Science.gov

Sample records for capture study funded

  1. Capturing Information on Arts Participants: Exploring Engagement Fund Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Irvine Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Exploring Engagement Fund provides risk capital for arts nonprofits to experiment with innovative ideas about how to engage diverse Californians. In order to understand the variety of Californians engaged in arts experiences, this guide is intended to support current and future Fund grantees in collecting participant information. Exploring…

  2. International Alzheimer's Disease Research Portfolio (IADRP) aims to capture global Alzheimer's disease research funding.

    PubMed

    Liggins, Charlene; Snyder, Heather M; Silverberg, Nina; Petanceska, Suzana; Refolo, Lorenzo M; Ryan, Laurie; Carrillo, Maria C

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a recognized international public health crisis. There is an urgent need for public and private funding agencies around the world to coordinate funding strategies and leverage existing resources to enhance and expand support of AD research. To capture and compare their existing investments in AD research and research-related resources, major funding organizations are starting to utilize the Common Alzheimer's Disease Research Ontology (CADRO) to categorize their funding information. This information is captured in the International Alzheimer's Disease Research Portfolio (IADRP) for further analysis. As of January, 2014, over fifteen organizations from the US, Canada, Europe and Australia have contributed their information. The goal of the IADRP project is to enable funding organizations to assess the changing landscape of AD research and coordinate strategies, leverage resources, and avoid duplication of effort.

  3. Rapid sulfur capture studies at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Lawson, W.F.; Maloney, D.J.; Shaw, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    Determine conditions that would reproduce optimum sulfur capture ( super-equilibrium'') behavior. No attempt was made to extract kinetic data for calcination or sulfur capture, as might be done in a comprehensive study of sorbent behavior. While some interesting anomalies are present in the calcination data and in the limited surface area data, no attempt was made to pursue those issues. Since little sulfur capture was observed at operating conditions where super-equilibrium'' might be expected to occur, tests were stopped when the wide range of parameters that were studied failed to produce significant sulfur capture via the super-equilibrium mechanism. Considerable space in this report is devoted to a description of the experiment, including details of the GTRC construction. This description is included because we have received requests for a detailed description of the GTRC itself, as well as the pressurized dry powder feed system. In addition, many questions about accurately sampling the sulfur species from a high-temperature, high-pressure reactor were raised during the course of this investigation. A full account of the development of the gas and particulate sampling train in thus provided. 8 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Educational Opportunity Fund Legal Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayler, Marilyn; Jackson, Curtis

    The Educational Opportunity Fund Legal Studies program addresses the need to increase access to careers in law for minority and disadvantaged students. Through early identification of interest, recognition of problems, remediation, skills enhancement, and comprehensive legal career exploration and exposure, students in Montclair State College's…

  5. Case Studies in Performance Funding. The Performance Funding Project, Tennessee Higher Education Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. Grady; Troutt, William E.

    Case studies of five Tennessee state colleges where pilot projects in performance funding were undertaken are presented. The Performance Funding Project of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission is designed to explore the feasibility of allocating some portion of state funds to institutions on a performance effectiveness criterion as compared…

  6. Neutron capture studies on /sup 189/Os

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, A.M.; Colvin, G.G.; Gelletly, W.; Warner, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive study of the level structure of /sup 189/Os has been carried out using the (n,..gamma..) and (n,e-) reactions. The use of the Average Resonance Capture technique ensures that the complete set of 1/2-, 3/2- states has been established up to 1500 keV in excitation energy and secondary ..gamma..-rays have been measured in singles and coincidence to build up the detailed level scheme. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study.

    PubMed

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-03-17

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system's architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  8. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results. PMID:28304337

  9. 7 CFR 4280.173 - Grant funding for feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant funding for feasibility studies. 4280.173... America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants § 4280.173 Grant funding for feasibility studies. (a) Maximum grant amount. The maximum amount of grant funds that will be made...

  10. Harvard University: Green Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Green Loan Fund at Harvard University has been an active source of capital for energy efficiency and waste reduction projects for almost a decade. This case study examines the revolving fund's history from its inception as a pilot project in the 1990s to its regeneration in the early 2000s to its current operations today. The green revolving…

  11. A Guide. Planning and Funding International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Maurice

    How can colleges and universities best plan for international programs? Where are applications made for funding? This brochure is an attempt to provide an initial response to these questions and to offer some general guidelines. The list of sources of funding are suggestive, not exhaustive. It is geared to the institution that has not been…

  12. Special Education Funding Reform: A Review of Impact Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Moore, Dennis; Brown, Don; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2010-01-01

    Various models for funding special education services have been described in the literature. This paper aims at moving the debate concerning special education funding reform beyond the descriptive level by reviewing studies that investigated the impact of various models for funding special education. Systematic searches were conducted of ERIC and…

  13. Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay; Lieberman, Joanne; Parrish, Tom; Kaleba, Daniel; Van Campen, James; Stullich, Stephanie

    The Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding (SERFF) examined the allocation and use of funds provided to school districts and schools through the Goals 2000 and five of the largest Elementary and Secondary Education Act programs for fiscal year 1997, corresponding to the 1997-1998 school year. The six federal programs included in this…

  14. Estimation methodology in contemporary small mammal capture-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Estimators of population size and survival rate based on the Jolly-Seber capture-recapture model and the 'enumeration method' are described. Enumeration estimators are shown to estimate complicated functions of capture and survival probabilities and, in the case of the population size estimator, population size. Frequently-listed reasons for preferring enumeration estimators are discussed and the Jolly-Seber estimators are shown to be superior even in the case of heterogeneity and trap-happy response, the two sources of unequal capture probability most likely to occur in small mammal studies. New developments in probabilistic capture-recapture models are described, and these models are recommended for future small mammal capture-recapture studies.

  15. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  16. Using lecture capture: a qualitative study of nursing faculty's experience.

    PubMed

    Freed, Patricia E; Bertram, Julie E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E

    2014-04-01

    As lecture capture technology becomes widely available in schools of nursing, faculty will need to master new technological skills and make decisions about recording their classroom lectures or other activities. This study sought to understand faculty's experience of using a new lecture capture system. This qualitative study used Kruger's systematic approach to explore undergraduate nursing faculty's first-time experience using a lecture capture system purchased by the university. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of fourteen undergraduate faculty using lecture capture for the first-time. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed by the researchers. Four themes were identified from the faculty interviews. Two of the themes expressed faculty's concerns about the teaching role, and two themes expressed the faculty's concerns about student learning. Participants experienced stress when learning to use the new lecture capture technology and struggled to resolve it with their own beliefs and teaching values. The impact of lecture capture on student learning, impact on class attendance, and the promotion of a culture of lecturing were revealed as important issues to consider when lecture capture becomes available. © 2013.

  17. Funding Mechanisms, Cost Drivers, and the Distribution of Education Funds in Alberta: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neu, Dean; Taylor, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Critical analysis of historical financial data of the Calgary Board of Education (CBE) examined the impact of Alberta's 1994 funding changes on the CBE and the distribution of Alberta's education funding. Findings illustrate how funding mechanisms are used to govern from a distance and how seemingly neutral accounting/funding techniques function…

  18. Study on launch scheme of space-net capturing system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingyu; Zhang, Qingbin; Feng, Zhiwei; Tang, Qiangang

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous progress in active debris-removal technology, scientists are increasingly concerned about the concept of space-net capturing system. The space-net capturing system is a long-range-launch flexible capture system, which has great potential to capture non-cooperative targets such as inactive satellites and upper stages. In this work, the launch scheme is studied by experiment and simulation, including two-step ejection and multi-point-traction analyses. The numerical model of the tether/net is based on finite element method and is verified by full-scale ground experiment. The results of the ground experiment and numerical simulation show that the two-step ejection and six-point traction scheme of the space-net system is superior to the traditional one-step ejection and four-point traction launch scheme.

  19. Study on launch scheme of space-net capturing system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingbin; Feng, Zhiwei; Tang, Qiangang

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous progress in active debris-removal technology, scientists are increasingly concerned about the concept of space-net capturing system. The space-net capturing system is a long-range-launch flexible capture system, which has great potential to capture non-cooperative targets such as inactive satellites and upper stages. In this work, the launch scheme is studied by experiment and simulation, including two-step ejection and multi-point-traction analyses. The numerical model of the tether/net is based on finite element method and is verified by full-scale ground experiment. The results of the ground experiment and numerical simulation show that the two-step ejection and six-point traction scheme of the space-net system is superior to the traditional one-step ejection and four-point traction launch scheme. PMID:28877187

  20. Primary care funding, contract status, and outcomes: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Claire L; Beerstecher, Hendrik J

    2006-01-01

    Background The introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) provides a quantitative way of assessing quality of care in general practice. We explore the achievements of general practice in the first year of the QOF, with specific reference to practice funding and contract status. Aim To determine the extent to which differences in funding and contract status affect quality in primary care. Design of study Cross-sectional observational study using practice data obtained under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. Setting One hundred and sixty-four practices from six primary care trusts (PCTs) in England. Method Practice data for all 164 practices were collated for income and contract status. The outcome measure was QOF score for the year 2004–2005. All data were analysed statistically. Results Contract status has an impact on practice funding, with Employed Medical Services (EMS) and Personal Medical Services (PMS) practices receiving higher levels of funding than General Medical Services (GMS) practices (P<0.001). QOF scores also vary according to contract status. Higher funding levels in EMS practices are associated with lower QOF scores (P=0.04); while GMS practices exhibited the opposite trend, with higher-funded practices achieving better quality scores (P<0.001). Conclusion GMS practices are the most efficient contract status, achieving high quality scores for an average of £62.51 per patient per year. By contrast, EMS practices are underperforming, achieving low quality scores for an average of £105.37 per patient per year. Funding and contract status are therefore important factors in determining achievement in the QOF. PMID:17132348

  1. Western Michigan University: Quasi-Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University has designed an innovative "Quasi-Revolving Fund" model that demonstrates the institution's full commitment to incorporating sustainability into campus operations. The Quasi-Revolving Fund recaptures money from cost-savings, similar to a typical green revolving fund, but it also sources capital from the…

  2. Primary care funding, contract status, and outcomes: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Claire L; Beerstecher, Hendrik J

    2006-11-01

    The introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) provides a quantitative way of assessing quality of care in general practice. We explore the achievements of general practice in the first year of the QOF, with specific reference to practice funding and contract status. To determine the extent to which differences in funding and contract status affect quality in primary care. Cross-sectional observational study using practice data obtained under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. One hundred and sixty-four practices from six primary care trusts (PCTs) in England. Practice data for all 164 practices were collated for income and contract status. The outcome measure was QOF score for the year 2004-2005. All data were analysed statistically. Contract status has an impact on practice funding, with Employed Medical Services (EMS) and Personal Medical Services (PMS) practices receiving higher levels of funding than General Medical Services (GMS) practices (P<0.001). QOF scores also vary according to contract status. Higher funding levels in EMS practices are associated with lower QOF scores (P=0.04); while GMS practices exhibited the opposite trend, with higher-funded practices achieving better quality scores (P<0.001). GMS practices are the most efficient contract status, achieving high quality scores for an average of pound 62.51 per patient per year. By contrast, EMS practices are underperforming, achieving low quality scores for an average of pound 105.37 per patient per year. Funding and contract status are therefore important factors in determining achievement in the QOF.

  3. Funding, Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Micah

    2009-01-01

    I show herein how to develop fundable proposals to support your research. Although the proposal strategy I discuss is commonly used in successful proposals, most junior faculty (and many senior scholars) in political science and other social sciences seem to be unaware of it. I dispel myths about funding, and discuss how to find funders and target…

  4. Funding, Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Micah

    2009-01-01

    I show herein how to develop fundable proposals to support your research. Although the proposal strategy I discuss is commonly used in successful proposals, most junior faculty (and many senior scholars) in political science and other social sciences seem to be unaware of it. I dispel myths about funding, and discuss how to find funders and target…

  5. Regression analysis study on the carbon dioxide capture process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Chan, C.W.; Tontiwachiwuthikul, P.

    2008-07-15

    Research on amine-based carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture has mainly focused on improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the CO{sub 2} capture process. The objective of our work is to explore relationships among key parameters that affect the CO{sub 2} production rate. From a survey of relevant literature, we observed that the significant parameters influencing the CO{sub 2} production rate include the reboiler heat duty, solvent concentration, solvent circulation rate, and CO{sub 2} lean loading. While it is widely recognized that these parameters are related, the exact nature of the relationships are unknown. This paper presents a regression study conducted with data collected at the International Test Center for CO{sub 2} capture (ITC) located at University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The regression technique was applied to a data set consisting of data on 113 days of operation of the CO{sub 2} capture plant, and four mathematical models of the key parameters have been developed. The models can be used for predicting the performance of the plant when changes occur in the process. By manipulation of the parameter values, the efficiency of the CO{sub 2} capture process can be improved.

  6. [Therapy optimization studies torn between science and funding].

    PubMed

    Freund, M

    2002-01-01

    There is no doubt that clinical studies are valuable cornerstones in the development of rational diagnostics and therapy, for the patients' safety, for quality assurance as well as for the development of a body of evidence in medicine. Well recognized multicentric study groups are active in several medical disciplines in Germany. Public funding resources however are miserable as compared to other countries. For example in hematology and oncology funds are almost exclusively available by private foundations as the Deutsche Krebshilfe only. Additionally physicians and institutions who are actively promoting clinical studies have to pay charges for patients' insurance and for registration of studies by the authorities. Furthermore there are increasing difficulties obtaining reimbursement for patients' care in clinical studies. In this context outdated regulations of the German Sozialgesetzbuch V lawbook play an important role. In summary a pronounced reform deficit paired with bureocratic tendencies has become manifested. The most important demands are in this situation: a reliable and realistic regulatory basis for treatment-related clinical studies has to be created. Studies on treatment strategies with registered drugs have to be free from the obligatory patients' insurance which is required for study with non-registered drugs. It has to be clarified that in these studies some regulations of good clinical practice as obligatory external monitoring and source data verification are not feasible and will not be required. The Sozialgesetzbuch V has to be adapted and the actual ban of clinical studies in private practice has to be ended. Treatment related clinical studies have to be free from charges of ethical committees and regulatory authorities. Thereby the financial overload of clinical studies could be reduced and some motivation for further bureocratic proliferation is removed. Finally a longterm, reliable funding resource has to be created independently from the

  7. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

  8. Current Developments in Community College Performance Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Thornton, Zoë M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the initiation of performance funding in Tennessee in the late 1970s, approximately 30 states have, at some point, attempted a funding model that includes performance on a set of indicators. The purpose of the present study was to capture the current status of performance funding in public statewide community college systems and to assess…

  9. Current Developments in Community College Performance Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Thornton, Zoë M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the initiation of performance funding in Tennessee in the late 1970s, approximately 30 states have, at some point, attempted a funding model that includes performance on a set of indicators. The purpose of the present study was to capture the current status of performance funding in public statewide community college systems and to assess…

  10. Boston University: Sustainability Revolving Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Boston University's (BU) Sustainability Revolving Loan Fund was created in 2008 through an allocation of $1 million from the university's administrative budget. The fund is administered by the Vice President of Operations. Potential projects are identified by the university's Director of Energy Administration and Operations along with the…

  11. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  12. Federal energy efficiency and water conservation funding study

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study required by section 162 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). It outlines options for financing energy and water conservation measures at Federal facilities as required by Part 3 of Title V of the National Energy Policy and Conservation Act (NECPA) (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.) as amended by EPAct. It addresses: (1) the estimated Federal financial investment necessary to install energy and water conservation measures to meet NECPA and Executive Order requirements; (2) the use of revolving funds and other funding mechanisms which offer stable, long-term financing of energy and water conservation measures; and (3) the means for capitalizing such funds. On March 8, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902. This Executive Order is an aggressive mandate to improve energy efficiency and water conservation in Federal buildings nationwide. This Executive Order is designed to meet and exceed requirements for Federal energy and water efficiency that were contained in section 152 of EPAct. Section 152 mandated that Federal agencies use all cost effective measures with less than a ten year payback to reduce energy consumption in their facilities by 20% by the year 2000 compared to 1985 levels. In addition, Executive Order 12902 established a requirement to use cost effective measures to reduce energy use by fiscal year 2005 by 30% compared to 1985 energy use. This report provides estimates for the energy and water conservation investments needed to achieve the NECPA and Executive Order goals as well as estimates for the contribution from various funding sources and a review of the mechanisms for funding these investments.

  13. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to evaluate the benefits of using algae to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial and small-scale utility power boilers. The operations are being studied for the use of CO2 from flue gas for algae growth along with the production of biofuels and other useful products to prepare a comprehensive characterization of the economic feasibility of using algae to capture CO2. Information is being generated for analyses of the potential for these technologies to advance in the market and assist in meeting environmental goals, as well as to examine their associated environmental implications. Three electric power generation plants (coal and fuel oil fired) equipped to send flue-gas emissions to algae culture at demonstration facilities are being studied. Data and process information are being collected and developed to facilitate feasibility and modeling evaluations of the CO2 to algae technology. An understanding of process requirements to apply this technology to existing industries would go far in advancing carbon capture opportunities. Documenting the successful use of this technology could help bring “low-tech”, low-cost, CO2 to algae, carbon capture to multiple size industries and

  14. Preparation of radioactive rare earth targets for neutron capture study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. G.; Rogers, P. S. Z.; Palmer, P. D.; Dry, D. E.; Rundberg, R. S.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    The understanding of thc details of nucleosynthesis in stars remains a great challenge. Though the basic mechanisms governing the processes have been known since the pioneering work of Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle (l), we are now evolving into a condition where we can ask more specific questions. Of particular interest are the dynamics of the s ('slow') process. In this process the general condition is one in which sequential neutron captures occur at time scales long compared with the beta decay half lives of the capturing nuclides. The nucleosynthesis period for C or Ne burning stellar shells is believed to be in the year to few year time frame (2). This means that radionuclides with similar half lives to this burning period serve as 'branch point' nuclides. That is, there will be a competition between a capture to the next heavier isotope and a beta decay to the element of nexl higher atomic number. By understanding the abundances of these competing reactions we can learn about the dynamics of the nucleosynthesis process in the stellar medium. Crucial to this understanding is that we have a knowledge of the underlying neutron reaction cross sections on these unstable nuclides in the relevant stellar energy regions (neutrons of 0.1-100 KeV). Tm (1.9 years) and ls'Sm (90 ycws) have decay properties that permit their handling in an open fume hood. These Iwo were therefore selected to be the first radionuclides for neutron capture study in what will be an ongoing effort.

  15. Iowa State University: Live Green Revolving Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The $3 million Live Green Revolving Loan Fund (LGRLF) at Iowa State University (ISU) was launched in 2008. The LGRLF is unique in its decentralized implementation structure which allows each department and building to reap the benefits of their own efficiency measures and gives individual departments the incentive to propose resource-saving…

  16. An independent review of NCCAM-funded studies of chiropractic.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard; Posadzki, Paul

    2011-05-01

    To promote an independent and critical evaluation of 11 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of chiropractic funded by the National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Electronic searches were conducted to identify all relevant RCTs. Key data were extracted and the risk of bias of each study was determined. Ten RCTs were included, mostly related to chiropractic spinal manipulation for musculoskeletal problems. Their quality was frequently questionable. Several RCTs failed to report adverse effects and the majority was not described in sufficient detail to allow replication. The criticism repeatedly aimed at NCCAM seems justified, as far as their RCTs of chiropractic is concerned. It seems questionable whether such research is worthwhile.

  17. Funding for cerebral palsy research in Australia, 2000–2015: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    White, R; Novak, I; Badawi, N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the funding for cerebral palsy (CP) research in Australia, as compared with the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Design Observational study. Setting For Australia, philanthropic funding from Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation (CPARF) (2005–2015) was compared with National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2000–2015) and Australian Research Council (ARC, 2004–2015) and CPARF and NHMRC funding were compared with NIH funding (USA). Participants Cerebral Palsy researchers funded by CPARF, NHMRC or NIH. Results Over 10 years, total CPARF philanthropic funding was $21.9 million, including people, infrastructure, strategic and project support. As competitive grants, CPARF funded $11.1 million, NHMRC funded $53.5 million and Australian Research Council funded $1.5 million. CPARF, NHMRC and NIH funding has increased in real terms, but only the NIH statistically significantly increased in real terms (mean annual increase US$4.9 million per year, 95% CI 3.6 to 6.2, p<0.001). The NHMRC budget allocated to CP research remained steady over time at 0.5%. A network analysis indicated the relatively small number of CP researchers in Australia is mostly connected through CPARF or NHMRC funding. Conclusions Funding for CP research from the Australian government schemes has stabilised and CP researchers rely on philanthropic funding to fill this gap. In comparison, the NIH is funding a larger number of CP researchers and their funding pattern is consistently increasing. PMID:27798026

  18. Scissors Mode of 162 Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    DOE PAGES

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; ...

    2015-05-28

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions,more » (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ’) reactions.« less

  19. Scissors mode of Gd nuclei studied from resonance neutron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; and others

    2012-10-20

    Spectra of {gamma} rays following the neutron capture at isolated resonances of stable Gd nuclei were measured. The objectives were to get new information on photon strength of {sup 153,155-159}Gd with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors-mode vibration. An analysis of the data obtained clearly indicates that the scissors mode is coupled not only to the ground state, but also to all excited levels of the nuclei studied. The specificity of our approach ensures unbiasedness in estimating the sumed scissors-mode strength {Sigma}B(M1){up_arrow}, even for odd product nuclei, for which conventional nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements yield only limited information. Our analysis indicates that for these nuclei the sum {Sigma}B(M1){up_arrow} increases with A and for {sup 157,159}Gd it is significantly higher compared to {sup 156,158}Gd.

  20. Scissors Mode of 162Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ') reactions.

  1. A Study of Late Funding of Elementary and Secondary Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Washington, DC.

    This publication presents findings of a nationwide study of the impact of late or uncertain funding on elementary secondary educational programs funded by the U.S. Office of Education (USOE). Emphasis of the report is on detailed documentation of the problems created by current funding flow patterns to state and local education agencies. In phase…

  2. Source of funding in experimental studies of mobile phone use on health: Update of systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nierop, Lotte E.; Röösli, Martin; Egger, Matthias; Huss, Anke

    2010-11-01

    A previous review showed that among 59 studies published in 1995-2005, industry-funded studies were least likely to report effects of controlled exposure to mobile phone radiation on health-related outcomes. We updated literature searches in 2005-2009 and extracted data on funding, conflicts of interest and results. Of 75 additional studies 12% were industry-funded, 44% had public and 19% mixed funding; funding was unclear in 25%. Previous findings were confirmed: industry-sponsored studies were least likely to report results suggesting effects. Interestingly, the proportion of studies indicating effects declined in 1995-2009, regardless of funding source. Source of funding and conflicts of interest are important in this field of research.

  3. Neutron tube design study for boron neutron capture therapy application

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, J.M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Wu, L.K.; Zahir, N.

    1999-05-06

    Radio-frequency (RF) driven ion sources are being developed in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for sealed-accelerator-tube neutron generator application. By using a 5-cm-diameter RF-driven multicusp source H{sup +} yields over 95% have been achieved. These experimental findings will enable one to develop compact neutron generators based on the D-D or D-T fusion reactions. In this new neutron generator, the ion source, the accelerator and the target are all housed in a sealed metal container without external pumping. Recent moderator design simulation studies have shown that 14 MeV neutrons could be moderated to therapeutically useful energy ranges for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The dose near the center of the brain with optimized moderators is about 65% higher than the dose obtained from a typical neutron spectrum produced by the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), and is comparable to the dose obtained by other accelerator-based neutron sources. With a 120 keV and 1 A deuteron beam, a treatment time of {approx}35 minutes is estimated for BNCT.

  4. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: a lion case study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sam M; Maruping, Nkabeng T; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R

    2013-05-24

    Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  5. Conflicts of interest in government-funded studies.

    PubMed

    Pickar, J H

    2015-06-01

    Conflict of interest in scientific publications has become a topic of critical importance. A primary focus has been the relationship between authors, journals and the pharmaceutical industry. That focus must be expanded to include government funding organizations. There are significant benefits to authors and investigators in participating in government-funded research, and to journals in publishing it. There are substantial risks to patients in not considering the potential for conflict of interest.

  6. An adverse event capture and management system for cancer studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive capture of Adverse Events (AEs) is crucial for monitoring for side effects of a therapy while assessing efficacy. For cancer studies, the National Cancer Institute has developed the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) as a required standard for recording attributes and grading AEs. The AE assessments should be part of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) system; yet, due to patient-centric EHR design and implementation, many EHR's don't provide straightforward functions to assess ongoing AEs to indicate a resolution or a grade change for clinical trials. Methods At UAMS, we have implemented a standards-based Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) that is integrated with the Epic EHR and other research systems to track new and existing AEs, including automated lab result grading in a regulatory compliant manner. Within a patient's chart, providers can launch AERS, which opens the patient's ongoing AEs as default and allows providers to assess (resolution/ongoing) existing AEs. In another tab, it allows providers to create a new AE. Also, we have separated symptoms from diagnoses in the CTCAE to minimize inaccurate designation of the clinical observations. Upon completion of assessments, a physician would submit the AEs to the EHR via a Health Level 7 (HL7) message and then to other systems utilizing a Representational State Transfer Web Service. Conclusions AERS currently supports CTCAE version 3 and 4 with more than 65 cancer studies and 350 patients on those studies. This type of standard integrated into the EHR aids in research and data sharing in a compliant, efficient, and safe manner. PMID:26424052

  7. An adverse event capture and management system for cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Alex; Hutchins, Laura; Annis, Sandy; Chen, Wanchi; Ermisoglu, Emre; Feng, Zhidan; Mack, Karen; Simpson, Kacie; Lane, Cheryl; Topaloglu, Umit

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive capture of Adverse Events (AEs) is crucial for monitoring for side effects of a therapy while assessing efficacy. For cancer studies, the National Cancer Institute has developed the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) as a required standard for recording attributes and grading AEs. The AE assessments should be part of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) system; yet, due to patient-centric EHR design and implementation, many EHR's don't provide straightforward functions to assess ongoing AEs to indicate a resolution or a grade change for clinical trials. At UAMS, we have implemented a standards-based Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) that is integrated with the Epic EHR and other research systems to track new and existing AEs, including automated lab result grading in a regulatory compliant manner. Within a patient's chart, providers can launch AERS, which opens the patient's ongoing AEs as default and allows providers to assess (resolution/ongoing) existing AEs. In another tab, it allows providers to create a new AE. Also, we have separated symptoms from diagnoses in the CTCAE to minimize inaccurate designation of the clinical observations. Upon completion of assessments, a physician would submit the AEs to the EHR via a Health Level 7 (HL7) message and then to other systems utilizing a Representational State Transfer Web Service. AERS currently supports CTCAE version 3 and 4 with more than 65 cancer studies and 350 patients on those studies. This type of standard integrated into the EHR aids in research and data sharing in a compliant, efficient, and safe manner.

  8. Funding for cerebral palsy research in Australia, 2000-2015: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Herbert, D L; Barnett, A G; White, R; Novak, I; Badawi, N

    2016-10-24

    To examine the funding for cerebral palsy (CP) research in Australia, as compared with the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Observational study. For Australia, philanthropic funding from Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation (CPARF) (2005-2015) was compared with National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2000-2015) and Australian Research Council (ARC, 2004-2015) and CPARF and NHMRC funding were compared with NIH funding (USA). Cerebral Palsy researchers funded by CPARF, NHMRC or NIH. Over 10 years, total CPARF philanthropic funding was $21.9 million, including people, infrastructure, strategic and project support. As competitive grants, CPARF funded $11.1 million, NHMRC funded $53.5 million and Australian Research Council funded $1.5 million. CPARF, NHMRC and NIH funding has increased in real terms, but only the NIH statistically significantly increased in real terms (mean annual increase US$4.9 million per year, 95% CI 3.6 to 6.2, p<0.001). The NHMRC budget allocated to CP research remained steady over time at 0.5%. A network analysis indicated the relatively small number of CP researchers in Australia is mostly connected through CPARF or NHMRC funding. Funding for CP research from the Australian government schemes has stabilised and CP researchers rely on philanthropic funding to fill this gap. In comparison, the NIH is funding a larger number of CP researchers and their funding pattern is consistently increasing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Fate of protocols submitted to a French national funding scheme: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Decullier, Evelyne; Huot, Laure; Chapuis, François R

    2014-01-01

    The fate of clinical research projects funded by a grant has been investigated, but there is no information on the projects which did not receive funding. The fate of these projects is not known: do they apply for and/or receive funding from other sources or are they carried out without specific funding? The aim of the study was to describe all clinical research projects submitted to a French national funding scheme (PHRC 2000) and to assess project initiation, completion and publication status taking into account whether or not they received funding. This study is a retrospective cohort. The initial project characteristics were retrieved from the submission files and follow-up information was collected from the primary investigator. The percentages of projects started, completed and published were studied. A total of 481 projects were studied. Follow-up information was obtained for 366. Overall, 185 projects were initiated (51%); 139 of them were funded by the PHRC 2000 or other sources. The most commonly cited reason for not initiating a project was a lack of funding. Subsequently, 121 of the projects initiated were completed (65%). Accrual difficulties were the main reason cited to explain why studies were stopped prematurely or were still ongoing. Finally, 88 of the completed projects were published (73%). Amongst the completed projects, the only factor explaining publication was the statistical significance of the results. Obtainment of funding was a determining factor for project initiation. However, once initiated, the funding did not influence completion or publication.

  10. What Do Students Want in Advising? A Policy Capturing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottarella, Karen E.; Fritzsche, Barbara A.; Cerabino, Kara C.

    2004-01-01

    A policy capturing approach was used to examine the advising variables that contribute to student satisfaction. Students (N = 468) rated 48 scenarios in which advising approach, relationship, advisor gender, emotional nature of the relationship, and type of advisor were manipulated. Results show that being known to the advisor, having a…

  11. High reprint orders in medical journals and pharmaceutical industry funding: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Handel, Adam E; Patel, Sunil V; Pakpoor, Julia; Ebers, George C; Goldacre, Ben; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2012-06-28

    To assess the extent to which funding and study design are associated with high reprint orders. Case-control study. Top articles by size of reprint orders in seven journals, 2002-09. Lancet, Lancet Neurology, Lancet Oncology (Lancet Group), BMJ, Gut, Heart, and Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (BMJ Group) matched to contemporaneous articles not in the list of high reprint orders. Funding and design of randomised controlled trials or other study designs. Median reprint orders for the seven journals ranged from 3000 to 126,350. Papers with high reprint orders were more likely to be funded by the pharmaceutical industry than were control papers (industry funding versus other or none: odds ratio 8.64, 95% confidence interval 5.09 to 14.68, and mixed funding versus other or none: 3.72, 2.43 to 5.70). Funding by the pharmaceutical industry is associated with high numbers of reprint orders.

  12. Progress on the Europium Neutron-Capture Study using DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J A; Macri, R A; Parker, W; Wilk, P; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T A; Esch, E; Haight, R C; O'Donnell, J M; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R S; Schwantes, J M; Ullmann, J L; Vieira, D J; Wilhelmy, J B; Wouters, J M; Mitchell, G E; Sheets, S A; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

    2006-09-05

    The accurate measurement of neutron-capture cross sections of the Eu isotopes is important for many reasons including nuclear astrophysics and nuclear diagnostics. Neutron capture excitation functions of {sup 151,153}Eu targets were measured recently using a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter array DANCE located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for E{sub n} = 0.1-100 keV. The progress on the data analysis efforts is given in the present paper. The {gamma}-ray multiplicity distributions for the Eu targets and Be backing are significantly different. The {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution is found to be the same for different neutron energies for both {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu. The statistical simulation to model the {gamma}-ray decay cascade is summarized.

  13. Time to publication for publicly funded clinical trials in Australia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Linn Beate; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the length of time between receiving funding and publishing the protocol and main paper for randomised controlled trials. Design An observational study using survival analysis. Setting Publicly funded health and medical research in Australia. Participants Randomised controlled trials funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia between 2008 and 2010. Main outcome measures Time from funding to the protocol paper and main results paper. Multiple variable survival models examining whether study characteristics predicted publication times. Results We found 77 studies with a total funding of $A59 million. The median time to publication of the protocol paper was 6.4 years after funding (95% CI 4.1 to 8.1). The proportion with a published protocol paper 8 years after funding was 0.61 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.74). The median time to publication of the main results paper was 7.1 years after funding (95% CI 6.3 to 7.6). The proportion with a published main results paper 8 years after funding was 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.87). The HRs for how study characteristics might influence timing were generally close to one with narrow CIs, the notable exception was that a longer study length lengthened the time to the main paper (HR=0.62 per extra study year, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.89). Conclusions Despite the widespread registration of clinical trials, there remain serious concerns of trial results not being published or being published with a long delay. We have found that these same concerns apply to protocol papers, which should be publishable soon after funding. Funding agencies could set a target of publishing the protocol paper within 18 months of funding. PMID:28336734

  14. Directed funding to address under-provision of treatment for substance use disorders: a quantitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a substantial problem in the United States (U.S.), affecting far more people than receive treatment. This is true broadly and within the U.S. military veteran population, which is our focus. To increase funding for treatment, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has implemented several initiatives over the past decade to direct funds toward SUD treatment, supplementing the unrestricted funds VA medical centers receive. We study the ‘flypaper effect’ or the extent to which these directed funds have actually increased SUD treatment spending. Methods The study sample included all VA facilities and used observational data spanning years 2002 to 2010. Data were analyzed with a fixed effects, ordinary least squares specification with monetized workload as the dependent variable and funding dedicated to SUD specialty clinics the key dependent variable, controlling for unrestricted funding. Results We observed different effects of dedicated SUD specialty clinic funding over the period 2002 to 2008 versus 2009 to 2010. In the earlier period, there is no evidence of a significant portion of the dedicated funding sticking to its target. In the later period, a substantial proportion—38% in 2009 and 61% in 2010—of funding dedicated to SUD specialty clinics did translate into increased medical center spending for SUD treatment. In comparison, only five cents of every dollar of unrestricted funding is spent on SUD treatment. Conclusions Relative to unrestricted funding, dedicated funding for SUD treatment was much more effective in increasing workload, but only in years 2009 and 2010. The differences in those years relative to prior ones may be due to the observed management focus on SUD and SUD-related treatment in the later years. If true, this suggests that in a centrally directed healthcare organization such as the VA, funding dedicated to a service is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for increasing resources

  15. Directed funding to address under-provision of treatment for substance use disorders: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Frakt, Austin B; Trafton, Jodie; Wallace, Amy; Neuman, Matthew; Pizer, Steven

    2013-07-18

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a substantial problem in the United States (U.S.), affecting far more people than receive treatment. This is true broadly and within the U.S. military veteran population, which is our focus. To increase funding for treatment, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has implemented several initiatives over the past decade to direct funds toward SUD treatment, supplementing the unrestricted funds VA medical centers receive. We study the 'flypaper effect' or the extent to which these directed funds have actually increased SUD treatment spending. The study sample included all VA facilities and used observational data spanning years 2002 to 2010. Data were analyzed with a fixed effects, ordinary least squares specification with monetized workload as the dependent variable and funding dedicated to SUD specialty clinics the key dependent variable, controlling for unrestricted funding. We observed different effects of dedicated SUD specialty clinic funding over the period 2002 to 2008 versus 2009 to 2010. In the earlier period, there is no evidence of a significant portion of the dedicated funding sticking to its target. In the later period, a substantial proportion--38% in 2009 and 61% in 2010--of funding dedicated to SUD specialty clinics did translate into increased medical center spending for SUD treatment. In comparison, only five cents of every dollar of unrestricted funding is spent on SUD treatment. Relative to unrestricted funding, dedicated funding for SUD treatment was much more effective in increasing workload, but only in years 2009 and 2010. The differences in those years relative to prior ones may be due to the observed management focus on SUD and SUD-related treatment in the later years. If true, this suggests that in a centrally directed healthcare organization such as the VA, funding dedicated to a service is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for increasing resources expended for that service.

