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Sample records for capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory

  1. Impaired basal thermal homeostasis in rats lacking capsaicin-sensitive peripheral small sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hitoshi; Wang, Zuocheng; Wang, Youxue; Furuyama, Tatsuo; Kontani, Yasuhide; Sato, Yuzo; Mori, Nozomu

    2008-03-01

    We studied the effects of selective loss of capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory neurons on thermosensation and thermoregulation in rats. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats caused a remarkable decrease in the number of small-diameter neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) compared with their number in the control rats. Gene expression analysis for various thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels indicated marked reductions in the mRNA levels of TRPV1 (70%), TRPM8 (46%) and TRPA1 (64%), but not of TRPV2, in the DRG of capsaicin-treated rats compared with those in the control rats. In addition to the heat and cold insensitivity, capsaicin-treated rats showed lower rectal core temperature, higher skin temperature and decreased sensitivity to ambient temperature alteration under normal housing at room temperature, suggesting impaired thermosensation and change in thermoregulation in the rats. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression and the thermogenic ability in brown adipose tissues were attenuated in the capsaicin-treated rats. These results indicate a critical role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in both heat and cool sensation and hence in basal thermal homeostasis, which is balanced by heat release and production including UCP1 thermogenesis, following sensation of the ambient temperature.

  2. Distinct mechanosensitive properties of capsaicin-sensitive and -insensitive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Drew, Liam J; Wood, John N; Cesare, Paolo

    2002-06-15

    Mechanical stimulation of the somata of cultured neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons evoked inward cationic currents that displayed distinct properties between different subsets of cells. The presumptive nociceptor population, defined by capsaicin sensitivity, showed higher thresholds for the induction of an inward current and lower peak currents than other mechanosensitive neurons. A subset of capsaicin-sensitive IB4-positive sensory neurons was refractory to mechanical stimulation. All mechanically activated currents were blocked by gadolinium (IC50 approximately 8 microm) and ruthenium red (IC50 approximately 3 microm). Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by acute application of 10 microm cytochalasin B inhibited currents much more effectively in capsaicin-insensitive (61%) than capsaicin-sensitive neurons (20%). Extracellular calcium also attenuated mechanosensitive currents and to a greater degree in capsaicin-insensitive neurons than capsaicin-sensitive neurons. These data demonstrate that the somata of different types of cultured sensory neurons have distinct mechanosensitive phenotypes that retain properties associated with nerve terminal mechanosensors in vivo.

  3. Melittin selectively activates capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Kee; Kim, Jin Hyuk

    2004-08-06

    Whole bee venom (WBV)-induced pain model has been reported to be very useful for the study of pain. However, the major constituent responsible for the production of pain by WBV is not apparent. Intraplantar injection of WBV and melittin dramatically reduced mechanical threshold, and increased flinchings and paw thickness. In behavioral experiments, capsaicin pretreatment almost completely prevented WBV- and melittin-induced reduction of mechanical threshold and flinchings. Intraplantar injection of melittin increased discharge rate of dorsal horn neurons only with C fiber input from peripheral receptive field, which was completely blocked by topical application of capsaicin to sciatic nerve. These results suggest that both melittin and WBV induce nociceptive responses by selective activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers.

  4. CAPSAICIN-SENSITIVE SENSORY NERVE FIBERS CONTRIBUTE TO THE GENERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SKELETAL FRACTURE PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Bloom, Aaron P.; Mantyh, William G.; Koewler, Nathan J.; Freeman, Katie T.; Delong, David; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Although skeletal pain can have a marked impact on a patient’s functional status and quality of life, relatively little is known about the specific populations of peripheral nerve fibers that drive non-malignant bone pain. In the present report, neonatal male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with capsaicin or vehicle and femoral fracture was produced when the animals were young adults (15–16 weeks old). Capsaicin treatment, but not vehicle, resulted in a significant (>70%) depletion in the density of calcitonin-gene related peptide positive (CGRP+) sensory nerve fibers, but not 200 kD neurofilament H positive (NF200+) sensory nerve fibers in the periosteum. The periosteum is a thin, cellular and fibrous tissue that tightly adheres to the outer surface of all but the articulated surface of bone and appears to play a pivotal role in driving fracture pain. In animals treated with capsaicin, but not vehicle, there was a 50% reduction in the severity, but no change in the time course, of fracture-induced skeletal pain related behaviors as measured by spontaneous flinching, guarding and weight bearing. These results suggest that both capsaicin-sensitive (primarily CGRP+ C-fibers) and capsaicin-insensitive (primarily NF200+ A-delta fibers) sensory nerve fibers participate in driving skeletal fracture pain. Skeletal pain can be a significant impediment to functional recovery following trauma-induced fracture, osteoporosis-induced fracture and orthopedic surgery procedures such as knee and hip replacement. Understanding the specific populations of sensory nerve fibers that need to be targeted to inhibit the generation and maintenance of skeletal pain may allow the development of more specific mechanism-based therapies that can effectively attenuate acute and chronic skeletal pain. PMID:19486928

  5. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves exert complex regulatory functions in the serum-transfer mouse model of autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Borbély, Éva; Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Kenyér, Tibor; Kereskai, László; Kiss, Tamás; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika; Csepregi, Janka Zsófia; Mócsai, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective The K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis is a widely-used translational mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immunological components have thoroughly been investigated. In contrast, little is known about the role of sensory neural factors and the complexity of neuro–immune interactions. Therefore, we analyzed the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves in autoantibody-induced arthritis with integrative methodology. Methods Arthritogenic K/BxN or control serum was injected to non-pretreated mice or resiniferatoxin (RTX)-pretreated animals where capsaicin-sensitive nerves were inactivated. Edema, touch sensitivity, noxious heat threshold, joint function, body weight and clinical arthritis severity scores were determined repeatedly throughout two weeks. Micro-CT and in vivo optical imaging to determine matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, semiquantitative histopathological scoring and radioimmunoassay to measure somatostatin in the joint homogenates were also performed. Results In RTX-pretreated mice, the autoantibody-induced joint swelling, arthritis severity score, MMP and MPO activities, as well as histopathological alterations were significantly greater compared to non-pretreated animals. Self-control quantification of the bone mass revealed decreased values in intact female mice, but significantly greater arthritis-induced pathological bone formation after RTX-pretreatment. In contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia from day 10 was smaller after inactivating capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Although thermal hyperalgesia did not develop, noxious heat threshold was significantly higher following RTX pretreatment. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity elevated in the tibiotarsal joints in non-pretreated, which was significantly less in RTX-pretreated mice. Conclusions Although capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the later phase of autoantibody

  6. Evidence for a role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in the lung oedema induced by Tityus serrulatus venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcus V M; Souza, Danielle G; de A Castro, Maria Salete; Cunha-Melo, José R; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2002-03-01

    In the most severe cases of human envenoming by Tityus serrulatus, pulmonary oedema is a frequent finding and can be the cause of death. We have previously demonstrated a role for neuropeptides acting on tachykinin NK(1) receptors in the development of lung oedema following i.v. injection of T. serrulatus venom (TsV) in experimental animals. The present work was designed to investigate whether capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurons were a potential source of NK(1)-acting neuropeptides. To this end, sensory nerves were depleted of neuropeptides by neonatal treatment of rats with capsaicin. The effectiveness of this strategy at depleting sensory nerves was demonstrated by the inhibition of the neuropeptide-dependent response to intraplantar injection of formalin. Pulmonary oedema, as assessed by the levels of extravasation of Evans blue dye in the bronchoalveolar lavage and in the left lung, was markedly inhibited in capsaicin-treated animals. In contrast, capsaicin treatment failed to alter the increase in arterial blood pressure or the lethality following i.v. injection of TsV. Our results demonstrate an important role for capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in the cascade of events leading to lung injury following the i.v. administration of TsV.

  7. Mitochondria and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase control presynaptic Ca2+ clearance in capsaicin-sensitive rat sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shutov, Leonid P; Kim, Man-Su; Houlihan, Patrick R; Medvedeva, Yuliya V; Usachev, Yuriy M

    2013-01-01

    The central processes of primary nociceptors form synaptic connections with the second-order nociceptive neurons located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These synapses gate the flow of nociceptive information from the periphery to the CNS, and plasticity at these synapses contributes to centrally mediated hyperalgesia and allodynia. Although exocytosis and synaptic plasticity are controlled by Ca2+ at the release sites, the mechanisms underlying presynaptic Ca2+ signalling at the nociceptive synapses are not well characterized. We examined the presynaptic mechanisms regulating Ca2+ clearance following electrical stimulation in capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors using a dorsal root ganglion (DRG)/spinal cord neuron co-culture system. Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) recovery following electrical stimulation was well approximated by a monoexponential function with a τ∼2 s. Inhibition of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase did not affect presynaptic [Ca2+]i recovery, and blocking plasmalemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchange produced only a small reduction in the rate of [Ca2+]i recovery (∼12%) that was independent of intracellular K+. However, [Ca2+]i recovery in presynaptic boutons strongly depended on the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) and mitochondria that accounted for ∼47 and 40%, respectively, of presynaptic Ca2+ clearance. Measurements using a mitochondria-targeted Ca2+ indicator, mtPericam, demonstrated that presynaptic mitochondria accumulated Ca2+ in response to electrical stimulation. Quantitative analysis revealed that the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is highly sensitive to presynaptic [Ca2+]i elevations, and occurs at [Ca2+]i levels as low as ∼200–300 nm. Using RT-PCR, we detected expression of several putative mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters in DRG, such as MCU, Letm1 and NCLX. Collectively, this work identifies PMCA and mitochondria as the major regulators of presynaptic Ca2+ signalling at the first sensory synapse, and underlines the high

  8. Increased susceptibility of gastric mucosa to ulcerogenic stimulation in diabetic rats–role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tashima, Kimihito; Korolkiewicz, Roman; Kubomi, Masafumi; Takeuchi, Koji

    1998-01-01

    We examined the gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and ulcerogenic responses following barrier disruption induced by sodium taurocholate (TC) in diabetic rats and investigated the role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in these responses.Animals were injected streptozotocin (STZ: 70 mg kg−1, i.p.) and used after 5, 10 and 15 weeks of diabetes with blood glucose levels of >350 mg dl−1. The stomach was mounted on an ex-vivo chamber under urethane anaesthesia and exposed to 20 mM TC plus 50 mM HCl for 30 min in the presence of omeprazole. Gastric transmucosal potential difference (PD), GMBF, and luminal acid loss (H+ back-diffusion) were measured before and after exposure to 20 mM TC, and the mucosa was examined for lesions 90 min after TC treatment.Mucosal application of TC caused PD reduction in all groups; the degree of PD reduction was similar between normal and diabetic rats, although basal PD values were lower in diabetic rats. In normal rats, TC treatment caused luminal acid loss, followed by an increase of GMBF, resulting in minimal damage in the mucosa.The increased GMBF responses associated with H+ back-diffusion were mitigated in STZ-treated rats, depending on the duration of diabetes, and severe haemorrhagic lesions occurred in the stomach after 10 weeks of diabetes.Intragastric application of capsaicin increased GMBF in normal rats, but such responses were mitigated in STZ diabetic rats. The amount of CGRP released in the isolated stomach in response to capsaicin was significantly lower in diabetic rats when compared to controls.The deleterious influences on GMBF and mucosal ulcerogenic responses in STZ-diabetic rats were partially but significantly antagonized by daily insulin (4 units rat−1) treatment.These results suggest that the gastric mucosa of diabetic rats is more vulnerable to acid injury following barrier disruption, and this change is insulin-sensitive and may be partly accounted for by the impairment of GMBF

  9. Role of capsaicin-sensitive afferents and sensory neuropeptides in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation and consequent bronchial hyperreactivity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Elekes, Krisztián; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Németh, József; Sándor, Katalin; Pozsgai, Gábor; Kereskai, László; Börzsei, Rita; Pintér, Erika; Szabó, Arpád; Szolcsányi, János

    2007-06-07

    Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from capsaicin-sensitive afferents induce neurogenic inflammation via NK(1), NK(2) and CGRP1 receptor activation. This study examines the role of capsaicin-sensitive fibres and sensory neuropeptides in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation and consequent bronchial hyperreactivity with functional, morphological and biochemical techniques in mice. Carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction was measured with whole body plethysmography 24 h after intranasal lipopolysaccharide administration. SP and CGRP were determined with radioimmunoassay, myeloperoxidase activity with spectrophotometry, interleukin-1beta with ELISA and histopathological changes with semiquantitative scoring from lung samples. Treatments with resiniferatoxin for selective destruction of capsaicin-sensitive afferents, NK(1) antagonist SR 140333, NK(2) antagonist SR 48968, their combination, or CGRP1 receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37) were performed. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased lung SP and CGRP concentrations, which was prevented by resiniferatoxin pretreatment. Resiniferatoxin-desensitization markedly enhanced inflammation, but decreased bronchoconstriction. CGRP(8-37) or combination of SR 140333 and SR 48968 diminished neutrophil accumulation, MPO levels and IL-1beta production, airway hyperresponsiveness was inhibited only by SR 48968. This is the first evidence that capsaicin-sensitive afferents exert a protective role in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation, but contribute to increased bronchoconstriction. Activation of CGRP1 receptors or NK(1)+NK(2) receptors participate in granulocyte accumulation, but NK(2) receptors play predominant role in enhanced airway resistance.

  10. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons are involved in bicarbonate secretion induced by lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Inada, I; Satoh, H

    1996-04-01

    Lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, exerts prominent antiulcer activity via both antisecretory and mucosal protective actions. Although the antisecretory action has been explained by inactivation of (H+, K+)-ATPase in parietal cells, the mode of mucosal protective action remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of lansoprazole on duodenal bicarbonate secretion was studied in anesthetized rats to clarify the mode of the mucosal protective action. Lansoprazole (0.1 mM) applied topically to the duodenum significantly (P < 0.01) increased bicarbonate secretion by 0.36 +/- 0.11 microeq/15 min (21 +/- 5%) compared with the value in the vehicle control. Topical administration of capsaicin (10 mg/ml) in the duodenum and intravenous infusion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (10 micrograms/kg/hr) increased bicarbonate secretion. Five-minute perfusion of the duodenal loop with 100 mM HCl increased bicarbonate secretion. Administration of lansoprazole (0.3 and 1 mg/kg, intravenously) 60 min before luminal acidification enhanced the acid-induced bicarbonate secretion dose-dependently and significantly (P < 0.01). In the capsaicin-pretreated rats, the effects of lansoprazole on basal and acid-induced bicarbonate secretion were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared with that of control group. These results indicate that lansoprazole increases basal and acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum in rats and that capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons may be involved in the mode of action for these effects.

  11. Functional depletion of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers attenuates rat pain-related behaviors and paw edema induced by the venom of scorpion Buthus martensi Karch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhan-Tao; Liu, Tong; Pang, Xue-Yan; Jiang, Feng; Cheng, Ming; Ji, Yong-Hua

    2008-10-01

    The role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers in rat pain-related behaviors and paw edema induced by scorpion Buthus martensi Karch (BmK) venom was investigated in this study. It was found that functional depletion of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers with a single systemic injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX) dramatically decreased spontaneous nociceptive behaviors, prevented the development of primary mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as mirror-image mechanical hyperalgesia. RTX treatment significantly attenuated BmK venom-induced c-Fos expression in all laminaes of bilateral L4-L5 lumbar spinal cord, especially in superficial laminaes. Moreover, RTX treatment markedly reduced the early paw edema induced by BmK venom. Thus, the results indicate that capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers play a critical role in various pain-related behaviors and paw edema induced by BmK venom in rats.

  12. Capsaicin-Sensitive Sensory Nerves Mediate the Cellular and Microvascular Effects of H2S via TRPA1 Receptor Activation and Neuropeptide Release.

    PubMed

    Hajna, Zsófia; Sághy, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Aubdool, Aisah A; Szőke, Éva; Pozsgai, Gábor; Bátai, István Z; Nagy, Lívia; Filotás, Dániel; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Brain, Susan D; Pintér, Erika

    2016-10-01

    It is supposed that TRPA1 receptor can be activated by hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Here, we have investigated the role of TRPA1 receptor in H2S-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase in trigeminal ganglia (TRG) neurons, and the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in H2S-evoked cutaneous vasodilatation. [Ca(2+)]i was measured with ratiometric technique on TRG neurons of TRPA1(+/+) and TRPA1(-/-) mice after NaHS, Na2S, allylisothiocyanate (AITC) or KCl treatment. Microcirculatory changes in the ear were detected by laser Doppler imaging in response to topical NaHS, AITC, NaOH, NaSO3 or NaCl. Mice were either treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX), or CGRP antagonist BIBN4096, or NK1 receptor antagonist CP99994, or K(+) ATP channel blocker glibenclamide. Alpha-CGRP(-/-) and NK1 (-/-) mice were also investigated. NaHS and Na2S increased [Ca(2+)]i in TRG neurons derived from TRPA(+/+) but not from TRPA1(-/-) mice. NaHS increased cutaneous blood flow, while NaOH, NaSO3 and NaCl did not cause significant changes. NaHS-induced vasodilatation was reduced in RTX-treated animals, as well as by pre-treatment with BIBN4096 or CP99994 alone or in combination. NaHS-induced vasodilatation was significantly smaller in alpha-CGRP(-/-) or NK1 (-/-) mice compared to wild-types. H2S activates capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves through TRPA1 receptors and the resultant vasodilatation is mediated by the release of vasoactive sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P.

  13. Prostaglandin E2 potentiates a TTX-resistant sodium current in rat capsaicin-sensitive vagal pulmonary sensory neurones.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Kevin; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2005-04-15

    Capsaicin-sensitive vagal pulmonary neurones (pulmonary C neurones) play an important role in regulating airway function. During airway inflammation, the level of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) increases in the lungs and airways. PGE(2) has been shown to sensitize isolated pulmonary C neurones. The somatosensory correlate of the pulmonary C neurone, the small-diameter nociceptive neurone of the dorsal root ganglion, contains a high percentage of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents (TTX-R I(Na)). Therefore, this study was carried out to determine whether these channel currents are involved in the PGE(2)-induced sensitization of pulmonary C neurones. We used the perforated patch-clamp technique to study the effects of PGE(2) on the TTX-R I(Na) in acutely cultured capsaicin-sensitive pulmonary neurones that were identified by retrograde labelling with a fluorescent tracer, DiI. We found that the pulmonary neurones sensitive to capsaicin had a higher percentage of TTX-R I(Na) than that of capsaicin-insensitive pulmonary neurones. PGE(2) exposure increased the evoked TTX-R I(Na) when experiments were performed at both room temperature and at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, stimulation of the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A pathway with either forskolin or Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS potentiated the TTX-R I(Na) in a manner similar to that of PGE(2). We conclude that these modulatory effects of PGE(2) on TTX-R I(Na) play an important role in the sensitization of pulmonary C neurones.

  14. Roles of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in differential rat models of inflammatory pain: a systematic comparative study in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Sheng; He, Xiang; Wang, Yang; Wen, Wei-Wei; You, Hao-Jun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-03-01

    To characterize the role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in inflammatory pain, the effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 0.15% capsaicin on different chemical irritants-induced pathological nociception including persistent spontaneous nociception, primary thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, and inflammatory response were systematically investigated in unanesthetized conscious rats. Four different animal models of inflammatory pain: the bee venom (BV) test, the formalin test, the carrageenan model, and the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model, were employed and compared. Local pre-treatment with capsaicin produced a significant inhibition on the s.c. BV and formalin induced long-lasting persistent spontaneous nociception. However, this capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on spontaneous nociception in the BV test was only found within the late phase (tonic nociception; 11-60 min), but not the early phase (acute nociception; 0-10 min). A complete preventing effect of capsaicin on the decreased thermal paw withdrawal latency was found in the BV, carrageenan, and CFA models. Nevertheless, pre-treatment with capsaicin only produced complete blocking effects on the decreased mechanical paw withdrawal threshold in the BV and carrageenan models, but not in the CFA model. For inflammatory response, a significant inhibition of the BV-elicited paw swelling was found following capsaicin treatment. In marked contrast, capsaicin did not produce any effects on the paw inflammation during exposure to carrageenan, CFA, and formalin. These data suggest that capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents may play differential roles in the induction and development of pathological nociception in differential inflammatory pain models. In contrast to other chemical irritants, BV-induced long-term spontaneous nociception, facilitated nociceptive behavior, and inflammation are modulated by peripheral capsaicin-sensitive afferents.

  15. H2S-induced HCO3- secretion in the rat stomach--involvement of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Ise, Fumitaka; Takahashi, Kento; Aihara, Eitaro; Hayashi, Shusaku

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to be an important gaseous mediator that affects various functions under physiological and pathological conditions. We examined the effects of NaHS, a H2S donor, on HCO3(-) secretion in rat stomachs and investigated the mechanism involved in this response. Under urethane anesthesia, rat stomachs were mounted on an ex vivo chamber and perfused with saline. Acid secretion had been inhibited by omeprazole. The secretion of HCO3(-) was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method and by the addition of 10 mM HCl. NaHS (0.5-10 mM) was perfused in the stomach for 5 min. Indomethacin or L-NAME was administered s.c. before NaHS treatment, while glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker), ONO-8711 (an EP1 antagonist), or propargylglycine (a cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor) was given i.p. before. The mucosal perfusion of NaHS dose-dependently increased the secretion of HCO3(-), and this effect was significantly attenuated by indomethacin, L-NAME, and sensory deafferentation, but not by glibenclamide or ONO-8711. The luminal output of nitric oxide, but not the mucosal production of prostaglandin E2, was increased by the perfusion of NaHS. Mucosal acidification stimulated HCO3(-) secretion, and this response was inhibited by sensory deafferentation, indomethacin, L-NAME, and ONO-8711, but not by propargylglycine. These results suggested that H2S increased HCO3(-) secretion in the stomach, and this effect was mediated by capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons and dependent on nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Further study is needed to define the role of endogenous H2S in the mechanism underlying acid-induced gastric HCO3(-) secretion.

  16. Experimental colitis in rats induces de novo synthesis of cytokines at distant intestinal sites: role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Fadi H; Hamdi, Tamim; Barada, Kassem A; Saadé, Nayef E

    2016-06-01

    Increased levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed in various segments of histologically-intact small intestine in animal models of acute and chronic colitis. Whether these cytokines are produced locally or spread from the inflamed colon is not known. In addition, the role of gut innervation in this upregulation is not fully understood. To examine whether cytokines are produced de novo in the small intestine in two rat models of colitis; and to investigate the role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in the synthesis of these inflammatory cytokines. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of iodoacetamide (IA) or trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Using reverse transcriptase (RT) and real-time PCR, TNF-α, and IL-10 mRNA expression was measured in mucosal scrapings of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon at different time intervals after induction of colitis. Capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA) were ablated using subcutaneous injections of capsaicin at time 0, 8 and 32 h, and the experiment was repeated at specific time intervals to detect any effect on cytokines expression. TNF-α mRNA expression increased by 3-40 times in the different intestinal segments (p<0.05 to p<0.001), 48h after IA-induced colitis. CSPA ablation completely inhibited this upregulation in the small intestine, but not in the colon. Similar results were obtained in TNBS-induced colitis at 24 h. Intestinal IL-10 mRNA expression significantly decreased at 12 h and then increased by 6-43 times (p<0.05 to p<0.001) 48h after IA administration. This increase was abolished in rats subjected to CSPA ablation except in the colon, where IL-10 further increased by twice (p<0.05). In the TNBS group, there was 4-12- and 4-7-fold increases in small intestinal IL-10 mRNA expression at 1 and 21 days after colitis induction, respectively (both p<0.01). This increase was not observed in rats pretreated with capsaicin. Capsaicin-treated and

  17. Augmented sodium currents contribute to the enhanced excitability of small diameter capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons isolated from Nf1+/⁻ mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Duan, J-H; Hingtgen, C M; Nicol, G D

    2010-04-01

    Neurofibromin, the product of the Nf1 gene, is a guanosine triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for p21ras (Ras) that accelerates conversion of active Ras-GTP to inactive Ras-GDP. Sensory neurons with reduced levels of neurofibromin likely have augmented Ras-GTP activity. We reported previously that sensory neurons isolated from a mouse model with a heterozygous mutation of the Nf1 gene (Nf1+/⁻) exhibited greater excitability compared with wild-type mice. To determine the mechanism giving rise to the augmented excitability, differences in specific membrane currents were examined. Consistent with the enhanced excitability of Nf1+/⁻ neurons, peak current densities of both tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current (TTX-R I(Na)) and TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) I(Na) were significantly larger in Nf1+/⁻ than in wild-type neurons. Although the voltages for half-maximal activation (V(0.5)) were not different, there was a significant depolarizing shift in the V(0.5) for steady-state inactivation of both TTX-R and TTX-S I(Na) in Nf1+/⁻ neurons. In addition, levels of persistent I(Na) were significantly larger in Nf1+/⁻ neurons. Neither delayed rectifier nor A-type potassium currents were altered in Nf1+/⁻ neurons. These results demonstrate that enhanced production of action potentials in Nf1+/⁻ neurons results, in part, from larger current densities and a depolarized voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation for I(Na) that potentially leads to a greater availability of sodium channels at voltages near the firing threshold for the action potential.

  18. High-Concentration Piperine: Capsaicin-Sensitive and -Insensitive Effects on Isolated Organs.

    PubMed

    Bencsik, Timea; Sandor, Zsolt; Bartho, Lorand

    2015-01-01

    Piperine (P), a sensory stimulant in black pepper, is an agonist on TRPV1 receptors. Earlier work has showed capsaicin-sensitive and -insensitive mechanisms of the contractile action of P on the intestine. The current isolated organ study in the guinea-pig ileum, urinary bladder and trachea (a) confirms the presence of such components of effect (ileum and bladder); (b) indicates TRPV1 involvement in the effect of 5 or 30 µmol/l of P on the basis of an inhibitory action of the antagonist BCTC (ileum); (c) indicates that HC 030031-sensitive TRPA1 receptors and nifedipine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels contribute to the capsaicin-resistant contraction to 30 µmol/l P (ileum) and (d) shows that the contractile effect of P up to 100 µmol/l (guinea-pig trachea) or 30 µmol/l (guinea-pig urinary bladder) is capsaicin-sensitive and mediated by TRPV1 receptors/channels.

  19. Transganglionic transport of choleragenoid by capsaicin-sensitive C-fibre afferents to the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal dorsal horn after peripheral nerve section.

    PubMed

    Sántha, P; Jancsó, G

    2003-01-01

    Choleratoxin B subunit-binding thick myelinated, A-fibre and unmyelinated, capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive C-fibre primary afferent fibres terminate in a strict topographic and somatotopic manner in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Injection of choleratoxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase conjugate into injured but not intact peripheral nerves produced transganglionic labelling of primary afferents not only in the deeper layers (Rexed's laminae III-IV), but also in the substantia gelatinosa (Rexed's laminae II) of the spinal dorsal horn. This was interpreted in terms of a sprouting response of the Abeta-myelinated afferents and suggested a contribution to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain [Nature 355 (1992) 75; J Comp Neurol 360 (1995) 121]. By utilising the selective neurotoxic effect of capsaicin, we examined the role of C-fibre sensory ganglion neurons in the mechanism of this phenomenon. Elimination of these particular, capsaicin-sensitive C-fibre afferents by prior intrathecal or systemic capsaicin treatment inhibited transganglionic labelling by the choleratoxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase conjugate of the substantia gelatinosa evoked by chronic sciatic nerve section. More importantly, prior perineural capsaicin treatment of the transected nerve proximal to the anticipated site of injection of choleragenoid 12 hours later prevented the labelling of the substantia gelatinosa, but not that of the deeper layers. Electron microscopic examination of the dorsal roots revealed no significant difference in the proportion of labelled myelinated fibres relating to the intact (54.4+/-5.5%) and the transected (62.4+/-5.4%) sciatic nerves. In contrast, the proportion of labelled unmyelinated dorsal root axons relating to the transected, but not the intact nerves showed a significant, six-fold increase after sciatic nerve transection (intact: 4.9+/-1.3%; transected: 35+/-6.7%). These observations indicate that peripheral nerve lesion-induced transganglionic labelling

  20. Role of capsaicin-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons in anorexic responses to intravenous infusions of cholecystokinin, peptide YY-(3-36), and glucagon-like peptide-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Reidelberger, Roger; Haver, Alvin; Anders, Krista; Apenteng, Bettye

    2014-10-15

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced suppression of feeding is mediated by vagal sensory neurons that are destroyed by the neurotoxin capsaicin (CAP). Here we determined whether CAP-sensitive neurons mediate anorexic responses to intravenous infusions of gut hormones peptide YY-(3-36) [PYY-(3-36)] and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Rats received three intraperitoneal injections of CAP or vehicle (VEH) in 24 h. After recovery, non-food-deprived rats received at dark onset a 3-h intravenous infusion of CCK-8 (5, 17 pmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹), PYY-(3-36) (5, 17, 50 pmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹), or GLP-1 (17, 50 pmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹). CCK-8 was much less effective in reducing food intake in CAP vs. VEH rats. CCK-8 at 5 and 17 pmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ reduced food intake during the 3-h infusion period by 39 and 71% in VEH rats and 7 and 18% in CAP rats. In contrast, PYY-(3-36) and GLP-1 were similarly effective in reducing food intake in VEH and CAP rats. PYY-(3-36) at 5, 17, and 50 pmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ reduced food intake during the 3-h infusion period by 15, 33, and 70% in VEH rats and 13, 30, and 33% in CAP rats. GLP-1 at 17 and 50 pmol·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ reduced food intake during the 3-h infusion period by 48 and 60% in VEH rats and 30 and 52% in CAP rats. These results suggest that anorexic responses to PYY-(3-36) and GLP-1 are not primarily mediated by the CAP-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons (presumably vagal) that mediate CCK-8-induced anorexia.

  1. Botulinum toxin type A selectivity for certain types of pain is associated with capsaicin-sensitive neurons.

    PubMed

    Matak, Ivica; Rossetto, Ornella; Lacković, Zdravko

    2014-08-01

    Unlike most classical analgesics, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) does not alter acute nociceptive thresholds, and shows selectivity primarily for allodynic and hyperalgesic responses in certain pain conditions. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be explained by characterizing the sensory neurons targeted by BoNT/A in the central nervous system after its axonal transport. BoNT/A's central antinociceptive activity following its application into the rat whisker pad was examined in trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) and higher-level nociceptive brain areas using BoNT/A-cleaved synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Occurrence of cleaved SNAP-25 in TNC was examined after nonselective ganglion ablation with formalin or selective denervation of capsaicin-sensitive (vanilloid receptor-1 or TRPV1-expressing) neurons, and in relation to different cellular and neuronal markers. Regional c-Fos activation and effect of TRPV1-expressing afferent denervation on toxin's antinociceptive action were studied in formalin-induced orofacial pain. BoNT/A-cleaved SNAP-25 was observed in TNC, but not in higher-level nociceptive nuclei. Cleaved SNAP-25 in TNC disappeared after formalin-induced trigeminal ganglion ablation or capsaicin-induced sensory denervation. Occurrence of cleaved SNAP-25 in TNC and BoNT/A antinociceptive activity in formalin-induced orofacial pain were prevented by denervation with capsaicin. Cleaved SNAP-25 localization demonstrated toxin's presynaptic activity in TRPV1-expressing neurons. BoNT/A reduced the c-Fos activation in TNC, locus coeruleus, and periaqueductal gray. Present experiments suggest that BoNT/A alters the nociceptive transmission at the central synapse of primary afferents. Targeting of TRPV1-expressing neurons might be associated with observed selectivity of BoNT/A action only in certain types of pain.

  2. Regulation of early and delayed radiation responses in rat small intestine by capsaicin-sensitive nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Zheng Huaien; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Ou Xuemei; Hauer-Jensen, Martin . E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Mast cells protect against the early manifestations of intestinal radiation toxicity, but promote chronic intestinal wall fibrosis. Intestinal sensory nerves are closely associated with mast cells, both anatomically and functionally, and serve an important role in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis. This study examined the effect of sensory nerve ablation on the intestinal radiation response in an established rat model. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent sensory nerve ablation with capsaicin or sham ablation. Two weeks later, a localized segment of ileum was X-irradiated or sham irradiated. Structural, cellular, and molecular changes were examined 2 weeks (early injury) and 26 weeks (chronic injury) after irradiation. The mast cell dependence of the effect of sensory nerve ablation on intestinal radiation injury was assessed using c-kit mutant (Ws/Ws) mast cell-deficient rats. Results: Capsaicin treatment caused a baseline reduction in mucosal mast cell density, crypt cell proliferation, and expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, two neuropeptides released by sensory neurons. Sensory nerve ablation strikingly exacerbated early intestinal radiation toxicity (loss of mucosal surface area, inflammation, intestinal wall thickening), but attenuated the development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis (collagen I accumulation and transforming growth factor {beta} immunoreactivity). In mast cell-deficient rats, capsaicin treatment exacerbated postradiation epithelial injury (loss of mucosal surface area), but none of the other aspects of radiation injury were affected by capsaicin treatment. Conclusions: Ablation of capsaicin-sensitive enteric neurons exacerbates early intestinal radiation toxicity, but attenuates development of chronic fibroproliferative changes. The effect of capsaicin treatment on the intestinal radiation response is partly mast cell dependent.

  3. Primary processes in sensory cells: current advances.

    PubMed

    Frings, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In the course of evolution, the strong and unremitting selective pressure on sensory performance has driven the acuity of sensory organs to its physical limits. As a consequence, the study of primary sensory processes illustrates impressively how far a physiological function can be improved if the survival of a species depends on it. Sensory cells that detect single-photons, single molecules, mechanical motions on a nanometer scale, or incredibly small fluctuations of electromagnetic fields have fascinated physiologists for a long time. It is a great challenge to understand the primary sensory processes on a molecular level. This review points out some important recent developments in the search for primary processes in sensory cells that mediate touch perception, hearing, vision, taste, olfaction, as well as the analysis of light polarization and the orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. The data are screened for common transduction strategies and common transduction molecules, an aspect that may be helpful for researchers in the field.

  4. Primary ciliary dyskinesia and associated sensory ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Horani, Amjad; Ferkol, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disease of motile cilia, which belongs to a group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of cilia, collectively known as ciliopathies. Insights into the genetics and phenotypes of PCD have grown over the last decade, in part propagated by the discovery of a number of novel cilia-related genes. These genes encode proteins that segregate into structural axonemal, regulatory, as well as cytoplasmic assembly proteins. Our understanding of primary (sensory) cilia has also expanded, and an ever-growing list of diverse conditions has been linked to defective function and signaling of the sensory cilium. Recent multicenter clinical and genetic studies have uncovered the heterogeneity of motile and sensory ciliopathies, and in some cases, the overlap between these conditions. In this review, we will describe the genetics and pathophysiology of ciliopathies in children, focusing on PCD, review emerging genotype-phenotype relationships, and diagnostic tools available for the clinician. PMID:26967669

  5. Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferents and the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Receptor in xylene-induced nocifensive behaviour and inflammation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Katalin; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Elekes, Krisztián; Szolcsányi, János

    2009-02-27

    The inflammatory actions of xylene, an aromatic irritant and sensitizing agent, were described to be predominantly neurogenic in the rat, but the mechanism and the role of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) capsaicin receptor localized on a subpopulation of sensory nerves has not been elucidated. This paper characterizes the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferents and the TRPV1 receptor in nociceptive and acute inflammatory effects of xylene in the mouse. Topical application of xylene on the paw induced a short, intensive nocifensive behaviour characterized by paw liftings and shakings, which was more intensive in Balb/c than in C57Bl/6 mice. Genetic deletion of the TRPV1 receptor as well as destroying capsaicin-sensitive nerve terminals with resiniferatoxin (RTX) pretreatment markedly reduced, but did not abolish nocifensive behaviours. In respect to the xylene-induced plasma protein extravasation detected by Evans blue leakage, significant difference was neither observed between the Balb/c and C57Bl/6 strains, nor the ear and the dorsal paw skin. These inflammatory responses were diminished in the RTX pretreated group, but not in the TRPV1 gene-deleted one. Injection of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine 15min prior to xylene smearing significantly reduced plasma protein extravasation at both sites. These results demonstrate that xylene-induced acute nocifensive behaviour is mediated by capsaicin-sensitive afferents via TRPV1 receptor activation in mice. Neurogenic inflammatory components play an important role in xylene-induced plasma protein extravasation, but independently of the TRPV1 ion channel. Reactive oxygen or carbonyl species participate in this process presumably via stimulation of the TRPA1 channel.

  6. [Oxidative modification of rat blood proteins after destruction capsaicin-sensitive nerve and change of nitric oxide level].

    PubMed

    Tolochko, Z S; Spiridonov, V K

    2010-01-01

    Content of blood protein carbonyl derivates in rats are determined to assess oxidative modification of protein after destruction of capsaicin-sensitive nerve and change of nitric oxide (NO) level. Deafferentation of these nerves produces increase of the protein carbonyl derivates content. The increase of NO by L-arginine does not affect protein oxidative destruction produced by ablation of capsaicin-sensitive nerve. Selective inhibitor of neuronal synthase NO (n-NOS) 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) results in similar effect. L-NAME increased oxidative destruction of proteins. These results demonstrate that deafferentation of capsaicin-sensitive nerve induces oxidative destruction of proteins. NO has party to mediating oxidative modification of proteins.

  7. Peripheral nerve lesion-induced uptake and transport of choleragenoid by capsaicin-sensitive c-fibre spinal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Jancsó, G; Sántha, P; Gecse, Krisztina

    2002-01-01

    In the present experiments the effect of systemic capsaicin treatment on the retrograde labelling of sensory ganglion cells was studied following the injection of choleratoxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (CTX-HRP) into intact and chronically transected peripheral nerves. In the control rats CTX-HRP injected into intact sciatic nerves labelled medium and large neurons with a mean cross-sectional area of 1,041 +/- 39 gm2. However, after injection of the conjugate into chronically transected sciatic nerves of the control rats, many small cells were also labelled, shifting the mean cross-sectional area of the labelled cells to 632 +/- 118 microm2. Capsaicin pretreatment per se induced a moderate but significant decrease in the mean cross-sectional area of the labelled neurons (879 +/- 79 microm2). More importantly, systemic pretreatment with capsaicin prevented the peripheral nerve lesion-induced labelling of small cells. Thus, the mean cross-sectional areas of labelled neurons relating to the intact and transected sciatic nerves, respectively, did not differ significantly. These findings provide direct evidence for a phenotypic switch of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons after peripheral nerve injury, and suggest that lesion-induced morphological changes in the spinal cord may be related to specific alterations in the chemistry of C-fibre afferent neurons rather than to a sprouting response of A-fibre afferents.

  8. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Whitt, Jessica L

    2015-12-01

    Sensory loss leads to widespread adaptation of brain circuits to allow an organism to navigate its environment with its remaining senses, which is broadly referred to as cross-modal plasticity. Such adaptation can be observed even in the primary sensory cortices, and falls into two distinct categories: recruitment of the deprived sensory cortex for processing the remaining senses, which we term 'cross-modal recruitment', and experience-dependent refinement of the spared sensory cortices referred to as 'compensatory plasticity.' Here we will review recent studies demonstrating that cortical adaptation to sensory loss involves LTP/LTD and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity is observed in adults, hence cross-modal sensory deprivation may be an effective way to promote plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices.

  9. Gastrodin Inhibits Allodynia and Hyperalgesia in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy Rats by Decreasing Excitability of Nociceptive Primary Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Han, Wen-Juan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Luo, Ceng; Hu, San-Jue

    2012-01-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and adversely affects the patients’ quality of life. Evidence has accumulated that PDN is associated with hyperexcitability of peripheral nociceptive primary sensory neurons. However, the precise cellular mechanism underlying PDN remains elusive. This may result in the lacking of effective therapies for the treatment of PDN. The phenolic glucoside, gastrodin, which is a main constituent of the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has been widely used as an anticonvulsant, sedative, and analgesic since ancient times. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying its analgesic actions are not well understood. By utilizing a combination of behavioral surveys and electrophysiological recordings, the present study investigated the role of gastrodin in an experimental rat model of STZ-induced PDN and to further explore the underlying cellular mechanisms. Intraperitoneal administration of gastrodin effectively attenuated both the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by STZ injection. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from nociceptive, capsaicin-sensitive small diameter neurons of the intact dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Recordings from diabetic rats revealed that the abnormal hyperexcitability of neurons was greatly abolished by application of GAS. To determine which currents were involved in the antinociceptive action of gastrodin, we examined the effects of gastrodin on transient sodium currents (INaT) and potassium currents in diabetic small DRG neurons. Diabetes caused a prominent enhancement of INaT and a decrease of potassium currents, especially slowly inactivating potassium currents (IAS); these effects were completely reversed by GAS in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, changes in activation and inactivation kinetics of INaT and total potassium current as well as IAS currents induced by STZ were normalized by GAS. This study provides a clear

  10. Susceptibility of Primary Sensory Cortex to Spreading Depolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Middleton, Natalie A.; Theriot, Jeremy J.; Parker, Patrick D.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are recognized as actors in neurological disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Migraine aura involves sensory percepts, suggesting that sensory cortices might be intrinsically susceptible to SDs. We used optical imaging, MRI, and field potential and potassium electrode recordings in mice and electrocorticographic recordings in humans to determine the susceptibility of different brain regions to SDs. Optical imaging experiments in mice under isoflurane anesthesia showed that both cortical spreading depression and terminal anoxic depolarization arose preferentially in the whisker barrel region of parietal sensory cortex. MRI recordings under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, ketamine/isoflurane, and urethane anesthesia demonstrated that the depolarizations did not propagate from a subcortical source. Potassium concentrations showed larger increases in sensory cortex, suggesting a mechanism of susceptibility. Sensory stimulation biased the timing but not the location of depolarization onset. In humans with TBI, there was a trend toward increased incidence of SDs in parietal/temporal sensory cortex compared with other regions. In conclusion, SDs are inducible preferentially in primary sensory cortex in mice and most likely in humans. This tropism can explain the predominant sensory phenomenology of migraine aura. It also demonstrates that sensory cortices are vulnerable in brain injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in neurologic disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury. In migraine, the nature of aura symptoms suggests that sensory cortex may be preferentially susceptible. In brain injury, SDs occur at a vulnerable time, during which the issue of sensory stimulation is much debated. We show, in mouse and human, that sensory cortex is more susceptible to SDs. We find that sensory stimulation biases the timing but not the location of the depolarizations

  11. Bypassing primary sensory cortices--a direct thalamocortical pathway for transmitting salient sensory information.

    PubMed

    Liang, M; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2013-01-01

    Detection and appropriate reaction to sudden and intense events happening in the sensory environment is crucial for survival. By combining Bayesian model selection with dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, a novel analysis approach that allows inferring the causality between neural activities in different brain areas, we demonstrate that salient sensory information reaches the multimodal cortical areas responsible for its detection directly from the thalamus, without being first processed in primary and secondary sensory-specific areas. This direct thalamocortical transmission of multimodal salient information is parallel to the processing of finer stimulus attributes, which are transmitted in a modality-specific fashion from the thalamus to the relevant primary sensory areas. Such direct thalamocortical connections bypassing primary sensory cortices provide a fast and efficient way for transmitting information from subcortical structures to multimodal cortical areas, to allow the early detection of salient events and, thereby, trigger immediate and appropriate behavior.

  12. [The effect of destruction of rat capsaicin-sensitive nerves on blood pressure in rats with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, V K; Tolochko, Z S; Kostina, N E

    2013-09-01

    The effect of destruction of capsaicin-sensitive nerve (capsaicin 150 mg/kg, s/c) on blood pre- ssure was investigated in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by fructose (12.5% in drinking water for 10 weeks). The blood plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride (TG) and products of lipid perioxidation were defined in these rats. The systolic blood pressure was measured by non-invasive method using the Coda system (Coda, Kent Scientific, USA). The fructose diet caused impaired tolerance glucose, arterial hypertension, increased the contents of TG and products of lipid peroxidation. In capsaicin--pretreated rats (deafferentiation of capsaicin-sensitive nerve) the fructose intake did not evoke impairment tolerance glucose, the increase of systolic blood pressure and the plasma content of triglyceride. The increase of lipid perioxidation in fructose fed rats was not prevented by capsaicin pretreatment. The authors suggest that capsaicin-sensitive nerves contribute to the development of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension in the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Identifying local and descending inputs for primary sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Shengli; Rodriguez, Erica; Takatoh, Jun; Han, Bao-Xia; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Primary pain and touch sensory neurons not only detect internal and external sensory stimuli, but also receive inputs from other neurons. However, the neuronal derived inputs for primary neurons have not been systematically identified. Using a monosynaptic rabies viruses–based transneuronal tracing method combined with sensory-specific Cre-drivers, we found that sensory neurons receive intraganglion, intraspinal, and supraspinal inputs, the latter of which are mainly derived from the rostroventral medulla (RVM). The viral-traced central neurons were largely inhibitory but also consisted of some glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord and serotonergic neurons in the RVM. The majority of RVM-derived descending inputs were dual GABAergic and enkephalinergic (opioidergic). These inputs projected through the dorsolateral funiculus and primarily innervated layers I, II, and V of the dorsal horn, where pain-sensory afferents terminate. Silencing or activation of the dual GABA/enkephalinergic RVM neurons in adult animals substantially increased or decreased behavioral sensitivity, respectively, to heat and mechanical stimuli. These results are consistent with the fact that both GABA and enkephalin can exert presynaptic inhibition of the sensory afferents. Taken together, this work provides a systematic view of and a set of tools for examining peri- and extrasynaptic regulations of pain-afferent transmission. PMID:26426077

  14. [ROLE OF CAPSAICIN-SENSITIVE NERVES IN THE REGULATION OF DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE BLOOD CONTENT UNDER NORMAL AND FRUCTOSE-INDUCED METABOLIC SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, V K; Tolochko, Z S; Ovcjukova, M V; Kostina, N E; Obut, T A

    2015-08-01

    The effects of the stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves (capsaicin, 1 mg/kg, s/c) and their eafferentation (capsaicin, 150 mg/kg, s/c) on the blood content of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) was investigated in normal rats and rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome (12.5% fructose solution, 10 weeks). An increase in blood of tryglyceride, lipid peroxidation, glucose (fasting and after loading glucose, 2 mg/kg, i/p) was considered as symptoms of metabolic syndrome. It was shown that in normal rats drinking tap water the stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves resulted in the increase of DHEAS content while their deafferentation reduced the concentration of this hormone in the blood. The fructose diet caused the decrease in content of DHEAS, triglyceridemia, lipid peroxidation, impaired tolerance glucose. In rats with the metabolic syndrome the stimulation capsaicin-sensitive nerves prevented the fructose-induced decrease of DHEAS content as well as decreased the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. In fructose fed rats the stimulation-induced effects were prevented by the deafferentation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves. It is suggested that capsaicin-sensitive nerves contribute both to the regulation of blood content of DHEAS under normal and fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

  15. Involvement of a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1-independent mechanism in lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in chickens.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Shimizu, Yasutake; Shiina, Takahiko; Nikami, Hideki; Dosoky, Reem Mahmoud; Ahmed, Moustafa Mohamed; Takewaki, Tadashi

    2007-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that capsaicin blocks lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever in mammals. In this study, we investigated TRPV1 (transient receptor potential ion channel of vanilloid subtype-1)-independent action of capsaicin on LPS-induced fever in chickens. The chicken is a valuable model for this purpose because chicken TRPV1 has been shown to be insensitive to capsaicin and thus the effects of capsaicin can be attributed to TRPV1-independent mechanisms. Administration of capsaicin (10 mg/kg, iv) to conscious unrestrained chicks at 5 days of age caused a transient decrease in body temperature. This effect of capsaicin was not observed in chicks that had been pretreated twice with capsaicin, indicating that the capsaicin-sensitive pathway can be desensitized. LPS (2 mg/kg, ip) induced fever that lasted for about 2.5 h, but fever was not induced in chicks that had been pretreated with capsaicin for 2 days. The preventive effect of capsaicin on LPS-induced fever was not blocked by capsazepine, an antagonist for TRPV1, but the antagonist per se blocked the febrile response to LPS. These findings suggest that a capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1-independent mechanism may be involved in LPS-induced fever.

  16. Role of capsaicin sensitive nerves in epidermal growth factor effects on gastric mucosal injury and blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J; Teng, C; Chen, F; Wee, A

    1998-01-01

    Background—Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and capsaicin protect against experimental gastric mucosal injury. Capsaicin exerts its gastroprotective effect by stimulating afferent neurones leading to release of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) which causes gastric hyperaemia. EGF also causes gastric hyperaemia but whether it acts via capsaicin sensitive neurones is unknown. 
Aims—To assess the influence of: (1) capsaicin desensitisation on EGF effects on gastric mucosal injury and gastric mucosal blood flow; and (2) close arterial infusion of hCGRP8-37, a CGRP antagonist, on EGF effects on gastric mucosal blood flow. 
Methods—The absolute ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury model in the rat was used. Gastric mucosal damage was assessed by planimetry and light microscopy. Gastric mucosal blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry in a gastric chamber preparation. 
Results—Capsaicin desensitisation abolished the gastroprotective and gastric hyperaemic effects of EGF. Close arterial infusion of hCGRP8-37 antagonised the hyperaemic effect of both capsaicin and EGF. 
Conclusion—Results show that EGF may exert its gastroprotective and gastric hyperaemic effects via capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones. 

 Keywords: capsaicin; epidermal growth factor; gastric mucosal injury; gastric mucosal blood flow; calcitonin gene related peptide antagonist; rat PMID:9577339

  17. Increased vascular permeability in rat nasal mucosa induced by substance P and stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, L; Saria, A; Lundberg, J M; Anggård, A

    1983-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve induced an increase in vascular permeability to macromolecules and an interstitial edema in the nasal mucosa of the rat, as indicated by extravasation of Evans blue. In animals that had been treated neonatally with capsaicin, the effect of trigeminal nerve stimulation was abolished. Local application of capsaicin or substance P (SP) also induced a significant Evans blue extravasation in the nasal mucosa. In capsaicin-pretreated animals the effect of SP was still present, while the permeability increase induced by capsaicin was abolished. In conclusion, chemogenic irritation of the nasal mucosa by capsaicin induces edema probably via a local axon reflex inducing release of SP. Capsaicin-sensitive SP-containing afferents in the nasal mucosa may also be involved in the pathogenesis of nasal congestion seen in various types of rhinitis.

  18. Body temperature dependency in baclofen-induced gastric acid secretion in rats relation to capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Araki, H; Kawauchi, S; Takeuchi, K

    2001-03-16

    Body temperature dependency in gastric functional responses to baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, such as acid secretion, mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and motor activity, was examined in urethane-anesthetized rats under normal (37+/-1 degrees C) and hypothermic (31+/-1 degrees C) conditions. A rat stomach was mounted in an ex-vivo chamber, perfused with saline, and the acid secretion was measured using a pH-stat method, simultaneously with GMBF by a laser Doppler flowmeter. Gastric motility was measured using a miniature balloon as intraluminal pressure recordings. Intravenous administration of baclofen significantly increased acid secretion at the doses > 0.3 mg/kg under hypothermic conditions, yet it caused a significant stimulation only at doses > 10 mg/kg under normothermic conditions. The increases in gastric motility and GMBF were similarly induced by baclofen, irrespective of whether the animals were subjected to normothermic or hypothermic conditions. These functional responses to baclofen under hypothermic conditions were totally attenuated by either bilateral vagotomy or atropine (3 mg/kg, s.c.). Baclofen at a lower dose (1 mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased the acid secretion even under normothermic conditions when the animals were subjected to chemical deafferenation of capsaicin-sensitive neurons or pretreatment with intracisternal injection of CGRP8-37 (30 ng/rat). These results suggest that 1) gastric effects of baclofen are dependent on body temperature in stimulating acid secretion but not GMBF or motor activity, 2) the acid stimulatory action of baclofen is enhanced under hypothermic conditions, and 3) the suppression of baclofen-induced acid response under normothermic conditions may be related to capsaicin-sensitive afferent neuronal activity, probably mediated by central release

  19. The effects of desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons on the microcirculation in the stomach in rats depend on the blood glucocorticoid hormone level.

    PubMed

    Podvigina, T T; Bobryshev, P Yu; Bagaeva, T R; Mal'tsev, N A; Levkovich, Yu I; Filaretova, L P

    2009-07-01

    The effects of densensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons on the microcirculation in the stomach were studied before and after administration of indomethacin at an ulcerogenic dose in adrenalectomized rats receiving and not receiving replacement therapy with corticosterone and in sham-operated animals. Measures of the microcirculation consisted of blood flow rates in microvessels in the submucous layer of the stomach and the diameter and permeability of microvessels in the mucosa. Desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons was performed by administration of capsaicin at a dose of 100 mg/kg for two weeks and adrenalectomy one week before the experiment. Blood flow rates in microvessels and microvessel diameters were assessed in non-anesthetized rats by direct video recording methods using a special optical system with a contact dark-field epiobjective. Administration of indomethacin at an ulcerogenic dose led to decreases in blood flow rate in microvessels in the submucous layer, dilation of superficial microvessels in the mucosa of the stomach, and an increase in their permeability. Desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive neurons potentiated indomethacin-induced impairments to the microcirculation in the submucous layer and the mucosa of the stomach. These effects of densensitization were significantly enhanced in conditions of glucocorticoid hormone deficiency. Thus, glucocorticoid hormones have favorable effects on the gastric microcirculation in rats with desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons.

