) for soaking times of ≤ 90 min. Monocaprylin (75 mM) can be used to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on alfalfa seeds without compromising seed viability.

  19. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of 3- and 6-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically.

    PubMed

    Kollanoor-Johny, A; Mattson, T; Baskaran, S A; Amalaradjou, M A R; Hoagland, T A; Darre, M J; Khan, M I; Schreiber, D T; Donoghue, A M; Donoghue, D J; Venkitanarayanan, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In separate 3- and 6-wk trials, 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 70 birds/trial) were assigned to a control group (challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis, no CA) and 2 replicates of 0.7 and 1% CA (n = 14 birds/group). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. On d 1, birds were tested for any inherent Salmonella (n = 2 birds/group). For the 3-wk trial, on d 5, birds were challenged with 8 log(10) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis of a 4-strain mixture by crop gavage, and after 5 d postchallenge, birds (n = 2 birds/group) were euthanized to ensure Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. Caprylic acid was supplemented the last 5 d before tissue collection (n = 10 birds/group). For the 6-wk trial, on d 25, birds were challenged and confirmed for Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. The birds (n = 10 birds/group) were euthanized for tissue samples after CA supplementation for the last 5 d. Caprylic acid at 0.7 or 1% decreased Salmonella Enteritidis populations in cecum, small intestine, cloaca, liver, and spleen in both 3- and 6-wk trials. Body weight of birds did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.05). Further, to elucidate a potential antibacterial mechanism of action of CA, we investigated if CA could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis invasion of an avian epithelial cell line and expression of invasion genes hilA and hilD. The cell invasion study revealed that CA reduced invasive abilities of all Salmonella Enteritidis strains by ~80% (P < 0.05). Gene expression studies indicated that CA downregulated (P < 0.001) Salmonella invasion genes hilA and hilD. These results suggest that supplementation of CA through feed could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in broiler chicken and potentially reduces the pathogen's ability to invade intestinal epithelial cells

  20. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  1. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  2. Acid precipitation in southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ahern, J.; Baird, C.

    1983-09-01

    Snowfall, snowpack, and rainfall samples were collected in Laramie, Wyoming and in the Snowy Range west of Laramie from March to June 1981 to determine the occurrence and sources of acid precipitation in southeast Wyoming. Electrodes measured different pH values in the samples; however, fast-response electrodes yielded higher and apparently more accurate pH measurements. The pH values in the Laramie precipitation and snowpack were typically greater than 5.0, but all the Snowy Range snowpack pH values were less than 5.0. The lower pH values in the Snowy Range snowpack were caused by higher concentrations of the acid-forming nitrate and lower concentrations of the neutralizing calcium. Two organic species, formate and acetate, were detected in the Laramie samples, but had no significant influence on the acidity of the samples. 33 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  3. Development and validation of a reverse phase HPLC method for the determination of caprylic acid in formulations of therapeutic immunoglobulins and its application to antivenom production.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Meneses, Fabricio; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    A novel method of high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection for the quantification of caprylic acid in formulations of therapeutic immunoglobulins was developed and validated. Samples have interfering proteins that were removed by ultrafiltration in a centrifugal filter unit of 10 kDa nominal molecular weight limit. Then, compounds present in ultrafiltrates were separated on an Eclipse XDB-C8 5 microm column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.), using a mixture of acetonitrile-water (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The UV detection was performed at 210 nm. The method was found to be precise and accurate, with a linearity range from 400 microg/mL to 600 microg/mL (r=0.9948). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 13.46 microg/mL and 44.85 microg/mL, respectively. To illustrate the usefulness of the method in the in-process and final quality control for production of therapeutic immunoglobulin formulations, permeates obtained from the industrial diafiltration step in the manufacture of equine-derived snake antivenoms and ten batches of finished product were analyzed.

  4. Acid precipitation; an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiltshire, Denise A.; Evans, Margaret L.

    1984-01-01

    This collection of 1660 bibliographies references on the causes and environmental effects of acidic atmospheric deposition was compiled from computerized literature searches of earth-science and chemistry data bases. Categories of information are (1) atmospheric chemistry (gases and aerosols), (2) precipitation chemistry, (3) transport and deposition (wet and dry), (4) aquatic environments (biological and hydrological), (5) terrestrial environments, (6) effects on materials and structures, (7) air and precipitation monitoring and data collection, and (8) modeling studies. References date from the late 1800 's through December 1981. The bibliography includes short summaries of most documents. Omitted are unpublished manuscripts, publications in press, master 's theses and doctoral dissertations, newspaper articles, and book reviews. Coauthors and subject indexes are included. (USGS)

  5. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.; Seliga, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    The First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem dealt with the potential magnitude of the global effects of acid precipitation on aquatic ecosystems, forest soils, and forest vegetation. The problem is discussed in the light of atmospheric chemistry, transport, and precipitation. (Author/BT)

  6. Dietary Caprylic Acid (C8:0) Does Not Increase Plasma Acylated Ghrelin but Decreases Plasma Unacylated Ghrelin in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Dayot, Stéphanie; Duby, Cécile; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the caprylic acid (C8:0), this study aimed at investigating the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary medium chain fatty acids on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on food intake via ghrelin octanoylation. During 6 weeks, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with three dietary C8:0 levels (0, 8 and 21% of fatty acids) in three experimental conditions (moderate fat, caloric restriction and high fat). A specific dose-response enrichment of the stomach tissue C8:0 was observed as a function of dietary C8:0, supporting the hypothesis of an early preduodenal hydrolysis of medium chain triglycerides and a direct absorption at the gastric level. However, the octanoylated ghrelin concentration in the plasma was unchanged in spite of the increased C8:0 availability. A reproducible decrease in the plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin was observed, which was consistent with a decrease in the stomach preproghrelin mRNA and stomach ghrelin expression. The concomitant decrease of the plasma unacylated ghrelin and the stability of its acylated form resulted in a significant increase in the acylated/total ghrelin ratio which had no effect on body weight gain or total dietary consumption. This enhanced ratio measured in rats consuming C8:0 was however suspected to increase (i) growth hormone (GH) secretion as an increase in the GH-dependent mRNA expression of the insulin like growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured (ii) adipocyte diameters in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an increase in the fat pad mass. Altogether, these results show that daily feeding with diets containing C8:0 increased the C8:0 level in the stomach more than all the other tissues, affecting the acylated/total ghrelin plasma ratio by decreasing the concentration of circulating unacylated ghrelin. However, these modifications were not associated with increased body weight or food consumption. PMID:26196391

  7. An innovative method for analysis of Pb (II) in rice, milk and water samples based on TiO2 reinforced caprylic acid hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Shahriyar; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Nezhadali, Azizollah; Banaei, Alireza; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, nano-sized titanium oxides were applied for preconcentration and determination of Pb(II) in aqueous samples using hollow fiber based solid-liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In this work, the nanoparticles dispersed in caprylic acid as an extraction solvent was placed into a polypropylene porous hollow fiber segment supported by capillary forces and sonification. This membrane was in direct contact with solutions containing Pb (II). The effect of experimental conditions on the extraction, such as pH, stirring rate, sample volume, and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the performance of the proposed method was investigated for the determination of Pb (II) in food and water samples. The method was linear in the range of 0.6-3000μgmL(-1). The relative standard deviations and relative recovery of Pb (II) was 4.9% and 99.3%, respectively (n=5).

  8. Effects of acid precipitation on Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, S.; Cheetham, R.D.

    1980-08-01

    Pollutants derived from fossil fuel combustion and precipitated from the atmosphere have substantially increased in the past decades. These materials, precipitated in such industrialized areas as southeastern Canada, have caused considerable alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Precipitation over most of the eastern United States is presently 10 to 500 times more acidic than is natural. Most affected aquatic ecosystems contain oligotrophic waters in regions of thin poorly buffered soils. Zooplankton are an important link in food chains of aquatic ecosystems and their disappearance or decline could drastically affect trophic relationships. Declines in zooplankton density in response to acid precipitation have been reported and short term survival of Daphnia pulex between pH 4.3 and 10.4; however, its potential for reproduction was limited to a fairly narrow range. Anderson (1944) noted the advantages of using daphnia as test organisms, and concluded that Daphnia magna was representative of other abundant zooplankton in sensitivity to toxic substances.

  9. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  10. Predictive model and optimization of a combined treatment of caprylic acid and citric acid for the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using the response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2015-03-16

    Our recent previous study reported the outstanding synergistic bactericidal activity of a combination of two natural antimicrobials: caprylic acid (CA) and citric acid (CTA). In the present study, the response surface methodology was used with the central composite design to build a model based on four factors, i.e., the CA concentration, CTA concentration, temperature, and treatment time, for the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This model was used to determine the optimum conditions for desirable responses and to evaluate the effects of experimental factors. The ranges of the four variables used in the design were as follows: CA concentration (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 mM), CTA concentration (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 mM), temperature (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45°C), and time (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 min). A second-order quadratic model of the effect of four variables was constructed and the experimental values agreed well with the values derived from model equation (R(2)=0.954). The adequacy of this model for predicting the magnitude of bacterial reduction was verified based on the validation data (R(2)=0.946). The optimum conditions for the combined treatment for microbial reduction were determined by ridge analysis, which were 1.0mM CA and 0.8mM CTA at 39.6°C for 5.4 min. The CA concentration and temperature were the most significant variables. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the bactericidal effects of the combined CA and CTA treatment. A distinct advantage of the proposed method is its cost-effectiveness. This treatment could be used as a preservative in the food industry because the two components are natural products.

  11. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  12. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the causes, effects, sources, and controls of acid precipitation and acidification. Techniques and technology for measurement and analysis of acid precipitation are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research of acid precipitation, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification are covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research of acid precipitation, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification are covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Caprylic acid in the effective treatment of intractable medical problems of frequent urination, incontinence, chronic upper respiratory infection, root canalled tooth infection, ALS, etc., caused by asbestos & mixed infections of Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori & cytomegalovirus with or without other microorganisms & mercury.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; O'Young, Brian; Jones, Marilyn; Pallos, Andrew; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    There are many causes of frequent urination. Whenever water or fluids are consumed, the patient has to urinate within 10 or 20 min. Often urinary bladder examinations & blood tests show no significant abnormalities, & treatment by anti-bacterial or anti-viral agents does not improve the symptoms significantly. In intractable frequent urination with difficulty holding urine, as well as other intractable medical problems such as frequent coughing, white pus in gingiva, infection of the apex of a root canalled tooth, slow-healing wounds, & ALS, the authors often found coexisting mixed infections of Candida albicans (C.A.), Helicobacter pylori (H.P.), & Cytomegalovirus (CMV) with or without additional bacterial (Chlamydia trachomatis, etc.) or viral infections & increased Asbestos, with or without Hg deposits. We often found various degrees of mixed infections with C.A., H.P., & CMV in the external sphincters of the urethra & in the Trigone of the urinary bladder which consists of (1) a horizontal, band-like area between the 2 ureter openings & (2) the funnel shaped part of the Trigone at the lower half of the urinary bladder. In the coexistence of significant amounts of C.A., H.P. & CMV, the infection cannot be reduced by otherwise effective medicines for H.P. & CMV. However, one optimal dose of Diflucan, or Caprylic acid taken orally or externally applied, rapidly reduced the symptoms significantly. We found the best treatment is to give a combination of an optimal dose of Caprylic acid orally in the form of "CaprilyCare" or "Caprylic Acid," with a capsule of Omega-3 Fish Oil as an anti-viral agent, Amoxicillin, Substance Z & a Cilantro tablet. We found that an optimal dose of Caprylic acid increases normal cell telomere (NCT) to a desirable 750 ng BDORT units while Diflucan increases NCT by only 25 ng BDORT units, & with Omega-3 fish oil, leads to a mutual cancellation of both drugs. Thus, Caprylic acid is superior to & less expensive than Diflucan, & has potential

  16. Acid Precipitation Awareness Curriculum Materials in the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1983-01-01

    Provides an outline of course content for acid precipitation and two acid rain activities (introduction to pH and effects of acid rain on an organism). Information for obtaining 20 additional activities as well as an information packet containing booklets, pamphlets, and articles are also provided. (JN)

  17. Acid Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John; Kozak, David

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the causes, sources, and problems associated with acid deposition in the Pacific Northwest. Includes a learning activity about acid rain, "Deadly Skies," which was adapted from the Project WILD Aquatic Supplement. (TW)

  18. Effects of acid precipitation on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of acid rain on crop yield have been studied using field-grown and potted plants. Results have shown that the chemicals in acid rain can affect crop growth and yield at ambient concentrations. For many crops, the dose-response curve probably has at least one peak and crossover point from stimulatory to inhibitory response may depend on other environmental factors. Plant parts often are affected differently, suggesting that acid rain can change the allocation of energy within plants. Available experimental results are not transferable to agricultural situations. The characteristics of acid rain which have the greatest influence on crop yield have not been determined. Interactions between acid rain and other environmental factors have scarcely been studied. Before a believable assessment of the economic impact of acid rain on crops can be done, the mechanisms of response have to be studied and the predictive capability enhanced and validated.

  19. Acid Precipitation: Scientific Progress and Public Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowling, Ellis B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes certain perspectives on scientific research and on the public debates about acid deposition and its effects. Although primary attention is given to European/North American research, the ideas developed are relevant in any world region sensitive to acid deposition resulting from intense industrialization. (Author/JN)

  20. Kinetics of catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent.

    PubMed

    Al-Kady, Ahmed S; Ahmed, El-Sadat I; Gaber, M; Hussein, Mohamed M; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M

    2011-09-01

    The kinetics of chemical hydrolysis including neutral, acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent were studied at different temperatures. The rate constants and activation parameters were determined by following the build-up of fluorescence peak of the hydrolysis product 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The time scale of esterase enzyme hydrolysis caused by salmonella was compared with chemical hydrolysis as a background process.

  1. Kinetics of catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kady, Ahmed S.; Ahmed, El-Sadat I.; Gaber, M.; Hussein, Mohamed M.; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

    2011-09-01

    The kinetics of chemical hydrolysis including neutral, acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent were studied at different temperatures. The rate constants and activation parameters were determined by following the build-up of fluorescence peak of the hydrolysis product 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The time scale of esterase enzyme hydrolysis caused by salmonella was compared with chemical hydrolysis as a background process.

  2. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and analysis of acid rain and acidification of areas by precipitation. Both global and regionalized areas of acid rain effects are examined. Control techniques applicable to the sources and causes are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Effects of acidic precipitation on field crops

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Gmur, N.F.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of acid rain on yields of field-grown soybeans has been investigated. Plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of pH 4.1, 3,3 and 2.7 had decreased seed yields of 10.6, 16.8 and 23.9% below yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of pH 5.6. (ACR)

  4. Acid precipitation at 3 sites in the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, E.; Yap, S.K.; Azimi, S.

    1996-12-31

    A study which examined spatial variation, dust and chemical composition factors associated with precipitation pH in the Klang Valley had been conducted. Precipitation samples were collected on a monthly basis at 3 different locations during the periods of 1993-1995. These long term sites were situated at varying distance from the industrial zone of the Klang Valley. Data were collected on a monthly basis and where possible after every rainfall. This included the field pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and analysis of chemical components. To date, the general pH trend at these stations is decreasing towards the acid range. The site furthest from the industrial zone had the highest pH values while site closest to the industrial zone had the lowest pH. There appeared to be a correlation between the precipitation pH and electrical conductivity (EC), the EC readings increased with increased acidity. Variations in precipitation pH was closely associated with the changes in sulfate concentration. The pH of precipitation is determined not only by the anions, but also by the concentration of cations in the atmosphere which neutralized the acidity by forming salts. The main cause for the decrease in the pH values is the significant increase of acidic components and decrease of soil-oriented components (Mg and Ca) in the rain water.

  5. Acid precipitation chemistry in an urban plume

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, P.; Arcado, T.D.; Marler, B.L.; Altshuler, S.L. )

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the results of an ongoing study performed by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) to: investigate the formation, transport and deposition of acidic species in the urban plume from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and assess the role of two gas-fired electric generation facilities located on the eastern boundary of the SFBA. They present a brief summary of their study area's climate. The network used in this study and our experimental methods are also described. An analysis of wet deposition data collected by our network is presented along with a discussion of the major findings, to date, of our study.

  6. Precipitation of sodium acid urate from electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Babić-Ivaniĉić, Vesna; Milat, Ognjen; Brown, Walter E.; Gregory, Thomas M.

    1987-07-01

    The precipitation of soduim urate from solutions containing uric acid, soduim hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and water was investigated at constant pH (7.5±0.1) and temperature (308 K). Precipitates were observed by lights and electron microscopy and characterized by electron and X-ray diffraction. The results are presented in the form of "precipitation" and "chemical potential" diagrams, the latter giving the soduim-to-urate molar ratios of the precipitates. Two types of precipitation boundaries were observed, both of which had indicated soduim-to-urate moral ratios of 1:1. The ion activity product, (Na +)(HU -), associated with boundary I was AP I=(4.8±1.1)×10 -5 and with boundary II was with boundary II was AP II=(6.5±0.4)×10 -4. The supersaturation, S, at boundary II was S=AP II/ Ksp=12.3, in which Ksp is the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. The latter precipitated as well-formed crystals at supersaturations of 12.3 and above. The ion activity product associated with boundary I is approximately equal to the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. Small amounts of several morphologically different sodium urate crystals formed in the range of supersaturations (1≤ S≤12.3). Crystals formed in this range may include the monohydrate of sodium acid urate and possibly a higher hydrate. The findings have relevance to pathological renal stone formation and gouty arthritis.

  7. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes an acidizing composition for treating a sour well. It comprises: a base acid solution having an initial ph below 1.9; an iron sequestering agent to combine with iron present in the solution comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution; and a sulfide modifier to combine with sulfides present in the solution comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming an aldehyde in solution, present in an amount of from about 1 to about 4 percent by weight of the acid solution, whereby precipitation of ferric hydroxide, ferrous sulfide and elemental sulfur is inhibited as acid spending occurs.

  8. Acidic precipitation: considerations for an air-quality standard

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Stensland, G.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Francis, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Acidic precipitation, wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greatern than 2.5 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ is a significant air pollution problem in the United States. The chief anions accounting for the hydrogen ions in rainfall are nitrate and sulfate. Agricultural systems are more likely to derive net nutritional benefits from increasing inputs of acidic rain than are forest systems when soils alone are considered. Agricultural soils may benefit because of the high N and S requirements of agricultural plants. Detrimental effects to forest soils may result if atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs significantly add to or exceed H/sup +/ production by soils. Acidification of fresh waters of southern Scandinavia, southwestern Scotland, southeastern Canada, and northeastern United States is caused by acid deposition. Areas of these regions in which this acidification occurs have in common, highly acidic precipitation with volume weighted mean annual H/sup +/ concentrations of 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ or higher and slow weathering granitic or precambrian bedrock with thin soils deficient in minerals which would provide buffer capacity. Biological effects of acidification of fresh waters are detectable below pH 6.0. As lake and stream pH levels decrease below pH. 6.0, many species of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates are progressively eliminated. Generally, fisheries are impacted below pH 5.0 and are completely destroyed below pH 4.8. There are few studies that document effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation to establish an air quality standard. It must be demonstrated that current levels of precipitation acidity alone significantly injure terrestrial vegetation. In terms of documented damanges, current research indicates that establishing a standard for precipitation for the volume weighted annual H/sup +/ concentration at 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ may protect the most sensitive areas from permanent lake acidification.

  9. Glycation inhibits trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced whey protein precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different WPI saccharide conjugates were successfully prepared to test whether glycation could inhibit WPI precipitation induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Conjugates molecular weights after glycation were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. No significant secondary structure change due to glycation wa...

  10. Teacher's Resource Guide on Acidic Precipitation with Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The purpose of this teacher's resource guide is to help science teachers incorporate the topic of acidic precipitation into their curricula. A survey of recent junior high school science textbooks found a maximum of one paragraph devoted to the subject; in addition, none of these books had any related laboratory activities. It was on the basis of…

  11. Acidic precipitation, Vol. 2: Biological and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Adriano, D.C.; Johnson, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. The chapters in this volume cover a wide array of topics on the biological and ecological effects of acidic precipitation. A chapter on soil productivity emphasizes changes in biological and chemical characters of forest soils impacted by acidic deposition. Additional chapters discuss specific effects on soil microorganisms, trees, and crops. The importance of aluminum in this environmental issue is highlighted by a discussion on the mobility and phytotoxicity of this element in acidic soils. This chapter puts into perspective the biology of Al stressed plants. Two major chapters discuss the effect of acidic precipitation on forest ecosystems; one emphasizing North America, and the other Europe. Effects of soil acidification on key soil processes, including litter decomposition and depletion of essential plant nutrients in the soil profile are emphasized. Finally, three major chapters comprehensively cover limnological ecosystems and their response to acidic perturbation. These chapters discuss the response of stream and lake communities, both floral and faunal, to water acidification, including reduced biodiversity in these systems. Ten chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  12. HF acid blends based on formation conditions eliminate precipitation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gdanski, R.; Shuchart, C.

    1997-03-01

    Formulating HCl-HF acid blends based on the mineralogy and temperature of a formation can increase the success of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatments. Sodium and potassium in the structures of formation minerals can cause precipitation and matrix plugging problems during acidizing. Slight modifications of the acid blend used in the treatment can help eliminate fluosilicate precipitation. Researchers recently conducted tests to determine how acid blends react in different formations under varying temperatures. The results of the tests indicate that the minimum HCl:HF ratio in an acid blend is 6-to-1, and the optimum ratio is 9-to-1. Regular mud acid (12% HCl-3% HF) has been used successfully for years to enhance production in sandstone formations. By the 1980s, operators began to vary the concentration of HF and HCl acids to solve excessive sanding problems in sandstone. The paper discusses treatment problems, formation characteristics, alumino-silicate scaling, research results, brine compatibility, optimum treatment, and acid volume guidelines.

  13. Impact of effects of acid precipitation on toxicity of metals.

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, G F; Goyer, R A; Clarkson, T W

    1985-01-01

    Acid precipitation may increase human exposure to several potentially toxic metals by increasing metal concentrations in major pathways to man, particularly food and water, and in some instances by enhancing the conversion of metal species to more toxic forms. Human exposures to methylmercury are almost entirely by way of consumption of fish and seafood. In some countries, intakes by this route may approach the levels that can give rise to adverse health effects for population groups with a high consumption of these food items. A possible increase in methylmercury concentrations in fish from lakes affected by acid precipitation may thus be of concern to selected population groups. Human exposures to lead reach levels that are near those associated with adverse health effects in certain sensitive segments of the general population in several countries. The possibility exists that increased exposures to lead may be caused by acid precipitation through a mobilization of lead from soils into crops. A route of exposure to lead that may possibly be influenced by acid precipitation is an increased deterioration of surface materials containing lead and a subsequent ingestion by small children. A similar situation with regard to uptake from food exists for cadmium (at least in some countries). Human metal exposures via drinking water may be increased by acid precipitation. Decreasing pH increases corrosiveness of water enhancing the mobilization of metal salts from soil; metallic compounds may be mobilized from minerals, which may eventually reach drinking water. Also, the dissolution of metals (Pb, Cd, Cu) from piping systems for drinking water by soft acidic waters of high corrosivity may increase metal concentrations in drinking water. Exposures have occasionally reached concentrations which are in the range where adverse health effects may be expected in otherwise healthy persons. Dissolution from piping systems can be prevented by neutralizing the water before

  14. Ten-year study on acid precipitation nears conclusion

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H. )

    1990-04-01

    Results from the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) are discussed. Final results are contained in 26 state of the science reports. Seven of the reports provide information on acid rain and aquatic ecosystems. They describe the current state of acidic surface waters, watershed processes affecting surface water chemistry, historical evidence for surface water acidification, methods for forecasting future changes, and the response of acidic surface water to liming. Six areas of the country were found to be of special interest: southwest Adirondacks, New England, forested areas of the mid-Atlantic highlands, the Atlantic coastal plain, the northern Florida highlands, parts of northeastern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Environmental effects, mitigation efforts and possible legislation are briefly discussed.

  15. Caprylic Triglyceride as a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Effectively Improve the Performance and Attenuate the Symptoms Due to the Motor Neuron Loss in ALS Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Varghese, Merina; Vempati, Prashant; Dzhun, Anastasiya; Cheng, Alice; Wang, Jun; Lange, Dale; Bilski, Amanda; Faravelli, Irene; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and finally death. ALS patients suffer from asthenia and their progressive weakness negatively impacts quality of life, limiting their daily activities. They have impaired energy balance linked to lower activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes in ALS spinal cord, suggesting that improving mitochondrial function may present a therapeutic approach for ALS. When fed a ketogenic diet, the G93A ALS mouse shows a significant increase in serum ketones as well as a significantly slower progression of weakness and lower mortality rate. In this study, we treated SOD1-G93A mice with caprylic triglyceride, a medium chain triglyceride that is metabolized into ketone bodies and can serve as an alternate energy substrate for neuronal metabolism. Treatment with caprylic triglyceride attenuated progression of weakness and protected spinal cord motor neuron loss in SOD1-G93A transgenic animals, significantly improving their performance even though there was no significant benefit regarding the survival of the ALS transgenic animals. We found that caprylic triglyceride significantly promoted the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate in vivo. Our results demonstrated that caprylic triglyceride alleviates ALS-type motor impairment through restoration of energy metabolism in SOD1-G93A ALS mice, especially during the overt stage of the disease. These data indicate the feasibility of using caprylic acid as an easily administered treatment with a high impact on the quality of life of ALS patients. PMID:23145119

  16. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream-flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid-forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Streamwater pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southeast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site.

  17. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Stream water pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southwast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site. 10 references, 2 tables.

  18. Precipitation of biomimetic fluorhydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Kevin J.; Stanton, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Ordered structures of fluorhydroxyapatite (FHA) nanoparticles that resemble the nanostructure of natural human enamel have been prepared. Wet precipitation in the presence of polyacrylic acid (PAA) was used, and the particle morphology was altered by varying several reaction conditions. High molecular weight PAA increased particle length from around 54 nm to several hundred nanometres, while maintaining particle width at 15 nm. PAA concentration and the order of mixing the reactants also influenced crystal morphology. Optimum conditions produced dense, aligned bundles of highly elongated nanorods, which are very similar to the hierarchical nanostructure of human tooth enamel.

  19. Continuous precipitation of process related impurities from clarified cell culture supernatant using a novel coiled flow inversion reactor (CFIR).

    PubMed

    Kateja, Nikhil; Agarwal, Harshit; Saraswat, Aditya; Bhat, Manish; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    Coiled Flow Inverter Reactor (CFIR) has recently been explored for facilitating continuous operation of several unit operations involved in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals such as viral inactivation and protein refolding. The application of CFIR for continuous precipitation of clarified cell culture supernatant has been explored. The pH based precipitation is optimized in the batch mode and then in the continuous mode in CFIR using a design of experiments (DOE) study. Improved clearance of host cell DNA (52× vs. 39× in batch), improved clearance of host cell proteins (HCP) (7× vs. 6× in batch) and comparable recovery (90 vs. 91.5 % in batch) are observed along with six times higher productivity. To further demonstrate wider applicability of CFIR in performing continuous precipitation, two more case studies involving use of two different precipitation protocols (CaCl2 based and caprylic acid based) are also performed. In both cases, clearance of host cell DNA, HCP, and product recovery are found to be comparable or better in CFIR than in batch operations. Moreover, increase in productivity of 16 times (CaCl2 based) and eight times (caprylic acid based) is obtained for the two precipitation protocols, respectively. The data clearly demonstrate that CFIR can be seamlessly integrated into a continuous bioprocess train for performing continuous precipitation of clarified cell culture supernatant. To our knowledge this is the first report of such use.

  20. Impact of acid precipitation on recreation and tourism in Ontario: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of acid precipitation on fishing opportunities, waterfowl and moose hunting, water contact activities, and the perception of the environment in Ontario are analyzed. Economic effects and future research needs are also estimated and discussed. These questions have been examined by identifying the likely links between acidic precipitation and recreation and tourism, by developing estimates of the importance of aquatic-based recreation and tourism, by describing the current and estimated future effects of acid precipitation. 101 references, 9 figures, 19 tables.

  1. Relationship between acid precipitation and three-dimensional transport associated with synoptic-scale cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenson, P.L.; Lazrus, A.L.; Kuo, Y.H.; Caldwell, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    Field data collected during APEX (Acid Precipitation Experiment) are used in combination with an isentropic trajectory model to analyze the relationship between acid precipitation and three-dimensional transport associated with cyclonic storms. Data are presented which indicate that high acidity in precipitation is often associated with slow transport speed and elevated SO2 concentrations in the dry air feeding into the precipitating regions. Conversely, low acidity is usually related to rapid transit, descending motion, and transport above the atmospheric boundary layer. The results also show that precipitation in the cold sector of a cyclone (in advance of the surface warm front) is often more acidic than that in other sectors of the storm. Four case studies are included to detail some of these meteorological effects. 19 references.

  2. Occurrence of acid precipitation on the West Coast of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, C.F.; Rambo, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Compilation of published and unpublished data shows acid precipitation to be more widespread in the Pacific coastal states than is generally recognized. Although information is scattered and discontinuous, precipitation is definitely acidic in the Los Angeles Basin and north-central California and in the Puget Sound region in Washington. Acid-rain occurrences were observed in western and eastern Oregon, but data are inadequate for regional generalization. New stations currently being established in Washington and Oregon, largely in response to the recently renewed activity of Mount St. Helens, will greatly facilitate assessment of precipitation acidity in the Northwest.

  3. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program: Acidic deposition: An inventory of non-Federal research, monitoring, and assessment information

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The Acid Precipitation Act of 1990 (Title VII of the Energy Security Act of 1980, P.L. 96-294) established the Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation to develop and implement the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The information included in the document was provided to NAPAP's Task Group Leaders and State-of-Science and State-of-Technology authors in July 1989. The early release was intended to assure that the authors would be aware of the information at an early phase in the assessment production process.

  4. Acid-Base and Precipitation Equilibria in Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments are performed to establish the changes of pH during the precipitation of potassium hydrogen tartrate, with its unfavorable impact on the stability of wine. Students, thus, obtain a clearer understanding of the interplay between a variety of chemical equilibria within a single medium.

  5. Compositions and method for controlling precipitation when acidizing sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method of treating a sour well penetrating a subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing into the well a treating fluid comprising an acid solution having a pH below 1.9, an iron sequestering agent comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of aminopolycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, cyclic polyethers and derivatives of the acids and ethers, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent by weight of the acid solution, and a sulfide modifier comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of an aldehyde, acetal, hemiacetal and any other compound capable of forming aldehydes in the acid solution, present in an amount of from about 0.25 to about 5 percent of the acid solution; and treating the subterranean formation with the treating fluid.

  6. Baseline Acidity of Ancient Precipitation from the South Pole,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    post-depositional diffusion of ait ferences ( Langway et al. 1975). The first three through the firn was contributing significantly to the measured...C.C. Langway , the Canadian high Arctic. Nature, 295: 137-140. Jr. (1975) Chemistry of 700 years of precipitation Kolthoff, i.M., E.B.Sandell...sis. London: Macmillian Company, p. 55. port 341. ADA 014970. Kuivinen, K.C., B.R. Koci, G.W. Holdsworth Cragin, J.H., M.M. Herron, C.C. Langway , Jr

  7. Considerations of an air-quality standard to protect terrestrial vegetation from acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the effects of acidic precipitation which is here defined as wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/, are reviewed. At the present time there is an inadequate amount of information that shows decreases in crop growth except for one field study. Most studies with plants (crops and forests) are inadequate for standard setting because they are not conducted in the field with adequate randomization of plots coupled with rigorous statistical analyses. Although visible injury to foliage has been documented in a variety of greenhouse studies, no experimental evidence demonstrates loss of field crop value or reduction in plant productivity due to visible foliar injury. Acidic precipitation can contribute nutrients to vegetation and could also influence leaching rates of nutrients from vegetation. Although these processes occur, there are no data that show changes in nutrient levels in foliage that relate to crop or natural ecosystem productivity. Experimental results show that fertilization of ferns is inhibited by current levels of acidic precipitation in the northeastern United States. However, the overall impacts of inhibited fertilization on perpetuation of the species or ecosystem productivity have not been evaluated. Simulated acidic precipitation has been shown to effect plant pathogens in greenhouse and field experiments. Simulated acidic precipitation inhibited pathogen activities under some circumstances and promoted pathogen activities under other circumstances. No conclusion can be drawn about the effects of current levels of precipitation acidity on plant pathogen-host interactions. From these data it must be concluded that research on the effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation is too meager to draw any conclusions with regard to an air quality standard.

  8. Acid Precipitation Learning Materials: Science, Environmental and Social Studies, Grades 6-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Edward W.

    The major environmental problem of acid precipition is addressed through a series of activities contained in this guide for teachers of grades 6 through 12. Exercises are provided to help students learn science inquiry skills, facts, and concepts while focusing on the acid rain situation. Activities are organized by content areas. These include:…

  9. Acid precipitation: things one can do - the Tug Hill Commission approach

    SciTech Connect

    Beevers, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Acid precipitation is an international problem requiring more knowledge of its causes and effects, increased public awareness, and national policies to address it. New York's Temporary Tug Hill State Commission, with limited budget, small staff, and only regional jurisdiction, has sought to learn and provide information about acid precipitation and to impact public policy. The area receives a large quantity of highly acidic precipitation. For example, the average lab pH for 22 samples taken at Bennett Bridge between June and December 1980 (the only data available) was 4.09. Some red spruce and red maple die-back may be linked to acid precipitation. The Commission has implemented a variety of activities in response, including use of students to survey acid precipitation, policy statements, research projects on water quality and forest impacts, and design and implementation of a public opinion survey that may lead to additional public awareness, legislative action, and research. Most of these are relatively low-cost activities that similar agencies or other groups could participate in or initiate. 9 references, 3 figures.

  10. [Study on solid dispersion of precipitated calcium carbonate-based oleanolic acid].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Jia, Xiao-bin; Jiang, Yan-rong; Sun, E

    2015-05-01

    Oleanolic acid-precipitated calcium carbonate solid dispersion was prepared by using solvent evaporation method. The microscopic structure and physicochemical properties of solid dispersion were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). And its in vitro release also was investigated. The properties of the precipitated calcium carbonate was studied which was as a carrier of oleanolic acid solid dispersion. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested that oleanolic acid may be present in solid dispersion as amorphous substance. The in vitro release determination results of oleanolic acid-precipitated calcium carbonate (1: 5) solid dispersion showed accumulated dissolution rate of.oleanolic acid was up to 90% at 45 min. Accelerating experiment showed that content and in vitro dissolution of oleanolic acid solid dispersion did not change after storing over 6 months. The results indicated that in vitro dissolution of oleanolic acid was improved greatly by the solid dispersion with precipitated calcium carbonate as a carrier. The solid dispersion is a stabilizing system which has actual applied value.

  11. Reconciling Empirical Carbonate Clumped Isotope Calibrations: A Comparison of Calcite Precipitation and Acid Digestion Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, J.; Huntington, K. W.; Schauer, A. J.; Saenger, C.; Lechler, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    An accurate empirical calibration is necessary to confidently apply the carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometer. Previous synthetic carbonate calibrations disagree in temperature sensitivity, with one group of calibrations displaying a shallow Δ47-temperature slope (e.g., Dennis & Schrag, GCA, 2010), and the other a steep slope (e.g., Zaarur et al., EPSL, 2013). These calibrations differ in both the method of mineral precipitation and the temperature of the phosphoric acid used to digest carbonates for analysis, making it difficult to isolate the cause of the discrepancy. Here, we precipitate synthetic carbonates at temperatures of 6-80ºC using 4 different precipitation methods, and analyze the samples using both 90 and 25°C acid digestion. Precipitation experiments varied the use of salts (NaHCO3 and CaCl2) vs. dissolved CaCO3 as a starting solution, the use of carbonic anhydrase to promote isotopic equilibrium among dissolved inorganic carbon species in solution, and the method by which CO2 degasses to force carbonate precipitation. Carbonates precipitated by using salts and allowing CO2 to passively degas produce a shallow calibration slope that we hypothesize to approach isotopic equilibrium. Precipitation methods that bubble CO2 into solution then degas that CO2 (either passively or actively by bubbling N2) produce carbonates with consistently lower Δ47 and higher δ18O values for a given growth temperature. We infer that these carbonates grew in disequilibrium during rapid CO2 degassing. Varying acid digestion temperature does not change the results; acid fractionation factor is not correlated with grain size, Δ47, or d47 values. No precipitation method produces a steep calibration slope. Our large sample set of >60 carbonates lend confidence to a shallow slope calibration, and inform interpretations of Δ47 and δ18O values of natural carbonates that grow under conditions of isotopic disequilibrium.

  12. Selective precipitation of ribonucleic acid from a mixture of total cellular nucleic acids extracted from cultured mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method is described for precipitating RNA selectively from total mammalian-cell nucleic acids extracted by the phenol–sodium dodecyl sulphate procedure at pH8.0. Under specified conditions bulk RNA is precipitated almost quantitatively whereas bulk DNA remains in solution. Minor components of RNA (detected by pulse-labelling and chromatography on methylated albumin–kieselguhr) and rapidly labelled components of DNA containing single-stranded regions are also precipitated. The usefulness of the method is discussed in the context of isolating separately both RNA and DNA from cultured cells that are difficult to obtain in quantity. PMID:5165620

  13. Composition and hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at Mt. Lu in South China: Implications for acid precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weijun; Chi, Jianwei; Shi, Zongbo; Wang, Xinfeng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yan; Li, Tao; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Daizhou; Wang, Zifa; Shi, Chune; Liu, Liangke; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of aerosol particles were studied at Mt. Lu, an elevated site (115°59‧E, 29°35‧N, 1165 m) within the acid precipitation area. Northeast winds transport copious amounts of air pollutants and water vapor from the Yangtze River Delta into this acid precipitation area. NH4+ and SO42- are the dominant ions in PM2.5 and determine aerosol acidity. Individual particle analysis shows abundant S-rich and metals (i.e. Fe-, Zn-, Mn-, and Pb-rich) particles. Unlike aerosol particles in North China and urban areas, there are little soot and mineral particles at Mt. Lu. Lack of mineral particles contributed to the higher acidity in precipitation in the research area. Nano-sized spherical metal particles were observed to be embedded in 37% of S-rich particles. These metal particles were likely originated from heavy industries and fired-power plants. Hygroscopic experiments show that most particles start to deliquesce at 73-76% but organic coating lowers the particle deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) to 63-73%. The DRHs of these aerosol particles are clearly smaller than that of pure ammonium sulfate particles which is 80%. Since RH in ambient air was relatively high, ranging from 65% to 85% during our study period, most particles at our sampling site were in liquid phase. Our results suggest that liquid phase reactions in aerosol particles may contribute to SO2 to sulfuric acid conversion in the acid precipitation area.

  14. Reuse of washing effluent containing oxalic acid by a combined precipitation-acidification process.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mihee; Kim, Myoung-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the reuse feasibility of effluent produced by the soil washing of mine tailings with oxalic acid. Alkaline chemicals such as NaOH, Ca(OH)(2), and Na(2)CO(3) are used for the precipitation of arsenic and heavy metals in the effluent containing oxalic acid. All of the target contaminants are removed with very high efficiency (up to 100%) at high pH. The precipitation using NaOH at pH 9 is determined to be the most cost-effective method for the removal of arsenic as well as heavy metals in the effluent. The effluent decontaminated by NaOH is consecutively reused for the soil washing of raw mine tailings, resulting in considerable efficiency. Furthermore, even more arsenic and heavy metals are extracted from raw mine tailings by acidifying the decontaminated effluent under the alkaline condition, compared with direct reuse of the decontaminated effluent. Here, the oxalic acid, which is a weak complex-forming ligand as well as a weak acid, has noticeable effects on both soil washing and effluent treatment by precipitation. It extracts efficiently the contaminants from the mine tailings without adverse change of soil and also makes possible the precipitation of the contaminants in the effluent unlike strong chelating reagent. Reuse of the washing effluent containing oxalic acid would make the existing soil washing process more environment-friendly and cost-effective.

  15. Cloning and characterization of four novel coral acid-rich proteins that precipitate carbonates in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Drake, Jeana L; Haramaty, Liti; Kim, J Dongun; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Falkowski, Paul G

    2013-06-17

    Biomineralization is a widely dispersed and highly regulated but poorly understood process by which organisms precipitate minerals from a wide variety of elements [1]. For many years, it has been hypothesized that the biological precipitation of carbonates is catalyzed by and organized on an extracellular organic matrix containing a suite of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides [2, 3]. The structures of these molecules, their evolutionary history, and the biophysical mechanisms responsible for calcification remain enigmatic. Despite the recognition that mineralized tissues contain proteins that are unusually rich in aspartic and glutamic acids [4-6], the role of these proteins in biomineralization remains elusive [5, 6]. Here we report, for the first time, the identification, cloning, amino acid sequence, and characterization of four highly acidic proteins, derived from expression of genes obtained from the common stony coral, Stylophora pistillata. Each of these four proteins can spontaneously catalyze the precipitation of calcium carbonate in vitro. Our results demonstrate that coral acid-rich proteins (CARPs) not only bind Ca(2+) stoichiometrically but also precipitate aragonite in vitro in seawater at pH 8.2 and 7.6, via an electrostatic interaction with protons on bicarbonate anions. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that at least one of the CARPs arose from a gene fusion. Similar, highly acidic proteins appear to have evolved several times independently in metazoans through convergence. Based purely on thermodynamic grounds, the predicted change in surface ocean pH in the next decades would appear to have minimal effect on the capacity of these acid-rich proteins to precipitate carbonates.

  16. IMPROVEMENT UPON THE CARRIER PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONIUM IONS FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1958-12-23

    A process is reported for improving the removal of plutonlum by carrier precipitation by the addition of nitrite ions to a nitrlc acid solutlon of neutronirradiated unanium so as to destroy any hydrazine that may be present in the solution since the hydrazine tends to complex the tetravalent plutonium and prevents removal by the carrier precipltate, such as bismuth phospbate.

  17. Organic acids in precipitation in the Basque country (North of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durana, N.; Casado, H.; García, C.; Ezcurra, A.; Lacaux, J. P.; Encinas, D.

    This paper discusses the results of the measurement of organic anions in precipitation collected since July 1989 in Olaeta, a rural village in the Basque Country (North of Spain). In order to gain a deeper knowledge of the characteristics and acids responsible for the free acidity observed in precipitation, a study was started within the EPOCA programme (Estudios en el Pirineo Occidental de la Contaminación Acida), for measuring organic anions: formiate, acetate and propionate. These results show that it was possible to observe organic anions in nearly every event, with a 5% contribution to the anionic total, and with an appreciable seasonal variation in concentration. The maximum contribution of organic acids to free acidity (H +) is 6% in rain events with pH≤5.0. There is significant correlation between acetic acid and inorganic ions of marine origin Cl -, Na + and Mg 2+ which might indicate the importance which the air masses of marine origin are going to have in the concentration of this acid. There is also significant correlation between formic acid and SO 42- and H + ions which might indicate the relatively importance contribution of formic acid to free acidity.

  18. Baseline acidity of precipitation at the South Pole during the last two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cragin, J. H.; Giovinetto, M. B.; Gow, A. J.

    Measurements of meltwater pH from annual layers of South Pole firn and ice samples ranging in age from 40 to 2000 years B.P. show that precipitation at this remote site has a higher natural acidity than that expected from atmospheric equilibrium with CO2. The average pH of deaerated (CO2-free) samples was 5.64 ± 0.08, while air-equilibrated samples averaged 5.37 ± 0.08, a pH that is about a factor of two more acidic than the expected background pH of 5.65. The observed “excess” acidity can be accounted for by SO42- and NO3- levels in the samples originating from non-anthropogenic H2SO4 and HNO3. Because of the presence of these naturally occurring acids in South Pole precipitation, a pH of 5.4 is considered a more representative baseline reference pH for acid precipitation studies.

  19. Effects of acid precipitation on reproduction in alpine plant species. [Erythronium grandiflorum; Aquilegia caerulea

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, M.A.; Hille-Salgueiro, M.; Musselman, R.C. Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO )

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments were designed to determine the impact of acid rain on plant reproductive processes, a critical component of a species life history. Research was carried out in herbaceous alpine communities at the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Forest Service Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site in the Snowy Mts. of Wyoming. A range of species were surveyed to monitor the sensitivity of pollen to acidification during germination and growth, and all species demonstrated reduced in vitro pollen germination in acidified media. Field pollinations were carried out in Erythronium grandiflorum and Aquilegia caerulea to determine the reproductive success of plants exposed to simulated ambient precipitation (pH 5.6) or simulated acid precipitation (pH 3.6) prior to pollination. In Erythronium, no differences were observed in seed set and seed weight of fruits resulting from the two pollination treatments. In Aquilegia, fruits resulting from the acid spray treatment produced fewer seeds and lighter seeds.

  20. Acid deposition in Maryland: Implications of the results of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuro, J.; Bowmann, M.; Ross, J.; Blundell, C.; Price, R.

    1991-07-01

    Acid deposition, commonly referred to as 'acid rain,' is a major global environmental concern. Acid deposition has reportedly resulted in damage to aquatic, terrestrial, and physical resources and has potentially adverse effects on human health. A component of the Maryland acid deposition program is the preparation of an annual report that summarizes yearly activities and costs of ongoing acid deposition research and monitoring programs.

  1. Temporal trends in the acidity of precipitation and surface waters of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Norman E.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Troutman, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical analyses of precipitation data from a nine-station monitoring network indicate little change in pH from 1965-78 within New York State as a whole but suggest that pH of bulk precipitation has decreased in the western part of the State by approximately 0.2 pH units since 1965 and increased in the eastern part by a similar amount. This trend is equivalent to an annual change in hydrogen-ion concentration of 0.2 microequivalents per liter. An average annual increase in precipitation quantity of 2 to 3 percent since 1965 has resulted in an increased acid load in the western and central parts of the State. During 1965-78, sulfate concentration in precipitation decreased an average of 1-4 percent annually. In general, no trend in nitrate was detected. Calculated trends in hydrogen-ion concentration do not correlate with measured trends of sulfate and nitrate, which suggests variable neutralization of hydrogen ion, possibly by particles from dry deposition. Neutralization has produced an increase of about 0.3 pH units in nonurban areas and 0.7 pH units in urban areas. Statistical analyses of chemical data from several streams throughout New York suggest that sulfate concentrations decreased an average of 1 to 4 percent per year. This decrease is comparable to the sulfate decrease in precipitation during the same period. In most areas of the State, chemical contributions from urbanization and farming, as well as the neutralizing effect of carbonate soils, conceal whatever effects acid precipitation may have on pH of streams.

  2. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate and Sulfur in a Faintly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Peng, X.; Qiao, H.

    2014-12-01

    A faintly acidic hot spring named "female Tower" (T=73.5 ℃, pH=6.64 ) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field,Yunnan province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite and sulfur, as reveals by XRD analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis show the microbial mats are formed of various coccoid, rod and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis show that intracellular sulfur granules are commonly associated with these microbes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis shows that the surface of microbes are mainly composed of Ca, C, O and S. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the majority of bacteria in the spring are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We suggest that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the formation of sulfur granules intracellularly and extracellularly. In the meantime, this reaction increases the pH in ambient environments, which fosters the precipitation of calcium carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats. This study suggests that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in faintly acidic hot spring environments.

  3. Precipitation-chemistry measurements from the California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program, 1985-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Charles L.; Tonnessen, Kathy A.

    1993-01-01

    The configuration of the California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (CADMP) precipitation network is described and quality assurance results summarized. Comparison of CADMP and the National Acid Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) data at four parallel sites indicated that mean depth-weighted differences were less than 3 μeq ℓ−1 for all ions, being statistically significant for ammonium, sulfate and hydrogen ion. These apparently small differences were 15–30% of the mean concentrations of ammonium, sulfate and hydrogen ion. Mean depth-weighted concentrations and mass deposition rates for the period 1985–1990 are summarized; the latter were highest either where concentrations or precipitation depths were relatively high.

  4. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott

    2010-07-06

    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well.

  5. Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2014-06-03

    Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly-crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge EXAFS indicated that “autunite-type” sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to “phosphuranylite-type” sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases.