  16. Review of Livermore-Led Neutron Capture Studies Using DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W; Sheets, S; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Becvar, F; Bredeweg, T; Clement, R; Couture, A; Esch, E; Haight, R; Jandel, M; Krticka, M; Mitchell, G; Macri, R; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Schwantes, J; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Wilk, P

    2007-05-11

    We have made neutron capture cross-section measurements using the white neutron source at the Los Alamos Science Center, the DANCE detector array (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) and targets important for basic science and stockpile stewardship. In this paper, we review results from (n,{gamma}) reactions on {sup 94,95}Mo, {sup 152,154,157,160,nat}Gd, {sup 151,153}Eu and {sup 242m}Am for neutron energies from < 1eV up to {approx} 20 keV. We measured details of the {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture, for comparison with results of statistical model simulations. We determined the neutron energy dependent (n,{gamma}) cross section and gained information about statistical decay properties, including the nuclear level density and the photon strength function. Because of the high granularity of the detector array, it is possible to look at gamma cascades with a specified number of transitions (a specific multiplicity). We simulated {gamma}-ray cascades using a combination of the DICEBOX/GEANT computer codes. In the case of the deformed nuclei, we found evidence of a scissors-mode resonance. For the Eu, we also determined the (n,{gamma}) cross sections. For the {sup 94,95}Mo, we focused on the spin and parity assignments of the resonances and the determination of the photon strength functions for the compound nuclei {sup 95,96}Mo. Future plans include measurements on actinide targets; our immediate interest is in {sup 242m}Am.

  17. Decay curve study in a standard electron capture decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, D.; Fukuda, M.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Makisaka, K.; Matsumiya, R.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Izumikawa, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2010-05-12

    We have searched for a time-modulated decay in a standard electron capture experiment for {sup 140}Pr, in order to confirm a report from GSI, where an oscillatory decay has been observed for hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr and {sup 142}Pm ions in the cooler storage ring. {sup 140}Pr has been produced with the {sup 140}Ce(p, n) reaction by a pulsed proton beam accelerated from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. Resultant time dependence of the K{sub a}lpha and K{sub b}eta X-ray intensities from the daughter shows no oscillatory behavior.

  18. An Exploratory Study of Staff Capture at the South African Inspectorate of Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Steven

    2012-01-01

    When prison inspectorates are co-opted or “captured” by those they are monitoring, their ability to bring transparency, accountability, and a human rights culture to prisons becomes harder. Using survey data from 102 staff at the South African Judicial Inspectorate of Prisons (JIOP), this exploratory study measured the severity of staff capture (i.e. they were not protecting the exclusive interests of prisoners) and potential correlates of capture. Overall, study participants exhibited significant levels of capture with Ordinary Least Squares regression indicating higher levels of capture among staff that were African, thought about someday working for the Department of Correctional Services, felt powerless when prison officials ignored them, and if prison officials respected their work (p’s < .05). Length of JIOP employment was not associated with capture. These findings suggest that the JIOP’s policy of not renewing many staffs’ three year contracts could ironically be putting them at risk for capture. PMID:22581999

  19. Report on Legislative and Funding Recommendations, DoDDS Comprehensive Study [of Dependents Schools].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Ted; LeBlanc, Linda

    The final volume of a comprehensive study of the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS), this report consists of a brief background description of the DoDDS system, followed by 10 legislative and funding recommendations based on the findings of the study: (1) increase funding in fiscal year 1984 and beyond to accommodate anticipated…

  20. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Monica; Rudge, James W; Adisasmito, Wiku; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in financing the response to HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) in Indonesia. As part of a series of case studies, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of Global Fund portfolios into the national HIV and TB programmes, integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support on the health care system in Indonesia. The study relied on a literature review and interviews with 22 key informants using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund programmes in Indonesia are highly vertical and centralized, in contrast with the decentralized nature of the Indonesian health system. Consequently, there is more integration of all functions at local levels than centrally. There is a high level of integration of planning of Global Fund HIV and TB portfolios into the National AIDS and TB programmes and some limited integration of these programmes with other disease programmes, through joint working groups. Other synergies include strengthening of stewardship and governance and increased staff recruitment encouraged by incentive payments and training. Monitoring and evaluation functions of the Global Fund programmes are not integrated with the disease programmes, with parallel indicators and reporting systems. System-wide effects include greater awareness of governance and stewardship in response to the temporary suspension of Global Fund funding in 2008, and increased awareness of the need to integrate programme planning, financing and service delivery. Global Fund investment has freed up resources for other programmes, particularly at local levels. However, this may hinder a robust exit strategy from Global Fund funding. Furthermore, Global Fund monetary incentives may result in staff shifting into HIV and TB programmes.

  1. Canadian Institutes of Health Research funding of prison health research: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; McIsaac, Kathryn E.; Foran, Jessica E.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health research provides a means to define health status and to identify ways to improve health. Our objective was to define the proportion of grants and funding from the Government of Canada's health research investment agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), that was awarded for prison health research, and to describe the characteristics of funded grants. Methods: In this descriptive study, we defined prison health research as research on the health and health care of people in prisons and at the time of their release. We searched the CIHR Funding Decisions Database by subject and by investigator name for funded grants for prison health research in Canada in all competitions between 2010 and 2014. We calculated the proportion of grants and funding awarded for prison health research, and described the characteristics of funded grants. Results: During the 5-year study period, 21 grants were awarded that included a focus on prison health research, for a total of $2 289 948. Six of these grants were operating grants and 6 supported graduate or fellowship training. In total, 0.13% of all grants and 0.05% of all funding was for prison health research. Interpretation: A relatively small proportion of CIHR grants and funding were awarded for prison health research between 2010 and 2014. If prison health is a priority for Canada, strategic initiatives that include funding opportunities could be developed to support prison health research in Canada. PMID:28401113

  2. Canadian Institutes of Health Research funding of prison health research: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G; McIsaac, Kathryn E; Foran, Jessica E; Matheson, Flora I

    2017-01-01

    Health research provides a means to define health status and to identify ways to improve health. Our objective was to define the proportion of grants and funding from the Government of Canada's health research investment agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), that was awarded for prison health research, and to describe the characteristics of funded grants. In this descriptive study, we defined prison health research as research on the health and health care of people in prisons and at the time of their release. We searched the CIHR Funding Decisions Database by subject and by investigator name for funded grants for prison health research in Canada in all competitions between 2010 and 2014. We calculated the proportion of grants and funding awarded for prison health research, and described the characteristics of funded grants. During the 5-year study period, 21 grants were awarded that included a focus on prison health research, for a total of $2 289 948. Six of these grants were operating grants and 6 supported graduate or fellowship training. In total, 0.13% of all grants and 0.05% of all funding was for prison health research. A relatively small proportion of CIHR grants and funding were awarded for prison health research between 2010 and 2014. If prison health is a priority for Canada, strategic initiatives that include funding opportunities could be developed to support prison health research in Canada.

  3. Numerical study of particle capture efficiency in fibrous filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jianhua; Lominé, Franck; Hellou, Mustapha

    2017-06-01

    Numerical simulations are performed for transport and deposition of particles over a fixed obstacle in a fluid flow. The effect of particle size and Stokes number on the particle capture efficiency is investigated using two methods. The first one is one-way coupling combining Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method with Lagrangian point-like approach. The second one is two-way coupling based on the coupling between Lattice Boltzmann method and discrete element (DE) method, which consider the particle influence on the fluid. Then the single fiber collection efficiency characterized by Stokes number (St) are simulated by LB-DE methods. Results show that two-way coupling method is more appropriate in our case for particles larger than 8 μm. A good agreement has also been observed between our simulation results and existing correlations for single fiber collection efficiency. The numerical simulations presented in this work are useful to understand the particle transport and deposition and to predict the capture efficiency.

  4. Electron capture radioactive sources for intravascular brachytherapy: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter

    2003-06-21

    The feasibility of electron capture (EC) radionuclides as an alternative to the beta and high-energy gamma emitters presently in use for intravascular brachytherapy is investigated. A potential advantage of the low-energy x-ray radiation from EC isotopes may be an enhanced biological effectiveness with respect to the presently applied beta nuclides, but at the same time avoiding the shielding problems induced by the large penetrability of high-energy gamma rays. A survey considering the most important practical aspects such as dose delivery to the vessel walls in reasonable time spans, absorption properties, possible production of sources with the required specific activities and radiation safety reveals 71Ge as the most promising candidate.

  5. Mechanical stability study of capture cavity II at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Problematic resonant conditions at both 18 Hz and 180 Hz were encountered and identified early during the commissioning of Capture Cavity II (CC2) at Fermilab. CC2 consists of an external vacuum vessel and a superconducting high gradient (close to 25 MV/m) 9-cell 1.3 GHz niobium cavity, transported from DESY for use in the A0 Photoinjector at Fermilab. An ANSYS modal finite element analysis (FEA) was performed in order to isolate the source of the resonance and directed the effort towards stabilization. Using a fast piezoelectric tuner to excite (or shake) the cavity at different frequencies (from 5 Hz to 250 Hz) at a low-range sweep for analysis purposes. Both warm (300 K) and cold (1.8 K) accelerometer measurements at the cavity were taken as the resonant ''fix'' was applied. FEA results, cultural and technical noise investigation, and stabilization techniques are discussed.

  6. Funding for Postgraduate Studies in Librarianship and Information Science in the UK since 1990: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Geraint

    2005-01-01

    Potential applicants for postgraduate courses in librarianship and information science (LIS) have always had to consider how they would finance their studies. This paper examines how the funding axis for such courses has changed and how applicants from the UK are now looking to employers to fund courses rather than seeking support from national…

  7. Funding for Postgraduate Studies in Librarianship and Information Science in the UK since 1990: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Geraint

    2005-01-01

    Potential applicants for postgraduate courses in librarianship and information science (LIS) have always had to consider how they would finance their studies. This paper examines how the funding axis for such courses has changed and how applicants from the UK are now looking to employers to fund courses rather than seeking support from national…

  8. Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding: Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay; Lieberman, Joanne; Parrish, Tom; Kaleba, Daniel; Van Campen, James; Stullich, Stephanie

    The Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding (SERFF) examined the allocation and use of funds provided to school districts and schools through the Goals 2000 and five of the largest Elementary and Secondary Education Act programs for fiscal year 1997, corresponding to the 1997-1998 school year. The six federal programs included in this…

  9. Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding: Final Report. Technical Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay; Lieberman, Joanne; Parrish, Tom; Kaleba, Daniel; Van Campen, James; Stullich, Stephanie

    The Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding (SERFF) examined the allocation and use of funds provided to school districts and schools through the Goals 2000 and five of the largest Elementary and Secondary Education Act programs for fiscal year 1997, corresponding to the 1997-1998 school year. The six federal programs included in this…

  10. Early Childhood Funding at the Community Level: A Case Study from Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, David; Joseph, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Early Childhood Block Grant (ECBG) distributes state funding for preschool and birth-to-three programs in Illinois. The authors conducted a case study in Evanston, a city in north Cook County, Illinois, interviewing community representatives and analyzing ECBG program data to discern how ECBG funds are used to provide early childhood services.…

  11. Target studies for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1996-03-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron ``filter``, which has a deep ``window`` in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is reaccelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator -- target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production -- resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons -- while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current.

  12. Relation of study quality, concordance, take home message, funding, and impact in studies of influenza vaccines: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Di Pietrantonj, C; Debalini, M G; Rivetti, A; Demicheli, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between study concordance, take home message, funding, and dissemination of comparative studies assessing the effects of influenza vaccines. Design Systematic review without meta-analysis. Data extraction Search of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the web, without language restriction, for any studies comparing the effects of influenza vaccines against placebo or no intervention. Abstraction and assessment of quality of methods were carried out. Data synthesis We identified 259 primary studies (274 datasets). Higher quality studies were significantly more likely to show concordance between data presented and conclusions (odds ratio 16.35, 95% confidence interval 4.24 to 63.04) and less likely to favour effectiveness of vaccines (0.04, 0.02 to 0.09). Government funded studies were less likely to have conclusions favouring the vaccines (0.45, 0.26 to 0.90). A higher mean journal impact factor was associated with complete or partial industry funding compared with government or private funding and no funding (differences between means 5.04). Study size was not associated with concordance, content of take home message, funding, and study quality. Higher citation index factor was associated with partial or complete industry funding. This was sensitive to the exclusion from the analysis of studies with undeclared funding. Conclusion Publication in prestigious journals is associated with partial or total industry funding, and this association is not explained by study quality or size. PMID:19213766

  13. In Silico Knockout Studies of Xenophagic Capturing of Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Scheidel, Jennifer; Amstein, Leonie; Ackermann, Jörg; Dikic, Ivan; Koch, Ina

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of cytosol-invading pathogens by autophagy, a process known as xenophagy, is an important mechanism of the innate immune system. Inside the host, Salmonella Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and resides within a specialized intracellular compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole. A fraction of these bacteria does not persist inside the vacuole and enters the host cytosol. Salmonella Typhimurium that invades the host cytosol becomes a target of the autophagy machinery for degradation. The xenophagy pathway has recently been discovered, and the exact molecular processes are not entirely characterized. Complete kinetic data for each molecular process is not available, so far. We developed a mathematical model of the xenophagy pathway to investigate this key defense mechanism. In this paper, we present a Petri net model of Salmonella xenophagy in epithelial cells. The model is based on functional information derived from literature data. It comprises the molecular mechanism of galectin-8-dependent and ubiquitin-dependent autophagy, including regulatory processes, like nutrient-dependent regulation of autophagy and TBK1-dependent activation of the autophagy receptor, OPTN. To model the activation of TBK1, we proposed a new mechanism of TBK1 activation, suggesting a spatial and temporal regulation of this process. Using standard Petri net analysis techniques, we found basic functional modules, which describe different pathways of the autophagic capture of Salmonella and reflect the basic dynamics of the system. To verify the model, we performed in silico knockout experiments. We introduced a new concept of knockout analysis to systematically compute and visualize the results, using an in silico knockout matrix. The results of the in silico knockout analyses were consistent with published experimental results and provide a basis for future investigations of the Salmonella xenophagy pathway. PMID:27906974

  14. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  15. The Australian Research Quality Framework: A Live Experiment in Capturing the Social, Economic, Environmental, and Cultural Returns of Publicly Funded Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    The author regards development of Australia's ill-fated Research Quality Framework (RQF) as a "live experiment" in determining the most appropriate approach to evaluating the extra-academic returns, or "impact," of a nation's publicly funded research. The RQF was at the forefront of an international movement toward richer…

  16. [A experimental study on the effect of fluorine capture of calcium based coal briquette].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiaolan; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Bingcheng; Ying, Bo; Wang, Shuquan; Li, Shengda; Yang, Cuifu

    2009-11-01

    To study on the fluorine capture effect of calcium based coal briquette with fluorine capture additive in coal-burning fluorosis area. Add proper proportions of calcium based fluorine capture additive in high fluorine coal for making coal briquette were added, and were added the fluorine in coal cinder in order to reduce its emission. Meanwhile, to determine the composes of coal briquette were added, the percentage of fluorine in coal cinder and the concentration of fluoride, sulfur dioxide and PM10 were determinated, to evaluate the effect of fluorine capture and the level of door air pollution. After pilot-scale studying on the effect of fluorine capture in 30 households at coal-burning fluorosis area in Guiding of Guizhou Province. The average fluorine capture rate were 71.8%, and the average concentration of fluoride were 0.0052 mg/m3, which reduces by 27.8% in comparison with control group and were lower than environmental air quality standard (0.007 mg/m3); and the average concentration of SO2 were 0.67 mg/m3, which reduces 52.8% in comparison with control group and slightly higher than those of indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg/m3). The application of the coal briquette made by calcium based fluorine capture additive could reduce the pollution caused by high fluorine coal, could improve the quality of indoor air.

  17. Exploring trends, sources, and causes of environmental funding: a study of Florida counties.

    PubMed

    Wang, XiaoHu

    2011-11-01

    Florida is one of the largest spenders on the environment in the U.S. Employing a database from Florida counties, this study examines two distinct environmental funding areas in government: funding to protect the environment, and funding to develop the environment. These two types of funding serve different purposes, support different activities and operations, and draw from different revenue sources. The results show that environmental funding in government is a response to the environmental pressure generated by economic activities and population growth. Counties with a higher level of manufacturing and farming activity spend more to protect the environment, while counties with higher population densities spend more to develop the environment. Moreover, counties with more funding for public safety and economic development activities spend less on the environment, indicating that environmental funding is influenced by the political processes in public budgeting in which diversified interests compete for resources. These results show that environmental spending in government is the result of combined forces arising from environmental pressure and budgetary politics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Disclosure of sources of funding in biomedical journals. Descriptive study of four Spanish publications].

    PubMed

    Roig, F; Borrego, A

    2015-01-01

    The source of research funding can result in bias, and its disclosure is essential in the publication of results. The aim of the study is to identify the frequency and type of sources of funding in the articles published by four Spanish biomedical journals published in Spanish. The frequency and type of financial disclosures in the articles published during 2012 in the ordinary numbers of Atención Primaria, Medicina Clínica, Revista Clínica Española and Revista Española de Cardiología were analyzed. Articles described as "Editorial", "Original article", "Consensus Document", "Review" and "Special Article" were considered. It was decided in each case whether or not the article included any funding disclosure and the type of the declared funding (public or private). Four hundred and twelve publications were analyzed. In 32.5% there was disclosure of funding: 38% in Atención Primaria, 27% in Medicina Clínica, 15% in Revista Clínica Española and 45% in Revista Española de Cardiología. By type of articles, 47% of original articles, 44% of consensus documents, 21% of reviews, 14% of special articles and 8% of editorials had a funding source. In 51.5% of the cases, funding was exclusively public, in 36.5% exclusively private and in 10% mixed. There is considerable variability in the disclosure of funding sources in articles appearing in these four Spanish biomedical journals. It would be necessary to improve the disclosure requirements of sources of funding, making them uniform, clear and transparent.

  19. Sustainable funding for biocuration: The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as a case study of a subscription-based funding model.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Leonore; Berardini, Tanya Z; Li, Donghui; Muller, Robert; Strait, Emily M; Li, Qian; Mezheritsky, Yarik; Vetushko, Andrey; Huala, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Databases and data repositories provide essential functions for the research community by integrating, curating, archiving and otherwise packaging data to facilitate discovery and reuse. Despite their importance, funding for maintenance of these resources is increasingly hard to obtain. Fueled by a desire to find long term, sustainable solutions to database funding, staff from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), founded the nonprofit organization, Phoenix Bioinformatics, using TAIR as a test case for user-based funding. Subscription-based funding has been proposed as an alternative to grant funding but its application has been very limited within the nonprofit sector. Our testing of this model indicates that it is a viable option, at least for some databases, and that it is possible to strike a balance that maximizes access while still incentivizing subscriptions. One year after transitioning to subscription support, TAIR is self-sustaining and Phoenix is poised to expand and support additional resources that wish to incorporate user-based funding strategies. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org.

  20. Sustainable funding for biocuration: The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as a case study of a subscription-based funding model

    PubMed Central

    Berardini, Tanya Z.; Li, Donghui; Muller, Robert; Strait, Emily M.; Li, Qian; Mezheritsky, Yarik; Vetushko, Andrey; Huala, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Databases and data repositories provide essential functions for the research community by integrating, curating, archiving and otherwise packaging data to facilitate discovery and reuse. Despite their importance, funding for maintenance of these resources is increasingly hard to obtain. Fueled by a desire to find long term, sustainable solutions to database funding, staff from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), founded the nonprofit organization, Phoenix Bioinformatics, using TAIR as a test case for user-based funding. Subscription-based funding has been proposed as an alternative to grant funding but its application has been very limited within the nonprofit sector. Our testing of this model indicates that it is a viable option, at least for some databases, and that it is possible to strike a balance that maximizes access while still incentivizing subscriptions. One year after transitioning to subscription support, TAIR is self-sustaining and Phoenix is poised to expand and support additional resources that wish to incorporate user-based funding strategies. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org PMID:26989150

  1. A mobile and asynchronous electronic data capture system for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jens; Fredrich, Daniel; Piegsa, Jens; Habes, Mohamad; van den Berg, Neeltje; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    A Central Data Management (CDM) system based on electronic data capture (EDC) software and study specific databases is an essential component for assessment and management of large data volumes in epidemiologic studies. Conventional CDM systems using web applications for data capture depend on permanent access to a network. However, in many study settings permanent network access cannot be guaranteed, e.g. when participants/patients are visited in their homes. In such cases a different concept for data capture is needed. The utilized EDC software must be able to ensure data capture as stand-alone instance and to synchronize captured data with the server at a later point in time. This article describes the design of the mobile information capture (MInCa) system an EDC software meeting these requirements. In particular, we focus on client and server design, data synchronization, and data privacy as well as data security measures. The MInCa software has already proven its efficiency in epidemiologic studies revealing strengths and weaknesses concerning both concept and practical application which will be addressed in this article.

  2. High reprint orders in medical journals and pharmaceutical industry funding: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Adam E; Patel, Sunil V; Pakpoor, Julia; Ebers, George C; Goldacre, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the extent to which funding and study design are associated with high reprint orders. Design Case-control study. Setting Top articles by size of reprint orders in seven journals, 2002-09. Participants Lancet, Lancet Neurology, Lancet Oncology (Lancet Group), BMJ, Gut, Heart, and Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (BMJ Group) matched to contemporaneous articles not in the list of high reprint orders. Main outcome measures Funding and design of randomised controlled trials or other study designs. Results Median reprint orders for the seven journals ranged from 3000 to 126 350. Papers with high reprint orders were more likely to be funded by the pharmaceutical industry than were control papers (industry funding versus other or none: odds ratio 8.64, 95% confidence interval 5.09 to 14.68, and mixed funding versus other or none: 3.72, 2.43 to 5.70). Conclusions Funding by the pharmaceutical industry is associated with high numbers of reprint orders. PMID:22745328

  3. Neutron capture autoradiographic study of the biodistribution of 10B in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ogura, K; Yanagie, H; Eriguchi, M; Lehmann, E H; Kühne, G; Bayon, G; Kobayashi, H

    2004-10-01

    For the study on boron neutron capture therapy, the whole-body sections of tumor-bearing mice infused with 10B attached to CR-39 plastic track detectors were exposed to thermal and cold neutron beams. Neutron capture autoradiographic images obtained by the cold neutron irradiation were extremely superior in quality to those of the thermal neutron beams. From the autoradiographic images, the 10B reaction dose of the neutron-induced particles was estimated using the differential LET distribution.

  4. The Power of a Question: A Case Study of Two Organizational Knowledge Capture Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynn P.

    2003-01-01

    This document represents a presentation regarding organizational knowledge capture systems which was delivered at the HICSS-36 conference held from January 6-9, 2003. An exploratory case study of two knowledge resources is offered. Then, two organizational knowledge capture systems are briefly described: knowledge transfer from practitioner and the use of questions to represent knowledge. Finally, the creation of a database of peer review questions is suggested as a method of promoting organizational discussions and knowledge representation and exchange.

  5. Feasibility study of algae-based CO2 capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being underta...

  6. Feasibility study of algae-based CO2 capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to eval...

  7. Feasibility study of algae-based CO2 capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being underta...

  8. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertak...

  9. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertak...

  10. Feasibility study of algae-based CO2 capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to eval...

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of metal capture during incineration process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Wey, M.Y.; Yan, M.H.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental studies and thermodynamic equilibrium analysis were carried out to investigate the effects of operating conditions and input waste compositions on the adsorption of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) on silica sand during incineration processes. The experiments were performed with a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator, and the evaluated parameters include (1) sand bed temperature (500, 700, and 900 C); and (2) the addition of organic chloride (PVC), inorganic chlorides (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}), and sulfide (Na{sub 2}S). The experimental and simulating results indicated that the addition of organic chloride (PVC) would increase the formation of volatile metallic chlorides, and decrease the adsorption efficiency of silica sand. On the other hand, the addition of inorganic chlorides (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}) worked differently, which increased the adsorption efficiency of silica sand. The addition of sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) would increase the adsorption efficiencies of the four metals in silica sand because sulfide inhibited the formation of metallic chlorides. The hexavalent chromium content in the sand bed decreased for the addition of organic chloride (PVC), and increased for the addition of inorganic chlorides (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}).

  12. Movement patterns and study area boundaries: Influences on survival estimation in capture-mark-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to account for the availability of individuals in the study area during capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies and the resultant confounding of parameter estimates can make correct interpretation of CMR model parameter estimates difficult. Although important advances based on the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model have resulted in estimators of true survival that work by unconfounding either death or recapture probability from availability for capture in the study area, these methods rely on the researcher's ability to select a method that is correctly matched to emigration patterns in the population. If incorrect assumptions regarding site fidelity (non-movement) are made, it may be difficult or impossible as well as costly to change the study design once the incorrect assumption is discovered. Subtleties in characteristics of movement (e.g. life history-dependent emigration, nomads vs territory holders) can lead to mixtures in the probability of being available for capture among members of the same population. The result of these mixtures may be only a partial unconfounding of emigration from other CMR model parameters. Biologically-based differences in individual movement can combine with constraints on study design to further complicate the problem. Because of the intricacies of movement and its interaction with other parameters in CMR models, quantification of and solutions to these problems are needed. Based on our work with stream-dwelling populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we used a simulation approach to evaluate existing CMR models under various mixtures of movement probabilities. The Barker joint data model provided unbiased estimates of true survival under all conditions tested. The CJS and robust design models provided similarly unbiased estimates of true survival but only when emigration information could be incorporated directly into individual encounter histories. For the robust design model, Markovian emigration (future

  13. Streamlined research funding using short proposals and accelerated peer review: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian G; Herbert, Danielle L; Campbell, Megan; Daly, Naomi; Roberts, Jason A; Mudge, Alison; Graves, Nicholas

    2015-02-07

    Despite the widely recognised importance of sustainable health care systems, health services research remains generally underfunded in Australia. The Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation (AusHSI) is funding health services research in the state of Queensland. AusHSI has developed a streamlined protocol for applying and awarding funding using a short proposal and accelerated peer review. An observational study of proposals for four health services research funding rounds from May 2012 to November 2013. A short proposal of less than 1,200 words was submitted using a secure web-based portal. The primary outcome measures are: time spent preparing proposals; a simplified scoring of grant proposals (reject, revise or accept for interview) by a scientific review committee; and progressing from submission to funding outcomes within eight weeks. Proposals outside of health services research were deemed ineligible. There were 228 eligible proposals across 4 funding rounds: from 29% to 79% were shortlisted and 9% to 32% were accepted for interview. Success rates increased from 6% (in 2012) to 16% (in 2013) of eligible proposals. Applicants were notified of the outcomes within two weeks from the interview; which was a maximum of eight weeks after the submission deadline. Applicants spent 7 days on average preparing their proposal. Applicants with a ranking of reject or revise received written feedback and suggested improvements for their proposals, and resubmissions composed one third of the 2013 rounds. The AusHSI funding scheme is a streamlined application process that has simplified the process of allocating health services research funding for both applicants and peer reviewers. The AusHSI process has minimised the time from submission to notification of funding outcomes.

  14. Publication rate for funded studies from a major UK health research funder: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, S; Wright, D; Maeso, R; Cook, A; Milne, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate what percentage of National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme-funded projects have published their final reports in the programme's journal HTA and to explore reasons for non-publication. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Failure to publish findings from research is a significant area of research waste. It has previously been suggested that potentially over 50% of studies funded are never published. Participants All NIHR HTA projects with a planned submission date for their final report for publication in the journal series on or before 9 December 2011 were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The projects were classified according to the type of research, whether they had been published or not; if not yet published, whether they would be published in the future or not. The reasons for non-publication were investigated. Results 628 projects were included: 582 (92.7%) had published a monograph; 19 (3%) were expected to publish a monograph; 13 (2.1%) were discontinued studies and would not publish; 12 (1.9%) submitted a report which did not lead to a publication as a monograph; and two (0.3%) did not submit a report. Overall, 95.7% of HTA studies either have published or will publish a monograph: 94% for those commissioned in 2002 or before and 98% for those commissioned after 2002. Of the 27 projects for which there will be no report, the majority (21) were commissioned in 2002 or before. Reasons why projects failed to complete included failure to recruit; issues concerning the organisation where the research was taking place; drug licensing issues; staffing issues; and access to data. Conclusions The percentage of HTA projects for which a monograph is published is high. The advantages of funding organisations requiring publication in their own journal include avoidance of publication bias and research waste. PMID:23645914

  15. Disclosures, conflict of interest, and funding issues in urogynecology articles: a bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marianne; Riss, Paul; Kölbl, Heinz; Umek, Wolfgang; Hanzal, Engelbert

    2015-10-01

    The ethical behavior of authors, editors, and journals is increasingly placed in the spotlight, by both the public and the research community. Disclosures and conflict of interest (COI) statements of publishing authors represent one important aspect. We aimed to unravel the current management of disclosures, COI, and funding statements in the subspecialty urogynecology. A bibliometric study was carried out. We included six journals that published urogynecology articles between January and December 2013. All original articles, reviews, and opinion articles were assessed for the presence of disclosure/COI and funding statements. Information given on the official disclosure form was compared with information given in the final article (International Urogynecology Journal). All journals investigated require disclosure and funding statements in their instructions to authors. Of the 434 articles included, almost all contained a disclosure statement (98-100 %). Funding statements were present in 41-100 % of articles, indicating a difference in journal type (50 % on average among urogynecology journals; 75 % on average among general gynecology journals). The main source of funding was "grants" (58 %), followed by "none" (16 %), "industry" (16 %), and lastly "hospital/university" (10 %). Disclosure statements in the article were identical to the official disclosure form in 80 % (IUJ). Disclosure/COI statements were included in almost all urogynecology articles investigated. Their content, however, is sometimes incomplete and should possibly be monitored more closely by journals and authors. Despite universal requirements of journals, the reporting of funding seems inconsistent. This issue in addition to the completeness of disclosures should be given more attention.

  16. Funding Full-Time Study through Part-Time Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Mark; Evans, Carl; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2009-01-01

    Full-time students engaged in part-time studies have been a subject of increasing academic attention. This study extends work in this area by examining: the extent to which full-time undergraduate students undertake part-time employment, the reasons for working whilst studying full-time and the extent to which students relate their part-time…

  17. Dynamics of Postcombustion CO2 Capture Plants: Modeling, Validation, and Case Study.

    PubMed

    van de Haar, Adam; Trapp, Carsten; Wellner, Kai; de Kler, Robert; Schmitz, Gerhard; Colonna, Piero

    2017-02-22

    The capture of CO2 from power plant flue gases provides an opportunity to mitigate emissions that are harmful to the global climate. While the process of CO2 capture using an aqueous amine solution is well-known from experience in other technical sectors (e.g., acid gas removal in the gas processing industry), its operation combined with a power plant still needs investigation because in this case, the interaction with power plants that are increasingly operated dynamically poses control challenges. This article presents the dynamic modeling of CO2 capture plants followed by a detailed validation using transient measurements recorded from the pilot plant operated at the Maasvlakte power station in the Netherlands. The model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data related to the transient changes of the main process variables such as flow rate, CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and solvent loading. The validated model was used to study the effects of fast power plant transients on the capture plant operation. A relevant result of this work is that an integrated CO2 capture plant might enable more dynamic operation of retrofitted fossil fuel power plants because the large amount of steam needed by the capture process can be diverted rapidly to and from the power plant.

  18. Comprehensive capture of cutaneous melanoma by the Ontario Cancer Registry: validation study using community pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Rodrigo; Fung, Kinwah; Rochon, Paula; Chan, An-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is often managed outside hospital settings, creating the potential for underreporting to cancer registries. To our knowledge, completeness of melanoma capture in cancer registries has not been assessed using external data sources since the 1980s. We evaluated the melanoma capture rate from 1993 to 2009 in a provincial cancer registry. We identified all melanoma diagnoses in pathology reports from a major community laboratory in Ontario, Canada. Pathologically confirmed diagnoses were linked to Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) records using health insurance numbers. We calculated capture rates as the proportion of patients with melanoma confirmed by a pathology report, with a corresponding melanoma diagnosis in OCR. OCR captured 3,798 of 4,275 (88.8, 95 % confidence interval: 87.9, 89.8 %) invasive melanoma diagnoses over the 17-year period. Annual capture rates of 94 % or higher were found for over half the study period. Among all 29,133 melanoma diagnoses in OCR, 27.6 % were registered based on a pathology report alone, compared with 3.4 % for non-cutaneous malignancies. This suggests that comprehensive capture of melanoma cases by a provincial cancer registry is achievable using source data from community laboratories. There is a need for ongoing validation to ensure data remain accurate and complete to reliably inform clinical care, research, and policy.

  19. Dynamics of Postcombustion CO2 Capture Plants: Modeling, Validation, and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The capture of CO2 from power plant flue gases provides an opportunity to mitigate emissions that are harmful to the global climate. While the process of CO2 capture using an aqueous amine solution is well-known from experience in other technical sectors (e.g., acid gas removal in the gas processing industry), its operation combined with a power plant still needs investigation because in this case, the interaction with power plants that are increasingly operated dynamically poses control challenges. This article presents the dynamic modeling of CO2 capture plants followed by a detailed validation using transient measurements recorded from the pilot plant operated at the Maasvlakte power station in the Netherlands. The model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data related to the transient changes of the main process variables such as flow rate, CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and solvent loading. The validated model was used to study the effects of fast power plant transients on the capture plant operation. A relevant result of this work is that an integrated CO2 capture plant might enable more dynamic operation of retrofitted fossil fuel power plants because the large amount of steam needed by the capture process can be diverted rapidly to and from the power plant. PMID:28413256

  20. JAMA published fewer industry-funded studies after introducing a requirement for independent statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wager, Elizabeth; Mhaskar, Rahul; Warburton, Stephanie; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2010-10-22

    JAMA introduced a requirement for independent statistical analysis for industry-funded trials in July 2005. We wanted to see whether this policy affected the number of industry-funded trials published by JAMA. We undertook a retrospective, before-and-after study of published papers. Two investigators independently extracted data from all issues of JAMA published between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2008 (i.e., three years before and after the policy). They were not blinded to publication date. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were classified as industry funded (IF), joint industry/non-commercial funding (J), industry supported (IS) (when manufacturers provided materials only), non-commercial (N) or funding not stated (NS). Findings were compared and discrepancies resolved by discussion or further analysis of the reports. RCTs published in The Lancet and NEJM over the same period were used as a control group. Between July 2002 and July 2008, JAMA published 1,314 papers, of which 311 were RCTs. The number of industry studies (IF, J or IS) fell significantly after the policy (p = 0.02) especially for categories J and IS. However, over the same period, the number of industry studies rose in both The Lancet and NEJM. After the requirement for independent statistical analysis for industry-funded studies, JAMA published significantly fewer RCTs and significantly fewer industry-funded RCTs. This pattern was not seen in the control journals. This suggests the JAMA policy affected the number of submissions, the acceptance rate, or both. Without analysing the submissions, we cannot check these hypotheses but, assuming the number of published papers is related to the number submitted, our findings suggest that JAMA's policy may have resulted in a significant reduction in the number of industry-sponsored trials it received and published.

  1. JAMA Published Fewer Industry-Funded Studies after Introducing a Requirement for Independent Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Elizabeth; Mhaskar, Rahul; Warburton, Stephanie; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background JAMA introduced a requirement for independent statistical analysis for industry-funded trials in July 2005. We wanted to see whether this policy affected the number of industry-funded trials published by JAMA. Methods and Findings We undertook a retrospective, before-and-after study of published papers. Two investigators independently extracted data from all issues of JAMA published between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2008 (i.e., three years before and after the policy). They were not blinded to publication date. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were classified as industry funded (IF), joint industry/non-commercial funding (J), industry supported (IS) (when manufacturers provided materials only), non-commercial (N) or funding not stated (NS). Findings were compared and discrepancies resolved by discussion or further analysis of the reports. RCTs published in The Lancet and NEJM over the same period were used as a control group. Between July 2002 and July 2008, JAMA published 1,314 papers, of which 311 were RCTs. The number of industry studies (IF, J or IS) fell significantly after the policy (p = 0.02) especially for categories J and IS. However, over the same period, the number of industry studies rose in both The Lancet and NEJM. Conclusions After the requirement for independent statistical analysis for industry-funded studies, JAMA published significantly fewer RCTs and significantly fewer industry-funded RCTs. This pattern was not seen in the control journals. This suggests the JAMA policy affected the number of submissions, the acceptance rate, or both. Without analysing the submissions, we cannot check these hypotheses but, assuming the number of published papers is related to the number submitted, our findings suggest that JAMA's policy may have resulted in a significant reduction in the number of industry-sponsored trials it received and published. PMID:21042585

  2. Incidental captures of birds in small mammal traps: a cautionary note for interdisciplinary studies.

    Treesearch

    David L. Waldien; Miranda M. Cooley; Jennifer Weikel; John P. Hayes; Chris C. Maguire; Tom Manning; Thomas J. Maier

    2004-01-01

    Although benefits of interdisciplinary studies are numerous, potential exists for data acquisition for some aspects of such studies to impact data acquisition for other aspects. This may be particularly true in studies involving both trapping of small mammals and assessment of bird populations. We summarize the incidence of birds captured during 8 research projects in...