  20. Extinction reveals that primary sensory cortex predicts reinforcement outcome.

    PubMed

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2012-02-01

    Primary sensory cortices are traditionally regarded as stimulus analysers. However, studies of associative learning-induced plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) indicate involvement in learning, memory and other cognitive processes. For example, the area of representation of a tone becomes larger for stronger auditory memories and the magnitude of area gain is proportional to the degree that a tone becomes behaviorally important. Here, we used extinction to investigate whether 'behavioral importance' specifically reflects a sound's ability to predict reinforcement (reward or punishment) vs. to predict any significant change in the meaning of a sound. If the former, then extinction should reverse area gains as the signal no longer predicts reinforcement. Rats (n = 11) were trained to bar-press to a signal tone (5.0 kHz) for water-rewards, to induce signal-specific area gains in A1. After subsequent withdrawal of reward, A1 was mapped to determine representational areas. Signal-specific area gains, estimated from a previously established brain-behavior quantitative function, were reversed, supporting the 'reinforcement prediction' hypothesis. Area loss was specific to the signal tone vs. test tones, further indicating that withdrawal of reinforcement, rather than unreinforced tone presentation per se, was responsible for area loss. Importantly, the amount of area loss was correlated with the amount of extinction (r = 0.82, P < 0.01). These findings show that primary sensory cortical representation can encode behavioral importance as a signal's value to predict reinforcement, and that the number of cells tuned to a stimulus can dictate its ability to command behavior.

  1. Extinction reveals that primary sensory cortex predicts reinforcement outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2011-01-01

    Primary sensory cortices are traditionally regarded as stimulus analyzers. However, studies of associative learning-induced plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) indicate involvement in learning, memory and other cognitive processes. For example, the area of representation of a tone becomes larger for stronger auditory memories and the magnitude of area gain is proportional to the degree that a tone becomes behaviorally important. Here, we used extinction to investigate whether “behavioral importance” specifically reflects a sound’s ability to predict reinforcement (reward or punishment) vs. to predict any significant change in the meaning of a sound. If the former, then extinction should reverse area gains as the signal no longer predicts reinforcement. Rats (n = 11) were trained to bar-press to a signal tone (5.0 kHz) for water-rewards, to induce signal-specific area gains in A1. After subsequent withdrawal of reward, A1 was mapped to determine representational areas. Signal-specific area gains — estimated from a previously established brain–behavior quantitative function — were reversed, supporting the “reinforcement prediction” hypothesis. Area loss was specific to the signal tone vs. test tones, further indicating that withdrawal of reinforcement, rather than unreinforced tone presentation per se, was responsible for area loss. Importantly, the amount of area loss was correlated with the amount of extinction (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). These findings show that primary sensory cortical representation can encode behavioral importance as a signal’s value to predict reinforcement, and that the number of cells tuned to a stimulus can dictate its ability to command behavior. PMID:22304434

  2. Control of hair cell excitability by vestibular primary sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Brugeaud, Aurore; Travo, Cécile; Demêmes, Danielle; Lenoir, Marc; Llorens, Jordi; Puel, Jean-Luc; Chabbert, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In the rat utricle, synaptic contacts between hair cells and the nerve fibers arising from the vestibular primary neurons form during the first week after birth. During that period, the sodium-based excitability that characterizes neonate utricle sensory cells is switched off. To investigate whether the establishment of synaptic contacts was responsible for the modulation of the hair cell excitability, we used an organotypic culture of rat utricle in which the setting of synapses was prevented. Under this condition, the voltage-gated sodium current and the underlying action potentials persisted in a large proportion of non-afferented hair cells. We then studied whether impairment of nerve terminals in utricle of adult rats may also affect hair cell excitability. We induced selective and transient damages of afferent terminals using glutamate excitotoxicity in vivo. The efficiency of the excitotoxic injury was attested by selective swellings of the terminals and underlying altered vestibular behavior. Under this condition, the sodium-based excitability transiently recovered in hair cells. These results indicate that the modulation of hair cells excitability depends on the state of the afferent terminals. In adult utricle hair cells this property may be essential to set the conditions required for restoration of the sensory network after damage. This is achieved via re-expression of a biological process that occurs during synaptogenesis. PMID:17392466

  3. GABAA receptor-mediated positive inotropism in guinea-pig isolated left atria: evidence for the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive nerves.

    PubMed

    Maggi, C A; Giuliani, S; Manzini, S; Meli, A

    1989-05-01

    . After exposure to capsaicin (1 microM), no effect of GABA could be detected. 7. We conclude that, in the guinea-pig heart, GABAA receptors, presumably located on the preterminal region of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves, initiate a conducted impulse (since it is tetrodotoxin-sensitive) which leads to transmitter release (endogenous CGRP-like material) by activation of omega-conotoxin-sensitive, voltage-sensitive calcium channels and a functional response.

  4. The cannabinomimetic arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) acts on capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 receptors but not cannabinoid receptors in rat joints

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Chris L; McDougall, Jason J

    2004-01-01

    The vasoactive effects of the synthetic cannabinoid (CB) arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) was tested in the knee joints of urethane-anaesthetised rats. Experiments were also performed to determine whether these vasomotor responses could be blocked by the selective CB1 receptor antagonists AM251 (N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) (10−9 mol) and AM281 (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-4-morpholinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) (10−8 mol), as well as the selective CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 (6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-4(morpholinyl)ethyl]-[1H-indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)methanone) (10−8 mol). Peripheral application of ACEA (10−14–10−9 mol) onto the exposed surface of the knee joint capsule caused a dose-dependent increase in synovial blood flow. The dilator action of the CB occurred within 1 min after drug administration and rapidly returned to control levels shortly thereafter. The maximal vasodilator effect of ACEA corresponded to a 30% increase in articular perfusion compared to control levels. The hyperaemic action of ACEA was not significantly altered by coadministration of AM251, AM281 or AM630 (P>0.05; two-way ANOVA). The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine (10−6 mol) significantly reduced the vasodilator effect of ACEA on joint blood vessels (P=0.002). Furthermore, destruction of unmyelinated and thinly myelinated joint sensory nerves by capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) treatment also attenuated ACEA responses (P<0.0005). These data clearly demonstrate a vasodilator effect of the cannabinomimetic ACEA on knee joint perfusion. Rather than a classic CB receptor pathway, ACEA exerts its vasomotor influence by acting via TRPV1 receptors located on the terminal branches of capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves innervating the joint. PMID:15277316

  5. A randomized study of the effect of oral lamotrigine and hydromorphone on pain and hyperalgesia following heat/capsaicin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin L; Maloney, Alan; Hoke, Frank; Dahl, Jørgen B; Rowbotham, Michael C

    2003-09-01

    In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, the analgesic effect of oral lamotrigine (400 mg) on cutaneous sensitization induced with the heat/capsaicin sensitization model was compared with the effect of oral hydromorphone (8 mg) in healthy volunteers. In a separate session, intravenous remifentanil (0.10 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)) and placebo were administered. This session was used as an additional reference comparator. Outcome measures were the areas of secondary hyperalgesia to brush and von Frey hair stimulation and the painfulness of noxious thermal stimulation in nonsensitized skin. Compared with placebo, both intravenous remifentanil and oral hydromorphone significantly suppressed secondary hyperalgesia and acute thermal nociception. Oral lamotrigine did not reduce secondary hyperalgesia or acute thermal nociception but produced side effects of severity comparable with that of oral hydromorphone. Although lamotrigine is efficacious in the management of some types of chronic neuropathic pain, the lack of effect of this agent on human experimental pain suggests that its analgesic effects depend on nerve injury-associated abnormalities, which cannot be simulated in healthy human volunteers.

  6. Sensory tricks in primary cervical dystonia depend on visuotactile temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kägi, Georg; Katschnig, Petra; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ruge, Diane; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2013-03-01

    A characteristic feature of primary cervical dystonia is the presence of "sensory tricks" as well as the impairment of temporal and spatial sensory discrimination on formal testing. The aim of the present study was to test whether the amount of improvement of abnormal head deviation due to a sensory trick is associated with different performance of temporal sensory discrimination in patients with cervical dystonia. We recruited 32 patients with cervical dystonia. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Patients were rated according to clinical improvement to a sensory trick and assigned to 1 of the following groups: (1) no improvement (n = 6), (2) partial improvement (n = 17), (3) complete improvement (n = 9). Temporal discrimination thresholds were assessed for visual, tactile, and visuotactile modalities. Disease duration was shorter (P = .026) and dystonia severity lower (P = .033) in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the group with partial improvement to sensory tricks. A significant effect for group and modality and a significant interaction between group × modality were found, with lower visuotactile discrimination thresholds in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the other groups. In primary cervical dystonia, a complete resolution of dystonia during a sensory trick is associated with better visuotactile discrimination and shorter disease duration compared with patients with less effective sensory tricks, which may reflect progressive loss of adaptive mechanisms to basal ganglia dysfunction.

  7. Unimodal primary sensory cortices are directly connected by long-range horizontal projections in the rat sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Stehberg, Jimmy; Dang, Phat T.; Frostig, Ron D.

    2014-01-01

    Research based on functional imaging and neuronal recordings in the barrel cortex subdivision of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of the adult rat has revealed novel aspects of structure-function relationships in this cortex. Specifically, it has demonstrated that single whisker stimulation evokes subthreshold neuronal activity that spreads symmetrically within gray matter from the appropriate barrel area, crosses cytoarchitectural borders of SI and reaches deeply into other unimodal primary cortices such as primary auditory (AI) and primary visual (VI). It was further demonstrated that this spread is supported by a spatially matching underlying diffuse network of border-crossing, long-range projections that could also reach deeply into AI and VI. Here we seek to determine whether such a network of border-crossing, long-range projections is unique to barrel cortex or characterizes also other primary, unimodal sensory cortices and therefore could directly connect them. Using anterograde (BDA) and retrograde (CTb) tract-tracing techniques, we demonstrate that such diffuse horizontal networks directly and mutually connect VI, AI and SI. These findings suggest that diffuse, border-crossing axonal projections connecting directly primary cortices are an important organizational motif common to all major primary sensory cortices in the rat. Potential implications of these findings for topics including cortical structure-function relationships, multisensory integration, functional imaging, and cortical parcellation are discussed. PMID:25309339

  8. Coupled variability in primary sensory areas and the hippocampus during spontaneous activity

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcelos, Nivaldo A. P.; Soares-Cunha, Carina; Rodrigues, Ana João; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is an anatomically divided and functionally specialized structure. It includes distinct areas, which work on different states over time. The structural features of spiking activity in sensory cortices have been characterized during spontaneous and evoked activity. However, the coordination among cortical and sub-cortical neurons during spontaneous activity across different states remains poorly characterized. We addressed this issue by studying the temporal coupling of spiking variability recorded from primary sensory cortices and hippocampus of anesthetized or freely behaving rats. During spontaneous activity, spiking variability was highly correlated across primary cortical sensory areas at both small and large spatial scales, whereas the cortico-hippocampal correlation was modest. This general pattern of spiking variability was observed under urethane anesthesia, as well as during waking, slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep, and was unchanged by novel stimulation. These results support the notion that primary sensory areas are strongly coupled during spontaneous activity. PMID:28393914

  9. Genetic mechanisms control the linear scaling between related cortical primary and higher order sensory areas

    PubMed Central

    Zembrzycki, Andreas; Stocker, Adam M; Leingärtner, Axel; Sahara, Setsuko; Chou, Shen-Ju; Kalatsky, Valery; May, Scott R; Stryker, Michael P; O'Leary, Dennis DM

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the neocortical layout consists of few modality-specific primary sensory areas and a multitude of higher order ones. Abnormal layout of cortical areas may disrupt sensory function and behavior. Developmental genetic mechanisms specify primary areas, but mechanisms influencing higher order area properties are unknown. By exploiting gain-of and loss-of function mouse models of the transcription factor Emx2, we have generated bi-directional changes in primary visual cortex size in vivo and have used it as a model to show a novel and prominent function for genetic mechanisms regulating primary visual area size and also proportionally dictating the sizes of surrounding higher order visual areas. This finding redefines the role for intrinsic genetic mechanisms to concomitantly specify and scale primary and related higher order sensory areas in a linear fashion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11416.001 PMID:26705332

  10. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca{sup 2+} influx

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree; Kim, Gi-Young

    2012-02-15

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  11. Sensory Systems Neuroscientists Face One Fundamental Puzzle on Their Desks: How Primary Sensory Cortex Balances the Weights on Extrinsic and Intrinsic Sources of Information?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-25

    Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-12-1-4090 “Sensory systems neuroscientists face one fundamental puzzle on their desks: How primary sensory...results, we are planning to conduct further experiments, wherein Cho signals in V1 and the basal forebrain area were measured while top-down factors...fidelity sensory signals carried within the afferent currents while, concurrently, their activity levels are modulated either by local currents flowing from

  12. Cortico–Cortical Connections of Primary Sensory Areas and Associated Symptoms in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Veggeberg, Rosanna; Wilcox, Sophie L.; Scrivani, Steven J.; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino–vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico–cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures. In a large cohort of human migraine patients (N = 40) and matched healthy control subjects (N = 40), we used resting-state intrinsic functional connectivity to examine the cortical networks associated with the three main sensory perceptual modalities of vision, audition, and somatosensation. Specifically, we sought to explore the complexity of the sensory networks as they converge and become functionally coupled in multimodal systems. We also compared self-reported retrospective migraine symptoms in the same patients, examining the prevalence of sensory symptoms across the different phases of the migraine cycle. Our results show widespread and persistent disturbances in the perceptions of multiple sensory modalities. Consistent with this observation, we discovered that primary sensory areas maintain local functional connectivity but express impaired long-range connections to higher-order association areas (including regions of the default mode and salience network). We speculate that cortico–cortical interactions are necessary for the integration of information within and across the sensory modalities and, thus, could play an important role in the initiation of migraine and/or the development of its associated symptoms. PMID:28101529

  13. Associative fear learning enhances sparse network coding in primary sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gdalyahu, Amos; Tring, Elaine; Polack, Pierre-Olivier; Gruver, Robin; Golshani, Peyman; Fanselow, Michael S.; Silva, Alcino J.; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Several models of associative learning predict that stimulus processing changes during association formation. How associative learning reconfigures neural circuits in primary sensory cortex to "learn" associative attributes of a stimulus remains unknown. Using 2-photon in-vivo calcium imaging to measure responses of networks of neurons in primary somatosensory cortex, we discovered that associative fear learning, in which whisker stimulation is paired with foot shock, enhances sparse population coding and robustness of the conditional stimulus, yet decreases total network activity. Fewer cortical neurons responded to stimulation of the trained whisker than in controls, yet their response strength was enhanced. These responses were not observed in mice exposed to a non-associative learning procedure. Our results define how the cortical representation of a sensory stimulus is shaped by associative fear learning. These changes are proposed to enhance efficient sensory processing after associative learning. PMID:22794266

  14. Trafficking regulates the subcellular distribution of voltage-gated sodium channels in primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lan

    2015-09-30

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) comprise at least nine pore-forming α subunits. Of these, Nav1.6, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are the most frequently studied in primary sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglion and are mainly localized to the cytoplasm. A large pool of intracellular Navs raises the possibility that changes in Nav trafficking could alter channel function. The molecular mediators of Nav trafficking mainly consist of signals within the Navs themselves, interacting proteins and extracellular factors. The surface expression of Navs is achieved by escape from the endoplasmic reticulum and proteasome degradation, forward trafficking and plasma membrane anchoring, and it is also regulated by channel phosphorylation and ubiquitination in primary sensory neurons. Axonal transport and localization of Navs in afferent fibers involves the motor protein KIF5B and scaffold proteins, including contactin and PDZ domain containing 2. Localization of Nav1.6 to the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated fibers of primary sensory neurons requires node formation and the submembrane cytoskeletal protein complex. These findings inform our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Nav trafficking in primary sensory neurons.

  15. PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING SENSORY MAP TOPOGRAPHY IN PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Kremkow, Jens; Jin, Jianzhong; Wang, Yushi; Alonso, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    The primary visual cortex contains a detailed map of the visual scene, which is represented according to multiple stimulus dimensions including spatial location, ocular dominance and orientation. The maps for spatial location and ocular dominance originate from the spatial arrangement of thalamic axons in cortex. However, the origin of the other maps remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the cortical maps for orientation, direction and retinal disparity are all strongly related to the organization for spatial location of light (ON) and dark (OFF) stimuli, an organization that we show is OFF-dominated, OFF-centric and runs orthogonal to ocular dominance columns. Because this ON/OFF organization originates from the clustering of ON and OFF thalamic afferents in visual cortex, we conclude that all main features of cortical topography, including orientation, direction and retinal disparity, follow a common organizing principle that arranges thalamic axons with similar retinotopy and ON/OFF polarity in neighboring cortical regions. PMID:27120164

  16. Transient receptor potential channels in sensory neurons are targets of the antimycotic agent clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Victor; Karashima, Yuji; Talavera, Karel; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Donovan-Rodríguez, Tansy; Viana, Felix; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas

    2008-01-16

    Clotrimazole (CLT) is a widely used drug for the topical treatment of yeast infections of skin, vagina, and mouth. Common side effects of topical CLT application include irritation and burning pain of the skin and mucous membranes. Here, we provide evidence that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons underlie these unwanted effects of CLT. We found that clinically relevant CLT concentrations activate heterologously expressed TRPV1 and TRPA1, two TRP channels that act as receptors of irritant chemical and/or thermal stimuli in nociceptive neurons. In line herewith, CLT stimulated a subset of capsaicin-sensitive and mustard oil-sensitive trigeminal neurons, and evoked nocifensive behavior and thermal hypersensitivity with intraplantar injection in mice. Notably, CLT-induced pain behavior was suppressed by the TRPV1-antagonist BCTC [(N-(-4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorpyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carboxamide)] and absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. In addition, CLT inhibited the cold and menthol receptor TRPM8, and blocked menthol-induced responses in capsaicin- and mustard oil-insensitive trigeminal neurons. The concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) of inward TRPM8 current was approximately 200 nM, making CLT the most potent known TRPM8 antagonist and a useful tool to discriminate between TRPM8- and TRPA1-mediated responses. Together, our results identify TRP channels in sensory neurons as molecular targets of CLT, and offer means to develop novel CLT preparations with fewer unwanted sensory side effects.

  17. Sensory perception changes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary somatosensory cortex in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Francisco J; Díaz-Corrales, Francisco; Carrillo, Fatima; Fernández-del-Olmo, Miguel; Koch, Giacomo; Mir, Pablo

    2011-09-01

    Sensory symptoms are common nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. It has been hypothesized that abnormal central processing of sensory signals occurs in Parkinson's disease and is related to dopaminergic treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the alterations in sensory perception induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex in patients with Parkinson's disease and the modulatory effects of dopaminergic treatment. Fourteen patients with Parkinson's disease with and without dopaminergic treatment and 13 control subjects were included. Twenty milliseconds after peripheral electrical tactile stimuli in the contralateral thumb, paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right primary somatosensory cortex was delivered. We evaluated the perception of peripheral electrical tactile stimuli at 2 conditioning stimulus intensities, set at 70% and 90% of the right resting motor threshold, using different interstimulus intervals. At 70% of the resting motor threshold, paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right primary somatosensory cortex induced an increase in positive responses at short interstimulus intervals (1-7 ms) in controls but not in patients with dopaminergic treatment. At 90% of the resting motor threshold, controls and patients showed similar transcranial magnetic stimulation effects. Changes in peripheral electrical tactile stimuli perception after paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary somatosensory cortex are altered in patients with Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic treatment compared with controls. These findings suggest that primary somatosensory cortex excitability could be involved in changes in somatosensory integration in Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic treatment.

  18. Interhemispheric modulation of sensory transmission in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, H C; Won, C K; Jung, S C; Oh, S; Park, S; Sohn, J H

    1997-07-18

    Single unit responses of the primary somatosensory (SI) cortical neurons to the stimulation of the forepaw single digit were monitored in anesthetized rats before and after subcutaneous injection of lidocaine to an ipsilateral homologous receptive field (IHRF). Quantitative determination of the temporal changes of afferent sensory transmission was done by analyzing poststimulus time histograms of unit responses. Temporary deafferentation to the IHRF induced immediate, but reversible suppression of afferent sensory transmission in the SI cortex and this suppression lasts up to 35 min post-deafferentation period (during 10-15 min, -21.81 +/- 5.9%, P < 0.01). This result suggests that temporary absence of afferent inflow from the digit to the SI cortex may exert interhemispheric modulation of afferent sensory transmission in the opposite somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats.

  19. Transient receptor potential ion channels in primary sensory neurons as targets for novel analgesics.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Valente, J; Andreou, A P; Urban, L; Nagy, I

    2014-05-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion in novel findings relating to the molecules involved in mediating the sensation of pain in humans. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels emerged as the greatest group of molecules involved in the transduction of various physical stimuli into neuronal signals in primary sensory neurons, as well as, in the development of pain. Here, we review the role of TRP ion channels in primary sensory neurons in the development of pain associated with peripheral pathologies and possible strategies to translate preclinical data into the development of effective new analgesics. Based on available evidence, we argue that nociception-related TRP channels on primary sensory neurons provide highly valuable targets for the development of novel analgesics and that, in order to reduce possible undesirable side effects, novel analgesics should prevent the translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane and the sensitization of the channels rather than blocking the channel pore or binding sites for exogenous or endogenous activators.

  20. Rate and Temporal Coding Convey Multisensory Information in Primary Sensory Cortices.

    PubMed

    Bieler, Malte; Sieben, Kay; Cichon, Nicole; Schildt, Sandra; Röder, Brigitte; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L

    2017-01-01

    Optimal behavior and survival result from integration of information across sensory systems. Modulation of network activity at the level of primary sensory cortices has been identified as a mechanism of cross-modal integration, yet its cellular substrate is still poorly understood. Here, we uncover the mechanisms by which individual neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) cortices encode visual-tactile stimuli. For this, simultaneous extracellular recordings were performed from all layers of the S1 barrel field and V1 in Brown Norway rats in vivo and units were clustered and assigned to pyramidal neurons (PYRs) and interneurons (INs). We show that visual-tactile stimulation modulates the firing rate of a relatively low fraction of neurons throughout all cortical layers. Generally, it augments the firing of INs and decreases the activity of PYRs. Moreover, bimodal stimulation shapes the timing of neuronal firing by strengthening the phase-coupling between neuronal discharge and theta-beta band network oscillations as well as by modulating spiking onset. Sparse direct axonal projections between neurons in S1 and V1 seem to time the spike trains between the two cortical areas and, thus, may act as a substrate of cross-modal modulation. These results indicate that few cortical neurons mediate multisensory effects in primary sensory areas by directly encoding cross-modal information by their rate and timing of firing.

  1. IPP5 inhibits neurite growth in primary sensory neurons by maintaining TGF-β/Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Han, Qing-Jian; Gao, Nan-Nan; Guo-QiangMa; Zhang, Zhen-Ning; Yu, Wen-Hui; Pan, Jing; Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Xu; Bao, Lan

    2013-01-15

    During nerve regeneration, neurite growth is regulated by both intrinsic molecules and extracellular factors. Here, we found that inhibitor 5 of protein phosphatase 1 (IPP5), a newly identified inhibitory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), inhibited neurite growth in primary sensory neurons as an intrinsic regulator. IPP5 was highly expressed in the primary sensory neurons of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and was downregulated after sciatic nerve axotomy. Knocking down IPP5 with specific shRNA increased the length of the longest neurite, the total neurite length and the number of neurite ends in cultured rat DRG neurons. Mutation of the PP1-docking motif K(8)IQF(11) or the PP1-inhibiting motif at Thr(34) eliminated the IPP5-induced inhibition of neurite growth. Furthermore, biochemical experiments showed that IPP5 interacted with type I transforming growth factor-β receptor (TβRI) and PP1 and enhanced transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling in a PP1-dependent manner. Overexpressing IPP5 in DRG neurons aggravated TGF-β-induced inhibition of neurite growth, which was abolished by blocking PP1 or IPP5 binding to PP1. Blockage of TGF-β signaling with the TβRI inhibitor SB431542 or Smad2 shRNA attenuated the IPP5-induced inhibition of neurite growth. Thus, these data indicate that selectively expressed IPP5 inhibits neurite growth by maintaining TGF-β signaling in primary sensory neurons.

  2. Rate and Temporal Coding Convey Multisensory Information in Primary Sensory Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Sieben, Kay; Cichon, Nicole; Schildt, Sandra; Röder, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Optimal behavior and survival result from integration of information across sensory systems. Modulation of network activity at the level of primary sensory cortices has been identified as a mechanism of cross-modal integration, yet its cellular substrate is still poorly understood. Here, we uncover the mechanisms by which individual neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) cortices encode visual-tactile stimuli. For this, simultaneous extracellular recordings were performed from all layers of the S1 barrel field and V1 in Brown Norway rats in vivo and units were clustered and assigned to pyramidal neurons (PYRs) and interneurons (INs). We show that visual-tactile stimulation modulates the firing rate of a relatively low fraction of neurons throughout all cortical layers. Generally, it augments the firing of INs and decreases the activity of PYRs. Moreover, bimodal stimulation shapes the timing of neuronal firing by strengthening the phase-coupling between neuronal discharge and theta–beta band network oscillations as well as by modulating spiking onset. Sparse direct axonal projections between neurons in S1 and V1 seem to time the spike trains between the two cortical areas and, thus, may act as a substrate of cross-modal modulation. These results indicate that few cortical neurons mediate multisensory effects in primary sensory areas by directly encoding cross-modal information by their rate and timing of firing. PMID:28374008

  3. Peptidergic CGRPα primary sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically suppress sensitivity to cold.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Eric S; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Street, Sarah E; Pribisko, Alaine L; Zheng, Jihong; Zylka, Mark J

    2013-04-10

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a classic molecular marker of peptidergic primary somatosensory neurons. Despite years of research, it is unknown whether these neurons are required to sense pain or other sensory stimuli. Here, we found that genetic ablation of CGRPα-expressing sensory neurons reduced sensitivity to noxious heat, capsaicin, and itch (histamine and chloroquine) and impaired thermoregulation but did not impair mechanosensation or β-alanine itch-stimuli associated with nonpeptidergic sensory neurons. Unexpectedly, ablation enhanced behavioral responses to cold stimuli and cold mimetics without altering peripheral nerve responses to cooling. Mechanistically, ablation reduced tonic and evoked activity in postsynaptic spinal neurons associated with TRPV1/heat, while profoundly increasing tonic and evoked activity in spinal neurons associated with TRPM8/cold. Our data reveal that CGRPα sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically cross-inhibit cold-responsive spinal neurons. Disruption of this crosstalk unmasks cold hypersensitivity, with mechanistic implications for neuropathic pain and temperature perception.

  4. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Benjamin J.; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Gage, Fred H.; Johnson, Richard D.; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C.; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve”) sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  5. Combined LTP and LTD of modulatory inputs controls neuronal processing of primary sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Brent; Zhao, Yanjun; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2011-07-20

    A hallmark of brain organization is the integration of primary and modulatory pathways by principal neurons. However, the pathway interactions that shape primary input processing remain unknown. We investigated this problem in mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where principal cells integrate primary, auditory nerve input with modulatory, parallel fiber input. Using a combined experimental and computational approach, we show that combined LTP and LTD of parallel fiber inputs to DCN principal cells and interneurons, respectively, broaden the time window within which synaptic inputs summate. Enhanced summation depolarizes the resting membrane potential and thus lowers the response threshold to auditory nerve inputs. Combined LTP and LTD, by preserving the variance of membrane potential fluctuations and the membrane time constant, fixes response gain and spike latency as threshold is lowered. Our data reveal a novel mechanism mediating adaptive and concomitant homeostatic regulation of distinct features of neuronal processing of sensory inputs.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide fever is initiated via a capsaicin-sensitive mechanism independent of the subtype-1 vanilloid receptor.

    PubMed

    Dogan, M Devrim; Patel, Shreya; Rudaya, Alla Y; Steiner, Alexandre A; Székely, Miklós; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2004-12-01

    As pretreatment with intraperitoneal capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, CAP), an agonist of the vanilloid receptor known as VR1 or transient receptor potential channel-vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV-1), has been shown to block the first phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fever in rats, this phase is thought to depend on the TRPV-1-bearing sensory nerve fibers originating in the abdominal cavity. However, our recent studies suggest that CAP blocks the first phase via a non-neural mechanism. In the present work, we studied whether this mechanism involves the TRPV-1. Adult Long-Evans rats implanted with chronic jugular catheters were used. Pretreatment with CAP (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) 10 days before administration of LPS (10 microg kg(-1), i.v.) resulted in the loss of the entire first phase and a part of the second phase of LPS fever. Pretreatment with the ultrapotent TRPV-1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX; 2, 20, or 200 microg kg(-1), i.p.) 10 days before administration of LPS had no effect on the first and second phases of LPS fever, but it exaggerated the third phase at the highest dose. The latter effect was presumably due to the known ability of high doses of TRPV-1 agonists to cause a loss of warm sensitivity, thus leading to uncontrolled, hyperpyretic responses. Pretreatment with the selective competitive TRPV-1 antagonist capsazepine (N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-2H-2-benzazepine-2-carbothioamidem, CPZ; 40 mg kg(-1), i.p.) 90 min before administration of LPS (10 microg kg(-1), i.v.) or CAP (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) did not affect LPS fever, but blocked the immediate hypothermic response to acute administration of CAP. It is concluded that LPS fever is initiated via a non-neural mechanism, which is CAP-sensitive but RTX- and CPZ-insensitive. The action of CAP on this mechanism is likely TRPV-1-independent. It is speculated that this mechanism may be the production of prostaglandin E(2) by macrophages in LPS-processing organs.

  7. Actions of neuropoietic cytokines and cyclic AMP in regenerative conditioning of rat primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yi; Bo, Xuenong; Huang, Wenlong; Xiao, Fang; Zhang, Xinyu; Miao, Tizong; Magoulas, Charalambos; Subang, Maria C; Richardson, Peter M

    2007-03-01

    A conditioning lesion to peripheral axons of primary sensory neurons accelerates regeneration of their central axons in vivo or neurite outgrowth if the neurons are grown in vitro. Previous evidence has implicated neuropoietic cytokines and also cyclic AMP in regenerative conditioning. In experiments reported here, delivery through a lentivirus vector of ciliary neurotrophic factor to the appropriate dorsal root ganglion in rats was sufficient to mimic the conditioning effect of peripheral nerve injury on the regeneration of dorsal spinal nerve root axons. Regeneration in this experimental preparation was also stimulated by intraganglionic injection of dibutyryl cyclic AMP but the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were not additive. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP injection into the dorsal root ganglion induced mRNAs for two other neuropoietic cytokines, interleukin-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor and increased the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 in neuronal nuclei. The in vitro conditioning action of dibutyryl cyclic AMP was partially blocked by a pharmacological inhibitor of Janus kinase 2, a neuropoietic cytokine signaling molecule. We suggest that the beneficial actions of increased cyclic AMP activity on axonal regeneration of primary sensory neurons are mediated, at least in part, through the induction of neuropoietic cytokine synthesis within the dorsal root ganglion.

  8. Quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in primary Restless legs syndrome - A prospective study on 57 Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Garima; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2012-10-01

    Patients with restless leg syndrome present with sensory symptoms similar to peripheral neuropathy. While there is evidence of abnormalities of dopaminergic pathways, the peripheral nervous system has been studied infrequently. We studied conventional nerve conduction studies, quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in 57 patients with primary restless leg syndrome. Almost two third patients demonstrated abnormalities in the detailed testing of the peripheral nervous system. Sbtle abnormalities of the peripheral nervous system may be more common than previously believed.

  9. Complete mapping of glomeruli based on sensory nerve branching pattern in the primary olfactory center of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Michiko; Mizunami, Makoto; Yokohari, Fumio

    2010-10-01

    Glomeruli are structural and functional units in the primary olfactory center in vertebrates and insects. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana, axons of different types of sensory neurons housed in sensilla on antennae form dorsal and ventral antennal nerves and then project to a number of glomeruli. In this study, we identified all antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli based on detailed innervation patterns of sensory tracts in addition to the shape, size, and locations in the cockroach. The number of glomeruli is approximately 205, and no sex-specific difference is observed. Anterograde dye injections into the antennal nerves revealed that axons supplying the AL are divided into 10 sensory tracts (T1-T10). Each of T1-T3 innervates small, oval glomeruli in the anteroventral region of the AL, with sensory afferents invading each glomerulus from multiple directions, whereas each of T4-T10 innervates large glomeruli with various shapes in the posterodorsal region, with a bundle of sensory afferents invading each glomerulus from one direction. The topographic branching patterns of all these tracts are conserved among individuals. Sensory afferents in a sub-tract of T10 had axon terminals in the dorsal margin of the AL and the protocerebrum, where they form numerous small glomerular structures. Sensory nerve branching pattern should reflect developmental processes to determine spatial arrangement of glomeruli, and thus the complete map of glomeruli based on sensory nerve branching pattern should provide a basis for studying the functional significance of spatial arrangement of glomeruli and its developmental basis.

  10. Development of inner ear afferent connections: forming primary neurons and connecting them to the developing sensory epithelia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    The molecular and cellular origin of the primary neurons of the inner ear, the vestibular and spiral neurons, is reviewed including how they connect to the specific sensory epithelia and what the molecular nature of their survival is. Primary neurons of the ear depend on a single basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) protein for their formation, neurogenin 1 (ngn1). An immediate downstream gene is the bHLH gene neuronal differentiation (NeuroD). Targeted null mutations of ngn1 results in absence of primary neuron formation; targeted null mutation of NeuroD results in loss of almost all spiral and many vestibular neurons. NeuroD and a later expressed gene, Brn3a, play a role in pathfinding to and within sensory epithelia. The molecular nature of this pathfinding property is unknown. Reduction of hair cells in ngn1 null mutations suggests a clonal relationship with primary neurons. This relationship may play some role in specifying the identity of hair cells and the primary neurons that connect with them. Primary neuron neurites growth to sensory epithelia is initially independent of trophic factors released from developing sensory epithelia, but becomes rapidly dependent on those factors. Null mutations of specific neurotrophic factors lose distinct primary neuron populations which undergo rapid embryonic cell death.

  11. Dopamine-Modulated Recurrent Corticoefferent Feedback in Primary Sensory Cortex Promotes Detection of Behaviorally Relevant Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Handschuh, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in primary auditory cortex (AI) has been shown to be involved in learning and memory functions. Moreover, dopaminergic projections and D1/D5 receptor distributions display a layer-dependent organization, suggesting specific functions in the cortical circuitry. However, the circuit effects of dopaminergic neurotransmission in sensory cortex and their possible roles in perception, learning, and memory are largely unknown. Here, we investigated layer-specific circuit effects of dopaminergic neuromodulation using current source density (CSD) analysis in AI of Mongolian gerbils. Pharmacological stimulation of D1/D5 receptors increased auditory-evoked synaptic currents in infragranular layers, prolonging local thalamocortical input via positive feedback between infragranular output and granular input. Subsequently, dopamine promoted sustained cortical activation by prolonged recruitment of long-range corticocortical networks. A detailed circuit analysis combining layer-specific intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), CSD analysis, and pharmacological cortical silencing revealed that cross-laminar feedback enhanced by dopamine relied on a positive, fast-acting recurrent corticoefferent loop, most likely relayed via local thalamic circuits. Behavioral signal detection analysis further showed that activation of corticoefferent output by infragranular ICMS, which mimicked auditory activation under dopaminergic influence, was most effective in eliciting a behaviorally detectable signal. Our results show that D1/D5-mediated dopaminergic modulation in sensory cortex regulates positive recurrent corticoefferent feedback, which enhances states of high, persistent activity in sensory cortex evoked by behaviorally relevant stimuli. In boosting horizontal network interactions, this potentially promotes the readout of task-related information from cortical synapses and improves behavioral stimulus detection. PMID:24453315

  12. Task-relevant modulation of primary somatosensory cortex suggests a prefrontal-cortical sensory gating system.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that somatosensory information is modulated cortically for task-specific sensory inflow: Several studies report short-term adaptation of representational maps in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) due to attention or induced by task-related motor activity such as handwriting. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the frontal or prefrontal cortex may modulate SI. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the functional organization of SI while subjects performed the Tower of Hanoi task. This task is known to be related to activation of frontal or prefrontal areas. The functional organization of SI while performing the Tower of Hanoi task was compared to the organization of SI during performing the same movements but without the Tower of Hanoi task and with rest. Topography of SI was assessed using neuromagnetic source imaging based on tactile stimulation of the first (D1) and fifth digits (D5). Performing the Tower of Hanoi task was accompanied by plastic changes in SI as indicated by significant shifts in the cortical representations of D1 and D5: They moved further apart during the Tower of Hanoi task compared to the control task containing the same movements but without the cognitive characteristic. Thus, we conclude that SI maps undergo dynamic modulation depending on motor tasks with different cognitive demands. The results suggest that this short-term plasticity may be regulated by a prefrontal-cortical sensory gating system.

  13. Primary Sensory and Motor Cortex Excitability Are Co-Modulated in Response to Peripheral Electrical Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schabrun, Siobhan M.; Ridding, Michael C.; Galea, Mary P.; Hodges, Paul W.; Chipchase, Lucinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) is a common clinical technique known to induce changes in corticomotor excitability; PES applied to induce a tetanic motor contraction increases, and PES at sub-motor threshold (sensory) intensities decreases, corticomotor excitability. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying these opposite changes in corticomotor excitability remains elusive. Modulation of primary sensory cortex (S1) excitability could underlie altered corticomotor excitability with PES. Here we examined whether changes in primary sensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortex excitability follow the same time-course when PES is applied using identical stimulus parameters. Corticomotor excitability was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and sensory cortex excitability using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) before and after 30 min of PES to right abductor pollicis brevis (APB). Two PES paradigms were tested in separate sessions; PES sufficient to induce a tetanic motor contraction (30–50 Hz; strong motor intensity) and PES at sub motor-threshold intensity (100 Hz). PES applied to induce strong activation of APB increased the size of the N20-P25 component, thought to reflect sensory processing at cortical level, and increased corticomotor excitability. PES at sensory intensity decreased the size of the P25-N33 component and reduced corticomotor excitability. A positive correlation was observed between the changes in amplitude of the cortical SEP components and corticomotor excitability following sensory and motor PES. Sensory PES also increased the sub-cortical P14-N20 SEP component. These findings provide evidence that PES results in co-modulation of S1 and M1 excitability, possibly due to cortico-cortical projections between S1 and M1. This mechanism may underpin changes in corticomotor excitability in response to afferent input generated by PES. PMID:23227260

  14. Primary sensory and motor cortex excitability are co-modulated in response to peripheral electrical nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schabrun, Siobhan M; Ridding, Michael C; Galea, Mary P; Hodges, Paul W; Chipchase, Lucinda S

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) is a common clinical technique known to induce changes in corticomotor excitability; PES applied to induce a tetanic motor contraction increases, and PES at sub-motor threshold (sensory) intensities decreases, corticomotor excitability. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying these opposite changes in corticomotor excitability remains elusive. Modulation of primary sensory cortex (S1) excitability could underlie altered corticomotor excitability with PES. Here we examined whether changes in primary sensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortex excitability follow the same time-course when PES is applied using identical stimulus parameters. Corticomotor excitability was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and sensory cortex excitability using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) before and after 30 min of PES to right abductor pollicis brevis (APB). Two PES paradigms were tested in separate sessions; PES sufficient to induce a tetanic motor contraction (30-50 Hz; strong motor intensity) and PES at sub motor-threshold intensity (100 Hz). PES applied to induce strong activation of APB increased the size of the N(20)-P(25) component, thought to reflect sensory processing at cortical level, and increased corticomotor excitability. PES at sensory intensity decreased the size of the P25-N33 component and reduced corticomotor excitability. A positive correlation was observed between the changes in amplitude of the cortical SEP components and corticomotor excitability following sensory and motor PES. Sensory PES also increased the sub-cortical P(14)-N(20) SEP component. These findings provide evidence that PES results in co-modulation of S1 and M1 excitability, possibly due to cortico-cortical projections between S1 and M1. This mechanism may underpin changes in corticomotor excitability in response to afferent input generated by PES.

  15. Ontogeny of the serotonergic projection to rat neocortex: transient expression of a dense innervation to primary sensory areas

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amato, R.J.; Blue, M.E.; Largent, B.L.; Lynch, D.R.; Ledbetter, D.J.; Molliver, M.E.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-06-01

    The development of serotonergic innervation to rat cerebral cortex was characterized by immunohistochemical localization of serotonin combined with autoradiographic imaging of serotonin-uptake sites. In neonatal rat, a transient, dense, serotonergic innervation appears in all primary sensory areas of cortex. In somatosensory cortex, dense patches of serotonergic innervation are aligned with specialized cellular aggregates called barrels. The dense patches are not apparent after 3 weeks of age, and the serotonergic innervation becomes more uniform in adult neocortex. This precocious neonatal serotonergic innervation may play a transient physiologic role in sensory areas of cortex or may exert a trophic influence on the development of cortical circuitry and thalamocortical connections.

  16. Genetic ablation of GINIP-expressing primary sensory neurons strongly impairs Formalin-evoked pain

    PubMed Central

    Urien, Louise; Gaillard, Stéphane; Lo Re, Laure; Malapert, Pascale; Bohic, Manon; Reynders, Ana; Moqrich, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Primary sensory neurons are heterogeneous by myriad of molecular criteria. However, the functional significance of this remarkable heterogeneity is just emerging. We precedently described the GINIP+ neurons as a new subpopulation of non peptidergic C-fibers encompassing the free nerve ending cutaneous MRGPRD+ neurons and C-LTMRs. Using our recently generated ginip mouse model, we have been able to selectively ablate the GINIP+ neurons and assess their functional role in the somatosensation. We found that ablation of GINIP+ neurons affected neither the molecular contents nor the central projections of the spared neurons. GINIP-DTR mice exhibited impaired sensation to gentle mechanical stimuli applied to their hairy skin and had normal responses to noxious mechanical stimuli applied to their glabrous skin, under acute and injury-induced conditions. Importantly, loss of GINIP+ neurons significantly altered formalin-evoked first pain and drastically suppressed the second pain response. Given that MRGPRD+ neurons have been shown to be dispensable for formalin-evoked pain, our study suggest that C-LTMRs play a critical role in the modulation of formalin-evoked pain. PMID:28240741

  17. Gastrodin inhibits the activity of acid-sensing ion channels in rat primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Yang, Zhifan; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2014-05-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of proton-gated cation channels, are believed to mediate pain caused by extracellular acidification. Gastrodin is a main bioactive constituent of the traditional herbal Gastrodia elata Blume, which has been widely used in Oriental countries for centuries. As an analgesic, gastrodin has been used clinically to treat pain such as migraine and headache. However, the mechanisms underlying analgesic action of gastrodin are still poorly understood. Here, we have found that gastrodin inhibited the activity of native ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Gastrodin dose-dependently inhibited proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs. Gastrodin shifted the proton concentration-response curve downwards, with a decrease of 36.92 ± 6.23% in the maximum current response but with no significant change in the pH0.5 value. Moreover, gastrodin altered acid-evoked membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons and caused a significant decrease in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of action potentials induced by acid stimuli. Finally, peripheral applied gastrodin relieved pain evoked by intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. Our results indicate that gastrodin can inhibit the activity of ASICs in the primary sensory neurons, which provided a novel mechanism underlying analgesic action of gastrodin.

  18. Resolvin E1 Inhibits Substance P-Induced Potentiation of TRPV1 in Primary Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is expressed in primary sensory neurons and is commonly regarded as a “pain” neurotransmitter. Upon peripheral inflammation, SP activates the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and potentiates activity of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is coexpressed by nociceptive neurons. Therefore, SP functions as an important neurotransmitter involved in the hypersensitization of inflammatory pain. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inhibits TRPV1 activity via activation of the chemerin 23 receptor (ChemR23)—an RvE1 receptor located in dorsal root ganglion neurons—and therefore exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammatory pain. We demonstrate here that RvE1 regulates the SP-induced potentiation of TRPV1 via G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) on peripheral nociceptive neurons. SP-induced potentiation of TRPV1 inhibited by RvE1 was blocked by the Gαi-coupled GPCR inhibitor pertussis toxin and the G-protein inhibitor GDPβ-S. These results indicate that a low concentration of RvE1 strongly inhibits the potentiation of TRPV1, induced by the SP-mediated activation of NK-1, via a GPCR signaling pathway activated by ChemR23 in nociceptive neurons. RvE1 might represent a new therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory pain as a prospective endogenous inhibitor that strongly inhibits TRPV1 activity associated with peripheral inflammation. PMID:27738388

  19. Bilateral Neuropathy of Primary Sensory Neurons by the Chronic Compression of Multiple Unilateral DRGs

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ya-Bin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Ying; Song, Kai; Zhang, Ming; Meng, Fan-Cheng; Yang, Yu-Jie; He, Yang-Song; Kuang, Fang; You, Si-Wei; You, Hao-Jun; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To mimic multilevel nerve root compression and intervertebral foramina stenosis in human, we established a new animal model of the chronic compression of unilateral multiple lumbar DRGs (mCCD) in the rat. A higher occurrence of signs of spontaneous pain behaviors, such as wet-dog shaking and spontaneous hind paw shrinking behaviors, was firstly observed from day 1 onward. In the meantime, the unilateral mCCD rat exhibited significant bilateral hind paw mechanical and cold allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as a thermal preference to 30°C plate between 30 and 35°C. The expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was significantly increased in the ipsilateral and contralateral all-sized DRG neurons after the mCCD. And the expression of CGRP was significantly increased in the ipsilateral and contralateral large- and medium-sized DRG neurons. ATF3 and CGRP expressions correlated to evoked pain hypersensitivities such as mechanical and cold allodynia on postoperative day 1. The results suggested that bilateral neuropathy of primary sensory neurons might contribute to bilateral hypersensitivity in the mCCD rat. PMID:26819761

  20. SA13353 (1-[2-(1-Adamantyl)ethyl]-1-pentyl-3-[3-(4-pyridyl)propyl]urea) inhibits TNF-alpha production through the activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons mediated via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masaaki; Tsuji, Fumio; Nose, Masafumi; Seki, Iwao; Oki, Kenji; Setoguchi, Chikako; Suhara, Hiroshi; Sasano, Minoru; Aono, Hiroyuki

    2008-07-07

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of SA13353 (1-[2-(1-Adamantyl)ethyl]-1-pentyl-3-[3-(4-pyridyl)propyl]urea), a novel orally active inhibitor of TNF-alpha production, in animal models, and its mechanism of action on TNF-alpha production. SA13353 significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha production in a dose-dependent manner in rats. Moreover, SA13353 exhibited a binding affinity for the rat vanilloid receptor and increased neuropeptide release from the rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. However, its effects were blocked by pretreatment with the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. The ability of SA13353 and capsaicin to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-alpha production was eliminated by sensory denervation or capsazepine pretreatment in vivo. Although they inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in mice, these effects were not observed in TRPV1 knockout mice. SA13353 provoked the release of neuropeptides without nerve inactivation, even when chronically administered to rats. These results suggest that SA13353 inhibits TNF-alpha production through activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons mediated via TRPV1 in vivo. Post-onset treatment of SA13353 strongly reduced the hindpaw swelling and joint destruction associated with collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Thus, SA13353 is expected to be a novel anti-arthritic agent with a unique mechanism of action.

  1. Substance P suppresses GABAA receptor function via protein kinase C in primary sensory neurones of bullfrogs.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, K; Akasu, T

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of substance P (SP) and related tachykinins on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors were examined in acutely dissociated neurones of bullfrog dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. 2. Application of SP (10 nM to 1 microM) depressed inward currents produced by GABAA receptor activation (IGABA). Neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) also depressed IGABA; the rank order of agonist potency was SP > NKA > NKB. Spantide ([D-Arg1, D-Trp7,9,Leu11]SP) and L-703,606, NK1 receptor antagonists, blocked the SP-induced depression of IGABA. 3. SP irreversibly depressed IGABA, when neurones were intracellularly dialysed with GTP gamma S. Intracellular application of GDP beta S prevented the SP-induced depression of IGABA. Pertussis toxin (PTX) did not block the inhibitory effect of SP on IGABA. 4. The depression of IGABA produced by SP was inhibited by H-7 and PKC(19-36), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, but not by H-9 and HA-1004, protein kinase A inhibitors. IGABA was suppressed by application of sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol (DOG), a PKC activator. 5. It is concluded that activation of neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors downregulates the function of the GABAA receptor of primary sensory neurones through a PTX-insensitive G-protein. PKC may be involved in the transduction pathway of the tachykinin-induced inhibition of the GABAA receptor. PMID:8910228

  2. Nicotinic receptor activation on primary sensory afferents modulates autorhythmicity in the mouse renal pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M J; Angkawaijawa, S; Hashitani, H; Lang, R J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The modulation of the spontaneous electrical and Ca2+ signals underlying pyeloureteric peristalsis upon nicotinic receptor activation located on primary sensory afferents (PSAs) was investigated in the mouse renal pelvis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Contractile activity was followed using video microscopy, electrical and Ca2+ signals in typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ASMCs) within the renal pelvis were recorded separately using intracellular microelectrodes and Fluo-4 Ca2+ imaging. KEY RESULTS Nicotine and carbachol (CCh; 1–100 μM) transiently reduced the frequency and increased the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions in a manner unaffected by muscarininc antagonists, 4-DAMP (1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide) and pirenzipine (10 nM) or L-NAME (L-Nω-nitroarginine methyl ester; 200 μM), inhibitor of NO synthesis, but blocked by the nicotinic antagonist, hexamethonium or capsaicin, depletor of PSA neuropeptides. These negative chronotropic and delayed positive inotropic effects of CCh on TSMC contractions, action potentials and Ca2+ transients were inhibited by glibenclamide (Glib; 1 μM), blocker of ATP-dependent K (KATP) channels. Nicotinic receptor-evoked inhibition of the spontaneous Ca2+ transients in ASMCs was prevented by capsaicin but not Glib. In contrast, the negative inotropic and chronotropic effects of the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin were not prevented by Glib. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The negative chronotropic effect of nicotinic receptor activation results from the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from PSAs, which suppresses Ca2+ signalling in ASMCs. PSA-released CGRP also evokes a transient hyperpolarization in TSMCs upon the opening of KATP channels, which reduces contraction propagation but promotes the recruitment of TSMC Ca2+ channels that underlie the delayed positive inotropic effects of CCh. PMID:24004375

  3. Interhemispheric Inhibition Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Primary Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Yasuyuki; Jono, Yasutomo; Mizusawa, Hiroki; Kinoshita, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the long-interval interhemispheric inhibition (LIHI) is induced by the transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary sensory area (S1-TMS) without activation of the conditioning side of the primary motor area (M1) contributing to the contralateral motor evoked potential (MEP), whether the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1 modulated by the tactile input, and whether the pathways mediating the LIHI are different from those mediating the M1-TMS-induced LIHI. In order to give the TMS over the S1 without eliciting the MEP, the intensity of the S1-TMS was adjusted to be the sub-motor-threshold level and the trials with the MEP response elicited by the S1-TMS were discarded online. The LIHI was induced by the S1-TMS given 40 ms before the test TMS in the participants with the attenuation of the tactile perception of the digit stimulation (TPDS) induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the LIHI is induced by the S1-TMS without activation of the conditioning side of the M1 contributing to the contralateral MEP in the participants in which the pathways mediating the TPDS is sensitive to the S1-TMS. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was positively correlated with the attenuation of the TPDS induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the effect of the S1-TMS on the pathways mediating the TPDS at the S1. In another experiment, the effect of the digit stimulation given before the conditioning TMS on the S1- or M1-TMS-induced LIHI was examined. The digit stimulation produces tactile input to the S1 causing change in the status of the S1. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was enhanced when the S1-TMS was given in the period in which the tactile afferent volley produced by the digit stimulation just arrived at the S1, while the LIHI induced by above-motor-threshold TMS over the contralateral M1 was not enhanced by the tactile input. Thus, the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1

  4. Surgical extraction of human dorsal root ganglia from organ donors and preparation of primary sensory neuron cultures

    PubMed Central

    Valtcheva, Manouela V.; Copits, Bryan A.; Davidson, Steve; Sheahan, Tayler D.; Pullen, Melanie Y.; McCall, Jordan G.; Dikranian, Krikor; Gereau, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury, and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization. Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies. Dissociated sensory neurons can be maintained in culture for >10 days, and are amenable to electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging, and viral gene transfer. The entire process of extraction and culturing can be completed in less than 7 hours, and can be performed by trained graduate students. This approach can be applied at any institution with access to organ donors consenting to tissue donation for research and provides an invaluable resource for improving translational research. PMID:27606776

  5. N-acetylcysteine alters apoptotic gene expression in axotomised primary sensory afferent subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Reid, Adam J; Shawcross, Susan G; Hamilton, Alex E; Wiberg, Mikael; Terenghi, Giorgio

    2009-10-01

    Novel approaches are required in peripheral nerve injury management because current surgical techniques, which do not address axotomy-induced neuronal death, lead to deficient sensory recovery. Sensory neuronal death has functional preference with cutaneous neurons dying in great numbers whilst muscle afferents survive axotomy. This offers the potential of comparing similar cell types that suffer distinct fates upon nerve injury. Here, a novel approach, combining in vivo rat nerve injury model with laser microdissection and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, identifies crucial disparities in apoptotic gene expression attributable to subpopulations of differing sensory modalities and examines the response to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy. We show that axotomised muscle afferent neurons survive injury due to a neuroprotective response which markedly downregulates Bax and caspase-3 mRNA. In contrast, axotomised cutaneous sensory neurons significantly upregulate caspase-3 and alter both Bcl-2 and Bax expression such that pro-apoptotic Bax predominates. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) intervention promotes neuroprotection of cutaneous sensory neurons through considerable upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of both Bax and caspase-3 mRNA. The data presented identifies differential activation of apoptotic genes in axotomised neuronal subpopulations. Furthermore, NAC therapy instigates apoptotic gene expression changes in axotomised neurons, thereby offering pharmacotherapeutic potential in the clinical treatment of nerve injury.