  6. Colloidal precipitates related to Acid Mine Drainage: bacterial diversity and micro fungi-heavy metal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, G.; Carbone, C.; Consani, S.; Zotti, M.; Di Piazza, S.; Pozzolini, M.; Giovine, M.

    2015-12-01

    In Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) settings colloidal precipitates control the mobility of Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs). Mineral-contaminant relationships (i.e. adsorption, ion-exchange, desorption) are rarely pure abiotic processes. Microbes, mainly bacteria and microfungi, can catalyze several reactions modifying the element speciation, as well as the bioavailability of inorganic pollutants. Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a potential reservoir of extremophile bacteria and fungi exploitable for biotechnological purposes. Two different AMD related colloids, an ochraceous precipitate (deposited in weakly acidic conditions, composed by nanocrystalline goethite) and a greenish-blue precipitate (deposited at near-neutral pH, composed by allophane + woodwardite) were sampled. The aims of this work were to a) characterize the mycobiota present in these colloidal minerals by evaluating the presence of alive fungal propagules and extracting bacteria DNA; b) verify the fungal strains tolerance, and bioaccumulation capability on greenish-blue and ZnSO4 enriched media; c) evaluate potential impact of bacteria in the system geochemistry. The preliminary results show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains were isolated in pure culture. Among them, species belonging to Penicillium and Trichoderma genera were tested on both greenish-blue and ZnSO4 enriched media. The results show a significant tolerance and bioaccumulation capability to some PTEs. The same colloidal precipitates were processed to extract bacteria DNA by using a specific procedure developed for sediments. The results give a good yield of nucleic acids and a positive PCR amplification of 16S rDNA accomplished the first step for future metagenomic analyses.

  7. Influence of Aldrich humic acid and metal precipitates on survivorship of mayflies (Atalophlebia spp.) to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-03-01

    Humic substances (HS) have been shown to decrease the toxicity of environmental stressors, but knowledge of their ability to influence the toxicity of multiple stressors such as metal mixtures and low pH associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) is still limited. The present study investigated the ability of HS to decrease toxicity of AMD to mayflies (Atalophlebia spp.). The AMD was collected from the Mount Morgan (Mount Morgan, Queensland, Australia) open pit. Mayflies were exposed to concentrations of AMD at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% in the presence of 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 20 mg/L Aldrich humic acid (AHA). A U-shaped response was noted in all AHA treatments, with higher rates of mortality recorded in the 2% and 3% dilutions compared with 4%. This result was linked with increased precipitates in the lower concentrations. A follow-up trial showed significantly higher concentrations of precipitates in the 2% and 3% AMD dilutions in the 0 mg/L AHA treatment and higher precipitates in the 2% AMD, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L AHA, treatments. Humic substances were shown to significantly increase survival of mayflies exposed to AMD by up to 50% in the 20 mg/L AHA treatment. Humic substances may have led to increased survival after AMD exposure through its ability to influence animal physiology and complex heavy metals. These results are valuable in understanding the ability of HS to influence the toxicity of multiple stressors.

  8. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  9. Preparation of All-Trans Retinoic Acid nanosuspensions using a modified precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Xia, Q; Gu, N

    2006-08-01

    All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) nanosuspensions were prepared with a modified precipitation method. The ATRA solution in acetone was injected into pure water by an air compressor under the action of ultrasonication. Photon correlation spectroscopy results showed that the mean particle size of ATRA nanoparticles in nanosuspensions reduced from 337 nm to 155 nm as the injection velocity increased and the polydispersity index was 0.45-0.50. The morphology of ATRA nanoparticles varied with the different concentration of ATRA solution in acetone. ATRA nanoparticles showed an amorphous state and stable in 6 months. It could be concluded that this modified precipitation method could produce stable and controllable ATRA nanosuspension to a certain extent, thus benefit for higher saturation solubility.

  10. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  11. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  12. Recovery of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt by precipitation from the acidic leachate of a mineral sludge.

    PubMed

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Comte, S; Guibaud, G; Lens, P N L; van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the recovery potential of molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) from synthetic and real acidic leachate of a mineral sludge from a metal recycling plant by sulfide precipitation. The operational parameters (metal sulfide (M/S) ratio 0.1-1, agitation speed 0-100 rpm, contact time 15-120 min and pH 1-5) were optimized in batch conditions on synthetic metal leachate (0.5 M HNO3, Mo = 101.6 mg L(-1), Ni = 70.8 mg L(-1), Co = 27.1 mg L(-1)) with a 0.1 M Na2S solution. Additionally, recovery of the target metals was theoretically simulated with a chemical equilibrium model (Visual MINTEQ 3.0). The optimized Na2S precipitation of metals from the synthetic leachate resulted in the potential selective recovery of Mo at pH 1 (98% by modeling, 95% experimental), after simultaneous precipitation of Ni and Co as sulfide at pH 4 (100% by modeling, 98% experimental). Metal precipitation from the real leachate (18 M H2SO4, Mo = 10,160 mg L(-1), Ni = 7,080 mg L(-1), Co = 2,710 mg L(-1)) was performed with 1 M Na2S, and resulted in a maximal Mo recovery at pH 2 (50%), while maximal recoveries of Ni and Co were observed at pH 4 (56% and 60%, respectively). Real leachate gave a lower metals recovery efficiency compared with synthetic leachate, which can be attributed to changes in the pH, nature of leachant, co-precipitation of Zn and competition for S(2-) ions.

  13. Contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions to acid precipitation formation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.; Barrera, G.; Castellanos, L.; Moreno, D.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions of precursor compounds that contribute significantly the formation of acid precipitation in urban areas are associated with the burning of fossils fuels from mobile, area and point sources. In Mexico City, these include services, institutions and residences aggregated as area sources, as well as industrial point sources, including smelting, refinement of petroleum and power generation. In addition, dusts from soil erosion and lack of vegetation in the urban landscape contribute to modification of natural rain water. It is common knowledge that acid precipitation characterizes a large variety of compounds, as much related to precursor emissions as to prevailing environmental factors. This study attempts to establish the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions during the rainy season by analysis of spatial and temporal distributions, as of different ions in solution with rain water, as well as the modeling of wind patterns, as represented by using the arc/info software. This study`s results also show the geographic areas impacted by the acid rain phenomenon and the acidification rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the past 3 years.

  14. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrilakova, Aneta; Balintova, Magdalena; Holub, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results of laboratory precipitation of metal ions from AMD (the Smolnik creek, Slovakia) with the results obtained by geochemical modeling software Visual Minteq 3.0.

  15. Seasonal factors controlling mineral precipitation in the acid mine drainage at Donghae coal mine, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kim, S J

    2004-06-05

    Monitoring over a 12 month period in the Sanae creek flow in acid mine drainage, Donghae coal mine area, demonstrates that the concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate are highest during autumn when water flow in the creek is at its lowest. The highest pH values of the stream were measured in April and May, whereas the lowest pH was recorded in October. The Fe concentration of stream water rapidly decreased downstream due to the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxide and/or oxyhydroxysulfate phases in the stream. Mineral precipitates in the creek in the Donghae mine area show various colours such as brownish yellow (Munsell colour 9.5 YR hues), reddish brown (Munsell colour 3.5 YR hues) and white depending on seasons and distance from the pollution source in the creek. Such phenomena are attributed to the variation in pH and chemical composition of stream water caused by seasonal factors. The measured pH ranges in stream water of the brownish yellow, white and reddish brown precipitates are pH 3.2-4.5, 4.5-6.0 and 5.3-6.9, respectively.

  16. Histone-dependent IgG conservation in octanoic acid precipitation and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Toh, Phyllicia; Sun, Yue; Latiff, Sarah Maria Abdul; Hoi, Aina; Xian, Mo; Zhang, Haibo; Nian, Rui; Zhang, Wei; Gagnon, Pete

    2016-12-01

    Octanoic acid (OA) precipitation has long been used in protein purification. Recently, we reported a new cell culture clarification method for immunoglobulin G (IgG) purification, employing an advance elimination of chromatin heteroaggregates with a hybrid OA-solid phase system. This treatment reduced DNA more than 3 logs, histone below the detection limit (LOD), and non-histone host cell proteins (nh-HCP) by 90 % while conserving more than 90 % of the IgG monomer. In this study, we further investigated the conservation of IgG monomer and antibody light chain (LC) to the addition of OA/OA-solid phase complex, with or without histone and DNA in different combinations. The results showed that highly basic histone protein was the prime target in OA/OA-solid phase precipitation system for IgG purification, and the selective conservation of IgG monomer in this system was histone dependent. Our findings partially support the idea that OA works by sticking to electropositive hydrophobic domains on proteins, reducing their solubility, and causing them to agglomerate into large particles that precipitate from solution. Our findings also provide a new perspective for IgG purification and emphasize the necessity to re-examine the roles of various host contaminants in IgG purification.

  17. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  18. Carbonate precipitation under bulk acidic conditions as a potential biosignature for searching life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Preston, Louisa J.; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Huang, L.; Southam, Gordon; Banerjee, Neil R.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Flemming, Roberta; Gómez-Ortíz, David; Prieto Ballesteros, Olga; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo; Darby Dyar, M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent observations of carbonate minerals in ancient Martian rocks have been interpreted as evidence for the former presence of circumneutral solutions optimal for carbonate precipitation. Sampling from surface and subsurface regions of the low-pH system of Río Tinto has shown, unexpectedly, that carbonates can form under diverse macroscopic physicochemical conditions ranging from very low to neutral pH (1.5-7.0). A multi-technique approach demonstrates that carbonate minerals are closely associated with microbial activity. Carbonates occur in the form of micron-size carbonate precipitates under bacterial biofilms, mineralization of subsurface colonies, and possible biogenic microstructures including globules, platelets and dumbbell morphologies. We propose that carbonate precipitation in the low-pH environment of Río Tinto is a process enabled by microbially-mediated neutralization driven by the reduction of ferric iron coupled to the oxidation of biomolecules in microbially-maintained circumneutral oases, where the local pH (at the scale of cells or cell colonies) can be much different than in the macroscopic environment. Acidic conditions were likely predominant in vast regions of Mars over the last four billion years of planetary evolution. Ancient Martian microbial life inhabiting low-pH environments could have precipitated carbonates similar to those observed at Río Tinto. Preservation of carbonates at Río Tinto over geologically significant timescales suggests that similarly-formed carbonate minerals could also be preserved on Mars. Such carbonates could soon be observed by the Mars Science Laboratory, and by future missions to the red planet.

  19. Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayanna, Sathish; Peacock, Caroline L.; Schäffner, Franziska; Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Kothe, Erika; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides at acidic pH is rarely reported and poorly understood, compared to biogenic Mn oxide precipitation at near neutral conditions. Here we identified and investigated the precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides in acidic soil, and studied their role in the retention of heavy metals, at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, Germany. The site is characterized by acidic pH, low carbon content and high heavy metal loads including rare earth elements. Specifically, the Mn oxides were present in layers identified by detailed soil profiling and within these layers pH varied from 4.7 to 5.1, Eh varied from 640 to 660 mV and there were enriched total metal contents for Ba, Ni, Co, Cd and Zn in addition to high Mn levels. Using electron microprobe analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we identified poorly crystalline birnessite (δ-MnO2) as the dominant Mn oxide in the Mn layers, present as coatings covering and cementing quartz grains. With geochemical modelling we found that the environmental conditions at the site were not favourable for chemical oxidation of Mn(II), and thus we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to isolate the bacterial strains present in the Mn layers. Bacterial phyla present in the Mn layers belonged to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and from these phyla we isolated six strains of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria and confirmed their ability to oxidise Mn(II) in the laboratory. The biogenic Mn oxide layers act as a sink for metals and the bioavailability of these metals was much lower in the Mn layers than in adjacent layers, reflecting their preferential sorption to the biogenic Mn oxide. In this presentation we will report our findings, concluding that the formation of natural biogenic poorly crystalline birnessite can occur at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of a biogeochemical barrier which, in turn, can control the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in

  20. Microscopic evaluation of trace metals in cloud droplets in an acid precipitation region.

    PubMed

    Li, Weijun; Wang, Yan; Collett, Jeffrey L; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-05-07

    Mass concentrations of soluble trace metals and size, number, and mixing properties of nanometal particles in clouds determine their toxicity to ecosystems. Cloud water was found to be acidic, with a pH of 3.52, at Mt. Lu (elevation 1,165 m) in an acid precipitation region in South China. A combination of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for the first time demonstrates that the soluble metal concentrations and solid metal particle number are surprisingly high in acid clouds at Mt. Lu, where daily concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM10 are 18 μg m(-3), 7 μg m(-3), and 22 μg m(-3). The soluble metals in cloudwater with the highest concentrations were zinc (Zn, 200 μg L(-1)), iron (Fe, 88 μg L(-1)), and lead (Pb, 77 μg L(-1)). TEM reveals that 76% of cloud residues include metal particles that range from 50 nm to 1 μm diameter with a median diameter of 250 nm. Four major metal-associated particle types are Pb-rich (35%), fly ash (27%), Fe-rich (23%), and Zn-rich (15%). Elemental mapping shows that minor soluble metals are distributed within sulfates of cloud residues. Emissions of fine metal particles from large, nonferrous industries and coal-fired power plants with tall stacks were transported upward to this high elevation. Our results suggest that the abundant trace metals in clouds aggravate the impacts of acid clouds or associated precipitation on the ecosystem and human health.

  1. Evaluation of simulated acid precipitation effects on forest microcosms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.; Weatherford, F.P.; Noggle, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    Microcosms were treated for a 30-month period with simulated precipitation acidified to four pH levels (5.7, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5) to evaluate the impact of acid precipitation on foliar leaching, plant nutrient content, soil leaching, soil nutrient content, and litter decomposition. Direct effects of acid precipitation on diameter growth, bud break, leaf senescence, chlorophyll content, stomatal size, stomatal density, photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and cuticle erosion were evaluated on tulip poplar, white oak, and Virginia pine seedlings growing as mixed stands in the microcosms. None of the plant physiological or morphological parameters evaluated responded in a statistically significant manner as a result of treatment. A significant treatment canopy interaction was observed in the form of a 60 percent increase in calcium input in throughfall in response to the pH 3.5 treatment. Foliar nutrient content did not change in response to treatment nor did field measurements of decomposer activity. Soil analysis indicated a significantly lower concentration of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in the top 3.5 cm of the mineral soil in association with the pH 3.5 treatment. Soil leachate concentrations exhibited significant increases at both the 25 and 50 cm depths. However, at the 100 cm depth no significant response in concentration or elemental loss from the system was observed. Laboratory respiration measurements indicated a small, but statistically significant reduction in decomposer activity in the lower litter (02) horizon. This reduction was masked in the field measurements of decomposer activity due to the relatively small contribution of the 02 to total soil respiration. 38 references, 12 figures, 18 tables.

  2. Effectiveness of coagulation and acid precipitation processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, S

    2010-08-15

    The effectiveness of coagulation (using aluminium-based chemicals and ferrous sulfate) and acid precipitation (using H(2)SO(4)) processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor obtained from a pulp and paper mill is reported. Commercial alum was found to be the most economical among all the aluminium and ferrous salts used as a coagulant. A maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (ca. 63%) and colour reduction (ca. 90%) from the wastewater (COD = 7000 mg l(-1)) at pH 5.0 was obtained with alum. During the acid precipitation process, at pH < 5.0, significant COD reductions (up to 64%) were observed. Solid residue obtained from the alum treatment at a temperature of 95 degrees C showed much better (3 times) settling rate than that for the residue obtained after treatment with the same coagulant at a temperature of 25 degrees C. The settling curves had three parts, namely, hindered, transition and compression zones. Tory plots were used to determine the critical height of suspension-supernatant interface that is used in the design of a clarifier-thickener unit. High heating values and large biomass fraction of the solid residues can encourage the fuel users to use this waste derived sludge as a potential renewable energy source.

  3. Technical and economical assessment of formic acid to recycle phosphorus from pig slurry by a combined acidification-precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Daumer, M-L; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, P; Dabert, P

    2010-08-15

    Dissolution by acidification followed by a liquid/solid separation and precipitation of phosphorus from the liquid phase is one possibility to recycle phosphorus from livestock effluents. To avoid increase of effluent salinity by using mineral acids in the recycling process, the efficiency of two organic acids, formic and acetic acid, in dissolving the mineral phosphorus from piggery wastewater was compared. The amount of formic acid needed to dissolve the phosphorus was reduced three fold, compared to acetic acid. The amount of magnesium oxide needed for further precipitation was decreased by two with formic acid. Neither the carbon load nor the effluent salinity was significantly increased by using formic acid. An economical comparison was performed for the chemical recycling process (mineral fertilizer) vs. centrifugation (organic fertilizer) considering the centrifugation and the mineral fertilizers sold in the market. After optimisation of the process, the product could be economically competitive with mineral fertilizer as superphosphate in less than 10 years.

  4. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Uhart, M.; et al,

    2005-08-01

    Under Title IX of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Congress reauthorized the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) to continue coordinating acid rain research and monitoring, as it had done during the previous decade, and to provide Congress with periodic reports. In particular, Congress asked NAPAP to assess all available data and information to answer two questions: (1) What are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of Title IV? This question addresses the costs and economic impacts of complying with the Acid Rain Program as well as benefit analyses associated with the various human health and welfare effects, including reduced visibility, damages to materials and cultural resources, and effects on ecosystems. (2) What reductions in deposition rates are needed to prevent adverse ecological effects? This complex questions addresses ecological systems and the deposition levels at which they experience harmful effects. The results of the assessment of the effects of Title IV and of the relationship between acid deposition rates and ecological effects were to be reported to Congress quadrennially, beginning with the 1996 report to Congress. The objective of this Report is to address the two main questions posed by Congress and fully communicate the results of the assessment to decision-makers. Given the primary audience, most of this report is not written as a technical document, although information supporting the conclusions is provided along with references.

  5. Precipitation of Metallic Cations by the Acidic Exopolysaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium (Chamaecytisus) Strain BGA-1

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, J.; León-Barrios, M.; Hernando-Rico, V.; Gutierrez-Navarro, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between the acidic exopolysaccharides produced by two Bradyrhizobium strains and several metal cations has been studied. Aqueous solutions in the millimolar range of Fe3+ but not of Fe2+ precipitated the exopolysaccharides from Bradyrhizobium (Chamaecytisus) strain BGA-1 and, to a lesser extent, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110. The precipitation was pH dependent, with a maximum around pH 3. The precipitate was redissolved by changing the pH and by Fe3+ reduction or chelation. Deacetylation of B. japonicum polysaccharide increased its precipitation by Fe3+. At pH near neutrality, the polysaccharide from Bradyrhizobium (Chamaecytisus) strain BGA-1 stabilized Fe3+ solutions, despite the insolubility of Fe(OH)3. Aluminum precipitated Bradyrhizobium (Chamaecytisus) polysaccharide but not the polysaccharide produced by B. japonicum. The precipitation showed a maximum at about pH 4.8, and the precipitate was redissolved after Al3+ chelation with EDTA. Precipitation was inhibited by increases in the ionic strength over 10 mM. Bradyrhizobium (Chamaecytisus) polysaccharide was also precipitated by Th4+, Sn2+, Mn2+, and Co2+. The presence of Fe3+ increased the exopolysaccharide precipitation by aluminum. No precipitation, gelation, or increase in turbidity of polysaccharide solutions occurred when K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, or U6+ was added at several pH values. The results suggest that the precipitation is based on the interaction between carboxylate groups from different polysaccharide chains and the partially hydrolyzed aquoions of Fe3+, Al3+, Th4+, and Sn2+. PMID:16349466

  6. Performance of a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator for the control of sulfuric acid mist.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayu; Wang, Hongmei; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Fan; Dang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hui; Shu, Yun; Deng, Shuang; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The use of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is often regarded as a viable option to reduce sulfuric acid mist emitted from the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) tower in coal-fired power plants. In this study, a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator equipped with a wall-cooled collection electrode is investigated for the control of sulfuric acid mist from a simulated WFGD system. The results show that due to partial charging effect, the removal efficiency of sulfuric acid aerosol decreases when the aerosol size decreases to several tens of nanometers. Moreover, due to the plasma-induced effect, a large number of ultrafine sulfuric acid aerosols below 50 nm formed at a voltage higher than 24 kV inside the WESP. The percentages of submicron-sized aerosols significantly increase together with the voltage. To minimize the adverse plasma-induced effect, a WESP should be operated at a high gas velocity with an optimum high voltage. Even at a high flue gas velocity of 2.3 m s(-1), the mass concentration and the total number concentration of uncaptured sulfuric acid aerosols at the WESP outlet are as low as ca. 0.6 mg m(-3) and ca. 10(4) 1 cm(-3) at 28 kV, respectively. The corresponding removal efficiencies were respectively higher than 99.4 and 99.9 % and are very similar to that at 1.1 and 1.6 m s(-1). Moreover, the condensation-induced aerosol growth enhances the removal of sulfuric acid mist inside a WESP and enables a low emission concentration of ca. 0.65 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.4 % even at a low voltage of 21 kV, and of ca. 0.35 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.6 % at a higher voltage level of 26 kV.

  7. Preparation and characterization of micronized ellagic acid using antisolvent precipitation for oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Xiuhua; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Yin; Ge, Yunlong; Zhong, Chen; Wu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, poorly water soluble phytochemical ellagic acid (EA) was micronized to increase its solubility and thereby the bioavailability during antisolvent precipitation process using N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and deionized water as antisolvent. The micronized EA (m-EA) freeze-dried powder was prepared by the subsequent lyophilization process. The effects of various experimental parameters on the mean particle size (MPS) of m-EA suspension (m-EAS) in the antisolvent precipitation process were investigated. MPS and production efficiency were taken into account comprehensively to obtain the optimum conditions of antisolvent precipitation. Under the optimum conditions, m-EA freeze-dried powder with a MPS of 429.2 ± 7.6 nm was obtained. The physico-chemical properties of m-EA freeze-dried powder were detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated m-EA kept the same chemical structure with raw EA, but the crystallinity was greatly reduced. Furthermore, a comparison of the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values revealed that m-EA was more effective than raw EA in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Meanwhile, m-EA also showed higher reducing power. Moreover, the residual amount of NMP was lower than the International Conference on Harmonization limit (530 ppm) for solvents. The dissolution rate of m-EA was approximately 2 times of raw EA. Moreover, the solubility of m-EA was about 6.5 times of raw EA. Meanwhile, the bioavailability of m-EA increased about 2 times compared with raw EA via oral administration.

  8. Determination of trifluoroacetic acid in 1996--1997 precipitation and surface waters in California and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wujcik, C.E.; Cahill, T.M.; Seiber, J.N.

    1999-05-15

    The atmospheric degradation of three chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement compounds, namely HFC-134a, HCFC-123, and HCFC-124, results in the formation of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Concentrations of TFA were determined in precipitation and surface water samples collected in California and Nevada during 1996--1997. Terminal lake systems were found to have concentrations 4--13 times higher than their calculated yearly inputs, providing evidence for accumulation. The results support dry deposition as the primary contributor of TFA to surface waters in arid and semiarid environments. Precipitation samples obtained from three different locations contained 20.7--1530 ng/L with significantly higher concentrations in fogwater over rainwater. Elevated levels of TFA were observed for rainwater collected in Nevada over those collected in California, indicating continual uptake and concentration as clouds move from a semiarid to arid climate. Thus several mechanisms exist, including evaporative concentration, vapor-liquid phase partitioning, lowered washout volumes of atmospheric deposition water, and dry deposition, which may lead to elevated concentrations of TFA in atmospheric and surface waters above levels expected from usual rainfall washout.

  9. A study of the source-receptor relationships influencing the acidity of precipitation collected at a rural site in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charron, Aurélie; Plaisance, Hervé; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Galloo, Jean-Claude; Guillermo, René

    In order to examine the qualitative and quantitative source-receptor relationships responsible for acid rains at a background site in France, a receptor-oriented model was applied to the precipitation data collected from 1992 to 1995. Origins of acidic and alkaline species in precipitations have been investigated. The methodology combines precipitation chemical data with air parcel backward trajectories to establish concentration field maps of likely contributing sources. Highest acidities and concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in precipitation were associated with transport from the high emission areas of central Europe. Alkaline events were associated with air masses originating from Mediterranean basin or northern Africa. The quantitative relationships between the maps of potential sources and the European emissions of SO 2 and NO x were examined performing a correlation analysis. Good correlations were found between computed concentrations of acidic species and emissions of SO 2 and NO x. Substantial seasonal variations of acidic species were revealed. The highest concentrations occurred during the warm season. These seasonal variations are the effect of change of meteorological conditions and of the strength atmospheric processes according to the season.

  10. Environmental, mineralogical, and genetic characterization of ochreous and white precipitates from acid mine drainages in Taebaeg, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tin; Kim, Soo Jin

    2003-05-15

    X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy, and ion chromatography were used for the environmental, mineralogical, and genetic characterization of brownish yellow, reddish brown, and white precipitates from acid mine drainage in Taebaeg, Korea. Ferrihydrite+goethite, schwertmannite, and Al-sulfate were precipitated under different chemical environments on the stream bottom of acid mine drainages. The brownish yellow precipitates (Munsell color 9.5YR hues) consist mainly of schwertmannite with traces of quartz, illite, pyrophyllite, goethite, lepidocrocite, and gypsum. The reddish brown precipitates (Munsell color 3.5YR hues) consist mainly of ferrihydrite with small amount of goethite. The white precipitates consist mainly of poorly crystalline Al-sulfate with small amounts of quartz, gypsum, and calcite. Thermal decomposition due to dehydration of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite takes place at approximately 120 degrees C and 140 degrees C, respectively. Al-sulfate converts to gamma-alumina at 850 degrees C. SEM study shows that the spheroid and rod-shaped precipitates characteristic of Gallionella consist of iron hydroxide with varying chemical compositions.

  11. A simple procedure for preparing chitin oligomers through acetone precipitation after hydrolysis in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Kazami, Nao; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Mizutani, Daisuke; Masuda, Tatsuhiko; Wakita, Satoshi; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao; Sugahara, Yasusato

    2015-11-05

    Chitin oligomers are of interest because of their numerous biologically relevant properties. To prepare chitin oligomers containing 4-6 GlcNAc units [(GlcNAc)4-6], α- and β-chitin were hydrolyzed with concentrated hydrochloric acid at 40 °C. The reactant was mixed with acetone to recover the acetone-insoluble material, and (GlcNAc)4-6 was efficiently recovered after subsequent water extraction. Composition analysis using gel permeation chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that (GlcNAc)4-6 could be isolated from the acetone-insoluble material with recoveries of approximately 17% and 21% from the starting α-chitin and β-chitin, respectively. The acetone precipitation method is highly useful for recovering chitin oligomers from the acid hydrolysate of chitin. The changes in the molecular size and higher-order structure of chitin during the course of hydrolysis were also analyzed, and a model that explains the process of oligomer accumulation is proposed.

  12. Weathering processes and pickeringite formation in a sulfidic schist: a consideration in acid precipitation neutralization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, R.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Extremely low abrasion pH values (2.8-3.3) characterize the weathering products of the Partridge Formation, a Middle-Ordovician metamorphosed, black, sulfidic shale. The local occurrence is observed of two sulfates that are rare in the Northeast: pickeringite and jarosite. X-ray diffraction studies of the weathering residues and the sulfate efflorescences have also identified dioctahedral and trioctahedral illite, kaolinite, vermiculite, and an 11-12 Angstrom phase, thought to be a type of randomly-interstratified biotite-vermiculite. From the mineralogical studies, qualitative weathering processes for the schist are formulated. A probable mechanism for the intense chemical weathering of the schist appears to be oxidation of iron sulfides to form iron oxide-hydroxides, sulfates, and sulfuric acid. This natural weathering process is proposed as an analog to anthropogenic low pH rock weathering resulting from acid precipitation. In the Northeast, natural weathering rates, may, in places, significantly affect the water chemistry and mineralogy used to quantify total (natural plus anthropogenic) weathering and leaching rates. 27 references, 4 figures.

  13. [Characterization and analysis of direction extraction and precipitation of cerium loading organic phase by oxalic acid solution].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Xia, Chuan; Chen, Xiao-Li; Sun, He; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2011-11-01

    In the condition of sodium hydroxide saponification, the test results using direction extraction and precipitation of cerium from P507 loading organic phase by oxalic acid solution were studied. Infared (IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetry (TG-DSC) were used to study and characterize organic cerium precipitates and the final calcined products. The results showed that organic cerium precipitates and final calcined products were spheric organic cerium coordination and spheric cube CeO2 crystal, respectively, showing their morphologies were successive. IR made out that the structures of organic cerium precipitates and final calcined products were different. TG-DSC indicated that the final calcined products weightlessness was 3.5% and chemical composing was CeO2 x 1/3H2O.

  14. Chemical characteristics and sources of organic acids in precipitation at a semi-urban site in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Lee, X. Q.; Cao, F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of organic acids in precipitation in Southwest China, 105 rainwater samples were collected at a semi-urban site in Anshun from June 2007 to June 2008. Organic acids and major anions were analyzed along with pH and electrical conductivity. The pH values varied from 3.57 to 7.09 for all the rainfall events sampled, with an average of 4.67 which was typical acidic value. Formic, acetic and oxalic acids were found to be the predominant carboxylic acids and their volume weighted average (VWA) concentrations were 8.77, 6.93 and 2.84 μmol l -1, respectively. These organic acids were estimated to account for 8.1% to the total free acidity (TFA) in precipitation. The concentrations of the majority organic acids at studied site had a clear seasonal pattern, reaching higher levels during the non-growing season than those in growing season, which was attributed to dilution effect of heavy rainfall during the growing season. The seasonal variation of wet deposition flux of these organic acids confirmed higher source strength of biogenic emissions from vegetation during the growing season. Formic-to-acetic acids ratio (F/A), an indicator of primary versus secondary sources of these organic acids, suggested that primary sources from vehicular emission, biomass burning, soil and vegetation emissions were dominant sources. In addition, the lowest concentrations of organic acids were found under type S, when air masses originated from the marine (South China Sea) during Southern Asian Monsoon period. And the highest concentrations were observed in precipitation events from Northeast China (type NE), prevailing mostly during winter with the lowest rainfall.

  15. Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS): contributions to the international conference on the ecological impact of acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS) was initiated to study and detail lake acidification processes for three lake watershed basins in the Adirondack Park region of New York. The three basins (Woods, Sagamore, and Panther), receive similar amounts of acid deposition yet observable pH values for the lakes are very dissimilar indicating unequal acid neutralizing capacities among the watersheds. This volume contains a compilation of seven papers. Relevant topics include: a characterization of the geology, hydrology, limnology and vegetation of the three study sites, an analysis of acid precipitation quality and quantity, the effects of vegetative canopy, the effects of snowmelt, the effects of winter lake stratification, comparison of heavy metal transport, examination of acidic sources other than direct precipitation, assessment of lake acidification during spring thaw and integration of all acidification components with a mathematical model.

  16. [Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in precipitation during the rainy season in the rural area of Anshun, West Guizhou Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Lee, Xin-Qing; Huang, Dai-Kuan; Huang, Rong-Sheng; Jiang, Wei

    2009-03-15

    40 rainwater samples were collected at Anshun from June 2007 to October 2007 and analysed in terms of pH values, electrical conductivity, major inorganic anions and soluble low molecular weight carboxylic acids. The results showed that pH of individual precipitation events ranged from 3.57-7.09 and the volume weight mean pH value was 4.57. The most abundant carboxylic acids were acetic (volume weight mean concentration 6.75 micromol x L(-1)) and formic (4.61 micromol x L(-1)) followed by oxalic (2.05 micromol x L(-1)). The concentration levels for these three species during summer especially June and July were comparatively high; it implied that organic acids in Anshun may came primarily from emissions from growing vegetations or products of the photochemical reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 32.2% to the free acidity in precipitation. The contribution was higher than in Guiyang rainwater, which indicated contamination by industry in Guiyang was more than in Anshun. The remarkable correlation(p = 0.01) between formic acid and acetic acid suggest that they have similar sources or similar intensity but different sources. And the remarkable correlation (p = 0.01) between and formic acid and oxalic acid showed that the precursors of oxalic acid and formic acid had similar sources. During this period, the overall wet deposition of carboxylic acids were 2.10 mmol/m2. And it appeared mainly in the summer, during which both concentration and contribution to free acidity were also relatively high. Consequently, it was necessary to control emission of organic acids in the summer to reduce frequence of acid rain in Anshun.

  17. [Formation and environmental implications of iron-enriched precipitates derived from natural neutralization of acid mine drainage].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue-Fei; Xie, Yue; Zhou, Li-Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) and its natural neutralizing products in Wangjiatan iron mine were collected and analyzed by using spectroscopic and electron microanalytic methods. The results show that after natural neutralization of AMD by surface water of the stream, acidity and electric conductivity of AMD are both decreased. While for dissolved elements, no other element is obviously decreased except for Fe3+, SO4(2-), and Ca2+. For precipitates formed by natural neutralization, Fe is enriched and ferrihydrite is the main iron mineral, with little amount of goethite and fibroferrite contained in downstream precipitates. To ferrihydrite, 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrite are the main mineral type in upstream and downstream precipitates, respectively. Furthermore, for all precipitates, two layers are observed. In outer layer 2-line ferrihydrite is the main mineral, while in inner layer 6-line ferrihydrite and goethite are the main minerals. Ferrihydrite dominated precipitates are favorable in immobilizing toxic and hazardous elements. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pH and the concentration of SO4(2-) are decisive factors for ferrihydrite formation. The ferrihydrite translocation and its attenuation for toxic elements are, to a great extent, affected by hydrodynamics in neutralization zone.

  18. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  19. Geological and hydrochemical sensitivity of the eastern United States to acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.; Galloway, J.N.; Norton, S.A.; Schofield, C.L.; Shaffer, P.W.; Burns, D.A.

    1980-03-01

    A new analysis of bedrock geology maps of the eastern US constitutes a simple model for predicting areas which might be impacted by acid precipitation and it allows much greater resolution for detecting sensitivity than has previously been available for the region. Map accuracy has been verified by examining current alkalinities and pH's of waters in several test states, including Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Virginia and North Carolina. In regions predicted to be highly sensitive, alkalinities in upstream sites were generally low. Many areas of the eastern US are pinpointed in which some of the surface waters, especially upstream reaches, may be sensitive to acidification. Pre-1970 data were compared to post-1975 data, revealing marked declines in both alkalinity and pH of sensitive waters of two states tested, North Carolina, where pH and alkalinity have decreased in 80% of 38 streams and New Hampshire, where pH in 90% of 49 streams and lakes has decreased since 1949. These sites are predicted to be sensitive by the geological map on the basis of their earlier alkalinity values. The map is to be improved by the addition of a soils component.

  20. Selective recovery of soil-borne metal contaminants through integrated solubilization by biogenic sulfuric acid and precipitation by biogenic sulfide.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Zhang, Ruichang; Liu, Xue; Zhou, Lixiang

    2012-06-15

    A hybrid process combining solubilization via sulfuric acid produced by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with precipitation via sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated to isolate soil-borne metal contaminants as purified metal-sulfides. The highly efficient two-step acidification process involved bioproduction of sulfuric acid in a culture medium containing 30% (v/v) of sludge filtrate (SF). Soil was added to the culture after maximum acid production. Solubilization efficiencies of 95% for Zn, 76% for Cu and 97% for Cd were achieved after 16 days. At pH 1.9, 3.0 and 4.0, 99% of Cu(2+), 96% of Cd(3+) and 93% of Zn(2+), respectively, were precipitated from the soil leachate by sulfide transported from sulfidogenic bioreactor via N(2) sparging, resulting in final effluent metal contents at the ppb-level. The introduction of SF did not affect the precipitation kinetics and purity of the recovered precipitates. Ultimately, 75% of Cu and 86% of Zn were recovered from the soil as pure CuS and ZnS (confirmed by SEM-EDS and XRD). These results demonstrate the potential of the integrated method for the selective production of valuable metals from metal contamination in soils.

  1. Historic volcanism, European dry fogs, and greenland Acid precipitation, 1500 B.C. To a.d. 1500.

    PubMed

    Stothers, R B; Rampino, M R

    1983-10-28

    Historic dry fogs in Europe, acid precipitation in Greenland, and major explosive volcanic eruptions correlate well with each other between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500. European (Mediterranean and Icelandic) volcanic eruptions appear to be the source of at least five of the nine largest acidity signals found in Greenland ice for this period. Between 152 B.C. and A.D. 43, eruptions of sulfur-rich Mount Etna probably supplied about 15 percent of the smaller acidity signals.

  2. Survival of Listeria innocua in rainbow trout protein recovered by isoelectric solubilization and precipitation with acetic and citric acids.

    PubMed

    Otto, R A; Paker, I; Bane, L; Beamer, S; Jaczynski, J; Matak, K E

    2011-08-01

    During mechanical fish processing, a substantial amount of protein is discarded as by-products. Isoelectric solubilization and precipitation (ISP) is a process that uses extreme pH shifts to solubilize and precipitate protein from by-products to recover previously discarded protein. Typically, strong acids are used for pH reduction, but these acids do not have a pasteurization effect (6 log reduction) on bacterial load; therefore, organic acids were used during ISP processing to test the impact on Listeria innocua concentrations. Headed and gutted rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were inoculated with L. innocua, homogenized, and brought to the target pH with granular citric acid (pH 2.0 and 2.5) or glacial acetic acid (pH 3.0 and 3.5). Proteins were solubilized for 10 min at 4°C, and insoluble components (e.g., skin and insoluble protein) were removed by centrifugation. The remaining solution was pH shifted to the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.5) with sodium hydroxide, and precipitated protein was separated from the water. Microbial cells for each component (proteins, insolubles, and water) were enumerated on modified Oxford agar (MOX) and tryptic soy agar with 6% yeast extract (TSAYE). The sums of the surviving cells from each component were compared with the initial inoculum levels. No significant differences were observed between results obtained from TSAYE and from MOX (P > 0.05). Significant reductions in microbial populations were detected, regardless of pH or acid type (P < 0.05). The greatest reduction was at pH 3.0 with glacial acetic acid, resulting in a mean reduction of 6.41 log CFU/g in the recovered protein and 5.88 log CFU/g in the combined components. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of organic acids in ISP processing.

  3. Universal sample preparation method integrating trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation with phenol extraction for crop proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Erhui; Wang, Wei; Scali, Monica; Cresti, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Crop plants contain large amounts of secondary compounds that interfere with protein extraction and gel-based proteomic analysis. Thus, a protein extraction protocol that can be easily applied to various crop materials with minimal optimization is essential. Here we describe a universal protocol for total protein extraction involving trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation followed by SDS and phenol extraction. Through SDS extraction, the proteins precipitated by the TCA/acetone treatment can be fully resolubilized and then further purified by phenol extraction. This protocol combines TCA/acetone precipitation, which aggressively removes nonprotein compounds, and phenol extraction, which selectively dissolves proteins, resulting in effective purification of proteins from crop tissues. This protocol can also produce high-quality protein preparations from various recalcitrant tissues, and therefore it has a wide range of applications in crop proteomic analysis. Designed to run on a small scale, this protocol can be completed within 5 h.

  4. WACCM-D—Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. E.; Verronen, P. T.; Marsh, D. R.; Päivärinta, S.-M.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2016-09-01

    Observations have shown that a number of neutral minor species are affected by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) and ion chemistry (IC) in the polar regions. However, to date the complexity of the ion chemistry below the mesopause (i.e., in the D region ionosphere) has restricted global models to simplified EEP/IC parameterizations which are unable to reproduce some important effects, e.g., the increase of mesospheric nitric acid (HNO3). Here we use WACCM-D, a variant of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model which includes a selected set of D region ion chemistry designed to produce the observed effects of EPP/IC. We evaluate the performance of EPP/IC modeling by comparing WACCM-D results for the January 2005 solar proton event (SPE) to those from the standard WACCM and Aura/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and SCISAT/Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) observations. The results indicate that WACCM-D improves the modeling of HNO3, HCl, ClO, OH, and NOx during the SPE. Northern Hemispheric HNO3 from WACCM-D shows an increase by 2 orders of magnitude at 40-70 km compared to WACCM, reaching 2.6 ppbv, in agreement with the observations. For HCl and ClO, the improvement is most pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere at 40-50 km where WACCM-D predicts a decrease of HCl and increase of ClO by 1.6% and 10%, respectively, similar to MLS data. Compared to WACCM, WACCM-D produces 25-50% less OH and 30-130% more NOx at 70-85 km which leads to better agreement with the observations. Although not addressed here, longer-term NOx impact of ion chemistry could be important for polar stratospheric ozone and middle atmospheric dynamics.

  5. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  6. Particle size tailoring of ursolic acid nanosuspensions for improved anticancer activity by controlled antisolvent precipitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yancai; Song, Ju; Chow, Shing Fung; Chow, Albert H L; Zheng, Ying

    2015-10-15

    The present study was aimed at tailoring the particle size of ursolic acid (UA) nanosuspension for improved anticancer activity. UA nanosuspensions were prepared by antisolvent precipitation using a four-stream multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM) under defined conditions of varying solvent composition, drug feeding concentration or stream flow rate. The resulting products were characterized for particle size and polydispersity. Two of the UA nanosuspensions with mean particle sizes of 100 and 300 nm were further assessed for their in-vitro activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells using fluorescence microscopy with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, as well as flow cytometry with propidium (PI) staining and with double staining by fluorescein isothiocyanate. It was revealed that the solvent composition, drug feeding concentration and stream flow rate were critical parameters for particle size control of the UA nanosuspensions generated with the MIVM. Specifically, decreasing the UA feeding concentration or increasing the stream flow rate or ethanol content resulted in a reduction of particle size. Excellent reproducibility for nanosuspension production was demonstrated for the 100 and 300 nm UA preparations with a deviation of not more than 5% in particle size from the mean value of three independent batches. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that these two different sized UA nanosuspensions, particularly the 300 nm sample, exhibited a higher anti-proliferation activity against the MCF-7 cells and afforded a larger population of these cells in both early and late apoptotic phases. In conclusion, MIVM is a robust and pragmatic tool for tailoring the particle size of the UA nanosuspension. Particle size appears to be a critical determinant of the anticancer activity of the UA nanoparticles.

  7. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  8. Identification of Salmonella spp. with Rambach agar in conjunction with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) fluorescence test.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, S; Vila, J; Jimenez de Anta, M T

    1994-03-01

    The utility of Rambach agar to identify Salmonella spp. was examined relative to its usefulness in clinical microbiology. Forty-four of 54 (82%) salmonella organisms isolated from faecal cultures and 66 of 82 (84%) salmonella stock cultures produced bright red colour colonies after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C, whereas 48 of 54 (89%) salmonellae isolated from faecal cultures, and 74 of 82 (90%) salmonella stock cultures, yielded the bright red colour when the incubation time was extended to 48 h. Apart from Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A the sensitivity of Rambach agar to detect salmonella strains belonging to five serogroups was 83% and 92% after 24 and 48 h of incubation, respectively. In contrast, other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae tested failed to give the bright red colour, except for one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Acinetobacter baumannii. The non-salmonella strains either gave a different colour--blue, green or orange--or were colourless. To supplement the use of Rambach agar in the detection of Salm. typhi and Salm. paratyphi A and other late or negative acid-producing salmonella species on this medium, the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate fluorescence (MUCAP) test was carried out, and this showed positive results with all the salmonella strains tested. These results suggest that while Rambach agar can not pre-identify Salm. typhi and Salm. paratyphi A, the use of a simple and rapid (MUCAP) test in combination would make it very useful to identify all Salmonella spp. after 24 h incubation.

  9. Stepwise ethanolic precipitation of sugar beet pectins from the acidic extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-20

    A stepwise ethanol-precipitation (SEP) procedure was developed for the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from a pectin-containing aqueous extract. Five fractions of different chemical and molecular characteristics were produced by stepwise elevating the alcohol concentration of the precipitation medium from 50% to 80% v/v. Comparison of chemical and macromolecular features between the obtained fractions indirectly suggested that the ability of pectin to solubilize in the ethanol-water binary mixture depended greatly on the polymer structure. Fractions rich in neutral sugars were precipitated at relatively high ethanol concentrations, probably due to the enhanced interactions generated between pectin side chains and solvent molecules. Furthermore, the obtained fractions displayed different surface activities. Results obtained in this work indicate that the SEP procedure is more selective with respect to pectin structural features and surface properties than the one-step ethanolic precipitation.

  10. Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 1. Metal precipitation for recovery and recycle.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Henry H; Scharp, Richard; Burckle, John; Kawahara, Fred K; Govind, Rakesh

    2003-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater, poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post mining activities. The metals usually encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead, manganese, zinc, copper and sulfate. The pollution generated by abandoned mining activities in the area of Butte, Montana has resulted in the designation of the Silver Bow Creek-Butte Area as the largest Superfund (National Priorities List) site in the U.S. This paper reports the results of bench-scale studies conducted to develop a resource recovery based remediation process for the clean up of the Berkeley Pit. The process utilizes selective, sequential precipitation (SSP) of metals as hydroxides and sulfides, such as copper, zinc, aluminum, iron and manganese, from the Berkeley Pit AMD for their removal from the water in a form suitable for additional processing into marketable precipitates and pigments. The metal biorecovery and recycle process is based on complete separation of the biological sulfate reduction step and the metal precipitation step. Hydrogen sulfide produced in the SRB bioreactor systems is used in the precipitation step to form insoluble metal sulfides. The average metal recoveries using the SSP process were as follows: aluminum (as hydroxide) 99.8%, cadmium (as sulfide) 99.7%, cobalt (as sulfide) 99.1% copper (as sulfide) 99.8%, ferrous iron (sulfide) 97.1%, manganese (as sulfide) 87.4%, nickel (as sulfide) 47.8%, and zinc (as sulfide) 100%. The average precipitate purity for metals, copper sulfide, ferric hydroxide, zinc sulfide, aluminum hydroxide and manganese sulfide were: 92.4, 81.5, 97.8, 95.6, 92.1 and 75.0%, respectively. The final produced water contained only calcium and magnesium and both sulfate and sulfide concentrations were below usable water limits. Water quality of this agriculturally usable water met the EPA's gold standard criterion.

  11. Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri KC reduces and precipitates selenium and tellurium oxyanions.

    PubMed

    Zawadzka, Anna M; Crawford, Ronald L; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2006-05-01

    The siderophore of Pseudomonas stutzeri KC, pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) (pdtc), is shown to detoxify selenium and tellurium oxyanions in bacterial cultures. A mechanism for pdtc's detoxification of tellurite and selenite is proposed. The mechanism is based upon determination using mass spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the chemical structures of compounds formed during initial reactions of tellurite and selenite with pdtc. Selenite and tellurite are reduced by pdtc or its hydrolysis product H(2)S, forming zero-valent pdtc selenides and pdtc tellurides that precipitate from solution. These insoluble compounds then hydrolyze, releasing nanometer-sized particles of elemental selenium or tellurium. Electron microscopy studies showed both extracellular precipitation and internal deposition of these metalloids by bacterial cells. The precipitates formed with synthetic pdtc were similar to those formed in pdtc-producing cultures of P. stutzeri KC. Culture filtrates of P. stutzeri KC containing pdtc were also active in removing selenite and precipitating elemental selenium and tellurium. The pdtc-producing wild-type strain KC conferred higher tolerance against selenite and tellurite toxicity than a pdtc-negative mutant strain, CTN1. These observations support the hypothesis that pdtc not only functions as a siderophore but also is involved in an initial line of defense against toxicity from various metals and metalloids.

  12. Effects of airborne particulate matter on the acidity of precipitation in central Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Applin, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The pH of rainfall in central Missouri was monitored at four sites during the fall of 1983. Several pH values were well above 5.6, the theoretical pH of pure water in equilibrium with ambient levels of CO/sub 2/. Most of the higher pH's were measured on rainfall of short duration or rainfall collected during the first few hours of extended rainfall events. Furthermore, the rainfall associated with storm events lasting several days exhibited a trend of decreasing pH with time approaching values as low as 4.0 during the late stages of rainfall. Precipitation pH values above 5.6 apparently reflect neutralization reactions between wet precipitation and various components of airborne dust, especially clays and carbonates. During extended rainfalls, the neutralization effects gradually diminish as suspended dust is washed from the atmosphere yielding more accurate values of the wet precipitation pH. The results of this study suggest that airborne particulate matter generated from the dust bowl region of the US may affect the chemistry of precipitation in areas hundreds of kilometers downwind. Using date available in the literature, a direct relationship between precipitation pH and accumulated dustfall was found for data taken along a transect which represents the path of major storms crossing the US, i.e., from the south-central to northeastern regions.