  3. Field Initiated Studies Program. Abstracts of Funded Projects 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Research.

    The Field-Initiated Studies program is open to institutions of higher education, public and private organizations, institutions, and agencies, as well as individuals. Applicants may propose projects that last up to 18 months, and proposals are reviewed and evaluated based on their technical quality and national importance judged by scholars and…

  4. State funding for local public health: observations from six case studies.

    PubMed

    Potter, Margaret A; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe state funding of local public health within the context of state public health system types. These types are based on administrative relationships, legal structures, and relative proportion of state funding in local public health budgets. We selected six states representing various types and geographic regions. A case study for each state summarized available information and was validated by state public health officials. An analysis of the case studies reveals that the variability of state public health systems--even within a given type--is matched by variability in approaches to funding local public health. Nevertheless, some meaningful associations appear. For example, higher proportions of state funding occur along with higher levels of state oversight and the existence of local service mandates in state law. These associations suggest topics for future research on public health financing in relation to local accountability, local input to state priority-setting, mandated local services, and the absence of state funds for public health services in some local jurisdictions.

  5. British government, industry agree to fund Hotel launcher studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. A.

    1986-02-01

    A program status assessment is presented for the horizontal takeoff and landing 'Hotol' single-stage-to-orbit space launcher, for which parallel, two-year airframe and propulsion system proof-of-concept studies have been approved. A two-year initial development program for the airframe would be followed by a four-year development and manufacturing phase that would begin upon the propulsion system concept's successful demonstration. Flight trials could begin in 1996. A number of significant modifications have already been made to the initial design concept, such as to the foreplanes, afterbody, engine intake, and orbital control system.

  6. Process comparison study. MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, T.; Krawiec, J.

    1992-01-01

    A process comparison study was conducted using four different advanced manufacturing techniques to fabricate a composite solid rocket booster systems tunnel cover. Costs and labor hours were tracked to provide the comparison between the processes. A relative structural comparison of the components is also included. The processes utilized included filament winding, pultrusion, automated tape laying, and thermoplastic thermoforming. The hand layup technique is also compared. Of the four advanced processes evaluated, the thermoformed thermoplastic component resulted in the least total cost. The automated tape laying and filament winding techniques closely followed the thermoplastic component in terms of total cost; and, these techniques show the most promise for high quality components and lower production costs. The pultruded component, with its expensive tooling and material requirements, was by far the most expensive process evaluated, although the results obtained would not be representative of large production runs.

  7. Process comparison study. MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, T.; Krawiec, J.

    1992-11-01

    A process comparison study was conducted using four different advanced manufacturing techniques to fabricate a composite solid rocket booster systems tunnel cover. Costs and labor hours were tracked to provide the comparison between the processes. A relative structural comparison of the components is also included. The processes utilized included filament winding, pultrusion, automated tape laying, and thermoplastic thermoforming. The hand layup technique is also compared. Of the four advanced processes evaluated, the thermoformed thermoplastic component resulted in the least total cost. The automated tape laying and filament winding techniques closely followed the thermoplastic component in terms of total cost; and, these techniques show the most promise for high quality components and lower production costs. The pultruded component, with its expensive tooling and material requirements, was by far the most expensive process evaluated, although the results obtained would not be representative of large production runs.

  8. Study of the Effectiveness of OCR for Decentralized Data Capture and Conversion. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, David M.; And Others

    The ERIC network conversion to an OCR (Optical Character Recognition) mode of data entry was studied to analyze the potential effectiveness of OCR data entry for future EPC/s (Editorial Processing Centers). Study results are also applicable to any other system involving decentralized bibliographic data capture and conversion functions. The report…

  9. Descriptive Analysis of Title VII-Funded State Education Agency Activities. Volume II: Nine Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Hector; And Others

    Results of a national study of the use of funds provided by the 1974 amendments to Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act by the state education agencies (SEAs) are presented. The study was undertaken to (1) describe and analyze SEA policies and activities regarding bilingual education, (2) describe and analyze the SEA-level…

  10. Retrospective Pilot Study of USAID-Funded Education Projects in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzar, Uzma; Harpring, Sharon; Cohen, Joseph; Leu, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The retrospective pilot study was designed to provide information on thirteen years of USAID-funded education projects in Malawi. This study provides a preliminary understanding of (i) the conceptualization of education quality that was explicit or implicit in project designs over time; (ii) the interventions carried out to enhance education…

  11. Is predictability salient? A study of attentional capture by auditory patterns

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Rosy; Baumann, Anna; Gal, Cécile; Barascud, Nicolas; Friston, Karl

    2017-01-01

    In this series of behavioural and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments, we investigate the extent to which repeating patterns of sounds capture attention. Work in the visual domain has revealed attentional capture by statistically predictable stimuli, consistent with predictive coding accounts which suggest that attention is drawn to sensory regularities. Here, stimuli comprised rapid sequences of tone pips, arranged in regular (REG) or random (RAND) patterns. EEG data demonstrate that the brain rapidly recognizes predictable patterns manifested as a rapid increase in responses to REG relative to RAND sequences. This increase is reminiscent of the increase in gain on neural responses to attended stimuli often seen in the neuroimaging literature, and thus consistent with the hypothesis that predictable sequences draw attention. To study potential attentional capture by auditory regularities, we used REG and RAND sequences in two different behavioural tasks designed to reveal effects of attentional capture by regularity. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that regularity does not capture attention. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044016

  12. A methodology for the capture and analysis of hybrid data: a case study of program debugging.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pablo; Cox, Richard; du Boulay, Benedict; Lutz, Rudi; Bryant, Sallyann

    2007-05-01

    This article describes a methodology for the capture and analysis of hybrid data. A case study in the field of reasoning with multiple representations--specifically, in computer programming--is presented to exemplify the use of the methodology. The hybrid data considered comprise computer interaction logs, audio recordings, and data about visual attention focus. The capture of the focus of visual attention data is performed with software. The software employed tracks the user's visual attention by blurring parts of the stimuli presented on the screen and allowing the participant to see only a small region of it at any one time. These hybrid data are analyzed via a methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative approaches. The article describes the software tool employed and the analytic methodology, and also discusses data capture issues and limitations of the approach.

  13. Molecular dynamics study of ion capture from water by a model ionophore, tetraprotonated cryptand SC24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owenson, Brian; Macelroy, Robert D.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The molecular dynamics of chloride capture from water by the tetraprotonated cryptand SC24 has been studied for the cases of 19 distances between the criptand and the chloride. The chloride capture is found to be characterized by a rapid cooperative change in the conformation of the cryptand when the Cl(-) begins to enter the ligand and just as it encounters the energy barrier. The conformational transition is associated with a shift of three N-H bonds from the pure endo orientation, such that they point toward the chloride.

  14. Molecular dynamics study of ion capture from water by a model ionophore, tetraprotonated cryptand SC24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owenson, Brian; Macelroy, Robert D.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The molecular dynamics of chloride capture from water by the tetraprotonated cryptand SC24 has been studied for the cases of 19 distances between the criptand and the chloride. The chloride capture is found to be characterized by a rapid cooperative change in the conformation of the cryptand when the Cl(-) begins to enter the ligand and just as it encounters the energy barrier. The conformational transition is associated with a shift of three N-H bonds from the pure endo orientation, such that they point toward the chloride.

  15. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Warakamin, Busaba; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    As part of a series of case studies on the interactions between programmes supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and health systems, we assessed the extent of integration of national HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria programmes with the general health system, the integration of the Global Fund-portfolios within the national disease programmes, and system-wide effects on the health system in Thailand. The study relied on a literature review and 34 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Thailand, the HIV, TB and malaria programmes' structures and functions are well established in the general health care system, with the Department for Disease Control and the Ministry of Public Health's network of health providers at sub-national levels as the main responsible organizations for stewardship and governance, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation, planning, and to some extent, demand generation. Civil society groups are active in certain areas, particularly in demand generation for HIV/AIDS. Overall, the Global Fund-supported programmes were almost fully integrated and coordinated with the general health system. The extent of integration varied across disease portfolios because of different number of actors and the nature of programme activities. There were also specific requirements by Global Fund that limit integration for some health system functions namely financing and monitoring and evaluation. From the view of stakeholders in Thailand, the Global Fund has contributed significantly to the three diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS. Financial support from the early Global Fund rounds was particularly helpful to the disease programmes during the time of major structural change in the MoPH. It also promoted collaborative networks of stakeholders, especially civil societies. However, the impacts on the overall health system, which is relatively well developed, are seen as

  16. Studying Pensions Funds Through an Infinite Servers Nodes Network: A Theoretical Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. A. M.; Andrade, M.; Filipe, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    This study intends to present a representation of a pensions fund through a stochastic network with two infinite servers nodes. With this representation it is allowed to deduce an equilibrium condition of the system with basis on the identity of the random rates expected values, for which the contributions arrive to the fund and the pensions are paid by the fund. In our study a stochastic network is constructed where traffic is represented. This network allows to study the equilibrium in the system and it is admissible to get a balance to a pensions fund. A specific case is studied. When the arrivals from outside at nodes A and B are according to a Poisson process, with rates λA and λB, respectively, the system may be seen as a two nodes network where the first node is a M/G/∞ queue and second a Mt/G/∞ queue. For this case in the long term the conditions of equilibrium are as follows: mAλAαA = mB(ρλA + λB)αB. In this formula it is established a relationship among the two nodes. Several examples are given in the study.

  17. Subaru/HDS study of CH stars: elemental abundances for stellar neutron-capture process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako; Karinkuzhi, Drisya

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive abundance analysis providing rare insight into the chemical history of lead stars is still lacking. We present results from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) spectral analyses of three CH stars, HD 26, HD 198269 and HD 224959, and, a carbon star with a dusty envelope, HD 100764. Previous studies on these objects are limited by both resolution and wavelength regions and the results differ significantly from each other. We have undertaken to reanalyse the chemical composition of these objects based on high-resolution Subaru spectra covering the wavelength regions 4020-6775 Å. Considering local thermodynamic equilibrium and using model atmospheres, we have derived the stellar parameters, the effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, and metallicities [Fe/H] for these objects. The derived parameters for HD 26, HD 100764, HD 198269 and HD 224959 are (5000, 1.6, -1.13), (4750, 2.0 -0.86), (4500, 1.5, -2.06) and (5050, 2.1, -2.44), respectively. The stars are found to exhibit large enhancements of heavy elements relative to iron in conformity to previous studies. Large enhancement of Pb with respect to iron is also confirmed. Updates on the elemental abundances for several s-process elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Pb) along with the first-time estimates of abundances for a number of other heavy elements (Sr, Ba, Pr, Eu, Er and W) are reported. Our analysis suggests that neutron-capture elements in HD 26 primarily originate in the s-process while the major contributions to the abundances of neutron-capture elements in the more metal-poor objects HD 224959 and HD 198269 are from the r-process, possibly from materials that are pre-enriched with products of the r-process.

  18. Community College Noncredit Occupational Programming: A Study of State Policies and Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiw, Catherine A.; Kremidas, Chloe C.; Johnson-Lewis, Mark; Lekes, Natasha

    2007-01-01

    This study inventoried state policies and regulations on and financial support for noncredit occupational programming offered by community colleges. Information collected from state- and community college-level administrators and Web-based searches is organized by a range of issues related to noncredit occupational programming and funding, such as…

  19. International Monetary Fund and World Bank policies can hurt poor, study says.

    PubMed

    Drajem, M

    2001-01-01

    According to a study by a World Bank economist, developing countries that do not follow International Monetary Fund and World Bank economic programs have seen more of their people lifted out of poverty in times of economic growth than have countries that do take the advice of these lenders.

  20. Computer-Based Basic Skills Instruction in a CETA Funded Project: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Robert M.; Hedl, John J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a study that (1) examined the effectiveness of computer-based education in developing literacy and mathematics skills in young adults to enable them to secure unsubsidized employment and (2) compared motivation of CETA-funded students with those who sought training voluntarily. Discusses failures of CETA training projects and makes…

  1. 2 Centers for International Studies Fight To Survive Without Federal Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Amy Magaro

    1997-01-01

    The East-West Center (Hawaii) and North-South Center (Florida) for hemisphere-oriented international studies have lost most federal funding and have had to trim staff, cut programs, and begin solicitation of private support. While lawmakers admit the centers do important work, they feel they are unnecessary and the work could be done elsewhere.…

  2. Is There a Magnet-School Effect? A Multisite Study of MSAP-Funded Magnet Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia; Schweig, Jonathan D.; Herman, Joan L.

    2017-01-01

    Magnet schools are one of the largest sectors of choice schools in the United States. In this study, we explored the heterogeneity in magnet-school effects on student achievement by examining 24 magnet schools, funded under the Magnet Schools Assistance Program (MSAP), in 5 school districts across 4 states. The magnet effects were synthesized…

  3. Funding and Assessment in British Universities: Impact on Theology and Religious Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnells, John R.

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at policies of the British Government relating to teaching, the curriculum, and research and how they impact Theology and Religious Studies (TRS). It reflects on the use of Government funding to steer research outputs and to focus such activity on a small number of selected institutions. It further discusses Government attempts…

  4. Perceptions of lung cancer and potential impacts on funding and patient care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kim; Delicaet, Kendra; Tang, Theresa; Ashley, Leslie Beard; Morra, Dante; Abrams, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore health-care professionals', health administrators', and not-for-profit cancer organization representatives' perceptions of lung cancer-related stigma and nihilism and the perceived impacts on funding and patient care. This is a qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews, which was conducted in Ontario, Canada. Seventy-four individuals from medical oncology, radiation oncology, thoracic surgery, respirology, pathology, radiology, primary care, palliative care, nursing, pharmacy, social work, genetics, health administration, and not-for-profit cancer organizations participated in this study. Participants described lung cancer-related stigma and nihilism and its negative impact on patients' psychological health, lung cancer funding, and patient care. The feeling of guilt and shame experienced by lung cancer patients as a result of the stigma associated with the disease was described. In terms of lung cancer funding, stigma was described as a reason lung cancer receives significantly less research funding compared to other cancers. In terms of patient care, lung cancer-related nihilism was credited with negatively impacting physician referral patterns with the belief that lung cancer patients were less likely to receive referrals for medical treatment. Health-care professionals, health administrators, and not-for-profit cancer organization representatives described lung cancer-related stigma and nihilism with far-reaching consequences. Further work is needed to increase education and awareness about lung cancer to reduce the stigma and nihilism associated with the disease.

  5. Modeling misidentification errors that result from use of genetic tags in capture-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshizaki, J.; Brownie, C.; Pollock, K.H.; Link, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Misidentification of animals is potentially important when naturally existing features (natural tags) such as DNA fingerprints (genetic tags) are used to identify individual animals. For example, when misidentification leads to multiple identities being assigned to an animal, traditional estimators tend to overestimate population size. Accounting for misidentification in capture-recapture models requires detailed understanding of the mechanism. Using genetic tags as an example, we outline a framework for modeling the effect of misidentification in closed population studies when individual identification is based on natural tags that are consistent over time (non-evolving natural tags). We first assume a single sample is obtained per animal for each capture event, and then generalize to the case where multiple samples (such as hair or scat samples) are collected per animal per capture occasion. We introduce methods for estimating population size and, using a simulation study, we show that our new estimators perform well for cases with moderately high capture probabilities or high misidentification rates. In contrast, conventional estimators can seriously overestimate population size when errors due to misidentification are ignored. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Valuing Metal-Organic Frameworks for Postcombustion Carbon Capture: A Benchmark Study for Evaluating Physical Adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Adil, Karim; Bhatt, Prashant M; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Abtab, Sk Md Towsif; Jiang, Hao; Assen, Ayalew H; Mallick, Arijit; Cadiau, Amandine; Aqil, Jamal; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-08-22

    The development of practical solutions for the energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide is of prime importance and continues to attract intensive research interest. Conceivably, the implementation of adsorption-based processes using different cycling modes, e.g., pressure-swing adsorption or temperature-swing adsorption, offers great prospects to address this challenge. Practically, the successful deployment of practical adsorption-based technologies depends on the development of made-to-order adsorbents expressing mutually two compulsory requisites: i) high selectivity/affinity for CO2 and ii) excellent chemical stability in the presence of impurities. This study presents a new comprehensive experimental protocol apposite for assessing the prospects of a given physical adsorbent for carbon capture under flue gas stream conditions. The protocol permits: i) the baseline performance of commercial adsorbents such as zeolite 13X, activated carbon versus liquid amine scrubbing to be ascertained, and ii) a standardized evaluation of the best reported metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for carbon dioxide capture from flue gas to be undertaken. This extensive study corroborates the exceptional CO2 capture performance of the recently isolated second-generation fluorinated MOF material, NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, concomitant with an impressive chemical stability and a low energy for regeneration. Essentially, the NbOFFIVE-1-Ni adsorbent presents the best compromise by satisfying all the required metrics for efficient CO2 scrubbing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  8. Are we studying what matters? Health priorities and NIH-funded biomedical engineering research.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Jessica B; Paltiel, A David; Saltzman, W Mark

    2010-07-01

    With the founding of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) in 1999, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) made explicit its dedication to expanding research in biomedical engineering. Ten years later, we sought to examine how closely federal funding for biomedical engineering aligns with U.S. health priorities. Using a publicly accessible database of research projects funded by the NIH in 2008, we identified 641 grants focused on biomedical engineering, 48% of which targeted specific diseases. Overall, we found that these disease-specific NIH-funded biomedical engineering research projects align with national health priorities, as quantified by three commonly utilized measures of disease burden: cause of death, disability-adjusted survival losses, and expenditures. However, we also found some illnesses (e.g., cancer and heart disease) for which the number of research projects funded deviated from our expectations, given their disease burden. Our findings suggest several possibilities for future studies that would serve to further inform the allocation of limited research dollars within the field of biomedical engineering.

  9. Funding Based on Needs? A Study on the Use of Needs Assessment Data by a Major Humanitarian Health Assistance Donor in its Decisions to Allocate Funds

    PubMed Central

    Olin, Emma; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background: International humanitarian assistance is essential for disaster-affected populations, particularly in resource scarce settings. To target such assistance, needs assessments are required. According to internationally endorsed principles, donor governments should provide funding for humanitarian assistance based on need. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore a major donor’s use of needs assessment data in decision-making for allocations of funds for health-related humanitarian assistance contributions. Setting: This is a case study of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), a major and respected international donor of humanitarian assistance. Methods: To explore Sida’s use of needs assessment data in practice for needs-based allocations, we reviewed all decision documents and assessment memoranda for humanitarian assistance contributions for 2012 using content analysis; this was followed by interviews with key personnel at Sida. Results: Our document analysis found that needs assessment data was not systematically included in Sida’s assessment memoranda and decision documents. In the interviews, we observed various descriptions of the concept of needs assessments, the importance of contextual influences as well as previous collaborations with implementing humanitarian assistance organizations. Our findings indicate that policies guiding funding decisions on humanitarian assistance need to be matched with available needs assessment data and that terminologies and concepts have to be clearly defined. Conclusion: Based on the document analysis and the interviews, it is unclear how well Sida used needs assessment data for decisions to allocate funds. However, although our observations show that needs assessments are seldom used in decision making, Sida’s use of needs assessments has improved compared to a previous study. To improve project funds allocations based on needs assessment data, it will be critical to develop

  10. Multiparous women's confidence to have a publicly-funded homebirth: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Catling-Paull, Christine; Dahlen, Hannah; Homer, Caroline S E; Homer, Caroline C S E

    2011-09-01

    Hospital birth is commonly thought to be a safer option than homebirth, despite many studies showing similar rates of safety for low risk mothers and babies when cared for by qualified midwives with systems of back-up in place. Recently in Australia, demand has led to the introduction of a small number of publicly-funded homebirth programs. Women's confidence in having a homebirth through a publicly-funded homebirth program in Australia has not yet been explored. The aim of the study was to explore the reasons why multiparous women feel confident to have a homebirth within a publicly-funded model of care in Australia. Ten multiparous English-speaking women who chose to have a homebirth with the St George Hospital Homebirth Program were interviewed in the postnatal period using semi-structured, open-ended questions. Interviews were transcribed, then a thematic analysis was undertaken. Women, having already experienced a normal birth, demonstrated a strong confidence in their ability to give birth at home and described a confidence in their bodies, their midwives, and the health system. Women weighed up the risks of homebirth through information they gathered and integration with their previous experience of birth, their family support and self-confidence. Women choosing publicly-funded homebirth display strong confidence in both themselves to give birth at home, and their belief in the health system's ability to cope with any complications that may arise. Many women may benefit from access to publicly-funded homebirth models of care. This should be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of author's affiliation and funding sources on the results of cohort studies on occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Laetitia; Griffon, Nicolas; Darmoni, Stefan J; Gehanno, Jean-Francois

    2016-03-01

    Reliability and credibility of research conducted by industry have been questioned, including in the field of occupational health. Cohort studies on occupational cancer published between 2000 and 2010 were compared according to their results, their conclusions, their funding, and the affiliation of their authors. Overall, 510 articles were included. Studies published by authors with public affiliation or funded by public grants concluded that their study showed an excess of cancer more frequently (P = 0.01) than studies published by authors with private affiliation or funded by private grants (88% [95%CI = 85-91] vs. 73% [95%CI = 56-88] and 92% [95%CI = 86-97] vs. 71% [95%CI = 57-84], respectively). Discrepancies between statistical results and conclusion occurred more frequently in articles written by authors from the private sector than from the public sector (42% [IC95% = 26-60] vs. 23% [IC95% = 18-26], P = 0.02). Industry affiliations of authors or industry support of studies are associated with the results of published studies on occupational cancer. The underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Public health case studies in diabetes prevention and control: innovation, partnerships, and funding.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mary V; Cannon, Margaret M; Reese, April; Lovette, Beth; Porterfield, Deborah S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, we conducted case studies of 4 North Carolina local health departments (LHDs) that scored highly on an index of diabetes prevention and control performance, to explore characteristics that may serve as barriers or facilitators of diabetes prevention and control services. Case studies involving in-depth interviews were conducted at 4 LHDs. Sites were selected on the basis of 2 variables, known external funding for diabetes services and population size, that were associated with performance in diabetes prevention and control in a 2005 survey of all North Carolina LHDs. Fourteen interviews (individual and group) were conducted among 17 participants from the 4 LHDs. The main outcome measures were LHD characteristics that facilitate or hinder the performance of diabetes programs and services. Interviews revealed that all 4 high-performing LHDs had received some sort of funding from a source external to the LHD. Case study participants indicated that barriers to additional service delivery included low socioeconomic status of the population and lack of financial resources. Having a diabetes self-management education program that was recognized by the American Diabetes Association appeared to be a facilitator of diabetes services provision. Other facilitators were leadership and staff commitment, which appeared to facilitate the leveraging of partnerships and funding opportunities, leading to enhanced service delivery. The small number of LHDs participating in the study and the cross-sectional study design were limitations. Leadership, staff commitment, partnership leveraging, and funding appear to be associated with LHD performance in diabetes prevention and control services. These factors should be further studied in future public health systems and services research.

  13. Capture-recapture studies for multiple strata including non-markovian transitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hestbeck, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    We consider capture-recapture studies where release and recapture data are available from each of a number of strata on every capture occasion. Strata may, for example, be geographic locations or physiological states. Movement of animals among strata occurs with unknown probabilities, and estimation of these unknown transition probabilities is the objective. We describe a computer routine for carrying out the analysis under a model that assumes Markovian transitions and under reduced parameter versions of this model. We also introduce models that relax the Markovian assumption and allow 'memory' to operate (i.e., allow dependence of the transition probabilities on the previous state). For these models, we sugg st an analysis based on a conditional likelihood approach. Methods are illustrated with data from a large study on Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in three geographic regions. The assumption of Markovian transitions is rejected convincingly for these data, emphasizing the importance of the more general models that allow memory.

  14. A policy-capturing study of the simultaneous effects of fit with jobs, groups, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Kristof-Brown, Amy L; Jansen, Karen J; Colbert, Amy E

    2002-10-01

    The authors report an experimental policy-capturing study that examines the simultaneous impact of person-job (PJ), person-group (PG), and person-organization (PO) fit on work satisfaction. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors determined that all 3 types of fit had important, independent effects on satisfaction. Work experience explained systematic differences in how participants weighted each type of fit. Multiple interactions also showed participants used complex strategies for combining fit cues.

  15. NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program - Funding Studies of Species' Responses to Ocean Acidification Since 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ombres, E. H.

    2016-02-01

    NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program (OAP) was created as a mandate of the 2009 Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring (FOARAM) Act and has been directly funding species response research since 2012. Although OA species response is a relatively young field of science, this program built on research already underway across NOAA. That research platform included experimental facilities in the Fishery Sciences Centers of the National Marine Fishery Service (NMFS), `wet' labs of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), and the coral reef monitoring studies within the National Ocean Service (NOS). The diversity of research across NOAA allows the program to make interdisciplinary connections among chemists, biologists and oceanographers and creates a more comprehensive and robust approach to understanding species response to this change in the carbon cycle. To date, the program has studied a range of taxa including phytoplankton, molluscs, crustaceans, and fish. This poster describes representative results from the collection of OAP-funded species at nationwide NOAA facilities.

  16. Modeling misidentification errors in capture-recapture studies using photographic identification of evolving marks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshizaki, J.; Pollock, K.H.; Brownie, C.; Webster, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Misidentification of animals is potentially important when naturally existing features (natural tags) are used to identify individual animals in a capture-recapture study. Photographic identification (photoID) typically uses photographic images of animals' naturally existing features as tags (photographic tags) and is subject to two main causes of identification errors: those related to quality of photographs (non-evolving natural tags) and those related to changes in natural marks (evolving natural tags). The conventional methods for analysis of capture-recapture data do not account for identification errors, and to do so requires a detailed understanding of the misidentification mechanism. Focusing on the situation where errors are due to evolving natural tags, we propose a misidentification mechanism and outline a framework for modeling the effect of misidentification in closed population studies. We introduce methods for estimating population size based on this model. Using a simulation study, we show that conventional estimators can seriously overestimate population size when errors due to misidentification are ignored, and that, in comparison, our new estimators have better properties except in cases with low capture probabilities (<0.2) or low misidentification rates (<2.5%). ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. In situ studies of materials for high temperature CO2 capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, Matthew T; Maugeri, Serena A; Liu, Wen; Tucker, Matthew G; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O; Gonzalez, Belen; Allan, Phoebe K; Gaultois, Michael W; Shearing, Paul R; Keen, David A; Phillips, Anthony E; Dove, Martin T; Scott, Stuart A; Dennis, John S; Grey, Clare P

    2016-10-20

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) offers a possible solution to curb the CO2 emissions from stationary sources in the coming decades, considering the delays in shifting energy generation to carbon neutral sources such as wind, solar and biomass. The most mature technology for post-combustion capture uses a liquid sorbent, amine scrubbing. However, with the existing technology, a large amount of heat is required for the regeneration of the liquid sorbent, which introduces a substantial energy penalty. The use of alternative sorbents for CO2 capture, such as the CaO-CaCO3 system, has been investigated extensively in recent years. However there are significant problems associated with the use of CaO based sorbents, the most challenging one being the deactivation of the sorbent material. When sorbents such as natural limestone are used, the capture capacity of the solid sorbent can fall by as much as 90 mol% after the first 20 carbonation-regeneration cycles. In this study a variety of techniques were employed to understand better the cause of this deterioration from both a structural and morphological standpoint. X-ray and neutron PDF studies were employed to understand better the local surface and interfacial structures formed upon reaction, finding that after carbonation the surface roughness is decreased for CaO. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies showed that carbonation with added steam leads to a faster and more complete conversion of CaO than under conditions without steam, as evidenced by the phases seen at different depths within the sample. Finally, in situ X-ray tomography experiments were employed to track the morphological changes in the sorbents during carbonation, observing directly the reduction in porosity and increase in tortuosity of the pore network over multiple calcination reactions.

  18. Improving inferences from fisheries capture-recapture studies through remote detection of PIT tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Shively, Rip S.

    2010-01-01

    Models for capture-recapture data are commonly used in analyses of the dynamics of fish and wildlife populations, especially for estimating vital parameters such as survival. Capture-recapture methods provide more reliable inferences than other methods commonly used in fisheries studies. However, for rare or elusive fish species, parameter estimation is often hampered by small probabilities of re-encountering tagged fish when encounters are obtained through traditional sampling methods. We present a case study that demonstrates how remote antennas for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can increase encounter probabilities and the precision of survival estimates from capture-recapture models. Between 1999 and 2007, trammel nets were used to capture and tag over 8,400 endangered adult Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) during the spawning season in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Despite intensive sampling at relatively discrete spawning areas, encounter probabilities from Cormack-Jolly-Seber models were consistently low (< 0.2) and the precision of apparent annual survival estimates was poor. Beginning in 2005, remote PIT tag antennas were deployed at known spawning locations to increase the probability of re-encountering tagged fish. We compare results based only on physical recaptures with results based on both physical recaptures and remote detections to demonstrate the substantial improvement in estimates of encounter probabilities (approaching 100%) and apparent annual survival provided by the remote detections. The richer encounter histories provided robust inferences about the dynamics of annual survival and have made it possible to explore more realistic models and hypotheses about factors affecting the conservation and recovery of this endangered species. Recent advances in technology related to PIT tags have paved the way for creative implementation of large-scale tagging studies in systems where they were previously considered impracticable.

  19. Experimental study of transport and capture of colloids in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Harmand, B.; Rodier, E.; Sardin, M.; Dodds, J.

    1995-12-01

    In the field of radioactive wastes storage, it is well known that radioactive substances can be transported in the geosphere by colloids. The mechanisms which control the interactions between radionuclide and colloid and the transport and capture of colloids are therefore studied in artificial and in natural porous media. Liquid chromatography methods are used to carry out impulse and step injections of latex suspensions in glass beads and sand columns. The physico-chemical and hydrodynamic conditions are changed to determine the effects of parameters as liquid flow rate, ionic strength, and pH on the retention of colloids. The main result is that conditions of low flow rate and high ionic strength can induce a delayed breakthrough of colloids in the medium. The definition of two types of capture sites is proposed from the good simulation of experimental curves with a linear mixing-cell-in-series model.

  20. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental

  1. Graduate medical education funding: a Massachusetts General Hospital case study and review.

    PubMed

    Guss, Daniel; Prestipino, Ann L; Rubash, Harry E

    2012-02-15

    During the past century, graduate medical education funding has evolved in response to the increasing specialization of modern medicine as well as the need for federal funding to effectively sustain specialty training. This article reviews historical and current funding methods for graduate medical education and examines current funding using Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) as a case example. Notably, it also explores whether graduate medical education funding at a large academic center such as MGH is commensurate with expenditures.

  2. On the use of capture-recapture models in mist-net studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Pradel, R.; Hines, J.E.; Ralph, C. John; Dunn, Erica H.

    2004-01-01

    Capture-recapture models provide a statistical framework for estimating population parameters from mist-net data. Although Cormack-Jolly-Seber and related models have recently been used to estimate survival rates of birds sampled with mist nets, we believe that the full potential for use of capture-recapture models has not been realized by many researchers involved in mist-net studies. We present a brief discussion of the overall framework for estimation using capture-recapture methods, and review several areas in which recent statistical methods can be, but generally have not yet been, applied to mist-net studies. These areas include estimation of (I) rates of movement among areas; (2) survival rates in the presence of transients: (3) population sizes or migrating birds: (4) proportion of birds alive but not present at a breeding site (one definition of proportion of nonbreeding birds in a population): (5) population change and recruitment: and (6) species richness. Using these models will avoid the possible bias associated with use of indices. and provide statistically valid variance estimates and inference.

  3. Stress response of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during capture-release health assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Schaefer, Adam M; Romano, Tracy A; Bossart, Gregory D; Lamb, Stephen V; Reif, John S

    2014-09-15

    There is a growing concern about the impacts of stress in marine mammals as they face a greater array of threats. The stress response of free-ranging dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was examined by measuring their physiologic response to capture and handling. Samples were collected from 168 dolphins during capture-release health assessments 2003-2007 at two study sites: Charleston, SC (CHS) and the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone (ALD) and catecholamines (epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NOR), dopamine (DA)), were measured in blood and cortisol in urine. Mean time to collect pre-examination samples after netting the animals was 22min; post-examination samples were taken prior to release (mean 1h 37min). EPI and DA concentrations decreased significantly with increased time to blood sampling. ACTH and cortisol levels increased from the initial capture event to the post-examination sample. EPI concentrations increased significantly with increasing time to the pre-examination sample and decreased significantly with time between the pre- and post-examination sample. Cortisol concentrations increased between the pre- and post-examination in CHS dolphins. Age- and sex-adjusted mean pre-examination values of catecholamines were significantly higher in CHS dolphins; ALD was higher in IRL dolphins. Significant differences related to age or sex included higher NOR concentrations in males; higher ALD and urine cortisol levels in juveniles than adults. Wild dolphins exhibited a typical mammalian response to acute stress of capture and restraint. Further studies that relate hormone levels to biological and health endpoints are warranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A markerless motion capture system to study musculoskeletal biomechanics: visual hull and simulated annealing approach.

    PubMed

    Corazza, S; Mündermann, L; Chaudhari, A M; Demattio, T; Cobelli, C; Andriacchi, T P

    2006-06-01

    Human motion capture is frequently used to study musculoskeletal biomechanics and clinical problems, as well as to provide realistic animation for the entertainment industry. The most popular technique for human motion capture uses markers placed on the skin, despite some important drawbacks including the impediment to the motion by the presence of skin markers and relative movement between the skin where the markers are placed and the underlying bone. The latter makes it difficult to estimate the motion of the underlying bone, which is the variable of interest for biomechanical and clinical applications. A model-based markerless motion capture system is presented in this study, which does not require the placement of any markers on the subject's body. The described method is based on visual hull reconstruction and an a priori model of the subject. A custom version of adapted fast simulated annealing has been developed to match the model to the visual hull. The tracking capability and a quantitative validation of the method were evaluated in a virtual environment for a complete gait cycle. The obtained mean errors, for an entire gait cycle, for knee and hip flexion are respectively 1.5 degrees (+/-3.9 degrees ) and 2.0 degrees (+/-3.0 degrees ), while for knee and hip adduction they are respectively 2.0 degrees (+/-2.3 degrees ) and 1.1 degrees (+/-1.7 degrees ). Results for the ankle and shoulder joints are also presented. Experimental results captured in a gait laboratory with a real subject are also shown to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the presented method in a clinical environment.

  5. School Facility Logistics: A Study for Alberta Education Dealing with School Planning, Acquisition, and Funding Alternatives. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Gordon and Co., Toronto (Ontario).

    This document summarizes the findings and recommendations made in the study of alternatives to current provincial policies and procedures relating to school construction and its funding. Major areas of attention were construction policies, planning structures, alternatives to construction, and funding formulas. (Author/MLF)

  6. AVIATION SECURITY: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for...local law enforcement support relating to air carrier and airport security measures. The funding of the security operations is divided among FAA, the...generally agreed with the current division of airport security responsibilities. These officials stated that the continuity of screening would be

  7. Sizing the Problem of Improving Discovery and Access to NIH-Funded Data: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study informs efforts to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical datasets by providing a preliminary estimate of the number and type of datasets generated annually by research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). It focuses on those datasets that are “invisible” or not deposited in a known repository. Methods We analyzed NIH-funded journal articles that were published in 2011, cited in PubMed and deposited in PubMed Central (PMC) to identify those that indicate data were submitted to a known repository. After excluding those articles, we analyzed a random sample of the remaining articles to estimate how many and what types of invisible datasets were used in each article. Results About 12% of the articles explicitly mention deposition of datasets in recognized repositories, leaving 88% that are invisible datasets. Among articles with invisible datasets, we found an average of 2.9 to 3.4 datasets, suggesting there were approximately 200,000 to 235,000 invisible datasets generated from NIH-funded research published in 2011. Approximately 87% of the invisible datasets consist of data newly collected for the research reported; 13% reflect reuse of existing data. More than 50% of the datasets were derived from live human or non-human animal subjects. Conclusion In addition to providing a rough estimate of the total number of datasets produced per year by NIH-funded researchers, this study identifies additional issues that must be addressed to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical research data: the definition of a “dataset,” determination of which (if any) data are valuable for archiving and preservation, and better methods for estimating the number of datasets of interest. Lack of consensus amongst annotators about the number of datasets in a given article reinforces the need for a principled way of thinking about how to identify and characterize biomedical datasets. PMID:26207759

  8. Atmospheric Chemistry of the Carbon Capture Solvent Monoethanolamine (MEA): A Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, G.