  6. Inflammatory pain hypersensitivity mediated by phenotypic switch in myelinated primary sensory neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Simona; Doubell, Tim P.; Leslie, Tabi; Woolf, Clifford J.

    1996-11-01

    PAIN is normally evoked only by stimuli that are sufficiently intense to activate high-threshold Aδ and C sensory fibres, which relay the signal to the spinal cord. Peripheral inflammation leads to profoundly increased pain sensitivity: noxious stimuli generate a greater response and stimuli that are normally innocuous elicit pain. Inflammation increases the sensitivity of the peripheral terminals of Aδ and C fibres at the site of inflammation1. It also increases the excitability of spinal cord neurons2,3, which now amplify all sensory inputs including the normally innocuous tactile stimuli that are conveyed by low-threshold Aβ fibres. This central sensitization has been attributed to the enhanced activity of C fibres4, which increase the excitability of their postsynaptic targets by releasing glutamate and the neuropeptide substance P5-7. Here we show that inflammation results in Aβ fibres also acquiring the capacity to increase the excitability of spinal cord neurons. This is due to a phenotypic switch in a subpopulation of these fibres so that they, like C-fibres, now express substance P. Aβ fibres thus appear to contribute to inflammatory hypersensitivity by switching their phenotype to one resembling pain fibres, thereby enhancing synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and exaggerating the central response to innocuous stimuli.

  7. SHANK3 Deficiency Impairs Heat Hyperalgesia and TRPV1 Signaling in Primary Sensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingjian; Kim, Yong Ho; Wang, Xiaoming; Liu, Di; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Bey, Alexandra L; Lay, Mark; Chang, Wonseok; Berta, Temugin; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-12-21

    Abnormal pain sensitivity is commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and affects the life quality of ASD individuals. SHANK3 deficiency was implicated in ASD and pain dysregulation. Here, we report functional expression of SHANK3 in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons and spinal cord presynaptic terminals. Homozygous and heterozygous Shank3 complete knockout (Δe4-22) results in impaired heat hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Specific deletion of Shank3 in Nav1.8-expressing sensory neurons also impairs heat hyperalgesia in homozygous and heterozygous mice. SHANK3 interacts with transient receptor potential subtype V1 (TRPV1) via Proline-rich region and regulates TRPV1 surface expression. Furthermore, capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, inward currents in DRG neurons, and synaptic currents in spinal cord neurons are all reduced after Shank3 haploinsufficiency. Finally, partial knockdown of SHANK3 expression in human DRG neurons abrogates TRPV1 function. Our findings reveal a peripheral mechanism of SHANK3, which may underlie pain deficits in SHANK3-related ASDs.

  8. Neurotrophic Factors NGF, GDNF and NTN Selectively Modulate HSV1 and HSV2 Lytic Infection and Reactivation in Primary Adult Sensory and Autonomic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Yanez, Andy A; Harrell, Telvin; Sriranganathan, Heather J; Ives, Angela M; Bertke, Andrea S

    2017-02-07

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. Previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) maintains HSV1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on NGF for survival, some populations cease expression of NGF receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially establish latency in different populations of sensory neurons responsive to other neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Thus, NGF may not maintain latency in adult sensory neurons. To identify NTFs important for maintaining HSV1 and HSV2 latency in adult neurons, we investigated acute and latently-infected primary adult sensory trigeminal (TG) and sympathetic superior cervical ganglia (SCG) after NTF removal. NGF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) deprivation induced HSV1 reactivation in adult sympathetic neurons. In adult sensory neurons, however, neurturin (NTN) and GDNF deprivation induced HSV1 and HSV2 reactivation, respectively, while NGF deprivation had no effects. Furthermore, HSV1 and HSV2 preferentially reactivated from neurons expressing GFRα2 and GFRα1, the high affinity receptors for NTN and GDNF, respectively. Thus, NTN and GDNF play a critical role in selective maintenance of HSV1 and HSV2 latency in primary adult sensory neurons.

  9. Neurotrophic Factors NGF, GDNF and NTN Selectively Modulate HSV1 and HSV2 Lytic Infection and Reactivation in Primary Adult Sensory and Autonomic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yanez, Andy A.; Harrell, Telvin; Sriranganathan, Heather J.; Ives, Angela M.; Bertke, Andrea S.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. Previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) maintains HSV1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on NGF for survival, some populations cease expression of NGF receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially establish latency in different populations of sensory neurons responsive to other neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Thus, NGF may not maintain latency in adult sensory neurons. To identify NTFs important for maintaining HSV1 and HSV2 latency in adult neurons, we investigated acute and latently-infected primary adult sensory trigeminal (TG) and sympathetic superior cervical ganglia (SCG) after NTF removal. NGF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) deprivation induced HSV1 reactivation in adult sympathetic neurons. In adult sensory neurons, however, neurturin (NTN) and GDNF deprivation induced HSV1 and HSV2 reactivation, respectively, while NGF deprivation had no effects. Furthermore, HSV1 and HSV2 preferentially reactivated from neurons expressing GFRα2 and GFRα1, the high affinity receptors for NTN and GDNF, respectively. Thus, NTN and GDNF play a critical role in selective maintenance of HSV1 and HSV2 latency in primary adult sensory neurons. PMID:28178213

  10. Sensory nerves contribute to cutaneous vasodilator response to cathodal stimulation in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Gohin, Stéphanie; Decorps, Johanna; Sigaudo-Roussel, Dominique; Fromy, Bérengère

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous current-induced vasodilation (CIV) in response to galvanic current application is an integrative model of neurovascular interaction that relies on capsaicin-sensitive fiber activation. The upstream and downstream mechanisms related to the activation of the capsaicin-sensitive fibers involved in CIV are not elucidated. In particular, the activation of cutaneous transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels and/or acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) (activators mechanisms) and the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) (effector mechanisms) have been tested. To assess cathodal CIV, we measured cutaneous blood flow using laser Doppler flowmetry for 20min following cathodal current application (240s, 100μA) on the skin of the thigh in anesthetized healthy rats for 20min. CIV was studied in rats treated with capsazepine and amiloride to inhibit TRPV1 and ASIC channels, respectively; CGRP8-37 and SR140333 to antagonize CGRP and neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors, respectively; compared to their respective controls. Cathodal CIV was attenuated by capsazepine (12±2% vs 54±6%, P<0.001), amiloride (19±8% vs 61±6%, P<0.01), CGRP8-37 (15±6% vs 61±6%, P<0.001) and SR140333 (9±5% vs 54±6%, P<0.001) without changing local acidification. This is the first integrative study performed in healthy rats showing that cutaneous vasodilation in response to cathodal stimulation is initiated by activation of cutaneous TRPV1 and ASIC channels likely through local acidification. The involvement of CGRP and NK1 receptors suggests that cathodal CIV is the result of CGRP and SP released through activated capsaicin-sensitive fibers. Therefore cathodal CIV could be a valuable method to assess sensory neurovascular function in the skin, which would be particularly relevant to evaluate the presence of small nerve fiber disorders and the effectiveness of treatments.

  11. Competition with Primary Sensory Afferents Drives Remodeling of Corticospinal Axons in Mature Spinal Motor Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Qiu; Zaaimi, Boubker

    2016-01-01

    , but it is promoted after injury. Axons of the major descending motor pathway for motor skills, the corticospinal tract (CST), sprout after brain or spinal cord injury. This contributes to spontaneous spinal motor circuit repair and partial motor recovery. Knowing the determinants that enhance this plasticity is critical for functional rehabilitation. Here we examine the remodeling of CST axons directed by sensory fibers. We found that the CST projection is regulated dynamically in maturity by the competitive, activity-dependent actions of sensory fibers. Knowledge of the properties of this competition enables prediction of the remodeling of CST connections and spinal circuits after injury and informs ways to engineer target-specific control of CST connections to promote recovery. PMID:26740661

  12. Taste placodes are primary targets of geniculate but not trigeminal sensory axons in mouse developing tongue.

    PubMed

    Mbiene, Joseph-Pascal

    2004-12-01

    Tongue embryonic taste buds begin to differentiate before the onset of gustatory papilla formation in murine. In light of this previous finding, we sought to reexamine the developing sensory innervation as it extends toward the lingual epithelium between E 11.5 and 14.5. Nerve tracings with fluorescent lipophilic dyes followed by confocal microscope examination were used to study the terminal branching of chorda tympani and lingual nerves. At E11.5, we confirmed that the chorda tympani nerve provided for most of the nerve branching in the tongue swellings. At E12.5, we show that the lingual nerve contribution to the overall innervation of the lingual swellings increased to the extent that its ramifications matched those of the chorda tympani nerve. At E13.0, the chorda tympani nerve terminal arborizations appeared more complex than those of the lingual nerve. While the chorda tympani nerve terminal branching appeared close to the lingual epithelium that of the trigeminal nerve remained rather confined to the subepithelial mesenchymal tissue. At E13.5, chorda tympani nerve terminals projected specifically to an ordered set of loci on the tongue dorsum corresponding to the epithelial placodes. In contrast, the lingual nerve terminals remained subepithelial with no branches directed towards the placodes. At E14.5, chorda tympani nerve filopodia first entered the apical epithelium of the developing fungiform papilla. The results suggest that there may be no significant delay between the differentiation of embryonic taste buds and their initial innervation.

  13. [A case report of bilateral trigeminal sensory neuropathy as one of the initial manifestation of systemic scleroderma (the difficulties of early diagnosis of the primary disease)].

    PubMed

    Grachev, Yu V; Anan'eva, L P; Tyurnikov, V M; Zakharova, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the case of a patient with bilateral trigeminal sensory neuropathy (TSN), as a possible neurological manifestation of systemic scleroderma (SS). In this patient, intense non-paroxysmal facial pain caused by TSN, subjectively dominated over other manifestations of SS, including Raynaud's syndrome, for at least 1.5 years, thus hampering the diagnosis of the primary disease. In addition to pain, which was not relieved by analgesic medication, TSN was manifested by marked sensory deficit on the face (hypoesthesia / anesthesia) and bilateral sensory deficits in the oral cavity, including the anterior third of the tongue. TSN was also combined with disorders of taste perception. The assumption of rheumatic origin of TSN occurred during a primary neurological examination: a standard examination revealed generalized sensory polyneuropathy with bilateral involvement of the trigeminal nerve; the additional study identified no neurological signs of rheumatic diseases, including Raynaud's phenomenon. SS met all the criteria for the diagnosis (2013), high titers of nuclear ribonucleoprotein were determined as well. Thus, TSN as early and subjectively dominant manifestation of SS can complicate the diagnosis of primary rheumatic diseases. Therefore, in cases of distal sensory polyneuropathy with bilateral involvement of the trigeminal nerve, it is necessary to conduct an additional survey to identify the signs of possible rheumatic diseases: signs of vascular lesion (Raynaud's syndrome), lesions of skin, joints and muscles.

  14. Moderate hypoxia influences excitability and blocks dendrotoxin sensitive K+ currents in rat primary sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, Marco; Ettorre, Giovanni; Stehr, Annette Jana; Henrich, Michael; Hempelmann, Gunter; Scholz, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia alters neuronal function and can lead to neuronal injury or death especially in the central nervous system. But little is known about the effects of hypoxia in neurones of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which survive longer hypoxic periods. Additionally, people have experienced unpleasant sensations during ischemia which are dedicated to changes in conduction properties or changes in excitability in the PNS. However, the underlying ionic conductances in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones have not been investigated in detail. Therefore we investigated the influence of moderate hypoxia (27.0 ± 1.5 mmHg) on action potentials, excitability and ionic conductances of small neurones in a slice preparation of DRGs of young rats. The neurones responded within a few minutes non-uniformly to moderate hypoxia: changes of excitability could be assigned to decreased outward currents in most of the neurones (77%) whereas a smaller group (23%) displayed increased outward currents in Ringer solution. We were able to attribute most of the reduction in outward-current to a voltage-gated K+ current which activated at potentials positive to -50 mV and was sensitive to 50 nM α-dendrotoxin (DTX). Other toxins that inhibit subtypes of voltage gated K+ channels, such as margatoxin (MgTX), dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K), r-tityustoxin Kα (TsTX-K) and r-agitoxin (AgTX-2) failed to prevent the hypoxia induced reduction. Therefore we could not assign the hypoxia sensitive K+ current to one homomeric KV channel type in sensory neurones. Functionally this K+ current blockade might underlie the increased action potential (AP) duration in these neurones. Altogether these results, might explain the functional impairment of peripheral neurones under moderate hypoxia. PMID:16579848

  15. A tingling sanshool derivative excites primary sensory neurons and elicits nocifensive behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Amanda H.; Sawyer, Carolyn M.; Zanotto, Karen L.; Ivanov, Margaret A.; Cheung, Susan; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Furrer, Stephan; Simons, Christopher T.; Slack, Jay P.

    2011-01-01

    Szechuan peppers contain hydroxy-α-sanshool that imparts desirable tingling, cooling, and numbing sensations. Hydroxy-α-sanshool activates a subset of sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels. We presently investigated if a tingle-evoking sanshool analog, isobutylalkenyl amide (IBA), excites rat DRG neurons and, if so, if these neurons are also activated by agonists of TRPM8, TRPA1, and/or TRPV1. Thirty-four percent of DRG neurons tested responded to IBA, with 29% of them also responding to menthol, 29% to cinnamic aldehyde, 66% to capsaicin, and subsets responding to two or more transient receptor potential (TRP) agonists. IBA-responsive cells had similar size distributions regardless of whether they responded to capsaicin or not; cells only responsive to IBA were larger. Responses to repeated application of IBA at a 5-min interstimulus interval exhibited self-desensitization (tachyphylaxis). Capsaicin did not cross-desensitize responses to IBA to any greater extent than the tachyphylaxis observed with repeated IBA applications. These findings are consistent with psychophysical observations that IBA elicits tingle sensation accompanied by pungency and cooling, with self-desensitization but little cross-desensitization by capsaicin. Intraplantar injection of IBA elicited nocifensive responses (paw licking, shaking-flinching, and guarding) in a dose-related manner similar to the effects of intraplantar capsaicin and serotonin. IBA had no effect on thermal sensitivity but enhanced mechanical sensitivity at the highest dose tested. These observations suggest that IBA elicits an unfamiliar aversive sensation that is expressed behaviorally by the limited response repertoire available to the animal. PMID:21273322

  16. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish.

    PubMed

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harvey-Girard, Erik; Cheer, Joseph F; Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory-motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner.

  17. Primary sensory afferent innervation of the developing superficial dorsal horn in the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Peter D; Hutton, Elspeth J; Knott, Graham W

    2006-03-01

    The development of the primary sensory innervation of the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) was studied in postnatal opossums Monodelphis domestica by using DiI labelling of primary afferents and with GSA-IB(4) lectin binding and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity to label primary afferent subpopulations. We also compared the timing of SDH innervation in the cervical and lumbar regions of the spinal cord. The first primary afferent projections to SDH emerge from the most lateral part of the dorsal root entry zone at postnatal day 5 and project around the lateral edge of the SDH toward lamina V. Innervation of the SDH occurs slowly over the second and third postnatal weeks, with the most dorsal aspect becoming populated by mediolaterally oriented varicose fibers before the rest of the dorsoventral thickness of the SDH becomes innervated by fine branching varicose fibers. Labelling with GSA-IB(4) lectin also labelled fibers at the lateral edge of the dorsal horn and SDH at P5, indicating that the GSA-IB(4) is expressed on SDH/lamina V primary afferents at the time when they are making their projections into the spinal cord. In contrast, CGRP-immunoreactive afferents were not evident until postnatal day 7, when a few short projections into the lateral dorsal horn were observed. These afferents then followed a pattern similar to the development of GSA-IB(4) projects but with a latency of several days. The adult pattern of labelling by GSA-IB(4) is achieved by about postnatal day 20, whereas the adult pattern of CGRP labelling was not seen until postnatal day 30. Electron microscopy revealed a few immature synapses in the region of the developing SDH at postnatal day 10, and processes considered to be precursors of glomerular synapses (and thus of primary afferent origin) were first seen at postnatal day 16 and adopted their definitive appearance between postnatal days 28 and 55. Although structural and functional development of forelimbs of neonatal

  18. Primary structural response in tryptophan residues of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin to photochromic reactions of the retinal chromophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Seisuke; Mizuno, Misao; Kato, Yoshitaka; Kawanabe, Akira; Kandori, Hideki; Wei, Zhengrong; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2013-06-01

    Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is a microbial rhodopsin found in eubacteria and functions as a photosensor. The photoreaction of ASR is photochromic between all-trans, 15-anti (ASRAT), and 13-cis, 15-syn (ASR13C) isomers. To understand primary protein dynamics in the photoreaction starting in ASRAT and ASR13C, picosecond time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra were obtained. In the intermediate state appearing in the picosecond temporal region, spectral changes of Trp bands were observed. For both ASRAT and ASR13C, the intensities of the Trp bands were bleached within the instrumental response time and recovered with a time constant of 30 ps. This suggests that the rates of structural changes in the Trp residue in the vicinity of the chromophore do not depend on the direction of the isomerization of retinal. A comparison between spectra of the wild-type and Trp mutants indicates that the structures of Trp76 and Trp46 change upon the primary photoreaction of retinal.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activates ERK in primary sensory neurons and mediates inflammatory heat hyperalgesia through TRPV1 sensitization.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhi-Ye; Xu, Haoxing; Clapham, David E; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2004-09-22

    Although the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) pathway typically regulates cell growth and survival, increasing evidence indicates the involvement of this pathway in neural plasticity. It is unknown whether the PI3K pathway can mediate pain hypersensitivity. Intradermal injection of capsaicin and NGF produce heat hyperalgesia by activating their respective TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1) and TrkA receptors on nociceptor sensory nerve terminals. We examined the activation of PI3K in primary sensory DRG neurons by these inflammatory agents and the contribution of PI3K activation to inflammatory pain. We further investigated the correlation between the PI3K and the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) pathway. Capsaicin and NGF induce phosphorylation of the PI3K downstream target AKT (protein kinase B), which is blocked by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, indicative of the activation of PI3K by both agents. ERK activation by capsaicin and NGF was also blocked by PI3K inhibitors. Similarly, intradermal capsaicin in rats activated PI3K and ERK in C-fiber DRG neurons and epidermal nerve fibers. Injection of PI3K or MEK (ERK kinase) inhibitors into the hindpaw attenuated capsaicin- and NGF-evoked heat hyperalgesia but did not change basal heat sensitivity. Furthermore, PI3K, but not ERK, inhibition blocked early induction of hyperalgesia. In acutely dissociated DRG neurons, the capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current was strikingly potentiated by NGF, and this potentiation was completely blocked by PI3K inhibitors and primarily suppressed by MEK inhibitors. Therefore, PI3K induces heat hyperalgesia, possibly by regulating TRPV1 activity, in an ERK-dependent manner. The PI3K pathway also appears to play a role that is distinct from ERK by regulating the early onset of inflammatory pain.

  20. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory–motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner. PMID:27844054

  1. Distribution of binding sites for the plant lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I on primary sensory neurones in seven different mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Michelle B; Plenderleith, Mark B

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence to suggest that different functional classes of neurones express characteristic cell-surface carbohydrates. Previous studies have shown that the plant lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA) binds to a population of small to medium diameter primary sensory neurones in rabbits and humans. This suggests that a fucose-containing glycoconjugate may be expressed by nociceptive primary sensory neurones. In order to determine the extent to which this glycoconjugate is expressed by other species, in the current study, we have examined the distribution of UEA-binding sites on primary sensory neurones in seven different mammals. Binding sites for UEA were associated with the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic granules of small to medium dorsal root ganglion cells and their axon terminals in laminae I-III of the grey matter of the spinal cord, in the rabbit, cat and marmoset monkey. However, no binding was observed in either the dorsal root ganglia or spinal cord in the mouse, rat, guinea pig or flying fox. These results indicate an inter-species variation in the expression of cell-surface glycoconjugates on mammalian primary sensory neurones.

  2. Morphine, but not sodium cromoglycate, modulates the release of substance P from capsaicin-sensitive neurones in the rat trachea in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, N. J.; Jones, A. J.; Keen, P.

    1991-01-01

    1. Opioids have been shown to inhibit substance P (SP) release from primary afferent neurones (PAN). In addition, opioid receptors have been identified on PAN of the vagus nerves. Sodium cromoglycate (SCG) decreases the excitability of C-fibres in the lung of the dog in vivo. We have utilised a multi-superfusion system to investigate the effect of opioids and SCG on the release of SP from the rat trachea in vitro. 2. Pretreatment of newborn rats with capsaicin (50 mg kg-1 s.c. at day 1 and 2 of life) resulted in a 93.2 +/- 6.3% reduction in tracheal substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI) content when determined by radioimmunoassay in the adult. 3. Exposure to isotonically elevated potassium concentrations (37-90 mM), capsaicin (100 nM-10 microM), and bradykinin (BK; 10nm-1 microM) but not des-Arg9-BK (1 microM) stimulated SP-LI release by a calcium-dependent mechanism. 4. SCG (1 microM and 100 microM) did not affect spontaneous, potassium (60 mM)- or BK (1 microM)-stimulated SP-LI release. 5. Morphine (0.1-100 microM) caused dose-related inhibition of potassium (60 mM)-stimulated SP-LI release with the greatest inhibition of 60.4 +/- 13.7% at 100 microM. The effect of morphine was not mimicked by the kappa-opioid receptor agonist, U50,488H (10 microM) or the delta-opioid receptor agonist, Tyr-(D-Pen)-Gly-Phe-(D-Pen) (DPDPE). 6. The effect of morphine was totally abolished by prior and concomitant exposure to naloxone (100 nM) which had no effect on control release values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1713104

  3. The design of electrospun PLLA nanofiber scaffolds compatible with serum-free growth of primary motor and sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Corey, Joseph M; Gertz, Caitlyn C; Wang, Bor-Shuen; Birrell, Lisa K; Johnson, Sara L; Martin, David C; Feldman, Eva L

    2008-07-01

    Aligned electrospun nanofibers direct neurite growth and may prove effective for repair throughout the nervous system. Applying nanofiber scaffolds to different nervous system regions will require prior in vitro testing of scaffold designs with specific neuronal and glial cell types. This would be best accomplished using primary neurons in serum-free media; however, such growth on nanofiber substrates has not yet been achieved. Here we report the development of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber substrates that support serum-free growth of primary motor and sensory neurons at low plating densities. In our study, we first compared materials used to anchor fibers to glass to keep cells submerged and maintain fiber alignment. We found that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) anchors fibers to glass and is less toxic to primary neurons than bandage and glue used in other studies. We then designed a substrate produced by electrospinning PLLA nanofibers directly on cover slips pre-coated with PLGA. This substrate retains fiber alignment even when the fiber bundle detaches from the cover slip and keeps cells in the same focal plane. To see if increasing wettability improves motor neuron survival, some fibers were plasma etched before cell plating. Survival on etched fibers was reduced at the lower plating density. Finally, the alignment of neurons grown on this substrate was equal to nanofiber alignment and surpassed the alignment of neurites from explants tested in a previous study. This substrate should facilitate investigating the behavior of many neuronal types on electrospun fibers in serum-free conditions.

  4. Gestational Valproate Alters BOLD Activation in Response to Complex Social and Primary Sensory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Felix-Ortiz, Ada C.; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been used clinically as an anticonvulsant medication during pregnancy; however, it poses a neurodevelopmental risk due to its high teratogenicity. We hypothesized that midgestational (GD) exposure to VPA will lead to lasting deficits in social behavior and the processing of social stimuli. To test this, animals were given a single IP injection of 600 mg/kg of VPA on GD 12.5. Starting on postnatal day 2 (PND2), animals were examined for physical and behavior abnormalities. Functional MRI studies were carried out after PND60. VPA and control animals were given vehicle or a central infusion of a V1a antagonist 90 minutes before imaging. During imaging sessions, rats were presented with a juvenile test male followed by a primary visual stimulus (2 Hz pulsed light) to examine the effects of prenatal VPA on neural processing. VPA rats showed greater increases in BOLD signal response to the social stimulus compared to controls in the temporal cortex, thalamus, midbrain and the hypothalamus. Blocking the V1a receptor reduced the BOLD response in VPA animals only. Neural responses to the visual stimulus, however, were lower in VPA animals. Blockade with the V1a antagonist did not revert this latter effect. Our data suggest that prenatal VPA affects the processing of social stimuli and perhaps social memory, partly through a mechanism that may involve vasopressin V1a neurotransmission. PMID:22615973

  5. An unavoidable modulation? Sensory attention and human primary motor cortex excitability.

    PubMed

    Ruge, Diane; Muggleton, Neil; Hoad, Damon; Caronni, Antonio; Rothwell, John C

    2014-09-01

    The link between basic physiology and its modulation by cognitive states, such as attention, is poorly understood. A significant association becomes apparent when patients with movement disorders describe experiences with changing their attention focus and the fundamental effect that this has on their motor symptoms. Moreover, frequently used mental strategies for treating such patients, e.g. with task-specific dystonia, widely lack laboratory-based knowledge about physiological mechanisms. In this largely unexplored field, we looked at how the locus of attention, when it changed between internal (locus hand) and external (visual target), influenced excitability in the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy humans. Intriguingly, both internal and external attention had the capacity to change M1 excitability. Both led to a reduced stimulation-induced GABA-related inhibition and a change in motor evoked potential size, i.e. an overall increased M1 excitability. These previously unreported findings indicated: (i) that cognitive state differentially interacted with M1 physiology, (ii) that our view of distraction (attention locus shifted towards external or distant location), which is used as a prevention or management strategy for use-dependent motor disorders, is too simple and currently unsupported for clinical application, and (iii) the physiological state reached through attention modulation represents an alternative explanation for frequently reported electrophysiology findings in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as an aberrant inhibition.

  6. Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid Colitis Induces Changes in the Contractile Response of Circular Smooth Muscle in the Distal Colon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-27

    capsaicin -sensitive afferent C fibers [29]. Capsaicin , the pungent ingredient of red pepper, acts on unmyelinated C fibers. It has been used as a tool to...evaluate the contribution of primary afferent neurons. Capsaicin acts at a "vanil1oid" receptor which is expressed by a subset of afferent neurons...designated " capsaicin sensitive primary afferents". Acute administration of capsaicin selectively activates sensory afferents to release primarily SP, VIP

  7. Sensory-motor interactions for vocal pitch monitoring in non-primary human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Larson, Charles R; Jackson, Adam W; Chen, Fangxiang; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying processing of auditory feedback during self-vocalization are poorly understood. One technique used to study the role of auditory feedback involves shifting the pitch of the feedback that a speaker receives, known as pitch-shifted feedback. We utilized a pitch shift self-vocalization and playback paradigm to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of audio-vocal interaction. High-resolution electrocorticography (ECoG) signals were recorded directly from auditory cortex of 10 human subjects while they vocalized and received brief downward (-100 cents) pitch perturbations in their voice auditory feedback (speaking task). ECoG was also recorded when subjects passively listened to playback of their own pitch-shifted vocalizations. Feedback pitch perturbations elicited average evoked potential (AEP) and event-related band power (ERBP) responses, primarily in the high gamma (70-150 Hz) range, in focal areas of non-primary auditory cortex on superior temporal gyrus (STG). The AEPs and high gamma responses were both modulated by speaking compared with playback in a subset of STG contacts. From these contacts, a majority showed significant enhancement of high gamma power and AEP responses during speaking while the remaining contacts showed attenuated response amplitudes. The speaking-induced enhancement effect suggests that engaging the vocal motor system can modulate auditory cortical processing of self-produced sounds in such a way as to increase neural sensitivity for feedback pitch error detection. It is likely that mechanisms such as efference copies may be involved in this process, and modulation of AEP and high gamma responses imply that such modulatory effects may affect different cortical generators within distinctive functional networks that drive voice production and control.

  8. Sensory stimulation for lowering intraocular pressure, improving blood flow to the optic nerve and neuroprotection in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rom, Edith

    2013-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies that can lead to irreversible blindness. Sensory stimulation in the form of acupuncture or ear acupressure may contribute to protecting patients from blindness when used as a complementary method to orthodox treatment in the form of drops, laser or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide a narrative overview of the available literature up to July 2012. It summarises reported evidence on the potential beneficial effects of sensory stimulation for glaucoma. Sensory stimulation appears to significantly enhance the pressure-lowering effect of orthodox treatments. Studies suggest that it may also improve blood flow to the eye and optic nerve head. Furthermore, it may play a role in neuroprotection through regulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their receptors, thereby encouraging the survival pathway in contrast to the pathway to apoptosis. Blood flow and neuroprotection are areas that are not directly influenced by orthodox treatment modalities. Numerous different treatment protocols were used to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation on intraocular pressure, blood flow or neuroprotection of the retina and optic nerve in the animal model and human pilot studies. Objective outcomes were reported to have been evaluated with Goldmann tonometry, Doppler ultrasound techniques and electrophysiology (pattern electroretinography, visually evoked potentials), and supported with histological studies in the animal model. Taken together, reported evidence from these studies strongly suggests that sensory stimulation is worthy of further research.

  9. G9a inhibits CREB-triggered expression of mu opioid receptor in primary sensory neurons following peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lingli; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Gu, Xiyao; Wu, Shaogen; Mo, Kai; Xiong, Ming; Marie Lutz, Brianna; Bekker, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, a distressing and debilitating disorder, is still poorly managed in clinic. Opioids, like morphine, remain the mainstay of prescribed medications in the treatment of this disorder, but their analgesic effects are highly unsatisfactory in part due to nerve injury-induced reduction of opioid receptors in the first-order sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia. G9a is a repressor of gene expression. We found that nerve injury-induced increases in G9a and its catalyzed repressive marker H3K9m2 are responsible for epigenetic silencing of Oprm1, Oprk1, and Oprd1 genes in the injured dorsal root ganglia. Blocking these increases rescued dorsal root ganglia Oprm1, Oprk1, and Oprd1 gene expression and morphine or loperamide analgesia and prevented the development of morphine or loperamide-induced analgesic tolerance under neuropathic pain conditions. Conversely, mimicking these increases reduced the expression of three opioid receptors and promoted the mu opioid receptor-gated release of primary afferent neurotransmitters. Mechanistically, nerve injury-induced increases in the binding activity of G9a and H3K9me2 to the Oprm1 gene were associated with the reduced binding of cyclic AMP response element binding protein to the Oprm1 gene. These findings suggest that G9a participates in the nerve injury-induced reduction of the Oprm1 gene likely through G9a-triggered blockage in the access of cyclic AMP response element binding protein to this gene. PMID:27927796

  10. Enhancement of acid-sensing ion channel activity by metabotropic P2Y UTP receptors in primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Wu, Jing; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral purinergic signaling plays an important role in nociception. Increasing evidence suggests that metabotropic P2Y receptors are also involved, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. Herein, we report that selective P2Y receptor agonist uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) can exert an enhancing effect on the functional activity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), key sensors for extracellular protons, in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. First, UTP dose-dependently increased the amplitude of ASIC currents. UTP also shifted the concentration-response curve for proton upwards, with a 56.6 ± 6.4% increase of the maximal current response to proton. Second, UTP potentiation of proton-gated currents can be mimicked by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), but not by P2Y1 receptor agonist ADP. Potentiation of UTP was blocked by P2Y receptor antagonist suramin and by inhibition of intracellular G protein, phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC), or protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) signaling. Third, UTP altered acidosis-evoked membrane excitability of DRG neurons and caused a significant increase in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Finally, UTP dose-dependently exacerbated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in rats. These results suggest that UTP enhanced ASIC-mediated currents and nociceptive responses, which reveal a novel peripheral mechanism underlying UTP-sensitive P2Y2 receptor involvement in hyperalgesia by sensitizing ASICs in primary sensory neurons.

  11. Thiamine, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin and their combination inhibit thermal, but not mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with primary sensory neuron injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Bei; Gan, Qiang; Rupert, Ronald L; Zeng, Yin-Ming; Song, Xue-Jun

    2005-03-01

    Neuropathic pain after nerve injury is severe and intractable, and current drugs and nondrug therapies offer substantial pain relief to no more than half of affected patients. The present study investigated the analgesic roles of the B vitamins thiamine (B1), pyridoxine (B6) and cyanocobalamin (B12) in rats with neuropathic pain caused by spinal ganglia compression (CCD) or loose ligation of the sciatic nerve (CCI). Thermal hyperalgesia was determined by a significantly shortened latency of foot withdrawal to radiant heat, and mechanical hyperalgesia was determined by a significantly decreased threshold of foot withdrawal to von Frey filaments stimulation of the plantar surface of hindpaw. Results showed that (1) intraperitoneal injection of B1 (5, 10, 33 and 100 mg/kg), B6 (33 and 100 mg/kg) or B12 (0.5 and 2 mg/kg) significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia; (2) the combination of B1, B6 and B12 synergistically inhibited thermal hyperalgesia; (3) repetitive administration of vitamin B complex (containing B1/B6/B12 33/33/0.5 mg/kg, for 1 and 2 wk) produced long-term inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia; and (4) B vitamins did not affect mechanical hyperalgesia or normal pain sensation, and exhibited similar effects on CCD and CCI induced-hyperalgesia. The present studies demonstrate effects of B vitamins on pain and hyperalgesia following primary sensory neurons injury, and suggest the possible clinical utility of B vitamins in the treatment of neuropathic painful conditions following injury, inflammation, degeneration or other disorders in the nervous systems in human beings.

  12. Facilitation of tactile working memory by top-down suppression from prefrontal to primary somatosensory cortex during sensory interference.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Petri; Carlson, Synnöve; Boldt, Robert; Neuvonen, Tuomas; Hannula, Henri; Hiltunen, Jaana; Salonen, Oili; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Pertovaara, Antti

    2011-06-01

    Tactile working memory (WM) is improved by increasing top-down suppression of interfering sensory processing in S1 via a link from the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) to S1. Here we studied in healthy subjects whether the efficacy of top-down suppression varies with submodality of sensory interference. Navigated stimulation of the MFG-S1 link significantly improved tactile WM performance when accompanied by tactile but not visual interference of memory maintenance.

  13. Information theoretic analysis of dynamical encoding by four identified primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal system.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, F; Roddey, J C; Stufflebeam, S; Clague, H; Miller, J P

    1996-04-01

    1. The stimulus/response properties of four identified primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system were studied using electrophysiological techniques. These four cells are thought to represent a functionally discrete subunit of the cercal system: they are the only cells that encode information about stimulus direction to higher centers for low intensity stimuli. Previous studies characterized the quantity of information encoded by these cells about the direction of air currents in the horizontal plane. In the experiments reported here, we characterized the quantity and quality of information encoded in the cells' elicited responses about the dynamics of air current waveforms presented at their optimal stimulus directions. The total sample set included 22 cells. 2. This characterization was achieved by determining the cells' frequency sensitivities and encoding accuracy using the methods of stochastic systems analysis and information theory. The specific approach used for the analysis was the "stimulus reconstruction" technique in which a functional expansion was derived to transform the observed spike train responses into the optimal estimate (i.e., "reconstruction") of the actual stimulus. A novel derivation of the crucial equations is presented. The reverse approach is compared with the more traditional forward analysis, in which an expansion is derived that transforms the stimulus to a prediction of the spike train response. Important aspects of the application of these analytical approaches are considered. 3. All four interneurons were found to have identical frequency tuning, as assessed by the accuracy with which different frequency components of stimulus waveforms could be reconstructed with a linear expansion. The interneurons encoded significant information about stimulus frequencies between 5 and 80 Hz, which peak sensitivities at approximately 15 Hz. 4. All four interneurons were found to have identical stimulus/response latencies

  14. TLR signaling adaptor protein MyD88 in primary sensory neurons contributes to persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing-Jun; Liu, Tong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Yin, Cui; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that neuro-immune and neuro-glial interactions are critically involved in chronic pain sensitization. It is well studied how immune/glial mediators sensitize pain, but how sensory neurons control neuroinflammation remains unclear. We employed Myd88 conditional knockout (CKO) mice, in which Myd88 was deleted in sodium channel subunit Nav1.8-expressing primary sensory neurons, to examine the unique role of neuronal MyD88 in regulating acute and chronic pain, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that baseline pain and the formalin induced acute inflammatory pain were intact in CKO mice. However, the late phase inflammatory pain following complete Freund’s adjuvant injection and the late phase neuropathic pain following chronic constriction injury (CCI), were reduced in CKO mice. CCI induced up-regulation of MyD88 and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression in DRG neurons and macrophage infiltration into DRGs, and microglia activation in spinal dorsal horns in wild-type mice, but all these changes were compromised in CKO mice. Finally, the pain hypersensitivity induced by intraplantar IL-1β was reduced in CKO mice. Our findings suggest that MyD88 in primary sensory neurons plays an active role in regulating IL-1β signaling and neuroinflammation in the peripheral and the central nervous systems, and contributes to the maintenance of persistent pain. PMID:27312666

  15. Evidence for the role of lipid rafts and sphingomyelin in Ca2+-gating of Transient Receptor Potential channels in trigeminal sensory neurons and peripheral nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Sághy, Éva; Szőke, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Börzsei, Rita; Erostyák, János; Jánosi, Tibor Zoltán; Sétáló, György; Szolcsányi, János

    2015-10-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels, such as TRP Vanilloid 1 and TRP Ankyrin repeat domain 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1) are nocisensors playing important role to signal pain. Two "melastatin" TRP receptors, like TRPM8 and TRPM3 are also expressed in a subgroup of primary sensory neurons. These channels serve as thermosensors with unique thermal sensitivity ranges and are activated also by several exogenous and endogenous chemical ligands inducing conformational changes from various allosteric ("multisteric") sites. We analysed the role of plasma membrane microdomains of lipid rafts on isolated trigeminal (TRG) neurons and TRPV1-expressing CHO cell line by measuring agonist-induced Ca2+ transients with ratiometric technique. Stimulation-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sensory nerve endings of the isolated rat trachea by radioimmunoassay was also measured. Lipid rafts were disrupted by cleaving sphingomyelin (SM) with sphingomyelinase (SMase), cholesterol depletion with methyl β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and ganglioside breakdown with myriocin. It has been revealed that intracellular Ca2+ increase responses evoked by the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the TRPA1 agonsits allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and formaldehyde as well as the TRPM8 activator icilin were inhibited after SMase, MCD and myriocin incubation but the response to the TRPM3 agonist pregnenolon sulphate was not altered. Extracellular SMase treatment did not influence the thapsigargin-evoked Ca2+-release from intracellular stores. Besides the cell bodies, SMase also inhibited capsaicin- or AITC-evoked CGRP release from peripheral sensory nerve terminals, this provides the first evidence for the importance of lipid raft integrity in TRPV1 and TRPA1 gating on capsaicin-sensitive nerve terminals. SM metabolites, ceramide and sphingosine, did not influence TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation on TRG neurons, TRPV1-expressing CHO cell line, and nerve terminals. We suggest, that the hydrophobic

  16. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  17. Expression of Semaphorins, Neuropilins, VEGF, and Tenascins in Rat and Human Primary Sensory Neurons after a Dorsal Root Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, Tomas; Risling, Mårten; Carlstedt, Thomas; Hammarberg, Henrik; Wallquist, Wilhelm; Cullheim, Staffan; Sköld, Mattias K.

    2017-01-01

    Dorsal root injury is a situation not expected to be followed by a strong regenerative growth, or growth of the injured axon into the central nervous system of the spinal cord, if the central axon of the dorsal root is injured but of strong regeneration if subjected to injury to the peripherally projecting axons. The clinical consequence of axonal injury is loss of sensation and may also lead to neuropathic pain. In this study, we have used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution of mRNAs for the neural guidance molecules semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A), semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F), and semaphorin 4F (SEMA4F), their receptors neuropilin 1 (NP1) and neuropilin 2 (NP2) but also for the neuropilin ligand vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Tenascin J1, an extracellular matrix molecule involved in axonal guidance, in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after a unilateral dorsal rhizotomy (DRT) or sciatic nerve transcetion (SNT). The studied survival times were 1–365 days. The different forms of mRNAs were unevenly distributed between the different size classes of sensory nerve cells. The results show that mRNA for SEMA3A was diminished after trauma to the sensory nerve roots in rats. The SEMA3A receptor NP1, and SEMA3F receptor NP2, was significantly upregulated in the DRG neurons after DRT and SNT. SEMA4F was upregulated after a SNT. The expression of mRNA for VEGF in DRG neurons after DRT showed a significant upregulation that was high even a year after the injuries. These data suggest a role for the semaphorins, neuropilins, VEGF, and J1 in the reactions after dorsal root lesions. PMID:28270793

  18. [The role of sensory nerves in the development of inflammation of oral tissues].

    PubMed

    Olgart, L

    1998-01-01

    Experimental stimulation and clinical procedures applied on the tooth crown cause vascular reactions in the dental pulp of cats and rats. These reactions depend on the activation of trigeminal afferent nerves and release of neuropeptides. A brief stimulation causes vasodilation, which is mainly mediated by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). A longer stimulation results in plasma extravasation which is mediated mainly by substance P (SP) and prostaglandins in the pulp. In adjacent oral tissues the mechanisms following stimulation or local irritation are more complex and other mediators are also involved. Nitric oxide (NO) which is instantly produced in the tissues is such a novel mediator. The chemosensitive nature of the nerves involved (capsaicin sensitive) may lead to their activation also by inflammatory mediators released in the tissues. Thus, sensory nerves may modulate the progress of inflammation. Since sensory nerves in oral tissues are often the first structures to be activated during clinical procedures, tissue reactions that occur can be assumed to be initiated and perpetuated by the sensory neuropeptides. Much work is now made to modulate the sensory nerveinduced cascade of events in oral tissues to find new treatment strategies.

  19. Chronic spontaneous activity generated in the somata of primary nociceptors is associated with pain-related behavior following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Supinder S.; Yang, Qing; Crook, Robyn J.; Du, Junhui; Wu, Zizhen; Fishman, Harvey M.; Grill, Raymond J.; Carlton, Susan M.; Walters, Edgar T.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying chronic pain that develops after spinal cord injury (SCI) are incompletely understood. Most research on SCI pain mechanisms has focused on neuronal alterations within pain pathways at spinal and supraspinal levels associated with inflammation and glial activation. These events might also impact central processes of primary sensory neurons, triggering in nociceptors a hyperexcitable state and spontaneous activity (SA) that drive behavioral hypersensitivity and pain. SCI can sensitize peripheral fibers of nociceptors and promote peripheral SA, but whether these effects are driven by extrinsic alterations in surrounding tissue or are intrinsic to the nociceptor, and whether similar SA occurs in nociceptors in vivo are unknown. We show that small DRG neurons from rats (Rattus norvegicus) receiving thoracic spinal injury 3 d – 8 mo earlier and recorded 1 d after dissociation exhibit an elevated incidence of SA coupled with soma hyperexcitability compared to untreated and sham-treated groups. SA incidence was greatest in lumbar DRG neurons (57%) and least in cervical neurons (28%), and failed to decline over 8 mo. Many sampled SA neurons were capsaicin sensitive and/or bound the nociceptive marker, isolectin B4. This intrinsic SA state was correlated with increased behavioral responsiveness to mechanical and thermal stimulation of sites below and above the injury level. Recordings from C and Aδ fibers revealed SCI-induced SA generated in or near the neurons’ somata in vivo. SCI promotes the entry of primary nociceptors into a chronic hyperexcitable-SA state that may provide a useful therapeutic target in some forms of persistent pain. PMID:21048146

  20. Induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor CCR2 in primary sensory neurons contributes to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun; Boyette-Davis, Jessica A.; Kosturakis, Alyssa K.; Li, Yan; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Walters, Edgar T.; Dougherty, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of paclitaxel (Taxol®), a microtubule stabilizer, for cancer treatment is often limited by its associated peripheral neuropathy (chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, CIPN) which predominantly results in sensory dysfunction including chronic pain. Here we show that paclitaxel CIPN was associated with an induction of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its cognate receptor CCR2 in primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Immunostaining revealed that MCP-1 was mainly expressed in small nociceptive neurons while CCR2 was expressed in large and medium-sized myelinated neurons. Direct application of MCP-1 consistently induced intracellular calcium increases in DRG large and medium-sized but not small neurons mainly dissociated from paclitaxel- but not vehicle-treated animals. Paclitaxel also induced increased expression of MCP-1 in spinal astrocytes but no CCR2 signal was detected in spinal cord. Local blockade of MCP-1/CCR2 signaling by anti-MCP-1 antibody or CCR2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides significantly attenuated paclitaxel CIPN phenotypes including mechanical hypersensitivity and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) in hindpaw glabrous skin. These results suggest that activation of paracrine MCP-1/CCR2 signaling between DRG neurons plays a critical role in the development of paclitaxel CIPN and targeting MCP-1/CCR2 signaling could be a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:23726937

  1. Inflammation of peripheral tissues and injury to peripheral nerves induce differing effects in the expression of the calcium-sensitive N-arachydonoylethanolamine-synthesizing enzyme and related molecules in rat primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Valente, João; Varga, Angelika; Torres-Perez, Jose Vicente; Jenes, Agnes; Wahba, John; Mackie, Ken; Cravatt, Benjamin; Ueda, Natsuo; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Santha, Peter; Jancso, Gabor; Tailor, Hiren; Avelino, António; Nagy, Istvan

    2017-06-01

    Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induces the synthesis of N-arachydonoylethanolamine (anandamide) in a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is the only known enzyme that synthesizes anandamide in a Ca(2+) -dependent manner. NAPE-PLD mRNA as well as anandamide's main targets, the excitatory transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1), the inhibitory cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor, and the main anandamide-hydrolyzing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), are all expressed by subpopulations of nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Thus, NAPE-PLD, TRPV1, the CB1 receptor, and FAAH could form an autocrine signaling system that could shape the activity of a major subpopulation of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, contributing to the development of pain. Although the expression patterns of TRPV1, the CB1 receptor, and FAAH have been comprehensively elucidated, little is known about NAPE-PLD expression in primary sensory neurons under physiological and pathological conditions. This study shows that NAPE-PLD is expressed by about one-third of primary sensory neurons, the overwhelming majority of which also express nociceptive markers as well as the CB1 receptor, TRPV1, and FAAH. Inflammation of peripheral tissues and injury to peripheral nerves induce differing but concerted changes in the expression pattern of NAPE-PLD, the CB1 receptor, TRPV1, and FAAH. Together these data indicate the existence of the anatomical basis for an autocrine signaling system in a major proportion of nociceptive primary sensory neurons and that alterations in that autocrine signaling by peripheral pathologies could contribute to the development of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

  2. Activation of sensory nerves in guinea-pig isolated basilar artery by nicotine: evidence for inhibition of trigeminal sensory neurotransmission by sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, C T; Connor, H E

    1994-06-23

    Nicotine (100 microM), but not electrical field stimulation or potassium chloride (0.1-3 microM), caused capsaicin (1 microM)- and tetrodotoxin (1 microM)-sensitive relaxations of guinea-pig isolated basilar artery precontracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha. Nicotine-induced responses were blocked by the neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist, GR82334 (10 microM), but were unaffected by the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, CGRP-(8-37) (1 microM). This suggests that nicotine activates capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in guinea-pig basilar artery to cause relaxation predominantly via substance P release. The vascular 5-HT1 receptor agonist, sumatriptan (0.3 and 3 microM), inhibited nicotine-induced relaxation (by 50 and 80% respectively); the inhibitory effect of sumatriptan (0.3 microM) was attenuated in the presence of the non-selective 5-HT1 receptor antagonist, methiothepin (0.1 microM). These data suggest that sumatriptan can inhibit sensory neurotransmission in guinea-pig basilar artery via activation of inhibitory prejunctional 5-HT1 receptors on sensory nerve terminals.

  3. The Left Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus within the Primary Sensory Area of Inferior Parietal Lobe Plays a Role in Dysgraphia of Kana Omission within Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Ryozi; Tabei, Yusuke; Onda, Yasumitsu; Itoi, Chihiro; Saito, Seiko; Yagi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Functional neurological changes after surgery combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography can directly provide evidence of anatomical localization of brain function. Using these techniques, a patient with dysgraphia before surgery was analyzed at our hospital in 2011. The patient showed omission of kana within sentences before surgery, which improved after surgery. The brain tumor was relatively small and was located within the primary sensory area (S1) of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL). DTI tractography before surgery revealed compression of the branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) by the brain tumor. These results suggest that the left SLF within the S1 of IPL plays a role in the development of dysgraphia of kana omission within sentences. PMID:22713399

  4. TRPV1, but not TRPA1, in primary sensory neurons contributes to cutaneous incision-mediated hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying postoperative pain remain poorly understood. In rodents, skin-only incisions induce mechanical and heat hypersensitivity similar to levels observed with skin plus deep incisions. Therefore, cutaneous injury might drive the majority of postoperative pain. TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels are known to mediate inflammatory and nerve injury pain, making them key targets for pain therapeutics. These channels are also expressed extensively in cutaneous nerve fibers. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPA1 and TRPV1 contribute to mechanical and heat hypersensitivity following skin-only surgical incision. Results Behavioral responses to mechanical and heat stimulation were compared between skin-incised and uninjured, sham control groups. Elevated mechanical responsiveness occurred 1 day post skin-incision regardless of genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1. To determine whether functional changes in TRPA1 occur at the level of sensory neuron somata, we evaluated cytoplasmic calcium changes in sensory neurons isolated from ipsilateral lumbar 3–5 DRGs of skin-only incised and sham wild type (WT) mice during stimulation with the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde. There were no changes in the percentage of neurons responding to cinnamaldehyde or in their response amplitudes. Likewise, the subpopulation of DRG somata retrogradely labeled specifically from the incised region of the plantar hind paw showed no functional up-regulation of TRPA1 after skin-only incision. Next, we conducted behavior tests for heat sensitivity and found that heat hypersensitivity peaked at day 1 post skin-only incision. Skin incision-induced heat hypersensitivity was significantly decreased in TRPV1-deficient mice. In addition, we conducted calcium imaging with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. DRG neurons from WT mice exhibited sensitization to TRPV1 activation, as more neurons (66%) from skin-incised mice responded to capsaicin compared to controls (46%), and the

  5. Phasic activation of the locus coeruleus enhances responses of primary sensory cortical neurons to peripheral receptive field stimulation.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, B D; Moises, H C; Woodward, D J

    1998-04-20

    In the present study we examined the effects of phasic activation of the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) on transmission of somatosensory information to the rat cerebral cortex. The rationale for this investigation was based on earlier findings that local microiontophoretic application of the putative LC transmitter, norepinephrine (NE), had facilitating actions on cortical neuronal responses to excitatory and inhibitory synaptic stimuli and more recent microdialysis experiments that have demonstrated increases in cortical levels of NE following phasic or tonic activation of LC. Glass micropipets were used to record the extracellular activity of single neurons in the somatosensory cortex of halothane-anesthetized rats. Somatosensory afferent pathways were activated by threshold level mechanical stimulation of the glabrous skin on the contralateral forepaw. Poststimulus time histograms were used to quantitate cortical neuronal responses before and at various time intervals after preconditioning burst activation of the ipsilateral LC. Excitatory and postexcitatory inhibitory responses to forepaw stimulation were enhanced when preceded by phasic activation of LC at conditioning intervals of 200-500 ms. These effects were anatomically specific in that they were only observed upon stimulation of brainstem sites close to (>150 micron) or within LC and were pharmacologically specific in that they were not consistently observed in animals where the LC-NE system had been disrupted by 6-OHDA pretreatment. Overall, these data suggest that following phasic activation of the LC efferent system, the efficacy of signal transmission through sensory networks in mammalian brain is enhanced.

  6. Subcellular domain-restricted GABAergic innervation in primary visual cortex in the absence of sensory and thalamic inputs.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Graziella; Wu, Caizhi; Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Ango, Fabrice; Knott, Graham; Welker, Egbert; Svoboda, Karel; Huang, Z Josh

    2004-11-01

    Distinct classes of GABAergic synapses target restricted subcellular domains, thereby differentially regulating the input, integration and output of principal neurons, but the underlying mechanism for such synapse segregation is unclear. Here we show that the distributions of two major classes of GABAergic synapses along the perisomatic and dendritic domains of pyramidal neurons were indistinguishable between primary visual cortex in vivo and cortical organotypic cultures. Therefore, subcellular synapse targeting is independent of thalamic input and probably involves molecular labels and experience-independent forms of activity.

  7. Thermal stimulation of primary sensory neurons in the rat hind paw: effect of morphine on ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TRPV1 and TRPA1 channel expression.