  13. Dissolved, particulate and acid-leachable trace metal concentrations in North Atlantic precipitation collected on the Global Change Expedition

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, B.; Jickells, T.D. )

    1990-12-01

    Atmospheric inputs of trace metals into surface waters are an important pathway for the oceanic biogeochemical cycling of many trace constituents. Rainwater samples from six precipitation events were collected on board ship during legs 3 and 4 of the Global Change Expedition over the North Atlantic Ocean and analyzed for dissolved, particulate (Al and Pb), and acid-leachable trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn). Acid-leachable concentrations of the elements were similar to reported values from the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans which were measured using comparable acidification procedures. Concentrations of dissolved and particulate Al and Pb were determined in rain events acid-leachable and total trace metal concentrations suggest that the acid-leachable fraction of metals can significantly underestimate total concentrations of crustal elements in rain. The solubilities of Al and Pb in precipitation were variable and mean solubilities of the elements were 13% and 45%, respectively. Recycled sea salt components were less than 14% for Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, indicating that the net trace metal flux is from the atmosphere to the oceans. Deep sea particle fluxes for these metals through the western tropical North Atlantic exceed atmospheric deposition fluxes by a factor of 18 to 41. 57 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Adsorption and co-precipitation behavior of arsenate, chromate, selenate and boric acid with synthetic allophane-like materials.

    PubMed

    Opiso, Einstine; Sato, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Tetsuro

    2009-10-15

    Pollution caused by boric acid and toxic anions such as As(V), Cr(VI) and Se(VI) is hazardous to human health and environment. The sorption characteristics of these environmentally significant ionic species on allophane-like nanoparticles were investigated in order to determine whether allophane can reduce their mobility in the subsurface environment at circum-neutral pH condition. Solutions containing 100 or 150 mmol of AlCl(3)x6H(2)O were mixed to 100 mmol of Na(4)SiO(4) and the pH were adjusted to 6.4+/-0.3. The mineral suspensions were shaken for 1h and incubated at 80 degrees C for 5 days. Appropriate amounts of As, B, Cr and Se solutions were added separately during and after allophane precipitation. The results showed that As(V) and boric acid can be irreversibly fixed during co-precipitation in addition to surface adsorption. However, Cr(VI) and Se(VI) retention during and after allophane precipitation is mainly controlled by surface adsorption. The structurally fixed As(V) and boric acid were more resistant to release than those bound on the surface. The sorption characteristics of oxyanions and boric acid were also influenced by the final Si/Al molar ratio of allophane in which Al-rich allophane tend to have higher uptake capacity. The overall results of this study have demonstrated the role of allophane-like nanoparticles and the effect of its Si/Al ratio on As, B, Cr and Se transport processes in the subsurface environment.

  15. Quantifying foliar responses of white ash to ozone and simulated acid precipitation: An assessment proposal for forest exposure studies. Forest Service research paper. (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Dochinger, L.S.; Jensen, K.F.

    1990-04-01

    Seedlings populations represent an important linkage for assessing the effect of air pollution on forests. The study examines the foliar responses of white ash seedlings to ozone and acid precipitation as a means of identifying atmospheric deposition effects on forests.

  16. Optimal Concentration of 2,2,2-Trichloroacetic Acid for Protein Precipitation Based on Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Albert N; Ezoulin, Miezan JM; Youm, Ibrahima; Youan, Bi-Botti C

    2014-01-01

    For low protein concentrations containing biological samples (in proteomics) and for non proteinaceous compound assays (in bioanalysis), there is a critical need for a simple, fast, and cost-effective protein enrichment or precipitation method. However, 2,2,2-trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is traditionally used for protein precipitation at ineffective concentrations for very low protein containing samples. It is hypothesized that response surface methodology, can be used to systematically identify the optimal TCA concentration for protein precipitation in a wider concentration range. To test this hypothesis, a central composite design is used to assess the effects of two factors (X1 = volume of aqueous solution of protein, and X2 = volume of TCA solution 6.1N) on the optical absorbance of the supernatant (Y1), and the percentage of protein precipitated (Y2). Using either bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein or human urine (with 20 ppm protein content), 4% w/v (a saddle point) is the optimal concentration of the TCA solution for protein precipitation that is visualized by SDS-PAGE analysis. At this optimal concentration, the Y2-values range from 76.26 to 92.67% w/w for 0.016 to 2 mg/mL of BSA solution. It is also useful for protein enrichment and xenobiotic analysis in protein-free supernatant as applied to tenofovir (a model HIV microbicide). In these conditions, the limit of detection and limit of quantitation of tenofovir are respectively 0.0014 mg/mL and 0.0042 mg/mL. This optimal concentration of TCA provides optimal condition for protein purification and analysis of any xenobiotic compound like tenofovir. PMID:25750762

  17. Electron micrographic study of precipitates formed by interaction of silicic acid and alkaline phosphatase: contribution to a study of silica urolithiasis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C B; Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1982-12-01

    Association of alkaline phosphatase with silicic acid in precipitates formed in dilute solution was studied as a model for the nonspecific reaction between silicic acid and protein. Precipitates contained 68-83% of the silicic acid and 52-83% of the enzyme in the original mixture and were in the form of aggregates of roundish particles 150-800 nm in diameter. Enzyme protein formed a tightly bound layer on the surface of particles formed in solutions of freshly prepared silicic acid. The similarity between the ultrastructural features of precipitates from solutions of silicic acid and of internal portions of siliceous urinary calculi from cattle suggests that deposition of silica during development of such calculi is due, at least in part, to the interaction of protein with silicic acid in urine.

  18. Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, G.

    1990-09-21

    The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

  19. Understanding barite and gypsum precipitation in upland acid-sulfate soils: An example from a Lufkin Series toposequence, south-central Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Debra S.; Driese, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Although low-temperature barite precipitation has been previously documented in soils and paleosols, pedogenic barite precipitation remains poorly understood. This study characterizes the micromorphology, elemental trends, and stable isotope geochemistry of sulfates in a barite-bearing soil (Lufkin Series) toposequence using optical microscopy, XRD, ICP-MS, and stable S and O isotope data. Synthesized data indicate that fluctuating redox processes and microbial activity resulting from epiaquatic and evaporative conditions lead to the precipitation of sulfates in the Lufkin soils. Stable sulfur and oxygen isotopes indicate that the primary source of sulfur is the partial dissolution of jarosite during microbial sulfate reduction. Barium-rich parent material provides adequate barium for barite precipitation. Barium is mobilized and concentrated in Btg horizons ~ 100-160 cm below the surface. The presence of humic acids in profiles lower on the landscape prevents barite precipitation and drives the precipitation of gypsum between saturated, anoxic conditions (November to May) and drier, more oxic conditions (May to November). Barite precipitation is a slow, punctuated process. Micromorphological data reveal that barite precipitates first along evacuated macropores and then in the adjacent matrix. In general, optimal conditions for pedogenic barite precipitation in upland wetland acid-sulfate soils are: 1) warm soil temperature that supports active sulfur-reducing and sulfur oxidizing microbes; 2) distinct wet/dry seasons that allow alternating redox conditions; 3) low-gradient landscape; 4) parent material that contains barium- and sulfur-rich constituents; and 5) a long-lived, stable landscape.

  20. Effect of precipitation, geographical location and biosynthesis on New Zealand milk powder bulk and fatty acids D/H ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, R.; Emad Ehtesham, R.; Van Hale, R.; Hayman, A.; Baisden, T.

    2012-04-01

    D/H ratio measurements provide useful information for the investigation of biogeochemical influences on natural and agricultural produce, particularly with application to food traceability and authentication. Numerous studies have shown that variation of a product's D/H ratio is influenced by both environmental factors and biological processes. This study investigates the D/H ratio of New Zealand milk powder and individual fatty acids, and causal determinants of isotopic variation. One of the key environmental factors is precipitation, and the D/H ratio "isoscaping" of NZ has been undertaken. New Zealand provides a unique geography for these kinds of study in terms of proximity to the ocean and natural geographical variability from sea level to elevations as high as 3700 m. Milk powder samples were collected from different geographical regions from milk processing units, which were supplied by producers in the immediate region. H/D ratios of bulk milk powder and of individual fatty acids were determined. Initial comparison of the precipitation and milk powder bulk D/H data show a very good differentiation from north to southernmost parts of New Zealand and a relation between rain and milk bulk D/H abundance ratio. Almost 98% of milk FAs are in the form of triglycerides that have been extracted and hydrolysed to free FAs. Free FAs were esterified and analyzed with GC-IRMS. Individual FAs show variation in D/H ratio, and all values are depleted relative to the precipitation data. The difference in D/H ratio amongst individual FAs reflects the geographical environment and biological processes i.e. micro-organisms activity in the rumen of the cow. Short chain FAs (less than 8 carbons), particularly C4 (Butyric acid), appear to be key determinants. The variation in the data can be rationalized using statistical multivariate analysis.

  1. The ecological effect of acid conditions and precipitation of hydrous metal oxides in a Rocky Mountain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Feder, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Periphyton and benthic invertebrates assemblages were studied at the confluence of two Rocky Mountain streams, Deer Creek and the Snake River near Montezuma, Colorado. Upstream from the confluence the Snake River is acidic and enriched in dissolved trace metals, while Deer Creek is a typical Rocky Mountain stream. In the Snake River, downstream from the confluence, the pH increases and hydrous metal oxides precipitate and cover the streambed. The algal and benthic invertebrate communities in the upstream reaches of the Snake River and in Deer Creek were very different. A liverwort, Scapania undulata var. undulata, was abundant in the Snake River, and although periphyton were very sparse, there were as many benthic invertebrates as in Deer Creek. Downstream from the confleunce, the precipitation of hydrous metal oxides greatly decreased the abundance of periphyton and benthic invertebrates. This study shows that in streams metal precipitates covering the streambed may have a more deleterious effect on stream communities than high metal-ion activities. ?? 1984 Dr. W. Junk Publishers.

  2. Acid precipitation and drinking water quality in the eastern United States. Final report, November 1981-January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F.; Taylor, J.A.; Symons, G.E.; Collins, J.J.; Schock, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Research was conducted to provide accurate modern and historical data on drinking water quality and the possible effect of acid precipitation on water samples. Samples of source raw and finished water were collected from more than 300 surface and groundwater supplies in the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. The samples were analyzed at EPA laboratories. Historical records were obtained dating back to 1886. Acid rain may dissolve harmful elements from soils and from water supply distribution systems. Because soils can alter the character of acid rain through buffering, causal relationships are difficult to identify. A helpful approach to this problem is the use of indices of water supply sensitiviy and corrosiveness. With these indices, drinking water standards, and reliable chemical data, an assessment of water supply characteristics has been accomplished. Though solution products of acid rain in the water supply sources studied do not exceed EPA Primary Drinking Water Regulations, a large number of tests for aluminum showed levels that could be of concern to kidney dialysis patients. Because of the present water quality conditions (low alkalinity and pH) at numerous water sources, future acid deposition could be expected to have a detrimental effect on water quality. 42 references, 15 figures, 42 tables.

  3. The Debate over Acid Precipitation--Opposing Views--Status of Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-11

    effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems. This contrasts with the general agreement among scientists that oxides of sulfur and nitro - gen...Altsnuller and G.A. McBean, Co-chairman, Nov. 148U, p. 1I. 2/Peter E. Coffee , "Long-Range Transport of Acidic Pollutants to New York," in Proceedings of

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymer for chlorogenic acid by modified precipitation polymerization and its application to extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmodies leaves.

    PubMed

    Miura, Chitose; Li, Hui; Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for chlorogenic acid (CGA) were prepared by modified precipitation polymerization using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene as a crosslinker and methanol or dimethylsulfoxide as a co-solvent. The prepared MIPs were microspheres with a narrow particle size distribution. Binding experiments and Scatchard analyses revealed that two classes of binding sites, high and low affinity sites, were formed on the MIP. The retention and molecular-recognition properties of the prepared MIP were evaluated using a mixture of water and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in hydrophilic interaction chromatography. With an increase of acetonitrile content, the retention factor of CGA was increased on the MIP. In addition to shape recognition, hydrophilic interactions seem to work for the recognition of CGA on the MIP. The MIP had a specific molecular-recognition ability for CGA, while other related compounds, such as caffeic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, could not be recognized by the MIP. Furthermore, the MIP for CGA was successfully applied for extraction of CGA in the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies.

  5. Influence of ethylenediamine-n,n’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) concentration on the bactericidal activity of fatty acids in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and antibacterial fatty acids (FA) was examined using the agar diffusion assay. Solutions of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids dissolved in potassium hydroxide (KOH) were supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM ...

  6. Precipitation polymerization in acetic acid: study of the solvent effect on the morphology of poly(divinylbenzene).

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Zhao, Tongyang; Bai, Yaowen; Zhang, Fen; Yang, Wantai

    2009-03-12

    This paper reports on two important results regarding the precipitation polymerization of poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) in acetic acid (HAc). (1) Acetic acid is a novel kind of solvent worthy of investigation because it is amphipathic and innoxious. Thus, two kinds of model solvents, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and n-heptane, were selected to investigate the solvent effect on the particle morphology of PDVB-55 during precipitation polymerization in acetic acid. Monodisperse PDVB-55 microspheres were obtained with an MEK content of 30 vol % and a DVB loading of 2 vol %. Odd-shaped particles were found to almost disappear when MEK was added. For MEK contents up to 90 vol %, space-filling macrogels consisting of small particles with diameters of around 10 nm were obtained. More homocoagulated particles were produced when n-heptane was added, for which concentrations up to 50 vol % gave rise to cauliflower-like particles. Thus, in the acetic acid system, microspheres, pumpkin-like particles, macrogels, and coagulum could be successfully obtained. (2) The preparation of nonpolar PDVB-55 particles could be more predictable. For the first time-based on the regulation of former studies--the regularity of the dispersive term (delta(d)) on the particle morphology for a PDVB precipitation polymerization system was reported. The three-dimensional Hansen solubility parameters were utilized to perfect the regularity of the Hildebrand solubility parameter. Microspheres or particles were formed in the range of moderate delta values for both parameters, i.e., delta = 20.2-24.3 MPa1/2 or delta = 16 MPa1/2. What was even more important, delta(d) was found to be around 15.4 MPa1/2, and delta(h) should be below 13.5 MPa1/2. Cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, n-butyl acetate, and 1,4-dioxane were used to verify this regularity, and positive results were obtained. Stable, uniform, and well-separated PDVB-55 microspheres and particles were produced as a result of interaction forces between oligomers

  7. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere - Acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution from 0.15-to 6 km altitude in the North American Arctic troposphere of several soluble acidic gases and major aerosol species during the summertime is reported. The distribution is found to be compositionally consistent on a large spatial scale. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases while acidic sulfate aerosols dominate the particulate phase. There appears to be a surface source of NH3 over the pack ice which may originate from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface, evolution from surface ocean waters in open ice leads, or release from rotting sea ice. At low altitude over the pack ice this NH34 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southeastern Alaska, inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO4(2-). The rainwater acidity over the tundra is typical of remote regions.

  8. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere - acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, R.W.; Vijgen, A.S.; Harriss, R.C. Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA )

    1992-10-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution from 0.15-to 6 km altitude in the North American Arctic troposphere of several soluble acidic gases and major aerosol species during the summertime is reported. The distribution is found to be compositionally consistent on a large spatial scale. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases while acidic sulfate aerosols dominate the particulate phase. There appears to be a surface source of NH3 over the pack ice which may originate from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface, evolution from surface ocean waters in open ice leads, or release from rotting sea ice. At low altitude over the pack ice this NH34 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southeastern Alaska, inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO4(2-). The rainwater acidity over the tundra is typical of remote regions. 61 refs.

  9. Generation of dose-response relationships to assess the effects of acidity in precipitation on growth and productivity of vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed with several plant species in natural environments as well in a greenhouse and/or tissue culture facilities to establish dose-response functions of plant responses to simulated acidic rain in order to determine environmental risk assessments to ambient levels of acidic rain. Response functions of foliar injury, biomass of leaves and seed of soybean and pinto beans, root yields of radishes and garden beets, and reproduction of bracken fern are considered. The dose-response function of soybean seed yields with the hydrogen ion concentration of simulated acidic rainfalls was expressed by the equation y = 21.06-1.01 log x where y = seed yield in grams per plant and x = the hydrogen concentration if ..mu..eq l/sup -1/. The correlation coefficient of this relationship was -0.90. A similar dose-response function was generated for percent fertilization of ferns in a forest understory. When percent fertilization is plotted on logarithmic scale with hydrogen ion concentration of the simulated rain solution, the Y intercept is 51.18, slope -0.041 with a correlation coefficient of -0.98. Other dose-response functions were generated that assist in a general knowledge as to which plant species and which physiological processes are most impacted by acidic precipitation. Some responses did not produce convenient dose-response relationships. In such cases the responses may be altered by other environmental factors or there may be no differences among treatment means.

  10. Industrial stabilizers caprylate and N-acetyltryptophanate reduce the efficacy of albumin in liver patients.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jan; Stiffel, Melanie; Goetze, Anne; Strube, Sabrina; Gruenert, Juliane; Klammt, Sebastian; Mitzner, Steffen; Koball, Sebastian; Liebe, Stefan; Reisinger, Emil

    2011-06-01

    Liver failure is associated with an accumulation of toxic molecules that exert an affinity to albumin. Some of them have vasoactive activity. So far, albumin has been used as a plasma expander to improve the available circulating blood volume. However, recent studies have suggested that albumin is more effective than starch for this indication. It has not been reported yet whether the industrial stabilizers octanoate and N-acetyltryptophanate, added to albumin, occupy binding sites for vasoactive substances. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of the industrial stabilizers octanoate and caprylate has an impact on the effect of the albumin-binding function or circulating blood volume in patients with cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and an indication for albumin. In 25 patients who received albumin via an inline infusion filter that depleted stabilizers, there was an improvement of albumin binding, and there was less deterioration of circulating blood volume and renal function in comparison with a control group. Further studies are needed to confirm the results and identify the potential socioeconomic side effects of industrial stabilizers in commercial albumin solutions.

  11. Stabilizing effects of caprylate and acetyltryptophanate on heat-induced aggregation of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, T; Kita, Y

    2000-06-15

    Acetyltryptophanate (AT) and caprylate (Cap) have been used to stabilize serum albumin against heat treatment. However, the mechanism of stabilization by these additives has never been fully elucidated. Here we used thermal melting to determine the effects of these additives on the melting temperature of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and heat stress at 60 degrees C to follow degradation of the protein in the presence of varying concentrations of AT or Cap. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to examine degradation products generated by heat treatment. Both additives increased the melting temperature of BSA, resulting in an increase by 12 degrees C at 5 mM AT and 3 degrees C at 1 mM Cap. They also conferred stability to BSA against heat stress at 60 degrees C. Complete protection was observed at 5 mM AT and 1 mM Cap. Comparison of AT and Cap in their effects on melting temperature and heat stress-induced degradation showed that a greater protection occurs with Cap which has a weaker effect on melting temperature. Based on this observation it was concluded that the observed protection by AT may be explained by its effects on melting temperature while that of Cap should be ascribed to other mechanisms.

  12. Synthesis of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted precipitation and evaluation of their photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Martínez, D.; Martínez-de la Cruz, A.; López-Cuéllar, E.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple citric acid-assisted precipitation. ► WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was able to the partial mineralization of rhB, IC and MO. ► WO{sub 3} can be considered as a photocatalyst active under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by citric acid-assisted precipitation method using a 1:1.5 molar ratio of ammonium paratungstate hydrate (H{sub 42}N{sub 10}O{sub 42}W{sub 12}·xH{sub 2}O):citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}). The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} at different temperatures was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller surface area (BET) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). According to the thermal treatment followed during the synthesis of WO{sub 3}, the morphology of the nanoparticles formed was characterized by rectangular and ovoid shapes. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} obtained under different experimental conditions was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC), methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution under UV and UV–vis radiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the sample obtained by thermal treatment at 700 °C. In general, the sequence of degradation of the organic dyes was: indigo carmine (IC) > rhodamine B (rhB) > methyl orange (MO) > Congo red (CR). The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalysts was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 82% (rhB), 85% (IC), 28% (MO), and 7% (CR) for 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  13. Relationship between acidity and ionic composition of wet precipitation: A two years study at an urban site, Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatolaki, Ch.; Tsitouridou, R.

    2009-03-01

    Wet precipitation samples were collected in the city center of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, for two years with different rainfall amount (April 2002-March 2004). All samples were analyzed for major anions and cations (Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+). HCO 3- concentrations were calculated through pH measurements. Arithmetic mean pH values of 6.06 and 6.57 were found for the two periods. 10.5% of the first year rain events (April 2002-March 2003) and 2.5% of the second (April 2003-March 2004) exhibited pH ≤ 4.5. The quite typical, for Mediterranean areas, trend Ca 2+ > SO 42- > NH 4+ > Cl - > NO 3- was observed in the majority of the samples. The study of the relationship between the ionic concentrations and the precipitation amount gave information about the scavenging mechanism of ions (below or in-cloud). 67% of the rain acidity was found to be due to sulfuric acid and the rest 33% to nitric acid. The calculation of Neutralization Factors (NF) and the application of Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLR), showed the higher Ca 2+ contribution to the neutralization process. The impact of maritime sources was extracted from the SSF of Cl - and Mg 2+, while the anthropogenic origin of SO 42- was supported by the high NSSF (~ 98%). The local calcareous soil dust and possible long-range transport are the main sources of Ca 2+ in the area. A case study by using trajectory analysis to predict a long-range transport of pollutants from Etnean volcano, Italy, to the study area, is described.

  14. Effects of calcium phosphate precipitation method on acid resistance to apatite powder and bovine tooth.

    PubMed

    Suge, Toshiyuki; Kawasaki, Akiko; Ishikawa, Kunio; Matsuo, Takashi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2008-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of CPP method on the crystallinity of apatite powder and on the acid resistance of bovine enamel. Crystallinity degrees of apatite powder before and after CPP treatment were measured by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Polished bovine enamel specimens treated with CPP method or NaF were immersed in a lactic acid solution for up to five days. The demineralized depth of enamel was measured with a surface roughness analyzer. XRD peaks became sharper after the CPP treatment, indicating an increased crystallinity of the apatite powder. The demineralized depth of bovine enamel treated with CPP method was shallower than that of enamel treated with NaF. Results of this study revealed that the CPP method increased the crystallinity of apatite powder and the acid resistance of enamel. Therefore, the CPP method would be useful not only for treating dentin hypersensitivity, but also for the prevention of dental caries.

  15. Acid precipitation effects on algal productivity and biomass in Adirondack Lakes. Final completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1982-12-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity in three Adirondack Mountain Lakes were studied at Woods Lake, Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Numbers of phytoplankton species observed were Woods 45, Sagamore 55, and Panther 85, conforming to observations at many other sites that species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. The smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes, Woods > Sagamore > Panther. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification is suspected of leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). The amount of 14C-labelled dissolved photosynthate (14C-DOM), as a percent of total productivity, is ordered Woods > Sagamore > Panther.

  16. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere: Acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1992-10-01

    We report here the distribution of selected acidic gases and aerosol species in the North American Arctic and sub-Arctic summer troposphere. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases and acidic sulfate aerosols dominating the particulate phase. Our data show that the acidic gas and aerosol composition is uniform on a large spatial scale. There appears to be a surface source of NH4+ over the Arctic Ocean pack ice which may reflect release of NH3 from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface near ice leads, release from rotting sea ice, or an upward flux from surface ocean waters in open ice leads. This NH3 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity in the boundary layer. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southwestern Alaska inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the nearby Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO42-. While there were only minor effects on aerosol chemistry over the tundra from sea salt, the rainwater chemistry showed influence from marine aerosols which were apparently incorporated into air masses during frontal passages moving inland from the Bering Sea. The rainwater acidity over the tundra (pH 4.69) is typical of remote regions. The principal acidity components are H2SO4 and carboxylic acids, especially HCOOH. The carboxylic acids appear to have a strong continental biogenic source, but hydrocarbons of marine origin and emissions from forest fires may also be important. The wet deposition fluxes of NO3--N and SO42--S over sub-Arctic tundra during July-August 1988 were 2.1 and 2.4 mmol m-2 yr-1. Wet deposition of NO3- was nearly 3 times higher than the average NOy deposition flux, which is believed to represent primarily dry deposition of HNO3 (Bakwin et al., this issue). Our measurements indicate that the mid-troposphere in the Arctic is generally contaminated with low levels of anthropogenic pollutants even in summer when direct atmospheric coupling

  17. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  18. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cánovas, C. R.; Macías, F.; Pérez-López, R.

    2016-05-01

    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40 days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  19. Acid precipitation effects on algal productivity and biomass in Adirondack Mountain lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1982-12-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity in three Adirondack Mountain lakes were studied at Woods Lake (pH ca. 4.9), Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. Patterns of increasing biomass and productivity in Woods Lake may be atypical of similar oligotrophic lakes in that they develop rather slowly to maxima six weeks after ice-out, instead of occurring very close to ice-out. Contributions of netplankton, nannoplankton and ultraplankton to productivity per m/sup 2/ show that the smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification is suspected of leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). This was consistent with a hypothesis that microbial heterotrophic activity is reduced with increasing acidity, but the smaller phytoplankton may be more leaky at low pH. 11 references, 2 tables.

  20. Potential for acid precipitation damage to lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, J.; Holdren, J.; Tonnesson, K.

    1983-04-01

    One of the areas of California potentially sensitive to acidic deposition is the Sierra Nevada, located along the eastern boundary. A report on sensitive areas in North America identifies the Sierra as a region characterized by poorly buffered soils and granite based lakes. The subalpine and alpine lakes in this region share many of the characteristics of lakes adversely affected by acid deposition in other parts of the US and the world. For this investigation selected subalpine lakes of the western slope of the Sierra were chosen for study, to establish baseline water quality which would allow for the identification of chemical and biological changes due to acidic deposition. It was then attempted to simulate the ecosystem stress of increased acidic deposition, particularly in the form of snowmelt, on these systems by performing microcosm experiments in the laboratory. These experiments were particularly concerned with recording changes in concentrations of micronutrients which might be leached from lake sediments with increasing acidification. This phenomenon is particularly important to study in the light of finds on the importance of aluminum leaching in the northeast which was led to toxic effects of biota in Adirondack lakes. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Aquatic Activities for Middle School Children. A Focus on the Effects of Acid Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Minnesota Sea Grant Program.

    Basic water-related concepts and underlying principles of acid rain are described in this curriculum in a manner that young children can understand. The curriculum consists of activities presented in four units: Background Unit, Earth Science Unit, Life Science Unit, and Extension Unit. The first three units consist of several modules, each module…

  2. Acetylation dictates the morphology of nanophase biosilica precipitated by a 14-amino acid leucine-lysine peptide.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Helmut; Jaeger, Vance; Bonn, Mischa; Pfaendtner, Jim; Weidner, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a commonly used modification technique for synthetic peptides, mostly applied for reasons of enhanced stability, and in many cases regarded as inconsequential. In engineered biosilification - the controlled deposition of silica for nanotechnology applications by designed peptides - charged groups often play a deciding role. Here we report that changing the charge by acetylation of a 14-amino acid leucine-lysine (LK) peptide dramatically changes the morphology of precipitated biosilica; acetylated LK peptides produce nano-spheres, whereas nano-wires are precipitated by the same peptide in a non-acetylated form. By using interface-specific vibrational spectroscopy and coarse-grained molecular simulations, we show that this change in morphology is not the result of modified peptide-silica interactions, but rather caused by the stabilization of the hydrophobic core of peptide aggregates created by the removal of a peptide charge upon acetylation. These results should raise awareness of the potential impact of N-terminal modifications in peptide applications. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Production and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) generated by Alcaligenes latus using lactose and whey after acid protein precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Berwig, Karina Hammel; Baldasso, Camila; Dettmer, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Whey after acid protein precipitation was used as substrate for PHB production in orbital shaker using Alcaligenes latus. Statistical analysis determined the most appropriate hydroxide for pH neutralization of whey after protein precipitation among NH4OH, KOH and NaOH 10%w/v. The results were compared to those of commercial lactose. A scale-up test in a 4L bioreactor was done at 35°C, 750rpm, 7L/min air flow, and 6.5 pH. The PHB was characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. NH4OH provided the best results for productivity (p), 0.11g/L.h, and for polymer yield, (YP/S), 1.08g/g. The bioreactor experiment resulted in lower p and YP/S. PHB showed maximum degradation temperature (291°C), melting temperature (169°C), and chemical properties similar to those of standard PHB. The use of whey as a substrate for PHB production did not affect significantly the final product quality.

  4. Ammonia emission factors for the NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) emission inventory. Final report, January 1985-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Misenheimer, D.C.; Warn, T.E.; Zelmanowitz, S.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides information on certain sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere for use in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emission inventories. Major anthropogenic sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere are identified, and emission factors for these sources are presented based on a review of the most recent data available. The emission factors developed are used to estimate nationwide emissions for base year 1980 and are compared to ammonia emission factors used in other emission inventories. Major anthropogenic source categories covered are cropland spreading of livestock wastes, beef cattle feedlots, fertilizer manufacture and use, fuel combustion, ammonia synthesis, petroleum refineries, and coke manufacture. Approximately 840,000 tons of ammonia is estimated to have been emitted in the U.S. in 1980; over 64% of which is estimated to have been from livestock wastes.

  5. A computer simulation of ecosystem processes in forests for application to air pollution, acid precipitation and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, J.R. ); Anderson, P.D. . Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management)

    1992-07-17

    We have developed a simulation model, TREE, of the effects of gaseous air pollutants and acid precipitation on the forest ecosystem processes of tree productivity and growth. This model is based on an existing general model of forest ecosystem processes developed for regional application (FOREST-BGC) combined with an existing model of plant productivity and transpiration (BACROS). The former model uses daily and annual time-steps; BACROS uses hourly time-steps and computes gaseous pollutant (ozone) uptake. In FOREST-BGC, we model the effects of ozone by reducing productivity based on the cumulative uptake for each leaf age-class. The model computations convert this reduction in productivity to a reduction in growth. This version of the model restricts consideration of acid precipitation to possible effects on productivity due to foliar exposure. Basic model performance has been studied for ponderosa pine exposed to ozone at the USFS Chico Tree Improvement Center The model simulates observed phenomena such as draw down of soil water during summer months. For ozone levels for the Chico Field Site for the 1990 season, maximum daily ozone uptake occurred in August with peak of 2.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} kg m{sup {minus}2} d{sup 1}. Cumulative annual ozone uptake for current year needles was 3.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} kg m{sup {minus}2} producing a 12.6% reduction in productivity for current year needles and a 13.3% reduction in chlorophyll and effective leaf area. Total transpiration was 0.95 m. The model is now being used to develop a terrestrial ecosystem submodel for a global scale Earth System Model (ESM) that integrates interacting atmospheric, oceanic, and land system components. Algorithms from the forest model will support feedback calculation of the effect of forests on atmospheric physics and chemistry as well as calculate effects of climate- and C0{sub 2}-change on forest productivity.

  6. Validation of a NIR quantification method for the determination of chlorogenic acid in Lonicera japonica solution in ethanol precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhisheng; Xu, Bing; Du, Min; Sui, Chenglin; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2012-03-25

    The feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for chlorogenic acid content analysis in ethanol precipitation process of water extract of Lonicera japonica was verified in this work. A calibration and validation set was designed for the conception and evaluation of the method adequacy. An experimental protocol was then followed, involving two different NIR instruments for data acquisition. On the basis of this protocol, the model was developed based on partial least squares regression (PLS) and the determination coefficient (R(2)(cal) and R(2)(val)), standard error of calibration and prediction (SEC and SEP) were 0.9962, 0.9955, 111.1 μg/mL and 107.1 μg/mL for Holographic Grating NIR instrument, and 0.9984, 0.9971, 53.6 μg/mL and 83.3 μg/mL for Fourier Transform NIR instrument. However, such above criteria did not clearly demonstrate the model's prediction error over each analyzed content range. Consequently, a novel approach based on accuracy profile which allowed the acquisition of the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was used to validate the robustness and accuracy of PLS model. The resulting accuracy profile showed that PLS model was able to determine chlorogenic acid content by two NIR systems, whose LLOQ was about 1550 μg/mL. It was concluded that the two NIR systems were suitable for use as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) to understand ethanol precipitation process of water extract of Lonicera japonica.

  7. Red spruce germination and growth in soil-mediated regeneration microcosms under acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the past three decades, atmospheric pollution has caused substantial problems for the environment as well as for many biological processes. The objective of this study focuses on red spruce (Picea ruben Sarg.) regeneration potential and chemical change within the soil-water-plant continuum following simulated acid rain treatments. Inceptisols from three forests at 1735, 1920, and 2015 m at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina had lower pH, bulk density, and higher organic matter, and base cations as altitude increased. Red spruce seeds were collected from two nearby standing trees at the 1735 m site. A strip-split-split plot experiment was constructed using soils from the two lower elevations, which support natural red spruce stands. Besides a control (pH 5.6, NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratio 0.10), eight treatments corresponding to two pHs (3.5 and 4.2) with four NO[sub 3]:SO[sub 4] ratios (0.20, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.67) each were used. Seedling emergence and growth, chemistry of soil. Soil leachate, and plant tissue were analyzed to test soil differences and treatment effects of acidity, nitrate, and sulfate. Temporal patterns of germination respond more to soil than to rain chemistry, but significant interactions were found. Besides higher survival, faster germinating seedlings in the 1735 m soil also produced more complex root system and more biomass. Lower root-to-shoot ratios at more acidic treatments suggest a negative effect of acidity on root growth. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that factors controlling overall soil chemistry were dominated by soil origin, then by rain pH.

  8. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    qualitative indicators to assess the effectiveness of the cap and trade approach to reduce emissions, improve air quality and reduce acid deposition while...report indicates that nitrogen deposition has declined in some areas with resulting benefits. Overall a 40% reduction in NOx emissions from power...acidification.The report, however, also indicates that emission reductions beyond Title IV alone are not sufficient to allow sensitive forests and aquatic systems

  9. Acidity, nutrients, and minerals in atmospheric precipitation over Florida: deposition patterns, mechanisms and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brezonik, P.L.; Hendry, C.D. Jr.; Edgerton, E.S.; Schulze, R.L.; Crisman, T.L.

    1983-06-01

    A monitoring network of 21 bulk and 4 wet/dry collectors located throughout Florida measured spatial and temporal trends during a one-year period from May 1978 to April 1979. The project summary notes that statewide deposition rates of nitrogen and phosphorus were below the loading rates associated with eutrophication, although nutrient concentrations were higher during the summer. Overall, pH appears to have relatively small effects (in the range 4.7-6.8) on community structure in soft-water Florida lakes. More dramatic effects could occur under more acidic conditions in the future. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  10. Nickel recovery from spent Raneynickel catalyst through dilute sulfuric acid leaching and soda ash precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Young; Rao, S Venkateswara; Kumar, B Nagaphani; Kang, Dong Jun; Reddy, B Ramachandra

    2010-04-15

    Pharmaceutical industry makes extensive use of Raneynickel catalyst for various organic drug intermediates/end products. Spent catalysts contain environmentally critical and economically valuable metals. In the present study, a simple hydrometallurgical process using dilute sulfuric acid leaching was described for the recovery of nickel from spent Raneynickel catalyst. Recovery of nickel varied with acid concentration and time, whereas temperature had negligible effect. Increase of S/L ratio to 30% (w/v) showed marginal effect on nickel (90%) recovery, whereas Al recovery decreased drastically to approximately 20%. Under the optimum conditions of leaching viz: 12 vol.% H(2)SO(4), 30 degrees C, 20% solid to liquid (S/L) ratio and 120 min reaction time, it was possible to recover 98.6% Ni along with 39.2% Al. Leach liquor [pH 0.7] containing 85.0 g/L Ni and 3.25 g/L Al was adjusted to pH 5.4 with 30 wt.% alkali for quantitative aluminum removal. Nickel loss was about 2% during this Al removal step. Nickel from the purified leach liquor was recovered as nickel carbonate by adding required amount of Na(2)CO(3). The purity of NiCO(3) product was found to be 100% with a Ni content of 48.6%. Na(2)SO(4) was recovered as a by-product with a purity of 99%. Complete process is presented.

  11. Evaluation of phosphate pebble as a precipitant for acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.C.; West, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    Laboratory testing was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphate pebbles from Florida in the treatment of acid mine drainage under aerobic conditions. Using different flow rates, results show that phosphate pebbles effectively removed ferric iron up to 1,200 mg/l, aluminum up to 800 mg/l and sulfate up to 8,600 mg/l in three weeks. In addition, the pH increased to values as high as 3.2 in the effluent water from a pH of the influent water ranging from 2.1 to 2.2. Removal of ferric iron, aluminum, and sulfate as well as pH increases were inversely proportional to flow rates, ranging from 1.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 1.05 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} liters per minute per kg of phosphate pebble. Apparently this method can be applied to reduce acid mine drainage from old coal refuse piles, even those containing high concentration of ferric iron and aluminum ions.

  12. Influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the on the ability of fatty acids to inhibit the growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids was examined. A 0.5 M concentration of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and then supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM of EDTA. T...

  13. Effect of acidic precipitation on amphibian breeding in temporary ponds in Pennsylvania. [Rana sylvatica; Ambystoma jeffersonianum

    SciTech Connect

    Freda, J.; Dunson, W.A.

    1985-11-01

    This study assessed the impacts of acid deposition on amphibians breeding in temporary ponds in Pennsylvania by investigating the lowest pH's at which embryos could hatch, the physiological effects of low pH on amphibian larvae, pond chemistry and the influence of rainfall on pond pH, and the effect of pond pH on embryonic survival and local distribution of Ambystoma jeffersonianum and Rana sylvatica. At very low pH's, embryos stopped development soon after exposure. At higher but still lethal pH's, embryos became curled and failed to hatch. Embryos of Ambystoma were able to hatch even though they were curled, but R. sylvatica became trapped and died. Acute exposure to low pH's depressed sodium influx and accelerated sodium efflux, with a net loss of 50% of body sodium resulting in death. Increasing the external calcium concentration extended survival time by slowing the loss of sodium. Chronic exposure to low pH's resulted in reduction in body sodium, but to a lesser degree. R sylvatica tadpoles from a low pH pond had lower body sodium than tadpoles from a nearby high pH pond. Tadpoles from both ponds placed in a low pH pond underwent higher sodium efflux than when placed in the high pH pond. In studying the effect of low environmental pH, A. jeffersonianum was intolerant of low pH and was absent from most acidic ponds. R. sylvatica was tolerant and was found in ponds with the lowest pH. 73 refs., 14 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Jarosite Precipitation from Acidic Saline Waters in Kachchh, Gujarat, India: an Appropriate Martian Analogue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Gupta, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chauhan, P.; Parthasarathy, G.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] on the Martian surface has been an intriguing problem since the Mars Exploration Rover 'Opportunity' first revealed its presence at the Meridiani Planum on Mars. To explain its origin, several terrestrial analogue sites have been studied in different geographical zones. Although several models have been suggested, there is a consensus that only the prevalence of acidic and oxidizing aqueous environmental conditions are conducive to form jarosite. In the Kachchh region of Gujarat, western India, jarosite has been recently discovered from gorges dissecting the Paleocene Matanumadh Formation sediments, that overlie basalts of the Deccan Volcanic Province. This formation comprises pebble conglomerates, carbonaceous shales and purple sandstones capped by a laterite on top. Jarosite, in association with gypsum and goethite, has been detected through FTIR and VNIR spectrometry in almost all litho-units of the succession, albeit in different modes and concentrations. The occurrence of jarosite within black shale in other parts of the world, has been attributed to the oxidation of pyrites within the shale layers. However, in shales of the Matanumadh Formation, jarosite is restricted to fractures that cut across the bedding, while the overlying purple sandstone unit only preserves jarosite in shale clasts within the sandstone. Since the sandstone overlies the black shale layer, downward percolation of sulfate-bearing water from the oxidation of pyrite within the shale layer cannot explain jarosite formation in this unit. In addition, no jarosite is observed below or within pyrite-rich lignite bearing sections in other parts of Kachchh. Alternative suggestions, that jarosite developed in the immediate aftermath of Deccan volcanism as surface waters were rendered acidic by interaction with the final phase of volcanic effusives, are also unlikely as on-going studies suggest that jarosite is not restricted to the Matanumadh Formation. The

  15. Limestone characterization to model damage from acidic precipitation: Effect of pore structure on mass transfer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, S.D.; Reddy, M.M.; Irez, W.F.; Heymans, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The pore structure of Salem limestone is investigated, and conclusions regarding the effect of the pore geometry on modeling moisture and contaminant transport are discussed based on thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption analyses. These investigations are compared to and shown to compliment permeability and capillary pressure measurements for this common building stone. Salem limestone exhibits a bimodal pore size distribution in which the larger pores provide routes for convective mass transfer of contaminants into the material and the smaller pores lead to high surface area adsorption and reaction sites. Relative permeability and capillary pressure measurements of the air/water system indicate that Salem limestone exhibits high capillarity end low effective permeability to water. Based on stone characterization, aqueous diffusion and convection are believed to be the primary transport mechanisms for pollutants in this stone. The extent of contaminant accumulation in the stone depends on the mechanism of partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. The described characterization techniques and modeling approach can be applied to many systems of interest such as acidic damage to limestone, mass transfer of contaminants in concrete and other porous building materials, and modeling pollutant transport in subsurface moisture zones.

  16. Chemical composition of softwater Florida lakes and their sensitivity to acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, C.D.; Brezonik, P.L.

    1984-02-01

    Based on alkalinity data for 596 lakes, 31 percent of Florida's 7300 lakes have < 100 ..mu..eq/L alkalinity and are sensitive to acid deposition. More than two-thirds of the lakes in 12 northern Florida counties fit this criterion. Increasing aluminum and decreasing nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations were observed with decreasing pH in a survey of 20 softwater lakes. Maximum measured aluminum values (100-150 ..mu..g/L) are below levels associated with fish toxicity. Factor analysis showed that lake chemistry was related to three principal factors, representing three major processes: watershed weathering, acidification, and nutrient inputs. An acidification index defined as the difference between excess SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and excess (Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/) accounted for 74 percent of the variance in lake pH. Comparison of historical (late 1950s) and present data for pH, alkalinity, and excess SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ indicated loss of alkalinity (> 25 ..mu..eq/L) and increases in excess SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (16-34 ..mu..eq/L) in several softwater lakes.

  17. Heterogeneous degradation of precipitated hexamine from wastewater by catalytic function of silicotungstic acid in the presence of H2O2 and H2O2/Fe2+.

    PubMed

    Taghdiri, Mehdi; Saadatjou, Naghi; Zamani, Navid; Farrokhi, Reyhaneh

    2013-02-15

    The industrial wastewater produced by hexamine plants is considered as a major environmental polluting factor due to resistance to biodegradation. So the treatment of such wastewater is required. In this work, the removal of hexamine from wastewater and its degradation have been studied. Hexamine was precipitated through formation of an insoluble and stable compound with silicotungstic acid. The oxidative heterogeneous degradation of precipitated hexamine was carried out with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) aqueous solution and H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) under the catalysis of silicotungstic acid. The operating conditions including amount of precipitate, hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion dosage, temperature, time and pH were optimized by evaluating the removal of total organic carbon from system. A total organic carbon conversion higher than 70% was achieved in the presence of H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+). The experimental results showed that hexamine can be effectively degraded with H(2)O(2) and H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) under the catalysis of silicotungstic acid. It was interesting that the solution of dissolved precipitate with H(2)O(2) can re-react with hexamine after the removal of excess hydrogen peroxide. This observation indicates the catalysis role of silicotungstic acid in the degradation of hexamine. A kinetic analysis based on total organic carbon reduction was carried out. The two steps mechanism was proposed for the degradation of hexamine.

  18. A perspective of stepwise utilisation of Bayer red mud: Step two--Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfang; Chai, Wencui; Han, Guihong; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Jiongtian

    2016-04-15

    The extraction and recovery of Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation, as one of the critical steps, was proposed for the stepwise utilization of red mud. The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined by factorial design. The leaching thermodynamics, kinetics of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+), and the mechanism of selectively Fe(3+) removal using [Hbet][Tf2N] as precipitating reagent were discussed. The extracting of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+) in concentrated H2SO4 is controlled by diffusion reactions, depending mainly upon leaching time and temperature. The maximum extracting efficiency of Ti(4+) is approximately 92.3%, whereas Al(3+) and Fe(3+) leaching are respectively 75.8% and 84.2%. [Hbet][Tf2N], as a precipitating reagent, operates through a coordination mechanism in flotation. The pH value is the key factor influencing the flotation recovery of Ti(4+), whereas the dosage of precipitating reagent is that for Al(3+) recovery. The maximum flotation recovery of Ti(4+) is 92.7%, whereas the maximum Al(3+) recovery is 93.5%. The total recovery rate for extracting and recovering titanium is 85.5%. The liquor with Ti(4+) of 15.5g/L, Al(3+) of 30.4g/L and Fe(3+) of 0.48g/L was obtained for the following hydrolysis step in the integrated process for red mud utilisation.

  19. Molecularly imprinted microspheres and nanoparticles prepared using precipitation polymerisation method for selective extraction of gallic acid from Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Pardeshi, Sushma; Dhodapkar, Rita; Kumar, Anupama

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the preparation of gallic acid (GA) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the precipitation polymerisation and highlights the effect of porogen on particle size and specific molecular recognition properties. MIP, M-100 prepared in the porogen acetonitrile and MIP, M-75 prepared in a mixture of acetonitrile-toluene (75:25 v/v), resulted in the formation of microspheres with approximately 4μm particle size and surface area of 96.73m(2)g(-1) and nanoparticles (0.8-1000nm) and a surface area of 345.9m(2)g(-1), respectively. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm study revealed that M-75 has comparatively higher number of binding sites which are homogenous and has higher affinity for GA. The MIPs selectively recognised GA in presence of its structural analogues. Pure GA with percent recovery of 75 (±1.6) and 83.4 (±2.2) was obtained from the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis by M-100 and M-75, respectively and hot water at 60°C served as the eluting solvent.

  20. Zirconium(IV) tungstate nanoparticles prepared through chemical co-precipitation method and its function as solid acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Manoj; Bhaskaran, Beena

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of zirconium(IV) tungstate nanoparticles, a new and efficient catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and esterification of acetic acid with various alcohols. The nanoparticle catalyst was prepared using the room temperature chemical co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized with thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. The crystallite size was found to be ~20 nm as revealed by XRD, HRTEM and AFM. The Na+ exchange capacity was found to be 2.76 meq g-1 and the surface area of the compound measured using BET method was found to be 250-265 m2 g-1. The high value of ion exchange capacity indicates the presence of surface hydroxyl groups. The prepared nanoparticles have proven to be excellent catalysts for both oxidation and ester synthesis under mild reaction conditions. The mechanism of the catalytic reaction was studied as well.