    2012-12-01

    The development of amine solvent technology for carbon capture and storage has the potential to create large new sources of amines to the atmosphere. The atmospheric chemistry of amines generally, and carbon capture solvents in particular, is not well understood. We have used quantum chemistry and master equation modelling to investigate the OH radical initiated oxidation of monoethanolamine (NH2CH2CH2OH), or MEA, the archetypal carbon capture solvent. The OH radical can abstract H atoms from either carbon atom in MEA, with negative reaction barriers. Treating these reactions with a two transition state model can reliably reproduce experimental rate constants and their temperature dependence. The products of the MEA + OH reaction, the NH2CHCH2OH and NH2CH2CHOH radicals, undergo subsequent reaction with O2, which has also been studied. In both cases chemically activated reactions that bypass peroxyl radical intermediates dominate, producing 2-iminoethanol + HO2 (from NH2CHCH2OH) or aminoacetaldehyde + HO2 (from NH2CH2CHOH), making the process HOx-neutral. The operation of chemically activated reaction mechanisms has implications for the ozone forming potential of MEA. The products of MEA photo-oxidation are proposed as important species in the formation of both organic and inorganic secondary aerosols, particularly through uptake of the imine 2-iminoethanol and subsequent hydrolysis to ammonia and glycolaldehyde.

  9. Prey capture in zebrafish larvae serves as a model to study cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Akira; Kawakami, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Prey capture in zebrafish larvae is an innate behavior which can be observed as early as 4~days postfertilization, the day when they start to swim. This simple behavior apparently involves several neural processes including visual perception, recognition, decision-making, and motor control, and, therefore, serves as a good model system to study cognitive functions underlying natural behaviors in vertebrates. Recent progresses in imaging techniques provided us with a unique opportunity to image neuronal activity in the brain of an intact fish in real-time while the fish perceives a natural prey, paramecium. By expanding this approach, it would be possible to image entire brain areas at a single-cell resolution in real-time during prey capture, and identify neuronal circuits important for cognitive functions. Further, activation or inhibition of those neuronal circuits with recently developed optogenetic tools or neurotoxins should shed light on their roles. Thus, we will be able to explore the prey capture in zebrafish larvae more thoroughly at cellular levels, which should establish a basis of understanding of the cognitive function in vertebrates. PMID:23781176

  10. Probabilistic study of well capture zones distribution at the Lauswiesen field site.

    PubMed

    Riva, M; Guadagnini, L; Guadagnini, A; Ptak, T; Martac, E

    2006-11-20

    The delineation of well capture zones is of utmost environmental and engineering relevance as pumping wells are commonly used both for drinking water supply needs, where protection zones have to be defined, and for investigation and remediation of contaminated aquifers. We analyze the probabilistic nature of well capture zones within the well field located at the "Lauswiesen" experimental site. The test site is part of an alluvial heterogeneous aquifer located in the Neckar river valley, close to the city of Tübingen in South-West Germany. We explore the effect of different conceptual models of the structure of aquifer heterogeneities on the delineation of three-dimensional probabilistic well catchment and time-related capture zones, in the presence of migration of conservative solutes. The aquifer is modeled as a three-dimensional, doubly stochastic composite medium, where distributions of geo-materials and hydraulic properties are uncertain. We study the relative importance of uncertain facies geometry and uncertain hydraulic conductivity and porosity on predictions of catchment and solute time of travel to the pumping well by focusing on cases in which (1) the facies distribution is random, but the hydraulic properties of each material are fixed, and (2) both facies geometry and material properties vary stochastically. The problem is tackled within a conditional numerical Monte Carlo framework. Results are provided in terms of probabilistic demarcations of the three-dimensional well catchment and time-related capture zones. Our findings suggest that the uncertainty associated with the prediction of the location of the outer boundary of well catchment at the "Lauswiesen" site is significantly affected by the conceptual model adopted to incorporate the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer domain in a predictive framework. Taking into account randomness of both lithofacies distribution and materials hydraulic conductivity allows recognizing the existence of

  11. Using simplified peer review processes to fund research: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Danielle L; Graves, Nicholas; Clarke, Philip; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-07-02

    To prospectively test two simplified peer review processes, estimate the agreement between the simplified and official processes, and compare the costs of peer review. A prospective parallel study of Project Grant proposals submitted in 2013 to the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia. The official funding outcomes were compared with two simplified processes using proposals in Public Health and Basic Science. The two simplified processes were: panels of 7 reviewers who met face-to-face and reviewed only the nine-page research proposal and track record (simplified panel); and 2 reviewers who independently reviewed only the nine-page research proposal (journal panel). The official process used panels of 12 reviewers who met face-to-face and reviewed longer proposals of around 100 pages. We compared the funding outcomes of 72 proposals that were peer reviewed by the simplified and official processes. Agreement in funding outcomes; costs of peer review based on reviewers' time and travel costs. The agreement between the simplified and official panels (72%, 95% CI 61% to 82%), and the journal and official panels (74%, 62% to 83%), was just below the acceptable threshold of 75%. Using the simplified processes would save $A2.1-$A4.9 million per year in peer review costs. Using shorter applications and simpler peer review processes gave reasonable agreement with the more complex official process. Simplified processes save time and money that could be reallocated to actual research. Funding agencies should consider streamlining their application processes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  13. Women Supporting Women: Fellowships from AAUW Fund over the Past Century Have Enabled 5,000 to Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1988-01-01

    More than 90 percent of the American Association of University Women's Educational Foundation funds comes from the association's 150,000 members. Awards for graduate study, postdoctoral studies, and international fellowships are reported. (MLW)

  14. The Political Origins of Higher Education Performance Funding in Six States. CCRC Brief. Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.; Hare, Rachel J.; Vega, Blanca E.

    2010-01-01

    This Brief summarizes a study that examined the origins of state performance funding in six states: Tennessee, Missouri, Florida, South Carolina, Washington, and Illinois. In order to capture a wide range of possible forces at work in the origins of performance funding, the authors selected states that differed in a variety of ways, including when…

  15. Feasibility study on pinhole camera system for online dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Hales, Brian; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Igashira, Masayuki; Khan, Zareen; Kobayashi, Tooru; Matsuhashi, Taihei; Miyazaki, Koichi; Ogawa, Koichi; Terada, Kazushi

    2014-06-01

    The feasibility of a pinhole camera system for online dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was studied. A prototype system was designed and built. Prompt γ-rays from the (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction from a phantom irradiated with neutrons were detected with the prototype system. An image was reconstructed from the experimental data. The reconstructed image showed a good separation of the two borated regions in the phantom. The counting rates and signal-to-noise ratio when using the system in actual BNCT applications are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bayesian inference in camera trapping studies for a class of spatial capture-recapture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Karanth, K. Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, N. Samba

    2009-01-01

    We develop a class of models for inference about abundance or density using spatial capture-recapture data from studies based on camera trapping and related methods. The model is a hierarchical model composed of two components: a point process model describing the distribution of individuals in space (or their home range centers) and a model describing the observation of individuals in traps. We suppose that trap- and individual-specific capture probabilities are a function of distance between individual home range centers and trap locations. We show that the models can be regarded as generalized linear mixed models, where the individual home range centers are random effects. We adopt a Bayesian framework for inference under these models using a formulation based on data augmentation. We apply the models to camera trapping data on tigers from the Nagarahole Reserve, India, collected over 48 nights in 2006. For this study, 120 camera locations were used, but cameras were only operational at 30 locations during any given sample occasion. Movement of traps is common in many camera-trapping studies and represents an important feature of the observation model that we address explicitly in our application.

  17. Understanding and Visualizing Multitasking and Task Switching Activities: A Time Motion Study to Capture Nursing Workflow.

    PubMed

    Yen, Po-Yin; Kelley, Marjorie; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Rosado, Amber L; Migliore, Elaina M; Chipps, Esther M; Buck, Jacalyn

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of multitasking within nursing workflow is important in today's dynamic and complex healthcare environment. We conducted a time motion study to understand nursing workflow, specifically multitasking and task switching activities. We used TimeCaT, a comprehensive electronic time capture tool, to capture observational data. We established inter-observer reliability prior to data collection. We completed 56 hours of observation of 10 registered nurses. We found, on average, nurses had 124 communications and 208 hands-on tasks per 4-hour block of time. They multitasked (having communication and hands-on tasks simultaneously) 131 times, representing 39.48% of all times; the total multitasking duration ranges from 14.6 minutes to 109 minutes, 44.98 minutes (18.63%) on average. We also reviewed workflow visualization to uncover the multitasking events. Our study design and methods provide a practical and reliable approach to conducting and analyzing time motion studies from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives.

  18. Understanding and Visualizing Multitasking and Task Switching Activities: A Time Motion Study to Capture Nursing Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Po-Yin; Kelley, Marjorie; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Rosado, Amber L.; Migliore, Elaina M.; Chipps, Esther M.; Buck, Jacalyn

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of multitasking within nursing workflow is important in today’s dynamic and complex healthcare environment. We conducted a time motion study to understand nursing workflow, specifically multitasking and task switching activities. We used TimeCaT, a comprehensive electronic time capture tool, to capture observational data. We established inter-observer reliability prior to data collection. We completed 56 hours of observation of 10 registered nurses. We found, on average, nurses had 124 communications and 208 hands-on tasks per 4-hour block of time. They multitasked (having communication and hands-on tasks simultaneously) 131 times, representing 39.48% of all times; the total multitasking duration ranges from 14.6 minutes to 109 minutes, 44.98 minutes (18.63%) on average. We also reviewed workflow visualization to uncover the multitasking events. Our study design and methods provide a practical and reliable approach to conducting and analyzing time motion studies from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. PMID:28269924

  19. Time to publication for NIHR HTA programme-funded research: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Fay; Young, Amanda; Goodman, Jennie; Ashton-Key, Martin; Milne, Ruairidh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the time to publication of primary research and evidence syntheses funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme published as a monograph in Health Technology Assessment and as a journal article in the wider biomedical literature. Study design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary research and evidence synthesis projects funded by the HTA Programme were included in the cohort if they were registered in the NIHR research programmes database and was planned to submit the draft final report for publication in Health Technology Assessment on or before 9 December 2011. Main outcome measures The median time to publication and publication at 30 months in Health Technology Assessment and in an external journal were determined by searching the NIHR research programmes database and HTA Programme website. Results Of 458 included projects, 184 (40.2%) were primary research projects and 274 (59.8%) were evidence syntheses. A total of 155 primary research projects had a completion date; the median time to publication was 23 months (26.5 and 35.5 months to publish a monograph and to publish in an external journal, respectively) and 69% were published within 30 months. The median time to publication of HTA-funded trials (n=126) was 24 months and 67.5% were published within 30 months. Among the evidence syntheses with a protocol online date (n=223), the median time to publication was 25.5 months (28 months to publication as a monograph), but only 44.4% of evidence synthesis projects were published in an external journal. 65% of evidence synthesis studies had been published within 30.0 months. Conclusions Research funded by the HTA Programme publishes promptly. The importance of Health Technology Assessment was highlighted as the median time to publication was 9 months shorter for a monograph than an external journal article. PMID:24285634

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Release by Anions with Solvent-Dependent Behaviour: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Varandas, António J C

    2016-09-19

    Recently, Clyburne and co-workers [Science, 2014, 344, 75-78] reported the novel synthesis of the elusive cyanoformate anion, NCCO2(-) . The stability of this anion is dependent on the dielectric constant of the local environment (polarity-switchable solvent): it is stable in low-polarity media and unstable in high-polarity solvents; hence, capturing and then releasing CO2 . The possibility of extending such behaviour to other anions is explored herein. Specifically, the CO2 capture process is studied for 26 anions in the gas phase and 3 distinct solvents (water, tetrahydrofuran, and toluene) by using the polarisable continuum model. Calculations are performed with the M06-2X and B3LYP-D3 density functionals and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The design of new CO2 complexes with the anion, which can be formed or destroyed on demand by changing the solvent, is possible; the results for the alkoxylate and thiolate anions are especially promising. The nature of the substituents connected to the atom that bonds to CO2 in the anion is crucial in modulating the relative stability of the products-a key point for reversibility in the CO2 capture process. A moderate interaction for the anion-CO2 adduct-about 10 kcal mol(-1) relative free energy with respect to the isolated reactants in the gas phase-and a relevant effect in the dielectric constant of the local environment are also key ingredients to achieve solvent dependency.

  1. Ambient Carbon Dioxide Capture Using Boron-Rich Porous Boron Nitride: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanlan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Xiaojing; Yu, Xiaofei; Fang, Yi; Li, Qiaoling; Jin, Peng; Tang, Chengchun

    2017-05-10

    The development of highly efficient sorbent materials for CO2 capture under ambient conditions is of great importance for reducing the impact of CO2 on the environment and climate change. In this account, strong CO2 adsorption on a boron antisite (BN) in boron-rich porous boron nitrides (p-BN) was developed and studied. The results indicated that the material achieved larger adsorption energies of 2.09 eV (201.66 kJ/mol, PBE-D). The electronic structure calculations suggested that the introduction of BN in p-BN induced defect electronic states in the energy gap region, which strongly impacted the adsorption properties of the material. The bonding between the BN defect and the CO2 molecule was clarified, and it was found that the electron donation first occurred from CO2 to the BN double-acceptor state then, followed by electron back-donation from BN to CO2 accompanied by the formation of a BN-C bond. The thermodynamic properties indicated that the adsorption of CO2 on the BN defect to form anionic CO2(δ-) species was spontaneous at temperatures below 350 K. Both the large adsorption energies and the thermodynamic properties ensured that p-BN with a BN defect could effectively capture CO2 under ambient conditions. Finally, to evaluate the energetic stability, the defect formation energies were estimated. The formation energy of the BN defects was found to strongly depend on the chemical environment, and the selection of different reactants (B or N sources) would achieve the goal of reducing the formation energy. These findings provided a useful guidance for the design and fabrication of a porous BN sorbent for CO2 capture.

  2. DCB Funding

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Biology (DCB) funds and supports extramural basic research that investigates the fundamental biology behind cancer. Find out more about DCB's grants process and funding opportunities.

  3. Evergreen or deciduous trees for capturing PAHs from ambient air? A case study.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Flavia; Concha Graña, Estefanía; López Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada Rodríguez, Darío; Retuerto, Rubén; Carballeira, Alejo; Aboal, Jesús R; Fernández, J Ángel

    2017-02-01

    Tree canopies play a key role in the cycling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in terrestrial ecosystems, as leaves can capture PAHs from the air. In this study, accumulation of PAHs was compared in an evergreen species, P. pinaster, and in a deciduous species, Q. robur, in relation to some physio-morphological characteristics. For this purpose, pine needles and oak leaves collected from different sites across Galicia (NW Spain) were analysed to determine PAH contents, specific leaf area, stomatal density and conductance. Leaves and needles contained similar total amounts of PAHs. The major contribution of particle-bound PAHs in oak (the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring PAHs were two times higher, and those of 6-ring PAHs five times higher in oak than in pine) may be related to the higher specific leaf area (13 and 4 cm(2) g(-1) dry mass in respectively oak and pine). However, the major contribution of vapor-phase PAHs in pines may be affected by the stomatal conductance (two times higher in pine than in oak). Moreover, an increase in the diameter at breast height of trees led to an increase in accumulation of PAHs, with pine capturing higher amounts of low and medium molecular weight PAHs. The study findings underline the potential role of trees in improving air quality, taking into account the canopy biomass and life cycle.

  4. The pricing and procurement of antiretroviral drugs: an observational study of data from the Global Fund.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Ashwin; Hoos, David; Mukherjee, Joia S; Farmer, Paul E; Rosenfield, Allan G; Perriëns, Joseph H

    2006-05-01

    The Purchase price report released in August 2004 by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) was the first publication of a significant amount of real transaction purchase data for antiretrovirals (ARVs). We did an observational study of the ARV transaction data in the Purchase price report to examine the procurement behaviour of principal recipients of Global Fund grants in developing countries. We found that, with a few exceptions for specific products (e.g. lamivudine) and regions (e.g. eastern Europe), prices in low-income countries were broadly consistent or lower than the lowest differential prices quoted by the research and development sector of the pharmaceutical industry. In lower middle-income countries, prices were more varied and in several instances (lopinavir/ritonavir, didanosine, and zidovudine/lamivudine) were very high compared with the per capita income of the country. In all low- and lower middle-income countries, ARV prices were still significantly high given limited local purchasing power and economic strength, thus reaffirming the need for donor support to achieve rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy. However, the price of ARVs will have to decrease to render scale-up financially sustainable for donors and eventually for governments themselves. An important first step in reducing prices will be to make available in the public domain as much ARV transaction data as possible to provide a factual basis for discussions on pricing. The price of ARVs has considerable implications for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatment in the developing world.

  5. The pricing and procurement of antiretroviral drugs: an observational study of data from the Global Fund.

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, Ashwin; Hoos, David; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Farmer, Paul E.; Rosenfield, Allan G.; Perriëns, Joseph H.

    2006-01-01

    The Purchase price report released in August 2004 by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) was the first publication of a significant amount of real transaction purchase data for antiretrovirals (ARVs). We did an observational study of the ARV transaction data in the Purchase price report to examine the procurement behaviour of principal recipients of Global Fund grants in developing countries. We found that, with a few exceptions for specific products (e.g. lamivudine) and regions (e.g. eastern Europe), prices in low-income countries were broadly consistent or lower than the lowest differential prices quoted by the research and development sector of the pharmaceutical industry. In lower middle-income countries, prices were more varied and in several instances (lopinavir/ritonavir, didanosine, and zidovudine/lamivudine) were very high compared with the per capita income of the country. In all low- and lower middle-income countries, ARV prices were still significantly high given limited local purchasing power and economic strength, thus reaffirming the need for donor support to achieve rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy. However, the price of ARVs will have to decrease to render scale-up financially sustainable for donors and eventually for governments themselves. An important first step in reducing prices will be to make available in the public domain as much ARV transaction data as possible to provide a factual basis for discussions on pricing. The price of ARVs has considerable implications for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatment in the developing world. PMID:16710550

  6. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Rudge, James W; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; Chanthapadith, Chansouk; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Lao PDR, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Lao PDR. The study relied on a literature review and 35 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Lao PDR, the HIV and TB programmes remain vertical and mostly weakly integrated with the general health system. However, Global Fund investments have extended the network of facilities delivering care at local level, resulting in greater integration with primary care and improved access for patients, particularly for TB. For HIV, as the prevalence remains low, services primarily target high-risk groups in urban areas. Less integrated functions include procurement and drug supply, and monitoring and evaluation. HIV and TB programmes are only starting to coordinate with each other. Global Fund-supported activities are generally integrated within the national disease programmes, except for monitoring and evaluation. Synergies of Global Fund support with the health system include improved access to services, institutional strengthening and capacity building, improved family planning (with wider condom distribution through HIV/AIDS social marketing programmes), and the delivery of add-on interventions, such as vaccinations and health education, alongside Global Fund-supported interventions at community level. Unintended consequences concern the lack of alignment between national stated priorities (maternal and child health) and the strong focus of external partners, such as the Global Fund

  7. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  8. More heritability probably captured by psoriasis genome-wide association study in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Long; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Yuyan; Lin, Yan; Shen, Changbing; Zhu, Caihong; Yang, Sen; Yin, Xianyong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-11-15

    Missing heritability is a common problem in genome-wide association studies in complex diseases/traits. To quantify the unbiased heritability estimate, we applied the phenotype correlation-genotype correlation regression in psoriasis genome-wide association data in Han Chinese which comprises 1139 cases and 1132 controls. We estimated that 45.7% heritability of psoriasis in Han Chinese were captured by common variants (s.e.=12.5%), which reinforced that the majority of psoriasis heritability can be covered by common variants in genome-wide association data (68.2%). The results provided evidence that the heritability covered by psoriasis genome-wide genotyping data was probably underestimated in previous restricted maximum likelihood method. Our study highlights the broad role of common variants in the etiology of psoriasis and sheds light on the possibility to identify more common variants of small effect by increasing the sample size in psoriasis genome-wide association studies.

  9. Assessment of DFT methods for studying acid gas capture by ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-10-28

    For the first time, this work reports an analysis of the performance of Density Functional methods for studying acid gas capture (CO2 and SO2) by ionic liquids (ILs). The considered functionals were selected as representatives of the available families: pure GGA (PBE and BLYP), hybrid (PBE0 and B3LYP), hybrid meta-GGA (M06, M06-2X and M06-HF), long range corrected (LC-PBEPBE, CAM-B3LYP, ωB97X) and dispersion corrected (PBE-D2, B3LYP-D2 and ωB97XD). Likewise, HF and MP2 were also applied. Binding energies of cation-anion interacting pairs as well as IL-CO2 and IL-SO2 systems were calculated for a set of 54 ILs and compared against MP2/aug-cc-pvDZ. Unlike previously reported DFT benchmarks on ILs, which calculated binding energies through single point calculations on fixed geometries, properties in this work were calculated for geometries optimized at each theoretical level. DFT functionals that are suitable for describing ion-ion and ion-gas interactions were identified, considering both Coulombic forces and dispersion interactions. The reported results allowed us to infer relationships to the rational design of ILs for acid gas capture.

  10. Mechanistic Study on Electron Capture Dissociation of the Oligosaccharide-Mg2+ Complex

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yiqun; Pu, Yi; Yu, Xiang; Costello, Catherine E.; Lin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) has shown great potential in structural characterization of glycans. However, our current understanding of the glycan ECD process is inadequate for accurate interpretation of the complex glycan ECD spectra. Here, we present the first comprehensive theoretical investigation on the ECD fragmentation behavior of metal-adducted glycans, using the cellobiose-Mg2+ complex as the model system. Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to determine the typical glycan-Mg2+ binding patterns and the lowest-energy conformer identified was used as the initial geometry for density functional theory-based theoretical modeling. It was found that the electron is preferentially captured by Mg2+ and the resultant Mg+• can abstract a hydroxyl group from the glycan moiety to form a carbon radical. Subsequent radical migration and α-cleavage(s) result in the formation of a variety of product ions. The proposed hydroxyl abstraction mechanism correlates well with the major features in the ECD spectrum of the Mg2+-adducted cellohexaose. The mechanism presented here also predicts the presence of secondary, radical-induced fragmentation pathways. These secondary fragment ions could be misinterpreted, leading to erroneous structural determination. The present study highlights an urgent need for continuing investigation of the glycan ECD mechanism, which is imperative for successful development of bioinformatics tools that can take advantage of the rich structural information provided by ECD of metal-adducted glycans. PMID:24845360

  11. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Phase B: Data capture facility definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Aerospace Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) initiated the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to obtain more accurate measurements of tropical rainfall then ever before. The measurements are to improve scientific understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms effecting the intra-annual and interannual variability of the Earth's climate. The TRMM is largely dependent upon the handling and processing of the data by the TRMM Ground System supporting the mission. The objective of the TRMM is to obtain three years of climatological determinations of rainfall in the tropics, culminating in data sets of 30-day average rainfall over 5-degree square areas, and associated estimates of vertical distribution of latent heat release. The scope of this study is limited to the functions performed by TRMM Data Capture Facility (TDCF). These functions include capturing the TRMM spacecraft return link data stream; processing the data in the real-time, quick-look, and routine production modes, as appropriate; and distributing real time, quick-look, and production data products to users. The following topics are addressed: (1) TRMM end-to-end system description; (2) TRMM mission operations concept; (3) baseline requirements; (4) assumptions related to mission requirements; (5) external interface; (6) TDCF architecture and design options; (7) critical issues and tradeoffs; and (8) recommendation for the final TDCF selection process.

  12. Rate-based process modeling study of CO{sub 2} capture with aqueous monoethanolamine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.; Chen, C.C.; Plaza, J.M.; Dugas, R.; Rochelle, G.T.

    2009-10-15

    Rate-based process modeling technology has matured and is increasingly gaining acceptance over traditional equilibrium-stage modeling approaches. Recently comprehensive pilot plant data for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) solution have become available from the University of Texas at Austin. The pilot plant data cover key process variables including CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas stream, CO{sub 2} loading in lean MEA solution, liquid to gas ratio, and packing type. In this study, we model the pilot plant operation with Aspen RateSep, a second generation rate-based multistage separation unit operation model in Aspen Plus. After a brief review of rate-based modeling, thermodynamic and kinetic models for CO{sub 2} absorption with the MEA solution, and transport property models, we show excellent match of the rate-based model predictions against the comprehensive pilot plant data and we validate the superiority of the rate-based models over the traditional equilibrium-stage models. We further examine the impacts of key rate-based modeling options, i.e., film discretization options and flow model options. The rate-based model provides excellent predictive capability, and it should be very useful for design and scale-up of CO{sub 2} capture processes.

  13. Comparative study of high-resolution shock-capturing schemes for a real gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.

    1988-01-01

    Recently developed second-order explicit shock-capturing methods, in conjunction with generalized flux-vector splittings, and a generalized approximate Riemann solver for a real gas are studied. The comparisons are made on different one-dimensional Riemann (shock-tube) problems for equilibrium air with various ranges of Mach numbers, densities and pressures. Six different Riemann problems are considered. These tests provide a check on the validity of the generalized formulas, since theoretical prediction of their properties appears to be difficult because of the non-analytical form of the state equation. The numerical results in the supersonic and low-hypersonic regimes indicate that these produce good shock-capturing capability and that the shock resolution is only slightly affected by the state equation of equilibrium air. The difference in shock resolution between the various methods varies slightly from one Riemann problem to the other, but the overall accuracy is very similar. For the one-dimensional case, the relative efficiency in terms of operation count for the different methods is within 30 percent. The main difference between the methods lies in their versatility in being extended to multidimensional problems with efficient implicit solution procedures.

  14. The illusion of specific capture: surface and solution studies of suboptimal oligonucleotide hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization based assays and capture systems depend on the specificity of hybridization between a probe and its intended target. A common guideline in the construction of DNA microarrays, for instance, is that avoiding complementary stretches of more than 15 nucleic acids in a 50 or 60-mer probe will eliminate sequence specific cross-hybridization reactions. Here we present a study of the behavior of partially matched oligonucleotide pairs with complementary stretches starting well below this threshold complementarity length – in silico, in solution, and at the microarray surface. The modeled behavior of pairs of oligonucleotide probes and their targets suggests that even a complementary stretch of sequence 12 nt in length would give rise to specific cross-hybridization. We designed a set of binding partners to a 50-mer oligonucleotide containing complementary stretches from 6 nt to 21 nt in length. Results Solution melting experiments demonstrate that stable partial duplexes can form when only 12 bp of complementary sequence are present; surface hybridization experiments confirm that a signal close in magnitude to full-strength signal can be obtained from hybridization of a 12 bp duplex within a 50mer oligonucleotide. Conclusions Microarray and other molecular capture strategies that rely on a 15 nt lower complementarity bound for eliminating specific cross-hybridization may not be sufficiently conservative. PMID:23445545

  15. Comparative study of high-resolution shock-capturing schemes for a real gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently developed second-order explicit shock-capturing methods, in conjunction with generalized flux-vector splittings, and a generalized approximate Riemann solver for a real gas are studied. The comparisons are made on different one-dimensional Riemann (shock-tube) problems for equilibrium air with various ranges of Mach numbers, densities and pressures. Six different Riemann problems are considered. These tests provide a check on the validity of the generalized formulas, since theoretical prediction of their properties appears to be difficult because of the non-analytical form of the state equation. The numerical results in the supersonic and low-hypersonic regimes indicate that these produce good shock-capturing capability and that the shock resolution is only slightly affected by the state equation of equilibrium air. The difference in shock resolution between the various methods varies slightly from one Riemann problem to the other, but the overall accuracy is very similar. For the one-dimensional case, the relative efficiency in terms of operation count for the different methods is within 30%. The main difference between the methods lies in their versatility in being extended to multidimensional problems with efficient implicit solution procedures.

  16. Innovation, renewable energy, and state investment: Case studies of leading clean energy funds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Milford, Lewis; Porter, Kevin; Clark, Roger

    2002-09-01

    Over the last several years, many U.S. states have established clean energy funds to help support the growth of renewable energy markets. Most often funded by system-benefits charges (SBC), the 15 states that have established such funds are slated to collect nearly $3.5 billion from 1998 to 2012 for renewable energy investments. These clean energy funds are expected to have a sizable impact on the energy future of the states in which the funds are being collected and used. For many of the organizations tapped to administer these funds, however, this is a relatively new role that presents the challenge of using public funds in the most effective and innovative fashion possible. Fortunately, each state is not alone in its efforts; many other U.S. states and a number of countries are undertaking similar efforts. Early lessons are beginning to be learned by clean energy funds about how to effectively target public funds towards creating and building renewable energy markets. A number of innovative programs have already been developed that show significant leadership by U.S. states in supporting renewable energy. It is important that clean energy fund administrators learn from this emerging experience.

  17. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John S. F.; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002–13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009–13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  18. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mursheda; Lewison, Grant; Wright, John S F; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002-13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009-13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals.

  19. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).

    PubMed

    Owen, Yvonne; Amory, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a humane process that can reduce stress and improve welfare. This study details the use of operant conditioning using positive reinforcement training (PRT) and target training to train a family of 5 captive red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) in a wildlife park to voluntarily enter a transportation box and remain calm for 1 min after 54 training sessions. Observations of 2 unrelated net-capture processes provided measures of locomotion and vocalizations as indicators of stress behavior that were compared with those of the trained tamarins. Net-captured monkeys exhibited rapid erratic locomotion and emitted long, high-frequency vocalizations during capture whereas the trained tamarins exhibited minimal locomotion and emitted only 4 brief vocalizations (root mean square 35 dB) during capture. This indicates that the use of PRT considerably reduced potential for stress and improved welfare during the capture and containment of the tamarins. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  20. Borehole parametric study for neutron induced capture gamma-ray spectrometry using the MCNP code.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, M; Sohrabpour, M

    2000-01-01

    The MCNP Monte Carlo code has been used to simulate neutron transport from an Am-Be source into a granite formation surrounding a borehole. The effects of the moisture and the neutron poison on the thermal neutron flux distribution and the capture by the absorbing elements has been calculated. Thermal and nonthermal captures for certain absorbers having resonance structures in the epithermal and fast energy regions such as W and Si were performed. It is shown that for those absorbers having large resonances in the epithermal regions when they are present in dry formation or when accompanied by neutron poisons the resonance captures may be significant compared to the thermal captures.

  1. Numerical study on determining formation porosity using a boron capture gamma ray technique and MCNP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Xinguang; Han, Fei; Yuan, Zhelong

    2014-12-01

    Formation porosity can be determined using the boron capture gamma ray counting ratio with a near to far detector in a pulsed neutron-gamma element logging tool. The thermal neutron distribution, boron capture gamma spectroscopy and porosity response for formations with different water salinity and wellbore diameter characteristics were simulated using the Monte Carlo method. We found that a boron lining improves the signal-to-noise ratio and that the boron capture gamma ray counting ratio has a higher sensitivity for determining porosity than total capture gamma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of plain film radiographs between original film and smartphone capture: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Licurse, Mindy Y; Kim, Sung H; Kim, Woojin; Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Cook, Tessa S

    2015-12-01

    The use of mobile devices for medical image capture has become increasingly popular given the widespread use of smartphone cameras. Prior studies have generally compared mobile phone capture images to digitized images. However, many underserved and rural areas without picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) still depend greatly on the use of film radiographs. Additionally, there is a scarcity of specialty-trained or formally licensed radiologists in many of these regions. Subsequently, there is great potential for the use of smartphone capture of plain radiograph films which would allow for increased access to economical and efficient consultation from board-certified radiologists abroad. The present study addresses the ability to diagnose a subset of radiographic findings identified on both the original film radiograph and the captured camera phone image.

  3. How funding structures for HIV/AIDS research shape outputs and utilization: a Swiss case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research policy in the field of HIV has changed substantially in recent decades in Switzerland. Until 2004, social science research on HIV/AIDS was funded by specialized funding agencies. After 2004, funding of such research was “normalized” and integrated into the Swiss National Science Foundation as the main funding agency for scientific research in Switzerland. This paper offers a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between the changing nature of funding structures on the one hand and the production and communication of policy-relevant scientific knowledge in the field of HIV on the other hand. Methods The analysis relies on an inventory of all social sciences research projects on HIV in Switzerland that were funded between 1987 and 2010, including topics covered and disciplines involved, as well as financial data. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 stakeholders. Results The analysis highlights that the pre-2004 funding policy ensured good coverage of important social science research themes. Specific incentives and explicit promotion of social science research related to HIV gave rise to a multidisciplinary, integrative and health-oriented approach. The abolition of a specific funding policy in 2004 was paralleled by a drastic reduction in the number of social science research projects submitted for funding, and a decline of public money dedicated to such research. Although the public administration in charge of HIV policy still acknowledges the relevance of findings from social sciences for the development of prevention, treatment and care, HIV-related social science research does not flourish under current funding conditions. Conclusions The Swiss experience sheds light on the difficulties of sustaining social science research and multidisciplinary approaches related to HIV without specialized funding agencies. Future funding policy might not necessarily require specialized agencies, but should better take into

  4. Fiscal mapping autism spectrum disorder funds: a case study of Ohio.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Hilary D; Hoffman, Jill; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Moodie-Dyer, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have complex needs requiring regular service utilization. Policymakers, administrators, and community leaders are looking for ways to finance ASD services and systems. Understanding the fiscal resources that support ASD services is essential. This article uses fiscal mapping to explore ASD funding streams in Ohio. Fiscal mapping steps are overviewed to assist ASD stakeholders in identifying and examining ASD-related funding. Implications are drawn related to how fiscal mapping could be used to identify and leverage funding for ASD services. The resulting information is critical to utilizing existing resources, advocating for resources, and leveraging available funds.

  5. Studies of electron correlation effects in multicharged ion atom collisions involving double capture

    SciTech Connect

    Stolterfoht, N.; Sommer, K.; Griffin, D.C.; Havener, C.C.; Huq, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Swenson, J.K.; Meyer, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    We review measurements of L-Coster Kronig and Auger electron production in slow, multicharged collision systems to study electron correlation effects in the process of double electron capture. The n/sup /minus/3/ law was confirmed for the production of the Coster-Kronig configurations 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ (n greater than or equal to 6) in O/sup 6 +/ + He collisions. Enhancement of high angular momentum /ell/ in specific 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations was observed by means of high-resolution measurements of the Coster-Kronig lines. The importance of electron correlation effects in couplings of potential energy curves leading to the 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations is verified by means of Landau-Zener model calculations. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Design Study of a Linear Accelerator System for Neutron Capture Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Chai, J. S.

    1997-05-01

    A proton linear accelerator has been conceived to use for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and Neutron Radiography (NR) at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The main accelerator is an RFQ which will accelerate proton from 90 keV to 3.5 MeV with a current of 50 mA in the present design. According to PARMTEQ calculations, the transmission efficiency is over 96 % for that current. Since the RFQ is rather long (5.2 m for 3.5 MeV), its structure is modular. Taking advantage of this structure, some design parameters of the system can be checked with a 2.5 MeV module. Design studies of beam dynamics and rf properties have been made using PARMTEQ, MAFIA, and other codes. Major components of the system such as ion source and beam transport line will be discussed in association with the problem of high power beam.

  7. Remote capture of human voice acoustical data by telephone: a methods study.

    PubMed

    Cannizzaro, Michael S; Reilly, Nicole; Mundt, James C; Snyder, Peter J

    2005-12-01

    In this pilot study we sought to determine the reliability and validity of collecting speech and voice acoustical data via telephone transmission for possible future use in large clinical trials. Simultaneous recordings of each participant's speech and voice were made at the point of participation, the local recording (LR), and over a telephone line using a dedicated in-line computerized interactive voice recording system, the remote recording (RR). All voice recordings were made from our laboratory telephone located in Groton, Connecticut to the RR system located in Madison, Wisconsin. All data points were compared on a measure-by-measure basis between the LR and RR recordings. The results suggest that both measures of frequency excursion and of speech motor timing are reliably captured over the telephone. Results are discussed in terms of specific acoustic measures that may be useful and accurately measured via telephone transmission, for examining disease severity and pharmacological intervention for use in a large-scale clinical trial.