    PubMed

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels or 'thermo-TRP' were stimulated on rat sensory afferents, and the effects on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, on the regulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1, as well as the pharmacological modulation by the opioid analgesic morphine were investigated. The thermal stimuli were applied to the rat hind paw by immersion into either hot or cold water. Phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) was measured by fluorescence-immunohistochemistry in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. TRP channel mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR in the innervating DRGs, and the protein content of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was determined by Western blot in the DRGs and in the sciatic nerve. The thermal stimuli led to a time-dependent increase in the number of DRG cells displaying cytoplasmic and nuclear staining for p-ERK1/2. Morphine partly prevented this increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, exerting its effect mainly on the nuclear staining. The mRNA expression for TRPV1 and TRPA1 in the DRG did not change within 24 h following the thermal stimuli. However, the protein content of both TRPV1 and TRPA1 was regulated by the thermal stimulation and by morphine. In the DRGs and in the sciatic nerve, heat or cold stimuli per se tended to decrease TRP protein levels, whereas with morphine pretreatment protein levels were raised. The present findings shed new light on the time-dependent reactions of primary sensory neurons towards irritant thermal stimuli to the skin and on their opioid modulation.

  8. The effect of task-relevance on primary somatosensory cortex during continuous sensory-guided movement in the presence of bimodal competition.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Sean K; Staines, W Richard

    2007-03-23

    Recent perceptual neuroimaging studies have shown that intermodal selective attention extracts relevant information from one modality at the expense of another at the level of unimodal sensory cortex. The present paper sought 1) to determine the effects of intermodal selective attention on primary somatosensory cortex (S1) during continuous sensorimotor transformations, 2) to investigate the interactions of spatial relationship between the target and distracter modalities on S1 and 3) to identify any potential modulators during continuous sensorimotor transformations. Functional MRI was acquired while participants (n=10) received simultaneous vibrotactile and visuospatial stimulation. In each condition, participants tracked either vibrotactile stimulation (25 Hz), applied to the right index finger with variable intensity, or a visuospatial stimulus, a centrally presented dial where the spatial position of a needle randomly moved, by applying graded force to a force sensing resistor. The distracter modality either originated from a location that was spatially related or distinct to the target that guided movement. Vibrotactile tracking resulted in decreased S1 activation relative to when it was task-irrelevant. Neither S1 activity nor tracking performance was influenced by spatial relationship. In addition the superior parietal lobe/precuneus (BA 7), inferior parietal lobe (BA 40), precentral gyrus (BA 6) and secondary visual areas (BA 18 and 19) may modulate the extraction of task-relevant information while the insula (BA 13) may do so during cases of spatial conflict. We conclude that modulation of S1 is important to the proper execution of sensory-guided movements and that sensorimotor requirements determine the mechanisms of intermodal selective attention.

  9. TRPA1-mediated responses in trigeminal sensory neurons: interaction between TRPA1 and TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margaux M; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Akopian, Armen N

    2009-04-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP)A1 channel is involved in the transduction of inflammation-induced noxious stimuli from the periphery. Previous studies have characterized the properties of TRPA1 in heterologous expression systems. However, there is little information on the properties of TRPA1-mediated currents in sensory neurons. A capsaicin-sensitive subset of rat and mouse trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons was activated with TRPA1-specific agonists, mustard oil and the cannabinoid WIN55,212. Mustard oil- and WIN55,212-gated currents exhibited marked variability in their kinetics of activation and acute desensitization. TRPA1-mediated responses in neurons also possess a characteristic voltage dependency with profound outward rectification that is influenced by extracellular Ca(2+) and the type and concentration of TRPA1-specific agonists. Examination of TRPA1-mediated responses in TRPA1-containing cells indicated that the features of neuronal TRPA1 are not duplicated in cells expressing only TRPA1 and, instead, can be restored only when TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels are coexpressed. In summary, our results suggest that TRPA1-mediated responses in sensory neurons have distinct characteristics that can be accounted for by the coexpression of the TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels.

  10. The role of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICS) in proton sensitivity of subpopulations of primary nociceptive neurons in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Leffler, A; Mönter, B; Koltzenburg, M

    2006-05-12

    A local elevation of H+-ion concentrations often occurs in inflammation and usually evokes pain by excitation of primary nociceptive neurons. Expression patterns and functional properties of the capsaicin receptor and acid-sensing ion channels suggest that they may be the main molecular substrates underlying this proton sensitivity. Here, we asked how the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICS) contribute to the proton response in subpopulations of nociceptive neurons from adult rats and mice (wildtype C57/Bl6, Balb/C and TRPV1-null). In cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, whole cell patch clamp recordings showed that the majority of capsaicin-sensitive rat dorsal root ganglion neurons displayed large proton-evoked inward currents with transient ASIC-like properties. In contrast, the prevalence of ASIC-like currents was smaller in both mouse wildtype strains and more frequent in capsaicin-insensitive neurons. Transient ASIC-like currents were more frequent in both species among isolectin B4-negative neurons. A significantly reduced proton response was observed for dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons in TRPV1 deficient mice. Unmyelinated, but not thin myelinated nociceptors recorded extracellularly from TRPV1-null mutants showed a profound reduction of proton sensitivity. Together these findings indicate that there are significant differences between rat and mouse in the contribution of TRPV1 and ASIC subunits to proton sensitivity of sensory neurons. In both species ASIC subunits are more prevalent in the isolectin B4-negative neurons, some of which may represent thin myelinated nociceptors. However, the main acid-sensor in isolectin B4-positive and isolectin B4-negative unmyelinated nociceptors in mice is TRPV1.

  11. Sensory development.

    PubMed

    Clark-Gambelunghe, Melinda B; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sensory development is complex, with both morphologic and neural components. Development of the senses begins in early fetal life, initially with structures and then in-utero stimulation initiates perception. After birth, environmental stimulants accelerate each sensory organ to nearly complete maturity several months after birth. Vision and hearing are the best studied senses and the most crucial for learning. This article focuses on the cranial senses of vision, hearing, smell, and taste. Sensory function, embryogenesis, external and genetic effects, and common malformations that may affect development are discussed, and the corresponding sensory organs are examined and evaluated.

  12. Sensory mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W

    1998-01-01

    The clinical neurologist frequently encounters patients with a variety of focal sensory symptoms and signs. This article reviews the clinical features, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management of the common sensory mononeuropathies including meralgia paresthetica, cheiralgia paresthetica, notalgia paresthetica, gonyalgia paresthetica, digitalgia paresthetica, intercostal neuropathy, and mental neuropathy.

  13. Miniature EPSPs and sensory encoding in the primary afferents of the vestibular lagena of the toadfish, Opsanus tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R.; Vautrin, J.; Highstein, S.

    1999-01-01

    The synaptic activity transmitted from vestibular hair cells of the lagena to primary afferent neurons was recorded in vitro using sharp, intracellular microelectrodes. At rest, the activity was composed of miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs) at frequencies from 5 to 20/s and action potentials (APs) at frequencies betwen 0 and 10/s. mEPSPs recorded from a single fiber displayed a large variability. For mEPSPs not triggering APs, amplitudes exhibited an average coefficient of variance (CV) of 0.323 and rise times an average CV of 0.516. APs were only triggered by mEPSPs with larger amplitudes (estimated 4-6 mV) and/or steeper maximum rate of rise (10.9 mV/ms, +/- 3.7 SD, n=4 experiments) compared to (3.50 mV/ms, +/-0.07 SD, n=6 experiments) for nontriggering mEPSPs. The smallest mEPSPs showed a fast rise time (0.99 ms between 10% and 90% of peak amplitude) and limited variability across fibers (CV:0.18) confirming that they were not attenuated signals, but rather represented single-transmitter discharges (TDs). The mEPSP amplitude and rise-time relationship suggests that many mEPSPs represented several, rather than a single pulse of secretion of TDs. According to the estimated overall TD frequency, the coincidence of TDs contributing to the same mEPSP were not statistically independent, indicating a positive interaction between TDs that is reminiscent of the way subminiature signals group to form miniature signals at the neuromuscular junction. Depending on the duration and intensity of efferent stimulation, a complete block of AP initiation occurred either immediately or after a delay of a few seconds. Efferent stimulation did not significantly change AP threshold level, but abruptly decreased mEPSP frequency to a near-complete block that followed the block of APs. Maximum mEPSP rate of rise decreased during, and recovered progressively after, efferent stimulation. After termination of efferent stimulation, mEPSP amplitude did not recover

  14. Somatotopic direct projections from orofacial areas of primary somatosensory cortex to pons and medulla, especially to trigeminal sensory nuclear complex, in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomita, A; Kato, T; Sato, F; Haque, T; Oka, A; Yamamoto, M; Ono, T; Bae, Y-C; Maeda, Y; Sessle, B J; Yoshida, A

    2012-01-03

    The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) projects to the thalamus and brainstem somatosensory nuclei and modulates somatosensory information ascending to the S1 itself. However, the projections from the S1 to the brainstem second-order somatosensory neuron pools have not been fully studied. To address this in rats, we first revealed the somatotopic representation of orofacial areas in the S1 by recording cortical surface potentials evoked by stimulation of the lingual, mental, infraorbital, and frontal nerves. We then examined the morphology of descending projections from the electrophysiologically defined orofacial S1 areas to the pons and medulla after injections of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextranamine (BDA), into the orofacial S1 areas. BDA-labeled axon terminals were seen mostly in the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) and had a strong contralateral predominance. They also showed a somatotopic arrangement in dorsoventral and superficial-deep directions within almost all rostrocaudal TSNC levels, and in a rostrocaudal direction within the trigeminal caudal subnucleus. In the principal nucleus (Vp) or oral subnucleus (Vo) of TSNC, the BDA-labeled axon terminals showed a somatotopic arrangement closely matched to that of the electrophysiologically defined projection sites of orofacial primary afferents; these projection sites were marked by injections of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), into the Vp or Vo. The FG injections labeled a large number of S1 neurons, with a strong contralateral predominance, in a somatotopic manner, which corresponded to that presented in the electrophysiologically defined orofacial S1 areas. The present results suggest that the orofacial S1 projections to somatotopically matched regions of trigeminal second-order somatosensory neuron pools may allow the orofacial S1 to accurately modulate orofacial somatosensory transmission to higher brain centers including the orofacial S1 itself.

  15. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  16. Sensory perineuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, W B; Squier, M V

    1988-01-01

    A case of sensory perineuritis is described, affecting individual cutaneous nerves in the extremities and with a chronic inflammatory exudate confined to the perineurium in a sural nerve biopsy. No cause was found. The condition slowly resolved on steroid treatment. Images PMID:3379419

  17. Primary or secondary tasks? Dual-task interference between cyclist hazard perception and cadence control using cross-modal sensory aids with rider assistance bike computers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Tse

    2017-03-01

    This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals. The results indicated that synchronously using different sense organs to receive cadence feedback significantly affects hazard perception performance; direct visual information leads to the worst rider distraction, with a mean sensitivity to hazards (d') of -1.03. For systems with multiple interacting sensory aids, auditory aids were found to result in the greatest reduction in sensitivity to hazards (d' mean = -0.57), whereas tactile sensory aids reduced the degree of rider distraction (d' mean = -0.23). Our work complements existing work in this domain by advancing the understanding of how to design devices that deliver information subtly, thereby preventing disruption of a rider's perception of road hazards.

  18. Nerve growth factor treatment of sensory neuron primary cultures causes elevated levels of the mRNA encoding the ATP synthase beta-subunit as detected by a novel PCR-based differential cloning method.

    PubMed

    Kendall, G; Ensor, E; Crankson, H D; Latchman, D S

    1996-03-01

    The mRNA encoding the rat ATP synthase beta-subunit was rapidly induced by nerve growth factor, within 60 min, in cultured adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. ATP synthase beta-subunit cDNA clones were isolated from a lambda library. The library was constructed using rat dorsal root ganglion mRNA that was differentially screened with cDNA-derived probes from untreated and nerve-growth-factor-treated primary cultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. Radiolabelled probes were made from submicrogram quantities of RNA, by a novel PCR-based technique, which allows small amounts of primary tissue to be used for library screening. The use of this technique in isolating novel differentially expressed mRNAs is discussed.

  19. Alteration of cholinergic, purinergic and sensory neurotransmission in the mouse colon of food allergy model.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yuxin; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2008-11-21

    It is well known that intestinal anaphylaxis results in a disturbed intestinal motility. It is hypothesized that the chronic intestinal anaphylaxis-induced changes in the enteric neuronal circuitry cause intestinal motor malfunctions. However, detailed mechanisms largely remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological role of ATP, which acts as a non-cholinergic neurotransmitter and a neuroimmune modulator, in a disturbed intestinal motility of food allergy (FA). The FA mice developed allergic diarrhea accompanied with chronic inflammation and mast cell hyperplasia in the colon. The excised proximal colons (PCs) were suspended in the longitudinal direction in organ baths. In the PCs precontracted by KCl (50 mM), contractile responses to exogenous ATP (1 mM) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in FA mice (34.2% of KCl-induced precontractions) as compared to control mice (17.2%). Pretreatment with P2 purinoceptor antagonists [suramin and PPADs] significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ATP-evoked contractions to 7.7% and 1.5% in FA and control PCs, respectively. Furthermore, in the presence of inhibitors of cholinergic nerves and capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves the electrical field stimulation (EFS; 10Hz)-evoked contractions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in FA mice (65.8% of EFS-evoked maximum contractions, n = 6) than those in control mice (47.9%, n = 6). In addition, cumulative application of suramin and PPADs further inhibited EFS-induced contractions by 21.7% in FA mice (n = 6, P < 0.01) and 8.7% in control mice (n = 6, P < 0.05). Thus, the present study suggests that the sustained alteration in cholinergic, purinergic and sensory neurotransmission contribute to the disturbed motility during the chronic intestinal anaphylaxis.

  20. Impact of 5-Hz rTMS over the primary sensory cortex is related to white matter volume in individuals with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Sonia M; Borich, Michael R; Boyd, Lara A

    2014-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that may facilitate mechanisms of motor learning. In a recent single-blind, pseudo-randomized study, we showed that 5-Hz rTMS over ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex followed by practice of a skilled motor task enhanced motor learning compared with sham rTMS + practice in individuals with chronic stroke. However, the beneficial effect of stimulation was inconsistent. The current study examined how differences in sensorimotor cortex morphology might predict rTMS-related improvements in motor learning in these individuals. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired and processed in FreeSurfer using a newly developed automated, whole brain parcellation technique. Gray matter and white matter volumes of the ipsilesional primary somatosensory and motor cortices were extracted. A significant positive association was observed between the volume of white matter in the primary somatosensory cortex and motor learning-related change, exclusively in the group that received active 5-Hz rTMS. A regression model with age, gray matter and white matter volumes as predictors was significant for predicting motor learning-related change in individuals who received active TMS. White matter volume predicted the greatest amount of variance (47.6%). The same model was non-significant when volumes of the primary motor cortex were considered. We conclude that white matter volume in the cortex underlying the TMS coil may be a novel predictor for behavioral response to 5-Hz rTMS over the ipsilesional primary somatosensory followed by motor practice.

  1. Sensory feedback synchronizes motor and sensory neuronal networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Ana R; Nasretdinov, Azat; Lebedeva, Julia; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-10-07

    Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization. This is further supported by largely dissociated activity in sensory and motor zones observed in the isolated spinal cord in vitro. Thus, sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements is instrumental for coordination of activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits.

  2. Emergent Spatial Patterns of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Strengths Drive Somatotopic Representational Discontinuities and their Plasticity in a Computational Model of Primary Sensory Cortical Area 3b

    PubMed Central

    Grajski, Kamil A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the emergence and plasticity of representational discontinuities in the mammalian primary somatosensory cortical representation of the hand are investigated in a computational model. The model consists of an input lattice organized as a three-digit hand forward-connected to a lattice of cortical columns each of which contains a paired excitatory and inhibitory cell. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity of feedforward and lateral connection weights is implemented as a simple covariance rule and competitive normalization. Receptive field properties are computed independently for excitatory and inhibitory cells and compared within and across columns. Within digit representational zones intracolumnar excitatory and inhibitory receptive field extents are concentric, single-digit, small, and unimodal. Exclusively in representational boundary-adjacent zones, intracolumnar excitatory and inhibitory receptive field properties diverge: excitatory cell receptive fields are single-digit, small, and unimodal; and the paired inhibitory cell receptive fields are bimodal, double-digit, and large. In simulated syndactyly (webbed fingers), boundary-adjacent intracolumnar receptive field properties reorganize to within-representation type; divergent properties are reacquired following syndactyly release. This study generates testable hypotheses for assessment of cortical laminar-dependent receptive field properties and plasticity within and between cortical representational zones. For computational studies, present results suggest that concurrent excitatory and inhibitory plasticity may underlie novel emergent properties. PMID:27504086

  3. Nitrooleic acid, an endogenous product of nitrative stress, activates nociceptive sensory nerves via the direct activation of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Clark, Thomas E; Ghatta, Srinivas; Bettner, Weston; Undem, Bradley J

    2009-04-01

    Transient Receptor Potential A1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel, preferentially expressed on a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons, that is activated by a variety of reactive irritants via the covalent modification of cysteine residues. Excessive nitric oxide during inflammation (nitrative stress), leads to the nitration of phospholipids, resulting in the formation of highly reactive cysteine modifying agents, such as nitrooleic acid (9-OA-NO(2)). Using calcium imaging and electrophysiology, we have shown that 9-OA-NO(2) activates human TRPA1 channels (EC(50), 1 microM), whereas oleic acid had no effect on TRPA1. 9-OA-NO(2) failed to activate TRPA1 in which the cysteines at positions 619, 639, and 663 and the lysine at 708 had been mutated. TRPA1 activation by 9-OA-NO(2) was not inhibited by the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO. 9-OA-NO(2) had no effect on another nociceptive-specific ion channel, TRPV1. 9-OA-NO(2) activated a subset of mouse vagal and trigeminal sensory neurons, which also responded to the TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate and the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. 9-OA-NO(2) failed to activate neurons derived from TRPA1(-/-) mice. The action of 9-OA-NO(2) at nociceptive nerve terminals was investigated using an ex vivo extracellular recording preparation of individual bronchopulmonary C fibers in the mouse. 9-OA-NO(2) evoked robust action potential discharge from capsaicin-sensitive fibers with slow conduction velocities (0.4-0.7 m/s), which was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist AP-18. These data demonstrate that nitrooleic acid, a product of nitrative stress, can induce substantial nociceptive nerve activation through the selective and direct activation of TRPA1 channels.

  4. Epilepsy and the Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The relations of epilepsy and the sensory systems are bidirectional. Epilepsy may act on sensory systems by producing sensory seizure symptoms, by altering sensory performance, and by epilepsy treatment causing sensory side effects. Sensory system activity may have an important role in both generation and inhibition of seizures. PMID:27857611

  5. GluN2B NMDA receptor and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 are upregulated in primary sensory neurons after seven days of morphine administration in rats: implication for opiate-induced hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Kerui; Bhargava, Aditi; Jasmin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the peripheral nervous system to opiate-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is not well understood. Here, we determined the changes in excitability of primary sensory neurons after sustained morphine administration for 7 days. Changes in expression of glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters after morphine administration were ascertained in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Patch clamp recordings from intact DRGs (ex-vivo preparation) of morphine-treated rats showed increased excitability of small diameter (≤ 30 μm) neurons with respect to rheobase and membrane threshold, whereas the excitability of large diameter (> 30 μm) neurons remained unchanged. Small diameter neurons also displayed increased responses to glutamate, which were mediated mainly by GluN2B containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs), and to a lesser degree by the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 /excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAT3/EAAC1). Co-administration in vivo of the GluN2B selective antagonist Ro 25-6981 with morphine for 7 days prevented the appearance of OIH and increased morphine-induced analgesia. Administration of morphine for 7 days led to an increased expression of GluN2B and EAAT3/EAAC1, but not of the AMPA, kainate or Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, or of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). These results suggest that peripheral glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to OIH and that GluN2B subunit of NMDARs in the periphery may be a target for therapy. PMID:26335908

  6. Upregulation of class I major histocompatibility complex gene expression in primary sensory neurons, satellite cells, and Schwann cells of mice in response to acute but not latent herpes simplex virus infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) deficiency is typical of almost all resident cells in normal neural tissue. However, CD8+ T cells, which recognize antigenic peptides in the context of class I MHC molecules, are known to mediate clearance of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from spinal ganglia of experimentally infected mice, leading to the hypothesis that class I expression in the peripheral nervous system must be upregulated in response to HSV infection. In addressing this hypothesis it is shown, in BALB/c (H-2d) mice, that normally deficient class I transcripts transiently accumulate in peripheral nerve Schwann cells, ganglionic satellite cells, and primary sensory neurons, indicating that in each of these cell types class I expression is regulated at the transcriptional level in vivo. Furthermore, for 3-4 wk after infection, H-2Kd/Dd antigens are expressed by satellite and Schwann cells but not neurons, suggesting additional posttranscriptional regulation of class I synthesis in neurons. Alternatively, the class I RNAs induced in neurons may not be derived from classical class I genes. Factors regulating H-2 class I expression emanate from within infected ganglia, probably from infected neurons themselves. However, induction of class I molecules was not maintained during latency, when viral gene expression in neurons is restricted to a single region within the virus repeats. These data have implications for the long-term survival of cells in HSV-infected neural tissue. PMID:8064236

  7. Neonatal sensory nerve injury-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory deprivation studies in neonatal mammals, such as monocular eye closure, whisker trimming, and chemical blockade of the olfactory epithelium have revealed the importance of sensory inputs in brain wiring during distinct critical periods. But very few studies have paid attention to the effects of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage on synaptic wiring of the central nervous system (CNS) circuits. Peripheral somatosensory nerves differ from other special sensory afferents in that they are more prone to crush or severance because of their locations in the body. Unlike the visual and auditory afferents, these nerves show regenerative capabilities after damage. Uniquely, damage to a somatosensory peripheral nerve does not only block activity incoming from the sensory receptors but also mediates injury-induced neuro- and glial chemical signals to the brain through the uninjured central axons of the primary sensory neurons. These chemical signals can have both far more and longer lasting effects than sensory blockade alone. Here we review studies which focus on the consequences of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage in the principal sensory nucleus of the brainstem trigeminal complex.

  8. Sensory Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

  9. Onset timing of cross-sensory activations and multisensory interactions in auditory and visual sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Raij, Tommi; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Letham, Benjamin; Israeli, Emily; Sahyoun, Cherif; Vasios, Christos; Stufflebeam, Steven; Hämäläinen, Matti; Belliveau, John W

    2010-05-01

    Here we report early cross-sensory activations and audiovisual interactions at the visual and auditory cortices using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to obtain accurate timing information. Data from an identical fMRI experiment were employed to support MEG source localization results. Simple auditory and visual stimuli (300-ms noise bursts and checkerboards) were presented to seven healthy humans. MEG source analysis suggested generators in the auditory and visual sensory cortices for both within-modality and cross-sensory activations. fMRI cross-sensory activations were strong in the visual but almost absent in the auditory cortex; this discrepancy with MEG possibly reflects the influence of acoustical scanner noise in fMRI. In the primary auditory cortices (Heschl's gyrus) the onset of activity to auditory stimuli was observed at 23 ms in both hemispheres, and to visual stimuli at 82 ms in the left and at 75 ms in the right hemisphere. In the primary visual cortex (Calcarine fissure) the activations to visual stimuli started at 43 ms and to auditory stimuli at 53 ms. Cross-sensory activations thus started later than sensory-specific activations, by 55 ms in the auditory cortex and by 10 ms in the visual cortex, suggesting that the origins of the cross-sensory activations may be in the primary sensory cortices of the opposite modality, with conduction delays (from one sensory cortex to another) of 30-35 ms. Audiovisual interactions started at 85 ms in the left auditory, 80 ms in the right auditory and 74 ms in the visual cortex, i.e., 3-21 ms after inputs from the two modalities converged.

  10. Onset timing of cross-sensory activations and multisensory interactions in auditory and visual sensory cortices

    PubMed Central

    Raij, Tommi; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Letham, Benjamin; Israeli, Emily; Sahyoun, Cherif; Vasios, Christos; Stufflebeam, Steven; Hämäläinen, Matti; Belliveau, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report early cross-sensory activations and audiovisual interactions at the visual and auditory cortices using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to obtain accurate timing information. Data from an identical fMRI experiment were employed to support MEG source localization results. Simple auditory and visual stimuli (300-ms noise bursts and checkerboards) were presented to seven healthy humans. MEG source analysis suggested generators in the auditory and visual sensory cortices for both within-modality and cross-sensory activations. fMRI cross-sensory activations were strong in the visual but almost absent in the auditory cortex; this discrepancy with MEG possibly reflects influence of acoustical scanner noise in fMRI. In the primary auditory cortices (Heschl’s gyrus) onset of activity to auditory stimuli was observed at 23 ms in both hemispheres, and to visual stimuli at 82 ms in the left and at 75 ms in the right hemisphere. In the primary visual cortex (Calcarine fissure) the activations to visual stimuli started at 43 ms and to auditory stimuli at 53 ms. Cross-sensory activations thus started later than sensory-specific activations, by 55 ms in the auditory cortex and by 10 ms in the visual cortex, suggesting that the origins of the cross-sensory activations may be in the primary sensory cortices of the opposite modality, with conduction delays (from one sensory cortex to another) of 30–35 ms. Audiovisual interactions started at 85 ms in the left auditory, 80 ms in the right auditory, and 74 ms in the visual cortex, i.e., 3–21 ms after inputs from both modalities converged. PMID:20584181

  11. Sensory responses in the medial prefrontal cortex of anesthetized rats. Implications for sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Martin-Cortecero, Jesus; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-12-17

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in higher functions such as memory and attention. In order to demonstrate sensory responses in the mPFC, we used electrophysiological recordings of urethane-anesthetized rats to record somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) or auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by whisker deflections and click stimulation, respectively. Contralateral whisker stimulation or auditory stimuli were also applied to study sensory interference in the mPFC. Interference with other sensory stimuli or recent stimulation history reduced whisker responses in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices of the ventral mPFC. This effect could be mediated by activation of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons since the effect was blocked by the P/Q calcium channel antagonist ω-agatoxin. In contrast, sensory interference or the recent stimulation history was not detected by the dorsal mPFC or the primary somatosensory cortex. Results obtained from retrograde tracer injections in the dorsal and ventral regions of the mPFC indicated that somatosensory and auditory sensory inputs may arrive at the dorsal mPFC through secondary sensory cortical areas, and through the insular and temporal cortical areas. The ventral mPFC may receive sensory information through the strong anatomical connections between the dorsal and ventral mPFC areas. In conclusion, results suggest mPFC plays an important role in sensory processing, which may have important implications in attentional and memory processes.

  12. Sensory neuron regulation of gastrointestinal inflammation and bacterial host defence.

    PubMed

    Lai, N Y; Mills, K; Chiu, I M

    2017-02-02

    Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage. Emerging evidence shows that sensory neurons participate in host-microbe interactions. Sensory neurons are able to detect pathogenic and commensal bacteria through specific metabolites, cell-wall components, and toxins. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms of bacterial detection by distinct subtypes of gut-innervating sensory neurons. Upon activation, sensory neurons communicate to the immune system to modulate tissue inflammation through antidromic signalling and efferent neural circuits. We discuss how this neuro-immune regulation is orchestrated through transient receptor potential ion channels and sensory neuropeptides including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Recent studies also highlight a role for sensory neurons in regulating host defence against enteric bacterial pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter rodentium and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Understanding how sensory neurons respond to gastrointestinal flora and communicate with immune cells to regulate host defence enhances our knowledge of host physiology and may form the basis for new approaches to treat gastrointestinal diseases.

  13. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  14. Early compensatory sensory re-education.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Hugo R; Aguado, Leda

    2003-02-01

    After a neurorrhaphy, there will be a distal disconnection between the cortex and skin receptors, along with interruption of sensibility information. This report demonstrates the efficacy of a new sensory re-education program for achieving optimal sensation in a relatively short time. Between 1999 and 2001, in the authors' Hand Rehabilitation Department, 11 patients with previous neurorrhaphy were subjected to a program of early "compensatory sensory re-education." Lesions were caused by clean cut. There were 13 primary digital nerve procedures, 12 at the distal palmar MP level, and one at the radial dorsal branch of the index (just after emerging from the common digital nerve). The technique of compensatory sensory re-education was based on a previous, but modified, sensory re-education method. In order to evaluate the results in the compensatory sensory re-education series described, additional tests for evaluation of achieved functional sensibility were used. The authors' best results were achieved in a maximum of 8 weeks (4-8 weeks), much less time than with the original method (1-2 years). Using the British classification, it was possible to compare the achieved levels of sensibility and the time required for optimal results. The different methods of sensibility re-education may be similar, but with the authors' compensatory sensory re-education method, substantial time is saved.

  15. GABAergic synapses: their plasticity and role in sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Griffen, Trevor C.; Maffei, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian neocortex is composed of a variety of cell types organized in a highly interconnected circuit. GABAergic neurons account for only about 20% of cortical neurons. However, they show widespread connectivity and a high degree of diversity in morphology, location, electrophysiological properties and gene expression. In addition, distinct populations of inhibitory neurons have different sensory response properties, capacities for plasticity and sensitivities to changes in sensory experience. In this review we summarize experimental evidence regarding the properties of GABAergic neurons in primary sensory cortex. We will discuss how distinct GABAergic neurons and different forms of GABAergic inhibitory plasticity may contribute to shaping sensory cortical circuit activity and function. PMID:24723851

  16. N-type calcium current, Cav2.2, is enhanced in small-diameter sensory neurons isolated from Nf1+/- mice.

    PubMed

    Duan, J-H; Hodgdon, K E; Hingtgen, C M; Nicol, G D

    2014-06-13

    Major aspects of neuronal function are regulated by Ca(2+) including neurotransmitter release, excitability, developmental plasticity, and gene expression. We reported previously that sensory neurons isolated from a mouse model with a heterozygous mutation of the Nf1 gene (Nf1+/-) exhibited both greater excitability and evoked release of neuropeptides compared to wildtype mice. Furthermore, augmented voltage-dependent sodium currents but not potassium currents contribute to the enhanced excitability. To determine the mechanisms giving rise to the enhanced release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the Nf1+/- sensory neurons, the potential differences in the total voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) as well as the contributions of individual Ca(2+) channel subtypes were assessed. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from small-diameter capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons demonstrated that the average peak ICa densities were not different between the two genotypes. However, by using selective blockers of channel subtypes, the current density of N-type (Cav2.2) ICa was significantly larger in Nf1+/- neurons compared to wildtype neurons. In contrast, there were no significant differences in L-, P/Q- and R-type currents between the two genotypes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction measurements made from the isolated but intact dorsal root ganglia indicated that N-type (Cav2.2) and P/Q-type (Cav2.1) Ca(2+) channels exhibited the highest mRNA expression levels although there were no significant differences in the levels of mRNA expression between the genotypes. These results suggest that the augmented N-type (Cav2.2) ICa observed in the Nf1+/- sensory neurons does not result from genomic differences but may reflect post-translational or some other non-genomic modifications. Thus, our results demonstrate that sensory neurons from Nf1+/- mice, exhibit increased N-type ICa and likely account for the increased release of substance P and

  17. Plasma somatostatin-like immunoreactivity increases in the plasma of septic patients and rats with systemic inflammatory reaction: experimental evidence for its sensory origin and protective role.

    PubMed

    Suto, Balazs; Szitter, Istvan; Bagoly, Terez; Pinter, Erika; Szolcsányi, Janos; Loibl, Csaba; Nemeth, Timea; Tanczos, Krisztian; Molnar, Tihamer; Leiner, Tamas; Varnai, Bianka; Bardonicsek, Zsofia; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2014-04-01

    Alterations of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SST-LI) in the plasma of 11 systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients were investigated in correlation with cytokines, adhesion molecules and coagulation markers repeatedly during 4 days. The origin and role of SST were studied in the cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) rat SIRS model. Capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves were defunctionalized by resiniferatoxin (RTX) pretreatment 2 weeks earlier, in a separate group animals were treated with the somatostatin receptor antagonist cyclo-somatostatin (C-SOM). Plasma SST-LI significantly elevated in septic patients compared to healthy volunteers during the whole 4-day period. Significantly decreased Horowitz score showed severe lung injury, increased plasma C-reactive protein and procalcitonin confirmed SIRS. Soluble P-selectin, tissue plasminogen activator and the interleukin 8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 significantly increased, interleukin 6 and soluble CD40 ligand did not change, and soluble Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1 decreased. SST-LI significantly increased in rats both in the plasma and the lung 6h after CLP compared to sham-operation. After RTX pretreatment SST-LI was not altered in intact animals, but the SIRS-induced elevation was absent. Lung MPO activity significantly increased 6h following CLP compared to sham operation, which was significantly higher both after RTX-desensitization and C-SOM-treatment. Most non-pretreated operated rats survived the 6h, but 60% of the RTX-pretreated ones died showing a significantly worse survival. This is the first comprehensive study in humans and animal experiments providing evidence that SST is released from the activated peptidergic sensory nerves. It gets into the bloodstream and mediates a potent endogenous protective mechanism.

  18. The Expanded Sensory-Perceptual Examination as a Diagnostic Screening Instrument for Organic Brain Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundvig, John L.

    The primary objectives of this research program were the development of a battery of tests to investigate the effects of brain impairment on sensory and perceptual functioning. The Sensory-Perceptual Exam (SPE) contains measures intended to evaluate both relatively "pure" sensory functions, as well as those which involve more integrated…

  19. Language-Universal Sensory Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: English, Spanish, and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Wang, H.-L. Sharon; Cruz, Alicia; Fosker, Tim; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Studies in sensory neuroscience reveal the critical importance of accurate sensory perception for cognitive development. There is considerable debate concerning the possible sensory correlates of "phonological processing", the primary cognitive risk factor for developmental dyslexia. Across languages, children with dyslexia have a specific…

  20. Sensory Substitution for Wounded Servicemembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-28

    traumatic brain injury (TBI) and two civilians, all with partial visual impairment , evaluated the vision sensory substitution systems. The servicemember...Mobility Augmentation; Wounded Service Members; Human-Centered Computing; Vision Augmentation, Vision , Balance and Hearing; Sensory Substitution-enabled...mitigation of vision sensory and mobility losses. 2) Improved the usefulness of available sensory substitution technologies for injured military

  1. [Pathophysiology of sensory ataxic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Sobue, G

    1996-12-01

    The main lesions of sensory ataxic neuropathy such as chronic idiopathic sensory ataxic neuropathy, (ISAN), carcinomatous neuropathy, Sjögren syndrome-associated neuropathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy (AASN) are the large-diameter sensory neurons and dosal column of the spinal cord and the large myelinated fibers in the peripheral nerve trunks. In addition, afferent fibers to the Clarke's nuclei are also severely involved, suggesting Ia fibers being involved in these neuropathies. In NT-3 knockout mouse, an animal model of sensory ataxia, large-sized la neurons as well as muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs are depleted, and are causative for sensory ataxia. Thus, the proprioceptive Ia neurons would play a role in pathogenesis of sensory ataxia in human sensory ataxic neuropathies, but the significance of dorsal column involvement in human sensory ataxia is still needed to evaluate.

  2. Sensory Neuron-Specific Deletion of TRPA1 Results in Mechanical Cutaneous Sensory Deficits.

    PubMed

    Zappia, Katherine J; O'Hara, Crystal L; Moehring, Francie; Kwan, Kelvin Y; Stucky, Cheryl L

    2017-01-01

    The nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is known to be a key contributor to both somatosensation and pain. Recent studies have implicated TRPA1 in additional physiologic functions and have also suggested that TRPA1 is expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Thus, it has become necessary to resolve the importance of TRPA1 expressed in primary sensory neurons, particularly since previous research has largely used global knock-out animals and chemical TRPA1 antagonists. We therefore sought to isolate the physiological relevance of TRPA1 specifically within sensory neurons. To accomplish this, we used Advillin-Cre mice, in which the promoter for Advillin is used to drive expression of Cre recombinase specifically within sensory neurons. These Advillin-Cre mice were crossed with Trpa1(fl/fl) mice to generate sensory neuron-specific Trpa1 knock-out mice. Here, we show that tissue-specific deletion of TRPA1 from sensory neurons produced strong deficits in behavioral sensitivity to mechanical stimulation, while sensitivity to cold and heat stimuli remained intact. The mechanical sensory deficit was incomplete compared to the mechanosensory impairment of TRPA1 global knock-out mice, in line with the incomplete (∼80%) elimination of TRPA1 from sensory neurons in the tissue-specific Advillin-Cre knock-out mice. Equivalent findings were observed in tissue-specific knock-out animals originating from two independently-generated Advillin-Cre lines. As such, our results show that sensory neuron TRPA1 is required for mechanical, but not cold, responsiveness in noninjured skin.

  3. Sensory Neuron-Specific Deletion of TRPA1 Results in Mechanical Cutaneous Sensory Deficits

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is known to be a key contributor to both somatosensation and pain. Recent studies have implicated TRPA1 in additional physiologic functions and have also suggested that TRPA1 is expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Thus, it has become necessary to resolve the importance of TRPA1 expressed in primary sensory neurons, particularly since previous research has largely used global knock-out animals and chemical TRPA1 antagonists. We therefore sought to isolate the physiological relevance of TRPA1 specifically within sensory neurons. To accomplish this, we used Advillin-Cre mice, in which the promoter for Advillin is used to drive expression of Cre recombinase specifically within sensory neurons. These Advillin-Cre mice were crossed with Trpa1fl/fl mice to generate sensory neuron-specific Trpa1 knock-out mice. Here, we show that tissue-specific deletion of TRPA1 from sensory neurons produced strong deficits in behavioral sensitivity to mechanical stimulation, while sensitivity to cold and heat stimuli remained intact. The mechanical sensory deficit was incomplete compared to the mechanosensory impairment of TRPA1 global knock-out mice, in line with the incomplete (∼80%) elimination of TRPA1 from sensory neurons in the tissue-specific Advillin-Cre knock-out mice. Equivalent findings were observed in tissue-specific knock-out animals originating from two independently-generated Advillin-Cre lines. As such, our results show that sensory neuron TRPA1 is required for mechanical, but not cold, responsiveness in noninjured skin. PMID:28303259

  4. Convergence of multimodal sensory pathways to the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Ryosuke; Mabuchi, Yuta; Mizunami, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed structural analyses of the mushroom body which plays critical roles in olfactory learning and memory revealed that it is directly connected with multiple primary sensory centers in Drosophila. Connectivity patterns between the mushroom body and primary sensory centers suggest that each mushroom body lobe processes information on different combinations of multiple sensory modalities. This finding provides a novel focus of research by Drosophila genetics for perception of the external world by integrating multisensory signals. PMID:27404960

  5. Sensory matched filters.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J

    2016-10-24

    As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm. Take ourselves for example: we are completely insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field, a sensory cue of vital importance as a compass for steering the long distance migration of animals as varied as birds, lobsters and sea turtles. We are also totally oblivious to the rich palette of ultraviolet colours that exist all around us, colours seen by insects, crustaceans, birds, fish and lizards (in fact perhaps by most animals). Nor can we hear the ultrasonic sonar pulses emitted by bats in hot pursuit of flying insect prey. The simple reason for these apparent deficiencies is that we either lack the sensory capacity entirely (as in the case of magnetoreception) or that our existing senses are incapable of detecting specific ranges of the stimulus (such as the ultraviolet wavelength range of light).

  6. Our Sensory World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesman, C.; Barringer, M. D.

    The booklet explores the role of sensory experiences in the severely developmentally disabled child. Developmental theory is addressed, followed by specific activity suggestions (broken down into developmental levels) for developing tactile sense, auditory sense, gustatory (taste) sense, olfactory sense, visual sense, and kinesthetic sense.…

  7. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  8. [Sensory Systems of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero To Three, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A…

  9. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  10. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  11. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  12. Relationship between play and sensory processing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Watts, Tara; Stagnitti, Karen; Brown, Ted

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined the empirical evidence to answer the research question, What is the relationship between play and sensory processing in children ages 3-12 yr? METHOD. The PRISMA guidelines were followed to complete a systematic review. Academic databases were searched using play, leisure, sensory processing, and sensory integration as primary search terms. Of 6,230 articles initially identified, 35 full-text articles were screened for eligibility. Of these, 8 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS. All 8 studies were conducted within the United States. The evidence of the relationship between play and sensory processing fell mainly into the low levels of evidence: case studies and cohort studies. CONCLUSION. This review provides occupational therapists with an emerging understanding of the relationship between play and sensory processing based on current evidence and its importance in the occupational development of children. Rigorous research is needed in the area.

  13. Fast Synaptic Inhibition in Spinal Sensory Processing and Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Wildner, Hendrik; Yevenes, Gonzalo E.

    2013-01-01

    The two amino acids γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glycine mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in different CNS areas and serve pivotal roles in the spinal sensory processing. Under healthy conditions, they limit the excitability of spinal terminals of primary sensory nerve fibers and of intrinsic dorsal horn neurons through pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and thereby facilitate the spatial and temporal discrimination of sensory stimuli. Removal of fast inhibition not only reduces the fidelity of normal sensory processing but also provokes symptoms very much reminiscent of pathological and chronic pain syndromes. This review summarizes our knowledge of the molecular bases of spinal inhibitory neurotransmission and its organization in dorsal horn sensory circuits. Particular emphasis is placed on the role and mechanisms of spinal inhibitory malfunction in inflammatory and neuropathic chronic pain syndromes. PMID:22298656

  14. Set and setting: how behavioral state regulates sensory function and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Aton, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently developed neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques are allowing us to answer fundamental questions about how behavioral states regulate our perception of the external environment. Studies using these techniques have yielded surprising insights into how sensory processing is affected at the earliest stages by attention and motivation, and how new sensory information received during wakefulness (e.g., during learning) continues to affect sensory brain circuits (leading to plastic changes) during subsequent sleep. This review aims to describe how brain states affect sensory response properties among neurons in primary and secondary sensory cortices, and how this relates to psychophysical detection thresholds and performance on sensory discrimination tasks. This is not intended to serve as a comprehensive overview of all brain states, or all sensory systems, but instead as an illustrative description of how three specific state variables (attention, motivation, and vigilance [i.e., sleep vs. wakefulness]) affect sensory systems in which they have been best studied. PMID:23792020

  15. Absence of rapid sensory adaptation in neocortex during information processing states.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A

    2004-02-05

    One prominent feature of sensory responses in neocortex is that they rapidly adapt to increases in frequency, a process called "sensory adaptation." Here we show that sensory adaptation mainly occurs during quiescent states such as anesthesia, slow-wave sleep, and awake immobility. In contrast, during behavior-ally activated states, sensory responses are already adapted. For instance, during learning of a behavioral task, when an animal is very alert and expectant, sensory adaptation is mostly absent. After learning occurs, and the task becomes routine, the level of alertness lessens and sensory adaptation becomes robust. The primary sensory thalamocortical pathway of alert and expectant animals is in the adapted state, which may be required for adequate sensory information processing.

  16. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  17. Local neurogenic regulation of rat hindlimb circulation: CO2-induced release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from sensory nerves

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masami; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Fujimori, Akira; Goto, Katsutoshi

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from sensory nerves in response to skeletal muscle contraction was investigated in the rat hindlimb in vivo and in vitro. In the anaesthetized rat, sciatic nerve stimulation at 10 Hz for 1 min caused a hyperaemic response in the hindlimb. During the response, partial pressure of CO2 in the venous blood effluent from the hindlimb significantly increased from 43±3 to 73±8 mmHg, whereas a small decrease in pH and no appreciable change in partial pressure of O2 were observed. An intra-arterial bolus injection of NaHCO3 (titrated to pH 7.2 with HCl), which elevated PCO2 of the venous blood, caused a sustained increase in regional blood flow of the iliac artery. Capsaicin (0.33 μmol kg−1, i.a.) and a specific calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, CGRP(8–37), (100 nmol kg−1 min−1, i.v.) significantly suppressed the hyperaemic response to NaHCO3. Neither NDΩ-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 μmol kg−1 min−1, i.v.) nor indomethacin (5 mg kg−1, i.v.) affected the response. The serum level of CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the venous blood was significantly increased by a bolus injection of NaHCO3 (pH=7.2) from 50±4 to 196±16 fmol ml−1. In the isolated hindlimb perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution, a bolus injection of NaHCO3 (pH=7.2) caused a decrease in perfusion pressure which was composed of two responses, i.e., an initial transient response and a slowly-developing long-lasting one. CGRP(8–37) significantly inhibited the latter response by 73%. These results suggest that CO2 liberated from exercising skeletal muscle activates capsaicin-sensitive perivascular sensory nerves locally, which results in the release of CGRP from their peripheral endings, and then the released peptide causes local vasodilatation. PMID:9375968

  18. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  19. A physical basis for sensory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwich, Kenneth H.

    2014-11-01

    It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

  20. Sensory and Perceptual Deprivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-04-22

    stimulation even in inane forms, and -- were more effectively persuaded by lectures advocating the existence of ghosts, poltergeists and extrasensory ... perception pbenomena. These provocative experiments at McGill were completed just about 10 years ago. What has happened in the decade since? Research...shown a greater change among isolated Ss in interest and belief in extra sensory perception topics (29, 56). Recent experiments have tended to confirm

  1. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ― the binding problem ― as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  2. Hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy: defective neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Westerman, R A; Block, A; Nunn, A; Delaney, C A; Hahn, A; Dennett, X; Carr, R W

    1992-01-01

    Hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance with complete penetrance in males and incomplete penetrance in females. Newer tests of small sensory nerve function were used in screening 8 family members aged between 14 and 66 years. All exhibited some frequent features of the disorder with an onset in the 2nd or 3rd decade, foot ulceration, foot callus, loss of pin prick, thermal and light touch sensation, and some reduction in vibration acuity and proprioception in the lower limbs. The hands were involved in 3 of 8, muscle involvement was present in 5 of 8, but deafness was not detected by audiometry. Nerve conduction velocity, sensory action potentials, latency and amplitude, thermal acuity, vibration acuity and axon reflex flares were measured in all patients. One sural nerve biopsy confirmed the presence of peripheral fibre loss in this predominantly sensory neuropathy. Chemically evoked axon reflex tests were used to evaluate the extent of primary sensory nerve fibre involvement. All patients were tested using a Moor MBF 3-D dual channel laser Doppler velocimeter. Acetylcholine or phenylephrine iontophoretically applied as 16 mC doses evoked absent or tiny axon reflexes in areas of impaired pin prick sensation. By contrast, direct microvascular dilator responses to nitroprusside (smooth muscle dependent) and acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) were present but somewhat reduced in areas with defective neurogenic inflammation. These results differ significantly from the responses obtained in age-matched healthy controls (P < 0.05). Foot pressure analysis was performed for orthoses in 2 affected members with foot ulceration using the Musgrave Footprint system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Erik A.; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S.; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H.; Visser, André

    2015-01-01

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. PMID:26378212

  4. Approximate Sensory Data Collection: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Siyao; Cai, Zhipeng; Li, Jianzhong

    2017-03-10

    With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoTs), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and related techniques, the amount of sensory data manifests an explosive growth. In some applications of IoTs and WSNs, the size of sensory data has already exceeded several petabytes annually, which brings too many troubles and challenges for the data collection, which is a primary operation in IoTs and WSNs. Since the exact data collection is not affordable for many WSN and IoT systems due to the limitations on bandwidth and energy, many approximate data collection algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. This survey reviews the state of the art of approximatedatacollectionalgorithms. Weclassifythemintothreecategories: themodel-basedones, the compressive sensing based ones, and the query-driven ones. For each category of algorithms, the advantages and disadvantages are elaborated, some challenges and unsolved problems are pointed out, and the research prospects are forecasted.

  5. Spectral mixing of rhythmic neuronal signals in sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Kurt F.; Levine, Herbert; Suhl, Harry; Kleinfeld, David

    2002-01-01

    The ability to compute the difference between two frequencies depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes two periodic signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the mammalian nervous system as a means to compare two rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. However, a neurological substrate for mixing has not been identified. Here we address the issue of nonlinear mixing of neuronal activity in the vibrissa primary sensory cortex of rat, a region that receives intrinsic as well as sensory-driven rhythmic input during natural whisking. In our preparation, the intrinsic signal originates from cortical oscillations that were induced by anesthetics, and the extrinsic input is introduced by periodic stimulation of vibrissae. We observed that the local extracellular current in vibrissa primary sensory cortex contained oscillatory components at the sum and difference of the intrinsic and extrinsic frequencies. In complementary experiments, we observed that the simultaneous stimulation of contralateral and ipsilateral vibrissae at different frequencies also led to current flow at the sum and difference frequencies. We show theoretically that the relative amplitudes of the observed mixture terms can be accounted for by a threshold nonlinearity in the input–output relation of the underlying neurons. In general, our results provide a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals for sensory coding and feedback stabilization of motor output. PMID:12403828

  6. Physiological and Perceptual Sensory Attenuation Have Different Underlying Neurophysiological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clare E; Davare, Marco; Kilner, James M

    2016-10-19

    Sensory attenuation, the top-down filtering or gating of afferent information, has been extensively studied in two fields: physiological and perceptual. Physiological sensory attenuation is represented as a decrease in the amplitude of the primary and secondary components of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) before and during movement. Perceptual sensory attenuation, described using the analogy of a persons' inability to tickle oneself, is a reduction in the perception of the afferent input of a self-produced tactile sensation due to the central cancellation of the reafferent signal by the efference copy of the motor command to produce the action. The fields investigating these two areas have remained isolated, so the relationship between them is unclear. The current study delivered median nerve stimulation to produce SEPs during a force-matching paradigm (used to quantify perceptual sensory attenuation) in healthy human subjects to determine whether SEP gating correlated with the behavior. Our results revealed that these two forms of attenuation have dissociable neurophysiological correlates and are likely functionally distinct, which has important implications for understanding neurological disorders in which one form of sensory attenuation but not the other is impaired. Time-frequency analyses revealed a negative correlation over sensorimotor cortex between gamma-oscillatory activity and the magnitude of perceptual sensory attenuation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that gamma-band power is related to prediction error and that this might underlie perceptual sensory attenuation.

  7. Cortical oscillations and sensory predictions.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Luc H; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2012-07-01

    Many theories of perception are anchored in the central notion that the brain continuously updates an internal model of the world to infer the probable causes of sensory events. In this framework, the brain needs not only to predict the causes of sensory input, but also when they are most likely to happen. In this article, we review the neurophysiological bases of sensory predictions of "what' (predictive coding) and 'when' (predictive timing), with an emphasis on low-level oscillatory mechanisms. We argue that neural rhythms offer distinct and adapted computational solutions to predicting 'what' is going to happen in the sensory environment and 'when'.

  8. Evidence for Glutamate as a Neuroglial Transmitter within Sensory Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Ling-Hsuan; Gong, Kerui; Adedoyin, Mary; Ng, Johnson; Bhargava, Aditi; Ohara, Peter T.; Jasmin, Luc

    2013-01-01

    This study examines key elements of glutamatergic transmission within sensory ganglia of the rat. We show that the soma of primary sensory neurons release glutamate when depolarized. Using acute dissociated mixed neuronal/glia cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia and a colorimetric assay, we show that when glutamate uptake by satellite glial cells (SGCs) is inhibited, KCl stimulation leads to simultaneous increase of glutamate in the culture medium. With calcium imaging we see that the soma of primary sensory neurons and SGCs respond to AMPA, NMDA, kainate and mGluR agonists, and selective antagonists block this response. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique, inward currents were recorded from small diameter (<30 µm) DRG neurons from intact DRGs (ex-vivo whole ganglion preparation) in response to local application of the above glutamate receptor agonists. Following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of either the inferior orbital nerve or the sciatic nerve, glutamate expression increases in the trigeminal ganglia and DRG respectively. This increase occurs in neurons of all diameters and is present in the somata of neurons with injured axons as well as in somata of neighboring uninjured neurons. These data provides additional evidence that glutamate can be released within the sensory ganglion, and that the somata of primary sensory neurons as well as SGCs express functional glutamate receptors at their surface. These findings, together with our previous gene knockdown data, suggest that glutamatergic transmission within the ganglion could impact nociceptive threshold. PMID:23844184

  9. Evidence for glutamate as a neuroglial transmitter within sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kung, Ling-Hsuan; Gong, Kerui; Adedoyin, Mary; Ng, Johnson; Bhargava, Aditi; Ohara, Peter T; Jasmin, Luc

    2013-01-01

    This study examines key elements of glutamatergic transmission within sensory ganglia of the rat. We show that the soma of primary sensory neurons release glutamate when depolarized. Using acute dissociated mixed neuronal/glia cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia and a colorimetric assay, we show that when glutamate uptake by satellite glial cells (SGCs) is inhibited, KCl stimulation leads to simultaneous increase of glutamate in the culture medium. With calcium imaging we see that the soma of primary sensory neurons and SGCs respond to AMPA, NMDA, kainate and mGluR agonists, and selective antagonists block this response. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique, inward currents were recorded from small diameter (<30 µm) DRG neurons from intact DRGs (ex-vivo whole ganglion preparation) in response to local application of the above glutamate receptor agonists. Following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of either the inferior orbital nerve or the sciatic nerve, glutamate expression increases in the trigeminal ganglia and DRG respectively. This increase occurs in neurons of all diameters and is present in the somata of neurons with injured axons as well as in somata of neighboring uninjured neurons. These data provides additional evidence that glutamate can be released within the sensory ganglion, and that the somata of primary sensory neurons as well as SGCs express functional glutamate receptors at their surface. These findings, together with our previous gene knockdown data, suggest that glutamatergic transmission within the ganglion could impact nociceptive threshold.