  1. The effects of acid precipitation runoff episodes on reservoir and tapwater quality in an Appalachian Mountain water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1990-01-01

    The aluminum concentration and Ryznar Index increased and the pH decreased in a small Appalachian water supply reservoir following acid precipitation runoff episodes. Concomitant increases in tapwater aluminum and decreases in tapwater pH were also observed at two homes in the water distribution system. Lead concentrations in the tapwater of one home frequently exceeded recommended levels, although spatial and temporal variation in tapwater copper and lead concentrations was considerable. Since source water and reservoir water copper and lead concentrations were much lower, the increased copper and lead concentrations in tapwater were attributed to corrosion of household plumbing. Tapwater copper concentration correlated well with tapwater pH and tapwater temperature. Asbestos fibers were not detected in tapwater. The asbestos-cement pipe in the water distribution system was protected by a spontaneous metallic coating that inhibited fiber release from the pipe. Several simultaneous reactions were hypothesized to be taking place in the distribution system that involved corrosion of metallic components and coating of asbestos-cement pipe components in part with corrosion products and in part by cations of watershed origin. Greater water quality changes might be expected in areas of higher atmospheric deposition. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:2088742

  2. Response of surface water chemistry to reduced levels of acid precipitation: Comparison of trends in two regions of New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; McHale, M.R.; Driscoll, C.T.; Roy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In light of recent reductions in sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions mandated by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, temporal trends and trend coherence in precipitation (1984-2001 and 1992-2001) and surface water chemistry (1992-2001) were determined in two of the most acid-sensitive regions of North America, i.e. the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Precipitation chemistry data from six sites located near these regions showed decreasing sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and base cation (CB) concentrations and increasing pH during 1984-2001, but few significant trends during 1992-2001. Data from five Catskill streams and 12 Adirondack lakes showed decreasing trends in SO42- concentrations at all sites, and decreasing trends in NO3-, CB, and H+ concentrations and increasing trends in dissolved organic carbon at most sites. In contrast, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC increased significantly at only about half the Adirondack lakes and in one of the Catskill streams. Flow correction prior to trend analysis did not change any trend directions and had little effect on SO42- trends, but it caused several significant non-flow-corrected trends in NO3- and ANC to become non-significant, suggesting that trend results for flow-sensitive constituents are affected by flow-related climate variation. SO42- concentrations showed high temporal coherence in precipitation, surface waters, and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, reflecting a strong link between S emissions, precipitation SO42- concentrations, and the processes that affect S cycling within these regions. NO3- and H+ concentrations and ANC generally showed weak coherence, especially in surface waters and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, indicating that variation in local-scale processes driven by factors such as climate are affecting trends in acid-base chemistry in these two regions. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Selective Precipitation of Thorium lodate from a Tartaric Acid-Hydrogen Peroxide Medium Application to Rapid Spectrophotometric Determination of Thorium in Silicate Rocks and in Ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.

    1957-01-01

    This paper presents a selective iodate separation of thorium from nitric acid medium containing d-tartaric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is prevented by the use of 8quinolinol. A few micrograms of thorium are separated sufficiently clean from 30 mg. of such oxides as cerium, zirconium, titanium, niobium, tantalum, scandium, or iron with one iodate precipitation to allow an accurate determination of thorium with the thoronmesotartaric acid spectrophotometric method. The method is successful for the determination of 0.001% or more of thorium dioxide in silicate rocks and for 0.01% or more in black sand, monazite, thorite, thorianite, eschynite, euxenite, and zircon.

  4. PRECIPITATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-07-15

    An lmprovement in the separation of protactinium from aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. 1t covers the use of lead dioxide and tin dioxide as carrier precipitates for the protactinium. In carrying out the process, divalent lead or divalent tin is addcd to the solution and oxidized, causing formation of a carrier precipitate of lead dioxide or stannic oxide, respectively.

  5. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah Jane O; Hussain, Fatima A; Hemond, Harold F; Sacco, Sarah A; Shine, James P; Runkel, Robert L; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~3, indium concentrations are 6-29μg/L (10,000× those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to >8, and >99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  6. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Sarah Jane O.; Hussain, Fatima A.; Hemond, Harold F.; Sacco, Sarah A.; Shine, James P.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~ 3, indium concentrations are 6–29 μg/L (10,000 × those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45 μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to > 8, and > 99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45 μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  7. Preparation and adsorption properties of molecularly imprinted polymer via RAFT precipitation polymerization for selective removal of aristolochic acid I.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonghua; Xiao, Rong; Tang, Jian; Zhu, Qiankun; Li, Xiaoming; Xiong, Yan; Wu, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were prepared via aqueous RAFT precipitation polymerization, with aristolochic acid I (AAI) as the template molecule, AA as the functional monomer, EGDMA as the cross-linker, AIBN as the chain initiator, CTP as the chain transfer agent and 80% (g/g) DMF-aqueous solution as the porogen. The differential UV-vis spectra revealed that a cooperative hydrogen-bonding complex between AAI and AA might be formed at the molar ratio of 1:3 in prepolymerized system. The synthesized MIPs were characterized by FTIR spectra, solid UV-visible absorption spectra, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscope, which proved that the MIPs and NIPs have the similar chemical structures and the adding of AAI could affect the size and morphology of the microspheres. UV-visible absorption spectra and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to investigate the adsorption and recognition properties of the MIPs. The Scatchard isotherm model described that the binding sites independently acted. The Langmuir isotherm model suggested an excellent imprinting effect owing to the presence of a large number of specific binding sites on the MIP. The Freundlich model indicated that the AAI could be readily absorbed by MIP. Selective absorption of the template molecule was demonstrated in presence of its analogous compounds, benzoic acid and nitrobenzene. The recycling experiments implied that the MIP could be reused to further selective recognition and separation to AAI for six times at least. MIP was developed for removal of AAI from the Aristolochia manshuriensis extraction. The results indicated that 25mg of MIP could remove the AAI below the HPLC detection limits (6.47ngmL(-1)) from 5.0mL of the extraction (CAAI=0.0018mgmL(-1)) with the recovery of AAI to 91.50% (n=3, SD=4.24%). Therefore, it is clearly revealed that the MIP can be a useful tool to remove toxic compounds from natural products.

  8. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  9. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from defatted soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelsen, S.M.; Stuart, M.A.; Weaver, C.M.; Forbes, R.M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    The bioavailability of 65Zn from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate was evaluated in rats. Weanling rats were fed marginally zinc-deficient diets, providing 8 ppm zinc from one of these three soy products, for 7 days. The rats then received a radioactively labeled test meal, identical in composition to the previous diet except that the soy product was either intrinsically or extrinsically labeled with 65Zn. After the test meal the rats were again fed diets the same as those consumed prior to the test meal. Whole-body retention of 65Zn at 24 hours and 12 days as well as 65Zn retained in tibias of rats given meals containing neutralized concentrate-based meals was significantly lower than for rats given meals containing the soy flour or acid-precipitated concentrate. In addition, retention of 65Zn from the extrinsically labeled acid-precipitated concentrate-based meal was significantly higher than from the same product intrinsically labeled. These findings confirm the results of previous feeding studies from which it was suggested that neutralization of soy protein concentrates reduces zinc bioavailability to the rat. In addition, the results are taken to suggest that experimental conditions may influence the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for zinc.

  10. Effects of acidic precipitation on the water quality of streams in the Laurel Hill area, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 1983-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.; Witt, E. C.

    1990-01-01

    Five headwater streams in the Laurel Hill area in southwestern Pennsylvania were investigated from September 1983 through February 1986 to determine possible effects of acidic precipitation on water quality. Precipitation in the Laurel Hill area is among the most acidic in the Nation, with a mean volume-weighted pH of 4.06. Sulfate is the dominant acid-forming anion, averaging 3.6 milligrams per liter or about 50 kilograms per hectare in wet deposition alone. Nitrate averages about 2 milligrams per liter or 7 kilograms per hectare in the study area. Stream chemistry in the five streams is quite variable and apparently is influenced to a large degree by the bedrock geology and by small amounts of alkaline material in watershed soils. Three of the five streams with no or little acid-neutralizing capacity presently are devoid of fish because of low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations. Aluminum concentrations increase in the other two streams during rainfall and snowmelt despite comparatively higher base flow and acid-neutralizing capacities. Comparison of the chemistry of streamflow during 14 storm events at South Fork Bens Creek and North Fork Bens Creek reveals similar chemical responses when discharge suddenly increases. Concentrations of dissolved metals and sulfate increased during stormflow and snowmelt runoff, whereas concentrations of base cations, silica, and chloride decreased. Nitrate concentrations were not affected by rainfall runoff by tended to increase with snowmelt runoff.

  11. Synthesis of aqueous suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles with the co-precipitation of iron ions in the presence of aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pušnik, Klementina; Goršak, Tanja; Drofenik, Miha; Makovec, Darko

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing demand for the production of large quantities of aqueous suspensions of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Amino acids are one possible type of inexpensive, nontoxic, and biocompatible molecules that can be used as the surfactants for the preparation of stable suspensions. This preparation can be conducted in a simple, one-step process based on the co-precipitation of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions in the presence of the amino acid. However, the presence of this amino acid changes the mechanism of the magnetic nanoparticles' formation. In this investigation we analyzed the influence of aspartic amino acid (Asp) on the formation of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation. The process of the nanoparticles' formation was followed using a combination of TEM, x-ray diffractometry, magnetic measurements, in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis, and compared with the formation of nanoparticles without the Asp. The Asp forms a coordination complex with the Fe3+ ions, which impedes the formation of the intermediate iron oxyhydroxide phase and suppresses the growth of the final magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles. Slower reaction kinetics can lead to the formation of nonmagnetic secondary phases. The aspartic-acid-absorbed nanoparticles can be dispersed to form relatively concentrated aqueous suspensions displaying a good colloidal stability at an increased pH.

  12. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  13. Modeling Precipitation and Sorption of Al, U and Co-contaminants during Titration of Acidic Sediments in Recirculation Flow-Through Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Guoping; Luo, Wensui; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Gu, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    We conducted batch and recirculating column titration tests with contaminated acidic sediments with controlled CO2 in the headspace, and extended the geochemical model by Gu et al. (2003, GCA) to better understand and quantify the reactions governing trace metal fate in the subsurface. The sediment titration curve showed slow pH increase due to strong buffering by Al precipitation and CO2 uptake. Assuming precipitation of basaluminite at low saturation index (SI=-4), and decreasing cation exchange selectivity coefficient (kNa\\Al=0.3), the predictions are close to the observed pH and Al; and the model explains 1) the observed Ca, Mg, and Mn concentration decrease by cation exchange with sorbed Al, and 2) the decrease of U by surface complexation with Fe hydroxides at low pH, and precipitation as liebigite (Ca2UO2(CO3)3:10H2O) at pH>5.5. Without further adjustment geochemical parameters, the model describes reasonably well previous sediment and column titration tests without CO2 in the headspace, as well as the new large column test. The apparent inhibition of U and Ni decrease in the large column can be explained by formation of aqueous carbonate complexes and/or competition with carbonate for surface sites. These results indicated that ignoring labile solid phase Al would underestimate base requirement in titration of acidic aquifers.

  14. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  15. Preparation of porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) superabsorbent by solvent precipitation and its application as a hemostatic wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Fengju; Meng, Weiwei; Yang, Xinlin; Li, Peng; Jiang, Jianxin; Tan, Huimin; Zheng, Yongfa

    2016-06-01

    The volume phase transition of a hydrogel initiated by shrinking may result in complex patterns on its surface. Based on this unique property of hydrogel, we have developed a novel solvent precipitation method to prepare a kind of novel superabsorbent polymers with excellent hemostatic properties. A porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) (CMCTS-g-PAA) superabsorbent polymer was prepared by precipitating CMCTS-g-PAA hydrogel with ethanol. Its potential application in hemostatic wound dressing was investigated. The results indicate that the modified superabsorbent polymer is non-cytotoxic. It showed a high swelling capacity and better hemostatic performance in the treatments of hemorrhage model of ear artery, arteria cruralis and spleen of the New Zealand white rabbit than the unmodified polymer and other commonly used clinic wound dressings. The hemostatic mechanism of the porous CMCTS-g-PAA polymer was also discussed.

  16. Application of dissolvable layered double hydroxides as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction and extraction by co-precipitation for the determination of aromatic acid anions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-08-06

    Three types of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides were synthesized and employed as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents to extract several aromatic acids (protocatechuic acid, mandelic acid, phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid) from aqueous samples. An interesting feature of these sorbents is that they dissolve when the pH of the solution is lower than 4. Thus, the analyte elution step, as needed in conventional sorbent-based extraction, was obviated by dissolving the sorbent in acid after extraction and separation from the sample solution. The extract was then directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system for analysis. In the key adsorption process, both dispersive SPE and co-precipitation extraction with the sorbents were conducted and experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The results showed that both extraction methods provided low limits of detection (0.03-1.47 μg/L) and good linearity (r(2) > 0.9903). The optimized extraction conditions were applied to human urine and sports drink samples. This new and interesting extraction approach was demonstrated to be a fast and efficient procedure for the extraction of organic anions from aqueous samples.

  17. Acidification of soil-water in low base-saturated sand soils of the superior uplands under acid and normal precipitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, A R

    1989-04-01

    Lakes and streams are acidified by direct precipitation and water channeled through nearby soils, but water in low base-saturation soils can produce highly acidic percolate after prolonged contact and subsequent degassing in surface waters. Theories advanced by Reuss (1983), Reuss and Johnson (1985), and Seip and Rustad (1984) suggest that soils with less than 15% base saturation are susceptible to soil-water pH depression of up to 0.4 unit, which is sufficient to cause negative alkalinity in soil solutions. High concentrations of mobile anions (notably sulfate) are responsible for the negative alkalinity and these solutions on CO2 degassing in surface waters can retain acidities equivalent to a pH value of 5.0 or less. This mechanism purports to explain why some lakes acidify when they are surrounded by acid soils and cation leaching is not required.Ambient precipitation set to pH 5.4 and pH 4.2 was applied to columns of low base-saturated, sand, soils, starting in 1985. The columns (15 cm diameter and 150 cm long) were collected from soils with base saturations falling into one of three groups (0-10, 10-20, and 20-40%) from national forests in the Superior Uplands area (includes Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Rainbow Lakes, Sylvania, Moquah Barrens, and other Wilderness and Natural areas). The soils were Haplorthods and Udipsamments mainly from outwash plains.The soil columns were instrumented and reburied around a subterranean structure used to collect leachate water and to maintain natural temperature, air, and light conditions. Three humus treatments were applied to soil column (none, northern hardwood, and jack pine) to measure the effect of natural acidification compared to acidification by acid precipitation. The cores were treated with precipitation buffered to pH 5.4 to simulate natural rain and pH 4.2 to simulate acid rain.Columns were treated in 1985 and 1986 with approximately 200 cm of buffered precipitation each year over the frost-free season. Data is

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of uniformly sized nalidixic acid-imprinted nanospheres based on precipitation polymerization method for analytical and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Abouzarzadeh, Atefeh; Forouzani, Mehdi; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Bahramifar, Nader

    2012-07-01

    For the first time in this work, uniform molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles were prepared using nalidixic acid as a template. The MIP nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by precipitation polymerization applying methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as a cross-linking monomer at different mole ratios. The morphology, binding, recognition, selectivity, and in vitro release behaviors of obtained particles were studied. The produced polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetric. Furthermore, their morphology was analyzed accurately by scanning electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The nanospheres and microspheres with mean diameter values of 94 nm, 256 nm, and 1.2 µm were obtained using nalidixic acid-MAA-TRIM various mole ratios. Among the MIPs, the product with nalidixic acid-MAA-TRIM mole ratio of 1:12:12 established nanospheres with the lowest polydispersity index (0.003), an average pore diameter (12 nm), and the highest specific surface area (280 m(2) g(-1)) and selectivity factor (10.4). Results from binding experiments demonstrated that the imprinted nanospheres with a 94-nm mean diameter and a binding capacity of 28 mg of nalidixic acid per gram of polymer had higher specific affinity to nalidixic acid in contrast with the other imprinted nanospheres, microspheres, and nonimprinted particles. However, the binding performance of imprinted nanospheres in human serum was estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (binding approximately 98% of nalidixic acid). In addition, release experiments proved to be successful in the controlled release of nalidixic acid during a long period. The 20% of loaded nalidixic acid was released from the imprinted nanospheres within the first 20 h, whereas the remaining 80% was released in the after 120 h. The nalidixic

  19. Direct analysis for urinary protein with biuret reagent, with use of urine ultrafiltrate blanking: comparison with a manual biuret method involving trichloroacetic acid precipitation.

    PubMed

    Eckfeldt, J H; Kershaw, M J; Dahl, I I

    1984-03-01

    We describe a method for measuring urinary protein with a centrifugal analyzer. Biuret reagent is used, and blanking with an ultrafiltrate of urine eliminates interferences from the nonprotein, biuret-positive chromogens in urine. We compare results by this new method with those by a manual method in which trichloroacetic acid precipitation and biuret reagent are used. The new method shows good precision and excellent correlation (r = 0.997) with the manual method. The ease and convenience of this assay should make this a useful method for the routine clinical laboratory.

  20. Low-molecular-weight organic acids in the Tibetan Plateau: Results from one-year of precipitation samples at the SET station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Kang, Shichang; Sun, Jimin; Wan, Xin; Wang, Yongjie; Gao, Shaopeng; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2014-04-01

    Background atmospheric organic acids: formic (F), acetic (A), oxalic (O), and methanesulfonic (MSA, abbreviated to M) acids in the southern Tibetan Plateau (TP), were determined in one-year of precipitation measurements at a remote alpine station. These organic acids were dominated by oxalic (volume-weighted mean of 0.51 μmol l-1)/formic acid (0.38 μmol l-1), followed by acetic acid (0.20 μmol l-1) and MSA (0.10 μmol l-1). Their levels were comparable with those from other remote sites, while they were lower than those found in populated areas. The South Asian monsoon is responsible for the seasonal variation of organic acid concentration: a relative abundance of MSA and lower concentrations of other organic acids (by the dilution effect) in the monsoon season, while opposite in the non-monsoon season. Diverse sources were identified by principal component analysis combined with the corresponding tracers. These were anthropogenic disturbances (which explain 41% of the variance), marine emission (24%), and biogenic emission (16%). Moreover, the variances of F/A, M/(F + A), and O/(F + A) in monsoonal versus non-monsoonal samples, were involved with the changes of sources. Furthermore, these chemical indexes suggest that active photochemistry over the TP was significant for the production of organic acids and consequently enhanced the ratios of M/(F + A) and O/(F + A) in monsoonal rainfalls. The elevated organic compounds within the ascending tropical moisture imply potential significances for the secondary formation of organic acids in the high-altitude and the changes of the Asian monsoon.

  1. The effect of using citric or acetic acid on survival of Listeria monocytogenes during fish protein recovery by isoelectric solubilization and precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Otto, R A; Beamer, S; Jaczynski, J; Matak, K E

    2011-10-01

    Isoelectric solubilization and precipitation (ISP) is a protein recovery process effective at reducing Listeria innocua, a nonpathogenic bacterium typically used as a surrogate for L. monocytogenes in recovered trout protein. The response of L. monocytogenes to ISP processing was determined and compared to the response of L. innocua. Headed and gutted rainbow trout were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (10.16 log CFU/g), homogenized, and pH-adjusted with granular citric acid (pH 2.0 and 2.5) or glacial acetic acid (pH 3.0 and 3.5). Proteins were solubilized and centrifugation was used to remove insoluble components (skin, insoluble protein, so on). The supernatant was returned to the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.5) with NaOH and centrifuged to remove precipitated protein. Microbial load was enumerated on both growth and selective media; recovery was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Surviving cells from each component (protein, insoluble, and water) were compared to initial inoculum numbers. Significant reductions were detected at all pH (P < 0.05). The greatest reductions were at pH 3.0 with acetic acid, with a mean log reduction of 3.03 in the combined components, and a 3.53 log reduction in the protein portion. Data were compared to results from a previous study using L. innocua. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in recovery were found between the 2 species at pH 2.0 and 3.0 with greater recovery of L. monocytogenes, regardless of processing pH or acid type. These results demonstrate the variability in resistance between species and indicate that L. innocua is not an appropriate surrogate for L. monocytogenes for ISP processing with organic acids.

  2. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  3. Retrospective cohort study of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in patients with mild-to-moderate alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Steven Douglas; Gelblum, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caprylic triglyceride (CT) in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in routine clinical practice via review of medical records and caregiver questionnaires. Methods Participants were outpatients aged ≥50 years with a diagnosis of probable mild-to-moderate AD who had received CT for ≥6 months. The primary outcome was change from baseline in the patient’s condition as rated by the treating physician using a physician’s overall assessment. Results A total of 55 patients were included. The physician’s overall assessment indicated that ~80% of patients who had CT added to ongoing pharmacotherapy were stable or improved. Mini-Mental State Examination scores also remained stable over 15 months of therapy (20.6 ± 3.0 at baseline and 20.1 ± 5.6 at follow-up, P = 0.5233, n = 27). Caregiver assessments indicated that most patients were stable or improved with respect to memory and ability to carry out activities of daily living. The most frequent adverse events with CT involved the gastrointestinal system. Conclusion Results from this chart review indicate that addition of CT to pharmacotherapy was associated with stable disease or improvement over a follow-up period of 18.8 months. PMID:24187497

  4. Retrospective case studies of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Steven Douglas; Gelblum, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions, the adult human brain is fueled primarily by glucose. A prominent feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is region-specific decreases in cerebral glucose metabolism. Ketone bodies are a group of compounds produced from fat stores during periods of low glucose availability that can provide an alternative to glucose for brain metabolism. Consumption of sufficient quantities of caprylic triglyceride (CT) increases plasma concentrations of ketone bodies and may be beneficial in conditions of compromised glucose metabolism, such as AD. The present study describes the use of CT in mild-to-moderate AD in routine clinical practice. Case records from eight patients with extensive monitoring of cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and who had received CT for ≥6 months were reviewed. All were outpatients aged ≥50 years, cared for in standard practice, had a diagnosis of probable AD of mild-to-moderate severity (MMSE 14–24), and had received CT for at least 6 months in addition to other approved pharmacotherapy for AD. Response to CT administration as measured by MMSE scores varied by patient. However, the rate of decline in MMSE scores appeared slower than previously published reports for patients treated with pharmacotherapy alone. Profiling of individual patients may provide insight regarding those most likely to benefit from addition of CT to currently approved AD pharmacotherapy. PMID:24187498

  5. ADVANCES IN BIOTREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND BIORECOVERY OF METALS: 1. METAL PRECIPITATION FOR RECOVERY AND RECYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is a severe pollution problem attributed to past mining activities. AMD is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metal sulfides to sulfates by Thiobacillus bacteria in both active and abandoned mining operations. The wastewater...

  6. Determination of paclitaxel in hyaluronic acid polymeric micelles in rat blood by protein precipitation-micelle breaking method: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Jin; Lian, He; Li, Xin; Cao, Wen; Bai, Liming; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2013-09-15

    An efficient dissociation of paclitaxel (PTX) from the home-made hyaluronic acid-octadecyl (HA-C18) polymeric micelles formulation in rat blood could not be achieved using previously published PTX analytical methods. So, we intended to develop the micelle-breaking method to determine paclitaxel encapsulated in the HA-C18 polymeric micelles in blood. The pretreatment method of blood samples adopted a simple one-step protein precipitation-micelle breaking process with methanol as micelle-breaking and protein precipitant solvents for complete extraction of PTX from HA-C18 micelles in blood. The micelle breaking efficiency of methanol was as high as 97.7%. Separation was carried out by gradient elution on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile. A total single run time was as short as 3.0min. Detection was performed by triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization as source ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode at m/z 854.3→286.2 for PTX and m/z 808.5→527.3 for the internal standard, docetaxel. The method demonstrated good linearity at the concentrations ranging from 20 to 10,000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 9.9%. The mean extraction recoveries of PTX and IS were 94.7% and 87.5%, respectively. In summary, the methanol protein precipitation-micelle breaking method could extract PTX completely from the polymeric micelles. Finally, the method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the home-made PTX-loaded HA-C18 polymeric micelles and Taxol solution after intravenous administration in rats.

  7. Combinational Targeting of Prostate Carcinoma Cells and Tumors Associated Pericytes with Antibody Based Immunotherapy and Metronomic Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    been purified from ascitis by sequential precipitation with caprilyc acid and with ammonium sulphate . The purity of the antibody preparation has been...monoclonal antibody have been purified by sequential precipitation with ammonium sulphate and caprylic acid (Fig. 2). To test the efficacy of...conditions of monoclonal antibodies 225.28 and F3C25 purified from ascitis by sequential precipitation with ammonium sulphate and caprylic acid

  8. Production and functional evaluation of a protein concentrate from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) by acid dissolution and isoelectric precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Ruiz, Juan A; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Elena Lugo-Sánchez, M; Gisela Carvallo-Ruiz, M; García-Sánchez, Guillermina

    2008-09-15

    A protein concentrate from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) was produced under acidic conditions and its functional-technological capability evaluated in terms of its gel-forming ability, water holding capacity and colour attributes. Technological functionality of the concentrate was compared with that of squid muscle and a neutral concentrate. Protein-protein aggregates insoluble at high ionic strength (I=0.5M), were detected in the acidic concentrate as result of processing with no preclusion of its gel-forming ability during the sol-to-gel thermal transition. Even though washing under acidic condition promoted autolysis of the myosin heavy chain, the acidic concentrate displayed an outstanding ability to gel giving samples with a gel strength of 455 and 1160gcm at 75% and 90% compression respectively, and an AA folding test grade indicative of high gel strength, elasticity, and cohesiveness. The process proved to be a good alternative for obtaining a functional protein concentrate from giant squid muscle.

  9. Effects of acid precipitation on forest soils and watershed biogeochemistry in New England. A technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cronan, C.S.

    1984-05-01

    The research described was initiated to address the need for improved understanding of the mechanistic linkages between forest growth and acidic depositing. A long-term whole-system investigation of forest responses to acidic deposition has been initiated. Nutrient depletion and availability in forest soils, plant nutrient status, trace metal cycling and toxicity, plant disease resistance, and overall plant productivity is emphasized. 48 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Acid precipitation: Effects on fresh water ecosystems. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of acidification on fresh water ecosystems. Algae and diatom distribution, survival and reproduction rates of specific fish species under acid lake conditions, and tolerance to stress caused by acidic conditions in fresh water ecosystems are studied. Effects of water pH on trace metal toxicity to fresh water organisms are briefly considered. Control and reduction of acidification are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. LC-MS/MS analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A in serum after protein precipitation using an in-house synthesized deuterated internal standard.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2012-06-01

    An assay based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the fast, precise and sensitive quantitation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA) in serum. THCA is the biogenetic precursor of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis and has aroused interest in the pharmacological and forensic field especially as a potential marker for recent cannabis use. After addition of deuterated THCA, synthesized from D(3)-THC as starting material, and protein precipitation, the analytes were separated using gradient elution on a Luna C18 column (150 × 2.0 mm × 5 µm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid. Data acquisition was performed on a triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization. After optimization, the following sample preparation procedure was used: 200 μL serum was spiked with internal standard solution and methanol and then precipitated 'in fractions' with 500 μL ice-cold acetonitrile. After storage and centrifugation, the supernatant was evaporated and the residue redissolved in mobile phase. The assay was fully validated according to international guidelines including, for the first time, the assessment of matrix effects and stability experiments. Limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mL, and limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL. The method was found to be selective and proved to be linear over a range of 1.0 to 100 ng/mL using a 1/x weighted calibration model with regression coefficients >0.9996. Accuracy and precision data were within the required limits (RSD ≤ 8.6%, bias: 2.4 to 11.4%), extractive yield was greater than 84%. The analytes were stable in serum samples after three freeze/thaw cycles and storage at -20 °C for one month.

  12. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  13. Speciation and precipitation of heavy metals in high-metal and high-acid mine waters from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Durães, Nuno; Bobos, Iuliu; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira

    2017-02-01

    Acid mine waters (AMW) collected during high- and low-flow water conditions from the Lousal, Aljustrel, and São Domingos mining areas (Iberian Pyrite Belt) were physicochemically analyzed. Speciation calculation using PHREEQC code confirms the predominance of Me(n+) and Me-SO4 species in AMW samples. Higher concentration of sulfate species (Me-SO4) than free ion species (Me(n+), i.e., Al, Fe, and Pb) were found, whereas opposite behavior is verified for Mg, Cu, and Zn. A high mobility of Zn than Cu and Pb was identified. The sulfate species distribution shows that Fe(3+)-SO4(2-), SO4(2-), HSO4(-), Al-SO4, MgSO4(0), and CaSO4(0) are the dominant species, in agreement with the simple and mixed metal sulfates and oxy-hydroxysulphates precipitated from AMW. The saturation indices (SI) of melanterite and epsomite show a positive correlation with Cu and Zn concentrations in AMW, which are frequently retained in simple metal sulfates. Lead is well correlated with jarosite and alunite (at least in very acid conditions) than with simple metal sulfates. The Pb for K substitution in jarosite occurs as increasing Pb concentration in solution. Lead mobility is also controlled by anglesite precipitation (a fairly insoluble sulfate), where a positive correlation was ascertained when the SI approaches equilibrium. The zeta potential of AMW decreased as pH increased due to colloidal particles aggregation, where water species change from SO4(2-) to OH(-) species during acid to alkaline conditions, respectively. The AMW samples were supersaturated in schwertmannite and goethite, confirmed by the Me(n+)-SO4, Me(n+)-Fe-O-OH, or Me(n+)-S-O-Fe-O complexes identified by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The ATR-IR spectrum of an AMW sample with pH 3.5 (sample L1) shows well-defined vibration plans attributed to SO4 tetrahedron bonded with Fe-(oxy)hydroxides and the Me(n+) sorbed by either SO4 or Fe-(oxy)hydroxides. For samples with lower pH values (pH ~ 2

  14. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  15. Acid precipitation and food quality: Inhibition of growth and survival in black ducks and mallards by dietary aluminum, calcium and phosphorus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    In areas impacted by acid precipitation, water chemistry of acidic ponds and streams often changes, resulting in increased mobilization of aluminum and decreased concentration of calcium carbonate. Aluminum binds with phosphorus and inhibits its uptake by organisms. Thus, invertebrate food organisms used by waterfowl may have inadequate Ca and P or elevated Al for normal growth and development. Acid rain and its effects may be one of the factors negatively impacting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) in eastern North America. One-day old mallards (A. platyrhynchos) and black ducks were placed on one of three Ca:P regimens: low:low (LL), normal:normal (NN), and low:high (LH) with each regimen divided further into three or four Al levels for 10 weeks. Forty-five % of the black ducks died on nine different diets whereas only 28% of the mallards died on three different diets. Mortality was significantly related to diet in both species. Growth rates for body weight, culmens, wings, and tarsi of both species on control diets exceeded those on many treatment diets but the differences were less apparent for mallards than for black ducks. Differences among treatments were due to both Ca:P and Al levels.

  16. Waste Conversion into n-Caprylate and n-Caproate: Resource Recovery from Wine Lees Using Anaerobic Reactor Microbiomes and In-line Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kucek, Leo A.; Xu, Jiajie; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T.

    2016-01-01

    To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs. all products) were only achieved previously from an organic waste material when exogenous ethanol had been added. Here, we converted a real organic waste, which inherently contains ethanol, into MCCs with n-caprylate as the target product. We used wine lees, which consisted primarily of settled yeast cells and ethanol from wine fermentation, and produced MCCs with a reactor microbiome. We operated the bioreactor at a pH of 5.2 and with continuous in-line extraction and achieved a MCC productivity of 3.9 g COD/L-d at an organic loading rate of 5.8 g COD/L-d, resulting in a promising MCC yield of 67% and specificities of 36% for each n-caprylate and n-caproate (72% for both). Compared to all other studies that used complex organic substrates, we achieved the highest n-caprylate-to-ncaproate product ratio of 1.0 (COD basis), because we used increased broth-recycle rates through the forward membrane contactor, which improved in-line extraction rates. Increased recycle rates also allowed us to achieve the highest reported MCC production flux per membrane surface area thus far (20.1 g COD/m2-d). Through microbial community analyses, we determined that an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) for Bacteroides spp. was dominant and was positively correlated with increased MCC productivities. Our data also suggested that the microbiome may have been shaped for improved MCC production by the high broth-recycle rates. Comparable abiotic

  17. Waste Conversion into n-Caprylate and n-Caproate: Resource Recovery from Wine Lees Using Anaerobic Reactor Microbiomes and In-line Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kucek, Leo A; Xu, Jiajie; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-01-01

    To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs. all products) were only achieved previously from an organic waste material when exogenous ethanol had been added. Here, we converted a real organic waste, which inherently contains ethanol, into MCCs with n-caprylate as the target product. We used wine lees, which consisted primarily of settled yeast cells and ethanol from wine fermentation, and produced MCCs with a reactor microbiome. We operated the bioreactor at a pH of 5.2 and with continuous in-line extraction and achieved a MCC productivity of 3.9 g COD/L-d at an organic loading rate of 5.8 g COD/L-d, resulting in a promising MCC yield of 67% and specificities of 36% for each n-caprylate and n-caproate (72% for both). Compared to all other studies that used complex organic substrates, we achieved the highest n-caprylate-to-ncaproate product ratio of 1.0 (COD basis), because we used increased broth-recycle rates through the forward membrane contactor, which improved in-line extraction rates. Increased recycle rates also allowed us to achieve the highest reported MCC production flux per membrane surface area thus far (20.1 g COD/m(2)-d). Through microbial community analyses, we determined that an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) for Bacteroides spp. was dominant and was positively correlated with increased MCC productivities. Our data also suggested that the microbiome may have been shaped for improved MCC production by the high broth-recycle rates. Comparable abiotic

  18. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING AN IODATE PRECIPITATE

    DOEpatents

    Fries, B.A.

    1960-02-23

    A method is given for separating plutonium from lanthanum in a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation process for the recovery of plutonium values from an aqueous solution. The carrier precipitation process includes the steps of forming a lanthanum fluoride precipi- . tate, thereby carrying plutonium out of solution, metathesizing the fluoride precipitate to a hydroxide precipitate, and then dissolving the hydroxide precipitate in nitric acid. In accordance with the invention, the nitric acid solution, which contains plutonium and lanthanum, is made 0.05 to 0.15 molar in potassium iodate. thereby precipitating plutonium as plutonous iodate and the plutonous iodate is separated from the lanthanum- containing supernatant solution.

  19. Acid-Sulfate Alteration at Gusev Crater and Across Mars: High-SiO2 Residues and Ferric Sulfate Precipitates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Catalano, J. G.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cohen, B. A.; Fleischer, I.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Squyres, S. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit ended its mission in Gusev crater on sol 2210 after it had become stuck in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate rich soil with dust covered solar panels unfavorably pointed toward the sun. Final analysis of remaining data from Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer (Fe redox and mineralogy) for sols 1529 through 2071 is now complete. We focus here on chemical (APXS) and MB data for targets having high-SiO2 or high-SO3 and process link the targets through mixing and geochemical modelling to an acid-sulfate system centered at Home Plate, which is considered to be a hydrovolcanic complex.

  20. Medium-chain fatty acids reduce serum cholesterol by regulating the metabolism of bile acid in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xinsheng; Xu, Qing; Yang, Xueyan; Xue, Changyong

    2017-01-25

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the important risk factors of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on serum cholesterol levels and their mechanism of action. Hyperlipemia, as a model of abnormal lipid hypermetabolism, was established by using a high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Forty eight mice with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 4 groups, 12 mice per group, including the control group, the 2% caprylic acid (C8:0)-treated group, 2% capric acid (C10:0)-treated group, and 2% oleic acid (C18:1)-treated group. All mice were fed with a high fat diet. After 16 weeks, the mice were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. The mouse portal vein blood, the liver and the start site of the ileum (1 cm) were collected. The body weight of the mice and blood lipid profiles were measured. Gene transcription and the expression level associated with bile acid metabolism in the liver and small intestine were determined by real-time PCR and the western blotting method. The concentrations of bile acid metabolites in bile and feces were analysed. After 16 weeks of treatment, the concentrations of TC and LDL-C in the caprylic acid group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05); the transcription and expression level of LXR, CYP7A1, CYP27A1 and ABCG8 in the caprylic acid and capric acid groups were significantly higher than those in the control group in the liver (P < 0.05), however the transcription and expression level of the small heterodimer partner (SHP) were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05); the transcription and expression level of LXR, ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the caprylic acid, capric acid and oleic acid groups were significantly higher than those in the control group in the small intestine (P < 0.05). The concentrations of total bile acid, mainly cholic acid and cholesterol in bile and feces were significantly higher in the caprylic and capric acid groups than

  1. Acid precipitation studies in Colorado and Wyoming: interim report of surveys of montane amphibians and water chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Stolzenburg, William; Bury, R. Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Acid deposition may be detrimental or stressful to native populations of wildlife. Because many species of amphibians breed in shallow ponds created by spring rains or melting snow, they may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of acidification. From 1986 to 1988, we surveyed 105 locations in the central Rocky Mountains where amphibians had been recorded previously, and we found that two species of amphibians had experiences major losses. We found the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) at only 4 of 33 (12%) historically known localities, and the boreal toad (Bufo boreas) was present at 10 of 59 (17%) known localities. Three other species have not suffered region-wide declines. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) were present at 45% and 69% of known localities respectively, and were observed at several localities were they had not been recorded previously. Chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) suffered a catastrophic decline in population size in one population monitored since 1961, but regionally, this species was observed in 36 of 56 (64%) known localities and in another 19 localities where there were no previous records. Complete water chemistry was recorded for 41 localities, and pH was measured at 110 sites in total. Acid neutralizing capacity, pH, specific conductivity, and cation concentrations were negatively correlated with elevation. However, in mountain ponds and lakes, pH was rarely less than 6.0 during the amphibian breeding season. We tested the tolerance of embryos of the four species of frogs to low pH. The LC50 pH was 4.8 for chorus frogs, 4.4-4.7 for leopard frogs, 4.4-4.5 for boreal toads, and 4.2-4.3 for wood frogs. Survival of wood frog embryos declined when exposed to aluminum concentrations of 100 µg/L or greater, but boreal toad embryos survived exposure to aluminum concentrations of 400 µg/L. Acid deposition does not appear to be a major factor in the decline of leopard frogs and boreal toads

  2. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. [Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M. )

    1992-03-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests.

  3. Precipitation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although weather, including its role in the water cycle, is included in most elementary science programs, any further examination of raindrops and snowflakes is rare. Together rain and snow make up most of the precipitation that replenishes Earth's life-sustaining fresh water supply. When viewed individually, raindrops and snowflakes are quite…

  4. Developmental and anatomical changes in leaves of yellow birch and red kidney bean exposed to simulated acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Paparozzi, E.T.; Tukey, H.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Leaves of Betula alleghaniensis Britt. (yellow birch) and Phaseolus vulgaris L cv. Red Kidney (bean) were examined microscopically during development and after exposure to simulated rain of pH 5.5, 4.3, 3.2, and 2.8. Yellow birch leaves attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness at 21 days. Trichomes were either long, unicellular, or multicellular with caplike head and stalk. Epicuticular wax was a bumpy and amorphous layer. The 2nd trifoliolate leaf of red kidney bean attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness when the 3rd trifoliolate leaf was expanding. Trichomes present were long, with a unicellular head and a multicellular base; long, unicellular, and terminally hooked; and small and multicellular. Epicuticular wax was present as small irregular flakes. After 2 days of pH 2.8 and 4 days of pH 3.2 simulated acid rain, round yellow and small tan lesions appeared on birch and bean leaves, respectively. Most injury occurred on or between small veins. Most trichome types were uninjured. Lesions formed as a result of collapsed epidermal and highly plasmolyzed palisade cells. The cuticle was still present over injured epidermal cells and epicuticular waxes were unchanged. There was not statistical difference in mean cuticle thickness due to pH of simulated rain. 25 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Co-precipitation of asiatic acid and poly( l-lactide) using rapid expansion of subcritical solutions into liquid solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Amporn; Limtrakul, Jumras

    2011-09-01

    Poly( l-lactide) (PLLA) nanoparticles loaded with asiatic acid (AA) were successfully produced by rapid expansion of a subcritical solution into an aqueous receiving solution containing a dispersing agent. A mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethanol (EtOH) with a weight ratio of 1:1 was used as the solvent for AA and PLLA. Two surfactants, Pluronic F127 and sodium dodecyl sulfate were employed. The former was found to be more effective for stabilizing AA-loaded PLLA nanoparticles, as a rapid expansion into a 0.1 wt% Pluronic F127 solution produced a stable nanosuspension consisting mainly of well-dispersed, individual nanoparticles. The effects of rapid expansion-processing conditions—AA to PLLA weight ratio and pre-expansion temperature (Tpre)—on the size and morphology of composite nanoparticles, and the loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of AA in PLLA nanoparticles, were systematically investigated. It was found that AA-loaded PLLA nanoparticles with a size range of 30-100 nm were consistently fabricated by rapid expansion at Tpre of 70-100 °C and AA to PLLA weight ratios of 1:2 and 1:4, and with a constant pre-expansion pressure of 330 bar. The Tpre and AA to PLLA weight ratio had no significant effects on the size of the nanoparticles. The AA to PLLA weight ratio is a controlling parameter for both the loading capacity and the entrapment efficiency of AA in PLLA nanoparticles. The loading capacity and entrapment efficiency increased from 8-11 to 16-21 wt%, and 38-57 to 50-62 wt%, respectively, when the AA to PLLA weight ratio changed from 1:4 to 1:2. However, increasing the Tpre from 70 to 100 °C decreased both the loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of AA in PLLA nanoparticles by 20-30%.

  6. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  7. Targeted toxicological screening for acidic, neutral and basic substances in postmortem and antemortem whole blood using simple protein precipitation and UPLC-HR-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Telving, Rasmus; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Andreasen, Mette Findal

    2016-09-01

    A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral and basic substances covered by the method were identified in postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples from forensic autopsy cases, clinical forensic cases and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases by a reverse target database search. The screening method covered 467 substances. Validation was performed on spiked whole blood samples and authentic postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples. For most of the basic drugs, the established cut-off limits were very low, ranging from 0.25ng/g to 50ng/g. The established cut-off limits for most neutral and acidic drugs, were in the range from 50ng/g to 500ng/g. Sample preparation was performed using simple protein precipitation of 300μL of whole blood with acetonitrile and methanol. Ten microliters of the reconstituted extract were injected and separated within a 13.5min UPLC gradient reverse-phase run. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to generate the ions in the m/z range of 50-1000. Fragment ions were generated by bbCID. Identification was based on retention time, accurate mass, fragment ion(s) and isotopic pattern. A very sensitive broad toxicological screening method using positive electrospray ionization UPLC-HR-TOF-MS was achieved in one injection. This method covered basic substances, substances traditionally analyzed in negative ESI (e.g., salicylic acid), small highly polar substances such as beta- and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB and GHB, respectively) and highly non-polar substances such as amiodarone. The new method was shown to combine high sensitivity with a very broad scope that has not previously been reported in toxicological whole blood screening when using only one injection.

  8. Thiomonas sp. CB2 is able to degrade urea and promote toxic metal precipitation in acid mine drainage waters supplemented with urea

    PubMed Central

    Farasin, Julien; Andres, Jérémy; Casiot, Corinne; Barbe, Valérie; Faerber, Jacques; Halter, David; Heintz, Dimitri; Koechler, Sandrine; Lièvremont, Didier; Lugan, Raphael; Marchal, Marie; Plewniak, Frédéric; Seby, Fabienne; Bertin, Philippe N.; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The acid mine drainage (AMD) in Carnoulès (France) is characterized by the presence of toxic metals such as arsenic. Several bacterial strains belonging to the Thiomonas genus, which were isolated from this AMD, are able to withstand these conditions. Their genomes carry several genomic islands (GEIs), which are known to be potentially advantageous in some particular ecological niches. This study focused on the role of the “urea island” present in the Thiomonas CB2 strain, which carry the genes involved in urea degradation processes. First, genomic comparisons showed that the genome of Thiomonas sp. CB2, which is able to degrade urea, contains a urea genomic island which is incomplete in the genome of other strains showing no urease activity. The urease activity of Thiomonas sp. CB2 enabled this bacterium to maintain a neutral pH in cell cultures in vitro and prevented the occurrence of cell death during the growth of the bacterium in a chemically defined medium. In AMD water supplemented with urea, the degradation of urea promotes iron, aluminum and arsenic precipitation. Our data show that ureC was expressed in situ, which suggests that the ability to degrade urea may be expressed in some Thiomonas strains in AMD, and that this urease activity may contribute to their survival in contaminated environments. PMID:26441922

  9. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  10. Convenient and rapid determination of cimetidine in human plasma using perchloric acid-mediated plasma protein precipitation and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jantratid, Ekarat; Prakongpan, Sompol; Foley, Joe P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2007-09-01

    This study demonstrates the analysis of cimetidine in human plasma with HPLC using a simplified sample preparation by protein precipitation with perchloric acid. Plasma cimetidine concentration was determined by plotting peak height ratio of cimetidine to ranitidine (internal standard, IS) against cimetidine concentrations in plasma. The cimetidine and ranitidine peaks were completely separated and no interference from plasma was observed. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was established at 0.1 microg/mL with a precision of 4.3% and a relative error of 1.9%. The average analytical recovery was >90% over the range of cimetidine concentrations (0.1-15.0 microg/mL). The linearity of calibration curve was excellent (r(2) > 0.999). The within- and between-day precision and accuracy, expressed as the coefficients of variation and relative error, were found to be less than 5%. Compared with previously reported methods, the analytical technique for cimetidine determination in human plasma presented here demonstrates comparable accuracy and precision, an acceptable analysis time, shorter and simpler sample preparation, and a reduced need for complicated equipment. The method presented here is simple and rapid, and the precision and sensitivity are appropriate for the determination of cimetidine in plasma in pharmacokinetic studies.

  11. Photocatalytic removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide on copper oxide/titanium dioxide prepared by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shu Chin; Hasan, Norhasnita; Lintang, Hendrik O.; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; Yuliati, Leny

    2016-02-01

    In this work, suppression of the charge recombination on the titanium dioxide (TiO2) was reported by the addition of copper oxide (CuO), which led to a higher activity of TiO2 for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide. A series of CuO/TiO2 with CuO loadings of 0.1-1 wt% was prepared through a co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the presence of CuO could not be detected as the low loading amount of CuO might have good dispersion on the surface of TiO2. Diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectra suggested that low loading amount of CuO did not influence the optical property of TiO2. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that TiO2 possessed a dominant emission peak of 407 nm at an excitation wavelength of 218 nm. The increasing loading amount of CuO decreased the emission intensity of TiO2, suggesting the successful reduction of charge recombination. After irradiation under UV light for 1 h, CuO(0.1 wt%)/TiO2 gave the highest percentage removal of the herbicide among the samples. The optimum loading amount of CuOmight improve the charge separation and reduce the electron-hole recombination on TiO2 without blocking the active sites, thus leading to the improved photocatalytic activity. This work showed that CuO/TiO2 is a potential photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  12. Selective recovery of dissolved Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn in acid mine drainage based on modeling to predict precipitation pH.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Min; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Ji, Sang-Woo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-02-01

    Mining activities have caused serious environmental problems including acid mine drainage (AMD), the dispersion of mine tailings and dust, and extensive mine waste. In particular, AMD contaminates soil and water downstream of mines and generally contains mainly valuable metals such as Cu, Zn, and Ni as well as Fe and Al. In this study, we investigated the selective recovery of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, and Ni from AMD. First, the speciation of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, and Ni as a function of the equilibrium solution pH was simulated by Visual MINTEQ. Based on the simulation results, the predicted pHs for the selective precipitation of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn/Ni were determined. And recovery yield of metals using simulation is over 99 %. Experiments using artificial AMD based on the simulation results confirmed the selective recovery of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn/Ni, and the recovery yields of Fe/Al/Cu/Zn and Fe/Al/Cu/Ni mixtures using Na2CO3 were 99.6/86.8/71.9/77.0 % and 99.2/85.7/73.3/86.1 %, respectively. After then, the simulation results were applied to an actual AMD for the selective recovery of metals, and the recovery yields of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn using NaOH were 97.2, 74.9, 66.9, and 89.7 %, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that selective recovery of dissolved metals from AMD is possible by adjusting the solution pH using NaOH or Na2CO3 as neutralizing agents.

  13. Factors affecting the interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and fatty acids as revealed in molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Yi, Changhong; Wambo, Thierry O

    2015-09-21

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a bovine dairy protein, is a promiscuously interacting protein that can bind multiple hydrophobic ligands. Fatty acids (FAs), common hydrophobic molecules bound to BLG, are important sources of fuel for life because they yield large quantities of ATP when metabolized. The binding affinity increases with the length of the ligands, indicating the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the hydrophobic calyx of BLG. An exception to this rule is caprylic acid (OCA) which is two-carbon shorter but has a stronger binding affinity than capric acid. Theoretical calculations in the current literature are not accurate enough to shed light on the underlying physics of this exception. The computed affinity values are greater for longer fatty acids without respect for the caprylic exception and those values are generally several orders of magnitude away from the experimental data. In this work, we used hybrid steered molecular dynamics to accurately compute the binding free energies between BLG and the five saturated FAs of 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The computed binding free energies agree well with experimental data not only in rank but also in absolute values. We gained insights into the exceptional behavior of caprylic acid in the computed values of entropy and electrostatic interactions. We found that the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of caprylic acid and the two amino groups of K60/69 in BLG is much stronger than the vdW force between the OCA's hydrophobic tail and the BLG calyx. This pulls OCA to the top of the beta barrel where it is easier to fluctuate, giving rise to greater entropy of OCA at the binding site.