  8. Scissors Mode of 162 Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ’) reactions.

  9. Rights and Responsibilities of Tuberculosis Patients, and the Global Fund: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Muhammad; Javaid, Sareema; Farooqui, Maryam; Sarwar, Muhammad Rehan

    2016-01-01

    Background Implementation of the Charter to protect patients’ rights is an important criterion to achieve patient-centered approach and receive financial support from the Global Fund. Our study aims to explore the knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) patients about their rights and responsibilities at the Chest Disease Unit of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Methods This was a qualitative study. The data from purposefully selected TB patients was collected by in-depth interviews. Eligibility criteria included confirmed diagnosis of TB and enrollment in the TB program. A pilot tested interview protocol was based upon the objectives of the study, and was used uniformly in each interview to maintain the consistency. The sample size was limited by applying the saturation criteria. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Inductive thematic content analysis was applied to analyze the data and draw conclusions. Results Out of the total 16 patients, four were female, and seven were illiterate. Eight patients were known cases of multi-drug resistant TB. Analysis of the data yielded seven themes; tuberculosis care services, moral support and stigmatization, dignity and privacy, complaints, fear of losing job, information sharing and compliance to the treatment plan, and contribution to eradicate TB. First five represented the rights section while latter two were related to the responsibilities section of the Charter. Conclusion Discriminatory access to TB care services and the right to privacy were two major concerns identified in this study. However, the respondents recognized their responsibilities as a TB patient. To ensure uninterrupted investment from the Global Fund, there is a need to implement fair TB care policies which support human rights-based approach. PMID:26998830

  10. JAKE® Multimodal Data Capture System: Insights from an Observational Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ness, Seth L; Manyakov, Nikolay V; Bangerter, Abigail; Lewin, David; Jagannatha, Shyla; Boice, Matthew; Skalkin, Andrew; Dawson, Geraldine; Janvier, Yvette M; Goodwin, Matthew S; Hendren, Robert; Leventhal, Bennett; Shic, Frederick; Cioccia, Walter; Pandina, Gahan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test usability and optimize the Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (JAKE®) system's components, biosensors, and procedures used for objective measurement of core and associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinical trials. Methods: A prospective, observational study of 29 children and adolescents with ASD using the JAKE system was conducted at three sites in the United States. This study was designed to establish the feasibility of the JAKE system and to learn practical aspects of its implementation. In addition to information collected by web and mobile components, wearable biosensor data were collected both continuously in natural settings and periodically during a battery of experimental tasks administered in laboratory settings. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02299700. Results: Feedback collected throughout the study allowed future refinements to be planned for all components of the system. The Autism Behavior Inventory (ABI), a parent-reported measure of ASD core and associated symptoms, performed well. Among biosensors studied, the eye-tracker, sleep monitor, and electrocardiogram were shown to capture high quality data, whereas wireless electroencephalography was difficult to use due to its form factor. On an exit survey, the majority of parents rated their overall reaction to JAKE as positive/very positive. No significant device-related events were reported in the study. Conclusion: The results of this study, with the described changes, demonstrate that the JAKE system is a viable, useful, and safe platform for use in clinical trials of ASD, justifying larger validation and deployment studies of the optimized system.

  11. Response of the central nervous system to fractionated boron neutron capture irradiation: studies with borocaptate sodium.

    PubMed

    Morris, G M; Coderre, J A; Hopewell, J W; Rezvani, M; Micca, P L; Fisher, C D

    1997-02-01

    The response of the central nervous system (CNS) to fractionated doses of boron neutron capture (BNC) irradiation was assessed using a rat spinal cord model. The thermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) was used for the spinal cord irradiations, with borocaptate sodium (BSH) as the neutron capture agent. Irradiations were given as a single dose or as two or four equal fractions. The ED50 for radiation-induced myeloparesis, as indicated by limb paralysis within 7 months, after a single exposure to thermal neutrons in the presence of BSH (blood boron-10 content approximately 70 micrograms/g) was 27.2 +/- 0.9 Gy. This was expressed as the total physical dose to the blood. Dividing the radiation dose into two consecutive daily fractions or four fractions given over 1 week, resulted in ED50 = 32.0 +/- 1.4 and 31.5 +/- 0.4 Gy respectively. Although there was no significant dose sparing in moving from two to four fractions, there was a dose increment of approximately 17% as compared with single-dose irradiation. The variation in the relative biological effectiveness of the thermal neutron beam, with dose per fraction, was established using data from a previous study with single and fractionated doses of thermal neutrons in the absence of a neutron capture agent. This varied from 1.40 to 3.74 for thermal neutron dose per fraction in the range 13.6-1.5 Gy. Previously published CBE factors for both BSH and BPA have been recalculated in the present report to take into account the change in the RBE of the thermal neutron beam with dose. In all cases the recalculated CBE factors were lower than those obtained previously. Values for this parameter increased with fraction number. In the case of BSH, the CBE factor increased from 0.36 +/- 0.03 after a single-dose to 0.51 +/- 0.06 after four fractions.

  12. Use of Health Behavior Theory in Funded Grant Proposals: Cancer Screening Interventions as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kobrin, Sarah; Ferrer, Rebecca; Meissner, Helen; Tiro, Jasmin; Hall, Kara; Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Rothman, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Interventions using theory should change behavior and identify both mechanisms of effect and necessary conditions. To date, inconsistent description of "use of theory" has limited understanding of how theory improves intervention impact. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of theory in health behavior intervention development by coding grant proposals. We developed an abstraction tool to characterize investigators, interventions, and theory use and identified seven core elements describing both how and how much theory was used. We used the tool to review and code NCI's funded cancer screening intervention R01 proposals, 1998-2009. Of 116 proposals, 38 met criteria; all but one described a conceptual model unique to the proposed research. Few proposals included plans to identify mechanisms of effect or conditions necessary for intervention effectiveness. Cancer screening intervention grant proposals rarely use theory in ways that advance behavioral or theoretical sciences. Proposed core elements may classify and synthesize the use of theory in behavioral intervention research.

  13. Understanding CO2 capture mechanisms in aqueous hydrazine via combined NMR and first-principles studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeongno; Stowe, Haley M; Lee, Kyu Hyung; Hur, Nam Hwi; Hwang, Son-Jong; Paek, Eunsu; Hwang, Gyeong S

    2017-09-13

    Aqueous amines are currently the most promising solution for large-scale CO2 capture from industrial sources. However, molecular design and optimization of amine-based solvents have proceeded slowly due to a lack of understanding of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Unique and unexpected reaction mechanisms involved in CO2 absorption into aqueous hydrazine are identified using (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR spectroscopy combined with first-principles quantum-mechanical simulations. We find production of both hydrazine mono-carbamate (NH2-NH-COO(-)) and hydrazine di-carbamate ((-)OOC-NH-NH-COO(-)), with the latter becoming more populated with increasing CO2 loading. Exchange NMR spectroscopy also demonstrates that the reaction products are in dynamic equilibrium under ambient conditions due to CO2 exchange between mono-carbamate and di-carbamate as well as fast proton transfer between un-protonated free hydrazine and mono-carbamate. The exchange rate rises steeply at high CO2 loadings, enhancing CO2 release, which appears to be a unique property of hydrazine in aqueous solution. The underlying mechanisms of these processes are further evaluated using quantum mechanical calculations. We also analyze and discuss reversible precipitation of carbamate and conversion of bicarbonate to carbamates. The comprehensive mechanistic study provides useful guidance for optimal design of amine-based solvents and processes to reduce the cost of carbon capture. Moreover, this work demonstrates the value of a combined experimental and computational approach for exploring the complex reaction dynamics of CO2 in aqueous amines.

  14. A bio-metal-organic framework for highly selective CO(2) capture: A molecular simulation study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifei; Jiang, Jianwen

    2010-08-23

    A recently synthesized bio-metal-organic framework (bio-MOF-11) is investigated for CO(2) capture by molecular simulation. The adenine biomolecular linkers in bio-MOF-11 contain Lewis basic amino and pyrimidine groups as the preferential adsorption sites. The simulated and experimental adsorption isotherms of pure CO(2), H(2), and N(2) are in perfect agreement. Bio-MOF-11 exhibits larger adsorption capacities compared to numerous zeolites, activated carbons, and MOFs, which is attributed to the presence of multiple Lewis basic sites and nano-sized channels. The results for the adsorption of CO(2)/H(2) and CO(2)/N(2) mixtures in bio-MOF-11 show that CO(2) is more dominantly adsorbed than H(2) and N(2). With increasing pressure, the selectivity of CO(2)/H(2) initially increases owing to the strong interactions between CO(2) and the framework, and then decreases as a consequence of the entropy effect. However, the selectivity of CO(2)/N(2) monotonically increases with increasing pressure and finally reaches a constant. The selectivities in bio-MOF-11 are higher than in many nanoporous materials. The simulation results also reveal that a small amount of H(2)O has a negligible effect on the separation of CO(2)/H(2) and CO(2)/N(2) mixtures. The simulation study provides quantitative microscopic insight into the adsorption mechanism in bio-MOF-11 and suggests that bio-MOF-11 may be interesting for pre- and post-combustion CO(2) capture.

  15. Capturing the Active Ingredients of Multicomponent Participatory Organizational Stress Interventions Using an Adapted Study Design.

    PubMed

    Biron, Caroline; Ivers, Hans; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Adapted study designs use process evaluation to incorporate a measure of intervention exposure and create an artificial control and intervention groups. Taking into account exposure levels to interventions combines process and outcome evaluation and strengthens the design of the study when exposure levels cannot be controlled. This study includes longitudinal data (two assessments) with added process measures at time 2 gathered from three complex participatory intervention projects in Canada in a hospital and a university. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the specific working mechanisms of particular interventions on stress outcomes. Results showed that higher exposure to interventions aiming to modify tasks and working conditions reduced demands and improved social support, but not job control, which in turn, reduced psychological distress. Exposure to interventions aiming to improve relationships was not related to psychosocial risks. Most studies cannot explain how interventions produce their effects on outcomes, especially when there are multiple concurrent interventions delivered in several contexts. This study advances knowledge on process evaluation by using an adapted study design to capture the active ingredients of multicomponent interventions and suggesting some mechanisms by which the interventions produce their effects on stress outcomes. It provides an illustration of how to conduct process evaluation and relate exposure levels to observed outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) Funding for Studies of Hospital-Associated Bacterial Pathogens: Are Funds Proportionate to Burden of Disease?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) are associated with a considerable burden of disease and direct costs greater than $17 billion. The pathogens that cause the majority of serious HAIs are Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species, referred as ESCKAPE. We aimed to determine the amount of funding the National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) allocates to research on antimicrobial resistant pathogens, particularly ESCKAPE pathogens. Methods The NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) database was used to identify NIAID antimicrobial resistance research grants funded in 2007-2009 using the terms "antibiotic resistance," "antimicrobial resistance," and "hospital-associated infection." Results Funding for antimicrobial resistance grants has increased from 2007-2009. Antimicrobial resistance funding for bacterial pathogens has seen a smaller increase than non-bacterial pathogens. The total funding for all ESKCAPE pathogens was $ 22,005,943 in 2007, $ 30,810,153 in 2008 and $ 49,801,227 in 2009. S. aureus grants received $ 29,193,264 in FY2009, the highest funding amount of all the ESCKAPE pathogens. Based on 2009 funding data, approximately $1,565 of research money was spent per S. aureus related death and $750 of was spent per C. difficile related death. Conclusions Although the funding for ESCKAPE pathogens has increased from 2007 to 2009, funding levels for antimicrobial resistant bacteria-related grants is still lower than funding for antimicrobial resistant non-bacterial pathogens. Efforts may be needed to improve research funding for resistant-bacterial pathogens, particularly as their clinical burden increases. PMID:22958856

  17. A Study of Fund Raising and Fee Collection Practices in Tennessee Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry E.; Reddick, Thomas L.

    Most school systems in Tennessee raise additional revenue for instructional and extracurricular activities through fund raising projects and voluntary student fee collections. Responses to a questionnaire by 129 principals (from a sample of 15) were analyzed to determine the extent, diversity, and results of fund raising activities and fee…

  18. Youth Opportunity Fund and Youth Capital Fund: Evaluation Findings from Initial Case-Study Visits. Research Report DCSF-RR004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lisa; Bielby, Gill; Golden, Sarah; Morris, Marian; Walker, Matthew; Maguire, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Education and Skills (Replace by the Department for Children, Schools and Families as of June 28, 2007) commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to conduct an evaluation of the Youth Opportunity Fund and Youth Capital Fund (YOF/YCF). This summary presents the main findings from the interim report of…

  19. Do glucocorticoids in droppings reflect baseline level in birds captured in the wild? A case study in snow geese.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Picard, Gérald; Bêty, Joël

    2011-07-01

    Baseline glucocorticoid (CORT) levels in plasma are increasingly used as physiological indices of the relative condition or health of individuals and populations. The major limitation is that CORT production is stimulated by the stress associated with capture and handling. Measuring fecal CORT is one way to solve this problem because elevation of fecal CORT usually does not occur before 1-12h after a stressful event in captive animals. However, the effect of capture and handling on fecal CORT levels has seldom been investigated in the wild. In a first experiment, we validated that fecal CORT levels starts to increase in droppings (a mixture of fecal and urinary material) about 1-2h following injection of CORT-release hormone (ACTH) in captive greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). In a second experiment, we investigated whether dropping and plasma CORT were related and if the capture affected fecal CORT levels in wild birds. Baseline CORT was obtained by bleeding individuals within 4 min after capture. No relationship was found between baseline and CORT in droppings shortly after capture (<4 min). In addition, CORT levels in droppings increased linearly with time after capture and was already elevated by a factor two 40 min after capture. The different turnover time of CORT between urine and feces could explain such results. We conclude that droppings cannot provide an index of basal CORT levels in snow geese captured in the wild. Such a result contrast with previous studies conducted on habituated, captive animals. We thus recommend that use of droppings as a non-invasive technique to measure baseline CORT be restricted to non-manipulated individuals in the wild.

  20. Quantitative measurement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a study with full-body motion capture data.

    PubMed

    Das, Samarjit; Trutoiu, Laura; Murai, Akihiko; Alcindor, Dunbar; Oh, Michael; De la Torre, Fernando; Hodgins, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in the portability and affordability of optical motion capture systems have opened the doors to various clinical applications. In this paper, we look into the potential use of motion capture data for the quantitative analysis of motor symptoms in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The standard of care, human observer-based assessments of the motor symptoms, can be very subjective and are often inadequate for tracking mild symptoms. Motion capture systems, on the other hand, can potentially provide more objective and quantitative assessments. In this pilot study, we perform full-body motion capture of Parkinson's patients with deep brain stimulator off-drugs and with stimulators on and off. Our experimental results indicate that the quantitative measure on spatio-temporal statistics learnt from the motion capture data reveal distinctive differences between mild and severe symptoms. We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier for discriminating mild vs. severe symptoms with an average accuracy of approximately 90%. Finally, we conclude that motion capture technology could potentially be an accurate, reliable and effective tool for statistical data mining on motor symptoms related to PD. This would enable us to devise more effective ways to track the progression of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

  1. Antidepressant Efficacy for Depression in Children and Adolescents: Industry- and NIMH-Funded Studies.

    PubMed

    Walkup, John T

    2017-05-01

    Significant controversy surrounds the efficacy of the newer antidepressants for children and adolescents with depression. The controversy largely hinges on meta-analyses of studies that suggest that antidepressants are minimally effective, not effective, or equivalent to placebo. In this review, the author discusses several scientific and clinical complexities that are important to understand in reviewing the antidepressant literature: the strengths and weaknesses of meta-analyses; the scientific and regulatory context for the large number of antidepressant trials in the late 1990s and early 2000s; and the distinction between a negative trial, where the treatment does not demonstrate efficacy, and a failed trial, where methodological problems make it impossible to draw any conclusion about efficacy. It is the premise of this review that meta-analyses that include the large number of industry-sponsored antidepressant trials distort the picture of antidepressant efficacy for teen depression. Industry-sponsored child and adolescent depression trials suffer from a number of implementation challenges and should be considered failed trials that are largely uninformative and not eligible to be included in efficacy meta-analyses. In contrast to the industry-sponsored trials, depression trials funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (N=2) are characterized by many methodological strengths, lower placebo response rates (30%-35%), and meaningful between-group differences (25%-30%) that support antidepressant efficacy. The NIMH-funded trials, taken together with the demonstrated efficacy of the serotonin reuptake inhibitors for childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder and the anxiety disorders, suggest a broad and important role for antidepressant medications in pediatric internalizing conditions.

  2. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing; Henderson, Jr., Hugh

    2016-12-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  3. Prevalence of inherited ichthyosis in France: a study using capture-recapture method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inherited ichthyoses represent a group of rare skin disorders characterized by scaling, hyperkeratosis and inconstant erythema, involving most of the tegument. Epidemiology remains poorly described. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of inherited ichthyosis (excluding very mild forms) and its different clinical forms in France. Methods Capture – recapture method was used for this study. According to statistical requirements, 3 different lists (reference/competence centres, French association of patients with ichthyosis and internet network) were used to record such patients. The study was conducted in 5 areas during a closed period. Results The prevalence was estimated at 13.3 per million people (/M) (CI95%, [10.9 – 17.6]). With regard to autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, the prevalence was estimated at 7/M (CI 95% [5.7 – 9.2]), with a prevalence of lamellar ichthyosis and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma of 4.5/M (CI 95% [3.7 – 5.9]) and 1.9/M (CI 95% [1.6 – 2.6]), respectively. Prevalence of keratinopathic forms was estimated at 1.1/M (CI 95% [0.9 – 1.5]). Prevalence of syndromic forms (all clinical forms together) was estimated at 1.9/M (CI 95% [1.6 – 2.6]). Conclusions Our results constitute a crucial basis to properly size the necessary health measures that are required to improve patient care and design further clinical studies. PMID:24393603

  4. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    PubMed

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  5. Missing Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A high school drama coach informs assistant principal Laura Madison that the money students earned through fund-raising activities seems to have vanished and that the male assistant principal may be involved in the disappearance of the funds. Laura has to determine how to address this situation. She considers her past experiences with problematic…

  6. Missing Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A high school drama coach informs assistant principal Laura Madison that the money students earned through fund-raising activities seems to have vanished and that the male assistant principal may be involved in the disappearance of the funds. Laura has to determine how to address this situation. She considers her past experiences with problematic…

  7. Prevalence of Spinal Cord Injury in Iran: A 3-Source Capture-Recapture Study.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Ataeepour, Mehdi; Rabiee, Helale; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Saadat, Soheil; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients are necessary for prevention policymaking and improvement of social and healthcare support to patients. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of traumatic and non-traumatic SCI in Iran in a three-source capture-recapture study. Three organizations, which provide supports to SCI patients were identified. Demographic data of patients in each organization was obtained. Datasets were formed and matching data were found. Matched data were incorporated into STATA 12 for log linear analyses. Results of sensitivity analyses were used to estimate total number of SCI patients in Iran. Veterans of Iraq-Iran conflict were added as separate data source to final results. The prevalence of traumatic and non-traumatic SCI patients is 296.87 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 292.04-302.48) per million in Tehran and Alborz provinces. The prevalence of SCI in Iran is an estimated 318.45 (95% CI: 312.98-324.54) per million. The prevalence of SCI in Iran is among the lowest figures reported in the literature. The supporting organizations in Iran do not have details about the cause, level and severity of SCI patients. A national study to register SCI patients' data is needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Photon strength functions in Gd isotopes studied from radiative capture of resonance neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Keksis, A. L.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Parker, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Vieira, D. J.; Walker, C.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-04-01

    The experimental spectra of γ rays following radiative neutron capture on isolated resonances of stable 152,154-158Gd targets were measured by the DANCE calorimeter installed at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center in New Mexico, USA. These spectra were analyzed within the extreme statistical model to get new information on the photon strength functions. Special emphasis was put on study of the scissors vibrational mode present in these isotopes. Our data show that the scissors-mode resonances are built not only on the ground states but also on the excited levels of all studied Gd isotopes. The scissors mode strength observed in 157,159Gd products is significantly higher than in neighboring even-even nuclei 156,158Gd. Such a difference indicates the existence of an odd-even effect in the scissors mode strength. Moreover, there exists no universal parameter-free model of the electric dipole photon strength function describing the experimental data in all of the Gd isotopes studied. The results for the scissors mode are compared with the (γ, γ') data for the ground-state transitions and with the results from 3He-induced reactions.

  9. Boulder Capture System Design Options for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belbin, Scott P.; Merrill, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a boulder acquisition and asteroid surface interaction electromechanical concept developed for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It details the down select process and ranking of potential boulder capture methods, the evolution of a simple yet elegant articulating spaceframe, and ongoing risk reduction and concept refinement efforts. The capture system configuration leverages the spaceframe, heritage manipulators, and a new microspine technology to enable the ARRM boulder capture. While at the NEA it enables attenuation of terminal descent velocity, ascent to escape velocity, boulder collection and restraint. After departure from the NEA it enables, robotic inspection, sample caching, and crew Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA).

  10. A discrete choice experiment investigating preferences for funding drugs used to treat orphan diseases: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Stefanowska, Patricia; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2011-07-01

    Policy debate about funding criteria for drugs used to treat rare, orphan diseases is gaining prominence. This study presents evidence from a discrete choice experiment using a convenience sample of university students to investigate individual preferences regarding public funding for drugs used to treat rare diseases and common diseases. This pilot study finds that: other things equal, the respondents do not prefer to have the government spend more for drugs used to treat rare diseases; that respondents are not willing to pay more per life year gained for a rare disease than a common disease; and that respondents weigh relevant attributes of the coverage decisions (e.g. costs, disease severity and treatment effectiveness) similarly for both rare and common diseases. The results confirm the importance of severity and treatment effectiveness in preferences for public funding. Although this is the first study of its kind, the results send a cautionary message regarding the special treatment of orphan drugs in coverage decision-making.

  11. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  12. Shell model study on the astrophysical neutron capture of 8Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hai-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Yan, Yu-Liang; Zhang, Xi-Zhen

    2012-09-01

    The astrophysical important neutron capture of 8Li is investigated by combining the shell model and potential model. Three effective interactions, SFO, PSDMK2 and PSDWBP are used to calculate the spectroscopic factors and reaction widths. For the resonant capture from 8Li to the first continuum state of 9Li , the three effective interactions give similar neutron partial widths, and they are well compared with the experimental results. However, the calculated photon widths are over 5 times less than the previous estimate. This will make the substantial difference that, at high temperature, the direct capture mechanism still dominates. The calculated capture rates generally agree well with the experimental data. The uncertainty of calculated cross-sections and capture rates mainly results from the different prediction of spectroscopic factors for the three effective interactions. The total neutron capture rates in our calculations are less than 4300 cm3 mole-1 s-1 for T 9 < 5 which confirms that the main reaction flow will proceed through the reaction 8Li ( α, n) 11B in the stellar environments.

  13. Mechanism Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Ambient Air by Hydration Energy Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Lackner, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydration of neutral and ionic species on solid interfaces plays an important role in a wide range of natural and engineered processes within energy systems as well as biological and environmental systems. Various chemical reactions are significantly enhanced, both in the rate and the extent of the reaction, because of water molecules present or absent at the interface. A novel technology for carbon dioxide capture, driven by the free energy difference between more or less hydrated states of an anionic exchange resin is studied for a new approach to absorb CO2 from ambient air. For these materials the affinity to CO2 is dramatically lowered as the availability of water is increased. This makes it possible to absorb CO2 from air in a dry environment and release it at two orders of magnitude larger partial pressures in a wet environment. While the absorption process and the thermodynamic properties of air capture via ion exchange resins have been demonstrated, the underlying physical mechanisms remain to be understood. In order to rationally design better sorbent materials, the present work elucidates through molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical modeling the energy changes in the carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide ions that are induced by hydration, and how these changes affect sorbent properties. A methodology is developed to determine the free energy change during carbonate ion hydrolysis changes with different numbers of water molecules present. This makes it possible to calculate the equilibrium in the reaction CO3--•nH2O ↔ HCO3- • m1H2O + OH- • m2H2O + (n - 1 - m1 - m2)H2O Molecular dynamics models are used to calculate free energies of hydration for the CO32- ion, the HCO3- ion, and the OH- ion as function of the amount of water that is present. A quantum mechanical model is employed to study the equilibrium of the reaction Na2CO3 + H2O ↔ NaHCO3 + NaOHin a vacuum and at room temperature. The computational analysis of the free energy of

  14. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  15. Spatial capture-recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sollmann, Rahel; Gardner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Spatial Capture-Recapture provides a revolutionary extension of traditional capture-recapture methods for studying animal populations using data from live trapping, camera trapping, DNA sampling, acoustic sampling, and related field methods. This book is a conceptual and methodological synthesis of spatial capture-recapture modeling. As a comprehensive how-to manual, this reference contains detailed examples of a wide range of relevant spatial capture-recapture models for inference about population size and spatial and temporal variation in demographic parameters. Practicing field biologists studying animal populations will find this book to be a useful resource, as will graduate students and professionals in ecology, conservation biology, and fisheries and wildlife management.

  16. A4-4: Do Projects Have Complete Data Capture for Their Study Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Donald; Hornbrook, Mark; Ritzwoller, Debra; Pardee, Roy; Bauck, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Investigators often assume that when patients are enrolled in a health plan, they have complete capture of utilization data from their health plan sources. This assumption may not always be true as patients have many incentives to choose care at multiple settings (convenience, price, residence, insurance type, drug coverage), which can give rise to missing data. Complete capture of medical data for population-based research is crucial to our ability to identify populations who have not had particular exposures or outcomes. In case-control designs, where the control group does not have a specified exposure, we measure this condition by absence of data. To address this problem, the VDW enrollment work group created a new enrollment variable, called “Outside_utilization”, designed to identify members suspected of incomplete capture of encounters or pharmacy fills. This work reports on a quality assurance analysis of the extent and nature of the data gaps at different sites. Methods For V3, HMORN sites added new VDW variables in their enrollment file including the “Outside_utilization” variable. This variable identifies populations suspected of having incomplete health care utilization capture. Since the reasons for incomplete data capture vary among the sites, the methods for identifying members with incomplete data capture were determined by the local site data managers. The authors distributed a program that computed utilization rates for specific cohorts for “complete” and “incomplete” data capture populations. We also computed rates for those on high deductible plans. We compared differences in these rates by year and site. In addition, we conducted a survey to determine how the incomplete populations were identified for each participating site. Results Some sites clearly identify populations that have incomplete capture of data using the “Outside_utilization” variable. At other sites, the difference in rates is less apparent

  17. Case Study for the ARRA-funded GSHP Demonstration at University at Albany

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing; Malhotra, Mini; Xiong, Zeyu

    2015-03-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects—a distributed GSHP system at a new 500-bed apartment-style student residence hall at the University at Albany. This case study is based on the analysis of detailed design documents, measured performance data, published catalog data of heat pump equipment, and actual construction costs. Simulations with a calibrated computer model are performed for both the demonstrated GSHP system and a baseline heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) system to determine the energy savings and other related benefits achieved by the GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, as well as the pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the demonstrated GSHP system compared with the baseline HVAC system. This case study also identifies opportunities for improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  18. NASA-funded study says glacier shape matters and influences vulnerability to melting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    A new NASA-funded study has identified which glaciers in West Greenland are most susceptible to thinning in the coming decades by analyzing how they’re shaped. The research could help predict how much the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to future sea level rise in the next century, a number that currently ranges from inches to feet. “There are glaciers that popped up in our study that flew under the radar until now,” said lead author Denis Felikson, a graduate research assistant at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) and a Ph.D. student in The University of Texas Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. Felikson’s study was published in Nature Geoscience on April 17. Read more: go.nasa.gov/2pJJwNA Caption: Terminus of Kangerlugssuup Sermerssua glacier in west Greenland Photo credit: Denis Felikson, Univ. of Texas NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  20. Benefits from Funding the MSD Engineering List: A Fiscal Year 1999 Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    projects . RESEARCH QUESTIONS This paper will attempt to answer four questions. 1. How much of the MSD Engineering budget resulted in a benefit to... project . Finally, the answer to the final research question, “What type of benefits did the Air Force receive from funding the MSD Engineering list...03 Abstract Every year the Air Force Material Command (AFMC) funds the MSD Engineering list. The projects on the list are submitted by the

  1. Density functional theory study of CO2 capture with transition metal oxides and hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Duan, Yuhua; Johnson, Karl

    2012-02-01

    We have used density functional theory (DFT) employing several different exchange-correlation functionals (PW91, PBE, PBEsol, TPSS, and revTPSS) coupled with lattice dynamics calculations to compute the thermodynamics of CO2 absorption/desorption reactions for selected transition metal oxides, (TMO), and hydroxides, TM(OH)2, where TM = Mn, Ni, Zn, and Cd. The van't Hoff plots, which describe the reaction equilibrium as a function of the partial pressures of CO2 and H2O as well as temperature, were computed from DFT total energies, complemented by the free energy contribution of solids and gases from lattice dynamics and statistical mechanics, respectively. We find that the PBEsol functional calculations are generally in better agreement with experimental phase equilibrium data compared with the other functionals we tested. In contrast, the formation enthalpies of the compounds are better computed with the TPSS and revTPSS functionals. The PBEsol functional gives better equilibrium properties due to a partial cancellation of errors in the enthalpies of formation. We have identified all CO2 capture reactions that lie on the Gibbs free energy convex hull as a function of temperature and the partial pressures of CO2 and H2O for all TMO and TM(OH)2 systems studied here.

  2. A numerical study of ENO and TVD schemes for shock capturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Shih-Hung; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1988-01-01

    The numerical performance of a second-order upwind-based total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme and that of a uniform second-order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme for shock capturing are compared. The TVD scheme used is a modified version of Liou, using the flux-difference splitting (FDS) of Roe and his superbee function as the limiter. The construction of the basic ENO scheme is based on Harten, Engquist, Osher, and Chakravarthy, and the 2-D extensions are obtained by using a Strang-type of fractional-step time-splitting method. Numerical results presented include both steady and unsteady, 1-D and 2-D calculations. All the chosen test problems have exact solutions so that numerical performance can be measured by comparing the computer results to them. For 1-D calculations, the standard shock-tube problems of Sod and Lax are chosen. A very strong shock-tube problem, with the initial density ratio of 400 to 1 and pressure ratio of 500 to 1, is also used to study the behavior of the two schemes. For 2-D calculations, the shock wave reflection problems are adopted for testing. The cases presented in this report include flows with Mach numbers of 2.9, 5.0, and 10.0.

  3. A novel mobile-cloud system for capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering data: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Jones, Maria; Liu, Tao; Hao, Wei; Yan, Yuqing; Qian, Gang; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to provide a new approach for capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering data, which are critical for evaluating wheelchair users' activity levels. We proposed a mobile-cloud (MC) system, which incorporated the emerging mobile and cloud computing technologies. The MC system employed smartphone sensors to collect wheelchair maneuvering data and transmit them to the cloud for storage and analysis. A k-nearest neighbor (KNN) machine-learning algorithm was developed to mitigate the impact of sensor noise and recognize wheelchair maneuvering patterns. We conducted 30 trials in an indoor setting, where each trial contained 10 bouts (i.e., periods of continuous wheelchair movement). We also verified our approach in a different building. Different from existing approaches that require sensors to be attached to wheelchairs' wheels, we placed the smartphone into a smartphone holder attached to the wheelchair. Experimental results illustrate that our approach correctly identified all 300 bouts. Compared to existing approaches, our approach was easier to use while achieving similar accuracy in analyzing the accumulated movement time and maximum period of continuous movement (p > 0.8). Overall, the MC system provided a feasible way to ease the data collection process and generated accurate analysis results for evaluating activity levels.

  4. A fundamental study on hyper-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K

    1994-12-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum with a Maxwellian distribution at a higher temperature than room temperature (300 K), was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at depth in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using a Monte Carlo code 'MCNP-V3' in order to investigate the characteristics of hyper-thermal neutrons, i.e. (i) depth dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, and (ii) depth distribution of the reaction rate in a water phantom for materials with 1/v neutron absorption. It is confirmed that hyper-thermal neutron irradiation can improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in the deeper areas in a living body compared with thermal neutron irradiation. When hyper-thermal neutrons with a 3000 K Maxwellian distribution are incident on a body, the reaction rates of 1/v materials such as 14N, 10B etc are about twice that observed for incident thermal neutrons at 300 K, at a depth of 5 cm. The limit of the treatable depth for tumours having 30 ppm 10B is expected to be about 1.5 cm greater by utilizing hyper-thermal neutrons at 3000 K compared with the incidence of thermal neutrons at 300 K.

  5. Coping with unobservable and mis-classified states in capture-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Multistate mark-recapture methods provide an excellent conceptual framework for considering estimation in studies of marked animals. Traditional methods include the assumptions that (1) each state an animal occupies is observable, and (2) state is assigned correctly at each point in time. Failure of either of these assumptions can lead to biased estimates of demographic parameters. I review design and analysis options for minimizing or eliminating these biases. Unobservable states can be adjusted for by including them in the state space of the statistical model, with zero capture probability, and incorporating the robust design, or observing animals in the unobservable state through telemetry, tag recoveries, or incidental observations. Mis-classification can be adjusted for by auxiliary data or incorporating the robust design, in order to estimate the probability of detecting the state an animal occupies. For both unobservable and mis-classified states, the key feature of the robust design is the assumption that the state of the animal is static for at least two sampling occasions.

  6. Capturing the Semantics of User Interaction: A Review and Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Donn; Marchand-Maillet, Stéphane; Bruno, Eric

    In many retrieval domains there exists a problematic gap between what computers can describe and what humans are capable of perceiving. This gap is most evident in the indexing of multimedia data such as images, video and sound where the low-level features are too semantically deficient to be of use from a typical users' perspective. On the other hand, users possess the ability to quickly examine and summarise these documents, even subconsciously. Examples include specifying relevance between a query and results, rating preferences in film databases, purchasing items from online retailers, and even browsing web sites. Data from these interactions, captured and stored in log files, can be interpreted to have semantic meaning, which proves indispensable when used in a collaborative setting where users share similar preferences or goals. In this chapter we summarise techniques for efficiently exploiting user interaction in its many forms for the generation and augmentation of semantic data in large databases. This user interaction can be applied to improve performance in recommender and information retrieval systems. A case study is presented which applies a popular technique, latent semantic analysis, to improve retrieval on an image database.

  7. Laser capture microdissection enables cellular and molecular studies of tooth root development

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian-Xun; Horst, Orapin V; Bumgarner, Roger; Lakely, Bryce; Somerman, Martha J; Zhang, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) are critical for tooth development. Molecular mechanisms mediating these interactions in root formation is not well understood. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and subsequent microarray analyses enable large scale in situ molecular and cellular studies of root formation but to date have been hindered by technical challenges of gaining intact histological sections of non-decalcified mineralized teeth or jaws with well-preserved RNA. Here,we describe a new method to overcome this obstacle that permits LCM of dental epithelia,adjacent mesenchyme,odontoblasts and cementoblasts from mouse incisors and molars during root development. Using this method,we obtained RNA samples of high quality and successfully performed microarray analyses. Robust differences in gene expression,as well as genes not previously associated with root formation,were identified. Comparison of gene expression data from microarray with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) supported our findings. These genes include known markers of dental epithelia,mesenchyme,cementoblasts and odontoblasts,as well as novel genes such as those in the fibulin family. In conclusion,our new approach in tissue preparation enables LCM collection of intact cells with well-preserved RNA allowing subsequent gene expression analyses using microarray and RT-PCR to define key regulators of tooth root development. PMID:22422086

  8. Neutron Tube Design Study for Boron Neutron Capture TherapyApplication

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, J.M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Wu, L.K.; Zahir, N.