  10. 5-HT7 receptor activation inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity secondary to capsaicin sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Brenchat, Alex; Romero, Luz; García, Mónica; Pujol, Marta; Burgueño, Javier; Torrens, Antoni; Hamon, Michel; Baeyens, José Manuel; Buschmann, Helmut; Zamanillo, Daniel; Vela, José Miguel

    2009-02-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the potential role of the 5-HT(7) receptor in nociception secondary to a sensitizing stimulus in mice. For this purpose, the effects of relevant ligands (5-HT(7) receptor agonists: AS-19, MSD-5a, E-55888; 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists: SB-258719, SB-269970; 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist: F-13640; 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist: WAY-100635) were assessed on capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, a pain behavior involving hypersensitivity of dorsal horn neurons (central sensitization). For the 5-HT(7) receptor agonists used, binding profile and intrinsic efficacy to stimulate cAMP formation in HEK-293F cells expressing the human 5-HT(7) receptor were also evaluated. AS-19 and E-55888 were selective for 5-HT(7) receptors. E-55888 was a full agonist whereas AS-19 and MSD-5a behaved as partial agonists, with maximal effects corresponding to 77% and 61%, respectively, of the cAMP response evoked by the full agonist 5-HT. Our in vivo results revealed that systemic administration of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists exerted a clear-cut dose-dependent antinociceptive effect that was prevented by 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, but not by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. The order of efficacy (E-55888>AS-19>MSD-5a) matched their in vitro efficacy as 5-HT(7) receptor agonists. Contrary to agonists, a dose-dependent promotion of mechanical hypersensitivity was observed after administration of 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, substantiating the involvement of the 5-HT(7) receptor in the control of capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These findings suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory role in the control of nociception through activation of 5-HT(7) receptors, and point to a new potential therapeutic use of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists in the field of analgesia.

  11. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-07-29

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence

  12. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    PubMed Central

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-01-01

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence

  13. Sensory adaptation for timing perception

    PubMed Central

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-01-01

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  14. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities.

  15. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  16. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  17. Physiological and Perceptual Sensory Attenuation Have Different Underlying Neurophysiological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Davare, Marco; Kilner, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory attenuation, the top-down filtering or gating of afferent information, has been extensively studied in two fields: physiological and perceptual. Physiological sensory attenuation is represented as a decrease in the amplitude of the primary and secondary components of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) before and during movement. Perceptual sensory attenuation, described using the analogy of a persons' inability to tickle oneself, is a reduction in the perception of the afferent input of a self-produced tactile sensation due to the central cancellation of the reafferent signal by the efference copy of the motor command to produce the action. The fields investigating these two areas have remained isolated, so the relationship between them is unclear. The current study delivered median nerve stimulation to produce SEPs during a force-matching paradigm (used to quantify perceptual sensory attenuation) in healthy human subjects to determine whether SEP gating correlated with the behavior. Our results revealed that these two forms of attenuation have dissociable neurophysiological correlates and are likely functionally distinct, which has important implications for understanding neurological disorders in which one form of sensory attenuation but not the other is impaired. Time–frequency analyses revealed a negative correlation over sensorimotor cortex between gamma-oscillatory activity and the magnitude of perceptual sensory attenuation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that gamma-band power is related to prediction error and that this might underlie perceptual sensory attenuation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We demonstrate that there are two functionally and mechanistically distinct forms of sensory gating. The literature regarding somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) gating is commonly cited as a potential mechanism underlying perceptual sensory attenuation; however, the formal relationship between physiological and perceptual sensory

  18. Sensory neuropathy attributable to loss of Bcl-w.

    PubMed

    Courchesne, Stephanie L; Karch, Christoph; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Segal, Rosalind A

    2011-02-02

    Small fiber sensory neuropathy is a common disorder in which progressive degeneration of small-diameter nociceptors causes decreased sensitivity to thermal stimuli and painful sensations in the extremities. In the majority of patients, the cause of small fiber sensory neuropathy is unknown, and treatment options are limited. Here, we show that Bcl-w (Bcl-2l2) is required for the viability of small fiber nociceptive sensory neurons. Bcl-w(-/-) mice demonstrate an adult-onset progressive decline in thermosensation and a decrease in nociceptor innervation of the epidermis. This denervation occurs without cell body loss, indicating that lack of Bcl-w results in a primary axonopathy. Consistent with this phenotype, we show that Bcl-w, in contrast to the closely related Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is enriched in axons of sensory neurons and that Bcl-w prevents the dying back of axons. Bcl-w(-/-) sensory neurons exhibit mitochondrial abnormalities, including alterations in axonal mitochondrial size, axonal mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular ATP levels. Collectively, these data establish bcl-w(-/-) mice as an animal model of small fiber sensory neuropathy and provide new insight regarding the role of Bcl-w and of mitochondria in preventing axonal degeneration.

  19. Effect of noise correlations on information transmission in sensory receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoai; Neiman, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Peripheral receptors in many sensory systems are organized in a limited scale feed-forward networks passing information thru a series of network layers, then ultimately to the CNS. Often peripheral receptors are characterized by spontaneous noisy oscillatory activity which may introduce temporal and spatial correlations in neuronal spike trains. Examples include spontaneous stochastic oscillations in hair cells and primary sensory afferents in auditory, vestibular and electro sensory receptors. We study the influence of this correlated noise on spontaneous activity and information transmission in a model of limited-scale networks of electroreceptors. In this model a few (2 - 5) sensory neurons innervate several (10 - 30) clusters of epithelial receptor cells producing stochastic oscillations. We show how noise correlations are transferred by small networks of sensory neurons and how these correlations affect information transmission. While coherent epithelial oscillations may enhance information transmission for a single sensory neuron, the presence of spatially correlated noise introduces redundancy reducing stimulus coding efficiency and information rate on the network level.

  20. Task-specific transfer of perceptual learning across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    McGovern, David P; Astle, Andrew T; Clavin, Sarah L; Newell, Fiona N

    2016-01-11

    It is now widely accepted that primary cortical areas of the brain that were once thought to be sensory-specific undergo significant functional reorganisation following sensory deprivation. For instance, loss of vision or audition leads to the brain areas normally associated with these senses being recruited by the remaining sensory modalities [1]. Despite this, little is known about the rules governing crossmodal plasticity in people who experience typical sensory development, or the potential behavioural consequences. Here, we used a novel perceptual learning paradigm to assess whether the benefits associated with training on a task in one sense transfer to another sense. Participants were randomly assigned to a spatial or temporal task that could be performed visually or aurally, which they practiced for five days; before and after training, we measured discrimination thresholds on all four conditions and calculated the extent of transfer between them. Our results show a clear transfer of learning between sensory modalities; however, generalisation was limited to particular conditions. Specifically, learned improvements on the spatial task transferred from the visual domain to the auditory domain, but not vice versa. Conversely, benefits derived from training on the temporal task transferred from the auditory domain to visual domain, but not vice versa. These results suggest a unidirectional transfer of perceptual learning from dominant to non-dominant sensory modalities and place important constraints on models of multisensory processing and plasticity.

  1. Sensory Neuropathy Due to Loss of Bcl-w

    PubMed Central

    Courchesne, Stephanie L.; Karch, Christoph; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2010-01-01

    Small fiber sensory neuropathy is a common disorder in which progressive degeneration of small diameter nociceptors causes decreased sensitivity to thermal stimuli and painful sensations in the extremities. In the majority of patients, the cause of small fiber sensory neuropathy is unknown, and treatment options are limited. Here, we show that Bcl-w (Bcl-2l2) is required for the viability of small fiber nociceptive sensory neurons. Bcl-w −/− mice demonstrate an adult-onset progressive decline in thermosensation and a decrease in nociceptor innervation of the epidermis. This denervation occurs without cell body loss, indicating that lack of Bcl-w results in a primary axonopathy. Consistent with this phenotype, we show that Bcl-w, in contrast to the closely related Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is enriched in axons of sensory neurons and that Bcl-w prevents the dying back of axons. Bcl-w −/− sensory neurons exhibit mitochondrial abnormalities, including alterations in axonal mitochondrial size, axonal mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular ATP levels. Collectively, these data establish bcl-w −/− mice as an animal model of small fiber sensory neuropathy, and provide new insight regarding the role of bcl-w and of mitochondria in preventing axonal degeneration. PMID:21289171

  2. Improving Academic Scores Through Sensory Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, A. Jean

    1972-01-01

    Investigated were the effects of a remedial program stressing sensory integration on the academic performance of learning disabled children with certain identifiable types of sensory integrative dysfunction. (KW)

  3. Sensory Phenomena in Tourette Syndrome: Their Role in Symptom Formation and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David C.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    The primary symptoms of Tourette Syndrome (TS) are motor and vocal tics, but increasingly, researchers have examined the role of sensory phenomena in biobehavioral models of the disorder. These sensory phenomena involve tic-related premonitory urge sensations as well as potential abnormalities in the perceptual and behavioral experiences associated with external sensory input. As such, dysfunctional sensorimotor integration might represent a key facet of TS pathology. The current paper reviews the literature on sensory phenomena in tic disorders and highlights possible connections to TS symptoms and directions for future research. PMID:25844305

  4. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  5. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  6. Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world.

  7. Associative learning and sensory neuroplasticity: how does it happen and what is it good for?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the body's sensory systems have been presumed to provide the brain with raw information about the external environment, which the brain must interpret to select a behavioral response. Consequently, studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory have focused on circuitry that interfaces between sensory inputs and behavioral outputs, such as the amygdala and cerebellum. However, evidence is accumulating that some forms of learning can in fact drive stimulus-specific changes very early in sensory systems, including not only primary sensory cortices but also precortical structures and even the peripheral sensory organs themselves. This review synthesizes evidence across sensory modalities to report emerging themes, including the systems’ flexibility to emphasize different aspects of a sensory stimulus depending on its predictive features and ability of different forms of learning to produce similar plasticity in sensory structures. Potential functions of this learning-induced neuroplasticity are discussed in relation to the challenges faced by sensory systems in changing environments, and evidence for absolute changes in sensory ability is considered. We also emphasize that this plasticity may serve important nonsensory functions, including balancing metabolic load, regulating attentional focus, and facilitating downstream neuroplasticity. PMID:26472647

  8. Substantial role of locus coeruleus-noradrenergic activation and capsaicin-insensitive primary afferent fibers in bee venom's anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Bae; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Roh, Dae Hyun; Kang, Seuk Yun; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Choi, Sun Mi; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Kee Won; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang Hern

    2006-06-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate significant interactions between the immune and nervous systems. Our recent study reveals that 'bee venom (BV) induced anti-inflammatory effect' (BVAI) was produced by sympathetic preganglionic neuronal activation and subsequent adrenomedullary catecholamine release in a zymosan-induced inflammation model. However, the specific peripheral input and the supraspinal neuronal systems that are involved in this BVAI remain to be defined. Here we show that subcutaneous BV injection into left hind limb significantly reduces zymosan-induced leukocyte migration and that this effect is completely inhibited by denervation of the left sciatic nerve. This BVAI was not affected by the destruction of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers using either neonatal capsaicin or resiniferatoxin (RTX) pretreatment. BV injection into the left hind limb significantly increased Fos expression in the contralateral locus coeruleus (LC) in non-inflamed mice. In zymosan-inflamed mice, BV injection produced a further increase in LC Fos expression as compared with non-inflamed mice. This BV-induced Fos increase in the LC was not affected by RTX pretreatment. Pharmacological blockage of central noradrenergic activity by either central chemical sympathectomy (i.c.v. 6-hydroxydopamine) or alpha2 adrenoceptor antagonism (i.c.v. idazoxan) completely blocked BVAI. Taken together, these results suggest that BVAI is mediated by peripheral activation of capsaicin-insensitive primary afferent fibers and subsequent central noradrenergic activation including the LC.

  9. Discontinuity of cortical gradients reflects sensory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Saadon-Grosman, Noam; Tal, Zohar; Itshayek, Eyal; Amedi, Amir; Arzy, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    Topographic maps and their continuity constitute a fundamental principle of brain organization. In the somatosensory system, whole-body sensory impairment may be reflected either in cortical signal reduction or disorganization of the somatotopic map, such as disturbed continuity. Here we investigated the role of continuity in pathological states. We studied whole-body cortical representations in response to continuous sensory stimulation under functional MRI (fMRI) in two unique patient populations—patients with cervical sensory Brown-Séquard syndrome (injury to one side of the spinal cord) and patients before and after surgical repair of cervical disk protrusion—enabling us to compare whole-body representations in the same study subjects. We quantified the spatial gradient of cortical activation and evaluated the divergence from a continuous pattern. Gradient continuity was found to be disturbed at the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), in both patient populations: contralateral to the disturbed body side in the Brown-Séquard group and before repair in the surgical group, which was further improved after intervention. Results corresponding to the nondisturbed body side and after surgical repair were comparable with control subjects. No difference was found in the fMRI signal power between the different conditions in the two groups, as well as with respect to control subjects. These results suggest that decreased sensation in our patients is related to gradient discontinuity rather than signal reduction. Gradient continuity may be crucial for somatotopic and other topographical organization, and its disruption may characterize pathological processing. PMID:26655739

  10. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable.

  11. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  12. Approximate Sensory Data Collection: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Siyao; Cai, Zhipeng; Li, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoTs), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and related techniques, the amount of sensory data manifests an explosive growth. In some applications of IoTs and WSNs, the size of sensory data has already exceeded several petabytes annually, which brings too many troubles and challenges for the data collection, which is a primary operation in IoTs and WSNs. Since the exact data collection is not affordable for many WSN and IoT systems due to the limitations on bandwidth and energy, many approximate data collection algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. This survey reviews the state of the art of approximate data collection algorithms. We classify them into three categories: the model-based ones, the compressive sensing based ones, and the query-driven ones. For each category of algorithms, the advantages and disadvantages are elaborated, some challenges and unsolved problems are pointed out, and the research prospects are forecasted. PMID:28287440

  13. Pitch discrimination in cerebellar patients: evidence for a sensory deficit.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lawrence M; Petacchi, Augusto; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Bower, James M

    2009-12-15

    In the last two decades, a growing body of research showing cerebellar involvement in an increasing number of nonmotor tasks and systems has prompted an expansion of speculations concerning the function of the cerebellum. Here, we tested the predictions of a hypothesis positing cerebellar involvement in sensory data acquisition. Specifically, we examined the effect of global cerebellar degeneration on primary auditory sensory function by means of a pitch discrimination task. The just noticeable difference in pitch between two tones was measured in 15 healthy controls and in 15 high functioning patients afflicted with varying degrees of global cerebellar degeneration caused by hereditary, idiopathic, paraneoplastic, or postinfectious pancerebellitis. Participants also performed an auditory detection task assessing sustained attention, a test of verbal auditory working memory, and an audiometric test. Patient pitch discrimination thresholds were on average five and a half times those of controls and were proportional to the degree of cerebellar ataxia assessed independently. Patients and controls showed normal hearing thresholds and similar performance in control tasks in sustained attention and verbal auditory working memory. These results suggest there is an effect of cerebellar degeneration on primary auditory function. The findings are consistent with other recent demonstrations of cerebellar-related sensory impairments, and with robust cerebellar auditorily evoked activity, confirmed by quantitative meta-analysis, across a range of functional neuroimaging studies dissociated from attention, motor, affective, and cognitive variables. The data are interpreted in the context of a sensory hypothesis of cerebellar function.

  14. Weak universality in sensory tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, Sarah; DeDeo, Simon

    2016-12-01

    For many organisms, the number of sensory neurons is largely determined during development, before strong environmental cues are present. This is despite the fact that environments can fluctuate drastically both from generation to generation and within an organism's lifetime. How can organisms get by by hard coding the number of sensory neurons? We approach this question using rate-distortion theory. A combination of simulation and theory suggests that when environments are large, the rate-distortion function—a proxy for material costs, timing delays, and energy requirements—depends only on coarse-grained environmental statistics that are expected to change on evolutionary, rather than ontogenetic, time scales.

  15. Parasympathetic Functions in Children with Sensory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal; Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Brett-Green, Barbara A.; Burke, Janice P.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Koomar, Jane; Lane, Shelly J.; Miller, Lucy Jane; May-Benson, Teresa A.; Parham, Diane; Reynolds, Stacey; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine if parasympathetic nervous system (PsNS) activity is a significant biomarker of sensory processing difficulties in children. Several studies have demonstrated that PsNS activity is an important regulator of reactivity in children, and thus, it is of interest to study whether PsNS activity is related to sensory reactivity in children who have a type of condition associated with sensory processing disorders termed sensory modulation dysfunction (SMD). If so, this will have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying sensory processing problems of children and for developing intervention strategies to address them. The primary aims of this project were: (1) to evaluate PsNS activity in children with SMD compared to typically developing (TYP) children, and (2) to determine if PsNS activity is a significant predictor of sensory behaviors and adaptive functions among children with SMD. We examine PsNS activity during the Sensory Challenge Protocol; which includes baseline, the administration of eight sequential stimuli in five sensory domains, recovery, and also evaluate response to a prolonged auditory stimulus. As a secondary aim we examined whether subgroups of children with specific physiological and behavioral sensory reactivity profiles can be identified. Results indicate that as a total group the children with severe SMD demonstrated a trend for low baseline PsNS activity, compared to TYP children, suggesting this may be a biomarker for SMD. In addition, children with SMD as a total group demonstrated significantly poorer adaptive behavior in the communication and daily living subdomains and in the overall Adaptive Behavior Composite of the Vineland than TYP children. Using latent class analysis, the subjects were grouped by severity and the severe SMD group had significantly lower PsNS activity at baseline, tones and prolonged auditory. These results provide preliminary evidence that children

  16. Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skapof, Jerome

    The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

  17. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  18. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  19. A re-evaluation of 9-HODE activity at TRPV1 channels in comparison with anandamide: enantioselectivity and effects at other TRP channels and in sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Imperatore, Roberta; Cristino, Luigia; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Two oxidation products of linoleic acid, 9- and 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODEs), have recently been suggested to act as endovanilloids, that is, endogenous agonists of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels, thereby contributing to inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats. However, HODE activity at rat TRPV1 in comparison with the best established endovanilloid, anandamide, and its enantioselectivity and selectivity towards other TRP channels that are also abundant in sensory neurons have never been investigated. Experimental Approach We studied the effect of 9(R)-HODE, 9(S)-HODE, (+/–)13-HODE, 15(S)-hydroxyanandamide and anandamide on [Ca2+]i in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the rat or human recombinant TRPV1, or rat recombinant TRPV2, TRPA1 or TRPM8, and also the effect of 9(S)-HODE in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by calcium imaging. Key Results Anandamide and 15(S)-hydroxyanandamide were the most potent endovanilloids at human TRPV1, whereas 9(S)-HODE was approximately threefold less efficacious and 75- and 3-fold less potent, respectively, and did not perform much better at rat TRPV1. The 9(R)-HODE and (+/–)13-HODE were almost inactive at TRPV1. Unlike anandamide and 15(S)-hydroxyanandamide, all HODEs were very weak at desensitizing TRPV1 to the action of capsaicin, but activated rat TRPV2 [only (+/–)13-HODE] and rat TRPA1, and antagonized rat TRPM8, at concentrations higher than those required to activate TRPV1. Finally, 9(S)-HODE elevated [Ca2+]i in DRG neurons almost exclusively in capsaicin-sensitive cells but only at concentrations between 25 and 100 μM. Conclusions and Implications The present data suggest that HODEs are less important endovanilloids than anandamide. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8 PMID:22861649

  20. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  1. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  2. Sensory Cortex Underpinnings of Traumatic Brain Injury Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Alwis, Dasuni S.; Yan, Edwin B.; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria-Cristina; Rajan, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits including long-term altered sensory processing. The few animal models of sensory cortical processing effects of TBI have been limited to examination of effects immediately after TBI and only in some layers of cortex. We have now used the rat whisker tactile system and the cortex processing whisker-derived input to provide a highly detailed description of TBI-induced long-term changes in neuronal responses across the entire columnar network in primary sensory cortex. Brain injury (n = 19) was induced using an impact acceleration method and sham controls received surgery only (n = 15). Animals were tested in a range of sensorimotor behaviour tasks prior to and up to 6 weeks post-injury when there were still significant sensorimotor behaviour deficits. At 8–10 weeks post-trauma, in terminal experiments, extracellular recordings were obtained from barrel cortex neurons in response to whisker motion, including motion that mimicked whisker motion observed in awake animals undertaking different tasks. In cortex, there were lamina-specific neuronal response alterations that appeared to reflect local circuit changes. Hyper-excitation was found only in supragranular layers involved in intra-areal processing and long-range integration, and only for stimulation with complex, naturalistic whisker motion patterns and not for stimulation with simple trapezoidal whisker motion. Thus TBI induces long-term directional changes in integrative sensory cortical layers that depend on the complexity of the incoming sensory information. The nature of these changes allow predictions as to what types of sensory processes may be affected in TBI and contribute to post-trauma sensorimotor deficits. PMID:23284921

  3. Subclinical sensory involvement in monomelic amyotrophy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jenny P; Waclawik, Andrew J; Lotz, Barend P

    2005-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman presented with weakness and atrophy in her hand without associated sensory symptoms, preceding events, or structural abnormalities on neuroimaging. No sensory deficits were detected on neurologic examination. Electrophysiological studies showed not only the expected motor findings for monomelic amyotrophy (MA) in the affected limb, but also markedly reduced sensory nerve action potentials when compared with the unaffected side. These findings suggest that subclinical sensory involvement can exist in patients with otherwise classic presentations of MA.

  4. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  5. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  6. Specific α- and β-Tubulin Isotypes Optimize the Functions of Sensory Cilia in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Daryl D.; Miller, Renee M.; Núñez, Lizbeth; Portman, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    Primary cilia have essential roles in transducing signals in eukaryotes. At their core is the ciliary axoneme, a microtubule-based structure that defines cilium morphology and provides a substrate for intraflagellar transport. However, the extent to which axonemal microtubules are specialized for sensory cilium function is unknown. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, primary cilia are present at the dendritic ends of most sensory neurons, where they provide a specialized environment for the transduction of particular stimuli. Here, we find that three tubulin isotypes—the α-tubulins TBA-6 and TBA-9 and the β-tubulin TBB-4—are specifically expressed in overlapping sets of C. elegans sensory neurons and localize to the sensory cilia of these cells. Although cilia still form in mutants lacking tba-6, tba-9, and tbb-4, ciliary function is often compromised: these mutants exhibit a variety of sensory deficits as well as the mislocalization of signaling components. In at least one case, that of the CEM cephalic sensory neurons, cilium architecture is disrupted in mutants lacking specific ciliary tubulins. While there is likely to be some functional redundancy among C. elegans tubulin genes, our results indicate that specific tubulins optimize the functional properties of C. elegans sensory cilia. PMID:20421600

  7. A quantitative sensory analysis of peripheral neuropathy in colorectal cancer and its exacerbation by oxaliplatin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Barbosa, Mariana; Kosturakis, Alyssa K; Eng, Cathy; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R; Simone, Donald A; Wang, Xin S; Cleeland, Charles S; Dougherty, Patrick M

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially platins and taxanes, is a widespread problem among cancer survivors that is likely to continue to expand in the future. However, little work to date has focused on understanding this challenge. The goal in this study was to determine the impact of colorectal cancer and cumulative chemotherapeutic dose on sensory function to gain mechanistic insight into the subtypes of primary afferent fibers damaged by chemotherapy. Patients with colorectal cancer underwent quantitative sensory testing before and then prior to each cycle of oxaliplatin. These data were compared with those from 47 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Patients showed significant subclinical deficits in sensory function before any therapy compared with healthy volunteers, and they became more pronounced in patients who received chemotherapy. Sensory modalities that involved large Aβ myelinated fibers and unmyelinated C fibers were most affected by chemotherapy, whereas sensory modalities conveyed by thinly myelinated Aδ fibers were less sensitive to chemotherapy. Patients with baseline sensory deficits went on to develop more symptom complaints during chemotherapy than those who had no baseline deficit. Patients who were tested again 6 to 12 months after chemotherapy presented with the most numbness and pain and also the most pronounced sensory deficits. Our results illuminate a mechanistic connection between the pattern of effects on sensory function and the nerve fiber types that appear to be most vulnerable to chemotherapy-induced toxicity, with implications for how to focus future work to ameloirate risks of peripheral neuropathy.

  8. Sensory change following motor learning.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Nasir, Sazzad M; Darainy, Mohammad; Ostry, David J

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe two studies linking perceptual change with motor learning. In the first, we document persistent changes in somatosensory perception that occur following force field learning. Subjects learned to control a robotic device that applied forces to the hand during arm movements. This led to a change in the sensed position of the limb that lasted at least 24 h. Control experiments revealed that the sensory change depended on motor learning. In the second study, we describe changes in the perception of speech sounds that occur following speech motor learning. Subjects adapted control of speech movements to compensate for loads applied to the jaw by a robot. Perception of speech sounds was measured before and after motor learning. Adapted subjects showed a consistent shift in perception. In contrast, no consistent shift was seen in control subjects and subjects that did not adapt to the load. These studies suggest that motor learning changes both sensory and motor function.

  9. Tactile sensory system: encoding from the periphery to the cortex.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lynette A; Smith, Allan M

    2014-01-01

    Specialized mechanoreceptors in the skin respond to mechanical deformation and provide the primary input to the tactile sensory system. Although the morphology of these receptors has been documented, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the relation between cutaneous receptor morphology and the associated physiological responses to stimulation. Labelled-line models of somatosensory processes in which specific mechanoreceptors are associated with particular sensory qualities fail to account for the evidence showing that all types of tactile afferent units respond to a varying extent to most types of natural stimuli. Neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments have provided the framework for determining the relation between peripheral afferent or cortical activity and tactile perception. Neural codes derived from these afferent signals are evaluated in terms of their capacity to predict human perceptual performance. One particular challenge in developing models of the tactile sensory system is the dual use of sensory signals from the skin. In addition to their perceptual function they serve as inputs to the sensorimotor control system involved in manipulation. Perceptions generated through active touch differ from those resulting from passive stimulation of the skin because they are the product of self-generated exploratory processes. Recent research in this area has highlighted the importance of shear forces in these exploratory movements and has shown that fingertip skin is particularly sensitive to shear generated during both object manipulation and tactile exploration.

  10. Hyperactivation balances sensory processing deficits during mood induction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Miriam; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    While impairments in emotion recognition are consistently reported in schizophrenia, there is some debate on the experience of emotion. Only few studies investigated neural correlates of emotional experience in schizophrenia. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared a standard visual mood induction paradigm with an audiovisual method aimed at eliciting emotions more automatically. To investigate the interplay of sensory, cognitive and emotional mechanisms during emotion experience, we examined connectivity patterns between brain areas. Sixteen schizophrenia patients and sixteen healthy subjects participated in two different mood inductions (visual and audiovisual) that were administered for different emotions (happiness, sadness and neutral). Confirming the dissociation of behavioral and neural correlates of emotion experience, patients rated their mood similarly to healthy subjects but showed differences in neural activations. Sensory brain areas were activated less, increased activity emerged in higher cortical areas, particularly during audiovisual stimulation. Connectivity was increased between primary and secondary sensory processing areas in schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in filtering and processing sensory information alongside increased higher-order cognitive effort compensating for perception deficits in the affective domain. This may suffice to recover emotion experience in ratings of clinically stable patients but may fail during acute psychosis.

  11. Omnidirectional Sensory and Motor Volumes in Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, James B; Nelson, Mark E; Burdick, Joel W; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2007-01-01

    Active sensing organisms, such as bats, dolphins, and weakly electric fish, generate a 3-D space for active sensation by emitting self-generated energy into the environment. For a weakly electric fish, we demonstrate that the electrosensory space for prey detection has an unusual, omnidirectional shape. We compare this sensory volume with the animal's motor volume—the volume swept out by the body over selected time intervals and over the time it takes to come to a stop from typical hunting velocities. We find that the motor volume has a similar omnidirectional shape, which can be attributed to the fish's backward-swimming capabilities and body dynamics. We assessed the electrosensory space for prey detection by analyzing simulated changes in spiking activity of primary electrosensory afferents during empirically measured and synthetic prey capture trials. The animal's motor volume was reconstructed from video recordings of body motion during prey capture behavior. Our results suggest that in weakly electric fish, there is a close connection between the shape of the sensory and motor volumes. We consider three general spatial relationships between 3-D sensory and motor volumes in active and passive-sensing animals, and we examine hypotheses about these relationships in the context of the volumes we quantify for weakly electric fish. We propose that the ratio of the sensory volume to the motor volume provides insight into behavioral control strategies across all animals. PMID:18001151

  12. Antidromic modulation of a proprioceptor sensory discharge in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Bévengut, M; Clarac, F; Cattaert, D

    1997-08-01

    In the proprioceptive neurons of the coxo-basal chortotonal organ, orthodromic spikes convey the sensory information from the cell somata (located peripherally) to the central output terminals. During fictive locomotion, presynaptic depolarizations of these central terminals elicit bursts of antidromic spikes that travel back to the periphery. To determine whether the antidromic spikes modified the orthodromic activity of the sensory neurons, single identified primary afferents of the proprioceptor were recorded intracellularly and stimulated in in vitro preparations of crayfish nervous system. Depolarizing current pulses were delivered in trains whose frequency and duration were controlled to reproduce bursts of antidromic spikes similar to those elicited during fictive locomotion. According to their frequencies, these antidromic bursts reduce or suppress the orthodromic discharges in both position- and movement-sensitive neurons. They induce both a long-lasting silence and a gradual recovery after their occurrences. Neither the collision between the afferent and the efferent messages nor the release of serotonin by the sensory neurons can explain these results. We therefore conclude that antidromic bursts produce a peripheral modulation of the orthodromic activity of the sensory neurons, modifying their sensitivity by mechanisms yet unknown.

  13. Omnidirectional sensory and motor volumes in electric fish.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James B; Nelson, Mark E; Burdick, Joel W; Maciver, Malcolm A

    2007-11-01

    Active sensing organisms, such as bats, dolphins, and weakly electric fish, generate a 3-D space for active sensation by emitting self-generated energy into the environment. For a weakly electric fish, we demonstrate that the electrosensory space for prey detection has an unusual, omnidirectional shape. We compare this sensory volume with the animal's motor volume--the volume swept out by the body over selected time intervals and over the time it takes to come to a stop from typical hunting velocities. We find that the motor volume has a similar omnidirectional shape, which can be attributed to the fish's backward-swimming capabilities and body dynamics. We assessed the electrosensory space for prey detection by analyzing simulated changes in spiking activity of primary electrosensory afferents during empirically measured and synthetic prey capture trials. The animal's motor volume was reconstructed from video recordings of body motion during prey capture behavior. Our results suggest that in weakly electric fish, there is a close connection between the shape of the sensory and motor volumes. We consider three general spatial relationships between 3-D sensory and motor volumes in active and passive-sensing animals, and we examine hypotheses about these relationships in the context of the volumes we quantify for weakly electric fish. We propose that the ratio of the sensory volume to the motor volume provides insight into behavioral control strategies across all animals.

  14. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-29

    flies ( Hermetia Illucens ) to elicit controlled take-off and landing in free flight (Pilot experiments completed. Follow- up experiments in progress...neerii. 2) Location of odor sources in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. 3) Wing-haltere coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens ...coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Tanvi Deora): One of the key sensory inputs for flight stability in Diptera comes from the haltere

  15. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  16. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  17. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  18. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  19. Sensory integration, sensory processing, and sensory modulation disorders: putative functional neuroanatomic underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Budding, Deborah Ely; Chidekel, Dana

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines conditions that have variously been called sensory integration disorder, sensory processing disorder, and sensory modulation disorder (SID/SPD/SMD). As these conditions lack readily and consistently agreed-upon operational definitions, there has been confusion as to how these disorders are conceptualized. Rather than addressing various diagnostic controversies, we will instead focus upon explaining the symptoms that are believed to characterize these disorders. First, to clarify the overall context within which to view symptoms, we summarize a paradigm of adaptation characterized by continuous sensorimotor interaction with the environment. Next, we review a dual-tiered, integrated model of brain function in order to establish neuroanatomic underpinnings with which to conceptualize the symptom presentations. Generally accepted functions of the neocortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are described to illustrate how interactions between these brain regions generate both adaptive and pathological symptoms and behaviors. We then examine the symptoms of SID/SPD/SMD within this interactive model and in relation to their impact upon the development of inhibitory control, working memory, academic skill development, and behavioral automation. We present likely etiologies for these symptoms, not only as they drive neurodevelopmental pathologies but also as they can be understood as variations in the development of neural networks.

  20. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology

  1. Sensory and motor secondary symptoms as indicators of brain vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the primary symptoms that distinguish one disorder from the next, clinicians have identified, yet largely overlooked, another set of symptoms that appear across many disorders, termed secondary symptoms. In the emerging era of systems neuroscience, which highlights that many disorders share common deficits in global network features, the nonspecific nature of secondary symptoms should attract attention. Herein we provide a scholarly review of the literature on a subset of secondary symptoms––sensory and motor. We demonstrate that their pattern of appearance––across a wide range of psychopathologies, much before the full-blown disorder appears, and in healthy individuals who display a variety of negative symptoms––resembles the pattern of appearance of network abnormalities. We propose that sensory and motor secondary symptoms can be important indicators of underlying network aberrations and thus of vulnerable brain states putting individuals at risk for psychopathology following extreme circumstances. PMID:24063566

  2. Sensory experience modifies feature map relationships in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cloherty, Shaun L; Hughes, Nicholas J; Hietanen, Markus A; Bhagavatula, Partha S

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which brain structure is influenced by sensory input during development is a critical but controversial question. A paradigmatic system for studying this is the mammalian visual cortex. Maps of orientation preference (OP) and ocular dominance (OD) in the primary visual cortex of ferrets, cats and monkeys can be individually changed by altered visual input. However, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps has appeared immutable. Using a computational model we predicted that biasing the visual input to orthogonal orientation in the two eyes should cause a shift of OP pinwheels towards the border of OD columns. We then confirmed this prediction by rearing cats wearing orthogonally oriented cylindrical lenses over each eye. Thus, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps can be modified by visual experience, revealing a previously unknown degree of brain plasticity in response to sensory input. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13911.001 PMID:27310531

  3. Visualizing renal primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Deane, James A; Verghese, Elizabeth; Martelotto, Luciano G; Cain, Jason E; Galtseva, Alya; Rosenblum, Norman D; Watkins, D Neil; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2013-03-01

    Renal primary cilia are microscopic sensory organelles found on the apical surface of epithelial cells of the nephron and collecting duct. They are based upon a microtubular cytoskeleton, bounded by a specialized membrane, and contain an array of proteins that facilitate their assembly, maintenance and function. Cilium-based signalling is important for the control of epithelial differentiation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cystic kidney diseases and in renal repair. As such, visualizing renal primary cilia and understanding their composition has become an essential component of many studies of inherited kidney disease and mechanisms of epithelial regeneration. Primary cilia were initially identified in the kidney using electron microscopy and this remains a useful technique for the high resolution examination of these organelles. New reagents and techniques now also allow the structure and composition of primary cilia to be analysed in detail using fluorescence microscopy. Primary cilia can be imaged in situ in sections of kidney, and many renal-derived cell lines produce primary cilia in culture providing a simplified and accessible system in which to investigate these organelles. Here we outline microscopy-based techniques commonly used for studying renal primary cilia.

  4. Effect of Facial Sensory Re-training on Sensory Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Essick, G.K.; Phillips, C.; Zuniga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 100% of patients experience trauma to the trigeminal nerve during orthognathic surgery, impairing sensation and sensory function on the face. In a recent randomized clinical trial, people who performed sensory re-training exercises reported less difficulty related to residual numbness and decreased lip sensitivity than those who performed standard opening exercises only. We hypothesized that re-training reduces the impaired performance on neurosensory tests of tactile function that is commonly observed post-surgically. We analyzed thresholds for contact detection, two-point discrimination, and two-point perception, obtained during the clinical trial before and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, to assess tactile detection and discriminative sensitivities, and subjective interpretation of tactile stimulation, respectively. Post-surgery, the retrained persons exhibited less impairment, on average, than non-retrained persons only in two-point perception (P < 0.025), suggesting that retrained persons experienced or interpreted the tactile stimuli differently than did non-retrained persons. PMID:17525360

  5. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for

  6. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  7. Developmental broadening of inhibitory sensory maps.

    PubMed

    Quast, Kathleen B; Ung, Kevin; Froudarakis, Emmanouil; Huang, Longwen; Herman, Isabella; Addison, Angela P; Ortiz-Guzman, Joshua; Cordiner, Keith; Saggau, Peter; Tolias, Andreas S; Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2017-02-01

    Sensory maps are created by networks of neuronal responses that vary with their anatomical position, such that representations of the external world are systematically and topographically organized in the brain. Current understanding from studying excitatory maps is that maps are sculpted and refined throughout development and/or through sensory experience. Investigating the mouse olfactory bulb, where ongoing neurogenesis continually supplies new inhibitory granule cells into existing circuitry, we isolated the development of sensory maps formed by inhibitory networks. Using in vivo calcium imaging of odor responses, we compared functional responses of both maturing and established granule cells. We found that, in contrast to the refinement observed for excitatory maps, inhibitory sensory maps became broader with maturation. However, like excitatory maps, inhibitory sensory maps are sensitive to experience. These data describe the development of an inhibitory sensory map as a network, highlighting the differences from previously described excitatory maps.

  8. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification.

  9. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  10. The effects of a sensory motor activities protocol based on the theory of sensory integration on children diagnosed with preprimary impairments.

    PubMed

    Paul, Stanley; Sinen, Patricia; Johnson, Joy; Latshaw, Christina; Newton, Jami; Nelson, April; Powers, Robert

    2003-01-01

    According to the theory of sensory integration (SI), when an infant successfully meets the challenges of his/her environment, the brain learns to organize the sensation for production of adaptive responses. Research studies have shown mixed results about the effects of the SI therapy and most studies have used single system designs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Sensory Integrative Treatment Protocol (SITP) in treating children with preprimary impairments. Two intact classrooms were used as experimental and control groups. The experimental group consisted of 15 children and the control group consisted of 16 children diagnosed with preprimary impairments. Descriptive statistics and a 2 (group) × 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVA were employed in data analyses. DeGangi-Berk Test of Sensory Integration (TSI) and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) were used as the instruments to measure change within and between the two groups before and after the intervention. TSI and MAP scores went up considerably for the children in the experimental group following the intervention. Based on the results, the researchers suggest that "Sensory Integration Treatment Protocol" based on the theory of sensory integration was effective in reducing sensory integration dysfunction and improving preschool performance in children diagnosed with pre-primary impairments.

  11. Dendritic Spikes in Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Manita, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    What is the function of dendritic spikes? One might argue that they provide conditions for neuronal plasticity or that they are essential for neural computation. However, despite a long history of dendritic research, the physiological relevance of dendritic spikes in brain function remains unknown. This could stem from the fact that most studies on dendrites have been performed in vitro. Fortunately, the emergence of novel techniques such as improved two-photon microscopy, genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), and optogenetic tools has provided the means for vital breakthroughs in in vivo dendritic research. These technologies enable the investigation of the functions of dendritic spikes in behaving animals, and thus, help uncover the causal relationship between dendritic spikes, and sensory information processing and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the roles of dendritic spikes in brain function would provide mechanistic insight into the relationship between the brain and the mind. In this review article, we summarize the results of studies on dendritic spikes from a historical perspective and discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the role of dendritic spikes in sensory perception. PMID:28261060

  12. Sighting versus sensory ocular dominance

    PubMed Central

    Pointer, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose An indication of the laterality of ocular dominance (OD) informs the clinical decision making process when considering certain ophthalmic refractive and surgical interventions. Can predictive reliance be assured regardless of OD technique or is the indication of a dominant eye method-dependent? Methods Two alternative OD test formats were administered to a group of 72 emmetropic healthy young adult subjects: the ‘hole-in-card’ test for sighting dominance and the ‘+1.50D blur’ test for sensory dominance. Both techniques were chosen as being likely familiar to the majority of ophthalmic clinicians; to promote and expedite application during the examination routine neither test required specialist training nor equipment. Results Right eye dominance was indicated in 71% of cases by the sighting test but in only 54% of subjects using the sensory test. The laterality of OD indicated for the individual subject by each technique was in agreement on only 50% of occasions. Conclusions Reasons are considered for the poor intra-individual agreement between OD tests, along with an item of procedural advice for the clinician.

  13. Sensory signaling-dependent remodeling of olfactory cilia architecture in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Sengupta, Piali

    2008-05-01

    Nonmotile primary cilia are sensory organelles composed of a microtubular axoneme and a surrounding membrane sheath that houses signaling molecules. Optimal cellular function requires the precise regulation of axoneme assembly, membrane biogenesis, and signaling protein targeting and localization via as yet poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that sensory signaling is required to maintain the architecture of the specialized AWB olfactory neuron cilia in C. elegans. Decreased sensory signaling results in alteration of axoneme length and expansion of a membraneous structure, thereby altering the topological distribution of a subset of ciliary transmembrane signaling molecules. Signaling-regulated alteration of ciliary structures can be bypassed by modulation of intracellular cGMP or calcium levels and requires kinesin-II-driven intraflagellar transport (IFT), as well as BBS- and RAB8-related proteins. Our results suggest that compensatory mechanisms in response to altered levels of sensory activity modulate AWB cilia architecture, revealing remarkable plasticity in the regulation of cilia structure.

  14. Kv7.2 regulates the function of peripheral sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    King, Chih H.; Lancaster, Eric; Salomon, Daniela; Peles, Elior; Scherer, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    The Kv7 (KCNQ) family of voltage-gated K+ channels regulates cellular excitability. The functional role of Kv7.2 has been hampered by the lack of a viable Kcnq2-null animal model. In this study, we generated homozygous Kcnq2-null sensory neurons using the Cre-Lox system; in these mice, Kv7.2 expression is absent in the peripheral sensory neurons, whereas the expression of other molecular components of nodes (including Kv7.3), paranodes, and juxtaparanodes is not altered. The conditional Kcnq2-null animals exhibit normal motor performance, but have increased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Whole cell patch recording technique demonstrates that Kcnq2-null sensory neurons have increased excitability and reduced spike frequency adaptation. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of Kv7.2 activity increases the excitability of primary sensory neurons. PMID:24687876

  15. The Order and Place of Neuronal Differentiation Establish the Topography of Sensory Projections and the Entry Points within the Hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Zecca, Andrea; Dyballa, Sylvia; Voltes, Adria; Bradley, Roger; Pujades, Cristina

    2015-05-13

    Establishing topographical maps of the external world is an important but still poorly understood feature of the vertebrate sensory system. To study the selective innervation of hindbrain regions by sensory afferents in the zebrafish embryo, we mapped the fine-grained topographical representation of sensory projections at the central level by specific photoconversion of sensory neurons. Sensory ganglia located anteriorly project more medially than do ganglia located posteriorly, and this relates to the order of sensory ganglion differentiation. By single-plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) in vivo imaging, we show that (1) the sequence of arrival of cranial ganglion inputs predicts the topography of central projections, and (2) delaminated neuroblasts differentiate in close contact with the neural tube, and they never loose contact with the neural ectoderm. Afferent entrance points are established by plasma membrane interactions between primary differentiated peripheral sensory neurons and neural tube border cells with the cooperation of neural crest cells. These first contacts remain during ensuing morphological growth to establish pioneer axons. Neural crest cells and repulsive slit1/robo2 signals then guide axons from later-differentiating neurons toward the neural tube. Thus, this study proposes a new model by which the topographical representation of cranial sensory ganglia is established by entrance order, with the entry points determined by cell contact between the sensory ganglion cell bodies and the hindbrain.

  16. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  17. B1 bradykinin receptors and sensory neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C. L.; Naeem, S.; Phagoo, S. B.; Campbell, E. A.; Urban, L.; Burgess, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The location of the B1 bradykinin receptors involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia was investigated. 2. No specific binding of the B1 bradykinin receptor ligand [3H]-des-Arg10-kallidin was detected in primary cultures of rat dorsal root ganglion neurones, even after treatment with interleukin-1 beta (100 iu ml-1). 3. In dorsal root ganglion neurones, activation of B2 bradykinin receptors stimulated polyphosphoinositidase C. In contrast, B1 bradykinin receptor agonists (des-Arg9-bradykinin up to 10 microM and des-Arg10-kallidin up to 1 microM) failed to activate polyphosphoinositidase C, even in neurones that had been treated with interleukin-1 beta (100 iu ml-1), prostaglandin E2 (1 microM) or prostaglandin I2 (1 microM). 4. Dorsal root ganglion neurones removed from rats (both neonatal and 14 days old) that had been pretreated with inflammatory mediators (Freund's complete adjuvant, or carrageenan) failed to respond to B1 bradykinin receptor selective agonists (des-Arg9-bradykinin up to 10 microM and des-Arg10-kallidin up to 1 microM). 5. Bradykinin (25 nM to 300 nM) evoked ventral root responses when applied to peripheral receptive fields or central terminals of primary afferents in the neonatal rat spinal cord and tail preparation. In contrast, des-Arg9-bradykinin (50 nM to 500 nM) failed to evoke ventral root depolarizations in either control rats or in animals that developed inflammation following ultraviolet irradiation of the tail skin. 6. The results of the present study imply that the B1 bradykinin receptors that contribute to hypersensitivity in models of persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia are located on cells other than sensory neurones where they may be responsible for releasing mediators that sensitize or activate the nociceptors. PMID:8832074

  18. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  19. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study

    PubMed Central

    Brownstone, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. PMID:25673740

  20. Cross-modal plasticity in sensory deprived animal models: From the thalamocortical development point of view.

    PubMed

    Mezzera, Cecilia; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2016-09-01

    Over recent decades, our understanding of the plasticity of the central nervous system has expanded enormously. Accordingly, it is now widely accepted that the brain can adapt to changes by reorganizing its circuitry, both in response to external stimuli and experience, as well as through intrinsic mechanisms. A clear example of this is the activation of a deprived sensory area and the expansion of spared sensory cortical regions in individuals who suffered peripheral sensory loss. Despite the efforts to understand these neuroplastic changes, the mechanisms underlying such adaptive remodeling remains poorly understood. Progress in understanding these events may be hindered by the highly varied data obtained from the distinct experimental paradigms analyzed, which include different animal models and neuronal systems, as well as studies into the onset of sensory loss. Here, we will establish the current state-of-the-art describing the principal observations made according to the time of sensory deprivation with respect to the development of the thalamocortical connectivity. We will review the experimental data obtained from animal models where sensory deprivation has been induced either before or after thalamocortical axons reach and invade their target cortical areas. The anatomical and functional effects of sensory loss on the primary sensory areas of the cortex will be presented. Indeed, we consider that the comparative approach of this review is a necessary step in order to help deciphering the processes that underlie sensory neuroplasticity, for which studies in animal models have been indispensable. Understanding these mechanisms will then help to develop restorative strategies and prostheses that will overcome the functional loss.

  1. The basal ganglia select the expected sensory input used for predictive coding.

    PubMed

    Colder, Brian

    2015-01-01

    While considerable evidence supports the notion that lower-level interpretation of incoming sensory information is guided by top-down sensory expectations, less is known about the source of the sensory expectations or the mechanisms by which they are spread. Predictive coding theory proposes that sensory expectations flow down from higher-level association areas to lower-level sensory cortex. A separate theory of the role of prediction in cognition describes "emulations" as linked representations of potential actions and their associated expected sensation that are hypothesized to play an important role in many aspects of cognition. The expected sensations in active emulations are proposed to be the top-down expectation used in predictive coding. Representations of the potential action and expected sensation in emulations are claimed to be instantiated in distributed cortical networks. Combining predictive coding with emulations thus provides a theoretical link between the top-down expectations that guide sensory expectations and the cortical networks representing potential actions. Now moving to theories of action selection, the basal ganglia has long been proposed to select between potential actions by reducing inhibition to the cortical network instantiating the desired action plan. Integration of these isolated theories leads to the novel hypothesis that reduction in inhibition from the basal ganglia selects not just action plans, but entire emulations, including the sensory input expected to result from the action. Basal ganglia disinhibition is hypothesized to both initiate an action and also allow propagation of the action's associated sensory expectation down towards primary sensory cortex. This is a novel proposal for the role of the basal ganglia in biasing perception by selecting the expected sensation, and initiating the top-down transmission of those expectations in predictive coding.

  2. Integration of Multidisciplinary Sensory Data:

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Perry L.; Nadkarni, Prakash; Singer, Michael; Marenco, Luis; Hines, Michael; Shepherd, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of neuroinformatics research at Yale University being performed as part of the national Human Brain Project. This research is exploring the integration of multidisciplinary sensory data, using the olfactory system as a model domain. The neuroinformatics activities fall into three main areas: 1) building databases and related tools that support experimental olfactory research at Yale and can also serve as resources for the field as a whole, 2) using computer models (molecular models and neuronal models) to help understand data being collected experimentally and to help guide further laboratory experiments, 3) performing basic neuroinformatics research to develop new informatics technologies, including a flexible data model (EAV/CR, entity-attribute-value with classes and relationships) designed to facilitate the integration of diverse heterogeneous data within a single unifying framework. PMID:11141511

  3. Sensory drive in cichlid speciation.

    PubMed

    Maan, Martine E; Hofker, Kees D; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Seehausen, Ole

    2006-06-01

    The role of selection in speciation is a central yet poorly understood problem in evolutionary biology. The rapid radiations of extremely colorful cichlid fish in African lakes have fueled the hypothesis that sexual selection can drive species divergence without geographical isolation. Here we present experimental evidence for a mechanism by which sexual selection becomes divergent: in two sibling species from Lake Victoria, female mating preferences for red and blue male nuptial coloration coincide with their context-independent sensitivities to red and blue light, which in turn correspond to a difference in ambient light in the natural habitat of the species. These results suggest that natural selection on visual performance, favoring different visual properties in different spectral environments, may lead to divergent sexual selection on male nuptial coloration. This interplay of ecological and sexual selection along a light gradient may provide a mechanism of rapid speciation through divergent sensory drive.

  4. Mechano- and Chemo-Sensory Polycystins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amanda; Delmas, Patrick; Honoré, Eric

    Polycystins belong to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and comprise five PKD1-like and three PKD2-like (TRPP) subunits. In this chapter, we review the general properties of polycystins and discuss their specific role in both mechanotransduction and chemoreception. The heteromer PKD1/PKD2 expressed at the membrane of the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells is proposed to form a mechano-sensitive calcium channel that is opened by physiological fluid flow. Dysfunction or loss of PKD1 or PKD2 polycystin genes may be responsible for the inability of epithelial cells to sense mechanical cues, thus provoking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most prevalent genetic kidney disorders. pkd1 and pkd2 knock-out mice recapitulate the human disease. Similarly, PKD2 may function as a mechanosensory calcium channel in the immotile monocilia of the developing node transducing leftward flow into an increase in calcium and specifying the left-right axis. pkd2, unlike pkd1 knock-out embryos are characterized by right lung isomerism (situs inversus). Mechanical stimuli also induce cleavage and nuclear translocation of the PKD1 C-terminal tail, which enters the nucleus and initiates signaling processes involving the AP-1, STAT6 and P100 pathways. This intraproteolytic mechanism is implicated in the transduction of a change in renal fluid flow to a transcriptional long-term response. The heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 is the basis for acid sensing in specialised sensory cells including the taste bud cells responsible for sour taste. Moreover, PKD1L3/PKD2L1 may be implicated in the chemosensitivity of neurons surrounding the spinal cord canal, sensing protons in the cerebrospinal fluid. These recent results demonstrate that polycystins fulfill a major sensory role in a variety of cells including kidney epithelial cells, taste buds cells and spinal cord neurons. Such mechanisms are involved in short- and long-term physiological

  5. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes.

  6. Sensory symptoms in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Eric P; Stornelli, Jennifer L; O'Rourke, Julia A; Koesterer, Karmen; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature regarding abnormalities in sensory functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including evidence regarding the neurobiological basis of these symptoms, their clinical correlates, and their treatment. Abnormalities in responses to sensory stimuli are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. The underlying neurobiology of these symptoms is unclear, but several theories have been proposed linking possible etiologies of sensory dysfunction with known abnormalities in brain structure and function that are associated with ASD. In addition to the distress that sensory symptoms can cause patients and caregivers, these phenomena have been correlated with several other problematic symptoms and behaviors associated with ASD, including restrictive and repetitive behavior, self-injurious behavior, anxiety, inattention, and gastrointestinal complaints. It is unclear whether these correlations are causative in nature or whether they are due to shared underlying pathophysiology. The best-known treatments for sensory symptoms in ASD involve a program of occupational therapy that is specifically tailored to the needs of the individual and that may include sensory integration therapy, a sensory diet, and environmental modifications. While some empirical evidence supports these treatments, more research is needed to evaluate their efficacy, and other means of alleviating these symptoms, including possible psychopharmacological interventions, need to be explored. Additional research into the sensory symptoms associated with ASD has the potential to shed more light on the nature and pathophysiology of these disorders and to open new avenues of effective treatments.

  7. WHAT IS LACKING, STATEMENT ON SENSORY DEPRIVATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REGAN, J.

    THIS PAPER, WHICH ANNOUNCES THE THEME OF A SEMINAR ON THEORIES OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING, QUESTIONS THE VIEW THAT A CHILD'S POOR SCHOOL PERFORMANCE DERIVES FROM AN IMPOVERISHED SENSORY EXPERIENCE. A DEPRIVED TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT IS DEPICTED TO CAST DOUBTS ON THIS THEORY. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE EFFECTS OF SENSORY DEPRIVATION IS INCLUDED. THIS…

  8. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  9. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  10. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  11. Hereditary deafness and sensory radicular neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, D B; Hooper, R E; Seife, B

    1976-09-01

    We report a case of radicular sensory neuropathy and deafness. The patients appears to be one of a family in whom several members were similarly afflicted. Thus, this case fits the pattern of hereditary deafness and sensory radicular neuropathy, originally described by Hicks in 1922.