  14. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAINING CARRIER PRECIPITATE BY CARBONATE METATHESIS AND SEPARATION OF SULFIDE IMPURITIES THEREFROM BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for recovering plutonium from foreign products wherein a carrier precipitate of lanthanum fluoride containing plutonium is obtained and includes the steps of dissolving the carrier precipitate in an alkali metal carbonate solution, adding a soluble sulfide, separating the sulfide precipitate, adding an alkali metal hydroxide, separating the resulting precipitate, washing, and dissolving in a strong acid.

  15. Coated fatty acids alter virulence properties of Salmonella Typhimurium and decrease intestinal colonization of pigs.

    PubMed

    Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Vanparys, A; Volf, J; Mahu, M; Van Immerseel, F; Rychlik, I; Dewulf, J; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F

    2008-12-10

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs are a major source of human foodborne salmonellosis. To reduce the number of infected pigs, acidification of feed or drinking water is a common practice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some frequently used short- (SCFA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are able to alter virulence gene expression and to decrease Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and shedding in pigs using well established and controlled in vitro and in vivo assays. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 SCFA (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) and 2 MCFA (caproic and caprylic acid) were determined using 54 porcine Salmonella Typhimurium field strains. MIC values increased at increasing pH-values and were two to eight times lower for MCFA than for SCFA. Expression of virulence gene fimA was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth supplemented with sub-MIC concentrations of caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). Expression of hilA and invasion in porcine intestinal epithelial cells was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth containing sub-MIC concentrations of butyric acid or propionic acid (10 mM) and caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). When given as feed supplement to pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, coated butyric acid decreased the levels of faecal shedding and intestinal colonization, but had no influence on the colonization of tonsils, spleen and liver. Uncoated fatty acids, however, did not influence fecal shedding, intestinal or tonsillar colonization in pigs. In conclusion, supplementing feed with certain coated fatty acids, such as butyric acid, may help to reduce the Salmonella load in pigs.

  16. Aluminum colloid formation and its effect on co-precipitation of zinc during acid rock drainage remediation with clinoptilolite in a slurry bubble column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Li, L. Y.; Grace, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Zinc and other metal ions were adsorbed in a laboratory slurry bubble column (SBC) by natural clinoptilolite sorbent particles. During the remediation process, significant white precipitates were sometimes observed. Both zinc and aluminum were detected in the colloidal mixtures. It is shown that Al leached from clinoptilolite during the agitation, contributing to the precipitate. As a result of the Al leaching and increase of pH during the remediation process, the formation of an Al colloid and zinc adsorption onto it could significantly improve ARD remediation, given the high adsorption capacity of the colloid. Sorption of cations increased with increasing colloid formation. Various conditions were tested to investigate their impact on (a) dealumination of clinoptilolite; (b) Al hydrolysis/colloid formation; and (c) adsorption onto the colloidal mixture. The test results indicate that dealumination contributes to the excess aluminum in the aqueous phase and to precipitates. The excess dealumination varies with pH and agitation time. Al hydrolysis occurs with increasing pH due to the neutralization effect of clinoptilolite. A significant proportion of zinc adsorbed onto the collectible aluminum precipitates.

  17. Fatty acids production from hydrogen and carbon dioxide by mixed culture in the membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Man; Ding, Zhao-Wei; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-10-15

    Gasification of waste to syngas (H2/CO2) is seen as a promising route to a circular economy. Biological conversion of the gaseous compounds into a liquid fuel or chemical, preferably medium chain fatty acids (caproate and caprylate) is an attractive concept. This study for the first time demonstrated in-situ production of medium chain fatty acids from H2 and CO2 in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor by mixed microbial culture. The hydrogen was for 100% utilized within the biofilms attached on the outer surface of the hollow-fiber membrane. The obtained concentrations of acetate, butyrate, caproate and caprylate were 7.4, 1.8, 0.98 and 0.42 g/L, respectively. The biomass specific production rate of caproate (31.4 mmol-C/(L day g-biomass)) was similar to literature reports for suspended cell cultures while for caprylate the rate (19.1 mmol-C/(L day g-biomass)) was more than 6 times higher. Microbial community analysis showed the biofilms were dominated by Clostridium spp., such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri. This study demonstrates a potential technology for syngas fermentation in the hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactors.

  18. PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONOUS PEROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Manion, J.P.

    1961-08-15

    A precipitation process for recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution is described. In the process for precipitating plutonium as plutonous peroxide, hydroxylamine or hydrazine is added to the plutoniumcontaining solution prior to the addition of peroxide to precipitate plutonium. The addition of hydroxylamine or hydrazine increases the amount of plutonium precipitated as plutonous peroxide. (AEC)

  19. Hydrocarbonates in precipitation of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Igor; Eremina, Iren; Aloyan, Artash; Arutunan, Vardan; Chubarova, Natalia; Yermakov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    According to monitoring of the atmospheric precipitation of Moscow a number of episodes is revealed, the content of hydrocarbonates in which repeatedly surpasses equilibrium level. Facts of their registration are linked to complex structure of precipitation which is caused by a different chemical composition of condensation nucleus. As a result on the underlying surface two groups of drops with acidity of the different nature are transferred. The acidity of the first, "metal" group of droplets, is determined by a carbonate equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 and with dissolved carbonates of alkali and alkaline earth metals. The acidity of the second, "ammonium" group droplets, is characterized by the balance between an ammonia absorbed from the air and atmospheric acids. Regulation of acidity of the deposits measured in a course of monitoring, occurs for this reason not only in the air, but also in the condensate receiver. A mixing "metal" and "ammonium" groups precipitation accompanied by only a partial transfer of hydrocarbonates in the dissolved CO2. The process is braked as a result of a practical stop of exit of CO2 into the atmosphere because of a mass transfer deceleration. In turn it leads to excess of equilibrium level of hydrocarbonates in the receiver. Estimates show that the acidity of "ammonia" component of precipitation should be much higher than the reported monitoring data. In other words, real acidity of rain drops can essentially exceed that is measured by standard procedures of monitoring of deposits, that it is necessary to take into consideration at calculations of so-called critical levels of acid loading on people and environment. In other words, the actual acidity of raindrops could greatly exceed that is measured by the standard procedures for monitoring rainfall, which should be taken into account when calculating the so-called critical levels of acid loads on people and the environment. It follows that the true level of hazard of acid rain

  20. Mechanisms by which acid precipitation produces embryonic death in aquatic vertebrates. Technical completion report, 1 May 1977-31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pough, F.H.

    1981-03-01

    Fourteen species of amphibians show a general similarity in their tolerance of acid media during embryonic development. More than 85% mortality is produced by pHs of 3.7 to 3.9 and more than 50% mortality occurs at pHs of 4.0 or less. Similar values have been reported for fishes. The sensitivity of amphibian embryos to acidity is greater in late stages of their development than it is during the initial cleavage of the embryos. The teratogenic effects of acidity appear to be the result of damage to the superficial tissues of the embryo. A similar response occurs in fish embryos. Because of the similarity of sensitivity and response to acidity of fishes and amphibians, the latter animals are suitable experimental models for investigations of the details of acid resistance. Controlled breedings of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) indicated that the offspring of some pairs of parents were more resistant to acidity than those of other pairs. Wild populations of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) breeding in some ponds in the Ithaca, New York, region have probably been exposed to increasingly acid conditions for the past three decades (10 or more generations). In the most acid ponds more than 70% of the embryos die before hatching. Despite the intensity and duration of this selection, it was not possible to demonstrate any difference in sensitivity to acidity between eggs collected from acidic and neutral breeding sites.

  1. A Simple Protein Precipitation-based Simultaneous Quantification of Lovastatin and Its Active Metabolite Lovastatin Acid in Human Plasma by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry using Polarity Switching.

    PubMed

    Wujian, Ju; Kuan-Wei, Peng; Sihyung, Yang; Huijing, Sun; Mario, Sampson; Zhuo, Wang Michael

    2015-05-01

    Lovastatin is an anti-cholesterol lactone drug indicated for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. It is converted to the β-hydroxy acid form (lovastatin acid) in vivo, which is the major pharmacologically active metabolite. Here, we describe the development and validation of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based method utilizing polarity switching for the simultaneous quantification of lovastatin and lovastatin acid in human plasma. Simple protein precipitation extraction and direct injection of the extracted samples without drying/reconstitution showed good recoveries of both analytes (~70%). The developed method exhibited satisfactory intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision. The interconversion between lovastatin and lovastatin acid during sample preparation and storage was minimal (< 1.9%). The lower limits of quantification were 0.5 and 0.2 nM (or 0.2 and 0.084 ng/mL) for lovastatin and lovastatin acid, respectively, using only 50 μL of plasma during extraction. The validated method was successfully applied to analyze plasma samples obtained from a healthy human subject who enrolled in a clinical drug interaction study involving lovastatin.

  2. Precipitation Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. R.; Prat, O.; Vasquez, L.

    2015-12-01

    Five precipitation CDRs are now or soon will be transitioned to NOAA's CDR program. These include the PERSIANN data set, which is a 30-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation based on retrievals from satellite microwave data using artificial neural networks. The AMSU-A/B/Hydrobundle is an 11-year record of precipitable water, cloud water, ice water, and other variables. CMORPH (the NOAA Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique) is a 17-year record of daily and sub-daily adjusted global precipitation measured from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. GPCP (the Global Precipitation Climatology Project) is an approximately 30-year record of monthly and pentad adjusted global precipitation and a 17-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation. The NEXRAD Reanalysis is a 10-year record of high resolution NEXRAD radar based adjusted CONUS-wide hourly and daily precipitation. This study provides an assessment of the existing and transitioned long term precipitation CDRs and includes the verification of the five precipitation CDRs using various methods including comparison with in-situ data sets and trend analysis. As all of the precipitation related CDRs are transitioned, long term analyses can be performed. Comparisons at varying scales (hourly, daily and longer) of the precipitation CDRs with in-situ data sets are provided as well as a first look at what could be an ensemble long term precipitation data record.

  3. Acid precipitation: effects on fresh-water ecosystems. January 1978-September 1988 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of acidification of fresh-water ecosystems. Algae and diatom distribution, survival, and reproduction rates of specific fish species under acid-lake conditions, and tolerance to stress caused by acidic conditions in fresh water ecosystems are studied. Effects of water ph on trace metal toxicity to fresh water organisms is briefly considered. Control and reduction of acidification is excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 290 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  4. Recovery of Plutonium by Carrier Precipitation

    DOEpatents

    Goeckermann, R. H.

    1961-04-01

    The recovery of plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid Zr-containing solution of 0.2 to 1N acidity is accomplished by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l), and precipitating the Pu with an excess of H/sub 2/0/sub 2/ at 53 to 65 deg C. (AEC)

  5. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Goeckermann, R.H.

    1961-04-01

    A process is given for recovering plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid zirconium-containing solution of an acidity between 0.2 and 1 N by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l) and precipitating the plutonium with an excess of hydrogen peroxide at from 53 to 65 deg C.

  6. Acid precipitation: Effects on fresh-water ecosystems. April 1978-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1978-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of acidification on fresh water ecosystems. Algae and diatom distribution, survival and reproduction rates of specific fish species under acid lake conditions, and tolerance to stress caused by acidic conditions in fresh water ecosystems are studied. Effects of water pH on trace metal toxicity to fresh water organisms are briefly considered. Control and reduction of acidification are excluded from this bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 331 citations, 41 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  8. Reducing endocannabinoid metabolism with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, fails to modify reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned floor preference and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Amanda L; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A

    2010-10-01

    The potential of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB597, to modify drug prime-induced reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned floor preference or naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance was evaluated. In Experiment 1, morphine-induced conditioned floor preference was established across 4 conditioning trials. Following extinction training (4 trials), rats were pretreated with URB597 or vehicle prior to a morphine prime or a saline prime. Morphine reinstated the previously extinguished floor preference, but URB597 did not modify the strength of the reinstated preference. In Experiment 2, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance was established across 2 conditioning trials. Following extinction training (14 trials), rats were pretreated with URB597 or vehicle prior to a saline prime or a morphine withdrawal prime. The morphine withdrawal prime reinstated the previously extinguished floor avoidance, but URB597 did not modify the strength of reinstated avoidance. These results suggest that under the conditions in which URB597 promotes extinction (e.g., Manwell et al. (2009)) it does not interfere with drug-induced reinstatement of either conditioned floor preference or avoidance. That is, although activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system promotes extinction of aversive learning, it may not prevent reinstatement of that aversion by re-exposure to the aversive treatment.

  9. Determination of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in blood, plasma and oral fluid from adolescents and adults using protein precipitation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry--a method applied on clinical and forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Martin; Rydberg, Irene

    2011-07-15

    A validated, accurate and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of racemic methylphenidate and its metabolite ritalinic acid has been developed. The analytes were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry operating in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Blood, plasma and oral fluid samples of 100μl were prepared by simple precipitation with 200μl of an aqueous solution of zinc sulphate in methanol. Corresponding deuterated internal standards were used for quantification. Calibrations for methylphenidate and ritalinic acid were linear within the selected range of 0.2-30ng/ml and 10-1500ng/ml in blood or plasma and in the range of 1-500ng/ml and 0.25-125ng/ml in oral fluid, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of samples from patients treated with methylphenidate in the dose range of 36-72mg/day and some representative ante mortem and post mortem samples from clinical and forensic toxicological investigations. A three to fourfold higher concentration of methylphenidate was found in oral fluid compared with blood while for ritalinic acid the concentrations were about 25-fold lower in oral fluid.

  10. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  11. Effect of in-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde and caprylic acid on chicken cecal microbiome in response to Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen causing enteric illnesses in humans, with undercooked eggs and poultry meat as the primary sources of infection. Our previous research revealed that in-feed supplementation of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-status, natural compounds,...

  12. Akaganéite (β-FeOOH) precipitation in inland acid sulfate soils of south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Irshad; Singh, Balwant; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of sulphidic sediments in inland wetlands has been only recently recognized in many parts of the world, including Australia. The exposure of sulphidic sediments in these wetlands due to natural and human induced drying events has resulted in the oxidation of iron sulfide minerals, the formation of secondary iron minerals characteristic of acid sulfate soils and the release of highly acidic solutions. The objective of this study was to determine the mineralogy and morphology of sediments collected from the oxidized surface horizon (0-5 cm) of an inland acid sulfate soil located in south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) techniques were used to characterize the minerals present in these sediments. Akaganéite was identified as the major mineral phase in the sediments; K-jarosite was also determined in small amounts in some sediments. The XRD patterns of sequentially washed (E-pure® water-0.01 M HCl-0.01 M EDTA) sediment samples showed all akaganéite peaks; the Rietveld refinement of these patterns also revealed a predominance of akaganéite. The chemical analyses of the original and washed sediments using STEM-EDS clearly showed the presence of akaganéite as a pure mineral phase with an average Fe/Cl mole ratio of 6.7 and a structural formula of Fe 8O 8(OH) 6.8(Cl) 1.2. These findings show that the extreme saline-acidic solutions (pH ˜ 2, EC = 216 dS/m) at the Bottle Bend lagoon provide ideal conditions for the crystallization of this rarely forming mineral.

  13. Global Precipitation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Kummerow, Christian D.; Shepherd, James Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a brief history and background of microwave precipitation sensors, with a discussion of the sensitivity of both passive and active instruments, to trace the evolution of satellite-based rainfall techniques from an era of inference to an era of physical measurement. Next, the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission will be described, followed by the goals and plans for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission and the status of precipitation retrieval algorithm development. The chapter concludes with a summary of the need for space-based precipitation measurement, current technological capabilities, near-term algorithm advancements and anticipated new sciences and societal benefits in the GPM era.

  14. Acid-precipitation studies in Colorado and Wyoming: Interim report of surveys of Montane amphibians and water chemistry. Interim report, 1986-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Corn, P.S.; Stolzenburg, W.; Bury, R.B.

    1989-06-01

    Surveys for amphibians were conducted in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from 1986 to 1988. The northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) was present at only 12% of historically known localities, and the boreal toad (Bufo boreas) was present at 17% of known localities. Chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) suffered a catastrophic decline in population size in one population monitored since 1961, but regionally, this species was observed in 64% of known localities. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) were present at 45% and 69% of known localities respectively. Acid neutralizing capacity, pH, specific conductivity, and cation concentrations in water at amphibian localities were negatively correlated with elevation. Survival of wood frog embryos declined when exposed to aluminum concentrations.

  15. Simultaneous chemical oxygen demand removal, methane production and heavy metal precipitation in the biological treatment of landfill leachate using acid mine drainage as sulfate resource.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Long; Wang, Jin; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Tao, Wei; Yang, Hai-Bin; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Chen, Tian-Hu

    2017-03-06

    Biological treatment played an important role in the treatment of landfill leachate. In the current study, acid mine drainage (AMD) was used as a source of sulfate to strengthen the anaerobic treatment of landfill leachate. Effects of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and SO4(2-) mass concentration ratio on the decomposition of organic matter, methane production and sulfate reduction were investigated and the microbial community was analyzed using the high throughout methods. Results showed that high removal efficiency of COD, methane production and heavy metal removal was achieved when the initial COD/SO4(2-) ratio (based on mass) was set at 3.0. The relative abundance of anaerobic hydrogen-producing bacteria (Candidatus Cloacamonas) in the experimental group with the addition of AMD was significantly increased compared to the control. Abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens of Methanosarcina and Methanomassiliicoccus was increased. Results confirmed that AMD could be used as sulfate resource to strengthen the biological treatment of landfill leachate.

  16. Distribution, thickness, and volume of fine-grained sediment from precipitation of metals from acid-mine waters in Keswick Reservoir, Shasta County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruns, Terry R.; Alpers, Charles N.; Carlson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In February 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired high-resolution seismic-reflection data to map the distribution and thickness of fine-grained sediments associated with acid-mine drainage in Keswick Reservoir on the Sacramento River, near Redding, California. In the Spring Creek Arm of Keswick Reservoir, the sediments occurred in three distinct accumulations; thicknesses are greater than 2 meters (m) in the western accumulation, greater than 5 m in the central accumulation, and up to 8 m in the eastern accumulation. In Keswick Reservoir, fine-grained sediments related to acid-mine drainage were present from slightly north of the Spring Creek Arm downstream to the Keswick Dam. Sediment thickness varies from about 3 m opposite the mouth of the Spring Creek Arm to less than 1 m near Keswick Dam. Our estimate for the total volume of fine-grained sediments in the Spring Creek Arm at the time of the geophysical survey in February 1993 is about 152,000 cubic meters in three sediment accumulations, with about 14,000, 32,000, and 105,000 cubic meters respectively in the western, central, and eastern accumulations. We interpreted that an additional 110, 000 cubic meters of material was present in the main part of Keswick Reservoir. At the time of data collection, we therefore estimate that the total volume of fine-grained sediment was 260,000 cubic meters. In the main part of Keswick Reservoir, 42% to 50% of the reservoir area contiguous to Spring Creek Arm had mappable fine-grained sediments. Decreasing sediment supply down-reservoir meant that mappable sediment covered only about 35% of the reservoir in the area to the south, decreasing to about 12% near Keswick Dam. Much of the reservoir bottom below the Spring Creek Arm could have had a thin (less than 20-30 cm) cover of fine-grained sediment that was not mappable using the seismic-reflection data.

  17. Influence of acid and alkaline sources on optical, structural and photovoltaic properties of CdSe nanoparticles precipitated from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coria-Monroy, C. Selene; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Hu, Hailin

    2016-06-01

    CdSe is a widely researched material for photovoltaic applications. One of the most important parameters of the synthesis is the pH value, since it determines the kinetics and the mechanism of the reaction and in consequence, the optical and morphological properties of the products. We present the synthesis of CdSe in solution with strict control of pH and the comparison of ammonia and KOH as alkaline sources and diluted HCl as acid medium. CdSe formation was monitored with photoluminescence emission spectra (main peak in 490 nm, bandgap of CdSe nanoparticles). XRD patterns indicated that CdSe nanoparticles are mainly of cubic structure for ammonia and HCl, but the hexagonal planes appear with KOH. Product yield decreases with pH and also decreases with KOH at constant pH value since ammonia has a double function, as complexing agent and alkaline source. Changes in morphology were observed in SEM images as well with the different alkaline source. The effect of alkaline sources on photovoltaic performance of hybrid organic solar cells with CdSe and poly(3-hexylthiophene) as active layers was clearly observed, indicating the importance of synthesis conditions on optoelectronic properties of promising semiconductor nanomaterials for solar cell applications.

  18. [Chemical characteristics of atmospheric precipitation in Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Niu, Yu-wen; He, Ling-yan; Hu, Min

    2008-04-01

    The precipitation chemical components are good indicators of the air pollution. With rapid economic developing, air quality has greatly changed in Shenzhen. To investigate Chemical feature of precipitation and atmospheric pollution characteristics in Shenzhen, two-year precipitation samples in Shenzhen were collected and analyzed. Based on the dataset, chemical characteristics of rainwater in Shenzhen were discussed. Results show that the concentration of the sum of anions and rations in Shenzhen rainwater was lower compared to northern cities like Beijing, whereas the acidification of rainwater was very serious in Shenzhen. Volume-weighted mean pH values of rainwater were 4.48 and 4.68 respectively, and 88% and 91% of rain events were acidic in 2004 and 2005, respectively. The contribution of SO4(2-) to Shenzhen rainwater acidity was smaller than that in northern cities and NO3- and Cl- played an important part to acidification of Shenzhen precipitation. The contribution of Cl- and Na+ to rainwater chemical components was higher, indicating the significant marine influence on Shenzhen precipitation. The secondary components like SO4(2-), NO3- and NH4+ contributed significantly to total ions of rainwater and they accounted for more than 40% of total ions in 2004 and 2005, which indicated the severe secondary pollution in Shenzhen. There was the obvious difference in origins for different rainwater components. Cl-, K+ and Na+ were mainly from marine contribution while SO4(2-), NO3-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were mainly from non-sea salt fraction. Formic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid were most abundant low-molecular weight organic acids and the sum of their concentrations accounted for 94% and 99% of total organic acids determined in 2004 and 2005, respectively.

  19. Catalyzed precipitation in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitlin, David

    The work reported in Chapter 1 concerned the influence of Si on the precipitation of theta' (metastable Al2Cu) during the isothermal aging of Al-2Cu-1Si (wt. %). The binary alloys Al-2Cu and Al-1Si were studied for comparison. Only two precipitate phases were detected: pure Si in Al-Si and Al-Cu-Si, and theta' (metastable Al 2Cu) in Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si. On aging the ternary, Si precipitates first, and provides heterogeneous sites to nucleate theta'. As a consequence, the density of theta' precipitates in Al-Cu-Si is much higher than in the binary Al-Cu. Also, the theta ' precipitates in the ternary alloy have lower aspect ratio (at given particle size) and lose coherence on their broad faces at a slower rate. The principal focus of Chapter 2 is to explain precipitation in Al-lat.%Si-lat%Ge. The microstructure is characterized using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The first precipitates to come out of solid solution have a cube-cube orientation relationship with the matrix. High resolution TEM demonstrated that all the precipitates start out, and remain multiply twinned throughout the aging treatment. There is a variation in the stoichiometry of the precipitates, with the mean composition being Si-44.5at%Ge. It is also shown that in Al-Si-Ge it is not possible to achieve satisfactory hardness through a conventional heat treatment. This result is explained in terms of sluggish precipitation of the diamond-cubic Si-Ge phase coupled with particle coarsening. The purpose of Chapters 3 and 4 is to explain these properties in terms of the role that the Si-Ge additions have on modifying the conventional Al-Cu aging sequence. In both AlCu and AlCuSiGe the room temperature microstructure consists of both GP zones and theta″ precipitates. Upon aging at 190°C Al-Cu displays the well known precipitation sequence; the slow dissolution of GP zones and theta″ and the gradual formation of theta

  20. Determination of the degree of oxidation in highly-oxidised lipids using profile changes of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Soo; Yeo, JuDong; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2013-06-01

    The degree of highly oxidised lipids was determined by a modified method using profile changes of fatty acids in lard and soybean oil heated at 180°C. The usefulness of the modified method was compared through conjugated dienoic acid (CDA) and/or p-anisidine value (p-AV) methods. Absolute values, which were expressed as equivalent to an internal standard (C11:0), of both unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) decreased significantly during thermal oxidation (p<0.05) while relative percentage of SFA increased and those of UFA decreased significantly (p<0.05). The content of caprylic acid (C8:0) increased significantly (p<0.05) as thermal oxidation time increased. The ratio of total saturated over total unsaturated fatty acids (SFAs/UFAs) or caprylic acid (C8:0) over UFAs could be useful markers to determine the degree of oxidation. Antioxidant capacity of sesamol, a free radical scavenger, was determined using the ratio of fatty acids. The modified method can be applied to determine the quality control of fried foods containing highly oxidised and abused oils, which may not be measured correctly using CDA and p-AV.

  1. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  2. Acid rains over semi-urban atmosphere at eastern Himalaya and near coast of Bay of Bengal and alkaline rains over typical urban atmosphere in India: A study on precipitation chemistry during monsoon, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    A study has been made on precipitation chemistry over three different atmosphere in India. Rain samples were collected during the entire period of monsoon (June-October) in the year of 2013 over Kolkata (22.6 (°) N, 89.4 (°) E), a mega city with typical urban atmosphere; Falta (22.3 (°) N, 88.1 (°) E), a rural atmosphere near eastern coast of Bay of Bengal and Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl)hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The major focus of the study is to investigate the composition of various types of aerosol ionic components scavenged and its effect on the acidity and how it differs between these three distinctly different atmospheres. The results showed that the sea-salt components were higher in Falta (140 mueqv/lit) followed by Kolkata (120 mueqv/lit) and minimum in Darjeeling (30 mueqv/lit). Over all the stations, Na (+) and Cl (-) showed strong correlations indicating common marine source. The marine air masses originated from Bay of Bengal (BoB) were found to significantly enrich sea-salt particles over Falta, the nearest station from BoB and having least effect on Darjeeling, the farthest station from BoB. Dust and anthropogenic aerosols particles were significantly higher over Kolkata compared to other two stations. Dust particles were found to scavenge more in the initial phase of monsoon and it gradually decreased as the monsoon progressed. The average pH of rain water over Kolkata was 6.0 indicating alkaline in nature. pH over Falta was 5.2 indicating slightly acidic in nature and the most important fact is that pH over Darjeeling was 4.6 indicating highly acidic in nature. It was found that Ca (2+) , Mg (2+) and NH _{4} (+) neutralized the acidity of rain water over all the stations with the maximum neutralizing factor for Ca (2+) . However, NH _{4} (+) played important role over Darjeeling in neutralizing rain water acidity. The major reason for high acidity of rain water was not due to high

  3. The effect of preincubation of seed crystals of uric acid and monosodium urate with undiluted human urine to induce precipitation of calcium oxalate in vitro : implications for urinary stone formation.

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that crystals of uric acid (UA) and sodium urate (NaU) can induce the precipitation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) from its inorganic metastable solutions, but similar effects have not been unequivocally shown to occur in urine. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether preincubation of these seeds with urine alter their ability to induce deposition of CaOx from solution and thus provide a possible explanation for discrepancy of results obtained from aqueous inorganic solutions and undiluted urine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of commercial seed crystals of UA, NaU and CaOx (6 mg/100 ml) on CaOx crystallization were compared in a solution with the same crystals that had been preincubated for 3 hours with healthy male urine. A Coulter Counter was used to follow the crystallization and decrease in soluble (14) C-oxalate was measured to determine the deposition of CaOx. The precipitated particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preincubated seeds were demineralized and proteins released were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). RESULTS: Analysis of (14) C-oxalate data revealed that while treated UA seeds did not affect CaOx deposition, those of NaU and CaOx inhibited the process by 51.9 (p<0.05) and 8.5% (p<0.05) relative to their respective untreated counterparts. Particle size analysis showed that the average modal sizes of particles precipitated in the presence of treated seed crystals of UA, NaU, and CaOx were very similar to those deposited in the presence of their respective untreated controls. These findings were confirmed by SEM which also showed that seed crystals of UA and NaU, untreated and treated, were attached like barnacles upon the surfaces of CaOx crystals which themselves were bigger than those precipitated in the presence of CaOx seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of the demineralized treated seeds showed that they all selectively

  4. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  5. IMERG Global Precipitation Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission has produced its first global map of rainfall and snowfall. The GPM Core Observatory launched one year ago on Feb. 27, 2014 as a collaboration betwee...

  6. My NASA Data Precipitation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson has two activities that help students develop a basic understanding of the relationship between cloud type and the form of precipitation and the relationship between the amount of water...

  7. Precipitation Estimates for Hydroelectricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco J.; Hou, Arthur Y.; de Castro, Manuel; Checa, Ramiro; Cuartero, Fernando; Barros, Ana P.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroelectric plants require precise and timely estimates of rain, snow and other hydrometeors for operations. However, it is far from being a trivial task to measure and predict precipitation. This paper presents the linkages between precipitation science and hydroelectricity, and in doing so it provides insight into current research directions that are relevant for this renewable energy. Methods described include radars, disdrometers, satellites and numerical models. Two recent advances that have the potential of being highly beneficial for hydropower operations are featured: the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) mission, which represents an important leap forward in precipitation observations from space, and high performance computing (HPC) and grid technology, that allows building ensembles of numerical weather and climate models.

  8. Chemisorption And Precipitation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transport and bioavailability of chemical components within soils is, in part, controlled by partitioning between solids and solution. General terms used to describe these partitioning reactions include chemisorption and precipitation. Chemisorption is inclusive of the suit...

  9. Anticarcinogenic Properties of Medium Chain Fatty Acids on Human Colorectal, Skin and Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Amoolya; Ananda Baskaran, Sangeetha; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p < 0.05) compared to controls. RT-qPCR data indicated that these natural molecules produced anticancer effects by down-regulating cell cycle regulatory genes and up-regulating genes involved in apoptosis. Future research will validate the anticancer effect of these fatty acids in an appropriate in vivo model. PMID:25749477

  10. Anticarcinogenic properties of medium chain fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Amoolya; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-03-05

    Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p < 0.05) compared to controls. RT-qPCR data indicated that these natural molecules produced anticancer effects by down-regulating cell cycle regulatory genes and up-regulating genes involved in apoptosis. Future research will validate the anticancer effect of these fatty acids in an appropriate in vivo model.

  11. Extraction and Separation of Vitisin D, Ampelopsin B and cis-Vitisin A from Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz by Alkaline Extraction-Acid Precipitation and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huanhuan; Zhou, Wenna; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenhua; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Honglun

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring oligostilbenes are receiving more attention because they exhibit several beneficial effects for health, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-adipogenic, antioxidant, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, immunosuppressive and neuroprotective activities. Thus, they could be of some potentially therapeutic values for several diseases. In this study, we adopted the alkaline extraction-acid precipitation (AEAP) method for extraction of oligostilbenes from the seed kernel of Iris lactea Then, the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for preparative isolation and purification of oligostilbenes from the AEAP extracts. Finally, three oligostilbenes, namely vitisin D (73 mg), ampelopsin B (25 mg) and cis-vitisin A (16 mg), were successfully fractionated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:5:3:6, v/v/v/v) from 300 mg of the AEAP extracts in ∼ 190 min. The purities of the three isolated oligostilbenes were all over 95.0% as analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. They all were isolated from I. lacteal for the first time.The method of AEAP for the preparation of the oligostilbene-enriched crude sample was simple, and the HSCCC technique for the isolation and purification of oligostilbenes was efficient.

  12. Evaluation of radiological data of some saturated fatty acids using gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.; Palani Selvam, T.

    2016-02-01

    Radiological parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients (μm), total attenuation cross section (σtot), molar extinction coefficient (ε), mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and effective electronic cross section (σt, el) of saturated fatty acids, namely butyric acid (C4H8O2), caproic acid (C6H12O2), enanthic acid (C7H14O2), caprylic acid (C8H16O2), pelargonic acid (C9H18O2) and valeric acid (C5H10O2) were measured using NaI(Tl)-based gamma spectrometry. Radioactive sources used in the study are 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co and 22Na. Gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set up was used in the study. The measured data were compared against Win-XCOM-based data. The agreement is within 1%.

  13. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  14. Centrifugal precipitation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoichiro; Qi, Lin

    2010-01-15

    Centrifugal precipitation chromatography separates analytes according their solubility in ammonium sulfate (AS) solution and other precipitants. The separation column is made from a pair of long spiral channels partitioned with a semipermeable membrane. In a typical separation, concentrated ammonium sulfate is eluted through one channel while water is eluted through the other channel in the opposite direction. This countercurrent process forms an exponential AS concentration gradient through the water channel. Consequently, protein samples injected into the water channel is subjected to a steadily increasing AS concentration and at the critical AS concentration they are precipitated and deposited in the channel bed by the centrifugal force. Then the chromatographic separation is started by gradually reducing the AS concentration in the AS channel which lowers the AS gradient concentration in the water channel. This results in dissolution of deposited proteins which are again precipitated at an advanced critical point as they move through the channel. Consequently, proteins repeat precipitation and dissolution through a long channel and finally eluted out from the column in the order of their solubility in the AS solution. The present method has been successfully applied to a number of analytes including human serum proteins, recombinant ketosteroid isomerase, carotenoid cleavage enzymes, plasmid DNA, polysaccharide, polymerized pigments, PEG-protein conjugates, etc. The method is capable to single out the target species of proteins by affinity ligand or immunoaffinity separation.

  15. FORMATION OF URANIUM PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M. Jr.

    1959-03-17

    A method is described for precipitation of uranium peroxide from uranium- containing solutions so as to obtain larger aggregates which facilitates washings decantations filtrations centrifugations and the like. The desired larger aggregate form is obtained by maintaining the pH of the solution in the approximate range of 1 to 3 and the temperature at about 25 deg C or below while carrytng out the precipitation. Then prior to removal of the precipitate a surface active sulfonated bicarboxyacids such as di-octyl sodium sulfo-succinates is incorporated in an anount of the order of 0.01 to 0.05 percent by weights and the slurry is allowed to ripen for about one-half hour at a temperatare below 10 deg C.

  16. Precipitation-Regulated Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Star formation in the central galaxies of galaxy clusters appears to be fueled by precipitation of cold clouds out of hot circumgalactic gas via thermal instability. I will present both observational and theoretical support for the precipitation mode in large galaxies and discuss how it can be implemented in cosmological simulations of galaxy evolution. Galaxy cluster cores are unique laboratories for studying the astrophysics of thermal instability and may be teaching us valuable lessons about how feedback works in galaxies spanning the entire mass spectrum.

  17. Characterization of cider apples on the basis of their fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar

    2002-02-27

    In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.

  18. Determination of free medium-chain fatty acids in beer by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Horák, Tomás; Culík, Jirí; Jurková, Marie; Cejka, Pavel; Kellner, Vladimír

    2008-07-04

    Free medium-chain fatty acids in beer originate from raw materials, mainly from the fermentation activity of yeasts, and can influence beer taste, vitality of yeasts and also the foam stability of beer. This study presents the development of the method for the determination of free fatty medium-chain acids including caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid and lauric acid in beer or wort using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The combination of this extraction technique with solvent back extraction of the extracted analytes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection was used for the determination of these compounds. The influences of different solvent back solutions, sampling time, solvent back extraction times and different contents of ethanol were studied. The method had high repeatability (RSD <6.7%), good linearity (the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9963 for quadratic curves over the concentration range 0.5-8.0mg/l) and recoveries 57-89%.

  19. A Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) Oils

    PubMed Central

    Silva Ferreira, Bianca; Pereira Faza, Lara; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692

  20. A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Bianca Silva; Faza, Lara Pereira; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, acid, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty acid composition, in which lauric acid (the most abundant), myristic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid were the four main fatty acids detected. The unsaturated fatty acids content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries.

  1. The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  2. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  3. Precipitation of phenyl and phenoxypenicillin from solutions using ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Luengo, J M

    1985-09-01

    An easy, rapid, and available method for separating 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), benzylpenicillin (penicillin G), and other related molecules from aqueous solutions or complex industrial broths is described. A high concentration of ammonium sulphate induces partially or totally the precipitation of the penicillin present in the solutions, while 6-APA, phenylacetic, and phenoxyacetic acid always remain in the supernatant. The filtration through No. 4 Pyrex glass-fiber filter or Whatman 3MM paper permits the separation of the compounds present in the supernatant from the other ones precipitated. The precipitated product was identified, in all cases, as ammonium penicillin. This method is described here for the first time.

  4. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Glyceryl Laurate, Glyceryl Laurate SE, Glyceryl Laurate/Oleate, Glyceryl Adipate, Glyceryl Alginate, Glyceryl Arachidate, Glyceryl Arachidonate, Glyceryl Behenate, Glyceryl Caprate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Glyceryl Caprylate/Caprate, Glyceryl Citrate/Lactate/Linoleate/Oleate, Glyceryl Cocoate, Glyceryl Collagenate, Glyceryl Erucate, Glyceryl Hydrogenated Rosinate, Glyceryl Hydrogenated Soyate, Glyceryl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Isopalmitate, Glyceryl Isostearate, Glyceryl Isostearate/Myristate, Glyceryl Isostearates, Glyceryl Lanolate, Glyceryl Linoleate, Glyceryl Linolenate, Glyceryl Montanate, Glyceryl Myristate, Glyceryl Isotridecanoate/Stearate/Adipate, Glyceryl Oleate SE, Glyceryl Oleate/Elaidate, Glyceryl Palmitate, Glyceryl Palmitate/Stearate, Glyceryl Palmitoleate, Glyceryl Pentadecanoate, Glyceryl Polyacrylate, Glyceryl Rosinate, Glyceryl Sesquioleate, Glyceryl/Sorbitol Oleate/Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Stearate/Acetate, Glyceryl Stearate/Maleate, Glyceryl Tallowate, Glyceryl Thiopropionate, and Glyceryl Undecylenate.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The safety of 43 glyceryl monoesters listed as cosmetic ingredients was reviewed in a safety assessment completed in 2000. Additional safety test data pertaining to Glyceryl Rosinate and Glyceryl Hydrogenated Rosinate were received and served as the basis for this amended report. Glyceryl monoesters are used mostly as skin-conditioning agents--emollients and/or surfactant--emulsifying agents in cosmetics. The following 20 glyceryl monoesters are currently reported to be used in cosmetics: Glyceryl Laurate, Glyceryl Alginate, Glyceryl Arachidonate, Glyceryl Behenate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Glyceryl Caprylate/Caprate, Glyceryl Cocoate, Glyceryl Erucate, Glyceryl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Isostearate, Glyceryl Lanolate, Glyceryl Linoleate, Glyceryl Linolenate, Glyceryl Myristate, Glyceryl Oleate/Elaidate, Glyceryl Palmitate, Glyceryl Polyacrylate, Glyceryl Rosinate, Glyceryl Stearate/Acetate, and Glyceryl Undecylenate. Concentration of use data received from the cosmetics industry in 1999 indicate that Glyceryl Monoesters are used at concentrations up to 12% in cosmetic products. Glyceryl Monoesters are not pure monoesters, but are mostly mixtures with mono-, di-, and tri-esters. The purity of commercial and conventional Monoglyceride (Glyceryl Monoester) is a minimum of 90%. Glyceryl Monoesters (monoglycerides) are metabolized to free fatty acids and glycerol, both of which are available for the resynthesis of triglycerides. Glyceryl Laurate enhanced the penetration of drugs through cadaverous skin and hairless rat skin in vitro and has been described as having a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. A low-grade irritant response was observed following inhalation of an aerosol containing 10% Glyceryl Laurate by test animals. Glyceryl monoesters have little acute or short-term toxicity in animals, and no toxicity was noted following chronic administration of a mixture consisting mostly of glyceryl di- and mono- esters. Glyceryl Laurate did have strong hemolytic

  5. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  6. Uncertainties in Arctic Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majhi, I.; Alexeev, V. A.; Cherry, J. E.; Cohen, J. L.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic precipitation is riddled with measurement biases; to address the problem is imperative. Our study focuses on comparison of various datasets and analyzing their biases for the region of Siberia and caution that is needed when using them. Five sources of data were used ranging from NOAA's product (RAW, Bogdanova's correction), Yang's correction technique and two reanalysis products (ERA-Interim and NCEP). The reanalysis dataset performed better for some months in comparison to Yang's product, which tends to overestimate precipitation, and the raw dataset, which tends to underestimate. The sources of bias vary from topography, to wind, to missing data .The final three products chosen show higher biases during the winter and spring season. Emphasis on equations which incorporate blizzards, blowing snow and higher wind speed is necessary for regions which are influenced by any or all of these factors; Bogdanova's correction technique is the most robust of all the datasets analyzed and gives the most reasonable results. One of our future goals is to analyze the impact of precipitation uncertainties on water budget analysis for the Siberian Rivers.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of four weak acids as antifungal preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture model food systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Wilson, Mark; Chapman, Belinda; Hocking, Ailsa D

    2010-02-01

    The potential efficacy of four weak acids as preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture foods was assessed using a glycerol based agar medium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, % wt./wt.) of each acid was determined at two pH values (pH 5.0, pH 6.0) and two a(w) values (0.85, 0.90) for five food spoilage fungi, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium roqueforti. Sorbic acid, a preservative commonly used to control fungal growth in low-acid intermediate moisture foods, was included as a reference. The MIC values of the four acids were lower at pH 5.0 than pH 6.0 at equivalent a(w) values, and lower at 0.85 a(w) than 0.90 a(w) at equivalent pH values. By comparison with the MIC values of sorbic acid, those of caprylic acid and dehydroacetic acid were generally lower, whereas those for caproic acid were generally higher. No general observation could be made in the case of capric acid. The antifungal activities of all five weak acids appeared related not only to the undissociated form, but also the dissociated form, of each acid.

  8. Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bu, Weiming; Liu, Renyu; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Loll, Patrick J; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2012-06-01

    A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 μM affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the fatty acid from oxidation. Cocrystals of arachidonic acid and horse spleen apoferritin diffracted to 2.18 Å and revealed specific binding to the 2-fold intersubunit pocket. This pocket shields most of the fatty acid and its double bonds from solvent but allows the arachidonate tail to project well into the ferrihydrite mineralization site on the ferritin L-subunit, a structural feature that we implicate in the effects on mineralization by demonstrating that the much shorter saturated fatty acid, caprylate, has no significant effects on mineralization. These combined effects of arachidonate binding by ferritin are expected to lower both intracellular free iron and free arachidonate, thereby providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for limiting lipid peroxidation, free radical damage, and proinflammatory cascades during times of cellular stress.

  9. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  10. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  12. Magnetite seeded precipitation of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Nuray; Hoffmann, Erhard; Hahn, Hermann H

    2004-07-01

    Seeded precipitation of Ca phosphate on magnetite mineral (Fe3O4) surfaces was investigated using a Jar Test system in supersaturated solutions at 20 degrees C and ionic strength 0.01 mol l(-1) with relative super saturation, 12.0-20.0 for HAP. pH of the solution, initial phosphorus concentration and molar Ca/P ratio were investigated as the main parameters, which effect the seeded precipitation of Ca phosphate. Results showed that there is no pronounced effect of magnetite seed, neither positive nor negative on the amount of calcium phosphate precipitation. pH was found to be the main parameter that determines the phosphate precipitated onto the seed surface. Increasing of the pH of precipitation reaction was resulted in the decrease in percentage amount of phosphate precipitated onto seed surfaces to total precipitation (magnetite seeded precipitation efficiency). It was concluded that the pH dependence of magnetite-seeded precipitation should be considered in the light of its effect on the supersaturated conditions of solution. Saturation index (SI) of solution with respect to the precipitate phase was considered the driving force for the precipitation. A simulation programme PHREEQC (Version 2) was employed to calculate the Saturation-index with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAP) of the chemically defined precipitation system. It was found a good relationship between SI of solution with respect to HAP and the magnetite seeded precipitation efficiency, a second order polynomial function. Results showed that more favorable solution conditions for precipitation (higher SI values of solution) causes homogenous nucleation whereas heterogeneous nucleation led to a higher magnetite seeded precipitation efficiency.

  13. Measurement of Global Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaming, Gilbert Mark

    2004-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Program is an international cooperative effort whose objectives are to (a) obtain increased understanding of rainfall processes, and (b) make frequent rainfall measurements on a global basis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the Japanese Aviation and Exploration Agency (JAXA) have entered into a cooperative agreement for the formulation and development of GPM. This agreement is a continuation of the partnership that developed the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) that was launched in November 1997; this mission continues to provide valuable scientific and meteorological information on rainfall and the associated processes. International collaboration on GPM from other space agencies has been solicited, and discussions regarding their participation are currently in progress. NASA has taken lead responsibility for the planning and formulation of GPM, Key elements of the Program to be provided by NASA include a Core satellite bus instrumented with a multi-channel microwave radiometer, a Ground Validation System and a ground-based Precipitation Processing System (PPS). JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar for installation on the Core satellite and launch services. Other United States agencies and international partners may participate in a number of ways, such as providing rainfall measurements obtained from their own national space-borne platforms, providing local rainfall measurements to support the ground validation activities, or providing hardware or launch services for GPM constellation spacecraft. This paper will present an overview of the current planning for the GPM Program, and discuss in more detail the status of the lead author's primary responsibility, development and acquisition of the GPM Microwave Imager.

  14. METHOD OF IMPROVING THE CARRIER PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kamack, H.J.; Balthis, J.H.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium values can be recovered from acidic solutlons by adding lead nitrate, hydrogen fluoride, lantha num nitrate, and sulfurlc acid to the solution to form a carrler preclpitate. The lead sulfate formed improves the separatlon characteristics of the lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate,

  15. Urease activity in microbiologically-induced calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Bachmeier, Keri L; Williams, Amy E; Warmington, John R; Bang, Sookie S

    2002-02-14

    The role of microbial urease in calcite precipitation was studied utilizing a recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 containing a plasmid, pBU11, that encodes Bacillus pasteurii urease. The calcite precipitation by E. coli HB101 (pBU11) was significant although its precipitation level was not as high as that by B. pasteurii. Addition of low concentrations (5-100 microM) of nickel, the cofactor of urease, to the medium further enhanced calcite precipitation by E. coli (pBU11). Calcite precipitation induced by both B. pasteurii and E. coli (pBU11) was inhibited in the presence of a urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). These observations on the recombinant urease have confirmed that urease activity is essential for microbiologically-induced calcite precipitation. Partially purified B. pasteurii urease was immobilized in polyurethane (PU) foam to compare the efficacy of calcite precipitation between the free and immobilized enzymes. The immobilized urease showed higher K(m) and lower V(max) values, which were reflected by a slower overall calcite precipitation. However, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) identified that the calcite precipitation occurred throughout the matrices of polyurethane. Furthermore, PU-immobilized urease retained higher enzymatic activities at high temperatures and in the presence of a high concentration of pronase, indicating that immobilization protects the enzyme activity from environmental changes.

  16. Comparison of Absorption and Desorption of Cryomill Process Control Agents and Their Effect on Compressive Behavior of Trimodal Aluminum Metal-Matrix-Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    B4C) powders were cryomilled in liquid nitrogen using different process control agents (PCAs) such as oleic acid , caprylic acid , and stearic acid ...composite agglomerates after 8 h cryomilling with (a) oleic acid , (b) caprylic acid , and (c, d) stearic acid ...8 List of Tables Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of stearic, oleic and caprylic acid

  17. Precipitation Extremes Under Climate Change.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to better constrain the sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes to warming.