    1998-01-04

    Radio-frequency (RF) driven ion sources are being developed in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for sealed-accelerator-tube neutron generator application. By using a 5-cm-diameter RF-driven multicusp source H{sup +} yields over 95% have been achieved. These experimental findings will enable one to develop compact neutron generators based on the D-D or D-T fusion reactions. In this new neutron generator, the ion source, the accelerator and the target are all housed in a sealed metal container without external pumping. Recent moderator design simulation studies have shown that 14 MeV neutrons could be moderated to therapeutically useful energy ranges for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The dose near the center of the brain with optimized moderators is about 65% higher than the dose obtained from a typical neutron spectrum produced by the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), and is comparable to the dose obtained by other accelerator-based neutron sources. With a 120 keV and 1 A deuteron beam, a treatment time of {approx}35 minutes is estimated for BNCT.

  9. A Novel Mobile-Cloud System for Capturing and Analyzing Wheelchair Maneuvering Data: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jicheng; Jones, Maria; Liu, Tao; Hao, Wei; Yan, Yuqing; Qian, Gang; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to provide a new approach for capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering data, which are critical for evaluating wheelchair users’ activity levels. We proposed a mobile-cloud (MC) system, which incorporated the emerging mobile and cloud computing technologies. The MC system employed smartphone sensors to collect wheelchair maneuvering data and transmit them to the cloud for storage and analysis. A K-Nearest-Neighbor (KNN) machine-learning algorithm was developed to mitigate the impact of sensor noise and recognize wheelchair maneuvering patterns. We conducted 30 trials in an indoor setting, where each trial contained 10 bouts (i.e., periods of continuous wheelchair movement). We also verified our approach in a different building. Different from existing approaches that require sensors to be attached to wheelchairs’ wheels, we placed the smartphone into a smartphone holder attached to the wheelchair. Experimental results illustrate that our approach correctly identified all 300 bouts. Compared to existing approaches, our approach was easier to use while achieving similar accuracy in analyzing the accumulated movement time and maximum period of continuous movement (p > 0.8). Overall, the MC system provided a feasible way to ease the data collection process, and generated accurate analysis results for evaluating activity levels. PMID:26479684

  10. Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Study Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the study methods used for the "Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho" report. The purpose of this study was to describe how Title I 1003(g) School Improvement Grants awarded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) in the…

  11. Early Implementation Experiences of the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund Grantees. NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  12. Has industry funding biased studies of the protective effects of alcohol on cardiovascular disease? A preliminary investigation of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim; Hartwell, Greg

    2015-01-01

    There have been no previous quantitative analyses of the possible effects of industry funding on alcohol and health research. This study examines whether findings of alcohol's protective effects on cardiovascular disease may be biased by industry funding. Findings from a recent systematic review of prospective cohort studies were combined with public domain data on alcohol industry funding. The six outcomes evaluated were alcohol's effects on cardiovascular disease mortality, incident coronary heart disease, coronary heart disease mortality, incident stroke, stroke mortality and mortality from all causes. We find no evidence of possible funding effects for outcomes other than stroke. Whether studies find alcohol to be a risk factor or protective against incident stroke depends on whether or not there is possible industry funding [risk ratio (RR) 1.07 (0.97-1.17) for those without concern about industry funding compared with RR 0.88 (0.81-0.94)]. For stroke mortality, a similar difference is not statistically significant, most likely because there are too few studies. Dedicated high-quality studies of possible alcohol industry funding effects should be undertaken, and these should be broad in scope. They also need to investigate specific areas of concern, such as stroke, in greater depth. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs .

  13. Ecology of medical care in a publicly funded health care system: a registry study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Alberto; Kristiansson, Per M D

    2011-09-01

    To explore the influence of sociodemographic factors on access to appointments with physicians in primary, secondary, and tertiary health care in a publicly funded health care system. A population-based registry study. Different health care settings in Västernorrland county, Sweden. All residents in the county at the end of 2006. The number of people per 1000 residents who had at least one appointment with a physician in an average month in different health care settings. A total of 87 people had appointments with a physician in primary health care, 44 in outpatient clinics at a regional hospital, 20 in an emergency department, 14 in home care, and two in a university hospital outpatient clinic. Twelve were hospitalized at a regional hospital and <1 at the university hospital. Being young or elderly, female, divorced, widowed, and having a contractor as usual source of care were all independently associated with higher odds of receiving primary care. The physician's office in primary care is the setting that has the potential to affect the largest number of people. The extent of the use of health care was independently influenced by all sociodemographic characteristics studied, which highlights the importance of individual factors in future resource allocation. Regarding availability the ecology model provides superior information as compared with the absolute number of physicians' appointments. The prerequisites in Sweden of high-quality registries and unique personal identification numbers encourage future research on the ecology model to optimize accessibility of health care.

  14. Hoofbeats From the Currituck Outer Banks: A Study of the Corolla Wild Horse Fund Adoption Program.

    PubMed

    Koncel, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Research on the adoption and relinquishment of horses, both domestic and wild, remains limited. As a result, little is known about adopters, their adopted horses, and their adoption experience. This study surveyed and interviewed 17 adopters of Colonial Spanish mustangs through the Corolla Wild Horse Fund (CWHF). Together, they adopted 22 horses of varying ages and genders from 2002 to 2012. The participants, who had a range of previous experience with and knowledge of horses, were generally very satisfied with their horses and their adoption experience. Being able to adopt a gentled/trained mustang and receiving support from the CWHF during the adoption process played key roles in adoption success. Additionally, participants' strong desire to preserve a perceived endangered species or national treasure appeared to be a major reason for adopting a Colonial Spanish mustang and served as motivation for making the adoption successful. The results of the study provide insights into ways to improve the number and success of adoptions through other equine programs, especially the Bureau of Land Management's wild horse and burro program.

  15. Prenatal stress from trawl capture affects mothers and neonates: a case study using the southern fiddler ray (Trygonorrhina dumerilii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, L.; Awruch, C.; Walker, T. I.; Reina, R. D.

    2017-04-01

    Assessing fishing effects on chondrichthyan populations has predominantly focused on quantifying mortality rates. Consequently, sub-lethal effects of capture stress on the reproductive capacity of chondrichthyans are largely unknown. We investigated the reproductive consequences of capture on pregnant southern fiddler rays (Trygonorrhina dumerilii) collected from Swan Bay, Australia, in response to laboratory-simulated trawl capture (8 h) followed immediately by air exposure (30 min). Immediately prior to, and for up to 28 days post trawling, all females were measured for body mass (BM), sex steroid concentrations (17-β estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and granulocyte to lymphocyte (G:L) ratio. At parturition, neonates were measured for total length (TL), BM and G:L ratio. Trawling reduced maternal BM and elevated the G:L ratio for up to 28 days. Trawling did not significantly affect any sex steroid concentrations relative to controls. Neonates from trawled mothers were significantly lower in BM and TL than control animals, and had an elevated G:L ratio. Our results show that capture of pregnant T. dumerilii can influence their reproductive potential and affect the fitness of neonates. We suggest other viviparous species are likely to be similarly affected. Sub-lethal effects of capture, particularly on reproduction, require further study to improve fisheries management and conservation of chondrichthyans.

  16. The robust design for capture-recapture studies: analysis using program MARK

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Field, Rebecca; Warren, Robert J.; Okarma, Henryk; Sievert, Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    Collecting capture-recapture data under Pollock?s robust design provides an additional source of information on capture probability that can be used to provide less biased and more efficient estimates of population dynamics parameters. In addition, it can be used to estimate the probability of being available for capture, which in some cases (e.g., breeding proportion) has ecological significance. This phenomenon can be modeled as a completely random process, Markovian, or with temporary trap dependence. Analysis of this type of data is one of the options in program MARK. By using MARK the relationship between parameters and covariates can be modeled, and various approaches to goodness of fit, model selection, and model averaging can be implemented.

  17. The use of a robust capture-recapture design in small mammal population studies: A field example with Microtus pennsylvanicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The robust design of Pollock (1982) was used to estimate parameters of a Maryland M. pennsylvanicus population. Closed model tests provided strong evidence of heterogeneity of capture probability, and model M eta (Otis et al., 1978) was selected as the most appropriate model for estimating population size. The Jolly-Seber model goodness-of-fit test indicated rejection of the model for this data set, and the M eta estimates of population size were all higher than the Jolly-Seber estimates. Both of these results are consistent with the evidence of heterogeneous capture probabilities. The authors thus used M eta estimates of population size, Jolly-Seber estimates of survival rate, and estimates of birth-immigration based on a combination of the population size and survival rate estimates. Advantages of the robust design estimates for certain inference procedures are discussed, and the design is recommended for future small mammal capture-recapture studies directed at estimation.

  18. Allocating funds for HIV/AIDS: a descriptive study of KwaDukuza, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Objective Through a descriptive study, we determined the factors that influence the decision-making process for allocating funds to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes, and the extent to which formal decision tools are used in the municipality of KwaDukuza, South Africa. Methods We conducted 35 key informant interviews in KwaDukuza. The interview questions addressed specific resource allocation issues while allowing respondents to speak openly about the complexities of the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Results Donors have a large influence on the decision-making process for HIV/AIDS resource allocation. However, advocacy groups, governmental bodies and local communities also play an important role. Political power, culture and ethics are among a set of intangible factors that have a strong influence on HIV/AIDS resource allocation. Formal methods, including needs assessment, best practice approaches, epidemiologic modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis are sometimes used to support the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Historical spending patterns are an important consideration in future HIV/AIDS allocation strategies. Conclusions Several factors and groups influence resource allocation in KwaDukuza. Although formal economic and epidemiologic information is sometimes used, in most cases other factors are more important for resource allocation decision-making. These other factors should be considered in any attempts to improve the resource allocation processes. PMID:20551138

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme: clinical studies in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Capala, Jacek; Stenstam, Britta H; Sköld, Kurt; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Giusti, Valerio; Persson, Charlotta; Wallin, Eva; Brun, Arne; Franzen, Lars; Carlsson, Jörgen; Salford, Leif; Ceberg, Crister; Persson, Bertil; Pellettieri, Luigi; Henriksson, Roger

    2003-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility has been constructed at Studsvik, Sweden. It includes two filter/moderator configurations. One of the resulting neutron beams has been optimized for clinical irradiations with a filter/moderator system that allows easy variation of the neutron spectrum from the thermal to the epithermal energy range. The other beam has been designed to produce a large uniform field of thermal neutrons for radiobiological research. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia. The clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, presently, involve a protocol for BNCT treatment of glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery. In this protocol, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), administered as a 6-h intravenous infusion, is used as the boron delivery agent. As of January 2002, 17 patients were treated. The 6-h infusion of 900 mg BPA/kg body weight was shown to be safe and resulted in the average blood-boron concentration of 24 microg/g (range: 15-32 microg/g) at the time of irradiation (approximately 2-3 h post-infusion). Peak and average weighted radiation doses to the brain were in the ranges of 8.0-15.5 Gy(W) and 3.3-6.1 Gy(W), respectively. So far, no severe BNCT-related acute toxicities have been observed. Due to the short follow-up time, it is too early to evaluate the efficacy of these studies.

  20. Mission, Enrollment and Staffing Patterns, Funding Procedures, and Administration and Governance. The North Carolina Community College Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Junius A.; And Others

    The study described in this report was conducted by by the Research Triangle Institute as an inquiry into the staffing patterns, funding allocation formulas and procedures, enrollment trends, and mission and governance of the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) and its 58 institutions. Section I of the report provides an introduction…

  1. A Critical Examination of Diverse Students' Funds of Knowledge Inclusion in High School Mathematics: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Celethia Keith

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes teaching practices that involve students' funds of knowledge ([FoK], Gonzalez, 1995; Moll, 1992; Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992). FoK may be defined as bodies of knowledge, skills, language, and experiences found in students' homes and communities for potential use in formal learning. I investigated how high…

  2. The Dual Promise of Green Jobs: A Qualitative Study of Federally Funded Energy Training Programmes in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the policy literature on green jobs and green jobs training in the USA and to present findings of a qualitative study on the start-up of two Energy Training Partnerships (ETP) funded by the US Department of Labour to train workers for green jobs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes a review…

  3. From Awareness to Funding: A Study of Library Support in America. A Report to the OCLC Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) received a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to conduct research, develop strategies, create materials and evaluate the potential of marketing and communications programs to sustain and increase funding for U.S. public libraries. The quantitative study targeted two audiences: residents in…

  4. A Critical Examination of Diverse Students' Funds of Knowledge Inclusion in High School Mathematics: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Celethia Keith

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes teaching practices that involve students' funds of knowledge ([FoK], Gonzalez, 1995; Moll, 1992; Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992). FoK may be defined as bodies of knowledge, skills, language, and experiences found in students' homes and communities for potential use in formal learning. I investigated how high…

  5. The Dual Promise of Green Jobs: A Qualitative Study of Federally Funded Energy Training Programmes in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the policy literature on green jobs and green jobs training in the USA and to present findings of a qualitative study on the start-up of two Energy Training Partnerships (ETP) funded by the US Department of Labour to train workers for green jobs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes a review…

  6. Relationships of a Circular Singer Arm Gesture to Acoustical and Perceptual Measures of Singing: A Motion Capture Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate previous research that suggests using movement in conjunction with singing tasks can affect intonation and perception of the task. Singers (N = 49) were video and audio recorded, using a motion capture system, while singing a phrase from a familiar song, first with no motion, and then while doing a low,…

  7. Relationships of a Circular Singer Arm Gesture to Acoustical and Perceptual Measures of Singing: A Motion Capture Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate previous research that suggests using movement in conjunction with singing tasks can affect intonation and perception of the task. Singers (N = 49) were video and audio recorded, using a motion capture system, while singing a phrase from a familiar song, first with no motion, and then while doing a low,…

  8. A data capture system for outcomes studies that integrates with electronic health records: development and potential uses.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Tada, Harue; Yanagihara, Kazuhiro; Teramukai, Satoshi; Takemura, Tadamasa; Fukushima, Masanori

    2008-10-01

    In conventional clinical studies, the costs of data management for quality control tend to be high and collecting paper-based case report forms (CRFs) tends to be burdensome, because paper-based CRFs must be developed and filled out for each clinical study protocol. Use of electronic health records for this purpose could result in reductions in cost and improvements in data quality in clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to develop a data capture system for observational cancer clinical studies (i.e. outcomes studies) that would integrate with an electronic health records system, to enable evaluation of patient prognosis, prognostic factors, outcomes and drug safety. At the Outpatient Oncology Unit of Kyoto University Hospital, we developed a data capture system that includes a cancer clinical database system and a data warehouse for outcomes studies. We expect that our new system will reduce the costs of data management and analysis and improve the quality of data in clinical studies.

  9. A study on the temperature dependency and time course of the cold capture antibody secretion assay.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Johannes; Hesse, Friedemann; Wieser, Matthias; Kunert, Renate; Galosy, Sybille S; Mott, John E; Borth, Nicole

    2009-04-20

    The cold capture assay as described by Brezinsky et al. [Brezinsky, S.C.G., Chiang, G.G., Szilvasi, A., Mohan, S., Shapiro, R.I., MacLean, A., Sisk, W., Thill, G., 2003. A simple method for enriching populations of transfected CHO cells for cells of higher specific productivity. J. Immunol. Methods 277, 141-155] stands out as the most simple of single cell secretion assays which can be used to sort for high productivity in recombinant cell lines. At low temperatures the process of protein release from transport vesicles is assumed to be delayed as both vesicle fusion and product release is slowed, so that secreted proteins can be stained on the cell surface using a fluorescent antibody. Typically, the fluorescent signal obtained correlates to the cell specific production rate of the analysed cell. In the present study we compared staining of human antibody producing CHO cells performed at different temperatures and we observed the fluorescent signal over 24h. We found that the staining temperature did not influence signal intensity. The fluorescent signal was stable for 24h at 4 degrees C, decreased to 80% at room temperature (21 degrees C), while it decreased significantly already after 2h at 37 degrees C. Initially, the fluorescent signal was observed on the cell surface, however, at later stages it was found in compartments in the cytoplasm. Finally we compared differences in signal stability depending on whether the antibody used for staining bound to the light or heavy chain of the product and on whether the fluorescent label was a relatively stable protein (phycoerythrin) or a pH-dependent small molecule (FITC). Our results indicate that the secreted product is trapped by the staining antibody on the cell surface at all temperatures. Subsequently these aggregates are endocytosed by the cells, a process which is slowed down at low temperatures.

  10. Interactive Business Development, Capturing Business Knowledge and Practice: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvie, Gregor; Dotsika, Fefie; Patrick, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to follow the planning and development of MapaWiki, a Knowledge Management System for Mapa, an independent research company that specialises in competitor benchmarking. Starting with the standard requirements to capture, store and share information and knowledge, a system was sought that would allow growth and…

  11. Interactive Business Development, Capturing Business Knowledge and Practice: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvie, Gregor; Dotsika, Fefie; Patrick, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to follow the planning and development of MapaWiki, a Knowledge Management System for Mapa, an independent research company that specialises in competitor benchmarking. Starting with the standard requirements to capture, store and share information and knowledge, a system was sought that would allow growth and…

  12. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Murray, Thomas D.; Koehl, Antoine; Araci, Ismail Emre; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-04-01

    A microfluidic platform has been developed for the capture and X-ray analysis of protein microcrystals, affording a means to improve the efficiency of XFEL and synchrotron experiments. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat for conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.

  13. Health Research Funding Agencies' Support and Promotion of Knowledge Translation: An International Study

    PubMed Central

    Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Graham, Ian D; Foy, Robbie; Robinson, Nicole; Eccles, Martin P; Wensing, Michel; Durieux, Pierre; Légaré, France; Nielson, Camilla Palmhøj; Adily, Armita; Ward, Jeanette E; Porter, Cassandra; Shea, Beverley; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    Context The process of knowledge translation (KT) in health research depends on the activities of a wide range of actors, including health professionals, researchers, the public, policymakers, and research funders. Little is known, however, about health research funding agencies' support and promotion of KT. Our team asked thirty-three agencies from Australia, Canada, France, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and the United States about their role in promoting the results of the research they fund. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of key informants from applied health funding agencies identified by the investigators. The interviews were supplemented with information from the agencies' websites. The final coding was derived from an iterative thematic analysis. Findings There was a lack of clarity between agencies as to what is meant by KT and how it is operationalized. Agencies also varied in their degree of engagement in this process. The agencies' abilities to create a pull for research findings; to engage in linkage and exchange between agencies, researchers, and decision makers; and to push results to various audiences differed as well. Finally, the evaluation of the effectiveness of KT strategies remains a methodological challenge. Conclusions Funding agencies need to think about both their conceptual framework and their operational definition of KT, so that it is clear what is and what is not considered to be KT, and adjust their funding opportunities and activities accordingly. While we have cataloged the range of knowledge translation activities conducted across these agencies, little is known about their effectiveness and so a greater emphasis on evaluation is needed. It would appear that “best practice” for funding agencies is an elusive concept depending on the particular agency's size, context, mandate, financial considerations, and governance structure. PMID:18307479

  14. Dynamic modeling and transient studies of a solid-sorbent adsorber for CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    (ACM). The BFB stages are of overflow-type configuration where the solids leave the stage by flowing over the overflow-weir. Each bed is divided into three regions, namely emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake regions. In all three regions, the model considers mass and energy balances. Along with the models of the BFB stages, models of other associated hardware are developed and integrated in a single flowsheet. A valid pressure-flow network is developed and a lower-level control system is designed so that the overall CO{sub 2} capture can be maintained at a desired level in face of the typical disturbances. The dynamic model is used for studying the transient responses of a number of important process variables as a result of the disturbances that are typical of post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture processes.

  15. Report on all ARRA Funded Technical Work

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-10-05

    The main focus of this American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funded project was to design an energy efficient carbon capture and storage (CCS) process using the Recipients membrane system for H{sub 2} separation and CO{sub 2} capture. In the ARRA-funded project, the Recipient accelerated development and scale-up of ongoing hydrogen membrane technology research and development (R&D). Specifically, this project focused on accelerating the current R&D work scope of the base program-funded project, involving lab scale tests, detail design of a 250 lb/day H{sub 2} process development unit (PDU), and scale-up of membrane tube and coating manufacturing. This project scope included the site selection and a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study of a nominally 4 to 10 ton-per-day (TPD) Pre-Commercial Module (PCM) hydrogen separation membrane system. Process models and techno-economic analysis were updated to include studies on integration of this technology into an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation system with CCS.

  16. Does the funding source influence the results in economic evaluations? A case study in bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Spackman, D Eldon; Hollenbeak, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Research sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry is often assumed to be more likely to report favourable cost-effectiveness results. To determine whether there was a relationship between the source of funding and the reporting of positive results. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify economic evaluations of bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis. We extracted the source of funding, region of study, the journal name and impact factor, and all reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We identified which ICERs were under the thresholds of $US20 000, $US50 000 and $US100 000 per QALY. A quality score between 0 and 7 was also given to each of the studies. We used generalized estimating equations for the analysis. The systematic review yielded 532 potential abstracts; 17 of these met our final eligibility criteria. Ten studies (59%) were funded by non-industry sources. A total of 571 ICERs were analysed. There was no significant difference between the number of industry- and non-industry-funded studies reporting ICERs below the thresholds of $US20 000 and $US50 000. However, industry-sponsored studies were more likely to report ICERs below $US100 000 (odds ratio = 4.69, 95% CI 1.77, 12.43). Studies of higher methodological quality (scoring >4.5 of 7) were less likely to report ICERs below $US20 000 and $US50 000 than studies of lower methodological quality (scores <4). Methodological quality was not significantly different between studies reporting ICERs under $US100 000. In this relatively small sample of studies of bisphosphonates, the funding source (industry vs non-industry) did not seem to significantly affect the reporting of ICERs below the $US20 000 and $US50 000 thresholds. We hypothesize that methodological quality might be a more significant factor than the source of funding in differentiating which studies are likely to report favourable ICERs, with the higher-quality studies significantly less likely to

  17. Formula Funding, the Delaware Study, and the University of North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrigan, Sarah D.

    2008-01-01

    Public higher education has relied on a variety of funding structures since the 1950s. Layzell (2007) describes five general approaches in contemporary use in the United States. "Incremental (baseline) budgeting" uses the current year budget as the base and then makes adjustments to account for expected changes in activities, revenues,…

  18. School Facility Logistics. A Study for Alberta Education Dealing with School Planning, Acquisition, and Funding Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Gordon and Co., Toronto (Ontario).

    Alternatives to current provincial policies and procedures relating to school construction and its funding are identified and examined. The report sets out findings and recommendations in four sections. In the first section, School Facility Planning, Policies, and Procedures, school building is proposed as an integral part of shared community…

  19. McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund: A Case Study of a Green Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Sharon M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the public discourse of McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund's alliance. Shows that both partners drew from the emerging discourse of market environmentalism and from the older paradigm of command and control. Argues that this rhetorical ambivalence is emblematic of the contemporaneous sociopolitical conflict over how the…

  20. Enhancing Doctoral Completion in Women: Evidence from a Qualitative Study of a Unique Federally Funded Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.; Drake-Clark, Donna; Grasso, Maureen; Banta, Trudy

    2014-01-01

    In an era where campus environments were often unwelcoming to women, and there were few women role models, an innovative program funded by the National Institute of Education produced 100% completion by female and minority doctoral students. At a 25-year reunion, the graduates reflected on their program experiences and careers. Reflections were…

  1. McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund: A Case Study of a Green Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Sharon M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the public discourse of McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund's alliance. Shows that both partners drew from the emerging discourse of market environmentalism and from the older paradigm of command and control. Argues that this rhetorical ambivalence is emblematic of the contemporaneous sociopolitical conflict over how the…

  2. 75 FR 47525 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Renewable Energy Feasibility Studies Grants Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Renewable Energy...: Guaranteed loans and grants for the development/construction of renewable energy systems and for energy efficiency improvement projects; grants for conducting energy audits; grants for conducting renewable energy...

  3. An Experimental Study Evaluating Professional Development Activities within a State Funded Pre-Kindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Assel, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation for scaling up a comprehensive early childhood teacher professional development program into 11 communities across 2 years with funding through state legislative actions. The comprehensive program had four major components based on results from a previous multi-condition random assignment…

  4. Real Growth Unlikely in 1980 Federal R&D Funding. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Presented are data taken from the Federal Funds for Research and Development, Volume 28 survey conducted in the second quarter of fiscal year 1978, shortly after the President's 1980 budget message in January. The following highlights of the budget are presented: (1) an increase in Research and Development (R&D) allocation by 4% over 1979; (2)…

  5. Funds of Knowledge: An Approach to Studying Latina(o) Students' Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Kiyama, Judy Marquez

    2012-01-01

    A feature of the existing literature on minority students' transition to college is the preponderance of models that have "imagined" what students (and their families) need to have in order to be successful. In this paper we discuss how the theoretical framework of funds of knowledge can be used by researchers in higher education to challenge…

  6. Enhancing Doctoral Completion in Women: Evidence from a Qualitative Study of a Unique Federally Funded Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.; Drake-Clark, Donna; Grasso, Maureen; Banta, Trudy

    2014-01-01

    In an era where campus environments were often unwelcoming to women, and there were few women role models, an innovative program funded by the National Institute of Education produced 100% completion by female and minority doctoral students. At a 25-year reunion, the graduates reflected on their program experiences and careers. Reflections were…

  7. Funds of Knowledge in Child-Headed Households: A Ugandan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Maureen; Kakuru, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research on orphan and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa has focused on their risks and vulnerabilities. This article describes the "funds of knowledge" (Moll and Greenberg, 1990) and means of acquiring new knowledge of children living in child-headed households in Uganda's Rakai District. Using ethnographic methods,…

  8. Output-Related Funding in Vocational Education and Training. A Discussion Paper and Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstead, Alan

    The benefits of and issues associated with output-related funding (ORF) were assessed by examining the use of ORF in vocational education and training (VET) in the European Union and the United States. Data were gathered in the following ways: several online bibliographic searches; consultation with 54 experts, including VET researchers, national…

  9. Research and Development Funding in the Proposed Fiscal Year 1985 Budget. Special Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorsch, Louis; Dailey, Theresa

    This report discusses in detail the research and development (R&D) elements of the Reagan Administration's budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 1985. Following an introduction (chapter I), chapter II presents an overview of R&D funding in the President's FY 1985 budget. The chapter begins by describing overall R&D spending in terms of the major catagories…

  10. Funds of Knowledge in Child-Headed Households: A Ugandan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Maureen; Kakuru, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research on orphan and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa has focused on their risks and vulnerabilities. This article describes the "funds of knowledge" (Moll and Greenberg, 1990) and means of acquiring new knowledge of children living in child-headed households in Uganda's Rakai District. Using ethnographic methods,…

  11. Facts and Narrative - the Concept of 4d Capturing of Heritage Building; a Case Study of Sompur Mahavihara, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Md. M.; Rahaman, H.

    2013-07-01

    This study embarked upon a premise that considers architecture of building as a dynamic phenomenon. A building from its conception is susceptible to change due to various reasons. An historical building that is several hundred years old must have undergone through changes due to political, social, religious and most importantly functional reasons. Hence capturing building and its dynamic evolution is necessary to appreciate its architecture as well as its heritage value. Whereas the conventional method of fact based historiography only captures the building in particular moment. It makes architectural historians to become perplexed over to which particular moment to be documented. It is a great challenge for the architectural historians to bring back these dynamic characters of the building that are mostly inconspicuous in nature from this point of time. In this situation the historical discourse also remains elusive and blurred. The idea of 4d capturing comes in front in this scenario. Current research would venture into this emerging idea to record the architecture of the early period. This paper highlights the need for a flexible tool to capture this dynamic character of the building. By citing the case study of the 7th century Buddhist Monastery in Bengal, this paper thus argues for the need of capturing the narrative of a historical building than the facts to get a complete picture of its architecture. This study aims at capturing the narrative of Sompur Mahavihara, the UNESCO World Heritage site in Bangladesh, which is currently in ruinous condition. However, it's few hundred years life suggests that as architecture it was subject to change due to different reasons, mainly political, religious and rituals. Being a monument that belongs to the flourishing phase of a society, traditionally this monastery architecture certainly played a role as a stage for religious and political pageantry as well as different religious performances. As architecture it works as

  12. Study on Capturing Functional Requirements of the New Product Based on Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Song, Liya; Bai, Zhonghang; Zhang, Peng

    In order to exist in an increasingly competitive global marketplace, it is important for corporations to forecast the evolutionary direction of new products rapidly and effectively. Most products in the world are developed based on the design of existing products. In the product design, capturing functional requirements is a key step. Function is continuously evolving, which is driven by the evolution of needs and technologies. So the functional requirements of new product can be forecasted based on the functions of existing product. Eight laws of function evolution are put forward in this paper. The process model of capturing the functional requirements of new product based on function evolution is proposed. An example illustrates the design process.

  13. Recoil Momentum Spectroscopy Study of Electron Capture from He by 10 MeV Hydrogenlike Fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, L.; Winecki, S.; Stöckli, M.; Cocke, C. L.; Richard, P.; Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.

    1996-05-01

    We have used recoil momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS (J. Ullrich, et al., Comm. At. Mol. Phys. \\underline30), 285 (1994).) to determine final state momentum distributions in the single electron capture from He by 10 MeV F^8+ ions. A momentum resolution below 0.15 a.u. was obtained. The longitidunal momentum resolution is sufficient to allow the separation of final state populations of the L, M and higher states, and to identify excitation of the residual He^+ ion. This probability of this excitation is large in the capture process. Transverse momentum distributions were used to extract transverse cross sections (angular distributions) for different final states. Comparison of the data to theoretical expectations will be presented.

  14. Getting Funded

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Thomas M; McDermott, Mary M; Ibrahim, Said A; Petersen, Laura A; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2004-01-01

    For aspiring clinical investigators, career development awards provide a primary mechanism for “getting funded.” The objective of this article is to provide information that will facilitate a successful application for a research career development award. Specifically, we discuss important issues that cut across the diverse array of awards, and we highlight the most common sources of funding, including the unique opportunities that are available for underrepresented minorities. The target audience includes junior faculty and fellows who are pursuing or considering a research career in academic medicine, as well as their mentors and program directors. PMID:15109347

  15. Nonspatial interdimensional attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Inukai, Tomoe; Kawahara, Jun-Ichiro; Kumada, Takatsune

    2010-04-01

    Accuracy in identifying a target is impaired by a task-irrelevant singleton distractor even when the target and distractor appear in the same location. However, whether this impairment, known as a nonspatial interdimensional attentional capture, is contingent on a top-down attentional set or determined by stimulus-driven signals from distractors is unclear. To examine whether interdimensional attentional capture is affected by a top-down attentional set, the present study explicitly manipulated observers' search strategies (the singleton detection or feature search modes) and the number of objects consisting of the search items. The results indicated that interdimensional attentional capture occurred even under the feature search mode but that the capture effect decreased under this search mode irrespective of the number of distractors, suggesting that top-down knowledge was effective in modulating nonspatial interdimensional capture.

  16. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array

    DOE PAGES

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Murray, Thomas D.; Koehl, Antoine; ...

    2015-03-27

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat formore » conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.« less

  17. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Murray, Thomas D.; Koehl, Antoine; Araci, Ismail Emre; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-03-27

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat for conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.

  18. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array.

    PubMed

    Lyubimov, Artem Y; Murray, Thomas D; Koehl, Antoine; Araci, Ismail Emre; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B; Cohen, Aina E; Soltis, S Michael; Baxter, Elizabeth L; Brewster, Aaron S; Sauter, Nicholas K; Brunger, Axel T; Berger, James M

    2015-04-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat for conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.

  19. Study of Design Knowledge Capture (DKC) schemes implemented in magnetic bearing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A design knowledge capture (DKC) scheme was implemented using frame-based techniques. The objective of such a system is to capture not only the knowledge which describes a design, but also that which explains how the design decisions were reached. These knowledge types were labelled definitive and explanatory, respectively. Examination of the design process helped determine what knowledge to retain and at what stage that knowledge is used. A discussion of frames resulted in the recognition of their value to knowledge representation and organization. The FORMS frame system was used as a basis for further development, and for examples using magnetic bearing design. The specific contributions made by this research include: determination that frame-based systems provide a useful methodology for management and application of design knowledge; definition of specific user interface requirements, (this consists of a window-based browser); specification of syntax for DKC commands; and demonstration of the feasibility of DKC by applications to existing designs. It was determined that design knowledge capture could become an extremely valuable engineering tool for complicated, long-life systems, but that further work was needed, particularly the development of a graphic, window-based interface.

  20. Capture of Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin) by the Blood Clot: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Margaret T.; Rickles, Frederick R.; Armstrong, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal. PMID:24282521

  1. A motion capture library for the study of identity, gender, and emotion perception from biological motion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingliang; Paterson, Helena M; Pollick, Frank E

    2006-02-01

    We present the methods that were used in capturing a library of human movements for use in computer-animated displays of human movement. The library is an attempt to systematically tap into and represent the wide range of personal properties, such as identity, gender, and emotion, that are available in a person's movements. The movements from a total of 30 nonprofessional actors (15 of them female) were captured while they performed walking, knocking, lifting, and throwing actions, as well as their combination in angry, happy, neutral, and sad affective styles. From the raw motion capture data, a library of 4,080 movements was obtained, using techniques based on Character Studio (plug-ins for 3D Studio MAX, AutoDesk, Inc.), MATLAB The MathWorks, Inc.), or a combination of these two. For the knocking, lifting, and throwing actions, 10 repetitions of the simple action unit were obtained for each affect, and for the other actions, two longer movement recordings were obtained for each affect. We discuss the potential use of the library for computational and behavioral analyses of movement variability, of human character animation, and of how gender, emotion, and identity are encoded and decoded from human movement.

  2. Feasibility study of using brine for carbon dioxide capture and storage from fixed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Dziedzic; Kenneth B. Gross; Robert A. Gorski; John T. Johnson

    2006-12-15

    A laboratory-scale reactor was developed to evaluate the capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a gas into a liquid as an approach to control greenhouse gases emitted from fixed sources. CO{sub 2} at 5-50% concentrations was passed through a gas-exchange membrane and transferred into liquid media - tap water or simulated brine. When using water, capture efficiencies exceeded 50% and could be enhanced by adding base (e.g., sodium hydroxide) or the combination of base and carbonic anhydrase, a catalyst that speeds the conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonic acid. The transferred CO{sub 2} formed ions, such as bicarbonate or carbonate, depending on the amount of base present. Adding precipitating cations, like Ca{sup ++}, produced insoluble carbonate salts. Simulated brine proved nearly as efficient as water in absorbing CO{sub 2}, with less than a 6% reduction in CO{sub 2} transferred. The CO{sub 2} either dissolved into the brine or formed a mixture of gas and ions. If the chemistry was favorable, carbonate precipitate spontaneously formed. Energy expenditure of pumping brine up and down from subterranean depths was modeled. We concluded that using brine in a gas-exchange membrane system for capturing CO{sub 2} from a gas stream to liquid is technically feasible and can be accomplished at a reasonable expenditure of energy. 24 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  3. Funding health and social services for older people - a qualitative study of care recipients in the last year of life.

    PubMed

    Hanratty, Barbara; Lowson, Elizabeth; Holmes, Louise; Grande, Gunn; Addington-Hall, Julia; Payne, Sheila; Seymour, Jane

    2012-05-01

    This study explores the views of older adults who are receiving health and social care at the end of their lives, on how services should be funded, and describes their health-related expenditure. Qualitative interview study. North West England. 30 people aged 69-93 years, diagnosed with lung cancer, heart failure or stroke and judged by health professionals to be in their last year of life. Sixteen participants lived in disadvantaged areas. Views of older adults on funding of services. Participants expressed a belief in an earned entitlement to services funded from taxation, based on a broad sense of being a good citizen. Irrespective of social background, older people felt that those who could afford to pay for social care, should do so. Sale of assets and use of children's inheritance to fund care was widely perceived as an injustice. The costs of living with illness are a burden, and families are filling many of the gaps left by welfare provision. People who had worked in low-wage occupations were most concerned to justify their current acceptance of services, and distance themselves from what they described as welfare 'spongers' or 'layabouts.' There is a gap between the health and social care system that older adults expect and what may be provided by a reformed welfare state at a time of financial stringencies. The values that underpinned the views expressed--mutuality, care for the most needy, and the importance of working to contribute to society--are an important contribution to the debate on welfare funding.