  12. Information theoretic analysis of dynamical encoding in the cricket cercal sensory system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John

    1996-03-01

    The stimulus/response properties of mechanosensory receptor neurons and primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal system were studied using electrophysiological techniques. We characterized the quantity and quality of information encoded in the cells elicited responses about the dynamics of stimulus waveforms. This characterization was achieved through the application of stochastic systems analysis and information theory. The information transfer rates ranged from about 100 to 250 bits per second for the sensory receptors and between 10 to 60 bits per second for the primary sensory interneurons. Scaled to the mean spike rates of the cells, these rates correspond to between 1 and 3 bits per spike for both the receptors and the interneurons. These results will be discussed within the general context of the neural encoding problem.

  13. Thin Layer Sensory Cues Affect Antarctic Krill Swimming Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, A. C.; Webster, D. R.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2013-11-01

    A Bickley jet (laminar, planar free jet) is employed in a recirculating flume system to replicate thin shear and phytoplankton layers for krill behavioral assays. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the chemical and free shear layers, respectively, ensuring a close match to in situ hydrodynamic and biochemical conditions. Path kinematics from digitized trajectories of free-swimming Euphausia superba examine the effects of hydrodynamic sensory cues (deformation rate) and bloom level phytoplankton patches (~1000 cells/mL, Tetraselamis spp.) on krill behavior (body orientation, swimming modes and kinematics, path fracticality). Krill morphology is finely tuned for receiving and deciphering both hydrodynamic and chemical information that is vital for basic life processes such as schooling behaviors, predator/prey, and mate interactions. Changes in individual krill behavior in response to ecologically-relevant sensory cues have the potential to produce population-scale phenomena with significant ecological implications. Krill are a vital trophic link between primary producers (phytoplankton) and larger animals (seabirds, whales, fish, penguins, seals) as well as the subjects of a valuable commercial fishery in the Southern Ocean; thus quantifying krill behavioral responses to relevant sensory cues is an important step towards accurately modeling Antarctic ecosystems.

  14. Impact of the Sensory Neurons on Melanoma Growth In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Victor; Watkins, Simon C.; Ma, Yang; Shurin, Michael R.; Shurin, Galina V.

    2016-01-01

    Nerve endings are often identified within solid tumors, but their impact on the tumor growth and progression remains poorly understood. Emerging data suggests that the central nervous system may affect cancer development and spreading via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomous nervous system. However, the role of the afferent sensory neurons in tumor growth is unclear, except some reports on perineural invasion in prostate and pancreatic cancer and cancer-related pain syndrome. Here, we provide the results of primary testing of the concept that the interaction between melanoma cells and sensory neurons may induce the formation of tumor-supporting microenvironment via attraction of immune regulatory cells by the tumor-activated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We report that despite DRG cells not directly up-regulating proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro, presence of DRG neurons allows tumors to grow significantly faster in vivo. This effect has been associated with increased production of chemokines by tumor-activated DRG neurons and attraction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells both in vitro and in vivo. These initial proof-of-concept results justify further investigations of the sensory (afferent) nervous system in the context of tumorigenesis and the local protumorigenic immunoenvironment. PMID:27227315

  15. Functional properties of synaptic transmission in primary sense organs.

    PubMed

    Singer, Joshua H; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Moser, Tobias; Strowbridge, Ben W; Bhandawat, Vikas; Sampath, Alapakkam P

    2009-10-14

    Sensory receptors transduce physical stimuli in the environment into neural signals that are interpreted by the brain. Although considerable attention has been given to how the sensitivity and dynamic range of sensory receptors is established, peripheral synaptic interactions improve the fidelity with which receptor output is transferred to the brain. For instance, synapses in the retina, cochlea, and primary olfactory system use mechanisms that fine-tune the responsiveness of postsynaptic neurons and the dynamics of exocytosis; these permit microcircuit interactions to encode efficiently the output of sensory receptors with the fidelity and dynamic range necessary to extract the salient features of the physical stimuli. The continuous matching of presynaptic and postsynaptic responsiveness highlight how the primary sensory organs have been optimized and can be modulated to resolve sparse sensory signals and to encode the entire range of receptor output.

  16. Measuring Sensory Reactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Application and Simplification of a Clinician-Administered Sensory Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Bellesheim, Katherine; Siper, Paige M.; Wang, A. Ting; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Grodberg, David; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reactivity is a new DSM-5 criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study aims to validate a clinician-administered sensory observation in ASD, the Sensory Processing Scale Assessment (SPS). The SPS and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) parent-report were used to measure sensory reactivity in children with ASD (n = 35) and…

  17. Early oral sensory experiences and feeding development in children with CHARGE syndrome: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Dobbelsteyn, Cindy; Marche, Darlene M; Blake, Kim; Rashid, Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    Children with CHARGE syndrome commonly experience feeding and swallowing problems. Difficulties may be associated with congenital structural anomalies, motor impairment, and/or oral sensory impairment. For many children with CHARGE syndrome, the introduction of functional oral feeding is delayed and there are often long-term feeding complications. Oral aversion or defensiveness is a frequent serious issue; however, it is uncertain whether this is a primary sensory disorder or secondary to delayed and/or negative oral sensory and feeding experiences. This article examines in detail the early oral sensory and feeding experiences of five children with CHARGE syndrome, through a review of medical records and caregiver questionnaires. Findings indicate variable early oral sensory experiences in this group of children, with all of the children having some difficulty or delay in the development of oral feeding and swallowing. The nature of these difficulties and the potential contributory factors are discussed.

  18. Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.

    PubMed

    Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement."

  19. Capsaicin-sensitive C- and A-fibre nociceptors control long-term potentiation-like pain amplification in humans.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Florian; Magerl, Walter; Klein, Thomas; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2015-09-01

    Long-term potentiation in the spinal dorsal horn requires peptidergic C-fibre activation in animals. Perceptual correlates of long-term potentiation following high-frequency electrical stimulation in humans include increased sensitivity to electrical stimuli at the high frequency stimulation site (homotopic pain-long-term potentiation) and increased sensitivity to pinprick surrounding the high frequency stimulation site (heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation, equivalent to secondary hyperalgaesia). To characterize the peripheral fibre populations involved in induction of pain-long-term potentiation, we performed two selective nerve block experiments in 30 healthy male volunteers. Functional blockade of TRPV1-positive nociceptors by high-concentration capsaicin (verified by loss of heat pain) significantly reduced pain ratings to high frequency stimulation by 47% (P < 0.001), homotopic pain-long-term potentiation by 71% (P < 0.01), heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation by 92% (P < 0.001) and the area of secondary hyperalgesia by 76% (P < 0.001). The selective blockade of A-fibre conduction by nerve compression (verified by loss of first pain to pinprick) significantly reduced pain ratings to high frequency stimulation by 37% (P < 0.01), but not homotopic pain-long-term potentiation (-5%). It had a marginal effect on heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation (-35%, P = 0.059), while the area of secondary hyperalgesia remained unchanged (-2%, P = 0.88). In conclusion, all nociceptor subclasses contribute to high frequency stimulation-induced pain (with a relative contribution of C > Aδ fibres, and an equal contribution of TRPV1-positive and TRPV1-negative fibres). TRPV1-positive C-fibres are the main inducers of both homotopic and heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-positive A-fibres contribute substantially to the induction of heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-negative C-fibres induce a component of homotopic self-facilitation but not heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-negative A-fibres are the main afferents mediating pinprick pain and hyperalgesia, however, they do not appear to contribute to the induction of pain-long-term potentiation. These findings show that distinct peripheral fibre classes mediate induction of long-term potentiation-like pain amplification, its spatial spread to adjacent skin (i.e. secondary hyperalgesia), and the resulting enhanced sensitivity to pinprick in humans. Nociceptive afferents that induce pain amplification can be readily dissociated from those mediating pain. These findings add substantially to our understanding of the mechanisms of pain amplification, that form the basis for understanding the mechanisms of hyperalgesia encountered in patients.See Sandkühler (doi:10.1093/brain/awv193) for a scientific commentary on this article.

  20. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  1. Hyperalgesia and functional sensory loss in restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Pfau, Doreen B; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Magerl, Walter

    2013-08-01

    Pain and other sensory signs in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) are still poorly understood, as most investigations focus on motor system dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate somatosensory changes in patients with primary RLS and the restoration of somatosensory function by guideline-based treatment. Forty previously untreated RLS patients were investigated unilaterally over hand and foot using quantitative sensory testing (QST) and were compared with 40 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. The predominant finding in RLS patients was 3- to 4-fold increase of sensitivity to pinprick stimuli in both extremities (hand: P<.05; foot: P<.001), a sensory pathway involved in withdrawal reflexes. Pinprick hyperalgesia was not paralleled by dynamic mechanical allodynia. Additional significant sensory changes were tactile hypoesthesia in both extremities (hand: P<.05; foot P<.01) and dysesthesia to non-noxious cold stimuli (paradoxical heat sensation), which was present in the foot in an unusually high proportion (14 of 40 patients; P<.01). In 8 patients, follow-up QST 2 to 20 months after treatment with l-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) revealed a significant reduction of pinprick hyperalgesia (-60%, P<.001), improved tactile detection (+50%, P<.05), and disappearance of paradoxical heat sensation in half of the patients. QST suggested a type of spinal or supraspinal central sensitization differing from neuropathic pain or human experimental models of central sensitization by the absence of dynamic mechanical allodynia. Reversal of pinprick hyperalgesia by l-DOPA may be explained by impaired descending inhibitory dopaminergic control on spinal nociceptive neurons. Restoration of tactile sensitivity and paradoxical heat sensations suggest that they were functional disturbances resulting from central disinhibition.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    MedlinePlus

    ... that primarily affects the sensory nerve cells (sensory neurons), which transmit information about sensations such as pain, ... in the development and survival of nerve cells (neurons), including sensory neurons. The NGFβ protein functions by ...

  3. Health Promotion for People with Physical, Cognitive, and Sensory Disabilities: An Emerging National Priority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Braddock, David

    2002-01-01

    Very little effort has been devoted to developing health promotion programs for people with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities. Such programs must be developed with full recognition of limitations caused by both the primary and secondary disabilities. The paper describes three major areas of health promotion and their relationship to…

  4. Amenorrhea - primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  5. Sensory-motor integration during speech production localizes to both left and right plana temporale.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Anna J; Leech, Robert; Collins, Catherine; Redjep, Ozlem; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-09-24

    Speech production relies on fine voluntary motor control of respiration, phonation, and articulation. The cortical initiation of complex sequences of coordinated movements is thought to result in parallel outputs, one directed toward motor neurons while the "efference copy" projects to auditory and somatosensory fields. It is proposed that the latter encodes the expected sensory consequences of speech and compares expected with actual postarticulatory sensory feedback. Previous functional neuroimaging evidence has indicated that the cortical target for the merging of feedforward motor and feedback sensory signals is left-lateralized and lies at the junction of the supratemporal plane with the parietal operculum, located mainly in the posterior half of the planum temporale (PT). The design of these studies required participants to imagine speaking or generating nonverbal vocalizations in response to external stimuli. The resulting assumption is that verbal and nonverbal vocal motor imagery activates neural systems that integrate the sensory-motor consequences of speech, even in the absence of primary motor cortical activity or sensory feedback. The present human functional magnetic resonance imaging study used univariate and multivariate analyses to investigate both overt and covert (internally generated) propositional and nonpropositional speech (noun definition and counting, respectively). Activity in response to overt, but not covert, speech was present in bilateral anterior PT, with no increased activity observed in posterior PT or parietal opercula for either speech type. On this evidence, the response of the left and right anterior PTs better fulfills the criteria for sensory target and state maps during overt speech production.

  6. An evaluation of the role of sensory drive in the evolution of lake Malawi cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam R; van Staaden, Moira J; Carleton, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Although the cichlids of Lake Malawi are an important model system for the study of sensory evolution and sexual selection, the evolutionary processes linking these two phenomena remain unclear. Prior works have proposed that evolutionary divergence is driven by sensory drive, particularly as it applies to the visual system. While evidence suggests that sensory drive has played a role in the speciation of Lake Victoria cichlids, the findings from several lines of research on cichlids of Lake Malawi are not consistent with the primary tenets of this hypothesis. More specifically, three observations make the sensory drive model implausible in Malawi: (i) a lack of environmental constraint due to a broad and intense ambient light spectrum in species rich littoral habitats, (ii) pronounced variation in receiver sensory characteristics, and (iii) pronounced variability in male courtship signal characteristics. In the following work, we synthesize the results from recent studies to draw attention to the importance of sensory variation in cichlid evolution and speciation, and we suggest possible avenues of future research.

  7. Language-universal sensory deficits in developmental dyslexia: English, Spanish, and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha; Wang, H-L Sharon; Cruz, Alicia; Fosker, Tim; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina

    2011-02-01

    Studies in sensory neuroscience reveal the critical importance of accurate sensory perception for cognitive development. There is considerable debate concerning the possible sensory correlates of phonological processing, the primary cognitive risk factor for developmental dyslexia. Across languages, children with dyslexia have a specific difficulty with the neural representation of the phonological structure of speech. The identification of a robust sensory marker of phonological difficulties would enable early identification of risk for developmental dyslexia and early targeted intervention. Here, we explore whether phonological processing difficulties are associated with difficulties in processing acoustic cues to speech rhythm. Speech rhythm is used across languages by infants to segment the speech stream into words and syllables. Early difficulties in perceiving auditory sensory cues to speech rhythm and prosody could lead developmentally to impairments in phonology. We compared matched samples of children with and without dyslexia, learning three very different spoken and written languages, English, Spanish, and Chinese. The key sensory cue measured was rate of onset of the amplitude envelope (rise time), known to be critical for the rhythmic timing of speech. Despite phonological and orthographic differences, for each language, rise time sensitivity was a significant predictor of phonological awareness, and rise time was the only consistent predictor of reading acquisition. The data support a language-universal theory of the neural basis of developmental dyslexia on the basis of rhythmic perception and syllable segmentation. They also suggest that novel remediation strategies on the basis of rhythm and music may offer benefits for phonological and linguistic development.

  8. Abnormal cortical sensory activation in dystonia: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Stephen; Francis, Sue; Kelly, Edward; McGlone, Francis; Bowtell, Richard; Sawle, Guy V

    2003-06-01

    Despite the obvious motor manifestations of focal dystonia, it is recognised that the sensory system plays an important role in this condition. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines the sensory representations of individual digits both within the subregions of the primary sensory cortex (SI) and in other nonprimary sensory areas. Patients with focal dystonia and controls were scanned during vibrotactile stimulation of both the index (digit 2) and little (digit 5) fingers of their dominant hand (which was the affected hand in all the dystonic subjects). The activation maps obtained were analysed for location, size, and magnitude of activation and three-dimensional (3-D) orientation of digit representations. Data from both groups were compared. There were significant differences in the average 3-D separation between the two digit representations in area 1 of SI between subject groups (9.6 +/- 1.2 mm for controls and 4.1 +/- 0.2 mm for dystonic subjects). There were also strong trends for reversed ordering of the representation of the two digits in both the secondary sensory cortex and posterior parietal area between the two groups. In addition, in dystonic subjects, there was significant under activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII/area 40) for both digits and in the posterior parietal area for digit 5. These results indicate the presence of widespread activation abnormalities in the cortical sensory system in dystonia.

  9. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role.

  10. Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A.; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A.; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder. PMID:24359124

  11. Effects of sensory denervation by neonatal capsaicin administration on experimental pancreatitis induced by dibutyltin dichloride.

    PubMed

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Kataoka, Yosky; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Takamori, Yasuharu; Takamido, Shoichiroh; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Yamada, Hisao

    2007-09-01

    Increase in the number of intrapancreatic sensory nerve fibers has been implicated in the generation of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Because some sensory neurotransmitters (e.g., substance P) are known to have proinflammatory effects, we hypothesized that denervation of intrapancreatic nerves might influence not only pain generation but also inflammation. Neonatal Lewis rats were injected with capsaicin (50 mg/kg or 0 mg/kg), a neurotoxin, to induce denervation of primary sensory neurons. When rats reached 170-190 g body weight, experimental pancreatitis was induced by a single administration of dibutyltin dichloride (7 mg/mg). The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated in both groups in the acute phase (at 3 and 7 days) and chronic phase (at 28 days). At day 7, the sensory denervation induced by neonatal capsaicin administration inhibited pancreatic inflammation on both histological (determination of interstitial edema, expansion of interlobular septa and intercellular spaces, and inflammatory cell infiltration) and biochemical (intrapancreatic myeloperoxidase activity) evaluation. Furthermore, at day 28, glandular atrophy, pseudotubular complexes, and rate of fibrosis were each significantly lower in the capsaicin-pretreated group than in the vehicle-pretreated group. Our findings provide in vivo evidence that primary sensory neurons play important roles in both acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatic inflammation with fibrosis.

  12. Sensory plasticity in human motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, David J; Gribble, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is accumulating evidence from behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies that the acquisition of motor skills involves both perceptual and motor learning. Perceptual learning alters movements, motor learning and motor networks of the brain. Motor learning changes perceptual function and the brain’s sensory circuits. Here we review studies of both human limb movement and speech which indicate that plasticity in sensory and motor systems is reciprocally linked. Taken together, this points to an approach to motor learning in which perceptual learning and sensory plasticity play a fundamental role. PMID:26774345

  13. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  14. Sensory Plasticity in Human Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Ostry, David J; Gribble, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    There is accumulating evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies that the acquisition of motor skills involves both perceptual and motor learning. Perceptual learning alters movements, motor learning, and motor networks of the brain. Motor learning changes perceptual function and the sensory circuits of the brain. Here, we review studies of both human limb movement and speech that indicate that plasticity in sensory and motor systems is reciprocally linked. Taken together, this points to an approach to motor learning in which perceptual learning and sensory plasticity have a fundamental role.

  15. Gravitational sensory transduction chain in flagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, D.-P.; Richter, P.; Ntefidou, M.; Lebert, M.

    Earlier hypotheses have assumed that gravitactic orientation in flagellates, such as the photosynthetic unicell Euglena gracilis, is brought about by passive alignment of the cells in the water column by being tail heavy. A recent experiment on a sounding rocket (TEXUS 40) comparing immobilized cells with mobile cells demonstrated that the passive buoy effect can account for approximately 20% of the orientation of the cells in a gravity field. The cells show either positive or negative gravitaxis depending on other external or internal factors. Shortly after inoculation, the tendency of young cells to swim downward in the water column can be readily reverted by adding micromolar concentrations of some heavy metal ions including copper, cadmium or lead. The negative gravitaxis of older cells is converted into a positive one by stress factors such as increasing salinity or exposure to excessive visible or UV radiation. The mechanism for this switch seems to involve reactive oxygen species since the gravitactic sign change was suppressed when oxygen was removed by flushing the cell suspension with nitrogen. Also, the addition of radical scavengers (Trolox, ascorbic acid or potassium cyanide) abolished or reduced the gravitactic sign change. Addition of hydrogen peroxide induced a gravitactic sign change in the absence of external stress factors. The primary reception for the gravity vector seems to involve mechanosensitive ion channels which specifically gate calcium ions inward. We have identified several gene sequences for putative mechanosensory channels in Euglena and have applied RNAi to identify which of these channels are involved in graviperception. The influx of Ca 2+ activates calmodulin (CaM) which has been shown to be involved in the sensory transduction chain of graviorientation. It is known that an adenylyl cyclase is bound to the flagellar membrane in Euglena which is activated by CaM. This enzyme produces cAMP which has also been shown to be the key

  16. Multi-Sensory Informatics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katai, Zoltan; Toth, Laszlo; Adorjani, Alpar Karoly

    2014-01-01

    A recent report by the joint Informatics Europe & ACM Europe Working Group on Informatics Education emphasizes that: (1) computational thinking is an important ability that all people should possess; (2) informatics-based concepts, abilities and skills are teachable, and must be included in the primary and particularly in the secondary school…

  17. Integration of sensory quanta in cuneate nucleus neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Fredrik; Brasselet, Romain; Johansson, Roland S; Arleo, Angelo; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes) in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4-8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4-8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways.

  18. Sensory systems in the control of movement.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Arthur; Ellaway, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Animal movement is immensely varied, from the simplest reflexive responses to the most complex, dexterous voluntary tasks. Here, we focus on the control of movement in mammals, including humans. First, the sensory inputs most closely implicated in controlling movement are reviewed, with a focus on somatosensory receptors. The response properties of the large muscle receptors are examined in detail. The role of sensory input in the control of movement is then discussed, with an emphasis on the control of locomotion. The interaction between central pattern generators and sensory input, in particular in relation to stretch reflexes, timing, and pattern forming neuronal networks is examined. It is proposed that neural signals related to bodily velocity form the basic descending command that controls locomotion through specific and well-characterized relationships between muscle activation, step cycle phase durations, and biomechanical outcomes. Sensory input is crucial in modulating both the timing and pattern forming parts of this mechanism.

  19. Orofacial sensory changes and temporomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    DuPont, J S; Matthews, E P

    2000-07-01

    Orofacial sensory changes are uncommon complaints that can coexist with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). The location, character, and intensity vary greatly with each individual and symptom fluctuation is not unusual for any patient. The etiology of orofacial sensory changes may be related to either local or systemic factors. Several investigators have reported that muscle entrapment of branches of the third division of the trigeminal nerve may result in orofacial sensory disruption. Different theories have been suggested to illustrate how TMD and trauma might be associated with these neurological changes. Additionally, several mechanisms exist to explain how muscle spasms may be responsible for nerve compression in individuals with normal anatomy and in those with anatomical variations. In this study, thirty subjects from a group of 282 TMD patients were found to have coexisting orofacial sensory disturbances and TMD. Subjects presenting with any neurological complaints should alert the clinician to the possibility that these symptoms may be the early clinical signs of serious disease.

  20. Cellular and Network Mechanisms Underlying Information Processing in a Simple Sensory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Gwen; Henze, Chris; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Realistic, biophysically-based compartmental models were constructed of several primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system. A dynamic atlas of the afferent input to these cells was used to set spatio-temporal parameters for the simulated stimulus-dependent synaptic inputs. We examined the roles of dendritic morphology, passive membrane properties, and active conductances on the frequency tuning of the neurons. The sensitivity of narrow-band low pass interneurons could be explained entirely by the electronic structure of the dendritic arbors and the dynamic sensitivity of the SIZ. The dynamic characteristics of interneurons with higher frequency sensitivity required models with voltage-dependent dendritic conductances.

  1. Anthropogenic noise affects behavior across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2014-10-01

    Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals.

  2. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  3. Amino acid odorants stimulate microvillar sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, David L; Michel, William C

    2002-03-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) of zebrafish is populated with ciliated and microvillar olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Whether distinct classes of odorants specifically activate either of these unique populations of OSNs is unknown. Previously we demonstrated that zebrafish OSNs could be labeled in an activity-dependent fashion by amino acid but not bile acid odorants. To determine which sensory neuron type was stimulated by amino acid odorants, we labeled OSNs using the ion channel permeant probe agmatine (AGB) and analyzed its distribution with conventional light- and electron-microscope immunocytochemical techniques. Approximately 7% of the sensory epithelium was labeled by AGB exposure alone. Following stimulation with one of the eight amino acids tested, the proportion of labeled epithelium increased from 9% for histidine to 19% for alanine; amino acid stimulated increases in labeling of 2-12% over control labeling. Only histidine failed to stimulate a significant increase in the proportion of labeled OSNs compared to control preparations. Most amino acid sensitive OSNs were located superficially in the epithelium and immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that the labeled OSNs were predominantly microvillar. Large numbers of nanogold particles (20-60 per 1.5 microm(2)) were associated with microvillar olfactory sensory neurons (MSNs), while few such particles (<15 per 1.5 microm(2)) were observed over ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (CSNs), supporting cells (SCs) and areas without tissue, such as the lumen above the OE. Collectively, these findings indicate that microvillar sensory neurons are capable of detecting amino acid odorants.

  4. Collective behaviour in vertebrates: a sensory perspective

    PubMed Central

    Collignon, Bertrand; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Collective behaviour models can predict behaviours of schools, flocks, and herds. However, in many cases, these models make biologically unrealistic assumptions in terms of the sensory capabilities of the organism, which are applied across different species. We explored how sensitive collective behaviour models are to these sensory assumptions. Specifically, we used parameters reflecting the visual coverage and visual acuity that determine the spatial range over which an individual can detect and interact with conspecifics. Using metric and topological collective behaviour models, we compared the classic sensory parameters, typically used to model birds and fish, with a set of realistic sensory parameters obtained through physiological measurements. Compared with the classic sensory assumptions, the realistic assumptions increased perceptual ranges, which led to fewer groups and larger group sizes in all species, and higher polarity values and slightly shorter neighbour distances in the fish species. Overall, classic visual sensory assumptions are not representative of many species showing collective behaviour and constrain unrealistically their perceptual ranges. More importantly, caution must be exercised when empirically testing the predictions of these models in terms of choosing the model species, making realistic predictions, and interpreting the results. PMID:28018616

  5. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  6. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  7. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  8. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  9. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  10. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is PRIMARY HYPERPARATH YROIDIS M? The body’s parathyroid glands—four pea-sized glands in the neck—produce parathyroid hormone (PTH). Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a condition ...

  11. Primary thrombocythemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... as myeloproliferative disorders. Others include: Chronic myelogenous leukemia Polycythemia vera Primary myelofibrosis This disorder is most common ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 68. Tefferi A. Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytoemia, and primary myelofibrosis. In: Goldman ...

  12. Primary Aldosteronism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endocrinology Find an Endocrinologist Value of an Endocrinologist Learn About Clinical Trials Keep Your Body in Balance › Primary Aldosteronism Fact Sheet Primary Aldosteronism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Paul Stewart, MD, FRCP William Young, ...

  13. Dendritic channelopathies contribute to neocortical and sensory hyperexcitability in Fmr1(-/y) mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Bonnan, Audrey; Bony, Guillaume; Ferezou, Isabelle; Pietropaolo, Susanna; Ginger, Melanie; Sans, Nathalie; Rossier, Jean; Oostra, Ben; LeMasson, Gwen; Frick, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Hypersensitivity in response to sensory stimuli and neocortical hyperexcitability are prominent features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders, but little is known about the dendritic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. We found that the primary somatosensory neocortex (S1) was hyperexcited in response to tactile sensory stimulation in Fmr1(-/y) mice. This correlated with neuronal and dendritic hyperexcitability of S1 pyramidal neurons, which affect all major aspects of neuronal computation, from the integration of synaptic input to the generation of action potential output. Using dendritic electrophysiological recordings, calcium imaging, pharmacology, biochemistry and a computer model, we found that this defect was, at least in part, attributable to the reduction and dysfunction of dendritic h- and BKCa channels. We pharmacologically rescued several core hyperexcitability phenomena by targeting BKCa channels. Our results provide strong evidence pointing to the utility of BKCa channel openers for the treatment of the sensory hypersensitivity aspects of FXS.

  14. Neural correlate of subjective sensory experience gradually builds up across cortical areas

    PubMed Central

    de Lafuente, Victor; Romo, Ranulfo

    2006-01-01

    When a sensory stimulus is presented, many cortical areas are activated, but how does the representation of a sensory stimulus evolve in time and across cortical areas during a perceptual judgment? We investigated this question by analyzing the responses from single neurons, recorded in several cortical areas of parietal and frontal lobes, while trained monkeys reported the presence or absence of a mechanical vibration of varying amplitude applied to the skin of one fingertip. Here we show that the strength of the covariations between neuronal activity and perceptual judgments progressively increases across cortical areas as the activity is transmitted from the primary somatosensory cortex to the premotor areas of the frontal lobe. This finding suggests that the neuronal correlates of subjective sensory experience gradually build up across somatosensory areas of the parietal lobe and premotor cortices of the frontal lobe. PMID:16924098

  15. Distinct Corticostriatal and Intracortical Pathways Mediate Bilateral Sensory Responses in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Ramon; Silberberg, Gilad

    2016-01-01

    Individual striatal neurons integrate somatosensory information from both sides of the body, however, the afferent pathways mediating these bilateral responses are unclear. Whereas ipsilateral corticostriatal projections are prevalent throughout the neocortex, contralateral projections provide sparse input from primary sensory cortices, in contrast to the dense innervation from motor and frontal regions. There is, therefore, an apparent discrepancy between the observed anatomical pathways and the recorded striatal responses. We used simultaneous in vivo whole-cell and extracellular recordings combined with focal cortical silencing, to dissect the afferent pathways underlying bilateral sensory integration in the mouse striatum. We show that unlike direct corticostriatal projections mediating responses to contralateral whisker deflection, responses to ipsilateral stimuli are mediated mainly by intracortical projections from the contralateral somatosensory cortex (S1). The dominant pathway is the callosal projection from contralateral to ipsilateral S1. Our results suggest a functional difference between the cortico-basal ganglia pathways underlying bilateral sensory and motor processes. PMID:27664965

  16. Learning about Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Strategies to Meet Young Children's Sensory Needs at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Rains, Kari W.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners and parents are seeking ways to help children who are not able to integrate sensory information; this has generated recent media attention. A child's inability to integrate sensory information can have implications for the whole family and their everyday routines. Research conducted by occupational therapists has provided a rich…

  17. Cortical sensory map rearrangement after spinal cord injury: fMRI responses linked to Nogo signalling.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiki; Spenger, Christian; Tominaga, Teiji; Brené, Stefan; Olson, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Cortical sensory maps can reorganize in the adult brain in an experience-dependent manner. We monitored somatosensory cortical reorganization after sensory deafferentation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in rats subjected to complete transection of the mid-thoracic spinal cord. Cortical representation in response to spared forelimb stimulation was observed to enlarge and invade adjacent sensory-deprived hind limb territory in the primary somatosensory cortex as early as 3 days after injury. Functional MRI also demonstrated long-term cortical plasticity accompanied by increased thalamic activation. To support the notion that alterations of cortical neuronal circuitry after spinal cord injury may underlie the fMRI changes, we quantified transcriptional activities of several genes related to cortical plasticity including the Nogo receptor (NgR), its co-receptor LINGO-1 and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), using in situ hybridization. We demonstrate that NgR and LINGO-1 are down-regulated specifically in cortical areas deprived of sensory input and in adjacent cortex from 1 day after injury, while BDNF is up-regulated. Our results demonstrate that cortical neurons react to sensory deprivation by decreasing transcriptional activities of genes encoding the Nogo receptor components in the sensory deprived and the anatomically adjacent non-deprived area. Combined with the BDNF up-regulation, these changes presumably allow structural changes in the neuropil. Our observations therefore suggest an involvement of Nogo signalling in cortical activity-dependent plasticity in the somatosensory system. In spinal cord injury, cortical reorganization as shown here can become a disadvantage, much like the situation in amblyopia or phantom sensation. Successful strategies to repair sensory pathways at the spinal cord level may not lead to proper reestablishment of cortical connections, once deprived hind limb cortical areas have been reallocated to forelimb

  18. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids)

    PubMed Central

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). CONCLUSION The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. PMID:24619938

  19. Early bilateral sensory deprivation blocks the development of coincident discharge in rat barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Ayan; Pouget, Pierre; Popescu, Maria; Ebner, Ford

    2009-02-25

    Several theories have proposed a functional role for synchronous neuronal firing in generating the neural code of a sensory perception. Synchronous neural activity develops during a critical postnatal period of cortical maturation, and severely reducing neural activity in a sensory pathway during this period could interfere with the development of coincident discharge among cortical neurons. Loss of such synchrony could provide a fundamental mechanism for the degradation of acuity shown in behavioral studies. We tested the hypothesis that synchronous discharge of barrel cortex neurons would fail to develop after sensory deprivation produced by bilateral whisker trimming from birth to postnatal day 60. By studying the correlated discharge of cortical neuron pairs, we found evidence for strong correlated firing in control animals, and this synchrony was almost absent among pairs of cortical barrel neurons in deprived animals. The degree of synchrony impairment was different in subregions of rat barrel cortex. The model that best fits the data is that cortical neurons receiving direct inputs from the primary sensory (lemniscal) pathway show the greatest decrement in synchrony following sensory deprivation, while neurons with diverse inputs from other areas of thalamus and cortex are relatively less affected in this dimension of cortical function.

  20. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain.

    PubMed

    Allievi, Alessandro G; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level-dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults.

  1. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain

    PubMed Central

    Allievi, Alessandro G.; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J.; Edwards, A. David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level–dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults. PMID:26491066

  2. Can sensory attention focused exercise facilitate the utilization of proprioception for improved balance control in PD?

    PubMed

    Lefaivre, Shannon C; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-02-01

    Impaired sensory processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been argued to contribute to balance deficits. Exercises aimed at improving sensory feedback and body awareness have the potential to ameliorate balance deficits in PD. Recently, PD SAFEx™, a sensory and attention focused rehabilitation program, has been shown to improve motor deficits in PD, although balance control has never been evaluated. The objective of this study was to measure the effects of PD SAFEx™ on balance control in PD. Twenty-one participants with mild to moderate idiopathic PD completed 12 weeks of PD SAFEx™ training (three times/week) in a group setting. Prior to training, participants completed a pre-assessment evaluating balance in accordance with an objective, computerized test of balance (modified clinical test of sensory integration and balance (m-CTSIB) and postural stability testing (PST)) protocols. The m-CTSIB was our primary outcome measure, which allowed assessment of balance in both eyes open and closed conditions, thus enabling evaluation of specific sensory contributions to balance improvement. At post-test, a significant interaction between time of assessment and vision condition (p=.014) demonstrated that all participants significantly improved balance control, specifically when eyes were closed. Balance control did not change from pre to post with eyes open. These results provide evidence that PD SAFEx™ is effective at improving the ability to utilize proprioceptive information, resulting in improved balance control in the absence of vision. Enhancing the ability to utilize proprioception for individuals with PD is an important intermediary to improving balance deficits.

  3. Sensory evoked and event related oscillations in Alzheimer’s disease: a short review

    PubMed Central

    Başar, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) depend on clinical evaluation and there is a strong need for an objective tool as a biomarker. Our group has investigated brain oscillatory responses in a small group of AD subjects. We found that the de novo (untreated) AD group differs from both the cholinergically-treated AD group and aged-matched healthy controls in theta and delta responses over left frontal-central areas after cognitive stimulation. On the contrary, the difference observed in AD groups upon a sensory visual stimulation includes response increase over primary or secondary visual sensorial areas compared to controls. These findings imply at least two different neural networks, depending on type of stimulation (i.e. cognitive or sensory). The default mode defined as activity in resting state in AD seems to be affected electrophysiologically. Coherences are also very valuable in observing the group differences, especially when a cognitive stimulus is applied. In healthy controls, higher coherence values are elicited after a cognitive stimulus than after a sensory task. Our findings support the notion of disconnectivity of cortico-cortical connections in AD. The differences in comparison of oscillatory responses upon sensory and cognitive stimulations and their role as a biomarker in AD await further investigation in series with a greater number of subjects. PMID:22132038

  4. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies.

  5. Double peak sensory responses: effects of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Aprile, I; Tonali, P; Stalberg, E; Di Stasio, E; Caliandro, P; Foschini, M; Vergili, G; Padua, L

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study is to verify whether degeneration of skin receptors or intradermal nerve endings by topical application of capsaicin modifies the double peak response obtained by submaximal anodal stimulation. Five healthy volunteers topically applied capsaicin to the finger-tip of digit III (on the distal phalanx) four times daily for 4-5 weeks. Before and after local capsaicin applications, we studied the following electrophysiological findings: compound sensory action potential (CSAP), double peak response, sensory threshold and double peak stimulus intensity. Local capsaicin application causes disappearance or decrease of the second component of the double peak, which gradually increases after the suspension of capsaicin. Conversely, no significant differences were observed for CSAP, sensory threshold and double peak stimulus intensity. This study suggests that the second component of the double peak may be a diagnostic tool suitable to show an impairment of the extreme segments of sensory nerve fibres in distal sensory axonopathy in the early stages of damage, when receptors or skin nerve endings are impaired but undetectable by standard nerve conduction studies.

  6. Sensory Quality Preservation of Coated Walnuts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Antonella L; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of coated walnuts during storage. Four walnut samples were prepared: uncoated (NC), and samples coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (NCMC), methyl cellulose (NMC), or whey protein (NPS). The samples were stored at room temperature for 210 d and were periodically removed from storage to perform a sensory descriptive analysis. A consumer acceptance test was carried out on the fresh product (storage day 0) to evaluate flavor. All samples exhibited significant differences in their sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity ratings for oxidized and cardboard flavors increased during storage. NC showed the highest oxidized and cardboard intensity ratings (39 and 22, respectively) and NMC exhibited the lowest intensity ratings for these negative attributes (8 and 17, respectively) after 210 d of storage. Alternatively, the intensity ratings for sweetness and walnut flavors were decreased for all samples. NMC had the lowest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (75.86 in walnut flavor and 12.09 in sweetness). The results of this study suggest a protective effect of the use of an edible coating to preserve sensory attributes during storage, especially for samples coated with MC. The results of the acceptance test showed that addition of the coating negatively affected the flavor acceptance for NMC and NCMC coated walnuts. Edible coatings help to preserve sensory attributes in walnuts, improving their shelf-life, however, these coatings may affect consumer acceptance in some cases.

  7. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  8. Organization of the sensory system of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Annelida, Clitellata) visualized by DiI.

    PubMed

    Kiszler, Gabor; Varhalmi, Eszter; Berta, Gergely; Molnar, Laszlo

    2012-07-01

    The anatomical organization of the peripheral and central sensory structures of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris was investigated applying a fluorescent carbocyanine dye (DiI) as a neuronal tracer. Using whole-mount preparations and confocal laser scanning microscopy, the pattern of primary sensory cells and pathways of their processes were traced and reconstructed in three-dimensions. Our study shows that a ventral nerve cord ganglion receives sensory fibers from at least two adjacent segments suggesting that the peripheral nervous system is not segmental in its arrangement and the receptive-fields of the body wall overlap in earthworms. Furthermore, our result suggests an integrative function of the basiepidermal plexus consists of sensory and motor fibers.

  9. Spatial sensory organization and body representation in pain perception.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Longo, Matthew R

    2013-02-18

    Pain is a subjective experience that protects the body. This function implies a special relation between the brain mechanisms underlying pain perception and representation of the body. All sensory systems involve the body for the trivial reason that sensory receptors are located in the body. The nociceptive system of detecting noxious stimuli comprises two classes of peripheral afferents, Aδ and C nociceptors, that cover almost the entire body surface. We review evidence from experimental studies of pain in humans and other animals suggesting that Aδ skin nociceptors project to a spatially-organised, somatotopic map in the primary somatosensory cortex. While the relation between pain perception and homeostatic regulation of bodily systems is widely acknowledged, the organization of nociceptive information into spatial maps of the body has received little attention. Importantly, the somatotopic neural organization of pain systems can shed light on pain-related plasticity and pain modulation. Finally, we show that the neural coding of noxious stimuli, and consequent experience of pain, are both strongly influenced when cognitive representations of the body are activated by viewing the body, as opposed to viewing another object - an effect we term 'visual analgesia'. We argue that pain perception involves some of the representational properties of exteroceptive senses, such as vision and touch. Pain, however, has the unique feature that the content of representation is the body itself, rather than any external object of perception. We end with some suggestions regarding how linking pain to body representation could shed light on clinical conditions, notably chronic pain.

  10. Photostimulation of sensory neurons of the rat vagus nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Albert Y.; Li, Gong; Wells, Jonathon; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2008-02-01

    We studied the effect of infrared (IR) stimulation on rat sensory neurons. Primary sensory neurons were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of the inferior (or "nodose") ganglia from the vagus nerves of rats. The 1.85-μm output of a diode laser, delivered through a 200-μm silica fiber, was used for photostimulation. Nodose neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, which is a non-selective cation channel that opens in response to significant temperature jumps above 37 C. Opening TRPV1 channels allows entry of cations, including calcium (Ca 2+), into the cell to cause membrane depolarization. Therefore, to monitor TRPV1 activation consequent to photostimulation, we used fura-2, a fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator, to monitor the rise in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+]i). Brief trains of 2-msec IR pulses activated TRPV1 rapidly and reversibly, as evidenced by transient rises in [Ca 2+]i (referred to as Ca 2+ transients). Consistent with the Ca 2+ transients arising from influx of Ca 2+, identical photostimulation failed to evoke Ca 2+ responses in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+. Furthermore, the photo-induced Ca 2+ signals were abolished by capsazepine, a specific blocker of TRPV1, indicating that the responses were indeed mediated by TRPV1. We discuss the feasibility of using focal IR stimulation to probe neuronal circuit properties in intact neural tissue, and compare IR stimulation with another photostimulation technique-focal photolytic release of "caged" molecules.

  11. Single Ca2+ channels and exocytosis at sensory synapses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; Li, Geng-Lin; von Gersdorff, Henrique

    2013-07-01

    Hair cell synapses in the ear and photoreceptor synapses in the eye are the first synapses in the auditory and visual system. These specialized synapses transmit a large amount of sensory information in a fast and efficient manner. Moreover, both small and large signals with widely variable kinetics must be quickly encoded and reliably transmitted to allow an animal to rapidly monitor and react to its environment. Here we briefly review some aspects of these primary synapses, which are characterized by a synaptic ribbon in their active zones of transmitter release. We propose that these synapses are themselves highly specialized for the task at hand. Photoreceptor and bipolar cell ribbon synapses in the retina appear to have versatile properties that permit both tonic and phasic transmitter release. This allows them to transmit changes of both luminance and contrast within a visual field at different ambient light levels. By contrast, hair cell ribbon synapses are specialized for a highly synchronous form of multivesicular release that may be critical for phase locking to low-frequency sound-evoked signals at both low and high sound intensities. The microarchitecture of a hair cell synapse may be such that the opening of a single Ca(2+) channel evokes the simultaneous exocytosis of multiple synaptic vesicles. Thus, the differing demands of sensory encoding in the eye and ear generate diverse designs and capabilities for their ribbon synapses.

  12. Basing perceptual decisions on the most informative sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T

    2010-10-01

    Single unit recording studies show that perceptual decisions are often based on the output of sensory neurons that are maximally responsive (or "tuned") to relevant stimulus features. However, when performing a difficult discrimination between two highly similar stimuli, perceptual decisions should instead be based on the activity of neurons tuned away from the relevant feature (off-channel neurons) as these neurons undergo a larger firing rate change and are thus more informative. To test this hypothesis, we measured feature-selective responses in human primary visual cortex (V1) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and show that the degree of off-channel activation predicts performance on a difficult visual discrimination task. Moreover, this predictive relationship between off-channel activation and perceptual acuity is not simply the result of extensive practice with a specific stimulus feature (as in studies of perceptual learning). Instead, relying on the output of the most informative sensory neurons may represent a general, and optimal, strategy for efficiently computing perceptual decisions.

  13. ESTRADIOL RAPIDLY MODULATES ODOR RESPONSES IN MOUSE VOMERONASAL SENSORY NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    CHERIAN, S.; LAM, Y. WAI; MCDANIELS, I.; STRUZIAK, M.; DELAY, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, many social behaviors are driven by the sense of smell. The vomeronasal organ (VNO), part of the accessory olfactory system mediates many of these chemically driven behaviors. The VNO is heavily vascularized, and is readily accessible to circulating peptide or steroid hormones. Potentially, this allows circulating hormones to alter behavior through modulating the output of the primary sensory neurons in the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Based on this, we hypothesized that steroid hormones, in particular 17β-estradiol, would modulate activity of VSNs. In this paper, we show that the estrogen receptors, GPR30 and ERα, were present in VSNs and that estradiol may be synthesized locally in the VNO. Our results also showed that 17β-estradiol decreased responses of isolated VSNs to dilute urine, a potent natural stimulus, with respect to current amplitudes and depolarization. Further, 17β-estradiol increased the latency of the first action potential (AP) and the AP amplitude. Additionally, calcium responses to sulfated steroids (present in the low molecular weight fraction of urine) that act as ligands for apical vomeronasal receptors were decreased by 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, we show that estradiol modulates odorant responses mediated by VSNs and hence paves the way for future studies to better understand the mechanisms by which odorant mediated behavior is altered by endocrine status of the animal. PMID:24680884

  14. Sensory incongruence leading to hand disownership modulates somatosensory cortical processing.

    PubMed

    Otsuru, Naofumi; Hashizume, Akira; Nakamura, Daichi; Endo, Yuuki; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Yuge, Louis

    2014-09-01

    The sense of body ownership is based on integration of multimodal sensory information, including tactile sensation, proprioception, and vision. Distorted body ownership contributes to the development of chronic pain syndromes and possibly symptoms of psychiatric disease. However, the effects of disownership on cortical processing of somatosensory information are unknown. In the present study, we created a "disownership" condition in healthy individuals by manipulating the visual information indicating the location of the subject's own left hand using a mirror box and examined the influence of this disownership on cortical responses to electrical stimulation of the left index finger using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The event-related magnetic field in the right primary somatosensory cortex at approximately 50 msec (M50) after stimulus was enhanced under the disownership condition. The present results suggest that M50 reflects a cortical incongruence detection mechanism involving integration of sensory inputs from visual and proprioceptive systems. This signal may be valuable for future studies of the mechanisms underlying sense of body ownership and the role that disrupted sense of ownership has in neurological disease.

  15. Single Ca2+ channels and exocytosis at sensory synapses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; Li, Geng-Lin; von Gersdorff, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Hair cell synapses in the ear and photoreceptor synapses in the eye are the first synapses in the auditory and visual system. These specialized synapses transmit a large amount of sensory information in a fast and efficient manner. Moreover, both small and large signals with widely variable kinetics must be quickly encoded and reliably transmitted to allow an animal to rapidly monitor and react to its environment. Here we briefly review some aspects of these primary synapses, which are characterized by a synaptic ribbon in their active zones of transmitter release. We propose that these synapses are themselves highly specialized for the task at hand. Photoreceptor and bipolar cell ribbon synapses in the retina appear to have versatile properties that permit both tonic and phasic transmitter release. This allows them to transmit changes of both luminance and contrast within a visual field at different ambient light levels. By contrast, hair cell ribbon synapses are specialized for a highly synchronous form of multivesicular release that may be critical for phase locking to low-frequency sound-evoked signals at both low and high sound intensities. The microarchitecture of a hair cell synapse may be such that the opening of a single Ca2+ channel evokes the simultaneous exocytosis of multiple synaptic vesicles. Thus, the differing demands of sensory encoding in the eye and ear generate diverse designs and capabilities for their ribbon synapses. PMID:23459757

  16. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.

  17. Direct reticular projections of trigeminal sensory fibers immunoreactive to CGRP: potential monosynaptic somatoautonomic projections

    PubMed Central

    Panneton, W. Michael; Gan, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Few trigeminal sensory fibers project centrally beyond the trigeminal sensory complex, with only projections of fibers carried in its sensory anterior ethmoidal (AEN) and intraoral nerves described. Fibers of the AEN project into the brainstem reticular formation where immunoreactivity against substance P and CGRP are found. We investigated whether the source of these peptides could be from trigeminal ganglion neurons by performing unilateral rhizotomies of the trigeminal root and looking for absence of label. After an 8–14 days survival, substance P immunoreactivity in the trigeminal sensory complex was diminished, but we could not conclude that the sole source of this peptide in the lateral parabrachial area and lateral reticular formation arises from primary afferent fibers. Immunoreactivity to CGRP after rhizotomy however was greatly diminished in the trigeminal sensory complex, confirming the observations of others. Moreover, CGRP immunoreactivity was nearly eliminated in fibers in the lateral parabrachial area, the caudal ventrolateral medulla, both the peri-ambiguus and ventral parts of the rostral ventrolateral medulla, in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus, and diminished in the caudal pressor area. The nearly complete elimination of CGRP in the lateral reticular formation after rhizotomy suggests this peptide is carried in primary afferent fibers. Moreover, the arborization of CGRP immunoreactive fibers in these areas mimics that of direct projections from the AEN. Since electrical stimulation of the AEN induces cardiorespiratory adjustments including an apnea, peripheral vasoconstriction, and bradycardia similar to those seen in the mammalian diving response, we suggest these perturbations of autonomic behavior are enhanced by direct somatic primary afferent projections to these reticular neurons. We believe this to be first description of potential direct somatoautonomic projections to brainstem neurons regulating autonomic activity. PMID

  18. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  19. A mechanism for sensory re-weighting in postural control

    PubMed Central

    Mahboobin, Arash; Loughlin, Patrick; Atkeson, Chris; Redfern, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A key finding of human balance experiments has been that the integration of sensory information utilized for postural control appears to be dynamically regulated to adapt to changing environmental conditions and the available sensory information, a process referred to as “sensory re-weighting.” We propose a postural control model that includes automatic sensory re-weighting. This model is an adaptation of a previously reported model of sensory feedback that included manual sensory re-weighting. The new model achieves sensory re-weighting that is physiologically plausible and readily implemented. Model simulations are compared to previously reported experimental results to demonstrate the automated sensory reweighting strategy of the modified model. On the whole, the postural sway time series generated by the model with automatic sensory re-weighting show good agreement with experimental data, and are capable of producing patterns similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:19326162

  20. Cortical Gating of Oropharyngeal Sensory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2) is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1). Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. Thus, it was hypothesized that central neural gating would be absent for paired-air puff stimuli applied to the oropharynx. Twenty-three healthy adults (18–35 years) served as research participants. Pharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEPs) were measured via 32-electrode cap (10–20 system) connected to SynAmps2 Neuroscan EEG System. Paired-pulse air puffs were delivered with an inter-stimulus interval of 500 ms to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences found for the amplitudes S1 and S2 for any of the four component PSEP peaks. Mean gating ratios were above 0.90 for each peak. Results supports our hypothesis that sensory central neural gating would be absent for component PSEP peaks with paired-pulse stimuli delivered to the oropharynx. This may be related to the need for constant sensory monitoring necessary for adequate airway protection associated with swallowing and coughing. PMID:21423402

  1. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  2. The Postnatal Development of Spinal Sensory Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Maria; Jennings, Ernest

    1999-07-01

    The mechanisms by which infants and children process pain should be viewed within the context of a developing sensory nervous system. The study of the neurophysiological properties and connectivity of sensory neurons in the developing spinal cord dorsal horn of the intact postnatal rat has shed light on the way in which the newborn central nervous system analyzes cutaneous innocuous and noxious stimuli. The receptive field properties and evoked activity of newborn dorsal horn cells to single repetitive and persistent innocuous and noxious inputs are developmentally regulated and reflect the maturation of excitatory transmission within the spinal cord. These changes will have an important influence on pain processing in the postnatal period.

  3. Mechanisms of sensory transduction in the skin.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, Ellen A; Caterina, Michael J

    2007-02-22

    Sensory neurons innervating the skin encode the familiar sensations of temperature, touch and pain. An explosion of progress has revealed unanticipated cellular and molecular complexity in these senses. It is now clear that perception of a single stimulus, such as heat, requires several transduction mechanisms. Conversely, a given protein may contribute to multiple senses, such as heat and touch. Recent studies have also led to the surprising insight that skin cells might transduce temperature and touch. To break the code underlying somatosensation, we must therefore understand how the skin's sensory functions are divided among signalling molecules and cell types.

  4. [Spotlight on sensory irritation and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2005-10-01

    Sensory irritation is directly bound to the concept of sensitive skin. A large proportion of the population, in particular young women, is affected. The reported symptoms are those of skin discomfort without any visible alteration of the skin. According to the subjects, the timing and the cutaneous sites, various perceptions occur, including pruritus, burning and stinging sensations. Sensory irritation is difficult to quantify because it remains subjective by essence. The condition is sometimes aggravated by some cosmetics, cleaning and cleansing products, wool contact and exposure to cold and dry climate. The responsible ingredients are often agents affecting functions of stratum corneum without being obvious chemical irritants.

  5. THE EFFECT OF THE C-LEG KNEE PROSTHESIS ON SENSORY DEPENDENCY AND FALLS DURING SENSORY ORGANIZATION TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Highsmith, M. Jason; Kahle, Jason T.; Shepard, Neil T.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic explanation for previously observed safety improvements with microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees is needed. A repeated measures design of 15 subjects with unilateral transfemoral amputation was used to assess changes between baseline use of their standard of care, mechanical pros-theses, and a C-Leg microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee. The primary outcome measures were sensory dependency scores for somatosensory, visual, vestibular, and visual preference, which were calculated based on a Sensory Organization Test. Falls during posturographic assessment were also recorded. Somatosensory system dependency significantly increased (p = 0.047) while using the C-Leg compared to a nonmicroprocessor prosthetic knee (NMPK). Reliance on visual with vestibular input and reliance on vestibular input alone were not significantly increased with C-Leg use (p = 0.41 and p = 0.15, respectively). When utilizing the C-Leg, there was a significant reduction in the average number of falls (p = 0.03). Hence, increased reliance on somatosensory input is a possible explanation for improved balance with use of a microprocessor prosthetic knee (MPK). PMID:25075259

  6. Painful traumatic peripheral partial nerve injury-sensory dysfunction profiles comparing outcomes of bedside examination and quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Ann-Sofie; Hansson, Per

    2008-05-01

    The primary aim of this retrospective study was to focusing on the relationship between individual outcomes of bedside examination (BE) and quantitative testing of somatosensory functions (QST) in 32 patients with painful traumatic partial nerve injury. In addition, the potential presence of common sensory dysfunction denominators has been probed. Patients with a history of traumatic partial nerve injury and ongoing pain were included if pain was confined to the entire or part of the innervation territory of the severed nerve and a bedside titration of the neuron-anatomical borders confirmed sensory aberrations. An in-depth BE and QST was then performed in the most painful area. Categorization of normal and pathological outcome for both BE and QST was based on time honoured clinical decision-making using the healthy contralateral corresponding area as control. In patients with normal outcome or quantitative aberrations (i.e. hypo- or hyperesthesia) at BE and QST, the same individual outcome of touch sensation was reported by 48% of the patients, for cold in 54% and for warmth in 58%. The most common dysfunction found at both BE and QST was hypoesthesia, however with no common denominators in somatosensory dysfunction. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that not infrequently the individual outcome of BE and the corresponding QST measure differed, most frequently for touch sensibility. This finding is of outmost importance when QST outcomes are used to corroborate results from BE in the diagnostic situation.