  18. Characterisation of Suspension Precipitated Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, P. K.; Swain, P. K.; Patnaik, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-known biomaterial for coating on femoral implants, filling of dental cavity and scaffold for tissue replacement. Hydroxyapatite possess limited load bearing capacity due to their brittleness. In this paper, the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders was prepared by dissolving calcium oxide in phosphoric acid, followed by addition of ammonia liquor in a beaker. The prepared solution was stirred by using magnetic stirrer operated at temperature of 80°C for an hour. This leads to the formation of hydroxyapatite precipitate. The precipitate was dried in oven for overnight at 100°C. The dried agglomerated precipitate was calcined at 800°C in conventional furnace for an hour. The influence of calcium oxide concentration and pH on the resulting precipitates was studied using BET, XRD and SEM. As result, a well-defined sub-rounded morphology of powders size of ∼41 nm was obtained with a salt concentration of 0.02 M. Finally, it can be concluded that small changes in the reaction conditions led to large changes in final size, shape and degree of aggregation of the hydroxyapatite particles.

  19. BASIC PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINANTS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1959-02-10

    A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution. First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2.5 and 8 and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution causing precipitation of uranium peroxide which carries any plutonium values present, while the fission products remain in solution. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate, selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved. The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate.

  20. The different phases in the precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A.; Oliveira, C.; Rocha, F.

    2003-05-01

    The precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, brushite, by mixing a calcium hydroxide suspension and an orthophosphoric acid solution in equimolar quantities, has been investigated in a batch system at 25°C. The concentration of calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid, before mixing, ranged from 50 to 300 mmol dm -3. The phase first precipitated is Ca 5OH(PO 4) 3, hydroxyapatite. The precipitation process of brushite is divided into five stages and is similar for all initial experimental conditions. The extension of each stage varies with the initial reagents' concentrations. These stages are discussed individually as a function of pH and reagents' concentrations. The precipitate was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The solubility of brushite was determined at 25°C, 30°C and 35°C, and in the pH range 4.5-8.

  1. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  2. Auroral helium precipitation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axford, W. I.; Chivers, H. J. A.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.

    1972-01-01

    Application of the metal foil sampling technique, which has been used to measure helium, neon, and argon fluxes in the solar wind, to the problem of measuring the fluxes of these gases in the auroral primary radiation. Aluminum and platinum foils have been flown into two bright auroras and have been recovered. The foils have been analyzed for helium and neon isotopes with a mass spectrometer; so far only He4 has been detected. In the first flight the precipitating flux of He4 with particle energies above about 1 keV was approximately 1,000,000 per sq cm per sec, and the backscattered flux was smaller by about a factor of 10. In the second flight the aurora was less bright, and the He4 fluxes were lower by a factor of about 2. A rough analysis suggests that the mean energy of the incident particles was greater than 3 keV.

  3. Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects and Mode of Action of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids in Combination with Organic Acids against Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the synergistic bactericidal effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; caprylic, capric, and lauric acid) and organic acids (OAs; acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acid) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and to identify their underlying mechanism(s) of action. E. coli O157:H7 was treated with MCFAs, OAs, or different combinations of MCFAs and OAs. Membrane damage and cell morphology were examined by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Combined treatment resulted in an additional log-unit reduction compared with the sum of the reductions obtained after individual treatment. For example, caprylic acid (1.0 mM, or 0.016%) and citric acid (1.0 mM, or 0.012%) alone showed negligible bactericidal effects (0.30- and 0.06-log-unit reductions, respectively); however, a marked synergistic effect (>7.15-log-unit reduction) was observed when the two were combined. Although flow cytometry and microscopic analyses of bacteria treated with individual MCFAs and OAs showed evidence of membrane disruption, the bacteria were still able to form colonies; thus, the cell damage was recoverable. In contrast, cells exposed to combined treatments showed clear membrane disintegration and/or cell death (irreversible damage). The mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effects of combined treatment with MCFAs or OAs may involve disruption of the bacterial membrane, which then facilitates the entry of other antimicrobial compounds into the cytoplasm. The main advantage of combined treatment with very low concentrations of natural antimicrobial compounds is that it is very cost-effective. Thus, this approach may be an alternative to more conventional antimicrobial treatments, such as those currently used in public health, medical centers, and the food industry. PMID:23956396

  4. Immunoaffinity centrifugal precipitation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin; Ito, Yoichiro

    2007-06-01

    Purification of proteins based on immunoaffinity has been performed using a solid support coated with antibody against the target proteins. The method requires immobilizing the antibody onto the solid support using protein A or G, and has a risk of adsorptive loss of target proteins onto the solid support. Centrifugal precipitation chromatography has been successfully used to purify enzymes, such as ketosteroid isomerase and hyaluronidase without the use of solid support. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that immunoaffinity centrifugal precipitation chromatography is capable of isolating an antigen by exploiting antigen-antibody binding. The separation was initiated by filling both channels with 40% saturated ammonium sulfate (AS) of pH 4-4.5 followed by loading 20 microl of human plasma (National Institutes of Health blood bank) mixed with 2 mg of rabbit anti-HSA (human serum protein) antibody (Sigma). Then, the sample channel was eluted with water at 0.03 ml/min and AS channel with 40% AS solution of pH 4-4.5 at 1 ml/min until all non-binding components were eluted. Then, the releasing reagent (50% AS solution containing 0.5 M glycine and 10% ammonium hydroxide at pH 10) was introduced through the AS channel to release the target protein (HSA). The retained antibody was recovered by eluting the sample channel with water at 1 ml/min. A hollow fiber membrane device at the outlet (MicroKros, Spectrum, New Brunswick, NJ, USA) was provided on-line dialysis of the eluent before fractions were collected, so that the fractions could be analyzed by SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) without further dialysis. The current method does not require immobilizing the antibody onto a matrix, which is used by the conventional immunoaffinity chromatography. This method ensures full recovery of the antigen and antibody, and it may be applied to purification of other proteins.

  5. Precipitation-Based ENSO Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott

    1998-01-01

    In this study gridded observed precipitation data sets are used to construct rainfall-based ENSO indices. The monthly El Nino and La Nina Indices (EI and LI) measure the steepest zonal gradient of precipitation anomalies between the equatorial Pacific and the Maritime Continent. This is accomplished by spatially averaging precipitation anomalies using a spatial boxcar filter, finding the maximum and minimum averages within a Pacific and Maritime Continent domain for each month, and taking differences. EI and LI can be examined separately or combined to produce one ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI). ESPI is well correlated with traditional sea surface temperature and pressure indices, leading Nino 3.4. One advantage precipitation indices have over more conventional indices, is describing the strength and position of the Walker circulation. Examples are given of tracking the impact of ENSO events on the tropical precipitation fields.

  6. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  7. Inducing mineral precipitation in groundwater by addition of phosphate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace elements from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. The success of engineered precipitation schemes depends on the particular phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for phosphate mineral precipitation rely on stimulation of native microbial populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 mL-1) added to the precipitation medium. In addition, we tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). Results The general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the study conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium phosphate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxylapatite (HAP) within one week. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of the experiments the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as Rietveld structure refinement using x-ray diffraction data indicated that the presence of organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in an increasing a and decreasing c lattice parameter, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the solids was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results suggest that the minerals formed initially during an engineered precipitation application for trace element sequestration may not be the ones that control long-term immobilization of the contaminants. In addition, the presence of

  8. Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

    2011-10-01

    Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments

  9. Precipitation in the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

  10. Resistivity Problems in Electrostatic Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harry J.

    1974-01-01

    The process of electrostatic precipitation has ever-increasing application in more efficient collection of fine particles from industrial air emissions. This article details a large number of new developments in the field. The emphasis is on high resistivity particles which are a common cause of poor precipitator performance. (LS)

  11. Precipitation Process and Apparatus Therefor

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Jr, L C

    1950-12-05

    This invention concerns an apparatus for remotely-controlled precipitation and filtration operations. Liquid within a precipitation chamber is maintained above a porous member by introducing air beneath the member; pressure beneath the porous member is reduced to suck the liquid through the member and effect filtration.

  12. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-12-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  13. Studies on effective utilization of precipitates from neutralized mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Taneomi

    1995-12-31

    Mine drainage has high acidity and sometimes contains more than the allowable concentration of ionized iron. In such a case, mine drainage is neutralized with calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide to separate precipitates, such as the iron hydroxide and gypsum generated. Currently, most of these precipitates are not utilized and are accumulated in tailing dams. As a result, the service life of the tailing dams is reduced. This becomes a matter of concern, since securing sites for such dams is difficult. A most effective means of solving this problem would be to promote utilization of these neutralized precipitates. This paper reports on the results of studies on neutralized precipitates produced at the old Matsuo Mine (Iwate Prefecture), which has the largest neutralization treatment facility in Japan. As a result of the studies, the following was proposed regarding application of neutralized precipitates. Utilization as ferrite: mix ferrous hydroxide and ferric hydroxide in water to synthesize magnetite-like ferrite, to be used in the manufacture of magnetic markers for a mobility support system for blind pedestrians, or in producing magnetic fluids for sink-and-float separation of nonmagnetic metals and nonmetals. Utilization as hematite: bake ferric hydroxide to produce hematite, thereby extracting metallic iron for paint pigment as well as for the manufacture of ironware by local industry. Production of aluminum sulfate: precipitate aluminum ions from water and add sulfuric acid to produce aluminum sulfate.

  14. Estimation of continental precipitation recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: 1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and 2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. Gridded data on observed wind and humidity in the global atmosphere are used to determine the convergence of atmospheric water vapor over continental regions. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. The results indicate that the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation varies substantially with location and season. For the regions studied, the ratio of locally contributed to total monthly precipitation generally lies between 0. 10 and 0.30 but is as high as 0.40 in several cases.

  15. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  16. Precipitation Measurements from Space: The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2007-01-01

    Water is fundamental to the life on Earth and its phase transition between the gaseous, liquid, and solid states dominates the behavior of the weather/climate/ecological system. Precipitation, which converts atmospheric water vapor into rain and snow, is central to the global water cycle. It regulates the global energy balance through interactions with clouds and water vapor (the primary greenhouse gas), and also shapes global winds and dynamic transport through latent heat release. Surface precipitation affects soil moisture, ocean salinity, and land hydrology, thus linking fast atmospheric processes to the slower components of the climate system. Precipitation is also the primary source of freshwater in the world, which is facing an emerging freshwater crisis in many regions. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the behavior of the global water cycle, improving freshwater management, and advancing predictive capabilities of high-impact weather events such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and landslides. With limited rainfall networks on land and the impracticality of making extensive rainfall measurements over oceans, a comprehensive description of the space and time variability of global precipitation can only be achieved from the vantage point of space. This presentation will examine current capabilities in space-borne rainfall measurements, highlight scientific and practical benefits derived from these observations to date, and provide an overview of the multi-national Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission scheduled to bc launched in the early next decade.

  17. Non-precipitating cumulus cloud study

    SciTech Connect

    Alkezweeny, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    This document describes the field experiment that was conducted in Kentucky during the period from July 20 to August 24, 1983. The objectives were to determine the vertical transport of acidic pollutants by cumulus convection and formation of acidic substances in non-precipitating clouds. The study is a research component of Task Group C (Atmospheric Processes) of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. To examine the vertical transport, an SF/sub 6/ tracer was released from one aircraft, sampled by another aircraft, and sampled on the ground. The results show that pollutants from the boundary layer are lifted to the cloud layer. From there, they are intermittently transported both to the ground and to higher elevations, possibly in the vertical updrafts of towering cumulus clouds. A series of instrumented aircraft flights around the clouds were conducted to study the formation of acidic aerosols. The concentrations of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 4/, NH/sub 3/, HNO/sub 3/ and trace metals were measured by filter techniques. Furthermore, NO/sub x/, O/sub 3/, light scattering, and basic meteorological parameters were measured in real-time. Detailed chemical composition of aerosols and NH/sub 3/ was also measured on the ground. Preliminary results show that the molar ratio of SO/sub 2//SO/sub 2/ + SO/sub 4/) at cloud tops is higher than at cloud bases. This indicates that sulfate aerosols were formed in the clouds. The NH/sub 3/ concentration shows higher values at nighttime than daytime and decreases sharply with increasing altitude. 3 references.

  18. Co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter by calcium carbonate in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Reddy, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences calcium carbonate mineral formation in surface and ground water. To better understand DOM mediation of carbonate precipitation and DOM co-precipitation and/or incorporation with carbonate minerals, we characterized the content and speciation of DOM in carbonate minerals and in the lake water of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. A 400-gram block of precipitated calcium carbonate from the Pyramid Lake shore was dissolved in 8 liters of 10% acetic acid. Particulate matter not dissolved by acetic acid was removed by centrifugation. DOM from the carbonate rock was fractionated into nine portions using evaporation, dialysis, resin adsorption, and selective precipitations to remove acetic acid and inorganic constituents. The calcium carbonate rock contained 0.23% DOM by weight. This DOM was enriched in polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids in comparison with the present lake water. DOM in lake water was composed of aliphatic, alicyclic polycarboxylic acids. These compound classes were found in previous studies to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation. DOM fractions from the carbonate rock were 14C-age dated at about 3,100 to 3,500 years before present. The mechanism of DOM co-precipitation and/or physical incorporation in the calcium carbonate is believed to be due to formation of insoluble calcium complexes with polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids that have moderately large stability constants at the alkaline pH of the lake. DOM co-precipitation with calcium carbonate and incorporation in precipitated carbonate minerals removes proteinaceous DOM, but nearly equivalent concentrations of neutral and acidic forms of organic nitrogen in DOM remain in solution. Calcium carbonate precipitation during lime softening pretreatment of drinking water may have practical applications for removal of proteinaceous disinfection by-product precursors.

  19. Identifying Anomality in Precipitation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Safety, risk and economic analyses of engineering constructions such as storm sewer, street and urban drainage, and channel design are sensitive to precipitation storm properties. Whether the precipitation storm properties exhibit normal or anomalous characteristics remains obscure. In this study, we will decompose a precipitation time series as sequences of average storm intensity, storm duration and interstorm period to examine whether these sequences could be treated as a realization of a continuous time random walk with both "waiting times" (interstorm period) and "jump sizes" (average storm intensity and storm duration). Starting from this viewpoint, we will analyze the statistics of storm duration, interstorm period, and average storm intensity in four regions in southwestern United States. We will examine whether the probability distribution is temporal and spatial dependent. Finally, we will use fractional engine to capture the randomness in precipitation storms.

  20. Evaluation of Coupled Precipitator Two

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.

    1999-11-08

    The offline testing of the Coupled Precipitator Two (CP-2) has been completed. The tests were conducted and are documented. The tests were conducted at an offline test rack near the Drain Tube Test Stand facility in 672-T.

  1. WEATHER_Layered-Precipitable-Water

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-23

    ... TOVS (HIRS) clear sky radiances Radiosonde GPS (after 1995) AIRS Level 2 TPW and Layered PW Spatial ... Parameters:  Precipitable Water Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search SCAR-B ...

  2. WEATHER_Total-Precipitable-Water

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-23

    ... TOVS (HIRS) clear sky radiances Radiosonde GPS (after 1995) AIRS Level 2 TPW and Layered PW Spatial ... Parameters:  Precipitable Water Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search SCAR-B ...

  3. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  4. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  5. Atmospheric science: Energy and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohoe, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    The latitude of the tropical rainbelt is constrained by the energy balance between hemispheres. An expansion of this theory that includes longitudinal variations of atmospheric heating can predict regional changes in tropical precipitation.

  6. The 2014 Silba Precipitation Extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasol, Dubravka; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2015-04-01

    On 30 July 2014 a 24 h precipitation record of 218 mm was set at the island of Silba in the N-Adriatic Sea. The precipitation was of convective nature and significantly less precipitation was recorded only small distances away, at the coast of mainland Croatia. The event is reproduced numerically and discussed in terms of dynamics and predictability. On a large scale, the precipitation extreme was associated with a slow-moving upper tropospheric low that formed over the N-Atlantic several days earlier. At lower levels, there were humid mediterranean airmasses. On a smaller scale, there are indications that the extreme convection may have been triggered by an orographic disturbance.

  7. Oceanic Precipitation Measurement - Surface Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepp, Christian

    2013-04-01

    State-of-the-art satellite derived and reanalysis based precipitation climatologies still show remarkably large differences in frequency, amount, intensity, variability and temporal behavior of precipitation over the oceans. Additionally so far appropriate in-situ validation instruments were not available for shipboard use. The uncertainties are largest for light precipitation within the ITCZ and subtropics and for cold season high-latitude precipitation including mix-phase and snowfall. Hence, a long-term issue on which IPWG and GPM-GV is urging more attention is the provision of high quality surface validation data in oceanic areas using innovative ship-based instruments. Precipitation studies would greatly benefit from systematic dataset collection and analysis as such data could also be used to constrain precipitation retrievals. To achieve this goal, the KlimaCampus and Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany funded this project that uses automated shipboard optical disdrometers, called Eigenbrodt ODM470, that are capable of measuring liquid and solid precipitation using drop size distributions in minute intervals on moving ships with high accuracy even under high wind speeds and rough sea states. Since the project start in 2009 the statistical basis for a conclusive validation has significantly improved with comprehensive data collection of more than 3 million minutes of precipitation measurements onboard six ships. Currently, six ODM470 instrument systems are available of which three are long-term mounted onboard the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern (Alfred Wegner Institut) since June 2010, on R/V Akademik Ioffe (P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia) since September 2010 and on R/V Maria S. Merian (Brise Research, University of Hamburg) since December 2011. Three instruments are used for additional short-term shipboard campaigns and intercomparison projects. The core regions for these

  8. Precipitation of DNA with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael R; Sambrook, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    DNA can be precipitated out of solution for the removal of salts and/or for resuspension in an alternative buffer. Either ethanol or isopropanol can be used to achieve this purpose; however, the use of ethanol is generally preferred. Cations, provided as salts, are typically included to neutralize the negative charge of the DNA phosphate backbone. This method describes ethanol precipitation of DNA in microcentrifuge tubes.

  9. Synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols and structured triacylglycerols rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Esteban, Luis; Martín, Lorena; Jiménez, María José; Hita, Estrella; Castillo, Beatriz; González, Pedro A; Robles, Alfonso

    2012-08-10

    This paper studies the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) by a four-step process: (i) obtaining 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by alcoholysis of cod liver oil with several alcohols, catalyzed by lipases Novozym 435, from Candida antartica and DF, from Rhizopus oryzae, (ii) purification of 2-MAGs, (iii) formation of STAGs by esterification of 2-MAGs with caprylic acid catalyzed by lipase DF, from R. oryzae, and (iv) purification of these STAGs. For the alcoholysis of cod liver oil, absolute ethanol, ethanol 96% (v/v) and 1-butanol were compared; the conditions with ethanol 96% were then optimized and 2-MAG yields of around 54-57% were attained using Novozym 435. In these 2-MAGs, DHA accounted for 24-31% of total fatty acids. In the operational conditions this lipase maintained a stable level of activity over at least 11 uses. These results were compared with those obtained with lipase DF, which deactivated after only three uses. The alcoholysis of cod liver oil and ethanol 96% catalyzed by Novozym 435 was scaled up by multiplying the reactant amounts 100-fold and maintaining the intensity of treatment constant (IOT=3g lipase h/g oil). In these conditions, the 2-MAG yield attained was about 67%; these 2-MAGs contained 36.6% DHA. The synthesized 2-MAGs were separated and purified from the alcoholysis reaction products by solvent extraction using solvents of low toxicity (ethanol and hexane); 2-MAG recovery yield and purity of the target product were approximately 96.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These 2-MAGs were transformed to STAGs using the optimal conditions obtained in a previous work. After synthesis and purification, 93% pure STAGs were obtained, containing 38% DHA at sn-2 position and 60% caprylic acid (CA) at sn-1,3 positions (of total fatty acids at these positions), i.e. the major TAG is the STAG with the structure CA-DHA-CA.

  10. Composition of precipitation in remote areas of the world

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, J.N.; Likens, G.E.; Keene, W.C.; Miller, J.M.

    1982-10-20

    The Global Precipitation Chemistry Project collects precipitation by event to determine composition and processes controlling it in five remote areas. Compositions (excluding seasalt) at St. Georges, Bermuda, were primarily controlled by anthropogenic processes; compositions and acidities at San Carlos, Venezuela, Katherine, Australia, Poker, Flat, Alaska, and Amsterdam Island were controlled by unknown mixtures of natural or anthropogenic processes. Precipitation was acidic; average volume-weighted pH values were 4.8 for Bermuda; 5.0, Alaska; 4.9, Amsterdam Island; 4.8, Australia; 4.8, Venezuela. Acidities at Bermuda and Alaska were from long-range transport of sulfate aerosol; at Venezuela, Australia, and Amsterdam Island, from mixtures of weak organic and strong mineral acids, primarily H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Relative proportions of weak to strong acids were largest at Venezuela and lowest at Amsterdam Island. Weak and strong acids were from mixtures of natural and anthropogenic processes. Once contributions from human activities were removed, the lower limit of natural contributions was probably > or =pH 5.

  11. Composition of precipitation in remote areas of the world

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, J.N.; Likens, G.E.; Keene, W.C.; Miller, J.M.

    1982-10-20

    The Global Precipitation Chemistry Project collects precipitation by event to determine composition and processes controlling it in five remote areas. Compositions (excluding sea-salt) at St. Georges, Bermuda, were primarily controlled by anthropogenic processes; composition and acidities at San Carlos, Venezuela, Katherine, Australia, Poker Flat, Alaska, and Amsterdam Island were controlled by unknown mixtures of natural or anthropogenic processes. Precipitation was acidic; average volume-weighted pH values were 4.8 for Bermuda; 5.0, Alaska; 4.9, Amsterdam Island; 4.8, Australia; 4.8, Venezuela. Acidities at Bermuda and Alaska were from long-range transport of sulfate aerosol; at Venezuela, Australia, and Amsterdam Island, from mixtures of weak organic and strong mineral acids, primarily H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Relative proportions of weak to strong acids were largest at Venezuela and lowest at Amsterdam Island. Weak and strong acids were from mixtures of natural and anthropogenic processes. Once contributions from human activities were removed, the lower limit of natural contributions was probably greater than or equal to pH 5.

  12. NASA Dual Precipitation Radar Arrives at Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory arrived on Friday, Marc...

  13. Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) for remote observation of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J. A.; Platt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) operating in the 10 to 85 GHz range specifically for precipitation retrieval and mesoscale storm system studies from a high altitude aircraft platform (i.e., ER-2) are described. The primary goals of AMPR are the exploitation of the scattering signal of precipitation at frequencies near 10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz together to unambiguously retrieve precipitation and storm structure and intensity information in support of proposed and planned space sensors in geostationary and low earth orbit, as well as storm-related field experiments. The development of AMPR will have an important impact on the interpretation of microwave radiances for rain retrievals over both land and ocean for the following reasons: (1) A scanning instrument, such as AMPR, will allow the unambiguous detection and analysis of features in two dimensional space, allowing an improved interpretation of signals in terms of cloud features, and microphysical and radiative processes; (2) AMPR will offer more accurate comparisons with ground-based radar data by feature matching since the navigation of the ER-2 platform can be expected to drift 3 to 4 km per hour of flight time; and (3) AMPR will allow underflights of the SSM/I satellite instrument with enough spatial coverage at the same frequencies to make meaningful comparisons of the data for precipitation studies.

  14. Chemical Data for Precipitate Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Andrea L.; Koski, Randolph A.

    2008-01-01

    During studies of sulfide oxidation in coastal areas of Prince William Sound in 2005, precipitate samples were collected from onshore and intertidal locations near the Ellamar, Threeman, and Beatson mine sites (chapter A, fig. 1; table 7). The precipitates include jarosite and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide from Ellamar, amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide from Threeman, and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide, ferrihydrite, and schwertmannite from Beatson. Precipitates occurring in the form of loose, flocculant coatings were harvested using a syringe and concentrated in the field by repetitive decanting. Thicker accumulations were either scraped gently from rocks using a stainless steel spatula or were scooped directly into receptacles (polyethylene jars or plastic heavy-duty zippered bags). Most precipitate samples contain small amounts of sedimentary detritus. With three jarosite-bearing samples from Ellamar, an attempt was made to separate the precipitate from the heavy-mineral fraction of the sediment. In this procedure, the sample was stirred in a graduated cylinder containing deionized water. The jarosite-rich suspension was decanted onto analytical filter paper and air dried before analysis. Eleven precipitate samples from the three mine sites were analyzed in laboratories of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Denver, Colorado (table 8). Major and trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following multiacid (HCl-HNO3-HClO4-HF) digestion (Briggs and Meier, 2002), except for mercury, which was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (Brown and others, 2002a). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on powdered samples (<200 mesh) by S. Sutley of the USGS. Additional details regarding sample preparation and detection limits are found in Taggert (2002). Discussions of the precipitate chemistry and associated microbial communities are presented in Koski and others (2008) and Foster and others (2008), respectively.

  15. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  16. Dust particles precipitation in AC/DC electrostatic precipitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworek, A.; Marchewicz, A.; Krupa, A.; Sobczyk, A. T.; Czech, T.; Antes, T.; Śliwiński, Ł.; Kurz, M.; Szudyga, M.; Rożnowski, W.

    2015-10-01

    Submicron and nanoparticles removal from flue or exhaust gases remain still a challenge for engineers. The most effective device used for gas cleaning in power plants or industry is electrostatic precipitator, but its collection efficiency steeply decreases for particles smaller than 1 micron. In this paper, fractional collection efficiency of two-stage electrostatic precipitator comprising of alternating electric field charger and DC supplied parallel-plate collection stage has been investigated. The total number collection efficiency for PM2.5 particles was higher than 95% and mass collection efficiency >99%. Fractional collection efficiency for particles between 300 nm and 1 μm was >95%.

  17. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  18. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  19. SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCT VALUES FROM THE HEXAVALENT PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Davies, T.H.

    1959-12-15

    An improved precipitation of fission products on bismuth phosphate from an aqueous mineral acid solution also containing hexavalent plutonium by incorporating, prior to bismuth phosphate precipitation, from 0.05 to 2.5 grams/ liter of zirconium phosphate, niobium oxide. and/or lanthanum fluoride is described. The plutonium remains in solution.

  20. Solar wind precipitation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenberg, G.; Dieval, C.; Nilsson, H.; Kallio, E.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.; Shematovich, V.; Bisikalo, D.

    2011-10-01

    We have found that solar wind particles frequently precipitate onto the atmosphere of Mars [1,2]. The precipitating particles contribute to the energy and matter flux into the ionosphere. We use ion data from the ASPERA-3 instrument onboard Mars Express to investigate the precipitation patterns, processes and the total transfer of energy and matter from the solar wind to the atmosphere. The main reason for the proton and alpha particle precipitation is likely the large gyroradii of hot particles compared to the size of the induced magnetosphere/magnetic barrier. We find that the particle penetration depends on the direction of the convection electric field in the solar wind but that the crustal magnetic fields have very little influence. The total energy flux is low compared to the solar radiation heating on the dayside, but a significant energy source on the nightside. We also believe that the solar wind alphaparticles precipitating into the atmosphere is an important source of the neutral helium in the Martian atmosphere. We combine our observations with computer modeling [3,4]. We have applied a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method to solve the kinetic equation for the H/H+ transport in the upper Martian atmosphere including CO2, N2 and O. We conclude that the induced magnetic field around Mars plays the crucial role in the transport of charged particles in the upper atmosphere, and it determines the energy deposition of the solar wind.

  1. Method of repressing the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate

    DOEpatents

    Newby, B.J.; Rhodes, D.W.

    1973-12-25

    Boric acid or a borate salt is added to aqueous solutions of fluoride containing radioactive wastes generated during the reprocessing of zirconium alloy nuclear fuels which are to be converted to solid form by calcining in a fluidized bed. The addition of calcium nitrate to the aqueous waste solutions to prevent fluoride volatility during calcination, causes the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate, which tends to form a gel at fluoride concentrations of 3.0 M or greater. The boron containing species introduced into the solution by the addition of the boric acid or borate salt retard the formation of the calcium fluozirconate precipitate and prevent formation of the gel. These boron containing species can be introduced into the solution by the addition of a borate salt but preferably are introduced by the addition of an aqueous solution of boric acid. (Official Gazette)

  2. Dissolved Organic Carbon In Precipitation At A Coastal Rural Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, D.; Daley, M.; Sive, B. C.; Talbot, R. W.; McDowell, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a ubiquitous component of precipitation. This DOC is a complex mixture of compounds from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The amount and chemistry of the DOC in precipitation has been studied for a variety of reasons: as a source of acidity, as a source of C to marine and terrestrial ecosystems, or to track the fate of individual compounds or pollutants. In most cases, past studies have focused on particular compounds or a limited number of precipitation events. Very little is known about the temporal trends in DOC or the relationship between DOC and other constituents of precipitation. We collected precipitation events for more than five years at a rural coastal site in New Hampshire. We evaluated the seasonal patterns and compared the DOC concentrations to other typical measures of the wet atmospheric deposition (ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride). In addition, we compared the DOC in precipitation to the concentrations of various organic constituents of the atmosphere. The volume weighted mean C concentration was 0.75 mg C/L with concentrations in the summer significantly higher than in the other three seasons. The DOC concentration was most strongly associated with ammonium concentrations (r=0.81), but was also significantly related to nitrate (r=0.50) and sulfate (r=0.63) concentrations. There was no significant association between DOC and chloride concentrations. Preliminary regression tree analysis suggests that the DOC concentration in precipitation was best predicted by the atmospheric concentration of methyl vinyl ketone, an oxidation product of isoprene. These results suggest that both terrestrial biogenic and anthropogenic sources may be important precursors to the C removed from the atmosphere during precipitation events.

  3. Statistical study of precipitating electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontheim, E. G.; Stasiewicz, K.; Chandler, M. O.; Ong, R. S. B.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Energy spectra of precipitating electrons are fitted to the sum of three distributions: a power law, a Maxwellian and a Gaussian. This fitting procedure determines seven parameters which characterize the essential features of each spectrum. These characteristic parameters are used to carry out various studies involving precipitating electrons. It is shown that the absence of the power-law population from a particular spectrum is related to the softness of the precipitating primary flux, that the Maxwellian temperature and the Gaussian peak energy have a positive correlation the strength of which varies with local time, that the upward moving Gaussian population has a loss cone distribution, and that the one dimensional velocity distribution parallel to the magnetic field occasionally displays a plateau or a hump on the tail.

  4. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  5. Periodic Precipitation Patterns during Coalescence of Reacting Sessile Droplets.

    PubMed

    Jehannin, Marie; Charton, Sophie; Karpitschka, Stefan; Zemb, Thomas; Möhwald, Helmuth; Riegler, Hans

    2015-10-27

    The coalescence behavior of two sessile drops that contain different chemical reactants (cerium nitrate and oxalic acid) and its impact on the formation of the solid precipitate (cerium oxalate) are investigated. With different liquids, the surface tension difference in the moment of drop-drop contact can induce a Marangoni flow. This flow can strongly influence the drop-drop coalescence behavior and thus, with reacting liquids, also the reaction and its products (through the liquid mixing). In our study we find three distinctly different coalescence behaviors ("barrier", "intermediate", "noncoalescence"), in contrast to only two behaviors that were observed in the case of nonreacting liquids. The amount of liquid mixing and thus the precipitation rate are very different for the three cases. The "intermediate" case, which exhibits the strongest mixing, has been studied in more detail. For high oxalic acid concentrations, mainly needle-like aggregates, and for low concentrations, mainly flower-like precipitate morphologies are obtained. In a transition range of the oxalic acid concentration, both morphologies can be produced. With the applied coalescence conditions, the different aggregate particles are arranged and fixed in a precipitate raft in a regular, periodic line pattern. This confirms the drop-drop coalescence configuration as a convection-reaction-diffusion system, which can have stationary as well as oscillatory behavior depending on the system parameters.

  6. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  7. Measurement and modeling of asphaltene precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, N.E.; Hobbs, R.E.; Kashou, S.F. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on experimental asphaltene precipitation data on several live-oil/solvent mixtures at reservoir conditions measured to study the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on precipitate formation and the relationships between critical properties, PVT phase behavior, and precipitate formation. Data generated by the model can be used to identify operating conditions conducive to precipitate formation.

  8. Electron precipitation pattern and substorm morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Burch, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Patterns of the precipitation of low energy electrons observed by polar satellites were examined as functions of substorm phase. Precipitation boundaries are generally identifiable at the low latitude edge of polar cusp electron precipitation and at the poleward edge of precipitation in the premidnight sector. Both of these boundaries move equatorward when the interplanetary magnetic field turns southward.

  9. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  10. Nonlinear Dynamics of Banded Iron Formation Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Xu, H.; Merino, E.

    2010-12-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) carry important information on the early evolution of the Earth. The actual mechanisms for their formation remain controversial. We have shown that the passage from predominant occurrence of BIFs in the Archaean-Early Proterozoic to their absence thereafter may have reflected compositional changes in the oceanic crust. Fe-Si-rich geologic fluids can be generated only from Al-poor oceanic crust through hydrothermal leaching by seawater. Al enrichment in the oceanic crust after ~ 1.7 Ga ago tends to prevent BIF formation. We have further shown that periodic precipitation of iron and silica minerals in alternating bands can be induced by positive feedbacks among relevant chemical reactions as a Fe-Si-rich hydrothermal fluid mixes with ambient seawater. Complexation of dissolved Fe(II) with silicic acid plays a crucial role in the self-organized process. Small-scale (< 1 cm) BIF bandings are thus attributed to the internal dynamics of the chemical system, rather than to an outside force such as surface temperature variations. In this presentation, we provide a detailed stability analysis of the model we developed to clarify the physical and chemical conditions for oscillatory precipitation of BIFs.

  11. Experimental study of brushite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifuzzaman, S. M.; Rohani, S.

    2004-07-01

    A systematic approach was developed for the synthesis of orthophosphates in the laboratory. A set of experiments was designed to investigate the influence of initial calcium and phosphorus concentration on the precipitated phase, nucleation pH and product size distribution at 25°C. Another goal was to characterize the precipitated phase. The investigation was conducted in a batch reactor. The initial molar concentration of calcium chloride and hydrated sodium phosphate solutions was varied from 0.005 to 0.08-mole dm -3 and the solution pH was kept under 7.1. Analysis by powder XRD, FTIR and elemental P/Ca revealed that the crystals precipitated were pure brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate), as expected, except in one experiment in which amorphous calcium phosphate precipitated. The brushite crystals produced had plate-like morphology as investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nucleation pH showed a decreasing trend as the concentration of the calcium and phosphorus increased in the reactor, but the volume mean diameter of the crystals and the span of the crystal size distribution did not show any sensitivity to the changes in the initial calcium and phosphorus concentration.

  12. Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

  13. Grassland responses to precipitation extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland ecosystems are naturally subjected to periods of prolonged drought and sequences of wet years. Climate change is expected to enhance the magnitude and frequency of extreme events at the intraannual and multiyear scales. Are grassland responses to extreme precipitation simply a response to ...

  14. Waste and Simulant Precipitation Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.

    2000-11-29

    As Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have studied methods of preparing high-level waste for vitrification in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), questions have arisen with regard to the formation of insoluble waste precipitates at inopportune times. One option for decontamination of the SRS waste streams employs the use of an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Testing of the process during FY 1999 identified problems associated with the formation of precipitates during cesium sorption tests using CST. These precipitates may, under some circumstances, obstruct the pores of the CST particles and, hence, interfere with the sorption process. In addition, earlier results from the DWPF recycle stream compatibility testing have shown that leaching occurs from the CST when it is stored at 80 C in a high-pH environment. Evidence was established that some level of components of the CST, such as silica, was leached from the CST. This report describes the results of equilibrium modeling and precipitation studies associated with the overall stability of the waste streams, CST component leaching, and the presence of minor components in the waste streams.

  15. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) TRAINING MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual assists engineers in using a computer program, the ESPVI 4.0W, that models all elements of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The program is a product of the Electric Power Research Institute and runs in the Windows environment. Once an ESP is accurately modeled, the...

  16. Effect of organic acids on Salmonella colonization and shedding in weaned piglets in a seeder model.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joris; Missotten, Joris; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Dierick, Noël; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Smet, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Piglets (n = 128) weaned at 21 days of age were used in a 35-day seeder model to evaluate the effects of dietary additives differing in active ingredients, chemical, and physical formulation, and dose on Salmonella colonization and shedding and intestinal microbial populations. Treatments were a negative control (basal diet), the positive control (challenged, basal diet), and six treatments similar to the positive control but supplemented with the following active ingredients (dose excluding essential oils or natural extracts): triglycerides with butyric acid (1.30 g kg(-1)); formic and citric acids and essential oils (2.44 g kg(-1)); coated formic, coated sorbic, and benzoic acids (2.70 g kg(-1)); salts of formic, sorbic, acetic, and propionic acids, their free acids, and natural extracts (2.92 g kg(-1)); triglycerides with caproic and caprylic acids and coated oregano oil (1.80 g kg(-1)); and caproic, caprylic, lauric, and lactic acids (1.91 g kg(-1)). On day 6, half the piglets (seeder pigs) in each group were orally challenged with a Salmonella Typhimurium nalidixic acid-resistant strain (4 × 10(9) and 1.2 × 10(9) log CFU per pig in replicate experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Two days later, they were transferred to pens with an equal number of contact pigs. Salmonella shedding was determined 2 days after challenge exposure and then on a weekly basis. On day 34 or 35, piglets were euthanized to sample tonsils, ileocecal lymph nodes, and ileal and cecal digesta contents. The two additives, both containing short-chain fatty acids and one of them also containing benzoic acid and the other one also containing essential oils, and supplemented at more than 2.70 g kg(-1), showed evidence of reducing Salmonella fecal shedding and numbers of coliforms and Salmonella in cecal digesta. However, colonization of tonsils and ileocecal lymph nodes by Salmonella was not affected. Supplementing butyric acid and medium-chain fatty acids at the applied dose failed to inhibit

  17. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution. The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products.

  18. METHOD OF RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-11-01

    A process is presented for pretreating aqueous nitric acid- plutonium solutions containing a small quantity of hydrazine that has formed as a decomposition product during the dissolution of neutron-bombarded uranium in nitric acid and that impairs the precipitation of plutonium on bismuth phosphate. The solution is digested with alkali metal dichromate or potassium permanganate at between 75 and 100 deg C; sulfuric acid at approximately 75 deg C and sodium nitrate, oxaiic acid plus manganous nitrate, or hydroxylamine are added to the solution to secure the plutonium in the tetravalent state and make it suitable for precipitation on BiPO/sub 4/.

  19. Application of zirconium-modified silica gel as a stationary phase in the ion-exclusion chromatography of carboxylic acids. II. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with pyromellitic acid as eluent and with suppressed conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K

    2001-06-22

    The application of zirconium-modified silica gels (Zr-Silica) as stationary phases for ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection (IEC-CD) for C1-C8 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, caproic, heptanoic and caprylic acids) was carried out using pyromellitic acid as the eluent. Zr-Silicas were prepared by the reaction of the silanol group on the surface of silica gel with zirconium tetrabutoxide [Zr(OCH2CH2CH2CH3)4] in ethanol solution. An ASRS-Ultra anion self-regenerating suppressor in the K+ form was used for the enhancement of conductimetric detector response of these aliphatic carboxylic acids. A Zr-Silica adsorbed on 10 mg zirconium g(-1) silica gel was the most suitable stationary phase in IEC-CD for the separation of these aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation and highly sensitive detection for these aliphatic carboxylic acids were achieved in 25 min by IEC-CD with the Zr-Silica column (250x4.6 mm I.D.) and a 0.2 mM pyromellitic acid containing 0.15% heptanol as the eluent.

  20. APols-aided protein precipitation: a rapid method for concentrating proteins for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhibin; Hawley, Brett; Seebun, Deeptee; Figeys, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Amphipols (APols) are a newly designed and milder class of detergent. They have been used primarily in protein structure analysis for membrane protein trapping and stabilization. We have recently demonstrated that APols can be used as an alternative detergent for proteome extraction and digestion, to achieve a "One-stop" single-tube workflow for proteomics. In this workflow, APols are removed by precipitation after protein digestion without depleting the digested peptides. Here, we took further advantage of this precipitation characteristic of APols to concentrate proteins from diluted samples. In contrast with tryptic peptides, a decrease in pH leads to the unbiased co-precipitation of APols with proteins, including globular hydrophilic proteins. We demonstrated that this precipitation is a combined effect of acid precipitation and the APols' protein interactions. Also, we have been able to demonstrate that APols-aided protein precipitation works well on diluted samples, such as secretome sample, and provides a rapid method for protein concentration.

  1. Protein concentration by precipitation with pyrogallol red prior to electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, T; Abbott, N J; Fox, P; Williams, K M

    1995-01-01

    The pyrogallol red protein assay (Clinical Chemistry 1986, 32, 1551-1554) is based upon formation of a blue protein-dye complex in the presence of molybdate under acidic conditions. However, centrifugation of the assay mixture results in loss of color yield and precipitation of the protein-dye complex which can be recovered and resolubilized to achieve protein concentration prior to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The method has been evaluated relative to trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation for recovery and electrophoresis of commercial protein and peptide molecular weight markers. Precipitation with pyrogallol red-molybdate (PRM) gives better and more uniform recovery of both proteins and peptides as compared to TCA. The lower limit of PRM precipitation is similar to TCA and corresponds to 1 microgram protein per mL assay mixture. This is equivalent to 100 microL of 10 micrograms/mL protein using the standard protein assay or 1 microgram/mL protein using a modified assay incorporating a fivefold concentrate of the dye reagent. Application of the method is demonstrated by concentration of urinary proteins. The method is simple and economic and useful for conserving trace amounts of precious sample as it allows recovery of protein for electrophoresis following protein assay.

  2. Relation of precipitation quality to storm type, and deposition of dissolved chemical constituents from precipitation in Massachusetts, 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, F.B.; Melching, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected for 83 storms at a rural inland site in Princeton, Mass., and 73 storms at a rural coastal site in Truro, Mass., to examine the quality of precipitation from storms and relate quality to three storm types (oceanic cyclone, continental cyclone, and cold front). At the inland site, Princeton, ranked-means of precipitation depth, storm duration, specific conductance, and concentrations and loads of hydrogen, sulfate, aluminum, bromide, and copper ions were affected by storm type. At the coastal site, Truro, ranked means of precipitation depth, storm duration, and concentrations and loads of calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions were affected by storm type. Precipitation chemistry at the coastal site was 85 percent oceanic in orgin, whereas precipitation 72 kilometers inland was 60 percent hydrogen, nitrate, and sulfate ions, reflecting fossil-fuel combustion. Concentrations and loads for specific conductance and 9 chemical constituents on an annual and seasonal basis were determined from National Atmospheric Deposition Program data for spring 1983 through winter 1985 at Quabbin (rural, inland), Waltham (suburban, inland) and Truro (rural, coastal), Massachusetts. Concentrations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, and chloride concentrations were highest at the coast and much lower inland, with very little difference between Waltham and Quabbin. Loads of ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen are highest at Quabbin and are about equal at Waltham and Truro. About twice as much nitrate and hydrogen and about 35 percent more sulfate is deposited at Quabbin than at Waltham or Truro; this pattern indicates that the interior of Massachusetts receives more acidic precipitation than do the eastern or the coastal areas of Massachusetts.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and....1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid (C6H6O6), CAS Reg. No. 000499-12... acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the calcium salt from cane...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aconitic acid. 184.1007 Section 184.1007 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1007 Aconitic acid. (a) Aconitic acid (1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid... Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane processing, by precipitation as the...

  8. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  9. Precipitation of a poorly soluble model drug during in vitro lipolysis: characterization and dissolution of the precipitate.

    PubMed

    Sassene, Philip J; Knopp, Matthias M; Hesselkilde, Janne Z; Koradia, Vishal; Larsen, Anne; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2010-12-01

    Precipitation of cinnarizine during in vitro lipolysis of a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was characterized to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the precipitation. During in vitro lipolysis of the SMEDDS with or without cinnarizine, samples were taken at several timepoints and ultracentrifuged. Cinnarizine content in the pellet increased from 4% to 59% during lipolysis. The precipitation of cinnarizine during in vitro lipolysis correlated well with the degree of lipid digestion, determined by sodium hydroxide addition. The pellet from the endpoint of lipolysis was isolated and subjected to dissolution in biorelevant media. Dissolution rate of cinnarizine from pellets containing precipitated cinnarizine was initially 10-fold higher than dissolution from blank pellet spiked with crystalline cinnarizine, reaching more than 50% drug dissolved in the first minute. Pellets were further characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). Both methods indicated the presence of liquid crystalline phases of calcium fatty acid soaps, but no presence of crystalline cinnarizine in the pellet. Overall, dissolution studies along with XRPD and PLM analysis indicate that cinnarizine precipitating during in vitro lipolysis of this SMEDDS is not crystalline, suggesting an either amorphous form or a molecular dispersion.

  10. Global Precipitation Mission Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) software provides graphic visualization tools that enable easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. It was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground-based, S- and C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite's precipitation radar instrument. This design is also applicable to other groundbased and space-based radars, and allows both ground- and space-based radar data to be compared for validation purposes. The tool creates an operational system that routinely performs several steps. It ingests satellite radar data (precipitation radar data from TRMM) and groundbased meteorological radar data from a number of sources. Principally, the ground radar data comes from national networks of weather radars (see figure). The data ingested by the visualization tool must conform to the data formats used in GPM Validation Network Geometry-matched data product generation. The software also performs match-ups of the radar volume data for the ground- and space-based data, as well as statistical and graphical analysis (including two-dimensional graphical displays) on the match-up data. The visualization tool software is written in IDL, and can be operated either in the IDL development environment or as a stand-alone executable function.

  11. Membrane-based wet electrostatic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Bayless; Liming Shi; Gregory Kremer; Ben J. Stuart; James Reynolds; John Caine

    2005-06-01

    Emissions of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in both primary and secondary form, are difficult to capture in typical dry electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Wet (or waterbased) ESPs are well suited for collection of acid aerosols and fine particulates because of greater corona power and virtually no re-entrainment. However, field disruptions because of spraying (misting) of water, formation of dry spots (channeling), and collector surface corrosion limit the applicability of current wet ESPs in the control of secondary PM2.5. Researchers at Ohio University have patented novel membrane collection surfaces to address these problems. Water-based cleaning in membrane collectors made of corrosion-resistant fibers is facilitated by capillary action between the fibers, maintaining an even distribution of water. This paper presents collection efficiency results of lab-scale and pilot-scale testing at First Energy's Bruce Mansfield Plant for the membrane-based wet ESP. The data indicate that a membrane wet ESP was more effective at collecting fine particulates, acid aerosols, and oxidized mercury than the metal-plate wet ESP, even with {approximately}15% less collecting area. 15 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Membrane-based wet electrostatic precipitation.

    PubMed

    Bayless, David J; Shi, Liming; Kremer, Gregory; Stuart, Ben J; Reynolds, James; Caine, John

    2005-06-01

    Emissions of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in both primary and secondary form, are difficult to capture in typical dry electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Wet (or water-based) ESPs are well suited for collection of acid aerosols and fine particulates because of greater corona power and virtually no re-entrainment. However, field disruptions because of spraying (misting) of water, formation of dry spots (channeling), and collector surface corrosion limit the applicability of current wet ESPs in the control of secondary PM2.5. Researchers at Ohio University have patented novel membrane collection surfaces to address these problems. Water-based cleaning in membrane collectors made of corrosion-resistant fibers is facilitated by capillary action between the fibers, maintaining an even distribution of water. This paper presents collection efficiency results of lab-scale and pilot-scale testing at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant for the membrane-based wet ESP. The data indicate that a membrane wet ESP was more effective at collecting fine particulates, acid aerosols, and oxidized mercury than the metal-plate wet ESP, even with approximately 15% less collecting area.

  13. MAP3S/RAINE precipitation chemistry network: quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The participants of the precipitation chemistry network of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Regional Acidity of Industrial Emissions (MAP3S/RAINE) have developed procedures for maintenance of high quality output from the network operation. The documented procedures-most of which were in place before the network began sampling in 1976-include those for site selection and verification, field equipment, laboratory and data handling, and external laboratory quality testing.