  4. In situ infrared study of the role of PEG in stabilizing silica-supported amines for CO(2) capture.

    PubMed

    Tanthana, Jak; Chuang, Steven S C

    2010-08-23

    The CO(2) capture capacity, adsorption mechanism, and degradation characteristics of two sorbents, silica-supported tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA/SiO(2)) and polyethylene-glycol-modified TEPA/SiO(2) (PEG/TEPA/SiO(2)), are studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The CO(2) capture capacities of TEPA/SiO(2) and PEG/TEPA/SiO(2) are determined to be 2087 and 1110 micromol CO(2) g(-1) sorbent, respectively. Both sorbents adsorb CO(2) as hydrogen-bonding species, NH(2)--O, and carbamate/carboxylate species. The CO(2) adsorption half-time increases with the number of CO(2) capture cycles. Infrared results suggest that the increased adsorption half-time is a result of diffusion limitation, caused by accumulation of TEPA and PEG species on the surface of the sorbent particles. The degradation of TEPA/SiO(2) is found to correlate with the accumulation of carboxylate/carbamic species. The addition of PEG decreases the degradation rate of the sorbent and slows down the formation of carboxylate species. These carboxylate species can block CO(2) capture on amine (NH(2)/NH) sites. The stabilizing role of PEG on TEPA/SiO(2) can be attributed to hydrogen-bonding between TEPA (NH(2)/NH)and PEG (OH).

  5. Methods for the collection of resource use data within clinical trials: a systematic review of studies funded by the UK Health Technology Assessment program.

    PubMed

    Ridyard, Colin H; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2010-12-01

    The UK Health Technology Assessment (HTA) program funds trials that address issues of clinical and cost-effectiveness to meet the needs of the National Health Service (NHS). The objective of this review was to systematically assess the methods of resource use data collection and costing; and to produce a best practice guide for data capture within economic analyses alongside clinical trials. All 100 HTA-funded primary research papers published to June 2009 were reviewed for the health economic methods employed. Data were extracted and summarized by: health technology assessed, costing perspective adopted, evidence of planning and piloting, data collection method, frequency of data collection, and sources of unit cost data. Ninety-five studies were identified as having conducted an economic analysis, of which 85 recorded patient-level resource use. The review identified important differences in how data are collected. These included: a priori evidence of analysts having identified important cost drivers; the piloting and validation of patient-completed resource use questionnaires; choice of costing perspective; and frequency of data collection. Areas of commonality included: the extensive use of routine medical records and reliance on patient recall; and the use of standard sources of unit costs. Economic data collection is variable, even among a homogeneous selection of trials designed to meet the needs of a common organization (NHS). Areas for improvement have been identified, and based on our findings and related reviews and guidelines, a checklist is proposed for good practice relating to economic data collection within clinical trials. © 2010, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).

  6. Capturing Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) captured these two images of Jupiter's outermost large moon, Callisto, as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in late February. New Horizons' closest approach distance to Jupiter was 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles), not far outside Callisto's orbit, which has a radius of 1.9 million kilometers (1.2 million miles). However, Callisto happened to be on the opposite side of Jupiter during the spacecraft's pass through the Jupiter system, so these images, taken from 4.7 million kilometers (3.0 million miles) and 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) away, are the closest of Callisto that New Horizons obtained.

    Callisto's ancient, crater-scarred surface makes it very different from its three more active sibling satellites, Io, Europa and Ganymede. Callisto, 4,800 kilometers (3000 miles) in diameter, displays no large-scale geological features other than impact craters, and every bright spot in these images is a crater. The largest impact feature on Callisto, the huge basin Valhalla, is visible as a bright patch at the 10 o'clock position. The craters are bright because they have excavated material relatively rich in water ice from beneath the dark, dusty material that coats most of the surface.

    The two images show essentially the same side of Callisto -- the side that faces Jupiter -- under different illumination conditions. The images accompanied scans of Callisto's infrared spectrum with New Horizons' Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA). The New Horizons science team designed these scans to study how the infrared spectrum of Callisto's water ice changes as lighting and viewing conditions change, and as the ice cools through Callisto's late afternoon. The infrared spectrum of water ice depends slightly on its temperature, and a goal of New Horizons when it reaches the Pluto system (in 2015) is to use the water ice features in the spectrum of Pluto's moon Charon, and

  7. Capturing Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) captured these two images of Jupiter's outermost large moon, Callisto, as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in late February. New Horizons' closest approach distance to Jupiter was 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles), not far outside Callisto's orbit, which has a radius of 1.9 million kilometers (1.2 million miles). However, Callisto happened to be on the opposite side of Jupiter during the spacecraft's pass through the Jupiter system, so these images, taken from 4.7 million kilometers (3.0 million miles) and 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) away, are the closest of Callisto that New Horizons obtained.

    Callisto's ancient, crater-scarred surface makes it very different from its three more active sibling satellites, Io, Europa and Ganymede. Callisto, 4,800 kilometers (3000 miles) in diameter, displays no large-scale geological features other than impact craters, and every bright spot in these images is a crater. The largest impact feature on Callisto, the huge basin Valhalla, is visible as a bright patch at the 10 o'clock position. The craters are bright because they have excavated material relatively rich in water ice from beneath the dark, dusty material that coats most of the surface.

    The two images show essentially the same side of Callisto -- the side that faces Jupiter -- under different illumination conditions. The images accompanied scans of Callisto's infrared spectrum with New Horizons' Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA). The New Horizons science team designed these scans to study how the infrared spectrum of Callisto's water ice changes as lighting and viewing conditions change, and as the ice cools through Callisto's late afternoon. The infrared spectrum of water ice depends slightly on its temperature, and a goal of New Horizons when it reaches the Pluto system (in 2015) is to use the water ice features in the spectrum of Pluto's moon Charon, and

  8. Understaning the "funding effect"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2016-12-01

    There is a long history of industry funding of scientific and engineering research in the USA. Much of this work has been of high quality. Research demonstrates, however, that corporate funding can represent a threat to scientific independence and integrity. Studies show that sponsors' interests can affect research results, particularly when sponsors have a strong interest in a particular research outcome. The effects may occur through the impact of subconscious bias on sampling, study design, data interpretation, and/or reporting of results. Corporate funding can also skew research toward investigating certain questions at the expense of others, downplaying the significance of adverse findings, and/or failing to report adverse results. Gifts can affect behavior, even when they are unrelated to research activities. These impacts that are so substantial that they have a name: "the funding effect."[i] Evidence shows that scientists who strive to be objective and fair-minded may nonetheless fall prey to the funding effect. In many cases, the challenges of corporate gifts and funding can be addressed through education and improved self-awareness, agreements that protect researchers' freedom to publish without sponsor approval, sensible disclosure policies, and reasonable sanctions for failures of disclosure. However, in some cases, it may be appropriate for researchers and scientific societies to decline funding.

  9. Reduction in Public Funding for Postsecondary Education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010: A Study Documenting Change and the Resulting Shift from Public to Private Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines and chronicles the change in public funding for postsecondary education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010. Colorado was ranked sixth among states in per capita funding for public higher education in 1970 and declined to 48th in 2010. The study analyzed state appropriations over this time period in five broad categories of spending:…

  10. Reduction in Public Funding for Postsecondary Education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010: A Study Documenting Change and the Resulting Shift from Public to Private Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines and chronicles the change in public funding for postsecondary education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010. Colorado was ranked sixth among states in per capita funding for public higher education in 1970 and declined to 48th in 2010. The study analyzed state appropriations over this time period in five broad categories of spending:…

  11. Cohort studies of etiology and survival after cancer: the unique needs for uninterrupted funding.

    PubMed

    Colditz, Graham A

    2007-04-01

    The existing prospective cohorts are providing key data that are guiding public health and clinical practice in many different areas. The existing cohorts can also provide the biological specimens and data to address genetic determinant of cancer now, rather than in a decade, and at far less cost than that proposed for a new national U.S. cohort. Review and funding mechanisms are needed to avoid disruption in follow-up and the associated damage to existing cohorts.

  12. Creatively Employing Funding to Support Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Luke; Hargreaves, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Innovations within higher education are often prompted through the capture of supportive funding. One of the largest examples of this arose from the Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETLs) initiative in England (2005-2010). Drawing on the experience of two such Centres, this paper analyses some of the consequences of that funding.…

  13. Creatively Employing Funding to Support Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Luke; Hargreaves, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Innovations within higher education are often prompted through the capture of supportive funding. One of the largest examples of this arose from the Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETLs) initiative in England (2005-2010). Drawing on the experience of two such Centres, this paper analyses some of the consequences of that funding.…

  14. The debate about the funding of Herceptin: a case study of 'countervailing powers'.

    PubMed

    Gabe, Jonathan; Chamberlain, Kerry; Norris, Pauline; Dew, Kevin; Madden, Helen; Hodgetts, Darrin

    2012-12-01

    In December 2008 the newly elected Prime Minister of New Zealand bypassed the agency that negotiates with manufacturers about the cost of medicines and agreed to fund Herceptin for women with early stage breast cancer for a twelve months course of treatment. This paper describes the unfolding of this decision and seeks to explain it in terms of the theory of countervailing powers, which has recently been applied to understand the rapid growth of medicines and the governance of the pharmaceutical industry. We explore the role of various actors in this debate about Herceptin funding, drawing on documentary analysis based on a systematic search of journals, websites and media databases. The case of Herceptin both confirms and questions the propositions of countervailing powers theory. On the one hand the manufacturers of the drug proved to be highly influential in their attempts to get Herceptin funded and were generally supported by consumer groups. On the other hand some scientists and regulators attempted to challenge the power of the manufacturers, with the regulators not showing signs of corporate bias as one might expect. Groups did not, as has been proposed, exert power monolithically, with several groups exhibiting opposing factions. The media, ignored in this literature, are considered as a potential countervailing force in the debate. In the end the government bypassed the recommendation of its regulators, thereby undermining the latter's efforts to act as a countervailing power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fully Differential Study of Capture with Vibrational Dissociation in p +H2 Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamichhane, B. R.; Arthanayaka, T.; Remolina, J.; Hasan, A.; Ciappina, M. F.; Navarrete, F.; Barrachina, R. O.; Lomsadze, R. A.; Schulz, M.

    2017-08-01

    We have measured fully differential cross sections for electron capture in 75 keV p +H2 collisions with subsequent dissociation of the intermediate molecular H2+ ion by vibrational excitation using different projectile coherence lengths. Data were obtained for two molecular orientations as a function of projectile scattering angle. Two types of interference, single- and molecular two-center interference, were identified. The two-center interference structure is phase shifted by π compared to what we expected. Furthermore, the presence of projectile coherence effects could be reconfirmed.

  16. Tomographic image of prompt gamma ray from boron neutron capture therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key

    2014-02-24

    Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography image from boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo simulation. Prompt gamma ray (478 keV) was used to reconstruct image with ordered subsets expectation maximization method. From analysis of receiver operating characteristic curve, area under curve values of three boron regions were 0.738, 0.623, and 0.817. The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm, and 1.4 cm.

  17. Fully Differential Study of Capture with Vibrational Dissociation in p+H_{2} Collisions.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, B R; Arthanayaka, T; Remolina, J; Hasan, A; Ciappina, M F; Navarrete, F; Barrachina, R O; Lomsadze, R A; Schulz, M

    2017-08-25

    We have measured fully differential cross sections for electron capture in 75 keV p+H_{2} collisions with subsequent dissociation of the intermediate molecular H_{2}^{+} ion by vibrational excitation using different projectile coherence lengths. Data were obtained for two molecular orientations as a function of projectile scattering angle. Two types of interference, single- and molecular two-center interference, were identified. The two-center interference structure is phase shifted by π compared to what we expected. Furthermore, the presence of projectile coherence effects could be reconfirmed.

  18. The activity of the Research Investments in Global Health study and ways forward within the global funding and policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Head, Michael G; Brown, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    The Research Investments in Global Health (ResIn, www.researchinvestments.org) study analyses funding trends in health research, with a predominant focus on infectious diseases. Since October 2015, the project is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and is now based at the University of Southampton in the UK. In 2016, Public Policy@Southampton provided ResIn with a small grant to explore developing links with policy, funding and research stakeholders with an interest in global health. Three meetings were organised in London (Wellcome Trust, 25 May 2016), Brussels (UK Research Office, 2 June 2016), and Geneva (WHO R&D Observatory, 8 June 2016). In total, 45 stakeholders attended and provided comment and critique on the study methodology and potential expansion into other disciplines. A theme that emerged across all three meetings concerned the use of a standardised categorisation system. A key benefit of the ResIn study is the ability to present granular detail in precise areas. Further work packages that could enhance the use of the collected R&D data included integration with geospatial, policy and scientometric methodologies. There was broad enthusiasm that outputs from these proposed projects would provide clear benefits in informing health policy and R&D strategy. Outputs from the ongoing study covering infection-related R&D investments in the G20 nations will be available in 2017.

  19. Aluminum-based water treatment residual use in a constructed wetland for capturing urban runoff phosphorus: Column study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) have a strong affinity to sorb phosphorus. In a proof-of-concept greenhouse column study, Al-WTR was surface-applied at 0, 62, 124, and 248 Mg/ha to 15 cm of soil on top of 46 cm of sand; Al-WTR rates were estimated to capture 0, 10, 20, and 40 year...

  20. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high. PMID:23957324

  1. The biological deep sea hydrothermal vent as a model to study carbon dioxide capturing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zoran; Thongbam, Premila D

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis) a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO₂ from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO₂ fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO₂ fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture.

  2. The Biological Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent as a Model to Study Carbon Dioxide Capturing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zoran; Thongbam, Premila D.

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis) a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO2 from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO2 fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture. PMID:21673885

  3. Combination of boron and gadolinium compounds for neutron capture therapy. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, A; Zhang, T; Nakai, K; Endo, K; Kumada, H; Yamamoto, T; Yoshida, F; Sakurai, Y; Yamamoto, K; Nose, T

    2005-03-01

    In neutron capture therapy, the therapeutic effect of the boron compound is based on alpha particles produced by the B(n, alpha) reaction while with the gadolinium compound the main radiation effect is from gamma rays derived from the Gd(n, gamma) reaction. The uptake and distribution within the tumor may be different among these compounds. Thus, the combination of the boron and gadolinium compounds may be beneficial for enhancing the radiation dose to the tumor. Chinese hamster fibroblast V79 cells were used. For the neutron targeting compounds, 10B (BSH) at 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm, and 157Gd (Gd-BOPTA) at 0, 800, 1600, 2400, 3200, and 4800 ppm, were combined. The neutron irradiation was performed with thermal neutrons for 30 min. (neutron flux: 0.84 x 10(8) n/cm2/s in free air). The combination of the boron and gadolinium compounds showed an additive effect when the gadolinium concentration was lower than 1600 ppm. This additive effect decreased as a function of gadolinium concentration at 2400 ppm and resulted in no additive effect at more than 3200 ppm of gadolinium. In conclusion, the combination of the boron and gadolinium compounds can enhance the therapeutic effect with an optimum concentration ratio. When the gadolinium concentration is too high, it may weaken the boron neutron capture reaction due to the high cross-section of gadolinium compound against neutrons.

  4. Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative: a case study in multiscale modeling and new challenges.

    PubMed

    Miller, David C; Syamlal, Madhava; Mebane, David S; Storlie, Curt; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V; Agarwal, Deb; Tong, Charles; Zitney, Stephen E; Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran; Ryan, Emily; Engel, Dave; Dale, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    Advanced multiscale modeling and simulation have the potential to dramatically reduce the time and cost to develop new carbon capture technologies. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative is a partnership among national laboratories, industry, and universities that is developing, demonstrating, and deploying a suite of such tools, including basic data submodels, steady-state and dynamic process models, process optimization and uncertainty quantification tools, an advanced dynamic process control framework, high-resolution filtered computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) submodels, validated high-fidelity device-scale CFD models with quantified uncertainty, and a risk-analysis framework. These tools and models enable basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to synthesize and optimize a process. The resulting process informs the development of process control systems and more detailed simulations of potential equipment to improve the design and reduce scale-up risk. Quantification and propagation of uncertainty across scales is an essential part of these tools and models.

  5. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods : Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results : Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions : Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high.

  6. Structural studies on protein O-fucosylation by electron capture dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormann, Michael; Macek, Boris; de Peredo, Anne Gonzalez; Hofsteenge, Jan; Peter-Katalinic, Jasna

    2004-05-01

    The low energy dissociation technique electron capture dissociation has been applied to a series of thrombospondin and properdin derived O-fucosylated glycopeptides. Followed by capture of an electron by multiply protonated precursor ions [M+nH]n+ reduced odd electron radical cations [M+nH](n-1)[radical sign]+ were generated. The latter mainly fragment by cleavage of the N---C[alpha] bonds of the peptide chain without loss of the labile sugar moiety allowing an unambiguous assignment of the glycosylation site. Apart from peptide backbone cleavages, side chain losses of aminocarbonylmethyl and aminocarbonylmethylthiyl radicals from carboxyamidomethylated cysteins are observed. The N---C[alpha] bond cleavage is greatly reduced on both sides of alkylated Cys. However, fragment ions that are formed by secondary fragmentations of z-type radical cations containing N-terminal cystein give rise to even electron z---[radical sign]SCH2CONH2 ions. The potential of the high mass accuracy for the identification of the protein modification topology has been fully explored.

  7. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Aaron Joseph

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  8. Cygnus Capture

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-26

    ISS047e021823 (03/26/2016) --- The Orbital ATK Cygnus cargo ship is seen on final approach to the International Space Station. The vehicle was captured at 6:51 a.m. EDT March 26 using the space station's Canadarm2 robotic arm by Expedition 47 Commander Tim Kopra. The unmanned cargo craft was then bolted to the Earth-facing port on the Unity module at 10:52 a.m. Orbital ATK’s fifth cargo delivery flight under its Commercial Resupply Services contract delivered over 7,700 pounds of cargo and included equipment to support some 250 experiments during Expeditions 47 and 48.

  9. Capturing citation activity in three health sciences departments: a comparison study of Scopus and Web of Science.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Alexandra; Slyman, Alison; Wu, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Scopus and Web of Science are the two major citation databases that collect and disseminate bibliometric statistics about research articles, journals, institutions, and individual authors. Liaison librarians are now regularly called upon to utilize these databases to assist faculty in finding citation activity on their published works for tenure and promotion, grant applications, and more. But questions about the accuracy, scope, and coverage of these tools deserve closer scrutiny. Discrepancies in citation capture led to a systematic study on how Scopus and Web of Science compared in a real-life situation encountered by liaisons: comparing three different disciplines at a medical school and nursing program. How many articles would each database retrieve for each faculty member using the author-searching tools provided? How many cited references for each faculty member would each tool generate? Results demonstrated troubling differences in publication and citation activity capture between Scopus and Web of Science. Implications for librarians are discussed.

  10. What Can We Expect from Value-Based Funding of Medicines? A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anthony; Li, Jing Jing; Yong, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Deciding on public funding for pharmaceuticals on the basis of value for money is now widespread. We suggest that evidence-based assessment of value has restricted the availability of medicines in Australia in a way that reflects the relative bargaining power of government and the pharmaceutical industry. We propose a simple informal game-theoretic model of bargaining between the funding agency and industry and test its predictions using a logistic multiple regression model of past funding decisions made by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee in Australia. The model estimates the probability of a drug being recommended for subsidy as a function of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), as well as other drug and market characteristics. Data are major submissions or resubmissions from 1993 to 2009 where there was a claim of superiority and evidence of a difference in quality of life. Independent variables measure the incremental cost per QALY, the cost to the public budget, the strength and quality of the clinical and economic evidence, need as measured by severity of illness and the availability of alternative treatments, whether or not a resubmission, and newspaper reports as a measure of public pressure. We report the odds ratio for each variable and calculate the ratio of the marginal effect of each variable to the marginal effect of the cost per QALY as a measure of the revealed willingness to pay for each of the variables that influence the decision. The results are consistent with a bargaining model where a 10,000 Australian dollar ($A) fall in value (increase in cost per QALY) reduces the average probability of public funding from 37 to 33% (95% CI 34-32). If the condition is life threatening or the drug has no active comparator, then the odds of a positive recommendation are 3.18 (95% CI 1.00-10.11) and 2.14 (95% CI 0.95-4.83) greater, equivalent to a $A33,000 and a $A21,000 increase in value (fall in cost per QALY). If both

  11. The Ways and Means: A Study of the Needs and Resources of Students Enrolled in United Negro College Fund Member Institutions. Research Report Vol. 2, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry S.; Kirschner, Alan H.

    A study funded by the Southern Education Foundation had as its purpose to identify, describe, and assess: (1) the costs of education to United Negro College Fund (UNCF) students in 1975-76; (2) the resources available to meet those costs; (3) the need for additional aid resources; and (4) some major relationships among college costs, financial aid…

  12. Applications of targeted gene capture and next-generation sequencing technologies in studies of human deafness and other genetic disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xi; Tang, Wenxue; Ahmad, Shoeb; Lu, Jingqiao; Colby, Candice C; Zhu, Jason; Yu, Qing

    2012-06-01

    The goal of sequencing the entire human genome for $1000 is almost in sight. However, the total costs including DNA sequencing, data management, and analysis to yield a clear data interpretation are unlikely to be lowered significantly any time soon to make studies on a population scale and daily clinical uses feasible. Alternatively, the targeted enrichment of specific groups of disease and biological pathway-focused genes and the capture of up to an entire human exome (~1% of the genome) allowing an unbiased investigation of the complete protein-coding regions in the genome are now routine. Targeted gene capture followed by sequencing with massively parallel next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the advantages of 1) significant cost saving, 2) higher sequencing accuracy because of deeper achievable coverage, 3) a significantly shorter turnaround time, and 4) a more feasible data set for a bioinformatic analysis outcome that is functionally interpretable. Gene capture combined with NGS has allowed a much greater number of samples to be examined than is currently practical with whole-genome sequencing. Such an approach promises to bring a paradigm shift to biomedical research of Mendelian disorders and their clinical diagnoses, ultimately enabling personalized medicine based on one's genetic profile. In this review, we describe major methodologies currently used for gene capture and detection of genetic variations by NGS. We will highlight applications of this technology in studies of genetic disorders and discuss issues pertaining to applications of this powerful technology in genetic screening and the discovery of genes implicated in syndromic and non-syndromic hearing loss.

  13. Applications of targeted gene capture and next-generation sequencing technologies in studies of human deafness and other genetic disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xi; Tang, Wenxue; Ahmad, Shoeb; Lu, Jingqiao; Colby, Candice C.; Zhu, Jason; Yu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The goal of sequencing the entire human genome for $1,000 is almost in sight. However, the total costs including DNA sequencing, data management, and analysis to yield a clear data interpretation are unlikely to be lowered significantly any time soon to make studies on a population scale and daily clinical uses feasible. Alternatively, the targeted enrichment of specific groups of disease and biological pathway-focused genes and the capture of up to an entire human exome (~1% of the genome) allowing an unbiased investigation of the complete protein-coding regions in the genome are now routine. Targeted gene capture followed by sequencing with massively parallel next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the advantages of 1) significant cost saving, 2) higher sequencing accuracy because of deeper achievable coverage, 3) a significantly shorter turnaround time, and 4) a more feasible data set for a bioinformatic analysis outcome that is functionally interpretable. Gene capture combined with NGS has allowed a much greater number of samples to be examined than is currently practical with whole-genome sequencing. Such an approach promises to bring a paradigm shift to biomedical research of Mendelian disorders and their clinical diagnoses, ultimately enabling personalized medicine based on one’s genetic profile. In this review, we describe major methodologies currently used for gene capture and detection of genetic variations by NGS. We will highlight applications of this technology in studies of genetic disorders and discuss issues pertaining to applications of this powerful technology in genetic screening and the discovery of genes implicated in syndromic and non-syndromic hearing loss. PMID:22269275

  14. Attentional capture and understanding of nutrition labelling: a study based on response times.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Bruzzone, Fernanda; Antúnez, Lucía; Sapolinski, Alejandra; Vidal, Leticia; Maiche, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of nutrition information format on attentional capture and consumers' understanding. Sixteen labels of two products (yoghurt and pan bread) were designed following a four 2-level factors full factorial design with the following variables: label background design, type of product, nutrition information format and traffic light system. The labels were presented to 178 consumers, who were asked to decide whether the fat/sodium content of each yoghurt/pan bread label was medium or low. Participant responses and reaction times were recorded. Results showed that type of product, nutrition information format and traffic light system significantly affected the time needed by consumers to find the nutrition information and to classify the labels according to their content of a given nutrient. Meanwhile, consumers' understanding of the labels was mostly affected by the content of the nutrient and the presence of the traffic light system.

  15. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    DOE PAGES

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhoj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; ...

    2016-07-05

    Here, we present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, themore » surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.« less

  16. Feasibility study of nuclear transmutation by negative muon capture reaction using the PHITS code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Feasibility of nuclear transmutation of fission products in high-level radioactive waste by negative muon capture reaction is investigated using the Particle and Heave Ion Transport code System (PHITS). It is found that about 80 % of stopped negative muons contribute to transmute target nuclide into stable or short-lived nuclide in the case of 135Cs, which is one of the most important nuclide in the transmutation. The simulation result also indicates that the position of transmutation is controllable by changing the energy of incident negative muon. Based on our simulation, it takes approximately 8.5 × 108years to transmute 500 g of 135Cs by negative muon beam with the highest intensity currently available.

  17. NWTC Aerodynamics Studies Improve Energy Capture and Lower Costs of Wind-Generated Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have expanded wind turbine aerodynamic research from blade and rotor aerodynamics to wind plant and atmospheric inflow effects. The energy capture from wind plants is dependent on all of these aerodynamic interactions. Research at the NWTC is crucial to understanding how wind turbines function in large, multiple-row wind plants. These conditions impact the cumulative fatigue damage of turbine structural components that ultimately effect the useful lifetime of wind turbines. This work also is essential for understanding and maximizing turbine and wind plant energy production. Both turbine lifetime and wind plant energy production are key determinants of the cost of wind-generated electricity.

  18. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  19. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  20. How does CO capture process on microporous NaY zeolites? A FTIR and DFT combined study.

    PubMed

    Cairon, O; Guesmi, H

    2011-06-21

    Reliable experimental IR and theoretical approaches, both investigating CO adsorption on NaY faujasites, are supporting that CO capture occurs through the completion of the vacant coordination of Na(+) cations located in the accessible S(II) sites. As a result, carbonyl adsorbed species are formed by the capture of one, two or three CO molecules and are experimentally discernable by their respective IR positions that are down-shifted by an average 11-12 cm(-1) value for each captured CO molecule. DFT analysis is proposed for comparison and reproduces well the observed experimental shift of the ν(CO) positions of the different polycarbonyls of interest. In addition, the effect of Si or Al composition surrounding the SII Na(+) cation is investigated and results suggest that polycarbonyls that are formed might be in connection with the acidic strength of the cationic sites. This combined study completes and improves the understanding of the complex issue of CO adsorption at 80 K widely used as a model to explain how physical adsorption takes place in NaY faujasites working as an efficient industrial adsorbent in gas separation or gas purification processes.

  1. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  2. A Monte Carlo Study on the Effect of Various Neutron Capturers on Dose Distribution in Brachytherapy with 252Cf Source

    PubMed Central

    Firoozabadi, M.M.; Izadi Vasafi, Gh.; Karimi-sh, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In neutron interaction with matter and reduction of neutron energy due to multiple scatterings to the thermal energy range, increasing the probability of thermal neutron capture by neutron captures makes dose enhancement in the tumors loaded with these materials. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate dose distribution in the presence of 10B, 157Gd and 33S neutron capturers and to determine the effect of these materials on dose enhancement rate for 252Cf brachytherapy source. Methods: Neutron-ray flux and energy spectra, neutron and gamma dose rates and dose enhancement factor (DEF) are determined in the absence and presence of 10B, 157Gd and 33S using Monte Carlo simulation. Results: The difference in the thermal neutron flux rate in the presence of 10B and 157Gd is significant, while the flux changes in the fast and epithermal energy ranges are insensible. The dose enhancement factor has increased with increasing distance from the source and reached its maximum amount equal to 258.3 and 476.1 cGy/h/µg for 157Gd and 10B, respectively at about 8 cm distance from the source center. DEF for 33S is equal to one. Conclusion: Results show that the magnitude of dose augmentation in tumors containing 10B and 157Gd in brachytherapy with 252Cf source will depend not only on the capture product dose level, but also on the tumor distance from the source. 33S makes dose enhancement under specific conditions that these conditions depend on the neutron energy spectra of source, the 33S concentration in tumor and tumor distance from the source. PMID:28451575

  3. Trends in funding, internationalization, and types of study for original articles published in five implant-related journals between 2005 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Shyamsunder, Nodesh; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Knoernschild, Kent L; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the trends in funding, geographic origin, and study types of original articles in the dental implant literature and to investigate the relationships among these factors. Articles published in Clinical Oral Implants Research, The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Implant Dentistry, and Journal of Oral Implantology from 2005 to 2009 were reviewed. Nonoriginal articles were excluded. For each article included, extramural funding source, geographic origin, and study type were recorded. Descriptive and analytic analyses (α = .05), including a logistic regression analysis, and chi-square test were used where appropriate. Of a total of 2,085 articles published, 1,503 met the inclusion criteria. The most common source of funding was from industry (32.4%). The proportion of studies that reported funding increased significantly over time. Europe represented the highest percentage (55.8%) of published articles. Most of the articles reported on clinical studies (49.9%), followed by animal studies (25.9%). Articles from Asia and South America and animal and in vitro studies were significantly more likely to be funded. Almost half of the original dental implant articles were funded. The trend toward internationalization of authorship was evident. A strong association was observed between funding and geographic origin and between funding and study type. Most studies in North America and Europe were clinical studies and supported by industry, whereas a greater proportion of studies in Asia and South America were in vitro or animal studies funded through government resources.

  4. General practice funding underpins the persistence of the inverse care law: cross-sectional study in Scotland.

    PubMed

    McLean, Gary; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W; Watt, Graham C M

    2015-12-01

    Universal access to health care, as provided in the NHS, does not ensure that patients' needs are met. To explore the relationships between multimorbidity, general practice funding, and workload by deprivation in a national healthcare system. Cross-sectional study using routine data from 956 general practices in Scotland. Estimated numbers of patients with multimorbidity, estimated numbers of consultations per 1000 patients, and payments to practices per patient are presented and analysed by deprivation decile at practice level. Levels of multimorbidity rose with practice deprivation. Practices in the most deprived decile had 38% more patients with multimorbidity compared with the least deprived (222.8 per 1000 patients versus 161.1; P<0.001) and over 120% more patients with combined mental-physical multimorbidity (113.0 per 1000 patients versus 51.5; P<0.001). Practices in the most deprived decile had 20% more consultations per annum compared with the least deprived (4616 versus 3846, P<0.001). There was no association between total practice funding and deprivation (Spearman ρ -0.09; P = 0.03). Although consultation rates increased with deprivation, the social gradients in multimorbidity were much steeper. There was no association between consultation rates and levels of funding. No evidence was found that general practice funding matches clinical need, as estimated by different definitions of multimorbidity. Consultation rates provide only a partial estimate of the work involved in addressing clinical needs and are poorly related to the prevalence of multimorbidity. In these circumstances, general practice is unlikely to mitigate health inequalities and may increase them. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  5. Natural Language Processing-Enabled and Conventional Data Capture Methods for Input to Electronic Health Records: A Comparative Usability Study.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, David R; Sheehan, Barbara; Stetson, Peter; Bhatt, Ashish R; Field, Adele I; Patel, Chirag; Maisel, James Mark

    2016-10-28

    The process of documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is known to be time consuming, inefficient, and cumbersome. The use of dictation coupled with manual transcription has become an increasingly common practice. In recent years, natural language processing (NLP)-enabled data capture has become a viable alternative for data entry. It enables the clinician to maintain control of the process and potentially reduce the documentation burden. The question remains how this NLP-enabled workflow will impact EHR usability and whether it can meet the structured data and other EHR requirements while enhancing the user's experience. The objective of this study is evaluate the comparative effectiveness of an NLP-enabled data capture method using dictation and data extraction from transcribed documents (NLP Entry) in terms of documentation time, documentation quality, and usability versus standard EHR keyboard-and-mouse data entry. This formative study investigated the results of using 4 combinations of NLP Entry and Standard Entry methods ("protocols") of EHR data capture. We compared a novel dictation-based protocol using MediSapien NLP (NLP-NLP) for structured data capture against a standard structured data capture protocol (Standard-Standard) as well as 2 novel hybrid protocols (NLP-Standard and Standard-NLP). The 31 participants included neurologists, cardiologists, and nephrologists. Participants generated 4 consultation or admission notes using 4 documentation protocols. We recorded the time on task, documentation quality (using the Physician Documentation Quality Instrument, PDQI-9), and usability of the documentation processes. A total of 118 notes were documented across the 3 subject areas. The NLP-NLP protocol required a median of 5.2 minutes per cardiology note, 7.3 minutes per nephrology note, and 8.5 minutes per neurology note compared with 16.9, 20.7, and 21.2 minutes, respectively, using the Standard-Standard protocol and 13.8, 21.3, and 18.7 minutes

  6. Natural Language Processing–Enabled and Conventional Data Capture Methods for Input to Electronic Health Records: A Comparative Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Barbara; Stetson, Peter; Bhatt, Ashish R; Field, Adele I; Patel, Chirag; Maisel, James Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The process of documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is known to be time consuming, inefficient, and cumbersome. The use of dictation coupled with manual transcription has become an increasingly common practice. In recent years, natural language processing (NLP)–enabled data capture has become a viable alternative for data entry. It enables the clinician to maintain control of the process and potentially reduce the documentation burden. The question remains how this NLP-enabled workflow will impact EHR usability and whether it can meet the structured data and other EHR requirements while enhancing the user’s experience. Objective The objective of this study is evaluate the comparative effectiveness of an NLP-enabled data capture method using dictation and data extraction from transcribed documents (NLP Entry) in terms of documentation time, documentation quality, and usability versus standard EHR keyboard-and-mouse data entry. Methods This formative study investigated the results of using 4 combinations of NLP Entry and Standard Entry methods (“protocols”) of EHR data capture. We compared a novel dictation-based protocol using MediSapien NLP (NLP-NLP) for structured data capture against a standard structured data capture protocol (Standard-Standard) as well as 2 novel hybrid protocols (NLP-Standard and Standard-NLP). The 31 participants included neurologists, cardiologists, and nephrologists. Participants generated 4 consultation or admission notes using 4 documentation protocols. We recorded the time on task, documentation quality (using the Physician Documentation Quality Instrument, PDQI-9), and usability of the documentation processes. Results A total of 118 notes were documented across the 3 subject areas. The NLP-NLP protocol required a median of 5.2 minutes per cardiology note, 7.3 minutes per nephrology note, and 8.5 minutes per neurology note compared with 16.9, 20.7, and 21.2 minutes, respectively, using the Standard

  7. Dose evaluation of boron neutron capture synovectomy using the THOR epithermal neutron beam: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jay; Chang, Shu-Jun; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Hsueh, Yen-Wan; Yeh, Kuan-Chuan; Wang, Jeng-Ning; Tsai, Wen-Pin

    2007-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common epidemic diseases in the world. For some patients, the treatment with steroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is not effective, thus necessitating physical removal of the inflamed synovium. Alternative approaches other than surgery will provide appropriate disease control and improve the patient's quality of life. In this research, we evaluated the feasibility of conducting boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) with the Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) as a neutron source. Monte Carlo simulations were performed with arthritic joint models and uncertainties were within 5%. The collimator, reflector and boron concentration were optimized to reduce the treatment time and normal tissue doses. For the knee joint, polyethylene with 40%-enriched Li2CO3 was used as the collimator material, and a rear reflector of 15 cm thick graphite and side reflector of 10 cm thick graphite were chosen. The optimized treatment time was 5.4 min for the parallel-opposed irradiation. For the finger joint, polymethyl methacrylate was used as the reflector material. The treatment time can be reduced to 3.1 min, while skin and bone doses can be effectively reduced by approximately 9% compared with treatment using the graphite reflector. We conclude that using THOR as a treatment modality for BNCS could be a feasible alternative in clinical practice.

  8. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 3: Photon production evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    Lower limits of photon fluxes were evaluated from electron capture during acceleration in solar flares, because the arbitrary q sub c asterisk assumed in this work evolves very slow with velocity, probably much more slowly than the physical actual situation: in fact, more emission is expected toward the IR region. Nevertheless the authors claim to show that the factibility of sounding acceleration processes, charge evolution processes and physical parameters of the source itself, by the observational analysis of this kind of emissions. For instance, it would be interesting to search observationally, for the predicted flux and energy drift of F sub e ions interacting with the atomic 0 and F sub e of the source matter, or, even more feasible for the X-ray lines at 4.2 keV and 2.624 + 0.003 KeV from Fe and S ions in ionized Fe at T = 10 to the 7th power K respectively, the 418 + or - 2 eV and 20 + or - 4 eV lines of Fe and S in ionized Fe at 5 x 10 to the 6th power K, which are predicted from Fermi acceleration.