  7. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  8. Sensory detection of food rapidly modulates arcuate feeding circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Kuo, Tzu-Wei; Knight, Zachary A

    2015-02-26

    Hunger is controlled by specialized neural circuits that translate homeostatic needs into motivated behaviors. These circuits are under chronic control by circulating signals of nutritional state, but their rapid dynamics on the timescale of behavior remain unknown. Here, we report optical recording of the natural activity of two key cell types that control food intake, AgRP and POMC neurons, in awake behaving mice. We find unexpectedly that the sensory detection of food is sufficient to rapidly reverse the activation state of these neurons induced by energy deficit. This rapid regulation is cell-type specific, modulated by food palatability and nutritional state, and occurs before any food is consumed. These data reveal that AgRP and POMC neurons receive real-time information about the availability of food in the external world, suggesting a primary role for these neurons in controlling appetitive behaviors such as foraging that promote the discovery of food.

  9. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  10. CAG repeat size correlates to electrophysiological motor and sensory phenotypes in SBMA.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Katsuno, Masahisa; Banno, Haruhiko; Takeuchi, Yu; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Mizuki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Yamashita, Fumitada; Hori, Norio; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2008-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset, lower motor neuron disease caused by an aberrant elongation of a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The main symptoms are weakness and atrophy of bulbar, facial and limb muscles, but sensory disturbances are frequently found in SBMA patients. Motor symptoms have been attributed to the accumulation of mutant AR in the nucleus of lower motor neurons, which is more profound in patients with a longer CAG repeat. We examined nerve conduction properties including F-waves in a total of 106 patients with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age at data collection = 53.8 years; range = 31-75 years) and 85 control subjects. Motor conduction velocities (MCV), compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), sensory conduction velocities (SCV) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) were significantly decreased in all nerves examined in the SBMA patients compared with that in the normal controls, indicating that axonal degeneration is the primary process in both motor and sensory nerves. More profound abnormalities were observed in the nerves of the upper limbs than in those of the lower limbs. F-waves in the median nerve were absent in 30 of 106 cases (28.3%), but no cases of absent F-waves were observed in the tibial nerve. From an analysis of the relationship between CMAPs and SNAPs, patients were identified with different electrophysiological phenotypes: motor-dominant, sensory-dominant and non-dominant phenotypes. The CAG repeat size and the age at onset were significantly different among the patients with motor- and sensory-dominant phenotypes, indicating that a longer CAG repeat is more closely linked to the motor-dominant phenotype and a shorter CAG repeat is more closely linked to the sensory-dominant phenotype. Furthermore, when we classified the patients by CAG repeat size, CMAP values showed a tendency to be decreased in patients with a longer CAG repeat (> or =47), while SNAPs were significantly

  11. Sensory Cues, Visualization and Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Bodily manipulations, such as juggling, suggest a well-synchronized physical interaction as if the person were a physics expert. The juggler uses "knowledge" that is rooted in bodily experience, to interact with the environment. Such enacted bodily knowledge is powerful, efficient, predictive, and relates to sensory perception of the dynamics of…

  12. A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

  13. Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V.

  14. Child's Play: A Sensory-Integrative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jeanette Allison

    In an attempt to demonstrate the direct relationship of physical play to sensory integration, this descriptive study measured fine and gross motor activities, and the repetition and duration of preferred activities among 179 children between 2 and 8 years of age who participated in 3 early childhood programs in California. Data were collected by…

  15. The Diagnosis of Sensory-Motor Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaeske, Arnold

    The importance of motor and perceptual learning in the educational process is discussed. It is hypothesized that an internalization of sensory-motor learnings is important to the perceptual and cognitive development of a child. Developmental and corrective motor training by physical educationalists is suggested. It is concluded that although the…

  16. Sensory Food Aversions in Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoor, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Sensory Food Aversion is one of the most common feeding disorders during the first 3 years of life, when young children are transitioned to self-feeding, and when issues of autonomy and dependency have to be negotiated between parents and child. In this article, the author discusses "picky eaters" and the importance of distinguishing between…

  17. Sensory nerves in lung and airways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lu-Yuan; Yu, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Sensory nerves innervating the lung and airways play an important role in regulating various cardiopulmonary functions and maintaining homeostasis under both healthy and disease conditions. Their activities conducted by both vagal and sympathetic afferents are also responsible for eliciting important defense reflexes that protect the lung and body from potential health-hazardous effects of airborne particulates and chemical irritants. This article reviews the morphology, transduction properties, reflex functions, and respiratory sensations of these receptors, focusing primarily on recent findings derived from using new technologies such as neural immunochemistry, isolated airway-nerve preparation, cultured airway neurons, patch-clamp electrophysiology, transgenic mice, and other cellular and molecular approaches. Studies of the signal transduction of mechanosensitive afferents have revealed a new concept of sensory unit and cellular mechanism of activation, and identified additional types of sensory receptors in the lung. Chemosensitive properties of these lung afferents are further characterized by the expression of specific ligand-gated ion channels on nerve terminals, ganglion origin, and responses to the action of various inflammatory cells, mediators, and cytokines during acute and chronic airway inflammation and injuries. Increasing interest and extensive investigations have been focused on uncovering the mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity of these airway afferents, and their role in the manifestation of various symptoms under pathophysiological conditions. Several important and challenging questions regarding these sensory nerves are discussed. Searching for these answers will be a critical step in developing the translational research and effective treatments of airway diseases.

  18. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  19. Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation.

  20. Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-01-01

    A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

  1. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  2. Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or emotional?

    PubMed Central

    Ohla, Kathrin; Lundström, Johan N.

    2013-01-01

    Although the first sex-dependent differences in chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG), psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and odorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety, and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety, or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate more attention to potentially noxious stimuli than men do, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception. PMID:24133429

  3. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tkačik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

  4. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  5. The sensory ecology of nonconsumptive predator effects.

    PubMed

    Weissburg, Marc; Smee, Delbert L; Ferner, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) have been shown to occur in numerous systems and are regarded as important mechanisms by which predation structures natural communities. Sensory ecology-that is, the processes governing the production, propagation, and masking of cues by ambient noise-provides insights into the strength of NCEs as functions of the environment and modes of information transfer. We discuss how properties of predators are used by prey to encode threat, how the environment affects cue propagation, and the role of single sensory processes versus multimodal sensory processes. We discuss why the present body of literature documents the potential for strong NCEs but does not allow us to easily determine how this potential is expressed in nature or what factors or environments produce strong versus weak NCEs. Many of these difficulties stem from a body of literature in which certain sensory environments and modalities may be disproportionately represented and in which experimental methodologies are designed to show the existence of NCEs. We present a general framework for examining NCEs to identify the factors controlling the number of prey that respond to predator cues and discuss how the properties of predators, prey, and the environment may determine prey perceptive range and the duration and frequency of cue production. We suggest how understanding these relationships provides a schema for determining where, when, why, and how NCEs are important in producing direct and cascading effects in natural communities.

  6. Sensory neurobiology: demystifying the sick sense.

    PubMed

    Bozza, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    The vomeronasal organ, a sensory structure within the olfactory system, detects chemical signals that affect social and sexual behaviors and that elicit responses to predator odors. A recent study demonstrates that innate avoidance of sick conspecifics requires an intact vomeronasal organ, expanding the repertoire of biological functions known to be mediated by this olfactory subsystem.

  7. Anesthesia and brain sensory processing: impact on neuronal responses in a female songbird

    PubMed Central

    Karino, G.; George, I.; Loison, L.; Heyraud, C.; De Groof, G.; Hausberger, M.; Cousillas, H.

    2016-01-01

    Whether anesthesia impacts brain sensory processing is a highly debated and important issue. There is a general agreement that anesthesia tends to diminish neuronal activity, but its potential impact on neuronal “tuning” is still an open question. Here we show, based on electrophysiological recordings in the primary auditory area of a female songbird, that anesthesia induces neuronal responses towards biologically irrelevant sounds and prevents the seasonal neuronal tuning towards functionally relevant species-specific song elements. PMID:27966648

  8. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  9. Sensory Detection and Responses to Toxic Gases

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2010-01-01

    The inhalation of reactive gases and vapors can lead to severe damage of the airways and lung, compromising the function of the respiratory system. Exposures to oxidizing, electrophilic, acidic, or basic gases frequently occur in occupational and ambient environments. Corrosive gases and vapors such as chlorine, phosgene, and chloropicrin were used as warfare agents and in terrorist acts. Chemical airway exposures are detected by the olfactory, gustatory, and nociceptive sensory systems that initiate protective physiological and behavioral responses. This review focuses on the role of airway nociceptive sensory neurons in chemical sensing and discusses the recent discovery of neuronal receptors for reactive chemicals. Using physiological, imaging, and genetic approaches, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels in sensory neurons were shown to respond to a wide range of noxious chemical stimuli, initiating pain, respiratory depression, cough, glandular secretions, and other protective responses. TRPA1, a TRP ion channel expressed in chemosensory C-fibers, is activated by almost all oxidizing and electrophilic chemicals, including chlorine, acrolein, tear gas agents, and methyl isocyanate, the highly noxious chemical released in the Bhopal disaster. Chemicals likely activate TRPA1 through covalent protein modification. Animal studies using TRPA1 antagonists or TRPA1-deficient mice confirmed the role of TRPA1 in chemically induced respiratory reflexes, pain, and inflammation in vivo. New research shows that sensory neurons are not merely passive sensors of chemical exposures. Sensory channels such as TRPA1 are essential for maintenance of airway inflammation in asthma and may contribute to the progression of airway injury following high-level chemical exposures. PMID:20601631

  10. Sensory Biology: Novel Peripheral Organization for Better Smell.

    PubMed

    Wall, Crystal M; Zhao, Haiqing

    2015-10-05

    Sensory systems have adopted various ways to enhance detection and discrimination. A recent study shows a novel spatial organization of sensory cells in the peripheral olfactory system in mice for better odor detection.

  11. Fusion of multi-sensory saliency maps for automated perception and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.

    2009-05-01

    In many real-world situations and applications that involve humans or machines (e.g., situation awareness, scene understanding, driver distraction, workload reduction, assembly, robotics, etc.) multiple sensory modalities (e.g., vision, auditory, touch, etc.) are used. The incoming sensory information can overwhelm processing capabilities of both humans and machines. An approach for estimating what is most important in our sensory environment (bottom-up or goal-driven) and using that as a basis for workload reduction or taking an action could be of great benefit in applications involving humans, machines or human-machine interactions. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for determining high saliency stimuli in multi-modal sensory environments, e.g., vision, sound, touch, etc. In such environments, the high saliency stimuli could be a visual object, a sound source, a touch event, etc. The high saliency stimuli are important and should be attended to from perception, cognition or/and action perspective. The system accomplishes this by the fusion of saliency maps from multiple sensory modalities (e.g., visual and auditory) into a single, fused multimodal saliency map that is represented in a common, higher-level coordinate system. This paper describes the computational model and method for generating multi-modal or fused saliency map. The fused saliency map can be used to determine primary and secondary foci of attention as well as for active control of a hardware/device. Such a computational model of fused saliency map would be immensely useful for a machine-based or robot-based application in a multi-sensory environment. We describe the approach, system and present preliminary results on a real-robotic platform.

  12. Sensory gating of an embryonic zebrafish interneuron during spontaneous motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Knogler, Laura D; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In all but the simplest monosynaptic reflex arcs, sensory stimuli are encoded by sensory neurons that transmit a signal via sensory interneurons to downstream partners in order to elicit a response. In the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio), cutaneous Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons fire in response to mechanical stimuli and excite downstream glutamatergic commissural primary ascending (CoPA) interneurons to produce a flexion response contralateral to the site of stimulus. In the absence of sensory stimuli, zebrafish spinal locomotor circuits are spontaneously active during development due to pacemaker activity resulting in repetitive coiling of the trunk. Self-generated movement must therefore be distinguishable from external stimuli in order to ensure the appropriate activation of touch reflexes. Here, we recorded from CoPAs during spontaneous and evoked fictive motor behaviors in order to examine how responses to self-movement are gated in sensory interneurons. During spontaneous coiling, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs coincident with contralateral flexions that shunted firing for the duration of the coiling event. Shunting inactivation of CoPAs was caused by a slowly deactivating chloride conductance that resulted in lowered membrane resistance and increased action potential threshold. During spontaneous burst swimming, which develops later, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs that arrived in phase with excitation to ipsilateral motoneurons and provided persistent shunting. During a touch stimulus, short latency glutamatergic inputs produced cationic currents through AMPA receptors that drove a single, large amplitude action potential in the CoPA before shunting inhibition began, providing a brief window for the activation of downstream neurons. We compared the properties of CoPAs to those of other spinal neurons and propose that glycinergic signaling onto CoPAs acts as a corollary discharge signal for reflex inhibition during movement.

  13. Haptic wearables as sensory replacement, sensory augmentation and trainer - a review.

    PubMed

    Shull, Peter B; Damian, Dana D

    2015-07-20

    Sensory impairments decrease quality of life and can slow or hinder rehabilitation. Small, computationally powerful electronics have enabled the recent development of wearable systems aimed to improve function for individuals with sensory impairments. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current haptic wearable research for clinical applications involving sensory impairments. We define haptic wearables as untethered, ungrounded body worn devices that interact with skin directly or through clothing and can be used in natural environments outside a laboratory. Results of this review are categorized by degree of sensory impairment. Total impairment, such as in an amputee, blind, or deaf individual, involves haptics acting as sensory replacement; partial impairment, as is common in rehabilitation, involves haptics as sensory augmentation; and no impairment involves haptics as trainer. This review found that wearable haptic devices improved function for a variety of clinical applications including: rehabilitation, prosthetics, vestibular loss, osteoarthritis, vision loss and hearing loss. Future haptic wearables development should focus on clinical needs, intuitive and multimodal haptic displays, low energy demands, and biomechanical compliance for long-term usage.

  14. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  15. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  16. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  17. Sensory Integration and Its Effects on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Judy

    This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…

  18. Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Implications for Counselors Working with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Rebecca L.

    2007-01-01

    Sensory Integration Dysfunction (SID), a sensory processing problem that afflicts about 15% of children, sets many children on a developmental trajectory of emotional and social problems. Children with SID often unintentionally alienate parents, peers, and teachers in their efforts to modify the amounts of sensory stimulation they receive. They…

  19. Biological Correlates of Cognitive, Sensory and Motor Abilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    function through- out the spectrum from stimulus to organized, conscious, behavioral response. The a Ivances that reasonably can be expected from...correlates and to relate somatic sensory processes to behavior . In this report, somaesthesis refers essentially to all the sensory systems except the...build a comprehensive understanding of somatic sensory biology and it^ influence on human behavior and performance capabilities. The identification

  20. Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates the scientific basis (primarily gained through uncontrolled, descriptive studies) of various sensory and motor interventions for children with autism and concludes that most categories of interventions, including sensory integration, sensory stimulation approaches, auditory integration training, and prism lenses, have shown…

  1. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory…

  2. National survey of sensory features in children with ASD: factor structure of the sensory experience questionnaire (3.0).

    PubMed

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T

    2014-04-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e., hyporesponsiveness; hyperresponsiveness; sensory interests, repetitions and seeking behaviors; enhanced perception), five method factors of sensory modalities (i.e., auditory, visual, tactile, gustatory/olfactory, vestibular/proprioceptive), and one of social context were tested with good model fit. Child and family characteristics associated with the sensory response patterns were explored. The effect of sensory response patterns on autism severity was tested, controlling for key child and family characteristics. The SEQ-3.0 demonstrates an empirically valid factor structure specific to ASD that considers sensory response patterns, modalities, and social context.

  3. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... D blood test. This test is recommended because vitamin D deficiency is common in people with primary hyperparathyroidism. How ... bone density measurements every 1 to 2 years. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected if present. Patients who are ...

  4. Pure sensory stroke due to bilateral basal ganglion hemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Murat; Akkaya, Omer; Onar, Musa

    2010-07-01

    Bilateral simultaneous hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages are extremely rare. The predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the development of this picture are not well known. Possible mechanisms of simultaneous multiple hemorrhages include concomitant primary hemorrhages in two or more regions, or development of a second hemorrhage in another region shortly after the primary hemorrhage. The etiology of the cases presenting with bilateral simultaneous basal ganglion hemorrhage include migraine, lightning stroke, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma, hypertension and diabetic ketoacidosis coma. Bilateral simultaneous hemorrhage has a poor prognosis. The case of bilateral simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presented here had a good clinical course similar to a pure sensorial stroke.

  5. In vitro differentiation of quail neural crest cells into sensory-like neuroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber-Blum, Maya; Kumar, Sanjiv R.; Riley, Danny A.

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented that demonstrate the ability of quail neural-crest embrionic cells grown as primary culture to differentiate in vitro into sensorylike neuroblasts. After 7-14 days of growth as primary culture, many of the putative sensory neuroblasts displayed substance P (SP)-like immunoreactivity and some exhibited histochemical carbonic anhydrase activity. Double staining experiments showed that the SP-like immunoreactive neuroblasts did not contain detectable levels of tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. The neuronal nature of the cultured sensorylike neuroblasts was further documented by double labeling for antibodies against the 68 kDa neurofilament polypeptide and substance P.

  6. Primary cilia: a link between hormone signalling and endocrine-related cancers?

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Samuel M; Chapple, J Paul

    2016-10-15

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that play a role as signalling hubs. Disruption of primary cilia structure and function is increasingly recognised in a range of cancers, with a growing body of evidence suggesting that ciliary disruption contributes to tumourigenesis. This review considers the role of primary cilia in the pathogenesis of endocrine-related cancers.

  7. National Survey of Sensory Features in Children with ASD: Factor Structure of the Sensory Experience Questionnaire (3.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M.; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e.,…

  8. Sensory deprivation disrupts homeostatic regeneration of newly generated olfactory sensory neurons after injury in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Shu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagayama, Shin; Kanaya, Kaori; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kondo, Kenji; Tsunoda, Koichi; Mori, Kensaku; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-02-11

    Although it is well known that injury induces the generation of a substantial number of new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the adult olfactory epithelium (OE), it is not well understood whether olfactory sensory input influences the survival and maturation of these injury-induced OSNs in adults. Here, we investigated whether olfactory sensory deprivation affected the dynamic incorporation of newly generated OSNs 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after injury in adult mice. Mice were unilaterally deprived of olfactory sensory input by inserting a silicone tube into their nostrils. Methimazole, an olfactotoxic drug, was also injected intraperitoneally to bilaterally ablate OSNs. The OE was restored to its preinjury condition with new OSNs by day 28. No significant differences in the numbers of olfactory marker protein-positive mature OSNs or apoptotic OSNs were observed between the deprived and nondeprived sides 0-7 d after injury. However, between days 7 and 28, the sensory-deprived side showed markedly fewer OSNs and mature OSNs, but more apoptotic OSNs, than the nondeprived side. Intrinsic functional imaging of the dorsal surface of the olfactory bulb at day 28 revealed that responses to odor stimulation were weaker in the deprived side compared with those in the nondeprived side. Furthermore, prevention of cell death in new neurons 7-14 d after injury promoted the recovery of the OE. These results indicate that, in the adult OE, sensory deprivation disrupts compensatory OSN regeneration after injury and that newly generated OSNs have a critical time window for sensory-input-dependent survival 7-14 d after injury.

  9. Overlapping structures in sensory-motor mappings.

    PubMed

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots.

  10. Self Calibrated Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fishbain, Barak; Moreno-Centeno, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in sensory and communication technologies have made Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensory Networks (WDESN) technically and economically feasible. WDESNs present an unprecedented tool for studying many environmental processes in a new way. However, the WDESNs’ calibration process is a major obstacle in them becoming the common practice. Here, we present a new, robust and efficient method for aggregating measurements acquired by an uncalibrated WDESN, and producing accurate estimates of the observed environmental variable’s true levels rendering the network as self-calibrated. The suggested method presents novelty both in group-decision-making and in environmental sensing as it offers a most valuable tool for distributed environmental monitoring data aggregation. Applying the method on an extensive real-life air-pollution dataset showed markedly more accurate results than the common practice and the state-of-the-art. PMID:27098279

  11. Sensory and foaming properties of sparkling cider.

    PubMed

    Picinelli Lobo, Anna; Fernández Tascón, Norman; Rodríguez Madrera, Roberto; Suárez Valles, Belén

    2005-12-28

    The effect of yeast strain and aging time on the chemical composition, analytical, and sensory foam properties of sparkling ciders has been studied. The analytical foam parameters (foamability, HM; Bikerman coefficient, sigma; and foam stability time, T(s)) were significantly influenced by aging and yeast strain. The sensory attributes (initial foam, foam area persistence, bubble size, foam collar, and overall foam quality) improved with aging time. Likewise, the yeast strain positively influenced the assessment of initial foam, foam area persistence, number of bubble chains, and overall foam quality. Significant and positive correlations were found between alcoholic proof, dry extract, total and volatile acidities, total phenols and total proteins, and sigma, whereas HM was negatively correlated with specific gravity, alcoholic proof, dry extract, and total proteins.

  12. Overlapping Structures in Sensory-Motor Mappings

    PubMed Central

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots. PMID:24392118

  13. Self Calibrated Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensory Networks.

    PubMed

    Fishbain, Barak; Moreno-Centeno, Erick

    2016-04-21

    Recent advances in sensory and communication technologies have made Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensory Networks (WDESN) technically and economically feasible. WDESNs present an unprecedented tool for studying many environmental processes in a new way. However, the WDESNs' calibration process is a major obstacle in them becoming the common practice. Here, we present a new, robust and efficient method for aggregating measurements acquired by an uncalibrated WDESN, and producing accurate estimates of the observed environmental variable's true levels rendering the network as self-calibrated. The suggested method presents novelty both in group-decision-making and in environmental sensing as it offers a most valuable tool for distributed environmental monitoring data aggregation. Applying the method on an extensive real-life air-pollution dataset showed markedly more accurate results than the common practice and the state-of-the-art.

  14. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  15. Sensory Cortical Control of a Visually Induced Arrest Behavior via Corticotectal Projections

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Feixue; Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Zhang, Li I.; Tao, Huizhong W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Innate defense behaviors (IDBs) evoked by threatening sensory stimuli are essential for animal survival. Although subcortical circuits are implicated in IDBs, it remains largely unclear whether sensory cortex modulates IDBs and what are the underlying neural pathways. Here, we show that optogenetic silencing of corticotectal projections from layer 5 (L5) of the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to the superior colliculus (SC) significantly reduces a SC-dependent innate behavior, i.e. temporary suspension of locomotion upon a sudden flash of light as short as milliseconds. Surprisingly, optogenetic activation of SC-projecting neurons in V1 or their axon terminals in SC sufficiently elicits the behavior, in contrast to other major L5 corticofugal projections. Thus, via the same corticofugal projection, visual cortex not only modulates the light-induced arrest behavior, but also can directly drive the behavior. Our results suggest that sensory cortex may play a previously unrecognized role in the top-down initiation of sensory-motor behaviors. PMID:25913860

  16. Clinical results and thoughts on sensory nerve repair by autologous vein graft in emergency hand reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Risitano, G; Cavallaro, G; Merrino, T; Coppolino, S; Ruggeri, F

    2002-05-01

    Lesions of the digital and other sensory nerves in the hand are common. Based on experimental studies on vein graft as a support for peripheral nerve regeneration, the Authors have been using a simple vein graft to bridge sensory nerve gaps when treating acute hand injuries. This is a retrospective study on the results of 22 sensory nerves repaired using vein grafts in cases in which primary suture was not feasible, in emergency hand reconstruction. Patients were informed that a secondary nerve graft could possibly be necessary in the future. Patients were reviewed by two independent observers at least one year after repair and evaluated using the Highest scale as modified by MacKinnon & Dellon. Evaluation chart included influence of repair on rehabilitation program and presence of painful neuromas and scars as well as patient satisfaction. Results were classified according to Sakellarides and 20/22 were classified as very good or good. Cases classified as poor were satisfied and no secondary nerve grafting has been carried out. Rehabilitation of the associated lesions (tendon lacerations or bone and soft tissue damage) was not influenced by the nerve repair and no painful neuroma was reported in the series. In conclusion, since the literature shows unsatisfactory results in repair of digital nerves with nerve grafts, since it's been demonstrated that an unrepaired sensory nerve leads to painful scar and painful neuroma and since we are reluctant to use nerve grafts in emergency procedures, we recommend this simple method because it is easy, low-cost and effective.

  17. Knockdown of poc1b causes abnormal photoreceptor sensory cilium and vision impairment in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Conghui; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Fang; Liu, Qin

    2015-10-02

    Proteomic analysis of the mouse photoreceptor sensory cilium identified a set of cilia proteins, including Poc1 centriolar protein b (Poc1b). Previous functional studies in human cells and zebrafish embryos implicated that Poc1b plays important roles in centriole duplication and length control, as well as ciliogenesis. To study the function of Poc1b in photoreceptor sensory cilia and other primary cilia, we expressed a tagged recombinant Poc1b protein in cultured renal epithelial cells and rat retina. Poc1b was localized to the centrioles and spindle bundles during cell cycle progression, and to the basal body of photoreceptor sensory cilia. A morpholino knockdown and complementation assay of poc1b in zebrafish showed that loss of poc1b led to a range of morphological anomalies of cilia commonly associated with human ciliopathies. In the retina, the development of retinal laminae was significantly delayed and the length of photoreceptor outer segments was shortened. Visual behavior studies revealed impaired visual function in the poc1b morphants. In addition, ciliopathy-associated developmental defects, such as small eyes, curved body axis, heart defects, and shortened cilia in Kupffer's vesicle, were observed as well. These data suggest that poc1b is required for normal development and ciliogenesis of retinal photoreceptor sensory cilia and other cilia. Furthermore, this conclusion is supported by recent findings that mutations in POC1B gene have been identified in patients with inherited retinal dystrophy and syndromic retinal ciliopathy.

  18. Functional organization of motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys is altered by sensory loss in infancy.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Jain, Neeraj; Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2010-02-16

    When somatosensory cortex (S1) is deprived of some of its inputs after section of ascending afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, it reorganizes to overrepresent the surviving inputs. As somatosensory cortex provides guiding sensory information to motor cortex, such sensory loss and representational reorganization could affect the development of the motor map in primary motor cortex (M1), especially if the sensory loss occurs early in development. To address this possibility, the dorsal columns of the spinal cord were sectioned between cervical levels (C3-5) 3-12 days after birth in five macaque monkeys. After 3-5 years of maturation (young adults), we determined how movements were represented in M1 contralateral to the lesion by using microelectrodes to electrically stimulate sites in M1 to evoke movements. Although the details of the motor maps in these five monkeys varied, the forelimb motor maps were abnormal. The representations of digit movements were reduced and abnormally arranged. Current levels for evoking movements from the forelimb region of M1 were in the normal range, but the lowest mean stimulation thresholds were for wrist or elbow instead of digit movements. Incomplete lesions and bilateral lesions produced fewer abnormalities. The results suggest that the development of normal motor cortex maps in M1 depends on sensory feedback from somatosensory maps.

  19. Sensory Cortical Control of a Visually Induced Arrest Behavior via Corticotectal Projections.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feixue; Xiong, Xiaorui R; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Zhang, Li I; Tao, Huizhong W

    2015-05-06

    Innate defense behaviors (IDBs) evoked by threatening sensory stimuli are essential for animal survival. Although subcortical circuits are implicated in IDBs, it remains largely unclear whether sensory cortex modulates IDBs and what the underlying neural pathways are. Here, we show that optogenetic silencing of corticotectal projections from layer 5 (L5) of the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to the superior colliculus (SC) significantly reduces an SC-dependent innate behavior (i.e., temporary suspension of locomotion upon a sudden flash of light as short as milliseconds). Surprisingly, optogenetic activation of SC-projecting neurons in V1 or their axon terminals in SC sufficiently elicits the behavior, in contrast to other major L5 corticofugal projections. Thus, via the same corticofugal projection, visual cortex not only modulates the light-induced arrest behavior, but also can directly drive the behavior. Our results suggest that sensory cortex may play a previously unrecognized role in the top-down initiation of sensory-motor behaviors.

  20. Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?

    PubMed Central

    Boudes, Mathieu; Scamps, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs) are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano- and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a is acutely activated by inflammatory mediators in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (re)growth. PMID:22461766

  1. The role of sensory cortex in behavioral flexibility.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Ponvert, Nicholas D; Jaramillo, Santiago

    2017-03-14

    To thrive in a changing environment, organisms evolved strategies for rapidly modifying their behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. In this review, we investigate the role of sensory cortical circuits in these flexible behaviors. First, we provide a framework for classifying tasks in which flexibility is required. We then present studies in animal models which demonstrate that responses of sensory cortical neurons depend on the expected outcome associated with a stimulus. Last, we discuss inactivation studies which indicate that sensory cortex facilitates behavioral flexibility, but is not always required for adapting to changes in environmental conditions. This analysis provides insights into the contributions of cortical and subcortical sensory circuits to flexibility in behavior.

  2. Noradrenergic and cholinergic modulation of olfactory bulb sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Sasha; Linster, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Neuromodulation in sensory perception serves important functions such as regulation of signal to noise ratio, attention, and modulation of learning and memory. Neuromodulators in specific sensory areas often have highly similar cellular, but distinct behavioral effects. To address this issue, we here review the function and role of two neuromodulators, acetylcholine (Ach) and noradrenaline (NE) for olfactory sensory processing in the adult main olfactory bulb. We first describe specific bulbar sensory computations, review cellular effects of each modulator and then address their specific roles in bulbar sensory processing. We finally put these data in a behavioral and computational perspective. PMID:22905025

  3. Attention Wins over Sensory Attenuation in a Sound Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liyu; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sensory attenuation’, i.e., reduced neural responses to self-induced compared to externally generated stimuli, is a well-established phenomenon. However, very few studies directly compared sensory attenuation with attention effect, which leads to increased neural responses. In this study, we brought sensory attenuation and attention together in a behavioural auditory detection task, where both effects were quantitatively measured and compared. The classic auditory attention effect of facilitating detection performance was replicated. When attention and sensory attenuation were both present, attentional facilitation decreased but remained significant. The results are discussed in the light of current theories of sensory attenuation. PMID:26302246

  4. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Nan J.; Frangos, Eleni; Komisaruk, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Background During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. Objective This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation. Design Eleven healthy women (age range 29–74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation – were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Results Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex) and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region), and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. Conclusion The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the ‘reward system’. In addition

  5. Nonlinear high-order mode locking in stochastic sensory neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Michael; Afghan, Muhammad; Neiman, Alexander

    2004-03-01

    Excitable systems demonstrate various mode locking regimes when driven by periodic external signals. With noise taken into account, such regimes represent complex nonlinear responses which depend crucially on the frequency and amplitude of the periodic drive as well as on the noise intensity. We study this using a computational model of a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron in combination with the turtle vestibular sensory system as an experimental model. A bifurcation analysis of the model is performed. Extracellular recordings from primary vestibular afferent neurons with two types of stimuli are used in the experimental study. First, mechanical stimuli applied to the labyrinth allow us to study the responses of the entire system, including transduction by the hair cells and spike generation in the primary afferents. Second, a galvanic stimuli applied directly to an afferent are used to study the responses of afferent spike generator directly. The responses to galvanic stimuli reveal multiple high-order mode locking regimes which are well reproduced in numerical simulation. Responses to mechanical stimulation are characterized by larger variability so that fewer mode-locking regimes can be observed.

  6. Sensory Attenuation for Jointly Produced Action Effects

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, Janeen D.

    2012-01-01

    Successful joint action often requires people to distinguish between their own and others’ contributions to a shared goal. One mechanism that is thought to underlie a self-other distinction is sensory attenuation, whereby the sensory consequences of one’s own actions are reduced compared to other sensory events. Previous research has shown that the auditory N1 event-related potential (ERP) response is reduced for self-generated compared to externally generated tones. The current study examined whether attenuation also occurs for jointly generated tones, which require two people to coordinate their actions to produce a single tone. ERP responses were measured when participants generated tones alone (tone onset immediately followed the participant’s button press) or with a partner (tone onset immediately followed the participant’s or the partner’s button press, whichever occurred second). N1 attenuation was smaller for jointly generated tones compared to self-generated tones. For jointly generated tones, greater delays between the participant’s and the partner’s button presses were associated with reduced attenuation; moreover, only trials in which there was no delay between the participant’s press and tone onset showed attenuation, whereas trials in which there were delays did not show attenuation. These findings indicate that people differentiate between their own and another person’s contributions to a joint action at the sensorimotor level, even when they must act together to produce a single, shared effect. PMID:23596429

  7. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  8. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting

    PubMed Central

    Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback (FB). New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted FB. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: (1) What aspect of the movement is concerned and (2) How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on FB naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary FB provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary FB on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary FB to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets. PMID:25750633

  9. Evolution of sensory specializations in insectivores.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2005-11-01

    Although insectivores have traditionally been thought of as primitive mammals with few specializations, recent studies have revealed great diversity in the sensory systems and brain organization of members of this mammalian order. The present article reviews some of these findings in three insectivore families that are thought to form a monophyletic group. These include hedgehogs (Erinaceidae), moles (Talpidae), and shrews (Soricidae). Members of each group live in unique ecological niches, have differently specialized senses, and exhibit different behaviors. Hedgehogs have well-developed visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems. Shrews make use of visual and auditory cues, but appear to depend most heavily on touch, particularly through prominent vibrissae. Moles are somatosensory specialists with small eyes and ears and unique epidermal mechanoreceptors called Eimer's organs used to identify prey and investigate their environment. In contrast to historical views of the insectivore order, members of this group have discrete and well-organized cortical sensory areas with sharp borders as determined from both electrophysiological mapping and analysis of cortical histology. Comparison of cortical organization across species reveals a number of specializations, including expansion of cortical representations of important sensory surfaces, the addition of cortical areas to some processing networks, and the subdivision of areas into separate cortical modules. In the case of the star-nosed mole, the somatosensory system has a tactile fovea and shares a number of features in common with the visual systems of sighted mammals.

  10. Facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Chu, Lan; Tan, Liming; Zhang, Hainan

    2016-12-01

    Facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy (FOSMN) is a recently defined slowly progressive motor neuron disorder. It is characterized by facial onset sensory abnormalities which may spread to the scalp, neck, upper trunk and extremities, followed by lower motor neuron deficits. Bulbar symptoms, such as dysarthria and dysphagia, muscle weakness, cramps and fasciculations, can present later in the course of the disease. We search the PubMed database for articles published in English from 2006 to 2016 using the term of "Facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy". Reference lists of the identified articles were selected and reviewed. Only 38 cases of FOSMN have been reported in the Pubmed database since it was first reported in 2006. Typically, FOSMN present with slowly evolving numbness of the face followed by neck and arm weakness. Reduced or absent of corneal reflexes and blink reflex is the main pathognomonic features of FOSMN. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, clinical presentation, auxiliary examination, and treatment of all the reported cases of FOSMN. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenesis of this rare disorder. In addition, we propose diagnostic criteria for FOSMN.

  11. Receptor Guanylyl Cyclases in Sensory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2017-01-01

    Invertebrate models have generated many new insights into transmembrane signaling by cell-surface receptors. This review focuses on receptor guanylyl cyclases (rGCs) and describes recent advances in understanding their roles in sensory processing in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. A complete analysis of the C. elegans genome elucidated 27 rGCs, an unusually large number compared with mammalian genomes, which encode 7 rGCs. Most C. elegans rGCs are expressed in sensory neurons and play roles in sensory processing, including gustation, thermosensation, olfaction, and phototransduction, among others. Recent studies have found that by producing a second messenger, guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, some rGCs act as direct sensor molecules for ions and temperatures, while others relay signals from G protein-coupled receptors. Interestingly, genetic and biochemical analyses of rGCs provide the first example of an obligate heterodimeric rGC. Based on recent structural studies of rGCs in mammals and other organisms, molecular mechanisms underlying activation of rGCs are also discussed in this review. PMID:28123378

  12. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O; AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism participated in this study. The sensory processing functions of both groups were assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. [Results] The overall findings indicated that 84.8% of children with autism demonstrated definite sensory processing dysfunction. The most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the under-responsive/seeks sensation (89.13%), auditory filtering (73.90%), and tactile sensitivity (60.87%) domains. Most of the children without autism (66.66%) demonstrated typical sensory function; the most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the tactile sensitivity (33.3%), under-responsive/seeks sensation (23.33%), and movement sensitivity (20%) domains. [Conclusion] Saudi Arabian children with and without autism have clinically significant sensory dysfunctions. However, the prevalence of those sensory dysfunctions in children with autism is significantly higher than in the children without autism.

  13. Sensory over-responsivity in adults with autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Miller, Lucy J; Schoen, Sarah A; Nielsen, Darci M; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Anecdotal reports and empirical evidence suggest that sensory processing issues are a key feature of autism spectrum conditions. This study set out to investigate whether adults with autism spectrum conditions report more sensory over-responsivity than adults without autism spectrum conditions. Another goal of the study was to identify whether autistic traits in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions were associated with sensory over-responsivity. Adults with (n = 221) and without (n = 181) autism spectrum conditions participated in an online survey. The Autism Spectrum Quotient, the Raven Matrices and the Sensory Processing Scale were used to characterize the sample. Adults with autism spectrum conditions reported more sensory over-responsivity than control participants across various sensory domains (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory and proprioceptive). Sensory over-responsivity correlated positively with autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient) at a significant level across groups and within groups. Adults with autism spectrum conditions experience sensory over-responsivity to daily sensory stimuli to a high degree. A positive relationship exists between sensory over-responsivity and autistic traits. Understanding sensory over-responsivity and ways of measuring it in adults with autism spectrum conditions has implications for research and clinical settings.

  14. Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; van der Meulen, Marjon F G; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Vrancken, Alexander F J E; Franssen, Hessel; Notermans, Nicolette C

    2010-08-01

    Migrant sensory neuropathy (Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis) is characterized by sudden numbness in the distribution of one or multiple cutaneous nerves. To study disease course and outcome, we prospectively followed 12 patients who presented to our tertiary referral neuromuscular outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2004. Medical history, neurological, laboratory and electrophysiological examinations were obtained from all patients. All patients were reviewed a second time in 2007, and five had a follow-up electrophysiological examination. At the first visit, 50% described an episode of stretching preceding the sensory complaints. All but three described pain in the affected area before or concomitant with sensory loss. At clinical examination a median of six skin areas were affected, and in 75% this could be confirmed by nerve conduction studies in at least one nerve. Forty-two percent had involvement of the trigeminal nerve. After a mean disease duration of 7.5 years, three patients reported a complete disappearance of sensory complaints and five that the pain had disappeared, but numbness remained. Three patients still had both painful and numb sensory deficits. One patient developed a distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy. In conclusion, Wartenberg's sensory neuritis is a distinct, exclusively sensory, neuropathy, marked by pain preceding numbness in affected nerves. An episode of stretching preceding pain is not necessary for the diagnosis. Wartenberg's sensory neuritis often retains its spotty, exclusively sensory characteristics after long term follow-up.

  15. Primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Madkhali, Tarıq; Alhefdhi, Amal; Chen, Herbert; Elfenbein, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder caused by overactivation of parathyroid glands resulting in excessive release of parathyroid hormone. The resultant hypercalcemia leads to a myriad of symptoms. Primary hyperparathyroidism may increase a patient’s morbidity and even mortality if left untreated. During the last few decades, disease presentation has shifted from the classic presentation of severe bone and kidney manifestations to most patients now being diagnosed on routine labs. Although surgery is the only curative therapy, many advances have been made over the past decades in the diagnosis and the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of the disease, the work up, and the treatment options. PMID:26985167

  16. Does sensory relearning improve tactile function after carpal tunnel decompression? A pragmatic, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Jerosch-Herold, C.; Houghton, J.; Miller, L.; Shepstone, L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome being effective in 80%–90% of cases, chronic numbness and hand disability can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sensory relearning improves tactile discrimination and hand function after decompression. In a multi-centre, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial, 104 patients were randomized to a sensory relearning (n = 52) or control (n = 52) group. A total of 93 patients completed a 12-week follow-up. Primary outcome was the shape-texture identification test at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes were touch threshold, touch localization, dexterity and self-reported hand function. No significant group differences were seen for the primary outcome (Shape-Texture Identification) at 6 weeks or 12 weeks. Similarly, no significant group differences were observed on secondary outcomes, with the exception of self-reported hand function. A secondary complier-averaged-causal-effects analysis showed no statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome. Sensory relearning for tactile sensory and functional deficits after carpal tunnel decompression is not effective. Level of Evidence: II PMID:27402282

  17. [Sensory integration: benefits and effectiveness of therapeutic management in sensory processing disorders].

    PubMed

    Tudela-Torras, M; Abad-Mas, L; Tudela-Torras, E

    2017-02-24

    Today, the fact that sensory integration difficulties with a neurological basis exist and that they seriously condition the development of those individuals who suffer from them is widely accepted and acknowledged as being obvious by the vast majority of professionals working in the field of community healthcare. However, less is known and there is more controversy about effective treatments that can be applied to them. This is because many professionals criticise the fact that there is not enough scientific evidence to prove, both quantitatively and empirically, the outcomes of the interventions implemented as alternatives to pharmacological therapy. Consequently, when the symptoms and repercussions on the quality of life deriving from a distorted sensory integration are really disabling for the person, pharmacological treatment is used as the only possible approach, with the side effects that this entails. The reason for this is largely the fact that little is known about other effective therapeutic approaches, such as occupational therapy based on sensory integration.

  18. Aggregation of sensory data using fuzzy logic for sensory quality evaluation of food.

    PubMed

    Debjani, Chakraborty; Das, Shrilekha; Das, H

    2013-12-01

    A method of sensory evaluation using fuzzy logic has been proposed in this paper. The method was applied for evaluation of sensory quality of tea liquor made out of dried CTC tea. Linguistic data (e.g., excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, fair, not-satisfactory, etc.) on individual tea liquor's quality attributes and the perception of the evaluators (e.g., extremely important, highly important, important, somewhat important, not-at-all important, etc.) for relative importance of these quality attributes were obtained. Sensory score between 0 and 100 for (i) Judges' preference for different quality attributes of tea liquor in general, (ii) Quality attributes ranking of tea liquor and the (ii) Overall quality of tea liquor were estimated. The last one can be utilized for the ranking of the different tea liquors.

  19. [Primary hyperoxaluria].

    PubMed

    Cochat, Pierre; Fargue, Sonia; Bacchetta, Justine; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Sabot, Jean-François; Harambat, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Primary hyperoxalurias are rare recessive inherited inborn errors of glyoxylate metabolism. They are responsible for progressive renal involvement, which further lead to systemic oxalate deposition, which can even occur in infants. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is the most common form in Europe and is due to alanine-glyoxylate aminostransferase deficiency, a hepatic peroxisomal pyridoxin-dependent enzyme. Therefore primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is responsible for hyperoxaluria leading to aggressive stone formation and nephrocalcinosis. As glomerular filtration rate decreases, systemic oxalate storage occurs throughout all the body, and mainly in the skeleton. The diagnosis is first based on urine oxalate measurement, then on genotyping, which may also allow prenatal diagnosis to be proposed. Conservative measures - including hydration, crystallization inhibitors and pyridoxine - are safe and may allow long lasting renal survival, provided it is given as soon as the diagnosis has been even suspected. No dialysis procedure can remove enough oxalate to compensate oxalate overproduction from the sick liver, therefore a combined liver and kidney transplantation should be planned before advanced renal disease has occurred, in order to limit/avoid systemic oxalate deposition. In the future, primary hyperoxaluria type 1 may benefit from hepatocyte transplantation, chaperone molecules, etc.

  20. Sensory integration therapies for children with developmental and behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Michelle; Desch, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Sensory-based therapies are increasingly used by occupational therapists and sometimes by other types of therapists in treatment of children with developmental and behavioral disorders. Sensory-based therapies involve activities that are believed to organize the sensory system by providing vestibular, proprioceptive, auditory, and tactile inputs. Brushes, swings, balls, and other specially designed therapeutic or recreational equipment are used to provide these inputs. However, it is unclear whether children who present with sensory-based problems have an actual "disorder" of the sensory pathways of the brain or whether these deficits are characteristics associated with other developmental and behavioral disorders. Because there is no universally accepted framework for diagnosis, sensory processing disorder generally should not be diagnosed. Other developmental and behavioral disorders must always be considered, and a thorough evaluation should be completed. Difficulty tolerating or processing sensory information is a characteristic that may be seen in many developmental behavioral disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorders, and childhood anxiety disorders. Occupational therapy with the use of sensory-based therapies may be acceptable as one of the components of a comprehensive treatment plan. However, parents should be informed that the amount of research regarding the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy is limited and inconclusive. Important roles for pediatricians and other clinicians may include discussing these limitations with parents, talking with families about a trial period of sensory integration therapy, and teaching families how to evaluate the effectiveness of a therapy.

  1. Sensory modulation in preterm children: Theoretical perspective and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Jansma, Elise P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children. Aim This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation) and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems. Method Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation) or with prematurity as a risk factor. Results Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies. Conclusions Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems. PMID:28182680

  2. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  3. Effects of aging and sensory loss on glial cells in mouse visual and auditory cortices.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marie-Ève; Zettel, Martha L; Ison, James R; Allen, Paul D; Majewska, Ania K

    2012-04-01

    Normal aging is often accompanied by a progressive loss of receptor sensitivity in hearing and vision, whose consequences on cellular function in cortical sensory areas have remained largely unknown. By examining the primary auditory (A1) and visual (V1) cortices in two inbred strains of mice undergoing either age-related loss of audition (C57BL/6J) or vision (CBA/CaJ), we were able to describe cellular and subcellular changes that were associated with normal aging (occurring in A1 and V1 of both strains) or specifically with age-related sensory loss (only in A1 of C57BL/6J or V1 of CBA/CaJ), using immunocytochemical electron microscopy and light microscopy. While the changes were subtle in neurons, glial cells and especially microglia were transformed in aged animals. Microglia became more numerous and irregularly distributed, displayed more variable cell body and process morphologies, occupied smaller territories, and accumulated phagocytic inclusions that often displayed ultrastructural features of synaptic elements. Additionally, evidence of myelination defects were observed, and aged oligodendrocytes became more numerous and were more often encountered in contiguous pairs. Most of these effects were profoundly exacerbated by age-related sensory loss. Together, our results suggest that the age-related alteration of glial cells in sensory cortical areas can be accelerated by activity-driven central mechanisms that result from an age-related loss of peripheral sensitivity. In light of our observations, these age-related changes in sensory function should be considered when investigating cellular, cortical, and behavioral functions throughout the lifespan in these commonly used C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ mouse models.

  4. Intrafascicular stimulation of monkey arm nerves evokes coordinated grasp and sensory responses

    PubMed Central

    Ledbetter, Noah M.; Ethier, Christian; Oby, Emily R.; Hiatt, Scott D.; Wilder, Andrew M.; Ko, Jason H.; Agnew, Sonya P.; Miller, Lee E.

    2013-01-01

    High-count microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves could restore motor function after spinal cord injury or sensory function after limb loss. In this study, we implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) intrafascicularly at the elbow or shoulder in arm nerves of rhesus monkeys (n = 4) under isoflurane anesthesia. Input-output curves indicated that pulse-width-modulated single-electrode stimulation in each arm nerve could recruit single muscles with little or no recruitment of other muscles. Stimulus trains evoked specific, natural, hand movements, which could be combined via multielectrode stimulation to elicit coordinated power or pinch grasp. Stimulation also elicited short-latency evoked potentials (EPs) in primary somatosensory cortex, which might be used to provide sensory feedback from a prosthetic limb. These results demonstrate a high-resolution, high-channel-count interface to the peripheral nervous system for restoring hand function after neural injury or disruption or for examining nerve structure. PMID:23076108

  5. A Functional Role for VEGFR1 Expressed in Peripheral Sensory Neurons in Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Deepitha; Gangadharan, Vijayan; Michalski, Christoph W.; Kurejova, Martina; Stösser, Sebastian; Srivastava, Kshitij; Schweizerhof, Matthias; Waltenberger, Johannes; Ferrara, Napoleone; Heppenstall, Paul; Shibuya, Masabumi; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Kuner, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cancer pain is a debilitating disorder and a primary determinant of the poor quality of life. Here, we report a non-vascular role for ligands of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) family in cancer pain. Tumor-derived VEGF-A, PLGF-2, and VEGF-B augment pain sensitivity through selective activation of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) expressed in sensory neurons in human cancer and mouse models. Sensory-neuron-specific genetic deletion/silencing or local or systemic blockade of VEGFR1 prevented tumor-induced nerve remodeling and attenuated cancer pain in diverse mouse models in vivo. These findings identify a therapeutic potential for VEGFR1-modifying drugs in cancer pain and suggest a palliative effect for VEGF/VEGFR1-targeting anti-angiogenic tumor therapies. PMID:26058077

  6. Synaptic diversity enables temporal coding of coincident multi-sensory inputs in single neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chabrol, François P.; Arenz, Alexander; Wiechert, Martin T.; Margrie, Troy W.; DiGregorio, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the brain to rapidly process information from multiple pathways is critical for reliable execution of complex sensory-motor behaviors, yet the cellular mechanisms underlying a neuronal representation of multimodal stimuli are poorly understood. Here we explored the possibility that the physiological diversity of mossy fiber (MF) to granule cell (GC) synapses within the mouse vestibulocerebellum may contribute to the processing of coincident multisensory information at the level of individual GCs. We found that the strength and short-term dynamics of individual MF-GC synapses can act as biophysical signatures for primary vestibular, secondary vestibular and visual input pathways. The majority of GCs receive inputs from different modalities, which when co-activated, produced enhanced GC firing rates and distinct first spike latencies. Thus, pathway-specific synaptic response properties permit temporal coding of correlated multisensory input by single GCs, thereby enriching sensory representation and facilitating pattern separation. PMID:25821914

  7. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase CLR-1 acts in skin cells to promote sensory dendrite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianzhuang; Wang, Xiangming; Shen, Kang

    2016-05-01

    Sensory dendrite morphogenesis is directed by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The extracellular environment plays instructive roles in patterning dendrite growth and branching. However, the molecular mechanism is not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the proprioceptive neuron PVD forms highly branched sensory dendrites adjacent to the hypodermis. We report that receptor tyrosine phosphatase CLR-1 functions in the hypodermis to pattern the PVD dendritic branches. Mutations in clr-1 lead to loss of quaternary branches, reduced secondary branches and increased ectopic branches. CLR-1 is necessary for the dendrite extension but not for the initial filopodia formation. Its role is dependent on the intracellular phosphatase domain but not the extracellular adhesion domain, indicating that it functions through dephosphorylating downstream factors but not through direct adhesion with neurons. Genetic analysis reveals that clr-1 also functions in parallel with SAX-7/DMA-1 pathway to control PVD primary dendrite development. We provide evidence of a new environmental factor for PVD dendrite morphogenesis.

  8. The Drosophila female aphrodisiac pheromone activates ppk23(+) sensory neurons to elicit male courtship behavior.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hirofumi; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Dickson, Barry J

    2012-06-28

    Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23(+) neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23(+) sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila.

  9. [Should biopsy be done on the sensory branch of the radial nerve in leprosy patients? Apropos of 112 cases].

    PubMed

    Grauwin, M Y; Dieye, M; Mane, I; Cartel, J L

    1997-01-01

    Biopsies of the superficial sensory branch of the radial nerve are contested. Some authors mention it to be simple and without harm, but others are formally against this procedure. At ILAD, 274 biopsies were made between 1986 to 1992. We present a review of 112 leprosy patients for whom biopsy was done. On 112 reexamined patients, we observed 2 benign neuroma, hence 2%. The comparison of nerve function before biopsy and after, of 63 of the 112 patients, reexamination shows no significant modification of the functional score. Given even the occurrence of benign neuroma in only 2% of the cases, the authors do not recommend the biopsy of the superficial sensory branch of the radial nerve. For research purposes on neuritis in leprosy, as well as to assure diagnosis in primary neuritic leprosy, we propose the biopsy of the sensory branch of the musculo cutaneous nerve at elbow level.

  10. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions

  11. Building sensory receptors on the tongue.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Bruce; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    Neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and sensory neurons are required for the development of lingual sense organs. For example, neurotrophin 3 sustains lingual somatosensory neurons. In the traditional view, sensory axons will terminate where neurotrophin expression is most pronounced. Yet, lingual somatosensory axons characteristically terminate in each filiform papilla and in each somatosensory prominence within a cluster of cells expressing the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), rather than terminating among the adjacent cells that secrete neurotrophin 3. The p75NTR on special specialized clusters of epithelial cells may promote axonal arborization in vivo since its over-expression by fibroblasts enhances neurite outgrowth from overlying somatosensory neurons in vitro. Two classical observations have implicated gustatory neurons in the development and maintenance of mammalian taste buds--the early arrival times of embryonic innervation and the loss of taste buds after their denervation in adults. In the modern era more than a dozen experimental studies have used early denervation or neurotrophin gene mutations to evaluate mammalian gustatory organ development. Necessary for taste organ development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor sustains developing gustatory neurons. The cardinal conclusion is readily summarized: taste buds in the palate and tongue are induced by innervation. Taste buds are unstable: the death and birth of taste receptor cells relentlessly remodels synaptic connections. As receptor cells turn over, the sensory code for taste quality is probably stabilized by selective synapse formation between each type of gustatory axon and its matching taste receptor cell. We anticipate important new discoveries of molecular interactions among the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and gustatory innervation that build the gustatory papillae, their specialized epithelial cells, and the resulting taste buds.