  14. Trends in precipitation and stream-water chemistry in the northeastern United States, water years 1984-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, D.W.; Mast, M. Alisa

    1999-01-01

    Trends in precipitation and stream-water chemistry during water years 1984-96 were examined at eight precipitation monitoring sites and five nearby streams operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northeastern United States. The statistical analyses indicate the following: 1)Stream-water sulfate (SO4) concentrations decreased at seven of eight precipitation monitoring sites and in each of five streams. 2)Calcium plus magnesium (Ca + Mg) concentrations decreased at seven of eight precipitation monitoring sites and in three of five streams. 3)Precipitation acidity decreased at five of eight precipitation monitoring sites, but alkalinity increased in only one stream. These results indicate that decreases in atmospheric deposition of SO4 have resulted in decreased precipitation acidity. The chemical response of stream water to changes in precipitation chemistry was complex. Decreases in stream-water SO4 concentrations generally matched decreases of precipitation SO4. In stream water, increases in alkalinity were uncommon because decreases in SO4 concentrations often were accompanied by decreases in Ca + Mg concentrations. The decreases in Ca + Mg concentrations might be related to depletion of base cations from soil caused by long-term exposure to acidic deposition. Increases in streamwater alkalinity might not occur until rates of acidic deposition are reduced to substantially less than the rate of cation resupply by weathering and atmospheric deposition. In areas where forests are aggrading, recovery of stream-water alkalinity will be delayed further because of the acidifying effect of biomass accumulation.

  15. Chemical characteristics of precipitation at metropolitan Newark in the US East Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fei; Gao, Yuan

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of precipitation in the polluted coastal atmosphere, a total of 46 event-based precipitation samples were collected using a wet-only automatic precipitation collector from September 2006 to October 2007 at metropolitan Newark, New Jersey in the US East Coast. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography for the concentrations of major inorganic ions (Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, F -, NH 4+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na +, K +) and organic acid species (CH 3COO -, HCOO -, CH 2(COO) 22-, C 2O 42-). Selected trace metals (Sb, Pb, Al, V, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd) in samples were determined by ICPMS. Mass concentration results show that SO 42- was the most dominant anion accounting for 51% of the total anions, controlling the acidity of the precipitation. NH 4+ accounted for 48.6% of the total cations, dominating the precipitation neutralization. CH 3COO - and HCOO - were the two dominant water-soluble organic acid species, accounting for 42% and 40% of the total organic acids analyzed, respectively. Al, Zn and Fe were the three major trace metals in precipitation, accounting for 34%, 27%, and 25% of the total mass of metals analyzed. The pH values in precipitation ranged from 4.4 to 4.9, indicating an acidic nature. Enrichment Factor (EF) Analysis showed that Na +, Cl -, Mg 2+ and K + in the precipitation were primarily of marine origin, while most of the Fe, Co and Al were from crust sources. Pb, V, Cr, Ni were moderately enriched with EFs ranging 43-410, while Zn, Sb, Cu, Cd and F - were highly enriched with EFs > 700, indicating significant anthropogenic influences. Factor analysis suggests 6 major sources contributing to the observed composition of precipitation at this location: (1) nitrogen-enriched soil, (2) secondary pollution processes, (3) marine sources, (4) incinerations, (5) oil combustions, and (6) malonate-vanadium enriched sources. To further explore the source-precipitation event relationships and seasonality, cluster analysis

  16. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: NASA Precipitation Processing System (PPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2008-01-01

    NASA is contributing the precipitation measurement data system PPS to support the GPM mission. PPS will distribute all GPM data products including NASA s GMI data products freely and quickly. PPS is implementing no system mechanisms for restricting access to GPM data. PPS is implementing no system mechanisms for charging for GPM data products. PPS will provide a number of geographical and parameter subsetting features available to its users. The first implementation of PPS (called PPS--) will assume processing of TRMM data effective 1 June 2008. TRMM realtime data will be available via PPS- to all users requesting access

  18. Agitation in DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1986-01-20

    An experimental program to test the reference agitator design for DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks has been completed. It was not known whether the reference agitator design would produce uniform mixing of precipitate slurry. There was also a concern that the reference agitator would produce excessive foaming of precipitate. An alternative agitator design that produces good mixing with little or no foam buildup was identified in the tests and is recommended for use in DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks. 7 refs.

  19. Precipitation hardening in aluminum alloy 6022

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, W.F.; Laughlin, D.E.

    1999-03-05

    Although the precipitation process in Al-Mg-Si alloys has been extensively studied, the understanding of the hardening process is still incomplete, since any change in composition, processing and aging practices, etc., could affect the precipitation hardening behavior. In this paper, hardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy have been utilized to study the precipitation hardening behavior in aluminum alloy 6022.

  20. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  1. Antimicrobial effects of virgin coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Michael; Matt, Laurie; Rubin, Evelyn; Visitacion, Mark Paul; Haller, Nairmeen A; Grey, Scott F; Woolverton, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide; in addition, the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant C. difficile is becoming a significant problem. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown previously to have the antimicrobial activity. This study evaluates the lipid components of VCO for the control of C. difficile. VCO and its most active individual fatty acids were tested to evaluate their antimicrobial effect on C. difficile in vitro. The data indicate that exposure to lauric acid (C12) was the most inhibitory to growth (P<.001), as determined by a reduction in colony-forming units per milliliter. Capric acid (C10) and caprylic acid (C8) were inhibitory to growth, but to a lesser degree. VCO did not inhibit the growth of C. difficile; however, growth was inhibited when bacterial cells were exposed to 0.15-1.2% lipolyzed coconut oil. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the disruption of both the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of cells exposed to 2 mg/mL of lauric acid. Changes in bacterial cell membrane integrity were additionally confirmed for VCO and select fatty acids using Live/Dead staining. This study demonstrates the growth inhibition of C. difficile mediated by medium-chain fatty acids derived from VCO.

  2. Chemical and sulfur isotopic composition of precipitation in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangxu; Guo, Qingjun; Chen, Tongbin; Lang, Yunchao; Peters, Marc; Tian, Liyan; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Chunyu

    2016-03-01

    China is experiencing serious acid rain contamination, with Beijing among the worst-hit areas. To understand the chemical feature and the origin of inorganic ions in precipitation of Beijing, 128 precipitation samples were collected and analyzed for major water-soluble ions and δ(34)S. The pH values ranged from 3.68 to 7.81 and showed a volume weighted average value (VWA) of 5.02, with a frequency of acid rain of 26.8 %. The VWA value of electrical conductivity (EC) was 68.6 μS/cm, which was nearly 4 times higher than the background value of northern China. Ca(2+) represented the main cation; SO4 (2-) and NO3 (-) were the dominant anion in precipitation. Our study showed that SO4 (2-) and NO3 (-) originated from coal and fossil fuel combustion; Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) were from the continental sources. The δ(34)S value of SO4 (2-) in precipitation ranged from +2.1 to +12.8‰ with an average value of +4.7‰. The δ(34)S value showed a winter maximum and a summer minimum tendency, which was mainly associated with temperature-dependent isotope equilibrium fractionation as well as combustion of coal with relatively positive δ(34)S values in winter. Moreover, the δ(34)S values revealed that atmospheric sulfur in Beijing are mainly correlated to coal burning and traffic emission; coal combustion constituted a significant fraction of the SO4 (2-) in winter precipitation.

  3. Skill assessment of precipitation nowcasting in Mediterranean Heavy Precipitation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Joan; Berenguer, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Very short-term precipitation forecasting (i.e nowcasting) systems may provide valuable support in the weather surveillance process as they allow to issue automated early warnings for heavy precipitation events (HPE) as reviewed recently by Pierce et al. (2012). The need for warnings is essential in densely populated regions of small catchments, such as those typically found in Mediterranean coastal areas, prone to flash-floods. Several HPEs that occurred in NE Spain are analyzed using a nowcasting system based on the extrapolation of rainfall fields observed with weather radar following a Lagrangian approach developed and tested successfully in previous studies (Berenguer et al. 2005, 2011). Radar-based nowcasts, with lead times up to 3 h, are verified here against quality-controlled weather radar quantitative precipitation estimates and also against a dense network of raingauges. The basic questions studied are the dependence of forecast quality with lead time and rainfall amounts in several high-impact HPEs such as the 7 September 2005 Llobregat Delta river tornado outbreak (Bech et al. 2007) or the 2 November 2008 supercell tornadic thunderstorms (Bech et al. 2011) - both cases had intense rainfall rates (30' amounts exceeding 38.2 and 12.3 mm respectively) and daily values above 100 mm. Verification scores indicated that forecasts of 30' precipitation amounts provided useful guidance for lead times up to 60' for moderate intensities (up to 1 mm in 30') and up to 2.5h for lower rates (above 0.1 mm). On the other hand correlations of radar estimates and forecasts exceeded Eulerian persistence of precipitation estimates for lead times of 1.5 h for moderate intensities (up to 0.8 mm/h). We complete the analysis with a discussion on the reliability of threshold to lead time dependence based on the event-to-event variability found. This work has been done in the framework of the ProFEWS project (CGL2010-15892). References Bech J, N Pineda, T Rigo, M Aran, J Amaro, M

  4. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  5. Mercuric iodate precipitation from radioiodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOEpatents

    Partridge, Jerry A.; Bosuego, Gail P.

    1982-01-01

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  6. Quantitative validation of different protein precipitation methods in proteome analysis of blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Maria; Winkler, Wolfgang; Hayden, Hubert; Diestinger, Michael; Eliasen, Maja; Gesslbauer, Bernd; Miller, Ingrid; Chang, Martina; Kungl, Andreas; Roth, Erich; Oehler, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    For the preparation of proteins for proteome analysis, precipitation is frequently used to concentrate proteins and to remove interfering compounds. Various methods for protein precipitation are applied, which rely on different chemical principles. This study compares the changes in the protein composition of human blood platelet extracts after precipitation with ethanol (EtOH) or trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Both methods yielded the same amount of proteins from the platelet preparations. However, the EtOH-precipitated samples had to be dialyzed because of the considerable salt content. To characterize single platelet proteins, samples were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence differential gel electrophoresis. More than 90% of all the spots were equally present in the EtOH- and TCA-precipitated samples. However, both precipitation methods showed a smaller correlation with nonprecipitated samples (EtOH 74.9%, TCA 79.2%). Several proteins were either reduced or relatively enriched in the precipitated samples. The proteins varied randomly in molecular weight and isoelectric point. This study shows that protein precipitation leads to specific changes in the protein composition of proteomics samples. This depends more on the specific structure of the protein than on the precipitating agent used in the experiment.

  7. Detection of volcanic influence on global precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, N. P.; Weaver, A. J.; Zwiers, F. W.; Wehner, M. F.

    2004-06-01

    Observations of terrestrial precipitation from the latter half of the 20th century are compared with precipitation simulated by the Parallel Climate Model to determine which external forcings have had a detectable influence on precipitation. Consistent with a previous study using another model, we found that the global mean response to all forcings combined was significantly correlated with that observed. A detection and attribution analysis applied to the simulated and observed precipitation indicated that the volcanic signal is detectable both on its own and in a multiple regression with other forcings. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that shortwave forcings exert a larger influence on precipitation than longwave forcings.

  8. Aluminum in Precipitation, Streams, and Shallow Groundwater in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd, W. W.; Johnson, A. H.; Huss, J. B.; Turner, R. S.

    1981-08-01

    Total (acid reactive) aluminum deposited in bulk precipitation in the McDonalds Branch (New Jersey) basin was 140 mg m-2 yr-1 for the period May 1978-May 1980. Stream and groundwater outputs for the same period were 149 and 110 mg m-2 yr-1, respectively. Aluminum inputs and outputs were highest during summer months because of elevated concentrations coupled with increased precipitation and streamflow. Median acid reactive Al concentrations in precipitation, stream water, and groundwater were 100, 350, and 230 μg 1-1, respectively. In streams, acid reactive Al concentration is correlated with dissolved organic matter concentration, suggesting that Al is transported as an organometallic complex. Shallow groundwater Al concentration is apparently controlled by gibbsite solubility in mineral soils and thus is pH dependent. The relatively high Al concentrations are attributable to acid conditions and mobile organic matter.

  9. Temperature-precipitation relationships for Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect

    Isaac, G.A. ); Stuart, R.A. )

    1992-08-01

    The dependence of daily precipitation upon average daily temperature has been examined for all seasons using climatological data from 56 stations across Canada. For east and west coast sites, and the north, more precipitation occurs with warm and cold temperatures during January and July, respectively. In the middle of the country, the temperature dependence tends to increase toward the Arctic, with strong dependencies in the Northwest Territories and weaker dependencies on the Prairies. Southern Ontario and Quebec show almost no dependence of precipitation upon temperature during July, but more precipitation falls during warm weather during the winter. For stations within and immediately downwind of the Rockies, for all seasons, more precipitation occurs when the temperature is colder. These temperature-precipitation relationships can provide information on precipitation formation processes, as well as assistance in weather and climate forecasting.

  10. Illinois Precipitation Research: A Focus on Cloud and Precipitation Modification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Czys, Robert R.; Scott, Robert W.; Westcott, Nancy E.

    1991-05-01

    At the heart of the 40-year atmospheric research endeavors of the Illinois State Water Survey have been studies to understand precipitation processes in order to learn how precipitation is modified purposefully and accidentally, and to measure the physical and socio-economic consequences of cloud and precipitation modification. Major field and laboratory activities of past years or briefly treated as a basis for describing the key findings of the past ten years. Recent studies of inadvertent and purposeful cloud and rain modification and their effects are emphasized, including a 1989 field project conducted in Illinois and key findings from an on-going exploratory experiment addressing cloud and rain modification. Results are encouraging for the use of dynamic seeding on summer cumuliform clouds of the Midwest.Typical in-cloud results at 10°C reveal multiple updrafts that tend to be filled with large amounts of supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Natural ice production is vigorous, and initial concentrations are larger than expected from ice nuclei. However, natural ice production is not so vigorous as to preclude opportunities for seeding. Radar-based studies of such clouds reveal that their echo cores usually can be identified prior to desired seeding times, which is significant for the evaluation of their behavior. Cell characteristics show considerable variance under different types of meteorological conditions. Analysis of cell mergers reveals that under conditions of weak vertical shear, mid-level intercell flow at 4 km occurs as the reflectivity bridge between cells rapidly intensifies. The degree of intensification of single-echo cores after they merge is strongly related to the age and vigor of the cores before they join. Hence, cloud growth may be enhanced if seeding can encourage echo cores to merge at critical times. Forecasting research has developed a technique for objectively distinguishing between operational seeding and nonoperational days and for

  11. Paleo Mars energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, Markku; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Kallio, Esa

    2015-12-01

    A young Mars may well have possessed a global dipolar magnetic field that provided protection for the planet's atmosphere from the space weather environment. Against this background, we study in the present paper the effect of various dipole magnetic fields on particle precipitation (range 10 keV-4.5 MeV) on the upper Martian atmosphere as the magnetosphere gradually declined to become an induced magnetosphere. We utilized a hybrid plasma model to provide, in a self-consistent fashion, simulations (that included ion-kinetic effects) of the interaction between the Martian obstacle (magnetized or otherwise) and the solar wind. Besides the intrinsic dipole, with field strengths of ~100 nT and below, we assume modern solar and atmospheric parameters to examine the effect of the single variable, that is the dipole strength. We thereby investigated the precipitation of solar energetic particles on the upper atmosphere of the planet in circumstances characterized by the evolution of a diminishing Martian dynamo that initially generated an ideal dipolar field. It is demonstrated that an assumed Martian dipole would have provided, in the energy range investigated, significant shielding against proton impingement and that the interaction between the solar wind and the assumed Martian magnetic dipole would have been responsible for generating the shielding effect identified.

  12. Precipitation, Elevation and Relief in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, A. M.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Gemperline, J.

    2011-12-01

    TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite precipitation radar data indicate that near-surface precipitation rates vary as a function of elevation in distinct ways in different mountain ranges across the tropics. Regional maximum precipitation rates are found at very low elevation in India's Western Ghats, Hawaii, and Eastern Australia. In New Guinea, the Northern Andes, and Taiwan, the locally maximum precipitation rates occur at moderate elevations (~1000 m). Regional maximum precipitation rates occur at very high elevation (>2000 m) in the African Rift Valley and Mexico's Sierra Madre Occidental. We present a simple model to explain the occurrence of these different relationships between precipitation and elevation as a function of large-scale atmospheric conditions, including those related to flow, moisture, and lower-tropospheric static stability. Additionally, we note that spatial variability in precipitation corresponds with spatial variability in ridge-valley relief in several tropical mountain ranges. We examine topography derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data and precipitation patterns in swaths cutting perpendicular to the strike of these mountain ranges. Ridge-valley relief is defined as the standard deviation of topographic elevation parallel to the strike of the range. Ridge-valley relief varies systematically across several mountain ranges in concert with annual average precipitation. Where precipitation rates are high, ridge-valley relief is diminished and where precipitation rates are low, ridge-valley relief is maximized. The correspondence of precipitation and relief suggest a dynamic interaction between orographic precipitation and topographic development and confirms the predictions of an idealized numerical model of the co-evolution of precipitation and topography.

  13. Precipitation zones of west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Medina, Rose L.

    2007-01-01

    Whether Nevada can sustain its fast rate of growth depends in part on accurately quantifying the amount of water that is available, including precipitation. The Precipitation-Zone Method (PZM) is a way of estimating mean annual precipitation at any point. The PZM was developed using data from west-central Nevada and northeastern California, but preliminary analysis indicates it can be applied to the entire state. Patterns in the spatial distribution of precipitation were identified by mapping station locations and plotting 1971-2000 precipitation normals versus station elevation. Precipitation zones are large areas where precipitation is linearly related to elevation. Four precipitation zones with different linear relations were delineated; these zones cover much of west-central Nevada. Regression equations with adjusted R2 values of 0.89 to 0.95 were developed for each zone. All regression equations estimate similar precipitation rates at 4,000 feet, but the slopes of the regression equations become progressively shallower to the south. A geographic information system, 30-meter digital elevation model, and the regression equations were used to estimate the distribution and volumes of precipitation in each zone and in hydrographic areas of the Walker River Basin. Comparison between the PZM and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) indicate PRISM estimates are linearly related to elevation at low elevations in each zone, but PRISM estimates become non-linear at high elevations and are up to 2.5 times greater than the normals. However, PRISM under-estimates more than it over-estimates precipitation compared to the PZM. The PZM estimated the same or larger volumes of precipitation compared to PRISM in three of the zones, and the larger volumes mostly were from areas that receive greater than 15 inches/year of precipitation. Additional work is needed to accurately estimate mean annual precipitation throughout Nevada.

  14. Comparing the relationship between precipitation and river geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, A.; Luymes, R.; Bennett, M.; DaSilva, J.; Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B.

    2013-12-01

    The geochemistry of precipitation affects the geochemistry of river water. Ideally, studies of river biogeochemistry should therefore include collection and analyses of dry and wet deposition. The Global Rivers Observatory has studied the Fraser River near Vancouver since the summer of 2009 at roughly bi-weekly resolution. The interpretation of this temporal record of river biogeochemistry, particularly the various sources of solutes, could be improved with a better understanding of atmospheric contributions. In this study precipitation and river water will be analysed from the Fraser River basin for nutrients as well as major and select trace ion concentrations. The nutrients analyzed will include ammonium (NH4), nitrate and nitrate (NO3-NO2), phosphate (PO4) and silicate (SiO4). Major ions include sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), chloride (Cl), and sulfate (SO4). Trace elements may include molybdenum, strontium, barium, uranium, rubidium, manganese and iron. Samples will be collected using the bulk method which collects both wet and dry deposition . Correlating precipitation chemistry with data on wind direction may help elucidate sources of nutrients and major ions. For instance, westerly sources may transport pollution from the City of Vancouver and agricultural lands in the Fraser delta. Such pollutants may increase the acidity of precipitation and imprint the water chemistry with a unique chemical signature . The results of this study will be helpful in correcting Fraser River water data for contributions from atmospheric deposition.

  15. Precipitate hydrolysis experimental facility (PHEF): Run 64 report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.; Edwards, R.E.; Shah, H.B.; Young, S.R.

    1994-07-29

    The significant findings of Run 64 are: (a) Carbon dioxide was demonstrated to be an acceptable inertant for the actual hydrolysis process. However, based on the severe degradation of the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitate slurry stored in the Precipitate Hold Tank (PHT) at PHEF following Run 65, further evaluation of the suitability of carbon dioxide as an inertant for the long term storage of precipitate slurries is warranted. (b) Phenylboronic acid (PBA) reaction kinetics were excellent with no detectable PBA in Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) product. (c) PHA product was low in biphenyl (6 mg/l), diphenylamine (13 mg/l), and total high boiling organics (22 mg/l). (d) Reproduced vacuum collapse problems encountered in DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) water runs and demonstrated that the high vacuums experience during water runs could not be reproduced under normal operating conditions. (e) High benzene losses through stack and fugitive emissions were noted during Run 64. This may lead to poor decanter extraction performance long term and may be problem in DWPF, especially during long lay-ups or at low attainments. Approximately 69% of the benzene produced during Run 64 was released as benzene emissions.

  16. Microbially-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ser Ku; Roh, Yul

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of carbonate minerals using microorganisms (Wu Do-1) enriched from rhodoliths. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that Wu Do-1 mainly contained Proteus mirabilis. The pH decreased from 6.5 to 5.3 over the first 4 days of incubation due to microbial oxidation of organic acids, after which it increased to 7.8 over the remaining incubation period. XRD analysis showed that the precipitates were Mg-rich cal- cite (MgxCa(1-x)CO3), whereas no precipitates were formed without the addition of Wu Do-1 in D-1 medium. SEM-EDS analyses showed that the Mg-rich calcite had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of Ca, Si and Mg with an extracelluar polymeric substance (EPS). In addition, TEM-EDS analyses revealed they were hexagon in shape, 500-700 nm in size, and composed of Ca, Mg, C, and O. These results indicated that Wu Do-1 induced precipitation of Mg-rich calcite on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Ca and/or Mg ions. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate nanoparticles may play an important role in metal and carbon biogeochemistry, as well as in carbon sequestration in natural environments.

  17. Effective Removal of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution by Organic Acid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Liang, Yuyan; Chen, Xuelan; Xu, Wei; Wu, Kesheng; Wei, Hua; Xiong, Yonghua

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembled iron oxide nanocomposites are good magnetic nano-adsorbents that can be prepared using simple methods. Four types of organic acid-functionalised (oleic acid, undecenoic acid, caprylic acid or hexanoic acid) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised through a one-pot chemisorption method for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The undecenoic acid-coated MNPs (UA-MNPs) exhibited the highest adsorption efficiency and can be easily retrieved with a low-gradient magnetic separator (0.4 Tesla) at pH 5.0 aqueous solution. The TC adsorption process on the UA-MNPs followed the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities increased from 86.96 mg g(-1) to 222.2 mg g(-1) with the increase in temperature from 288 K to 318 K. The kinetics of adsorption fits pseudo-second-order model perfectly with a rate constant, 5.946 g mg(-1) min(-1) at 298 K. The positive values of the enthalpy (AH) and the negative value of the free energy (AG) indicated an endothermic and spontaneous adsorption process of TC on the UA-MNPs. Moreover, the UA-MNPs possessed excellent ability to adsorb the other three major types of TC antibiotics, including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline.

  18. Preparation of palm olein enriched with medium chain fatty acids by lipase acidolysis.

    PubMed

    Chnadhapuram, Mounika; Sunkireddy, Yella Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Medium chain (MC) fatty acids, caprylic (C8:0) and capric (C10:0) were incorporated into palm olein by 1,3-specific lipase acidolysis, up to 36% and 43%, respectively, when added as mixtures or individually after 24h. It was found that these acids were incorporated into palm olein at the expense of palmitic and oleic acids, the former being larger in quantity and reduction of 18:2 was negligible. The modified palm olein products showed reduction in higher molecular weight triacylglycerols (TGs) and increase in concentration of lower molecular weight TGs compared to those of palm olein. Fatty acids at sn-2 position in modified products were: C10:0, 4%; C16:0, 13%; C18:1, 66%; and C18:2, 15.4%. DSC results showed that the onset of melting and solids fat content were considerably reduced in modified palm olein products and no solids were found even at and below 10°C and also the onset of crystallisation was considerably lowered. The cloud point was reduced and iodine value dropped from 55.4 to 38 in modified palm olein. Thus, nutritionally superior palm olein was prepared by introducing MC fatty acids with reduced palmitic acid through lipase acidolysis.

  19. Effect of climate change between 1984 and 2007 on precipitation chemistry at a site in northeastern U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Victoria R; Weathers, Kathleen C; Lovett, Gary M; Likens, Gene E

    2009-05-15

    Climate change predictions for the northeastern US call for an increase in tropical storms and a decrease in extra tropical cyclones including continental storms. We ran 24-h back trajectories for each precipitation event that occurred at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in southeastern New York, U.S.A. from 1984 to 2007 and analyzed precipitation chemistry as well as air mass position 24 h prior to the onset of each precipitation event. The results showed an increase in marine precipitation and a slight but statistically insignificant decrease in continental precipitation during the 1984-2007 period. The chemistry of precipitation from the two directions was quite different marine storms were higher in Na4 and Cl- but lower in solutes associated with acid precipitation (H+, SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+). Annual mean concentrations of acid precipitation solutes declined for storms from both directions during the period. We used a simple mixing model based on the current rates of increase and decrease of marine and continental precipitation respectively to show that chemical changes in precipitation resulting from the shift in storm tracks are small compared to chemical changes due to emissions reductions.

  20. PROCESS USING BISMUTH PHOSPHATE AS A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AND PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-03-10

    A process is described for separating plutonium from fission products carried therewith when plutonium in the reduced oxidation state is removed from a nitric acid solution of irradiated uranium by means of bismuth phosphate as a carrier precipitate. The bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate is dissolved by treatment with nitric acid and the plutonium therein is oxidized to the hexavalent oxidation state by means of potassium dichromate. Separation of the plutonium from the fission products is accomplished by again precipitating bismuth phosphate and removing the precipitate which now carries the fission products and a small percentage of the plutonium present. The amount of plutonium carried in this last step may be minimized by addition of sodium fluoride, so as to make the solution 0.03N in NaF, prior to the oxidation and prccipitation step.

  1. Precipitation chemistry in intertropical Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freydier, R.; Dupre, B.; Lacaux, J. P.

    Rainwater samples from Kollo (Niger) and Lamto (Ivory Coast) were collected during the year 1994. Two phases were analyzed, the dissolved was obtained with a 0.2 μm filtration and the total was obtained after evaporation and an HF : HNO 3 digestion. Mg, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb, U, Al, Fe, Cs, REEs and Th were analyzed in both phases and Na, K, Ca and Cl in the dissolved phase. Except for Zn in Lam to with a value of 53, enrichment factors EF, calculated with respect to Al normalization in the total phase, do not show any significant enriched values (EF > 10). However, event by event, at low Al amounts, some elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, Zn, Pb and Mg, Rb, Sr and Ba are obviously enriched. Anthropogenic activities for metals and Ba or natural emissions for Mg, Rb, Sr can explain these enriched values. The REE patterns of precipitation particles are almost flat with La/Yb values (16.5-21.5) higher than the upper-crust values (13.6). These values are comparable with those measured in suspended sediments from Congo rivers. Dissolved-total distributions are: Zn > Sr > Mn > Co > Mg > Ba > Cr > Rb > V > Ph > U > Th > Cs > La > Ce > Al > Fe for Lamto samples and Zn > Sr > Mg > Mn > Rb > Co > Ba > Cr > Pb > V > Cs > Th > U > Al > La > Ce > Fe for Kollo samples. The percentage of the dissolved fraction is conversely proportional to the amount of Al in precipitations. Precipitation particles in Lamto and Kollo are strongly depleted in Mg, Mn, Rb, Sr and Ba compared to the upper-crust composition. The Rb/La mean ratios of 1.62 in Lamto and 1.70 in Kollo differ from the upper-crust value (3.73) and indicate that these particles have already been involved in weathering processes. All the information obtained in this study shows that terrigeneous particle emission is the main source of trace elements, in this region. Nevertheless, the contribution from other sources (ocean, vegetation, human activities) become evident when the amount of crustal dust particles in the

  2. Radar Based Precipitation Forecasting for Flood Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the most important inputs for flood warning. The accuracy of the measured precipitation controls the effectiveness of flood warning, while the forecasted precipitation increases the lead time of flood warning, this is vital for catastrophically flood warning as it provides time for flood management, such as the emergency evacuation of the people and properties within the flood prone area, so to avoid flood damages. This paper presents an algorithm for forecasting precipitation based on Chinese next generation weather radar- CINRAD for catastrophically flood warning. This algorithm includes radar data quality control, precipitation estimation and forecasting, result correction. The radar data, received at every 5-6 minutes, is quality controlled first to delete the data noises, the pre-processed radar data then is used to estimate the precipitation, which will be employed to calibrate the radar equation parameters, then the pre-processed radar data and calibrated radar equation parameters will be input to the precipitation procedure to forecast precipitation. A software based on the above algorithm is developed that can be used to forecast precipitation on real ¡§Ctime. The radar in Guangzhou city, the biggest city in southern China is studied and the precipitation in 2005 and 2006 in Liuxihe River Basin in southern China were forecasted to validate the effectiveness, the results show this algorithm is encouraging and will be put into real-time operation in the flood warning of Liuxihe River in 2007.

  3. Sulfate removal from waste chemicals by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Cláudia Telles; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Lenzi, Ervim

    2009-01-01

    Chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent has proven to be a viable alternative to the oxidative destruction of organic pollutants in mixed waste chemicals, but the sulfate concentration in the treated liquor was still above the acceptable limits for effluent discharge. In this paper, the feasibility of sulfate removal from complex laboratory wastewaters using barium and calcium precipitation was investigated. The process was applied to different wastewater cases (two composite samples generated in different periods) in order to study the effect of the wastewater composition on the sulfate precipitation. The experiments were performed with raw and oxidized wastewater samples, and carried out according to the following steps: (1) evaluate the pH effect upon sulfate precipitation on raw wastewaters at pH range of 2-8; (2) conduct sulfate precipitation experiments on raw and oxidized wastewaters; and (3) characterize the precipitate yielded. At a concentration of 80 g L(-1), barium precipitation achieved a sulfate removal up to 61.4% while calcium precipitation provided over 99% sulfate removal in raw and oxidized wastewaters and for both samples. Calcium precipitation was chosen to be performed after Fenton's oxidation; hence this process configuration favors the production of higher quality precipitates. The results showed that, when dried at 105 degrees C, the precipitate is composed of hemidrate and anhydrous calcium sulfate ( approximately 99.8%) and trace metals ( approximately 0.2%: Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Ag, Mg, K, Na), what makes it suitable for reuse in innumerous processes.

  4. Preliminary analysis of regional-precipitation periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.

    1980-01-01

    Precipitation variability plays a major role in nearly every aspect of the hydrologic cycle. Precipitation is not a random event, but it occurs after a sequence of prerequisites has been fulfilled. Recent investigations have shown that activity of the sun can affect atmospheric vorticity, an important factor in precipitation formation. Solar activity is known to be periodic; therefore, through a complex series of physical processes, precipitation variance is solar forced to a certain degree. A preliminary analysis of precipitation periodicity was made for eight regions scattered across the central United States. Each region contained 5 to 10 stations with long-term precipitation records that were averaged to obtain yearly regional-precipitation values. Graphic analysis shows 11-year and 22-year cycles that are nearly in phase with the solar cycles. An example of the effect of cyclic precipitation is presented for the Powder River basin in Wyoming and Montana. A cycle of 22 years exhibits fluctuations of approximately 22 to 27% for precipitation and 38 to 50% for runoff. A more detailed study that investigates solar-forced precipitation cycles and their relationship to hydrologic processes is needed. (USGS)

  5. Determining solid precipitation on Alaska's Arctic Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, S.; Liston, G.; Kane, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Alaska's Arctic Slope (AAS) is snow-covered approximately nine months each year. Accurate representations of this snow cover and the associated snow-related processes can be crucial to AAS hydrological, meteorological, and biological applications. Although physically realistic spatially and temporally distributed modeling tools of snow evolution process have been developed for the cold and windy AAS, they require reliable atmospheric forcing data to produce reasonable results. In particular, accurate winter precipitation inputs are required, but have proven difficult to obtain in remote arctic environments such as AAS. The spatial heterogeneity of precipitation fields, sparse precipitation observing networks, and lack of appropriate instrumentation to measure solid precipitation, produce critical challenges to representing snow spatial distributions and temporal evolution within AAS and throughout the Arctic in general. Using extensive ground-based snow distribution observations and meteorological station measurements from AAS, we evaluated three methods to define solid precipitation timing and magnitudes: i) adjusting precipitation- gauge data using standard wind and temperature corrections, ii) back-calculating precipitation requirements by assimilating snow-water-equivalent depth observations within a snow-evolution model, and iii) estimating precipitation from non-precipitation meteorological station observations (e.g., air temperature and relative humidity). Since no truly-accurate winter precipitation measurements are available for this region, snow- evolution modeling tools were used to evaluate the efficacy of each method. The SnowTran-3D blowing snow model, in conjunction with the SnowModel snow-evolution model, was used to define vertical and horizontal snow-related transport fluxes across the 2.2 square km Imnavait Creek sub-domain of AAS. When forced with the different precipitation representations, the resulting model simulation outputs were compared

  6. Layer Precipitable Water (LPW) Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, John; Kidder, Stan; Fuell, Kevin; LeRoy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) provides soundings of specific humidity from a variety of instruments and is combined with AIRS infrared soundings to create a Layered Precipitable Water (LPW) composite product. The LPW provides vertical moisture information in the column instead of just upper levels via WV imagery, or a single column value via TPW products. LPW is created every 3 hours using the last 12 hours worth of data and has a delivery latency of 40 minutes. Weaknesses include discontinuities in the composite. Strengths include seeing through clouds, over land usage, and greater spatial coverage of vertical moisture profiles. Applications of LPW include analysis of horizontal and vertical moisture gradients, verification of NWP moisture, and analysis of atmospheric rivers and other moisture advection. Operational testbed is ongoing to determine viability of wider distribution.

  7. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules.

  8. Carisoprodol Tolerance and Precipitated Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Gatch, Michael B.; Nguyen, Jacques D.; Carbonaro, Theresa; Forster, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant that acts at the GABAA receptor. Concerns about the abuse liability of carisoprodol are increasing, but evidence that carisoprodol produces tolerance and a significant withdrawal syndrome has yet to be established. The purpose of the current study was to determine if repeated administration of carisoprodol produces tolerance and withdrawal signs in a mouse model. Methods Carisoprodol (0, 100, 200, 300, or 500 mg/kg bid, i.p.) was administered to Swiss-Webster mice for 4 days and loss-of-righting reflex was measured 20 to 30 minutes following each administration. On the fourth day, bemegride (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (20 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered following carisoprodol and withdrawal signs were measured. Separate groups of mice receiving the same treatment regimen and dose range were tested for spontaneous withdrawal at 6, 12 and 24 hr after the last dose of carisoprodol. Results The righting reflex was dose-dependently impaired following the first administration of carisoprodol. A 75 to 100% decrease in the magnitude of the impairment occurred over the four days of exposure, indicating the development of tolerance to the carisoprodol-elicited loss-of-righting reflex. Withdrawal signs were not observed within 24 hours following spontaneous withdrawal; however, bemegride and flumazenil each precipitated withdrawal within 15 to 30 min of administration. Conclusions Carisoprodol treatment resulted in tolerance and antagonist-precipitated withdrawal, suggesting it may have an addiction potential similar to that of other long-acting benzodiazepine or barbiturate compounds. PMID:22055010

  9. A "liver" antigen associated with avian erythroblastosis: binding by bentonite and precipitation with sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Darcel, C L

    1982-01-01

    The properties of a complement fixing antigen, EbAg, extracted from erythroblastosis-affected chicken livers are described. The antigen in extracts freed of structural protein is strongly bound by bentonite, but not by barium sulphate. Strongly alkaline solutions of sodium dodecyl sulphate are required to release the antigen from bentonite. Acidification of the detergent solution precipitates the active solution precipitates the active protein. Extraction of heme from the acidified detergent precipitate by methyl-ethyl ketone further purifies the antigen. This acid detergent treatment eliminates the need to use bentonite as a purification step. PMID:6280825

  10. Effects of organic and inorganic acids on phosphorus release from municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Pakdil, N B; Filibeli, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of inorganic acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid) and organic acids (citric acid, oxalic acids) for phosphorus recovery from sludge and struvite precipitation results. It was observed that both inorganic acid and organic acids were effective at phosphorus release. The studies on precipitation of released phosphorus from sludge as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) were also done using nitric and oxalic acids. Phosphorus and heavy metals of leachate were analyzed before and after precipitation. It was observed that heavy metal concentrations in the extracted samples decrease after precipitation. Precipitation was accomplished by using extract derived with nitric acid; however, in oxalic acid applications, it was not achieved. When the chemical constituents of the dried material were examined oxygen, sodium and nitrogen were found to be the major elements.

  11. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Frandsen, Cathrine; Wallace, Adam F.; Legg, Benjamin; Khalid, Syed; Zhang, Hengzhong; Mørup, Steen; Banfield, Jillian F.; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV-vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the other two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.

  12. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Khalid, Syed; Frandsen, Cathrine; Wallace, Adam F.; Legg, Benjamin; Zhang, Hengzhong; Morup, Steen; Banfield, Jillian F.; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2015-10-03

    In this study, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV–vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the other two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.

  13. Precipitation pathways for ferrihydrite formation in acidic solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Khalid, Syed; Frandsen, Cathrine; ...

    2015-10-03

    In this study, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides form via Fe3+ hydrolysis and polymerization in many aqueous environments, but the pathway from Fe3+ monomers to oligomers and then to solid phase nuclei is unknown. In this work, using combined X-ray, UV–vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopic approaches, we were able to identify and quantify the long-time sought ferric speciation over time during ferric oxyhydroxide formation in partially-neutralized ferric nitrate solutions ([Fe3+] = 0.2 M, 1.8 < pH < 3). Results demonstrate that Fe exists mainly as Fe(H2O)63+, μ-oxo aquo dimers and ferrihydrite, and that with time, the μ-oxo dimer decreases while the othermore » two species increase in their concentrations. No larger Fe oligomers were detected. Given that the structure of the μ-oxo dimer is incompatible with those of all Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, our results suggest that reconfiguration of the μ-oxo dimer structure occurs prior to further condensation leading up to the nucleation of ferrihydrite. The structural reconfiguration is likely the rate-limiting step involved in the nucleation process.« less

  14. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  15. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites.

  16. Estimating Global Precipitation for Science and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been vigorous development in the satellite assets and the algorithms necessary to estimate precipitation around the globe. In particular the highly successful joint NASAJAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, also joint between NASA and JAXA, have driven these issues. At the same time, the long-running Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) continues to extend a stable, climate-oriented view of global precipitation. This talk will provide an overview of these projects and the wider international community of precipitation datasets, sketch plans for next-generation products, and provide some examples of the best use for the different products. One key lesson learned is that different data sets are needed to address the variety of issues that need precipitation data, including detailed 3-D views of hurricanes, flash flood forecasting, drought analysis, and global change.

  17. Direct Hydrothermal Precipitation of Pyrochlore-Type Tungsten Trioxide Hemihydrate from Alkaline Sodium Tungstate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaobin; Li, Jianpu; Zhou, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhihong; Liu, Guihua; Qi, Tiangui

    2012-04-01

    Pyrochlore-type tungsten trioxide hemihydrate (WO3·0.5H2O) powder with the average particle size of 0.5 μm was prepared successfully from the weak alkaline sodium tungstate solution by using organic substances of sucrose or cisbutenedioic acid as the acidification agent. The influences of solution pH and acidification agents on the precipitation process were investigated. The results showed that organic acidification agents such as sucrose and cisbutenedioic acid could improve the precipitation of pyrochlore WO3·0.5H2O greatly from sodium tungstate solution compared with the traditional acidification agent of hydrochloric acid. In addition, the pH value of the hydrothermal system played a critical role in the precipitation process of WO3·0.5H2O, and WO3·0.5H2O precipitation mainly occured in the pH range of 7.0 to 8.5. The precipitation rate of tungsten species in the sodium tungstate solution could reach up to 98 pct under the optimized hydrothermal conditions. This article proposed also the hydrothermal precipitation mechanism of WO3·0.5H2O from the weak alkaline sodium tungstate solution. The novel method reported in this study has a great potential to improve the efficiency of advanced tungsten trioxide-based functional material preparation, as well as for the pollution-reducing and energy-saving tungsten extractive metallurgy.

  18. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  19. Use of polyaspartate as inhibitor of tartaric precipitations in wines.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Panero, Loretta; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Sollazzo, Marco; Asproudi, Andriani; Motta, Silvia; Guaita, Massimo

    2015-10-15

    All additives used to stabilize wines against the precipitations of potassium bitartrate have some limits: metatartaric acid (MTA) is effective but very unstable, carboxymethylcellulose is stable and effective in white wines but affects color stability in red wines, mannoproteins have a variable effectiveness depending on wine composition. This work was aimed at testing the effect of new stabilizing products on tartaric precipitations, focusing on the use of Na and K polyaspartate salts (PASPs). The effectiveness of 4 different PASPs and 1 MTA added to red and white wines was compared using the mini-contact test and cold test. The dose effect and the stability of the products over time were also studied. The PASPs showed a similar stabilizing effect and a longer stability over time compared to MTA. PASPs can be considered interesting as additives for wine tartaric stabilization. Further work is in progress to better characterize their enological properties.

  20. Average annual precipitation and runoff for Arkansas, 1951-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freiwald, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Ten intercomparison studies to determine the accuracy of pH and specific-conductance measurements, using dilute-nitric acid solutions, were managed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network precipitation networks. These precipitation networks set quality-control goals for site-operator measurements of pH and specific conductance. The accuracy goal for pH is plus or minus 0.1 pH unit; the accuracy goal for specific conductance is plus or minus 4 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. These intercomparison studies indicated that an average of 65 percent of the site-operator pH measurements and 79 percent of the site-operator specific-conductance measurements met the quality-control goal. A statistical approach that is resistant to outliers was used to evaluate and illustrate the results obtained from these intercomparisons. (USGS)

  1. METHOD FOR REMOVING CONTAMINATION FROM PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, G.W.

    1959-01-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process is presented for the recovery and purification of plutonium. When plutonium, in the tetravalent state, is carried on a bismuth phosphate precipitate, amounts of centain of the fission products are carried along with the plutonium. The improvement consists in washing such fission product contaminated preeipitates with an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride. since this solution has been found to be uniquely effective in washing fission production contamination from the bismuth phosphate precipitate.

  2. Selective recovery of copper and zinc from mine dump waters of mining enterprises in precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orekhova, N. N.; Tarybaeva, G. A.; Muravev, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    The acid mine dump waters at mining companies that mining the copper and copperzinc sulphide ore have the high concentrates of metals and classified in our view as the raw materials for selective recovery of metals in precipitates comparable in quality with concentrates of ores enrichment and suitable for further metallurgical processing. Authors have implemented three two-stage schemes for sequential extraction of copper and zinc: cementation-sulphide precipitation, galvanocoagulation-sulphide precipitation, precipitation-precipitation. Moreover, parameters of processes and quality of the obtained precipitates have described. The achieved copper recovery is 89% and 94% respectively with the application of cementation and galvanocoagulation, in sulphide precipitate exceeded 75%. Furthermore, the copper recovery from decoppering in precipitates amounted to more than 65%. Zinc-containing precipitates because of coprecipitation of iron, magnesium and calcium contain zinc from 14% to 28%, in two to three times less than the quality of conditioned zinc concentrates. The content of precipitates allows to apply them for additional charging to concentrates of enrichment or for the production of metals in metallurgical treatment. As a result of the studying the effect of reduced total salinity (S) on mass fraction of zinc in precipitate (β) with the constant concentration of zinc (SZn), the changes in concentration with constant salinity and reduction in total salinity (S) with constant ratio S/CZn, the following dependencies have obtained: ≤ft( {{S}} \\right):{≤ft( {{{\\partial β } \\over {\\partial {cZn}}}} \\right)_S} > 0,{≤ft( {{{\\partial β } \\over {\\partial S}}} \\right){C_{Zn}}} < 0, in the range of an index S from 4.5 to 90.0 g/L {≤ft( {{{\\partial β } \\over {\\partial S}}} \\right){{{C_{Zn}} \\over S}}} < 0, where {≤ft( {{{\\partial x} \\over {\\partial y}}} \\right)_Z} is a partial derivative of x to y, whereas the value z is fixed.

  3. Analysis of an ethanol precipitate from ileal digesta: evaluation of a method to determine mucin.

    PubMed

    Miner-Williams, Warren M; Moughan, Paul J; Fuller, Malcolm F

    2013-11-06

    The precipitation of mucin using high concentrations of ethanol has been used by many researchers while others have questioned the validity of the technique. In this study, analysis of an ethanol precipitate, from the soluble fraction of ileal digesta from pigs was undertaken using molecular weight profiling and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The precipitate contained 201 mg·g⁻¹ protein, 87% of which had a molecular weight >20 KDa. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with Coomassie blue and periodic acid/Schiff, revealed that most glycoprotein had a molecular weight between 37-100 KDa. The molecular weight of glycoprotein in the precipitate was therefore lower than that of intact mucin. These observations indicated that the glycoprotein in the ethanol precipitate was significantly degraded. The large amount of protein and carbohydrate in the supernatant from ethanol precipitation indicated that the precipitation of glycoprotein was incomplete. As a method for determining the concentration of mucin in digesta, ethanol precipitation is unreliable.

  4. The elimination of selenium(IV) from aqueous solution by precipitation with sodium sulfide.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, N; Demopoulos, G P

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the removal/precipitation of selenium with sodium sulfide from initially weakly acidic sulfate solutions containing 300 mg/L of selenium(IV) at 23 °C was studied. The results showed that, below a pH of approximately 7.0, the precipitation reaction was complete at a sulfide to selenium ratio above 1.8 and less than 11 with less than 0.005 mg/L of soluble selenium remaining in solution. When the pH rose between 7.0 and 9.5 the precipitation of selenium was incomplete. Above pH 9.5 the solution turned dark red but no precipitation was apparent. The precipitation reaction started as soon as the sodium sulfide was added in the selenium-bearing solution and was completed in less than 10 min. The orange "selenium sulfide" precipitates, characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis, were crystalline in the form of aggregated dense particles with their sulfur/selenium molar ratio varying from 1.7 to 2.3. The precipitate was deduced to be a Se-S solid solution consisting of ring molecules of the following Se(n)S(8-n) formula, where n = 2.5-3. Long term leachability tests (>2 month equilibration) under ambient conditions at pH 7 showed the produced precipitate to be essentially insoluble (<0.005 mg/L).

  5. Spatial distribution of precipitation extremes in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verpe Dyrrdal, Anita; Skaugen, Thomas; Lenkoski, Alex; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Stordal, Frode; Førland, Eirik J.

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of extreme precipitation, in terms of return levels, are crucial in planning and design of important infrastructure. Through two separate studies, we have examined the levels and spatial distribution of daily extreme precipitation over catchments in Norway, and hourly extreme precipitation in a point. The analyses were carried out through the development of two new methods for estimating extreme precipitation in Norway. For daily precipitation we fit the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution to areal time series from a gridded dataset, consisting of daily precipitation during the period 1957-today with a resolution of 1x1 km². This grid-based method is more objective and less manual and time-consuming compared to the existing method at MET Norway. In addition, estimates in ungauged catchments are easier to obtain, and the GEV approach includes a measure of uncertainty, which is a requirement in climate studies today. Further, we go into depth on the debated GEV shape parameter, which plays an important role for longer return periods. We show that it varies according to dominating precipitation types, having positive values in the southeast and negative values in the southwest. We also find indications that the degree of orographic enhancement might affect the shape parameter. For hourly precipitation, we estimate return levels on a 1x1 km² grid, by linking GEV distributions with latent Gaussian fields in a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM). Generalized linear models on the GEV parameters, estimated from observations, are able to incorporate location-specific geographic and meteorological information and thereby accommodate these effects on extreme precipitation. Gaussian fields capture additional unexplained spatial heterogeneity and overcome the sparse grid on which observations are collected, while a Bayesian model averaging component directly assesses model uncertainty. We find that mean summer precipitation, mean summer temperature, latitude

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir Art

    2011-01-01

    Mission Objective: (1) Improve scientific understanding of the global water cycle and fresh water availability (2) Improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts (3) Provide frequent and complete sampling of the Earth s precipitation Mission Description (Class B, Category I): (1) Constellation of spacecraft provide global precipitation measurement coverage (2) NASA/JAXA Core spacecraft: Provides a microwave radiometer (GMI) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) to cross-calibrate entire constellation (3) 65 deg inclination, 400 km altitude (4) Launch July 2013 on HII-A (5) 3 year mission (5 year propellant) (6) Partner constellation spacecraft.