  12. Sensory-motor problems in Autism.

    PubMed

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Despite being largely characterized as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with "hyperdexterity" witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardized assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being "secondary" level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential root of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis.

  13. The sensory ecology of adaptive landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lyndon A.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In complex environments, behavioural plasticity depends on the ability of an animal to integrate numerous sensory stimuli. The multidimensionality of factors interacting to shape plastic behaviour means it is difficult for both organisms and researchers to predict what constitutes an adaptive response to a given set of conditions. Although researchers may be able to map the fitness pay-offs of different behavioural strategies in changing environments, there is no guarantee that the study species will be able to perceive these pay-offs. We thus risk a disconnect between our own predictions about adaptive behaviour and what is behaviourally achievable given the umwelt of the animal being studied. This may lead to erroneous conclusions about maladaptive behaviour in circumstances when the behaviour exhibited is the most adaptive possible given sensory limitations. With advances in the computational resources available to behavioural ecologists, we can now measure vast numbers of interactions among behaviours and environments to create adaptive behavioural surfaces. These surfaces have massive heuristic, predictive and analytical potential in understanding adaptive animal behaviour, but researchers using them are destined to fail if they ignore the sensory ecology of the species they study. Here, we advocate the continued use of these approaches while directly linking them to perceptual space to ensure that the topology of the generated adaptive landscape matches the perceptual reality of the animal it intends to study. Doing so will allow predictive models of animal behaviour to reflect the reality faced by the agents on adaptive surfaces, vastly improving our ability to determine what constitutes an adaptive response for the animal in question. PMID:26018831

  14. Chimpanzees process structural isomorphisms across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Ravignani, Andrea; Sonnweber, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Evolution has shaped animal brains to detect sensory regularities in environmental stimuli. In addition, many species map one-dimensional quantities across sensory modalities, such as conspecific faces to voices, or high-pitched sounds to bright light. If basic patterns like repetitions and identities are frequently perceived in different sensory modalities, it could be advantageous to detect cross-modal isomorphisms, i.e. develop modality-independent representations of structural features, exploitable in visual, tactile, and auditory processing. While cross-modal mappings are common in the animal kingdom, the ability to map similar (isomorphic) structures across domains has been demonstrated in humans but no other animals. We tested cross-modal isomorphisms in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Individuals were previously trained to choose structurally 'symmetric' image sequences (two identical geometrical shapes separated by a different shape) presented beside 'edge' sequences (two identical shapes preceded or followed by a different one). Here, with no additional training, the choice between symmetric and edge visual sequences was preceded by playback of three concatenated sounds, which could be symmetric (mimicking the symmetric structure of reinforced images) or edge. The chimpanzees spontaneously detected a visual-auditory isomorphism. Response latencies in choosing symmetric sequences were shorter when presented with (structurally isomorphic) symmetric, rather than edge, sound triplets: The auditory stimuli interfered, based on their structural properties, with processing of the learnt visual rule. Crucially, the animals had neither been exposed to the acoustic sequences before the experiment, nor were they trained to associate sounds to images. Our result provides the first evidence of structure processing across modalities in a non-human species. It suggests that basic cross-modal abstraction capacities transcend linguistic abilities and might involve

  15. Constructing and deconstructing roles for the primary cilium in tissue architecture and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, E. Scott; Nachury, Maxence V.

    2010-01-01

    Primary cilia are exquisitely designed sensory machines that have evolved at least three distinct sensory modalities to monitor the extracellular environment. The presence and activation of growth factor, morphogen, and hormone receptors within the confines of the ciliary membrane, the intrinsic physical relationship between the ciliary axoneme and the centriole, and the preferential assembly of primary cilia on the apical surfaces of tissue epithelia highlight the importance of this organelle in the establishment and maintenance of tissue architecture and homeostasis. Accordingly, recent studies begin to suggest roles for these organelles in oncogenesis and tumor suppression. Here, we review the sensory properties of primary cilia, assess the “history” of the primary cilium in cancer, and draw upon recent findings in a discussion of how the primary cilium may influence tissue architecture and neoplasia. PMID:20362097

  16. Immune System as a Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Igor M.; Dresser, D.

    2010-01-01

    As suggested by the well-known gestalt concept the immune system can be regarded as an integrated complex system, the functioning of which cannot be fully characterized by the behavior of its constituent elements. Similar approaches to the immune system in particular and sensory systems in general allows one to discern similarities and differences in the process of distinguishing informative patterns in an otherwise random background, thus initiating an appropriate and adequate response. This may lead to a new interpretation of difficulties in the comprehension of some immunological phenomena. PMID:21686066

  17. Sensory experience induced by nitrous oxide analgesia.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, E.; Galili, D.; Furer, R.; Steiner, J.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary findings on a group of 15 dental patients, treated with nitrous oxide indicated frequent occurrence of several, well-defined sensory experiences related to various modalities. A subsequent controlled experiment carried out on 44 volunteers, inhaling a 35% N2O + 65% O2 sedative gas-mixture as well as O2 alone in two different sessions confirmed a large variety of sensations not related to external stimuli. Taste and/or odor and thermal sensations were often reported as well as changes in auditory or visual perception of the environment in addition to reports of general heaviness, relaxation or tingling. PMID:2097907

  18. Sustained Perceptual Deficits from Transient Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory pathways display heightened plasticity during development, yet the perceptual consequences of early experience are generally assessed in adulthood. This approach does not allow one to identify transient perceptual changes that may be linked to the central plasticity observed in juvenile animals. Here, we determined whether a brief period of bilateral auditory deprivation affects sound perception in developing and adult gerbils. Animals were reared with bilateral earplugs, either from postnatal day 11 (P11) to postnatal day 23 (P23) (a manipulation previously found to disrupt gerbil cortical properties), or from P23-P35. Fifteen days after earplug removal and restoration of normal thresholds, animals were tested on their ability to detect the presence of amplitude modulation (AM), a temporal cue that supports vocal communication. Animals reared with earplugs from P11-P23 displayed elevated AM detection thresholds, compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, an identical period of earplug rearing at a later age (P23-P35) did not impair auditory perception. Although the AM thresholds of earplug-reared juveniles improved during a week of repeated testing, a subset of juveniles continued to display a perceptual deficit. Furthermore, although the perceptual deficits induced by transient earplug rearing had resolved for most animals by adulthood, a subset of adults displayed impaired performance. Control experiments indicated that earplugging did not disrupt the integrity of the auditory periphery. Together, our results suggest that P11-P23 encompasses a critical period during which sensory deprivation disrupts central mechanisms that support auditory perceptual skills. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory systems are particularly malleable during development. This heightened degree of plasticity is beneficial because it enables the acquisition of complex skills, such as music or language. However, this plasticity comes with a cost: nervous system development

  19. The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Peter N; Ou, Guangshuo; Leroux, Michel R; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2007-03-08

    The non-motile cilium, once believed to be a vestigial cellular structure, is now increasingly associated with the ability of a wide variety of cells and organisms to sense their chemical and physical environments. With its limited number of sensory cilia and diverse behavioral repertoire, C. elegans has emerged as a powerful experimental system for studying how cilia are formed, function, and ultimately modulate complex behaviors. Here, we discuss the biogenesis, distribution, structures, composition and general functions of C. elegans cilia. We also briefly highlight how C. elegans is being used to provide molecular insights into various human ciliopathies, including Polycystic Kidney Disease and Bardet-Biedl Syndrome.

  20. Neurology: an ancient sensory organ in crocodilians.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daphne

    2002-05-16

    Crocodilians hunt at night, waiting half-submerged for land-bound prey to disturb the water surface. Here I show that crocodilians have specialized sensory organs on their faces that can detect small disruptions in the surface of the surrounding water, and which are linked to a dedicated, hypertrophied nerve system. Such 'dome' pressure receptors are also evident in fossils from the Jurassic period, indicating that these semi-aquatic predators solved the problem of combining armour with tactile sensitivity many millions of years ago.

  1. Multimodal Interactions in Sensory-Motor Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-30

    P(violationlresponse mode B) and P(violationlresponse mode A) < P(violationlresponse mode C) are distributed as N(pA- P, PA(1-PA) / nA + pB(1-PB) / nB ...within each sensory channel). The accumulated count is compared with a criterion (0), yielding the expression =P[NT(t)<O Itop noise] x P[ NB (t)<O Ibottom...noise] - P[NT(t)ɘ Itop noise] x P[ NB (t)ɘ Ibottom signal] - P[NT(t)ɘ Itop signal] x P[ NB (t)ɘ ibottom noise] + P[NT(t)ɘ Itop signal] x P[ NB (t)ɘ

  2. SCN2B in the Rat Trigeminal Ganglion and Trigeminal Sensory Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yusuke; Sato, Tadasu; Yajima, Takehiro; Fujita, Masatoshi; Hashimoto, Naoya; Shoji, Noriaki; Sasano, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    The beta-2 subunit of the mammalian brain voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN2B) was examined in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) and trigeminal sensory nuclei. In the TG, 42.6 % of sensory neurons were immunoreactive (IR) for SCN2B. These neurons had various cell body sizes. In facial skins and oral mucosae, corpuscular nerve endings contained SCN2B-immunoreactivity. SCN2B-IR nerve fibers formed nerve plexuses beneath taste buds in the tongue and incisive papilla. However, SCN2B-IR free nerve endings were rare in cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. Tooth pulps, muscle spindles and major salivary glands were also innervated by SCN2B-IR nerve fibers. A double immunofluorescence method revealed that about 40 % of SCN2B-IR neurons exhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactivity. However, distributions of SCN2B- and CGRP-IR nerve fibers were mostly different in facial, oral and cranial structures. By retrograde tracing method, 60.4 and 85.3 % of TG neurons innervating the facial skin and tooth pulp, respectively, showed SCN2B-immunoreactivity. CGRP-immunoreactivity was co-localized by about 40 % of SCN2B-IR cutaneous and tooth pulp TG neurons. In trigeminal sensory nuclei of the brainstem, SCN2B-IR neuronal cell bodies were common in deep laminae of the subnucleus caudalis, and the subnuclei interpolaris and oralis. In the mesencephalic trigeminal tract nucleus, primary sensory neurons also exhibited SCN2B-immunoreactivity. In other regions of trigeminal sensory nuclei, SCN2B-IR cells were very infrequent. SCN2B-IR neuropil was detected in deep laminae of the subnucleus caudalis as well as in the subnuclei interpolaris, oralis and principalis. These findings suggest that SCN2B is expressed by various types of sensory neurons in the TG. There appears to be SCN2B-containing pathway in the TG and trigeminal sensory nuclei.

  3. Corticofugal projection patterns of whisker sensorimotor cortex to the sensory trigeminal nuclei.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jared B; Watson, Glenn D R; Alloway, Kevin D; Schwarz, Cornelius; Chakrabarti, Shubhodeep

    2015-01-01

    The primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices project to several trigeminal sensory nuclei. One putative function of these corticofugal projections is the gating of sensory transmission through the trigeminal principal nucleus (Pr5), and some have proposed that S1 and S2 project differentially to the spinal trigeminal subnuclei, which have inhibitory circuits that could inhibit or disinhibit the output projections of Pr5. Very little, however, is known about the origin of sensorimotor corticofugal projections and their patterns of termination in the various trigeminal nuclei. We addressed this issue by injecting anterograde tracers in S1, S2 and primary motor (M1) cortices, and quantitatively characterizing the distribution of labeled terminals within the entire rostro-caudal chain of trigeminal sub-nuclei. We confirmed our anterograde tracing results by injecting retrograde tracers at various rostro-caudal levels within the trigeminal sensory nuclei to determine the position of retrogradely labeled cortical cells with respect to S1 barrel cortex. Our results demonstrate that S1 and S2 projections terminate in largely overlapping regions but show some significant differences. Whereas S1 projection terminals tend to cluster within the principal trigeminal (Pr5), caudal spinal trigeminal interpolaris (Sp5ic), and the dorsal spinal trigeminal caudalis (Sp5c), S2 projection terminals are distributed in a continuum across all trigeminal nuclei. Contrary to the view that sensory gating could be mediated by differential activation of inhibitory interconnections between the spinal trigeminal subnuclei, we observed that projections from S1 and S2 are largely overlapping in these subnuclei despite the differences noted earlier.

  4. Presynaptic inhibition of optogenetically identified VGluT3+ sensory fibres by opioids and baclofen.

    PubMed

    Honsek, Silke D; Seal, Rebecca P; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Distinct subsets of sensory nerve fibres are involved in mediating mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity. They may also differentially respond to analgesics. Heat-sensitive C-fibres, for example, are thought to respond to μ-opioid receptor (MOR) activation while mechanoreceptive fibres are supposedly sensitive to δ-opioid receptor (DOR) or GABAB receptor (GABABR) activation. The suggested differential distribution of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors on different subsets of sensory fibres is, however, heavily debated. In this study, we quantitatively compared the degree of presynaptic inhibition exerted by opioids and the GABABR agonist baclofen on (1) vesicular glutamate transporter subtype 3-positive (VGluT3) non-nociceptive primary afferent fibres and (2) putative nociceptive C-fibres. To investigate VGluT3 sensory fibres, we evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents with blue light at the level of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in spinal cord slices of mice, expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Putative nociceptive C-fibres were explored in VGluT3-knockout mice through electrical stimulation. The MOR agonist DAMGO strongly inhibited both VGluT3 and VGluT3 C-fibres innervating lamina I neurons but generally had less influence on fibres innervating lamina II neurons. The DOR agonist SNC80 did not have any pronounced effect on synaptic transmission in any fibre type tested. Baclofen, in striking contrast, powerfully inhibited all fibre populations investigated. In summary, we report optogenetic stimulation of DRG neurons in spinal slices as a capable approach for the subtype-selective investigation of primary afferent nerve fibres. Overall, pharmacological accessibility of different subtypes of sensory fibres considerably overlaps, indicating that MOR, DOR, and GABABR expressions are not substantially segregated between heat and mechanosensitive fibres.

  5. GRK2 in sensory neurons regulates epinephrine-induced signalling and duration of mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijing; Heijnen, Cobi J; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Garza Carbajal, Anibal; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kelley, Keith W; Dantzer, Robert; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2011-07-01

    Epinephrine (EPI) contributes to hyperalgesia in inflammatory and stress conditions. EPI signals via adrenoceptors, which are regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). We previously reported that GRK2 is decreased in nociceptors during chronic inflammation. Herein, we investigated whether GRK2 modulates EPI-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia by using GRK2(+/-) mice, which express 50% of the GRK2 protein. We demonstrate for the first time that EPI-induced mechanical as well as thermal hyperalgesia is prolonged to approximately 21 days in GRK2(+/-) mice, whereas it lasts only 3 to 4 days in wild-type mice. Using cell- specific GRK2-deficient mice, we further show that a low level of GRK2 in primary sensory neurons is critical for this prolongation of EPI-induced hyperalgesia. Low GRK2 in microglia had only a small effect on EPI-induced hyperalgesia. Low GRK2 in astrocytes did not alter EPI-induced hyperalgesia. EPI-induced hyperalgesia was prolonged similarly in mice with tamoxifen-induced homozygous or heterozygous deletion of GRK2. In terms of EPI signalling pathways, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 inhibited EPI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in wild-type mice, whereas H-89 had no effect in mice with low GRK2 in sensory neurons (SNS-GRK2(+/-) mice). Conversely, intraplantar injection of the protein kinase Cε PKCε inhibitor TAT-PKC(εv1-2) inhibited hyperalgesia in sensory neuron specific (SNS)-GRK2(+/-) mice and not in wild-type mice. These results indicate that low GRK2 in primary sensory neurons switches EPI-induced signalling from a protein kinase A-dependent toward a PKCε-dependent pathway that ultimately mediates prolonged EPI-induced hyperalgesia.

  6. Corticofugal projection patterns of whisker sensorimotor cortex to the sensory trigeminal nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jared B.; Watson, Glenn D. R.; Alloway, Kevin D.; Schwarz, Cornelius; Chakrabarti, Shubhodeep

    2015-01-01

    The primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices project to several trigeminal sensory nuclei. One putative function of these corticofugal projections is the gating of sensory transmission through the trigeminal principal nucleus (Pr5), and some have proposed that S1 and S2 project differentially to the spinal trigeminal subnuclei, which have inhibitory circuits that could inhibit or disinhibit the output projections of Pr5. Very little, however, is known about the origin of sensorimotor corticofugal projections and their patterns of termination in the various trigeminal nuclei. We addressed this issue by injecting anterograde tracers in S1, S2 and primary motor (M1) cortices, and quantitatively characterizing the distribution of labeled terminals within the entire rostro-caudal chain of trigeminal sub-nuclei. We confirmed our anterograde tracing results by injecting retrograde tracers at various rostro-caudal levels within the trigeminal sensory nuclei to determine the position of retrogradely labeled cortical cells with respect to S1 barrel cortex. Our results demonstrate that S1 and S2 projections terminate in largely overlapping regions but show some significant differences. Whereas S1 projection terminals tend to cluster within the principal trigeminal (Pr5), caudal spinal trigeminal interpolaris (Sp5ic), and the dorsal spinal trigeminal caudalis (Sp5c), S2 projection terminals are distributed in a continuum across all trigeminal nuclei. Contrary to the view that sensory gating could be mediated by differential activation of inhibitory interconnections between the spinal trigeminal subnuclei, we observed that projections from S1 and S2 are largely overlapping in these subnuclei despite the differences noted earlier. PMID:26483640

  7. Motor intention determines sensory attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds.

    PubMed

    Timm, Jana; SanMiguel, Iria; Keil, Julian; Schröger, Erich; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2014-07-01

    One of the functions of the brain is to predict sensory consequences of our own actions. In auditory processing, self-initiated sounds evoke a smaller brain response than passive sound exposure of the same sound sequence. Previous work suggests that this response attenuation reflects a predictive mechanism to differentiate the sensory consequences of one's own actions from other sensory input, which seems to form the basis for the sense of agency (recognizing oneself as the agent of the movement). This study addresses the question whether attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds can be explained by brain activity involved in movement planning rather than movement execution. We recorded ERPs in response to sounds initiated by button presses. In one condition, participants moved a finger to press the button voluntarily, whereas in another condition, we initiated a similar, but involuntary, finger movement by stimulating the corresponding region of the primary motor cortex with TMS. For involuntary movements, no movement intention (and no feeling of agency) could be formed; thus, no motor plans were available to the forward model. A portion of the brain response evoked by the sounds, the N1-P2 complex, was reduced in amplitude following voluntary, self-initiated movements, but not following movements initiated by motor cortex stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that movement intention and the corresponding feeling of agency determine sensory attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds. The present results support the assumptions of a predictive internal forward model account operating before primary motor cortex activation.

  8. Primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Govett, G; White, J

    1989-07-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a pathological entity due to excessive secretion of parathormone from a single or multiple parathyroid glands. The biochemical hallmark of this disorder is an elevated serum calcium. The relationship of the parathyroid glands with the thymus gland in fetal development accounts for the occasional aberrant location of the parathyroids. By utilizing computed tomography or nuclear scanning or both preoperatively, the surgeon can isolate the hyperfunctioning adenoma and resect it, thus minimizing potential complications.

  9. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  10. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  11. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P < .001). SPQ scores were correlated with AQ scores both across groups (r = .-38) and within the ASC (r = -.18) and control groups (r = -.15). Principal component analyses conducted separately in both groups indicated that one factor comprising 35 items consistently assesses sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach’s alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). Conclusions The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension. PMID:24791196

  12. Static Posturography and Falls According to Pyramidal, Sensory and Cerebellar Functional Systems in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalron, Alon; Givon, Uri; Frid, Lior; Dolev, Mark; Achiron, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Balance impairment is common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and frequently impacts quality of life by decreasing mobility and increasing the risk of falling. However, there are only scarce data examining the contribution of specific neurological functional systems on balance measures in MS. Therefore, the primary aim of our study was to examine the differences in posturography parameters and fall incidence according to the pyramidal, cerebellar and sensory systems functional systems in PwMS. The study included 342 PwMS, 211 women and mean disease duration of 8.2 (S.D = 8.3) years. The study sample was divided into six groups according to the pyramidal, cerebellar and sensory functional system scores, derived from the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) data. Static postural control parameters were obtained from the Zebris FDM-T Treadmill (zebris® Medical GmbH, Germany). Participants were defined as "fallers" and "non-fallers" based on their fall history. Our findings revealed a trend that PwMS affected solely in the pyramidal system, have reduced stability compared to patients with cerebellar and sensory dysfunctions. Moreover, the addition of sensory impairments to pyramidal dysfunction does not exacerbate postural control. The patients in the pure sensory group demonstrated increased stability compared to each of the three combined groups; pyramidal-cerebellar, pyramidal-sensory and pyramidal-cerebellar-sensory groups. As for fall status, the percentage of fallers in the pure pyramidal, cerebellar and sensory groups were 44.3%, 33.3% and 19.5%, respectively. As for the combined functional system groups, the percentage of fallers in the pyramidal-cerebellar, pyramidal-sensory and pyramidal-cerebellar-sensory groups were 59.7%, 40.7% and 65%, respectively. This study confirms that disorders in neurological functional systems generate different effects on postural control and incidence of falls in the MS population. From a clinical standpoint, the

  13. Verification and clarification of patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Zoe; Mulligan, Shelley; Roley, Susanne Smith; Blanche, Erna; Cermak, Sharon; Coleman, Gina Geppert; Bodison, Stefanie; Lane, Christianne Joy

    2011-01-01

    Building on established relationships between the constructs of sensory integration in typical and special needs populations, in this retrospective study we examined patterns of sensory integrative dysfunction in 273 children ages 4-9 who had received occupational therapy evaluations in two private practice settings. Test results on the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests, portions of the Sensory Processing Measure representing tactile overresponsiveness, and parent report of attention and activity level were included in the analyses. Exploratory factor analysis identified patterns similar to those found in early studies by Ayres (1965, 1966a, 1966b, 1969, 1972b, 1977, & 1989), namely Visuodyspraxia and Somatodyspraxia, Vestibular and Proprioceptive Bilateral Integration and Sequencing, Tactile and Visual Discrimination, and Tactile Defensiveness and Attention. Findings reinforce associations between constructs of sensory integration and assist with understanding sensory integration disorders that may affect childhood occupation. Limitations include the potential for subjective interpretation in factor analysis and inability to adjust measures available in charts in a retrospective research.

  14. Migraine is associated with altered processing of sensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Harriott, Andrea M; Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-11-01

    Migraine is associated with derangements in perception of multiple sensory modalities including vision, hearing, smell, and somatosensation. Compared to people without migraine, migraineurs have lower discomfort thresholds in response to special sensory stimuli as well as to mechanical and thermal noxious stimuli. Likewise, the environmental triggers of migraine attacks, such as odors and flashing lights, highlight basal abnormalities in sensory processing and integration. These alterations in sensory processing and perception in migraineurs have been investigated via physiological studies and functional brain imaging studies. Investigations have demonstrated that migraineurs during and between migraine attacks have atypical stimulus-induced activations of brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions that participate in sensory processing. A lack of normal habituation to repetitive stimuli during the interictal state and a tendency towards development of sensitization likely contribute to migraine-related alterations in sensory processing.

  15. Reported sensory processing of children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Maryanne; Cameron, Debra; Dua, Shelly; Noy, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    Investigators have identified delays and differences in cognitive, language, motor, and sensory development in children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this study was to determine the parent-reported frequency of sensory processing issues in children with DS aged 3–10 years, and the parent-reported functional impact of those sensory issues. Parents completed the short sensory profile (SSP) and a parent questionnaire (PQ). SSP results revealed a total score definite difference rate of 49%. Highest rates of probable and definite difference were in the low energy/weak, underresponsive/seeks sensation, and auditory filtering subsections of the SSP. Themes were generated from responses on the PQ regarding the functional impact of sensory differences on occupational performance in their children with DS, and related strategies currently used by parents. Findings from the study provide information to parents and health care professionals regarding sensory processing patterns in children with DS, and provide foundational data for future research.

  16. Adaptation to sensory input tunes visual cortex to criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Clawson, Wesley P.; Pobst, Jeff; Karimipanah, Yahya; Wright, Nathaniel C.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    A long-standing hypothesis at the interface of physics and neuroscience is that neural networks self-organize to the critical point of a phase transition, thereby optimizing aspects of sensory information processing. This idea is partially supported by strong evidence for critical dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex, but the impact of sensory input on these dynamics is largely unknown. Thus, the foundations of this hypothesis--the self-organization process and how it manifests during strong sensory input--remain unstudied experimentally. Here we show in visual cortex and in a computational model that strong sensory input initially elicits cortical network dynamics that are not critical, but adaptive changes in the network rapidly tune the system to criticality. This conclusion is based on observations of multifaceted scaling laws predicted to occur at criticality. Our findings establish sensory adaptation as a self-organizing mechanism that maintains criticality in visual cortex during sensory information processing.

  17. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2015-09-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives.

  18. Flexible strategies for sensory integration during motor planning.

    PubMed

    Sober, Samuel J; Sabes, Philip N

    2005-04-01

    When planning target-directed reaching movements, human subjects combine visual and proprioceptive feedback to form two estimates of the arm's position: one to plan the reach direction, and another to convert that direction into a motor command. These position estimates are based on the same sensory signals but rely on different combinations of visual and proprioceptive input, suggesting that the brain weights sensory inputs differently depending on the computation being performed. Here we show that the relative weighting of vision and proprioception depends both on the sensory modality of the target and on the information content of the visual feedback, and that these factors affect the two stages of planning independently. The observed diversity of weightings demonstrates the flexibility of sensory integration and suggests a unifying principle by which the brain chooses sensory inputs so as to minimize errors arising from the transformation of sensory signals between coordinate frames.

  19. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) and Frisson: Mindfully Induced Sensory Phenomena That Promote Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Campo, Marisa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many important phenomena involved in human functioning that are unnoticed, misunderstood, not applied, or do not pique the interest of the scientific community. Among these, "autonomous sensory meridian response" ("ASMR") and "frisson" are two very noteworthy instances that may prove to be therapeutically…

  20. Sensory experience and sensory activity regulate chemosensory receptor gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Peckol, Erin L.; Troemel, Emily R.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the environment cause both short-term and long-term changes in an animal's behavior. Here we show that specific sensory experiences cause changes in chemosensory receptor gene expression that may alter sensory perception in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Three predicted chemosensory receptor genes expressed in the ASI chemosensory neurons, srd-1, str-2, and str-3, are repressed by exposure to the dauer pheromone, a signal of crowding. Repression occurs at pheromone concentrations below those that induce formation of the alternative dauer larva stage, suggesting that exposure to pheromones can alter the chemosensory behaviors of non-dauer animals. In addition, ASI expression of srd-1, but not str-2 and str-3, is induced by sensory activity of the ASI neurons. Expression of two receptor genes is regulated by developmental entry into the dauer larva stage. srd-1 expression in ASI neurons is repressed in dauer larvae. str-2 expression in dauer animals is induced in the ASI neurons, but repressed in the AWC neurons. The ASI and AWC neurons remodel in the dauer stage, and these results suggest that their sensory specificity changes as well. We suggest that experience-dependent changes in chemosensory receptor gene expression may modify olfactory behaviors. PMID:11572964

  1. The Sensory Nature of Episodic Memory: Sensory Priming Effects Due to Memory Trace Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunel, Lionel; Labeye, Elodie; Lesourd, Mathieu; Versace, Remy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence that memory and perceptual processing are underpinned by the same mechanisms. Specifically, the authors conducted 3 experiments that emphasized the sensory aspect of memory traces. They examined their predictions with a short-term priming paradigm based on 2 distinct phases: a learning phase consisting…

  2. More than Skin Deep: Body Representation beyond Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Matthew R.; Azanon, Elena; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The neural circuits underlying initial sensory processing of somatic information are relatively well understood. In contrast, the processes that go beyond primary somatosensation to create more abstract representations related to the body are less clear. In this review, we focus on two classes of higher-order processing beyond Somatosensation.…

  3. Statins decrease expression of the proinflammatory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Bucelli, Robert C; Gonsiorek, Eugene A; Kim, Woo-Yang; Bruun, Donald; Rabin, Richard A; Higgins, Dennis; Lein, Pamela J

    2008-03-01

    Clinical and experimental observations suggest that statins may be useful for treating diseases presenting with predominant neurogenic inflammation, but the mechanism(s) mediating this potential therapeutic effect are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that statins act directly on sensory neurons to decrease expression of proinflammatory neuropeptides that trigger neurogenic inflammation, specifically calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, radioimmunoassay, and immunocytochemistry were used to quantify CGRP and substance P expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) harvested from adult male rats and in primary cultures of sensory neurons derived from embryonic rat DRG. Systemic administration of statins at pharmacologically relevant doses significantly reduced CGRP and substance P levels in DRG in vivo. In cultured sensory neurons, statins blocked bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced CGRP and substance P expression and decreased expression of these neuropeptides in sensory neurons pretreated with BMPs. These effects were concentration-dependent and occurred independent of effects on cell survival or axon growth. Statin inhibition of neuropeptide expression was reversed by supplementation with mevalonate and cholesterol, but not isoprenoid precursors. BMPs signal via Smad activation, and cholesterol depletion by statins inhibited Smad1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. These findings identify a novel action of statins involving down-regulation of proinflammatory neuropeptide expression in sensory ganglia via cholesterol depletion and decreased Smad1 activation and suggest that statins may be effective in attenuating neurogenic inflammation.

  4. Pigeons integrate past knowledge across sensory modalities

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Claudia; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Advanced inferring abilities that are used for predator recognition and avoidance have been documented in a variety of animal species that produce alarm calls. In contrast, evidence for cognitive abilities that underpin predation avoidance in nonalarm-calling species is restricted to associative learning of heterospecific alarm calls and predator presence. We investigated cognitive capacities that underlie the perception and computation of external information beyond associative learning by addressing contextual information processing in pigeons, Columba livia, a bird species without specific alarm calls. We used a habituation/dishabituation paradigm across sensory modes to test pigeons' context-dependent inferring abilities. The birds reliably took previous knowledge about predator presence into account and responded with predator-specific scanning behaviour only if predator presence was not indicated before or if the perceived level of urgency increased. Hence, pigeons' antipredator behaviour was not based on the physical properties of displayed stimuli or their referential content alone but on contextual information, indicated by the kind and order of stimulus presentation and different sensory modes. PMID:23487497

  5. Ontogeny of the cutaneous sensory organs.

    PubMed

    Saxod, R

    1996-07-01

    The ontogeny of cutaneous sensory nerve organs is described in higher vertebrates, and includes the lamellated corpuscles of Meissner, Pacini and Herbst, and the Merkel cell-neurite complex with bird Merkel and Grandry corpuscles, and mammalian Merkel cells. The main common feature is that for most corpuscles there is an inside-out order of assembly around the nerve ending which is present from the beginning of end-organ ontogeny. The exception is the mammalian Merkel cell which is present in the epidermis before the entrance of nerve fibers, and could play a promotional role in the development of skin innervation. The developmental origin of Herbst and Merkel corpuscles in birds is reported as demonstrated using embryological experiments with cell markers. Conclusions are that inner bulb cells of Herbst corpuscles and bird Merkel cells are of neural crest origin, whereas other cells (inner space and capsular cells for Herbst corpuscle and capsular cells for Merkel corpuscles) are provided by the local mesenchyme. The question of the ontogeny of mammalian Merkel cells is discussed in relation to the two debated hypothesis of epidermal and neural crest origins. Morphogenetic interactions during the development of cutaneous sensory end organs are also discussed.

  6. Microbial production of sensory-active miraculin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Keisuke; Asakura, Tomiko; Morita, Yuji; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Koizumi, Ayako; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Masaji; Terada, Tohru; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2007-08-24

    Miraculin (MCL), a tropical fruit protein, is unique in that it has taste-modifying activity to convert sourness to sweetness, though flat in taste at neutral pH. To obtain a sufficient amount of MCL to examine the mechanism involved in this sensory event at the molecular level, we transformed Aspergillus oryzae by introducing the MCL gene. Transformants were expressed and secreted a sensory-active form of MCL yielding 2 mg/L. Recombinant MCL resembled native MCL in the secondary structure and the taste-modifying activity to generate sweetness at acidic pH. Since the observed pH-sweetness relation seemed to reflect the imidazole titration curve, suggesting that histidine residues might be involved in the taste-modifying activity. H30A and H30,60A mutants were generated using the A. oryzae-mediated expression system. Both mutants found to have lost the taste-modifying activity. The result suggests that the histidine-30 residue is important for the taste-modifying activity of MCL.

  7. [Sensory disorders screening in learning disabilities].

    PubMed

    Billard, C; de Villèle, A; Sallée, A-S; Delteil-Pinton, F

    2013-01-01

    Inserm French collective expert's report describes sensory disorders screening. However, the causality link with learning disorders remains questionable. In auditory disorders, there are high-level proof recommendations: early and intensive treatment improves language development, at least partially. For visual disorders, consensus conferences recognize their high frequency in learning disorders but there is no proof of a direct causality link. Currently, in learning disorders, orthoptic treatment is not recommended as a specific therapy. In France, despite medical ignorance about orthoptic assessment, absence of reference values and lack of therapy benefits evaluation, orthoptic treatment is usually prescribed, without any objective criteria. This article makes a literature review concerning the link between learning and sensory disorders. It also describes a typical orthoptic assessment with vision and optic musculature evaluation, and reports its results in a prospective comparative study in three populations (controls, dyslexic and Developmental Coordination Disorders [DCD] children). Strabismus or binocular vision disorders are frequent in DCD. Combined ocular motor function is almost constantly disturbed in DCD (90 %), whereas 34 % of dyslexic children and only 13 % of controls are concerned. Visual disorders are therefore present in learning disorders but also in normal population. Orthoptic assessment results must be interpreted in a multidisciplinary evaluation context.

  8. Sensory architectures for biologically inspired autonomous robotics.

    PubMed

    Higgins, C M

    2001-04-01

    Engineers have a lot to gain from studying biology. The study of biological neural systems alone provides numerous examples of computational systems that are far more complex than any man-made system and perform real-time sensory and motor tasks in a manner that humbles the most advanced artificial systems. Despite the evolutionary genesis of these systems and the vast apparent differences between species, there are common design strategies employed by biological systems that span taxa, and engineers would do well to emulate these strategies. However, biologically-inspired computational architectures, which are continuous-time and parallel in nature, do not map well onto conventional processors, which are discrete-time and serial in operation. Rather, an implementation technology that is capable of directly realizing the layered parallel structure and nonlinear elements employed by neurobiology is required for power- and space-efficient implementation. Custom neuromorphic hardware meets these criteria and yields low-power dedicated sensory systems that are small, light, and ideal for autonomous robot applications. As examples of how this technology is applied, this article describes both a low-level neuromorphic hardware emulation of an elementary visual motion detector, and a large-scale, system-level spatial motion integration system.

  9. Auditory Localisation Biases Increase with Sensory Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sara E.; Jones, Pete R.; Rubin, Gary S.; Nardini, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have frequently found that adults with normal hearing exhibit systematic errors (biases) in their auditory localisation judgments. Here we tested (i) whether systematic localisation errors could reflect reliance on prior knowledge, as has been proposed for other systematic perceptual biases, and (ii) whether auditory localisation biases can be reduced following training with accurate visual feedback. Twenty-four normal hearing participants were asked to localise the position of a noise burst along the azimuth before, during, and after training with visual feedback. Consistent with reliance on prior knowledge to reduce sensory uncertainty, we found that auditory localisation biases increased when auditory localisation uncertainty increased. Specifically, participants mis-localised auditory stimuli as being more eccentric than they were, and did so more when auditory uncertainty was greater. However, biases also increased with eccentricity, despite no corresponding increase in uncertainty, which is not readily explained by use of a simple prior favouring peripheral locations. Localisation biases decreased (improved) following training with visual feedback, but the reliability of the visual feedback stimulus did not change the effects of training. We suggest that further research is needed to identify alternative mechanisms, besides use of prior knowledge, that could account for increased perceptual biases under sensory uncertainty. PMID:28074913

  10. Reward Maximization Justifies the Transition from Sensory Selection at Childhood to Sensory Integration at Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Daee, Pedram; Mirian, Maryam S.; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili

    2014-01-01

    In a multisensory task, human adults integrate information from different sensory modalities -behaviorally in an optimal Bayesian fashion- while children mostly rely on a single sensor modality for decision making. The reason behind this change of behavior over age and the process behind learning the required statistics for optimal integration are still unclear and have not been justified by the conventional Bayesian modeling. We propose an interactive multisensory learning framework without making any prior assumptions about the sensory models. In this framework, learning in every modality and in their joint space is done in parallel using a single-step reinforcement learning method. A simple statistical test on confidence intervals on the mean of reward distributions is used to select the most informative source of information among the individual modalities and the joint space. Analyses of the method and the simulation results on a multimodal localization task show that the learning system autonomously starts with sensory selection and gradually switches to sensory integration. This is because, relying more on modalities -i.e. selection- at early learning steps (childhood) is more rewarding than favoring decisions learned in the joint space since, smaller state-space in modalities results in faster learning in every individual modality. In contrast, after gaining sufficient experiences (adulthood), the quality of learning in the joint space matures while learning in modalities suffers from insufficient accuracy due to perceptual aliasing. It results in tighter confidence interval for the joint space and consequently causes a smooth shift from selection to integration. It suggests that sensory selection and integration are emergent behavior and both are outputs of a single reward maximization process; i.e. the transition is not a preprogrammed phenomenon. PMID:25058591

  11. Origins of task-specific sensory-independent organization in the visual and auditory brain: neuroscience evidence, open questions and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Heimler, Benedetta; Striem-Amit, Ella; Amedi, Amir

    2015-12-01

    Evidence of task-specific sensory-independent (TSSI) plasticity from blind and deaf populations has led to a better understanding of brain organization. However, the principles determining the origins of this plasticity remain unclear. We review recent data suggesting that a combination of the connectivity bias and sensitivity to task-distinctive features might account for TSSI plasticity in the sensory cortices as a whole, from the higher-order occipital/temporal cortices to the primary sensory cortices. We discuss current theories and evidence, open questions and related predictions. Finally, given the rapid progress in visual and auditory restoration techniques, we address the crucial need to develop effective rehabilitation approaches for sensory recovery.

  12. Effect of Ranirestat on Sensory and Motor Nerve Function in Japanese Patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Jo; Kohara, Nobuo; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 26-week oral-administration study of ranirestat (an aldose reductase inhibitor) at a once-daily dose of 20 mg to evaluate its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). The primary endpoint was summed change in sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) for the bilateral sural and proximal median sensory nerves. The sensory NCV was significantly (P = 0.006) improved by ranirestat. On clinical symptoms evaluated with the use of modified Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (mTCNS), obvious efficacy was not found in total score. However, improvement in the sensory test domain of the mTCNS was significant (P = 0.037) in a subgroup of patients diagnosed with neuropathy according to the TCNS severity classification. No clinically significant effects on safety parameters including hepatic and renal functions were observed. Our results indicate that ranirestat is effective on DPN (Japic CTI-121994). PMID:26881251

  13. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lucy J; Nielsen, Darci M; Schoen, Sarah A; Brett-Green, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE EXPLORES THE CONVERGENCE OF TWO FIELDS, WHICH HAVE SIMILAR THEORETICAL ORIGINS: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  14. Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Davidson, Thomas J; Nakajima, Miho; Deisseroth, Karl; Halassa, Michael M

    2015-10-29

    How the brain selects appropriate sensory inputs and suppresses distractors is unknown. Given the well-established role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive function, its interactions with sensory cortical areas during attention have been hypothesized to control sensory selection. To test this idea and, more generally, dissect the circuits underlying sensory selection, we developed a cross-modal divided-attention task in mice that allowed genetic access to this cognitive process. By optogenetically perturbing PFC function in a temporally precise window, the ability of mice to select appropriately between conflicting visual and auditory stimuli was diminished. Equivalent sensory thalamocortical manipulations showed that behaviour was causally dependent on PFC interactions with the sensory thalamus, not sensory cortex. Consistent with this notion, we found neurons of the visual thalamic reticular nucleus (visTRN) to exhibit PFC-dependent changes in firing rate predictive of the modality selected. visTRN activity was causal to performance as confirmed by bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this subnetwork. Using a combination of electrophysiology and intracellular chloride photometry, we demonstrated that visTRN dynamically controls visual thalamic gain through feedforward inhibition. Our experiments introduce a new subcortical model of sensory selection, in which the PFC biases thalamic reticular subnetworks to control thalamic sensory gain, selecting appropriate inputs for further processing.

  15. Perspectives on Sensory Processing Disorder: A Call for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families. PMID:19826493

  16. Sensory evaluation techniques - make "good for you" taste "good".

    PubMed

    Civille, Gail Vance; Oftedal, Katherine Nolen

    2012-11-05

    Sensory evaluation techniques are frequently used, however applied sensory is most often used within private industry. Basic sensory techniques can be an invaluable aid to research on nutritional or functional benefits of natural products such as whole fruits, nuts and vegetables (through varietal selection, breeding, etc.) in addition to clinical trials of botanicals. Products' sensory properties, including fruits and vegetables, must be tailored to ultimately appeal to the "consumer": no matter how healthy and nutritious a food is, if it does not appeal to its intended end user, it is unlikely to succeed in today's marketplace. This paper outlines the "5 S's" or basic principles of applied sensory testing; Subjects, Site, Samples, Statistics, and Sensory Methods. Two case studies are detailed where applied sensory is used to benefic academic research; one as a clinical trial of broccoli sprout extract, and the second as plant breeding research on strawberries. Finally, more in-depth techniques are discussed so that one can ensure that product sensory properties are aligned with consumer expectations, in other words, that sensory congruence is achieved.

  17. Primary cilia and coordination of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Clement, Christian A; Satir, Peter; Pedersen, Lotte B

    2012-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that coordinate signalling pathways in cell-cycle control, migration, differentiation and other cellular processes critical during development and for tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in assembly or function of primary cilia lead to a plethora of developmental disorders and pathological conditions now known as ciliopathies. In this review, we summarize the current status of the role of primary cilia in coordinating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways. Further, we present potential mechanisms of signalling crosstalk and networking in the primary cilium and discuss how defects in ciliary RTK signalling are linked to human diseases and disorders.

  18. Primary cilia and coordination of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Søren T; Clement, Christian A; Satir, Peter; Pedersen, Lotte B

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that coordinate signalling pathways in cell-cycle control, migration, differentiation and other cellular processes critical during development and for tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, defects in assembly or function of primary cilia lead to a plethora of developmental disorders and pathological conditions now known as ciliopathies. In this review, we summarize the current status of the role of primary cilia in coordinating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways. Further, we present potential mechanisms of signalling crosstalk and networking in the primary cilium and discuss how defects in ciliary RTK signalling are linked to human diseases and disorders. PMID:21956154

  19. Emerging roles for renal primary cilia in epithelial repair.

    PubMed

    Deane, James A; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2012-01-01

    Primary cilia are microscopic sensory antennae that cells in many vertebrate tissues use to gather information about their environment. In the kidney, primary cilia sense urine flow and are essential for the maintenance of epithelial architecture. Defects of this organelle cause the cystic kidney disease characterized by epithelial abnormalities. These findings link primary cilia to the regulation of epithelial differentiation and proliferation, processes that must be precisely controlled during epithelial repair in the kidney. Here, we consider likely roles for primary cilium-based signaling during responses to renal injury and ensuing epithelial repair processes.

  20. Residual oil fly ash and charged polymers activate epithelial cells and nociceptive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Oortgiesen, M; Veronesi, B; Eichenbaum, G; Kiser, P F; Simon, S A

    2000-04-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is an industrial pollutant that contains metals, acids, and unknown materials complexed to a particulate core. The heterogeneous composition of ROFA hampers finding the mechanism(s) by which it and other particulate pollutants cause airway toxicity. To distinguish culpable factors contributing to the effects of ROFA, synthetic polymer microsphere (SPM) analogs were synthesized that resembled ROFA in particle size (2 and 6 microm in diameter) and zeta potential (-29 mV). BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons responded to both ROFA and charged SPMs with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and the release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, whereas neutral SPMs bound with polyethylene glycol (0-mV zeta potential) were relatively ineffective. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, the SPM-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were correlated with the presence of acid- and/or capsaicin-sensitive pathways. We hypothesized that the acidic microenvironment associated with negatively charged colloids like ROFA and SPMs activate irritant receptors in airway target cells. This causes subsequent cytokine release, which mediates the pathophysiology of neurogenic airway inflammation.

  1. Wnt/Ryk signaling contributes to neuropathic pain by regulating sensory neuron excitability and spinal synaptic plasticity in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Liu, Yue-Peng; Huang, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Song, Angela A; Ma, Ping-Chuan; Song, Xue-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Treating neuropathic pain continues to be a major clinical challenge and underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain remain elusive. We have recently demonstrated that Wnt signaling, which is important in developmental processes of the nervous systems, plays critical roles in the development of neuropathic pain through the β-catenin-dependent pathway in the spinal cord and the β-catenin-independent pathway in primary sensory neurons after nerve injury. Here, we report that Wnt signaling may contribute to neuropathic pain through the atypical Wnt/Ryk signaling pathway in rats. Sciatic nerve injury causes a rapid-onset and long-lasting expression of Wnt3a, Wnt5b, and Ryk receptors in primary sensory neurons, and dorsal horn neurons and astrocytes. Spinal blocking of the Wnt/Ryk receptor signaling inhibits the induction and persistence of neuropathic pain without affecting normal pain sensitivity and locomotor activity. Blocking activation of the Ryk receptor with anti-Ryk antibody, in vivo or in vitro, greatly suppresses nerve injury-induced increased intracellular Ca and hyperexcitability of the sensory neurons, and also the enhanced plasticity of synapses between afferent C-fibers and the dorsal horn neurons, and activation of the NR2B receptor and the subsequent Ca-dependent signals CaMKII, Src, ERK, PKCγ, and CREB in sensory neurons and the spinal cord. These findings indicate a critical mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and suggest that targeting the Wnt/Ryk signaling may be an effective approach for treating neuropathic pain.

  2. Exploring the cortical evidence of a sensory-discrimination process.

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Ranulfo; Hernández, Adrián; Zainos, Antonio; Brody, Carlos; Salinas, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    Humans and monkeys have similar abilities to discriminate the difference in frequency between two consecutive mechanical vibrations applied to their fingertips. This task can be conceived as a chain of neural operations: encoding the two consecutive stimuli, maintaining the first stimulus in working memory, comparing the second stimulus with the memory trace left by the first stimulus and communicating the result of the comparison to the motor apparatus. We studied this chain of neural operations by recording and manipulating neurons from different areas of the cerebral cortex while monkeys performed the task. The results indicate that neurons of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) generate a neural representation of vibrotactile stimuli which correlates closely with psychophysical performance. Discrimination based on microstimulation patterns injected into clusters of S1 neurons is indistinguishable from that produced by natural stimuli. Neurons from the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), prefrontal cortex and medial premotor cortex (MPC) display at different times the trace of the first stimulus during the working-memory component of the task. Neurons from S2 and MPC appear to show the comparison between the two stimuli and correlate with the behavioural decisions. These neural operations may contribute to the sensory-discrimination process studied here. PMID:12217172

  3. Molecular microdomains in a sensory terminal, the vestibular calyx ending.

    PubMed

    Lysakowski, Anna; Gaboyard-Niay, Sophie; Calin-Jageman, Irina; Chatlani, Shilpa; Price, Steven D; Eatock, Ruth Anne

    2011-07-06

    Many primary vestibular afferents form large cup-shaped postsynaptic terminals (calyces) that envelope the basolateral surfaces of type I hair cells. The calyceal terminals both respond to glutamate released from ribbon synapses in the type I cells and initiate spikes that propagate to the afferent's central terminals in the brainstem. The combination of synaptic and spike initiation functions in these unique sensory endings distinguishes them from the axonal nodes of central neurons and peripheral nerves, such as the sciatic nerve, which have provided most of our information about nodal specializations. We show that rat vestibular calyces express an unusual mix of voltage-gated Na and K channels and scaffolding, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix proteins, which may hold the ion channels in place. Protein expression patterns form several microdomains within the calyx membrane: a synaptic domain facing the hair cell, the heminode abutting the first myelinated internode, and one or two intermediate domains. Differences in the expression and localization of proteins between afferent types and zones may contribute to known variations in afferent physiology.

  4. The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.

    PubMed

    Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

  5. Changing growth of neurites of sensory ganglion by terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurkan, M. V.; Smolyanskaya, O. A.; Bespalov, V. G.; Penniyainen, V. A.; Kipenko, A. V.; Lopatina, E. V.; Krylov, B. V.

    2012-02-01

    Application of terahertz radiation for the creation of medical equipment and solving of biological problems has become widely spread. From this point of view, the influence of THz radiation on the nerve fibers is of primary concern. In addition, several studies indicated both stimulating and depressive effects on nerve cells. However, the mechanism of this effect has not yet been studied, including the dose and exposure time. Our research was devoted to the impact of broadband pulsed THz radiation in the frequency range of 0.05 to 2 THz on the neurite growth in the sensory ganglia of 10-12-day chicken embryos. Dependence of changes in functional responses of cells on the average output power has been found. An increase in the stimulating effect was observed at the lowest power density used (0.5 μW/cm2). Through non-destructive process and choosing the correct parameters of THz radiation, potential control of neural response becomes possible, which can subsequently lead to new medical treatments.

  6. Dynamic sensory cues shape song structure in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coen, Philip; Clemens, Jan; Weinstein, Andrew J.; Pacheco, Diego A.; Deng, Yi; Murthy, Mala

    2014-03-01

    The generation of acoustic communication signals is widespread across the animal kingdom, and males of many species, including Drosophilidae, produce patterned courtship songs to increase their chance of success with a female. For some animals, song structure can vary considerably from one rendition to the next; neural noise within pattern generating circuits is widely assumed to be the primary source of such variability, and statistical models that incorporate neural noise are successful at reproducing the full variation present in natural songs. In direct contrast, here we demonstrate that much of the pattern variability in Drosophila courtship song can be explained by taking into account the dynamic sensory experience of the male. In particular, using a quantitative behavioural assay combined with computational modelling, we find that males use fast modulations in visual and self-motion signals to pattern their songs, a relationship that we show is evolutionarily conserved. Using neural circuit manipulations, we also identify the pathways involved in song patterning choices and show that females are sensitive to song features. Our data not only demonstrate that Drosophila song production is not a fixed action pattern, but establish Drosophila as a valuable new model for studies of rapid decision-making under both social and naturalistic conditions.

  7. Molecular microdomains in a sensory terminal, the vestibular calyx ending

    PubMed Central

    Lysakowski, Anna; Gaboyard-Niay, Sophie; Calin-Jageman, Irina; Chatlani, Shilpa; Price, Steven D.; Eatock, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Many primary vestibular afferents form large cup-shaped postsynaptic terminals (calyces) that envelope the basolateral surfaces of type I hair cells. The calyceal terminals both respond to glutamate released from ribbon synapses in the type I cells and initiate spikes that propagate to the afferent’s central terminals in the brainstem. The combination of synaptic and spike initiation functions in these unique sensory endings distinguishes them from the axonal nodes of central neurons and peripheral nerves, such as the sciatic nerve, which have provided most of our information about nodal specializations. We show that rat vestibular calyces express an unusual mix of voltage-gated Na and K channels and scaffolding, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix proteins, which may hold the ion channels in place. Protein expression patterns form several microdomains within the calyx membrane: a synaptic domain facing the hair cell, the heminode abutting the first myelinated internode, and one or two intermediate domains. Differences in the expression and localization of proteins between afferent types and zones may contribute to known variations in afferent physiology. PMID:21734302

  8. [Primary aldosteronism].

    PubMed

    Amar, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism affects 6% of hypertensive patients. The diagnosis should be suspected in any patient with severe or resistant hypertension or hypertension associated with hypokalemia. The screening test consists on the assessment of the aldosterone to renin ratio. In case of an elevated ratio, the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism is confirmed by either elevated concentrations of basal plasma and/or urinary aldosterone or absence of suppression of aldosterone during dynamic test (including the saline infusion test). CT aims to ensure the absence of adrenal carcinoma and to study the morphology of the adrenals. The unilateral or bilateral type of aldosterone secretion is based on the realization of an adrenal venous sampling. When the hypersecretion is unilateral, the treatment consists of adrenalectomy leading to cure of hypertension in 42% of cases, improvement in 40% of cases. For patient with bilateral disease or who don't want to undergo surgery, treatment is based on spironolactone usually at doses of 25 or 50 mg in combination with other antihypertensives drugs such as diuretics or calcium channel blockers.

  9. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-06

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  10. Global Sensory Impairment among Older Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan; Kern, David W.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; Dale, William; McClintock, Martha K.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Age-related decline of the five classical senses (vision, smell, hearing, touch, and taste) poses significant burdens on older adults. The co-occurrence of multiple sensory deficits in older adults is not well characterized and may reflect a common mechanism resulting in global sensory impairment. Design, Setting, and Participants The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative, population-based study of community dwelling older US adults (57-85 years of age), collected biomarkers, social and health history, and other physiological measures, including sensory function. Measurements We estimated the frequency with which impairment co-occurred across the five senses as an integrated measure of sensory aging. We hypothesized that multisensory deficits would be common and reflect global