  7. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  8. Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: a synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Shi, Zheng; Gherardi, Laureano A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Koerner, Sally E; Hoover, David L; Bork, Edward; Byrne, Kerry M; Cahill, James; Collins, Scott L; Evans, Sarah; Katarina Gilgen, Anna; Holub, Petr; Jiang, Lifen; Knapp, Alan K; LeCain, Daniel; Liang, Junyi; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Peñuelas, Josep; Pockman, William T; Smith, Melinda D; Sun, Shanghua; White, Shannon R; Yahdjian, Laura; Zhu, Kai; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-04-02

    Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased inter-annual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP. Yet, findings have been diverse and substantial uncertainty still surrounds generalities describing patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to altered precipitation. Additionally, we do not know whether previously observed correlations between NPP and precipitation remain accurate when precipitation changes become extreme. We synthesized results from 83 case studies of experimental precipitation manipulations in grasslands worldwide. We used meta-analytical techniques to search for generalities and asymmetries of aboveground NPP (ANPP) and belowground NPP (BNPP) responses to both the direction and magnitude of precipitation change. Sensitivity (i.e., productivity response standardized by the amount of precipitation change) of BNPP was similar under precipitation additions and reductions, but ANPP was more sensitive to precipitation additions than reductions; this was especially evident in drier ecosystems. Additionally, overall relationships between the magnitude of productivity responses versus the magnitude of precipitation change were saturating in form. The saturating form of this relationship was likely driven by ANPP responses to very extreme precipitation increases, although there were limited studies imposing extreme precipitation change and there was considerable variation among experiments. This highlights the importance of incorporating gradients of manipulations, ranging from extreme drought to extreme precipitation increases into future climate change

  9. The Pitfalls of Precipitation Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W.

    1990-01-01

    Described are some of the difficulties presented in these reactions by competing equilibria that are usually ignored. Situations involving acid-base equilibria, solubility product calculations, the use of ammonia as a complexing agent, and semiquantitative comparisons of solubility product values are discussed. (CW)

  10. Shifting covariability of North American summer monsoon precipitation with antecedent winter precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that a general inverse relation exists between winter precipitation in the southwestern United states (US) and summer monsoon precipitation. In addition, it has been suggested that this inverse relation between winter precipitation and the magnitude of the southwestern US monsoon breaks down under certain climatic conditions that override the regional winter/monsoon precipitation relations. Results from this new study indicate that the winter/monsoon precipitation relations do not break down, but rather shift location through time. The strength of winter/monsoon precipitation relations, as indexed by 20-year moving correlations between winter precipitation and monsoon precipitation, decreased in Arizona after about 1970, but increased in New Mexico. The changes in these correlations appear to be related to an eastward shift in the location of monsoon precipitation in the southwestern US. This eastward shift in monsoon precipitation and the changes in correlations with winter precipitation also appear to be related to an eastward shift in July/August atmospheric circulation over the southwestern US that resulted in increased monsoon precipitation in New Mexico. Results also indicate that decreases in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central North Pacific Ocean also may be associated with th changes in correlations between winter and monsoon precipitation. Copyright ?? 2006 Royal Meteorological Society.

  11. Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

  12. Precipitation Ground Validation over the Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepp, C.; Bakan, S.

    2012-04-01

    State-of-the-art satellite derived and reanalysis based precipitation climatologies show remarkably large differences in detection, amount, variability and temporal behavior of precipitation over the oceans. The uncertainties are largest for light precipitation within the ITCZ and for cold season high-latitude precipitation including snowfall. Our HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite data, www.hoaps.org) precipitation retrieval exhibits fairly high accuracy in such regions compared to our ground validation data. However, the statistical basis for a conclusive validation has to be significantly improved with comprehensive ground validation efforts. However, existing in-situ instruments are not designed for precipitation measurements under high wind speeds on moving ships. To largely improve the ground validation data basis of precipitation over the oceans, especially for snow, the systematic data collection effort of the Initiative Pro Klima funded project at the KlimaCampus Hamburg uses automated shipboard optical disdrometers, called ODM470 that are capable of measuring liquid and solid precipitation on moving ships with high accuracy. The main goal of this project is to constrain the precipitation retrievals for HOAPS and the new Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite constellation. Currently, three instruments are long-term mounted on the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern (Alfred Wegner Institut) since June 2010, on R/V Akademik Ioffe (P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow, Russia) since September 2010 and on R/V Maria S. Merian (Brise Research, University of Hamburg) since December 2011. Three more instruments will follow shortly on further ships. The core regions for these long-term precipitation measurements comprise the Arctic Ocean, the Nordic Seas, the Labrador Sea, the subtropical Atlantic trade wind regions, the Caribbean, the ITCZ, and the Southern Oceans as far south to Antarctica. This

  13. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  14. Aluminosilicate Precipitation Impact on Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    WILMARTH, WILLIAM

    2006-03-10

    Experiments have been conducted to examine the fate of uranium during the formation of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) when wastes containing high aluminate concentrations are mixed with wastes of high silicate concentration. Testing was conducted at varying degrees of uranium saturation. Testing examined typical tank conditions, e.g., stagnant, slightly elevated temperature (50 C). The results showed that under sub-saturated conditions uranium is not removed from solution to any large extent in both simulant testing and actual tank waste testing. This aspect was not thoroughly understood prior to this work and was necessary to avoid criticality issues when actual tank wastes were aggregated. There are data supporting a small removal due to sorption of uranium on sites in the NAS. Above the solubility limit the data are clear that a reduction in uranium concentration occurs concomitant with the formation of aluminosilicate. This uranium precipitation is fairly rapid and ceases when uranium reaches its solubility limit. At the solubility limit, it appears that uranium is not affected, but further testing might be warranted.

  15. Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation experiment is scheduled to be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission. The objective of this experiment is to measure very faint emissions at nighttime arising from fluxes of energetic neutral atoms in the thermosphere. These energetic atoms have energies ranging up to about 50 keV, and arise from ions of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen trapped in the inner magnetosphere. Some of these ions become neutralized in charge exchange reactions with neutral hydrogen in the hydrogen geocorona that extends through the region. The ions are trapped on magnetic field lines which cross the equatorial plane at 2 to 6 earth radii distance, and they mirror at a range of heights on these field lines, extending down to the thermosphere at 500 km altitude. The ATLAS 1 measurements will not be of the neutral atoms themselves but of the optical emission produced by those on trajectories that intersect the thermosphere. The ENAP measurements are to be made using the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) which is being flown on the ATLAS mission primarily for daytime spectral observations, and the ENAP measurements will all be nighttime measurements because of the faintness of the emissions and the relatively low level of magnetic activity expected.

  16. Solute-solvent interactions of acid-1,4-dioxane mixtures-By dielectric, FTIR, UV-vis and 13C NMR spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, G; Parthipan, G; Thenappan, T

    2009-11-01

    Results of the dielectric studies carried out on the binary mixture of n-butyric and caprylic acids with 1,4-dioxane over the entire composition range and at temperatures 303K, 308K, 313K and 318K, and FTIR, UV-vis and 13C NMR spectral studies are presented in this paper. The excess permittivity and excess free energy were fitted with the Redlich-Kister polynomial. The variation of Kirkwood correlation factors, excess permittivity and excess free energy of mixing with the concentration and temperature has been investigated in view of understanding the ordering of dipoles of solute and solvent molecules. The FTIR, UV-vis and 13C NMR spectral analysis reveals the formation of complex between solute and solvent molecules. The parallel alignment of electric dipoles of the complex predicted by dielectric studies is well supported by UV-vis spectral analysis. The structure of the complex molecule present in the clusters has been deduced.

  17. The influence of mountain meteorology on precipitation chemistry at low and high elevations of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denning, A. Scott

    1993-01-01

    We explored the seasonal characteristics in wet deposition chemistry for two sites located at different elevations along the east slope of the Colorado Front Range in Rocky Mountain National Park. Seasonally separated precipitation was stratified into highly concentrated (high salt), dilute (low salt), or acid-dominated precipitation groups. These groups and unstratified precipitation data were related to mean easterly or westerly zonal winds to determine direction of local transport. Strong acid anion associations were also determined for the stratified and unstratified precipitation data sets. We found that strong acid anions, acidity, ammonium, and high salt concentrations originate to the east of Rocky Mountain National Park, and are transported via up-valley funneling winds or convective instability from differential heating of the mountains and the plains to the east. These influence the composition of precipitation at Beaver Meadows, the low elevation site, throughout the year, while their effect on precipitation at Loch Vale, the high elevation site, is felt most strongly during the summer. During the winter, Loch Vale precipitation is very dilute, and occurs in conjunction with westerly winds resulting from the southerly location of the jet stream.

  18. Recovery of zinc and manganese, and other metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Na, K) from Zn-MnO2 and Zn-C waste batteries: Hydroxyl and carbonate co-precipitation from solution after reducing acidic leaching with use of oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobianowska-Turek, A.; Szczepaniak, W.; Maciejewski, P.; Gawlik-Kobylińska, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article discusses the current situation of the spent batteries and portable accumulators management. It reviews recycling technologies of the spent batteries and portable accumulators which are used in the manufacturing installations in the world. Also, it presents the authors' research results on the reductive acidic leaching of waste material of the zinc-carbon batteries (Zn-C) and zinc-manganese batteries (alkaline Zn-MnO2) delivered by a company dealing with mechanical treatment of this type of waste stream. The research data proved that the reductive acidic leaching (H2SO4 + C2H2O4) of the battery's black mass allows to recover 85.0% of zinc and 100% of manganese. Moreover, it was found that after the reductive acidic leaching it is possible to recover nearly 100% of manganese, iron, cadmium, and chromium, 98.0% of cobalt, 95.5% of zinc, and 85.0% of copper and nickel from the solution with carbonate method. On the basis of the results, it is possible to assume that the carbonate method can be used for the preparation of manganese-zinc ferrite.

  19. Precipitation hardening in 350 grade maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, U.K. . Radiometallurgy Div.); Dey, G.K. . Metallurgy Division); Asundi, M.K. )

    1993-11-01

    Evolution of microstructure in 350 grade commercial maraging steel has been examined. In the earlier stages of aging, the strengthening phases are formed by the heterogeneous precipitation, and these phases have been identified as intermetallic compounds of the Ni[sub 3] (Ti, Mo) and Fe[sub 2]Mo types. The kinetics of precipitation are studied in terms of the activation energy by carrying out isothermal hardness measurements of aged material. The mechanical properties in the peak-aged and overaged conditions were evaluated and the flow behavior examined. The overaging behavior of the steel has been studied and the formation of austenite of different morphologies identified. The crystallography of the austenite has been examined in detail. From the microstructural examination of peak-aged and deformed samples, it could be inferred that the dislocation-precipitate interaction is by precipitate shearing. Increased work hardening of the material in the overaged condition was suggestive of looping of precipitates by dislocations.

  20. Dissolved mineral species precipitation during coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.; Liu, D.

    1995-12-31

    Beneficiation by froth flotation, which exploits the difference in surface properties of minerals, has been a promising method for coal cleaning.However, dissolved mineral species present in coal flotation systems can interact with particles and other species leading to drastic effects on flotation. Particularly, precipitation or adsorption of such species on the particles can alter their surface properties and thus influence the efficiency of coal cleaning. In this work, the bulk and surface precipitation of the dissolved mineral species present in Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was investigated under controlled experimental conditions. Changes in the surface properties of coal due to the precipitation were monitored by following zeta potential. Solution potential data were used to elucidate the mechanism of the precipitation. The effect of the precipitation of the dissolved species on the floatability of coal was found to be marked.

  1. Orbital history and seasonality of regional precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Sellers, W.D. )

    1994-03-01

    The Arizona monsoon, a major source of precipitation in the Southwest, shares many features with the monsoons of other continents. Computer modeling and fossil data indicate maximum extent of the African and Asian monsoons 9000 years ago. Fossil data indicate increased summer precipitation 9000 years ago, synchronous with the maxima of the African and Asian monsoons and, paradoxically, with the early-Holocene xerothermic of the Pacific Northwest. Climate model runs for 6000, 9000, 11,500, 13,000, and 18,000 years ago indicate increased summer precipitation 9000 years ago and a reciprocal relationship between precipitation in the Northwest and Southwest, but they relegate insolation to a role secondary to the North American ice sheet in regulating climate, and suggest a non-monsoon source for much of the summer precipitation in the Southwest prior to 9000 years ago.

  2. Nonlinear Acoustical Assessment of Precipitate Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to show that measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter in heat treatable alloys as a function of heat treatment time can provide quantitative information about the kinetics of precipitate nucleation and growth in such alloys. Generally, information on the kinetics of phase transformations is obtained from time-sequenced electron microscopical examination and differential scanning microcalorimetry. The present nonlinear acoustical assessment of precipitation kinetics is based on the development of a multiparameter analytical model of the effects on the nonlinearity parameter of precipitate nucleation and growth in the alloy system. A nonlinear curve fit of the model equation to the experimental data is then used to extract the kinetic parameters related to the nucleation and growth of the targeted precipitate. The analytical model and curve fit is applied to the assessment of S' precipitation in aluminum alloy 2024 during artificial aging from the T4 to the T6 temper.

  3. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; ...

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  4. Trace metal and rare earth content of black precipitation events

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Davies, T.D. . School of Environmental Sciences); Tranter, M. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used the techniques of non-destructive neutron activation analysis to determine trace metal and rare earth content of black precipitation events occurring in the Cairngorm Mountains in remote areas of Scotland. Thirty-one elements were determined in the particulate matter of snowpack cores that were sliced into sections. An additional analysis was performed for a black acidic snow event. Based on these results and on wind trajectories, increased loadings of many of the heavy metals and rare earth elements appeared to have originated from central Europe. Enrichment factor calculations show anthropogenic emissions for indium, arsenic, zinc, and selenium.

  5. Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at Steel Lake, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Anna K.; Nelson, David M.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Huang, Yongsong; Shuman, Bryan N.; Williams, John W.

    2010-12-01

    Middle-Holocene (8 to 4 ka BP) warmth and aridity are well recorded in sediment archives from midcontinental North America. However, neither the climatic driver nor the seasonal character of precipitation during this period is well understood because of the limitations of available proxy indicators. For example, an important challenge is to distinguish among the interacting effects of evaporation, temperature, or precipitation seasonality in existing δ 18O records from the region. Here we combine hydrogen isotopes of palmitic acid and oxygen isotopes of carbonate to derive lake-water isotopic values during the Holocene at Steel Lake in north-central Minnesota. In combination, these data enable us to separate variations in evaporation from variations in the isotopic composition of input-waters to lake. Variations in evaporation are used as a proxy for aridity and lake-water input isotopic values are used as a proxy for the isotopic values of meteoric precipitation. Our results suggest that lake-water input isotopic values were more negative during the middle Holocene than at present. To test whether these more negative values are related to temperature or precipitation seasonality, we compare pollen-inferred temperatures and the expected isotopic value of precipitation resulting from these temperatures to the reconstructed precipitation isotopic values. Results suggest that middle Holocene warmth and aridity were associated with increased evaporation rates and decreased summer precipitation. These inferences are consistent with climate simulations that highlight the role of seasonal insolation and sea surface temperatures in driving variations in precipitation seasonality during the Holocene. Results also suggest that changes in Holocene precipitation seasonality may have influenced the expansion of the prairie-forest border in Minnesota as well as regional variations in grassland community composition. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the dual hydrogen and

  6. Study of Ca-ATMP precipitation in the presence of magnesium ion.

    PubMed

    Tantayakom, V; Fogler, H Scott; de Moraes, F F; Bualuang, M; Chavadej, S; Malakul, P

    2004-03-16

    ATMP (aminotri(methylenephosphonic acid)), a phosphonate scale inhibitor used in the petroleum industry, was used as a model scale inhibitor in this study. One of the goals of this work was to determine the range of conditions under which Mg ions, which are formed in reservoir formations containing dolomite, modulate the formation of Ca-ATMP precipitate as a scale inhibitor. The results revealed that the amount of ATMP precipitated decreased with addition of Mg ions in solution at all values of the solution pH. Furthermore, an increase in both the solution pH and the concentration of the divalent cations in solution resulted in a change of the molar ratio of (Ca + Mg) to ATMP in the precipitates. At a low solution pH (pH 1.5), Mg ions had little effect on the composition of the Ca-ATMP precipitate. However, at higher values of the solution pH (pH 4 and 7), the Ca to ATMP molar ratio in the precipitates decreased with increasing concentration of the Mg. Here it was found that Mg ions replaced Ca ions on available reactive sites of ATMP molecules. These results determined the limits of the Mg ion concentration, which affects the precipitation of Ca-ATMP, Mg-ATMP, and (Ca + Mg)-ATMP. The dissolution of the scale inhibitors was studied using a rotating disk reactor. These experiments showed that the total divalent cation molar ratio (Ca + Mg) to ATMP in the precipitates is the primary factor that controls the rate of dissolution (release) of the phosphonate precipitates. The phosphonate precipitate dissolution rates decreased as the molar ratio of divalent cations to ATMP in the precipitates increased.

  7. The impact of polymeric excipients on the particle size of poorly soluble drugs after pH-induced precipitation.

    PubMed

    Punčochová, Kateřina; Prajzlerová, Marie; Beránek, Josef; Štěpánek, František

    2016-12-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with strongly pH-dependent aqueous solubility can face the problem of precipitating from solution when the pH changes from acidic in the stomach to neutral in the intestine. The present work investigates the effect of two polymeric excipients - polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Soluplus - on the ability to either prevent precipitation, or to control the size distribution of precipitated particles when precipitation cannot be prevented. Two different APIs were compared, Dabigatran etexilate mesylate and Rilpivirine hydrochloride. The effect of excipient concentration on the precipitation behaviour during pH titration was systematically investigated and qualitatively different trends were observed: in case of Soluplus, which forms a micellar solution when critical micelle concentration is exceeded, precipitation was inhibited in the case of Dabigatran etexilate, which partitioned into the micelles. On the other hand, Rilpivirine precipitated independently of Soluplus concentration. In the case of PVP, which does not form micelles, precipitation could not be avoided. Increased polymer concentration, however prevented the aggregation of precipitated particles into larger cluster. The observed effect of PVP was especially pronounced for Rilpivirine. The main conclusion of this study is that a suitably chosen polymeric excipient can either prevent precipitation altogether or reduce the size of the resulting particles. The mechanism of action, however, seems-specific to a given molecule. It was also shown that the polymer-stabilised particles have a potential to redissolve.

  8. Evaluating the Influence of Surface and Precipitation Characteristics on TMI and GMI Precipitation Retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, N.; Kirstetter, P.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Ferraro, R. R.; Kummerow, C. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.; Wang, N. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of surface and precipitation characteristics on Passive microwave (PMW) precipitation retrievals, precipitation products obtained from both the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) were evaluated relative to independent high-resolution reference precipitation products obtained using the NOAA/NSSL ground radar-based Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Specifically the ability of each sensor to detect, classify, and quantify instantaneous surface precipitation at its native pixel resolution is examined and linked to surface and precipitation characteristics. Surface characteristics were derived optically using NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Precipitation mesoscale characteristics such as convective-stratiform classification and spatial structure were obtained from the high-resolution reference data. The quality of both PMW sensors' retrievals varied considerably with surface characteristics; both sensors displayed decreased detection and quantification statistics over sparsely vegetated and dry surfaces. Similarly, the quality of the precipitation retrievals was affected by precipitation characteristics and high relative errors were evident in isolated and small-scale precipitation events as well as in mixed stratiform-convective events. The error characteristics of the two sensors also differed in several significant aspects, namely TMI tended to overestimate precipitation relative to the reference, while GMI underestimated precipitation. The influence of the precipitation and surface characteristics was less evident in the more sophisticated GMI retrievals. An additional outcome of the study was the adaptation of the comparison framework between space and ground precipitation estimates to accommodate the new probabilistic features of the GPM-era PMW precipitation retrievals.

  9. Acid rain: commentary on controversial issues and observations on the role of fuel burning

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, M.F.; Esposito, M.P.; Spaite, P.W.

    1982-03-01

    Even though much information has been accumulated on the subject of acid precipitation, lack of knowledge in certain technical areas precludes an adequate understanding of (1) how serious the acid precipitation problem really is and (2) what effect controlling sources of acid precipitation precursors would have in reducing acidification. It is nevertheless possible to draw some broad conclusions regarding the problem and to ascertain the direction that the required further work should take. This report presents the results of an investigation of various issues associated with acid rain. The following topics are addressed: occurrence of acid precipitation; effects of acid precipitation; sources of acid precipitation; transport, transformation, and deposition of acid pollutants; and fuel trend analysis. Recommendations for further research are included. (DMC)

  10. Application of quantitative precipitation forecasting and precipitation ensemble prediction for hydrological forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, P.; Tie-Yuan, S.; Zhi-Yuan, Y.; Jun-Chao, W.

    2015-05-01

    The precipitation in the forecast period influences flood forecasting precision, due to the uncertainty of the input to the hydrological model. Taking the ZhangHe basin as the example, the research adopts the precipitation forecast and ensemble precipitation forecast product of the AREM model, uses the Xin Anjiang hydrological model, and tests the flood forecasts. The results show that the flood forecast result can be clearly improved when considering precipitation during the forecast period. Hydrological forecast based on Ensemble Precipitation prediction gives better hydrological forecast information, better satisfying the need for risk information for flood prevention and disaster reduction, and has broad development opportunities.

  11. Extending the Precipitation Map Offshore Using Daily and 3-Hourly Combined Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the difficulties in studying landfalling extratropical cyclones along the Pacific Coast is the lack of antecedent data over the ocean, including precipitation. Recent research on combining various satellite-based precipitation estimates opens the possibility of realistic precipitation estimates on a global 1 deg. x 1 deg. latitude-longitude grid at the daily or even 3-hourly interval. The goal in this work is to provide quantitative precipitation estimates that correctly represent the precipitation- related variables in the hydrological cycle: surface accumulations (fresh-water flux into oceans), frequency and duration statistics, net latent heating, etc.

  12. Plasma proteome coverage is increased by unique peptide recovery from sodium deoxycholate precipitate.

    PubMed

    Serra, Aida; Zhu, Hongbin; Gallart-Palau, Xavier; Park, Jung Eun; Ho, Hee Haw; Tam, James P; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2016-03-01

    The ionic detergent sodium deoxycholate (SDC) is compatible with in-solution tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomics by virtue of being easy to separate from the peptide products via precipitation in acidic buffers. However, it remains unclear whether unique human peptides co-precipitate with SDC during acid treatment of complex biological samples. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that a large quantity of unique peptides in human blood plasma can be co-precipitated with SDC using an optimized sample preparation method prior to shotgun proteomic analysis. We show that the plasma peptides co-precipitated with SDC can be successfully recovered using a sequential re-solubilization and precipitation procedure, and that this approach is particularly efficient at the extraction of long peptides. Recovery of peptides from the SDC pellet dramatically increased overall proteome coverage (>60 %), thereby improving the identification of low-abundance proteins and enhancing the identification of protein components of membrane-bound organelles. In addition, when we analyzed the physiochemical properties of the co-precipitated peptides, we observed that SDC-based sample preparation improved the identification of mildly hydrophilic/hydrophobic proteins that would otherwise be lost upon discarding the pellet. These data demonstrate that the optimized SDC protocol is superior to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/urea treatment for identifying plasma biomarkers by shotgun proteomics.

  13. [Effect of nitrogen-containing derivatives of the plant triterpenes betulin and glycyrrhetic acid on the growth of MT-4, MOLT-4, CEM, and Hep G2 tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Shintiapina, A B; Shul'ts, E E; Petrenko, N I; Uzenkova, N V; Tolstikov, G A; Pronkina, N V; Kozhevnikov, V S; Pokrovskiĭ, A G

    2007-01-01

    Derivatives of the available plant triterpenes glycyrrhetic acid and betulin (betulin succinates and amides of betulonic and 18beta-glycyrrhetic acids containing fragments of long-chain amino acids and a peptide) were synthesized. The inhibitory action of these compounds on the growth of MT-4, MOLT-4, CEM. and Hep G2 tumor cells and their effect on the apoptosis of these cells were studied. It was shown that betulonic acid amides are more effective inhibitors of the tumor cell growth than the corresponding amides of glycyrrhetic acid. It was also found that betulonic acid amides containing fragments of caprylic, pelargonic, and undecanoic acids are more effective inhibitors of tumor cell growth than betulinic acid. The 17-dipeptide derivative of betulonic acid N-{N-[3-oxo-20(29)-lupen-28-oyl]-9-aminononanoyl}-3-amino-3-phenylpropionic acid exhibited the maximum inhibitory activity toward the tumor cells studied. Data on the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by betulin derivatives at a concentration of 10 microg/ml were obtained by flow cytometry. The amides of betulonic acid proved to be the most effective inducers of apoptosis.

  14. Precipitation isoscapes for New Zealand: enhanced temporal detail using precipitation-weighted daily climatology.

    PubMed

    Baisden, W Troy; Keller, Elizabeth D; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2016-01-01

    Predictive understanding of precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O in New Zealand faces unique challenges, including high spatial variability in precipitation amounts, alternation between subtropical and sub-Antarctic precipitation sources, and a compressed latitudinal range of 34 to 47 °S. To map the precipitation isotope ratios across New Zealand, three years of integrated monthly precipitation samples were acquired from >50 stations. Conventional mean-annual precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O maps were produced by regressions using geographic and annual climate variables. Incomplete data and short-term variation in climate and precipitation sources limited the utility of this approach. We overcome these difficulties by calculating precipitation-weighted monthly climate parameters using national 5-km-gridded daily climate data. This data plus geographic variables were regressed to predict δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and d-excess at all sites. The procedure yields statistically-valid predictions of the isotope composition of precipitation (long-term average root mean square error (RMSE) for δ(18)O = 0.6 ‰; δ(2)H = 5.5 ‰); and monthly RMSE δ(18)O = 1.9 ‰, δ(2)H = 16 ‰. This approach has substantial benefits for studies that require the isotope composition of precipitation during specific time intervals, and may be further improved by comparison to daily and event-based precipitation samples as well as the use of back-trajectory calculations.

  15. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir; Carlisle, Candace

    2010-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GP!v1) mission is an international cooperative effort to advance the understanding of the physics of the Earth's water and energy cycle. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the weather/climate/ecological system, for improving our ability to manage freshwater resources, and for predicting high-impact natural hazard events including floods, droughts, extreme weather events, and landslides. The GPM Core Observatory will be a reference standard to uniformly calibrate data from a constellation of spacecraft with passive microwave sensors. GPM is being developed under a partnership between the United States (US) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA). NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in Greenbelt, MD is developing the Core Observatory, two GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) instruments, Ground Validation System and Precipitation Processing System for the GPM mission. JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) for installation on the Core satellite and launch services for the Core Observatory. The second GMI instrument will be flown on a partner-provided spacecraft. Other US agencies and international partners contribute to the GPM mission by providing precipitation measurements obtained from their own spacecraft and/or providing ground-based precipitation measurements to support ground validation activities. The Precipitation Processing System will provide standard data products for the mission.

  16. NASA Global Precipitation Mission Ground Validation Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM; core-satellite launch 2013) will provide Ka/Ku-band dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and accompanying passive microwave radiometer-diagnosed precipitation estimates over a latitude range of 65 N to 65 S. The extended latitudinal domain of GPM coverage combined with requirements to detect (and in the case of liquid, estimate) liquid and frozen precipitation rates for values ranging from several hundred to just a few tenths of a millimeter per hour present new challenges to the development of physically-based satellite precipitation retrieval algorithms. On regional scales select national and international resources such as existing calibrated radar and rain gauge networks can provide basic datasets that enable direct statistical validation of GPM core-satellite reflectivitys and core/constellation rain rate measurements. Near-term planned field campaign involvements include Finland/Baltic Sea (fall 2010; joint CloudSat,GPM, and European study of precipitation in low-altitude melting layers and snowfall in the vicinity of the Helsinki testbed), central Oklahoma (spring 2011; joint with DOE ARM- precipitation retrievals over a mid-latitude continental land surface), and the Great Lakes region (winter 2011-12, snowfall retrieval).

  17. Precipitation Climatology on Titan-like Exomoons.

    PubMed

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    The availability of liquid water on the surface on Earth's continents in part relies on the precipitation of water. This implies that the habitability of exomoons has to consider not only the surface temperature and atmospheric pressure for the presence of liquid water, but also the global precipitation climatology. This study explores the sensitivity of the precipitation climatology of Titan-like exomoons to these moons' orbital configuration using a global climate model. The precipitation rate primarily depends on latitude and is sensitive to the planet's obliquity and the moon's rotation rate. On slowly rotating moons the precipitation shifts to higher latitudes as obliquity is increased, whereas on quickly rotating moons the latitudinal distribution does not strongly depend on obliquity. Stellar eclipse can cause a longitudinal variation in the mean surface temperature and surface pressure between the subplanetary and antiplanetary side if the planet's obliquity and the moon's orbital distance are small. In this particular condition the antiplanetary side generally receives more precipitation than the subplanetary side. However, precipitation on exomoons with dense atmospheres generally occurs at any longitude in contrast to tidally locked exoplanets.

  18. Regional Bias of Satellite Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrick, T. M.; Georgakakos, K. P.; Spencer, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite-based estimates of precipitation have improved the spatial availability of precipitation data particularly for regions with limited gauge networks due to limited accessibility or infrastructure. Understanding the quality and reliability of satellite precipitation estimates is important, especially when the estimates are utilitized for real-time hydrologic forecasting and for fast-responding phenomena. In partnership with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the U.S. Agency of International Development (USAID) and the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Hydrologic Research Center has begun implementation of real-time flash flood warning systems for diverse regions around the world. As part of this effort, bias characteristics of satellite precipitation have been examined in these various regions, such includes portions of Southeastern Asia, Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, Central America, and the southern half of the African continent. The work has focused on the Global Hydro-Estimator (GHE) precipitation product from NOAA/NESDIS. These real-time systems utilize the GHE given low latency times of this product. This presentation focuses on the characterization of precipitation bias as compared to in-situ gauge records, and the regional variations or similarities. Additional analysis is currently underway considering regional bias for other satellite precipitation products (e.g., CMORPH) for comparison with the GHE results.

  19. Satellite derived precipitation mapping using GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyras, Izabela

    2005-10-01

    The paper presents the GIS technology application allowing mapping the precipitation from the microwave satellite data. The analysis results are prepared in the form of maps of precipitation intensity and range from an Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on board of NOAA (15-17) satellites. The products such as Rain Rate (RR), Scattering Index (SI), Total Precipitation Water (TPW), Precipitation Probability (PP) and Liquid Water Path (LWP) were prepared basing on the regression algorithms. Surface data are converted into thematic coverages, too. The developed system allows displaying the precipitation observed with the satellite data and other ancillary information. Satellite and lightning data layers were also introduced to the system. Such approach allows presentation and analysis of the data coming from the various sources and enables validating the methods for the precipitation algorithms from microwave data. The problems related to the data specific spatial, temporal resolution and variability are presented and discussed. The maps of precipitation with additional geographical data and administrative boundaries are available for the weather forecasting units via Intranet. It is planned to make images available on the web for internal and external customers using web map server.

  20. Process for the obtainment of boric acid from colemanite and/or howlite minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Polendo-Loredo, J.

    1988-07-12

    A process for obtaining boric acid from colemanite minerals, howlite minerals, or mixtures thereof is described comprising: treating the mineral with sulfuric acid to dissolve boron compounds; separating the solution thus formed from the insoluble solids in suspension; reacting the solution with hydrogen sulfide to precipitate arsenic and iron impurities; separating the impurities precipitated from the remaining solution; cooling the remaining solution to precipitate boric acid; and separating the boric acid from the remaining solution.

  1. Use of ion chromatography for analysis of MAP3S precipitation samples

    SciTech Connect

    Rothert, J.

    1980-07-01

    The Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Regional Acidity of Industrial Emissions, MAP3S/RAINE program includes measurement and modeling of fossil-fuel effluent concentrations in precipitation and air in the northeastern United States. To determine precipitation concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as PO/sub 4//sup 3 -/, Cl/sup -/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, NH/sub 4//sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, pH, and conductivity, an eight-1 site precipitation network in rural eastern United States has been established. Two Dionex Model 10 ion chromatographs are being used to analyze the precipitation samples. This paper describes the use and operation of these instruments. (ACR)

  2. The probability distribution of intense daily precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavanaugh, Nicholas R.; Gershunov, Alexander; Panorska, Anna K.; Kozubowski, Tomasz J.

    2015-03-01

    The probability tail structure of over 22,000 weather stations globally is examined in order to identify the physically and mathematically consistent distribution type for modeling the probability of intense daily precipitation and extremes. Results indicate that when aggregating data annually, most locations are to be considered heavy tailed with statistical significance. When aggregating data by season, it becomes evident that the thickness of the probability tail is related to the variability in precipitation causing events and thus that the fundamental cause of precipitation volatility is weather diversity. These results have both theoretical and practical implications for the modeling of high-frequency climate variability worldwide.

  3. Inorganic chemical precipitate formation payload design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, Craig

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special payload to investigate the formation of inorganic precipitates (G-405) utilizes six transparent chemical reaction chambers to actively mix a dry powder with a liquid solution. At predetermined intervals the progress of the precipitate formation is photographed and stored as data. The precipitate particles will also be subject to post-flight analysis. The various tasks performed during the 14 hour duration of the experiment are initiated and monitored by a custom-built digital controller. The payload is currently scheduled as a backup payload for STS-29 with a possible launch date of January, 1989.

  4. Effect of chain length on binding of fatty acids to Pluronics in microemulsions.

    PubMed

    James-Smith, Monica A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Cheung, Sally; Moudgil, Brij M; Shah, Dinesh O

    2008-03-15

    We investigated the effect of fatty acid chain length on the binding capacity of drug and fatty acid to Pluronic F127-based microemulsions. This was accomplished by using turbidity experiments. Pluronic-based oil-in-water microemulsions of various compositions were synthesized and titrated to turbidity with concentrated Amitriptyline, an antidepressant drug. Sodium salts of C(8), C(10), or C(12) fatty acid were used in preparation of the microemulsion and the corresponding binding capacities were observed. It has been previously determined that, for microemulsions prepared with sodium caprylate (C(8) fatty acid soap), a maximum of 11 fatty acid molecules bind to the microemulsion per 1 molecule of Pluronic F127 and a maximum of 12 molecules of Amitriptyline bind per molecule of F127. We have found that with increasing the chain length of the fatty acid salt component of the microemulsion, the binding capacity of both the fatty acid and the Amitriptyline to the microemulsion decreases. For sodium salts of C(8), C(10) and C(12) fatty acids, respectively, a maximum of approximately 11, 8.4 and 8.3 molecules of fatty acid molecules bind to 1 Pluronic F127 molecule. We propose that this is due to the decreasing number of free monomers with increasing chain length. As chain length increases, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) decreases, thus leading to fewer monomers. Pluronics are symmetric tri-block copolymers consisting of propylene oxide (PO) and ethylene oxide (EO). The polypropylene oxide block, PPO is sandwiched between two polyethylene oxide (PEO) blocks. The PEO blocks are hydrophilic while PPO is hydrophobic portion in the Pluronic molecule. Due to this structure, we propose that the fatty acid molecules that are in monomeric form most effectively diffuse between the PEO "tails" and bind to the hydrophobic PPO groups.

  5. A New Method for Near Real Time Precipitation Estimates Using a Derived Statistical Relationship between Precipitable Water Vapor and Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, J.

    2015-12-01

    The IPCC 5th Assessment found that the predicted warming of 1oC would increase the risk of extreme events such as heat waves, droughts, and floods. Weather extremes, like floods, have shown the vulnerability and susceptibility society has to these extreme weather events, through impacts such as disruption of food production, water supply, health, and damage of infrastructure. This paper examines a new way of near-real time forecasting of precipitation. A 10-year statistical climatological relationship was derived between precipitable water vapor (PWV) and precipitation by using the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder daily gridded PWV product and the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission daily gridded precipitation total. Forecasting precipitation estimates in real time is dire for flood monitoring and disaster management. Near real time PWV observations from AIRS on Aqua are available through the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center. In addition, PWV observations are available through direct broadcast from the NASA Suomi-NPP ATMS/CrIS instrument, the operational follow on to AIRS. The derived climatological relationship can be applied to create precipitation estimates in near real time by utilizing the direct broadcasting capabilities currently available in the CONUS region. The application of this relationship will be characterized through case-studies by using near real-time NASA AIRS Science Team v6 PWV products and ground-based SuomiNet GPS to estimate the current precipitation potential; the max amount of precipitation that can occur based on the moisture availability. Furthermore, the potential contribution of using the direct broadcasting of the NUCAPS ATMS/CrIS PWV products will be demonstrated. The analysis will highlight the advantages of applying this relationship in near-real time for flash flood monitoring and risk management. Relevance to the NWS River Forecast Centers will be discussed.

  6. Inhibition of Gypsum Precipitation for Subsurface Barrier Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, E.; Barcelona, M.

    2008-12-01

    As coastal and arid climate regions around the world experience population growth and changing climates, they face the issue of seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers. Seawater intrusion is the result of overexploitation of freshwater resources and leads to contamination of freshwater aquifers rendering them unfit for drinking water without treatment. It is most common in locations such as Yucatan Peninsula, Mediterranean, Southeast and Southwest areas of the United States, Middle East, and many arid to semi-arid islands. Induction of gypsum precipitation for the creation of an in-situ subsurface barrier may be effective to efficiently prevent the seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Gypsum precipitation in the barrier must occur slowly, however, over a wide area. Laboratory research was conducted for the purpose of finding an inhibitor which decreases the rate at which gypsum (CaSO4*2H2O) precipitates in high salinity solutions at favorable temperatures. A series of Non-Inhibited experiments were performed at temperatures 10° C, 15° C, 20° C and 25° C to serve as a comparison to inhibited experiments. Organic Polymers, PEO (Poly(ethylene-oxide)) and PMAA (Poly(methyl-acrylic acid)), were shown in prior laboratory research to be most effective, therefore they were used in this study. Samples were taken periodically to determine average number of gypsum particles per mL and crystal size and geometry. Alteration of crystal habit occurred due to the adsorption of the inhibitors on the 111 (Ca) face of nucleating crystals. This resulted in precipitation of more tabular than needle-like (orthorhombic) crystals. Inhibition times of days could be achieved with less than 100ppm of the better inhibitors (i.e. PEO, PMAA) in 50:50 Seawater: Freshwater solutions.

  7. Deposition of uranium precipitates in dolomitic gravel fill.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D. H.; Watson, D. B.; Kelly, S. D.; Ravel, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division; Queens Univ.; ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Uranium-containing precipitates have been observed in a dolomitic gravel fill near the Department of Energy (DOE) S-3 Ponds former waste disposal site as a result of exposure to acidic (pH 3.4) groundwater contaminated with U (33 mg L{sup -1}), Al{sup 3+} (900 mg L{sup -1}), and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (14000 mg L{sup -1}). The U containing precipitates fluoresce a bright green under ultraviolet (UV) short-wave light which identify U-rich coatings on the gravel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microprobe analysis show U concentration ranges from 1.6?19.8% (average of 7%) within the coatings with higher concentrations at the interface of the dolomite fragments. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) indicate that the U is hexavalent and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) shows that the uranyl is coordinated by carbonate. The exact nature of the uranyl carbonates are difficult to determine, but some are best described by a split K{sup +}-like shell similar to grimselite [K{sub 4}Na(UO{sub 2})(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O] and other regions are better described by a single Ca{sup 2+}-like shell similar to liebigite [Ca{sub 2}(UO{sub 2})(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} 11(H{sub 2}O)] or andersonite [Na{sub 2}CaUO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O]. The U precipitates are found in the form of white to light yellow cracked-formations as coatings on the dolomite gravel and as detached individual precipitates, and are associated with amorphous basalumnite [Al{sub 4}(SO{sub 4})(OH){sub 10} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O].

  8. Recent and future extreme precipitation over Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyshkvarkova, Olena; Voskresenskaya, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The aim of study is to analyze the parameters of precipitation extremes and inequality over Ukraine in recent climate epoch and their possible changes in the future. Data of observations from 28 hydrometeorological stations over Ukraine and output of GFDL-CM3 model (CMIP5) for XXI century were used in the study. The methods of concentration index (J. Martin-Vide, 2004) for the study of precipitation inequality while the extreme precipitation indices recommended by the ETCCDI - for the frequency of events. Results. Precipitation inequality on the annual and seasonal scales was studied using estimated CI series for 1951-2005. It was found that annual CI ranges vary from 0.58 to 0.64. They increase southward from the north-west (forest zone) and the north-east (forest steppe zone) of Ukraine. CI maxima are located in the coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Annual CI spatial distribution indicates that the contribution of extreme precipitation into annual totals is most significant at the boundary zone between steppe and marine regions. At the same time precipitation pattern at the foothill of Carpathian Mountains is more homogenous. The CI minima (0.54) are typical for the winter season in foothill of Ukrainian Carpathians. The CI maxima reach 0.71 in spring at the steppe zone closed to the Black Sea coast. It should be noted that the greatest ranges of CI maximum and CI minimum deviation are typical for spring. It is associated with patterns of cyclone trajectories in that season. The most territory is characterized by tendency to decrease the contribution of extreme precipitation into the total amount (CI linear trends are predominantly negative in all seasons). Decadal and interdecadal variability of precipitation inequality associated with global processes in ocean-atmosphere system are also studied. It was shown that precipitation inequality over Ukraine on 10 - 15 % stronger in negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and in positive phase

  9. Precipitation of flaky moolooite and its thermal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jin-yu; Huang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Moolooite particles with flaky morphology were synthesized by mixing dilute solutions of copper nitrate and sodium oxalate in the presence of citric acid. Solution pH value, citric acid concentration, and stirring were found to have large effect on the shape of the precipitated particles. Under the stirring, the radial area of flaky moolooite particles was enlarged and extended to become a thinner and larger flake. This is ascribed to growth promotion caused by the selective absorption of citric ligands onto a particular crystalline surface of the moolooite particles. Flaky shape of the moolooite particles tended to become spherical and disappeared completely when decomposed under an Ar atmosphere, leading to the formation of large porous aggregated particles composed of many tiny nanosized copper crystals.

  10. Polyethyleneimine precipitation versus anion exchange chromatography in fractionating recombinant beta-glucuronidase from transgenic tobacco extract.

    PubMed

    Holler, Chris; Vaughan, David; Zhang, Chenming

    2007-02-16

    Tobacco has been studied as a possible host for the production of recombinant proteins. In this report, recombinant beta-glucuronidase (rGUS) was used as a model protein to study the feasibility of using polyethyleneimine (PEI) precipitation to fractionate acidic recombinant proteins from transgenic tobacco. Results showed that rGUS was preferentially precipitated when the PEI dosage was beyond 200mg PEI/g total protein. At 700-800 mg PEI/g total protein, nearly 100% rGUS was precipitated with less than 40% native tobacco proteins co-precipitated. Approximately 85-90% of the rGUS activity could be recovered from the precipitation pellet for an enrichment ratio of 2.7-3.4. As a comparison, anion exchange chromatography (AEX) yielded similar results to PEI precipitation with 66-90% rGUS activity recovered and an enrichment ratio of 1.8-3.1. The rGUS was further purified by an additional hydrophobic interaction chromatographic (HIC) step after precipitation or AEX. Similar results in terms of rGUS activity recovered and enrichment were obtained. The major interfering protein at the end of all purification steps is most likely the Fraction 1 protein ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). The presence of this protein is likely the cause for the varying and somewhat low enrichment ratios, but it may be later removed via a size-exclusion chromatography step. PEI precipitation offers the advantage of allowing significant sample concentration prior to subsequent purification techniques such as chromatography and is much less expensive than chromatographic methods as well. Through direct comparison, this study shows that PEI may be used as an initial fractionation step in replacement of AEX to facilitate the purification of acidic recombinant proteins from transgenic tobacco.

  11. Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Valentina; De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2(2) full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H2O2 concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70°C and 3h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2(2) full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2-2.5% and 10-12%v/v of Na2S concentrated solution at 10%w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15-20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75-80%.

  12. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  13. Acid Rain Students Do Original Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outdoor Communicator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    At Park Senior High School (Cottage Grove, Minnesota), 46 juniors and seniors planted 384 red pine seedlings in connection with their original research on acid rain, with advice from Dr. Harriet Stubbs, director of the Acid Precipitation Awareness Program (West Saint Paul), which has been developing acid rain teaching materials. (MH)

  14. The Behavior of Thallium(III) During Jarosite Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Dutrizac,J.; Chen, T.; Beauchemin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of thallium(III) under the general conditions employed for jarosite precipitation in the zinc industry was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Thallium(III) does not appear to form end-member jarosite-type compounds, MTl{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}, where M is Na, K, NH{sub 4}, etc. In acid solutions at pH > 0.7, the thallium(III) hydrolyzes to Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3}; in more strongly acid media, two K-Tl(III) sulphate phases crystallize at temperatures < 90 C. The K-Tl(III) sulphate phases were investigated by chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses and by thermogravimetry. Although end-member Tl(III) analogues of jarosite-type compounds could not be synthesized, it is possible to incorporate significant amounts of Tl(III) in potassium jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6), and over 20 at.% substitution of Tl(III) for Fe(III) was achieved. The presence of Tl(III) in the potassium jarosite structure was confirmed by microscopic methods, electron microprobe analyses and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The Tl(III)-bearing species forms rapidly, and excess Fe(III) precipitates as nearly Tl-free potassium jarosite which envelops the initially formed Tl(III)-bearing potassium jarosite phase.

  15. Monitoring by Control Technique - Electrostatic Precipitators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about electrostatic precipitator control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  16. NASA Measures Extreme Precipitation From Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    From Jan. 25 through Feb. 3, IMERG data estimated that the most extreme precipitation over the United States during this period was over 200mm (7.9 inches) in an area where stormy weather frequentl...

  17. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Precipitation Simulation of AZ91 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Cao, W.; Chen, S.-L.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, F.; Luo, A. A.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2014-03-01

    Precipitation simulation of AZ91 (Mg-9Al-1Zn; all compositions are in wt.% unless otherwise stated.) magnesium alloy is carried out in this work using the PanPrecipitation module of Pandat™ software. In addition to the software, the thermodynamic database, mobility database, and precipitation database for AZ91 were developed to perform the simulation. The simulated results, such as the number density and particle size of the γ-Mg17Al12 precipitate, showed good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the simulated results were then used as input for the prediction of yield strength and micro-hardness of AZ91 aged at different temperatures, which also agreed well with experimental results. To demonstrate the applicability of the databases developed for AZ91, simulations were also carried out for two compositions with lower and higher Zn content. The simulated hardness showed reasonable agreement with the published experimental data.

  19. Differential Precipitation and Solubilization of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Barry J; Kinsella, Gemma K

    2017-01-01

    Differential protein precipitation is a rapid and economical step in protein purification and is based on exploiting the inherent physicochemical properties of the polypeptide. Precipitation of recombinant proteins, lysed from the host cell, is commonly used to concentrate the protein of choice before further polishing steps with more selective purification columns (e.g., His-Tag, Size Exclusion, etc.). Recombinant proteins can also precipitate naturally as inclusion bodies due to various influences during overexpression in the host cell. Although this phenomenon permits easier initial separation from native proteins, these inclusion bodies must carefully be differentially solubilized so as to reform functional, correctly folded proteins. Here, appropriate bioinformatics tools to aid in understanding a protein's propensity to aggregate and solubilize are explored as a backdrop for a typical protein extraction, precipitation, and selective resolubilization procedure, based on a recombinantly expressed protein.

  20. Identifying external influences on global precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.

    2013-11-11

    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal-mean distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle (“thermodynamic” changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt (“dynamic” changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes. Whereas existing model experiments are not of sufficient length to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic forcing terms at the 95% confidence level, we present evidence that the observed trends result from human activities.