  9. A study of resonance electron capture ionization on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wei, J; Liu, S; Fedoreyev, S A; Voinov, V G

    2000-01-01

    Procedures that allow the realization of resonance electron capture (REC) mode on a commercial triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, after some simple modifications, are described. REC mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were performed and spectra for some compounds were recorded. In particular, the charge-remote fragmentation (CRF) spectra of [M - H](-) ions of docosanoic and docosenoic acids under low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) conditions were obtained, and showed that there were no significant differences for [M - H](-) ions produced at different resonances (i.e. for [M - H](-) ions with different structures). This observation was explained on the basis of results obtained from deuterium-labeled fatty acids, which showed that different CRF ions (but with the same m/z value in the absence of labels) could be produced by different mechanisms, and all of them were obviously realized under CAD conditions that made spectra practically indistinguishable. The other example, which compared the REC-MS/MS spectrum of [M - H](-) ions and EI-MS/MS spectrum of M(+.) ions of daidzein, demonstrated the potential of the REC-MS/MS technique for more complex structure elucidation.

  10. Age-Differential Effects of Job Characteristics on Job Attraction: A Policy-Capturing Study

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Dirkers, Bodil T.; Korek, Sabine; Hughes, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Based on an integration of job design and lifespan developmental theories, Truxillo et al. (2012) proposed that job characteristics interact with employee age in predicting important work outcomes. Using an experimental policy-capturing design, we investigated age-differential effects of four core job characteristics (i.e., job autonomy, task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job) on job attraction (i.e., individuals' rating of job attractiveness). Eighty-two employees between 19 and 65 years (Mage = 41, SD = 14) indicated their job attraction for each of 40 hypothetical job descriptions in which the four job characteristics were systematically manipulated (in total, participants provided 3,280 ratings). Results of multilevel analyses showed that the positive effects of task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job were stronger for younger compared to older employees, whereas we did not find significant age-differential effects of job autonomy on job attraction. These findings are only partially consistent with propositions of Truxillo et al.'s (2012) lifespan perspective on job design. PMID:28713322

  11. Estimating the tuberculosis burden in resource-limited countries: a capture-recapture study in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Bassili, A; Al-Hammadi, A; Al-Absi, A; Glaziou, P; Seita, A; Abubakar, I; Bierrenbach, A L; van Hest, N A

    2013-04-01

    The lack of applicable population-based methods to measure tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates directly at country level emphasises the global need to generate robust TB surveillance data to ascertain trends in disease burden and to assess the performance of TB control programmes in the context of the United Nations Millenium Development Goals and World Health Organization targets for TB control. To estimate the incidence of TB cases (all forms) and sputum smear-positive disease, and the level of under-reporting of TB in Yemen in 2010. Record-linkage and three-source capture-recapture analysis of data collected through active prospective longitudinal surveillance within the public and private non-National Tuberculosis Programme sector in twelve Yemeni governorates, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. For all TB cases, the estimated ratio of notified to incident cases and completeness of case ascertainment after record linkage, i.e., the ratio of detected to incident cases, was respectively 71% (95%CI 64-80) and 75% (95%CI 68-85). For sputum smear-positive TB cases, these ratios were respectively 67% (95%CI 58-75) and 76% (95%CI 66-84). We estimate that there were 13 082 (95%CI 11 610-14 513) TB cases in Yemen in 2010. Under-reporting of TB in Yemen is estimated at 29% (95%CI 20-36).

  12. Electron capture and emission spectroscopy to study surface and interface magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Carl

    1994-07-01

    Electron capture spectroscopy (ECS) and spin-polarized electron emission spectroscopy (SPEES) are extremely sensitive techniques to probe surface magnetic properties. Ultra-thin bct Fe(100)(1×1)/Pd(100) films exhibit 2D Ising critical behavior. The surface electron spin polarization (ESP) follows precisely the exact solution of the 2D Ising model as given by Yang. The average magnetization of the topmost surface layer is enhanced by 32% compared to that of bulk layers. Pd Auger electrons emitted from the Fe/Pd interface are spin-polarized, and the ESP is oriented parallel to that of emitted Fe Auger electrons. At surfaces of 5nm thick hcp Tb(0001)/W(110) films, strong surface magnetic surface anisotropies are found. The onset of ferromagnetism occurs ≈30 K above the bulk Curie temperature (220K) of Tb. For clean Fe and Fe/Pd surfaces, the ESP of low-energy (≈2 eV) emitted electrons is substantially enhanced by Stoner excitations. The existence of a nonzero ESP at O/Fe surfaces demonstrates the absence of a magnetically dead surface layer.

  13. Do different attention capture paradigms measure different types of capture?

    PubMed

    Roque, Nelson A; Wright, Timothy J; Boot, Walter R

    2016-10-01

    When something captures our attention, why does it do so? This topic has been hotly debated, with some arguing that attention is captured only by salient stimuli (bottom-up view) and others arguing capture is always due to a match between a stimulus and our goals (top-down view). Many different paradigms have provided evidence for 1 view or the other. If either of these strong views are correct, then capture represents a unitary phenomenon, and there should be a high correlation between capture in these paradigms. But if there are different types of capture (top-down, bottom-up), then some attention capture effects should be correlated and some should not. In 2 studies, we collected data from several paradigms used in support of claims of top-down and bottom-up capture in relatively large samples of participants. Contrary to either prediction, measures of capture were not strongly correlated. Results suggest that capture may in fact be strongly determined by idiosyncratic task demands and strategies. Relevant to this lack of relations among tasks, we observed that classic measures of attention capture demonstrated low reliability, especially among measures used to support bottom-up capture. Implications for the low reliability of capture measures are discussed. We also observed that the proportion of participants demonstrating a pattern of responses consistent with capture varied widely among classic measures of capture. Overall, results demonstrate that, even for relatively simple laboratory measures of attention, there are still important gaps in knowledge regarding what these paradigms measure and how they are related.

  14. How Does National Scientific Funding Support Emerging Interdisciplinary Research: A Comparison Study of Big Data Research in the US and China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    How do funding agencies ramp-up their capabilities to support research in a rapidly emerging area? This paper addresses this question through a comparison of research proposals awarded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of Big Data. Big data is characterized by its size and difficulties in capturing, curating, managing and processing it in reasonable periods of time. Although Big Data has its legacy in longstanding information technology research, the field grew very rapidly over a short period. We find that the extent of interdisciplinarity is a key aspect in how these funding agencies address the rise of Big Data. Our results show that both agencies have been able to marshal funding to support Big Data research in multiple areas, but the NSF relies to a greater extent on multi-program funding from different fields. We discuss how these interdisciplinary approaches reflect the research hot-spots and innovation pathways in these two countries. PMID:27219466

  15. How Does National Scientific Funding Support Emerging Interdisciplinary Research: A Comparison Study of Big Data Research in the US and China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    How do funding agencies ramp-up their capabilities to support research in a rapidly emerging area? This paper addresses this question through a comparison of research proposals awarded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of Big Data. Big data is characterized by its size and difficulties in capturing, curating, managing and processing it in reasonable periods of time. Although Big Data has its legacy in longstanding information technology research, the field grew very rapidly over a short period. We find that the extent of interdisciplinarity is a key aspect in how these funding agencies address the rise of Big Data. Our results show that both agencies have been able to marshal funding to support Big Data research in multiple areas, but the NSF relies to a greater extent on multi-program funding from different fields. We discuss how these interdisciplinary approaches reflect the research hot-spots and innovation pathways in these two countries.

  16. [In vivo study on the body motion during the Shi's cervical reduction technique with 3D motion capture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-hao; Zhang, Min; Niu, Wen-xin; Shen, Xu-zhe; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2015-10-01

    The clinical effect of the Shi's cervical reduction technique for cervical spondylosis and related disorders has confirmed, however, there were few studies on the body motion during manipulation in vivo study. This study is to summary the law of motion and the motion characteristics of the right operation shoulder, elbow, knee and ankle joints by data acquisition and analysis with the 3D motion capture system. The markers were pasted on the head, trunk, left and right acromion, elbow joint, wrist joint inner side and the outer side of the inner and the outer side and the lateral upper arm, forearm lateral, anterior superior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, trochanter, femoral and tibial tubercle, inner and outer side of knee, ankle, fibular head, medial and lateral in first, 2,5 metatarsal head, heel and dual lateral thigh the calf, lateral tibia of one manipulation practioner, and the subject accepted a complete cycle of cervical "Jin Chu Cao and Gu Cuo Feng" manipulation which was repeated five times. The movement trajectory of the practioner's four markers of operation joints were captured, recorded, calculated and analyzed. The movement trajectories of four joints were consistent, while the elbow joint had the biggest discrete degree. The 3D activities of the shoulder and elbow were more obvious than other two joints, but the degree of flexion and extension in the knee was significantly greater than the rotation and lateral bending. The flexibility of upper limb joint and stability of lower limb joint are the important guarantees for the Shi's cervical reduction technique, and the right knee facilitated the exerting force of upper limb by the flexion and extension activities. The 3D model built by the motion capture system would provide a new idea for manipulation teaching and further basic biomechanical research.

  17. Proton transfer step in the carbon dioxide capture by monoethanol amine: a theoretical study at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kenji; Sato, Hirofumi

    2012-02-23

    An aqueous solution of monoethanol amine (MEA) has been utilized in an industrial process of CO(2) absorption. The chemical reaction between CO(2) and MEA, which is employed in the process, consists of two steps. After the formation of the MEA-CO(2) complex ("capture"), a proton transfers from the complex to give a final product. In the present study, the overall mechanism of the reaction is discussed, especially focusing on the proton transfer step. Using RISM-SCF-SEDD, a hybrid method of electronic structure theory and statistical mechanics for molecular liquid, we clarified that the role of MEA as a base is crucial in the proton transfer step.

  18. C-ing the genome: A compendium of chromosome conformation capture methods to study higher-order chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Barutcu, A. Rasim; Fritz, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; vanWijnen, André J.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.; Stein, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional organization of the chromatin has important roles in transcription, replication, DNA repair, and pathologic events such as translocations. There are two fundamental ways to study higher-order chromatin organization: microscopic and molecular approaches. In this review, we briefly introduce the molecular approaches, focusing on chromosome conformation capture or “3C” technology and its derivatives, which can be used to probe chromatin folding at resolutions beyond that provided by microscopy techniques. We further discuss the different types of data generated by the 3C-based methods and how they can be used to answer distinct biological questions. PMID:26059817

  19. [Factors Influencing Participation in Financial Incentive Programmes of Health Insurance Funds. Results of the Study 'German Health Update'].

    PubMed

    Jordan, S; von der Lippe, E; Starker, A; Hoebel, J; Franke, A

    2015-11-01

    The statutory health insurance can offer their insured incentive programmes that will motivate for healthy behaviour through a financial or material reward. This study will show results about what factors influence financial incentive programme participation (BPT) including all sorts of statutory health insurance funds and taking into account gender differences. For the cross-sectional analysis, data were used from 15,858 participants in the study 'Germany Health Update' (GEDA) from 2009, who were insured in the statutory health insurance. The selection of potential influencing variables for a BPT is based on the "Behavioural Model for Health Service Use" of Andersen. Accordingly, various factors were included in logistic regression models, which were calculated separately by gender: predisposing factors (age, education, social support, and health awareness), enabling factors (income, statutory health insurance fund, and family physician), and need factors (smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, sports, body mass index, and general health status). In consideration of all factors, for both sexes, BPT is associated with age, health awareness, education, use of a family physician, smoking, and sports activities. In addition, income, body mass index, and diet are significant in women and social support and kind of statutory health insurance fund in men. It is found that predisposing, enabling and need factors are relevant. Financial incentive programmes reach population groups with greatest need less than those groups who already have a health-conscious behaviour, who receive a reward for this. In longitudinal studies, further research on financial incentive programmes should investigate the existence of deadweight effects and whether incentive programmes can contribute to the reduction of the inequity in health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. FPCA-based method to select optimal sampling schedules that capture between-subject variability in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meihua; Diez-Roux, Ana; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2017-05-08

    A critical component of longitudinal study design involves determining the sampling schedule. Criteria for optimal design often focus on accurate estimation of the mean profile, although capturing the between-subject variance of the longitudinal process is also important since variance patterns may be associated with covariates of interest or predict future outcomes. Existing design approaches have limited applicability when one wishes to optimize sampling schedules to capture between-individual variability. We propose an approach to derive optimal sampling schedules based on functional principal component analysis (FPCA), which separately characterizes the mean and the variability of longitudinal profiles and leads to a parsimonious representation of the temporal pattern of the variability. Simulation studies show that the new design approach performs equally well compared to an existing approach based on parametric mixed model (PMM) when a PMM is adequate for the data, and outperforms the PMM-based approach otherwise. We use the methods to design studies aiming to characterize daily salivary cortisol profiles and identify the optimal days within the menstrual cycle when urinary progesterone should be measured. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Hands-free image capture, data tagging and transfer using Google Glass: a pilot study for improved wound care management.

    PubMed

    Aldaz, Gabriel; Shluzas, Lauren Aquino; Pickham, David; Eris, Ozgur; Sadler, Joel; Joshi, Shantanu; Leifer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds, including pressure ulcers, compromise the health of 6.5 million Americans and pose an annual estimated burden of $25 billion to the U.S. health care system. When treating chronic wounds, clinicians must use meticulous documentation to determine wound severity and to monitor healing progress over time. Yet, current wound documentation practices using digital photography are often cumbersome and labor intensive. The process of transferring photos into Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) requires many steps and can take several days. Newer smartphone and tablet-based solutions, such as Epic Haiku, have reduced EMR upload time. However, issues still exist involving patient positioning, image-capture technique, and patient identification. In this paper, we present the development and assessment of the SnapCap System for chronic wound photography. Through leveraging the sensor capabilities of Google Glass, SnapCap enables hands-free digital image capture, and the tagging and transfer of images to a patient's EMR. In a pilot study with wound care nurses at Stanford Hospital (n=16), we (i) examined feature preferences for hands-free digital image capture and documentation, and (ii) compared SnapCap to the state of the art in digital wound care photography, the Epic Haiku application. We used the Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test to evaluate differences in mean ranks between preference options. Preferred hands-free navigation features include barcode scanning for patient identification, Z(15) = -3.873, p < 0.001, r = 0.71, and double-blinking to take photographs, Z(13) = -3.606, p < 0.001, r = 0.71. In the comparison between SnapCap and Epic Haiku, the SnapCap System was preferred for sterile image-capture technique, Z(16) = -3.873, p < 0.001, r = 0.68. Responses were divided with respect to image quality and overall ease of use. The study's results have contributed to the future implementation of new features aimed at enhancing mobile hands-free digital photography

  2. The Intersection of Massage Practice and Research: Community Massage Therapists as Research Personnel on an NIH-funded Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Niki; Stewart, Katie; Love, Margaret M.; Carter, Eddie; Elder, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Few NIH funded studies give community massage therapists the opportunity to become study personnel. A recent NIH/NCCAM-funded study investigating chronic low back pain (CLBP) recruited, trained, and utilized community massage practitioners (CMPs) as study personnel. This study’s aim was to determine whether health-related outcomes for CLBP improve when patients are referred from primary care to select CAM modalities including massage therapy (MT). The purpose of this paper is to report the results of the study’s three massage practice-driven study objectives which were to: 1) identify challenges and solutions to recruiting and retaining ample CMPs, 2) develop a practice-informed protocol reflecting real-world MT, and 3) determine the extent to which CMPs comply with rigorous research methodology in their clinical practices as study personnel. Methods Eligible CMPs in urban and rural Kentucky counties were identified through licensure board records, professional organizations, and personal contact opportunities. Interested CMPs completed 6 CE hours of research and Human Subjects Protection training and agreed to comply with a study protocol reflecting MT as practiced. Once trained, study CMPs were matched with study participants to provide and document up to 10 MT sessions per participant. Results Utilizing prominent MT community members proved invaluable to CMP recruitment and protocol development. CMP recruitment challenges included mixed interest, low number of available rural CMPs, busy clinic schedules, and compensation. Ethics CE credits were offered to encourage CMP interest. A total of 28 Kentucky licensed massage therapists with 5–32 years of experience completed study training. A total of 127 CLBP patients consented to participate (n = 104 for MT). Twenty-five CMPs were assigned CLBP patients and provided 1–10 treatments for 94 study participants. Treatment documentation was provided by CMPs for 97% of treatments provided. Conclusions

  3. Use of Carbon Steel for Construction of Post-combustion CO 2 Capture Facilities: A Pilot-Scale Corrosion Study

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Wei; Landon, James; Irvin, Bradley; ...

    2017-04-13

    Corrosion studies were carried out on metal coated and noncoated carbon steel as well as stainless steel in a pilot-scale post-combustion CO2 capture process. Aqueous 30 wt % monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was used without any chemical additive for antioxidation to examine a worst-case scenario where corrosion is not mitigated. The corrosion rate of all carbon steels was almost zero in the absorber column and CO2 lean amine piping except for Ni-coated carbon steel (<1.8 mm/yr). Ni2Al3/Al2O3 precoated carbon steels showed initial protection but lost their integrity in the stripping column and CO2 rich amine piping, and severe corrosion was eventuallymore » observed for all carbon steels at these two locations. Stainless steel was found to be stable and corrosion resistant in all of the sampling locations throughout the experiment. This study provides an initial framework for the use of carbon steel as a potential construction material for process units with relatively mild operating conditions (temperature less than 80 °C), such as the absorber and CO2 lean amine piping of a post-combustion CO2 capture process. As a result, it also warrants further investigation of using carbon steel with more effective corrosion mitigation strategies for process units where harsh environments are expected (such as temperatures greater than 100 °C).« less

  4. Impact of self-funding on patient experience of oral anticoagulation self-monitoring: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice; Heneghan, Carl; Sutton, Stephen; Fitzmaurice, David; Ward, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact self-funding has on patient experience of oral anticoagulation therapy self-monitoring. Design Semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Transcripts were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Setting England. Participants Interviewees were participants of the Cohort Study of Anticoagulation Self-Monitoring (CASM). Cohort members were recruited as they bought a monitor from the major manufacturer in the UK. A purposive sample was invited to be interviewed on completion of the 12-month cohort follow-up. Data Patient narratives on their experiences of self-monitoring their oral anticoagulation therapy in non-trial conditions. Results 26 interviews were completed. Interviewees viewed purchasing the monitoring device as a long-term commitment balancing the limitations of clinic-based monitoring against the cost. They were unable to try out the monitor prior to purchase and therefore had to be confident in their own ability to use it. The variable provision of self-monitoring equipment caused resentment, and interviewees were uncomfortable negotiating with healthcare professionals. High test strip usage while learning how to use the monitor caused anxiety that was exacerbated by worries about their cost. However, self-funding did mean that interviewees felt a sense of ownership and were determined to persevere to overcome problems. Conclusions Self-funding has negative implications in terms of equity of access; however, the money invested acts as a barrier to discontinuation. If oral anticoagulation therapy self-monitoring devices and consumables were provided free of charge in routine care, the training and support available in England may need to be reviewed to prevent discontinuation rates rising to those observed in clinical trials. PMID:28011812

  5. A mobile app for securely capturing and transferring clinical images to the electronic health record: description and preliminary usability study.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam; Emani, Srinivas; Carlile, Narath; Rosenthal, David I; Semakov, Simon; Pallin, Daniel J; Poon, Eric G

    2015-01-02

    Photographs are important tools to record, track, and communicate clinical findings. Mobile devices with high-resolution cameras are now ubiquitous, giving clinicians the opportunity to capture and share images from the bedside. However, secure and efficient ways to manage and share digital images are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the implementation of a secure application for capturing and storing clinical images in the electronic health record (EHR), and to describe initial user experiences. We developed CliniCam, a secure Apple iOS (iPhone, iPad) application that allows for user authentication, patient selection, image capture, image annotation, and storage of images as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file in the EHR. We leveraged our organization's enterprise service-oriented architecture to transmit the image file from CliniCam to our enterprise clinical data repository. There is no permanent storage of protected health information on the mobile device. CliniCam also required connection to our organization's secure WiFi network. Resident physicians from emergency medicine, internal medicine, and dermatology used CliniCam in clinical practice for one month. They were then asked to complete a survey on their experience. We analyzed the survey results using descriptive statistics. Twenty-eight physicians participated and 19/28 (68%) completed the survey. Of the respondents who used CliniCam, 89% found it useful or very useful for clinical practice and easy to use, and wanted to continue using the app. Respondents provided constructive feedback on location of the photos in the EHR, preferring to have photos embedded in (or linked to) clinical notes instead of storing them as separate PDFs within the EHR. Some users experienced difficulty with WiFi connectivity which was addressed by enhancing CliniCam to check for connectivity on launch. CliniCam was implemented successfully and found to be easy to use and useful for clinical practice. CliniCam is

  6. Hands-Free Image Capture, Data Tagging and Transfer Using Google Glass: A Pilot Study for Improved Wound Care Management

    PubMed Central

    Aldaz, Gabriel; Shluzas, Lauren Aquino; Pickham, David; Eris, Ozgur; Sadler, Joel; Joshi, Shantanu; Leifer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds, including pressure ulcers, compromise the health of 6.5 million Americans and pose an annual estimated burden of $25 billion to the U.S. health care system. When treating chronic wounds, clinicians must use meticulous documentation to determine wound severity and to monitor healing progress over time. Yet, current wound documentation practices using digital photography are often cumbersome and labor intensive. The process of transferring photos into Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) requires many steps and can take several days. Newer smartphone and tablet-based solutions, such as Epic Haiku, have reduced EMR upload time. However, issues still exist involving patient positioning, image-capture technique, and patient identification. In this paper, we present the development and assessment of the SnapCap System for chronic wound photography. Through leveraging the sensor capabilities of Google Glass, SnapCap enables hands-free digital image capture, and the tagging and transfer of images to a patient’s EMR. In a pilot study with wound care nurses at Stanford Hospital (n=16), we (i) examined feature preferences for hands-free digital image capture and documentation, and (ii) compared SnapCap to the state of the art in digital wound care photography, the Epic Haiku application. We used the Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test to evaluate differences in mean ranks between preference options. Preferred hands-free navigation features include barcode scanning for patient identification, Z(15) = -3.873, p < 0.001, r = 0.71, and double-blinking to take photographs, Z(13) = -3.606, p < 0.001, r = 0.71. In the comparison between SnapCap and Epic Haiku, the SnapCap System was preferred for sterile image-capture technique, Z(16) = -3.873, p < 0.001, r = 0.68. Responses were divided with respect to image quality and overall ease of use. The study’s results have contributed to the future implementation of new features aimed at enhancing mobile hands-free digital

  7. A Mobile App for Securely Capturing and Transferring Clinical Images to the Electronic Health Record: Description and Preliminary Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Srinivas; Carlile, Narath; Rosenthal, David I; Semakov, Simon; Pallin, Daniel J; Poon, Eric G

    2015-01-01

    Background Photographs are important tools to record, track, and communicate clinical findings. Mobile devices with high-resolution cameras are now ubiquitous, giving clinicians the opportunity to capture and share images from the bedside. However, secure and efficient ways to manage and share digital images are lacking. Objective The aim of this study is to describe the implementation of a secure application for capturing and storing clinical images in the electronic health record (EHR), and to describe initial user experiences. Methods We developed CliniCam, a secure Apple iOS (iPhone, iPad) application that allows for user authentication, patient selection, image capture, image annotation, and storage of images as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file in the EHR. We leveraged our organization’s enterprise service-oriented architecture to transmit the image file from CliniCam to our enterprise clinical data repository. There is no permanent storage of protected health information on the mobile device. CliniCam also required connection to our organization’s secure WiFi network. Resident physicians from emergency medicine, internal medicine, and dermatology used CliniCam in clinical practice for one month. They were then asked to complete a survey on their experience. We analyzed the survey results using descriptive statistics. Results Twenty-eight physicians participated and 19/28 (68%) completed the survey. Of the respondents who used CliniCam, 89% found it useful or very useful for clinical practice and easy to use, and wanted to continue using the app. Respondents provided constructive feedback on location of the photos in the EHR, preferring to have photos embedded in (or linked to) clinical notes instead of storing them as separate PDFs within the EHR. Some users experienced difficulty with WiFi connectivity which was addressed by enhancing CliniCam to check for connectivity on launch. Conclusions CliniCam was implemented successfully and found to be easy

  8. Capture of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Simulated Blood Vessels: Effects of Proteins and Coating with Poly(ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee; Brazel, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have applications in cancer treatment as they can be captured and localized to a diseased site by use of an external magnetic field. After localization, cancer treatments such as magnetically targeted chemotherapy and localized hyperthermia can be applied. Previously, our lab has shown that the percent capture of MNPs is significantly reduced when MNPs are dispersed in protein solutions compared to water or aqueous polymer solutions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of proteins on capture efficiency and to investigate the ability of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, coatings to reduce aggregation of MNPs with proteins, allowing for a greater capture of MNPs in flow. Using Tygon® tubing to simulate blood vessels, a maghemite nanoparticle solution was pumped through a capture zone, where a magnetic field was applied. After passing through the capture zone, the fluid flowed to a spectrophotometer, which measured the absorbance of the solution. The introduction of proteins into the nanoparticle solution reduced the percent capture of MNPs. However, coating the MNPs with PEG aided in preventing aggregation and led to higher capture efficiencies in protein solutions. Additionally, the effects of capture length and protein exposure time were examined. It was found that a higher percent capture is attainable with a longer capture length. Furthermore, on a scale of hours, the percent capture is not affected by the protein exposure time. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611 and NIH NCI R21CA 141388.

  9. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe

  10. Capturing Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Election through Metaphor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamarat, Ercenk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the perception of pre-service social studies teachers (PSSTs) about the concept of election via metaphors. A study group of this work consisted of 61 PSSTs from Nigde University, Faculty of Education, Social Studies Teaching Department. Implementation and data collection was done in 2014 to 2015 academic year.…

  11. Electron capture gas chromatography study of the acid and alcohol products of Clostridium septicum and Clostridium chauvoei.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J B; Selin, M J; Alley, C C

    1976-02-01

    The metabolic products produced by several strains of Clostridium septicum obtained from patients and animals, along with strains of Clostridium chauvoei, were studied in chopped meat glucose medium by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography (EC-GLC). The strains of C. septicum and C. chauvoei were shown to comprise five different metabolic groups. Both the EC-GLC study and the O and H antigenic study performed previously showed that strains of C. septicum comprise a heterogeneous group. One type of metabolic profile was found only in strains of C. chauvoei. The O antigen types and EC-GLC metabolic types of C. septicum correlated fairly well in isolates from cancer patients but not in stock culture and animal isolates.

  12. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines.

    PubMed

    Puxty, Graeme; Rowland, Robert; Allport, Andrew; Yang, Qi; Bown, Mark; Burns, Robert; Maeder, Marcel; Attalla, Moetaz

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO2 capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO2 absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO2 absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation.

  13. Selective CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal–Organic Frameworks-A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  14. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines

    SciTech Connect

    Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO{sub 2} capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO{sub 2} absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  15. A new hue capturing technique for the quantitative interpretation of liquid crystal images used in convective heat transfer studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camci, C.; Kim, K.; Hippensteele, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new image processing based color capturing technique for the quantitative interpretation of liquid crystal images used in convective heat transfer studies is presented. This method is highly applicable to the surfaces exposed to convective heating in gas turbine engines. It is shown that, in the single-crystal mode, many of the colors appearing on the heat transfer surface correlate strongly with the local temperature. A very accurate quantitative approach using an experimentally determined linear hue vs temperature relation is found to be possible. The new hue-capturing process is discussed in terms of the strength of the light source illuminating the heat transfer surface, the effect of the orientation of the illuminating source with respect to the surface, crystal layer uniformity, and the repeatability of the process. The present method is more advantageous than the multiple filter method because of its ability to generate many isotherms simultaneously from a single-crystal image at a high resolution in a very time-efficient manner.

  16. Experiments in Favour of a Publicly Funded and Socially Responsive Higher Education System in the State of Kerala: A Study in the Context of Fast Changing National Preference for Private Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharakan, P. K. Michael

    2017-01-01

    It was not far back in history when a significant section of society in India preferred public funding over private funding for education. This article attempts to go back to the decisive point when private funding replaced public funding for education. It also investigates the reasons for such a shift in preference. Even after the preference for…

  17. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  18. Muon capture in deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  19. Equity of publicly-funded hip and knee joint replacement surgery in New Zealand: results from a national observational study.

    PubMed

    Harcombe, Helen; Davie, Gabrielle; Derrett, Sarah; Abbott, Haxby; Gwynne-Jones, David

    2016-09-23

    This study examines equity in the provision of publicly-funded hip and knee total joint replacement (TJR) surgery in New Zealand between 2006 and 2013 to: 1) investigate national rates by demographic characteristics; 2) describe changes in national rates over time; and 3) compare rates of provision between District Health Boards (DHBs). Hospital discharge data for people aged 20 years or over who had at least one hip or knee TJR between 2006 and 2013 was obtained from the Ministry of Health's National Minimum Dataset. Higher TJR rates were observed among those aged 75-84 years, females, those of Māori ethnicity, those not living in rural or main urban areas and those in the most deprived socio-economic groups. TJRs increased from 7,053 in 2006 to 8,429 in 2013, however the rate was highest in 2007. In 2012-13, age-ethnicity-standardised rates varied between DHBs from 196 to 419/100,000 person years, with larger DHBs having lower rates than smaller DHBs. There was evidence of geographic inequity in TJR provision across New Zealand. Despite increased numbers of procedures, rates of publicly-funded TJR surgery are barely keeping up with population increases. Reasons behind differences in provision should be examined.

  20. Variations in costs and use of provincially-funded testosterone replacement therapy across Canada: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tadrous, Mina; Martins, Diana; Lee, Kathy; Knowles, Sandra; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Provincial drug-program policies for the reimbursement of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) vary across Canada, which may result in marked regional variability in use. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional analysis of provincially funded TRT spending and utilization in eight provinces across Canada in 2012. We reported the annual cost per user, total cost, and rate of use of TRT overall and by formulation. We identified 23,544 provincially-funded recipients of TRT in 2012 in the eight provinces studied. Average annual cost per person varied by 3-fold, ranging from $173 (Prince Edward Island) to $485 (Ontario). Ontario also had the highest rate of use (1,105 users per 100,000 eligible) and the most liberal listing. Provinces with more restricted access (Alberta, British Columbia, and PEI) had lower annual costs per user ($293, $206, $173, respectively). Differing reimbursement policies for TRT products across Canada are likely contributing to variation in the rate of use and cost per recipient.

  1. The administrative costs of community-based health insurance: a case study of the community health fund in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Josephine; Makawia, Suzan; Kuwawenaruwa, August

    2015-01-01

    Community-based health insurance expansion has been proposed as a financing solution for the sizable informal sector in low-income settings. However, there is limited evidence of the administrative costs of such schemes. We assessed annual facility and district-level costs of running the Community Health Fund (CHF), a voluntary health insurance scheme for the informal sector in a rural and an urban district from the same region in Tanzania. Information on resource use, CHF membership and revenue was obtained from district managers and health workers from two facilities in each district. The administrative cost per CHF member household and the cost to revenue ratio were estimated. Revenue collection was the most costly activity at facility level (78% of total costs), followed by stewardship and management (13%) and pooling of funds (10%). Stewardship and management was the main activity at district level. The administration cost per CHF member household ranged from USD 3.33 to USD 12.12 per year. The cost to revenue ratio ranged from 50% to 364%. The cost of administering the CHF was high relative to revenue generated. Similar studies from other settings should be encouraged. PMID:24334331

  2. The administrative costs of community-based health insurance: a case study of the community health fund in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine; Makawia, Suzan; Kuwawenaruwa, August

    2015-02-01

    Community-based health insurance expansion has been proposed as a financing solution for the sizable informal sector in low-income settings. However, there is limited evidence of the administrative costs of such schemes. We assessed annual facility and district-level costs of running the Community Health Fund (CHF), a voluntary health insurance scheme for the informal sector in a rural and an urban district from the same region in Tanzania. Information on resource use, CHF membership and revenue was obtained from district managers and health workers from two facilities in each district. The administrative cost per CHF member household and the cost to revenue ratio were estimated. Revenue collection was the most costly activity at facility level (78% of total costs), followed by stewardship and management (13%) and pooling of funds (10%). Stewardship and management was the main activity at district level. The administration cost per CHF member household ranged from USD 3.33 to USD 12.12 per year. The cost to revenue ratio ranged from 50% to 364%. The cost of administering the CHF was high relative to revenue generated. Similar studies from other settings should be encouraged.

  3. Does prey capture induce area-restricted search? A fine-scale study using GPS in a marine predator, the wandering albatross.

    PubMed

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Pinaud, David; Pawlowski, Frédéric; Bost, Charles-André

    2007-11-01

    In a patchy environment, predators are expected to increase turning rate and start an area-restricted search (ARS) when prey have been encountered, but few empirical data exist for large predators. By using GPS loggers with devices measuring prey capture, we studied how a marine predator adjusts foraging movements at various scales in relation to prey capture. Wandering albatrosses use two tactics, sit and wait and foraging in flight, the former tactic being three times less efficient than the latter. During flight foraging, birds caught large isolated prey and used ARS at scales varying from 5 to 90 km, with large-scale ARS being used only by young animals. Birds did not show strong responses to prey capture at a large scale, few ARS events occurred after prey capture, and birds did not have high rates of prey capture in ARS. Only at small scales did birds increase sinuosity after prey captures for a limited time period, and this occurred only after they had caught a large prey item within an ARS zone. When this species searches over a large scale, the most effective search rule was to follow a nearly straight path. ARS may be used to restrict search to a particular environment where prey capture is more predictable and profitable.

  4. How Well Do Survey Studies Capture Alcohol’s Harm to Others?

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies assessing alcohol’s harm to others very often rely on population survey data. This study addresses some of the problems and challenges in using survey data for this purpose. Such problems include the limited capacity of population surveys in identifying infrequent harm and long-term consequences of drinking. Moreover, the drinker may report the alcohol-related harm or the person being harmed may report the damage. However, irrespective of who reports the harm, causal attribution to drinking is problematic. Challenges for future population surveys to address alcohol’s harm to others include the need for improved models and understanding of complex mechanisms to guide empirical studies within the broad range of harm. Study designs other than cross-sectional surveys, such as longitudinal study designs and combinations of population surveys and other data sources, are likely to overcome some of the identified problems in current population surveys of alcohol’s harm to others. PMID:26819555

  5. Adequacy Model for School Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banicki, Guy; Murphy, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the effectiveness of the Evidence-Based Adequacy model of school funding. In looking at the Evidence-Based Adequacy model for school funding, one researcher has been centrally associated with the development and study of this model. Allen Odden is currently a professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy…

  6. Economic analysis of centralized vs. decentralized electronic data capture in multi-center clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Walden, Anita; Nahm, Meredith; Barnett, M Edwina; Conde, Jose G; Dent, Andrew; Fadiel, Ahmed; Perry, Theresa; Tolk, Chris; Tcheng, James E; Eisenstein, Eric L

    2011-01-01

    New data management models are emerging in multi-center clinical studies. We evaluated the incremental costs associated with decentralized vs. centralized models. We developed clinical research network economic models to evaluate three data management models: centralized, decentralized with local software, and decentralized with shared database. Descriptive information from three clinical research studies served as inputs for these models. The primary outcome was total data management costs. Secondary outcomes included: data management costs for sites, local data centers, and central coordinating centers. Both decentralized models were more costly than the centralized model for each clinical research study: the decentralized with local software model was the most expensive. Decreasing the number of local data centers and case book pages reduced cost differentials between models. Decentralized vs. centralized data management in multi-center clinical research studies is associated with increases in data management costs.

  7. Studies for the application of boron neutron capture therapy to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Dagrosa, A; Carpano, M; Perona, M; Thomasz, L; Nievas, S; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. These carcinomas are well controlled with surgery followed by therapy with (131)I; however, some patients do not respond to this treatment. BPA uptake was analyzed both in vitro and in nude mice implanted with cell lines of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The boron intracellular concentration in the different cell lines and the biodistribution studies showed the selectivity of the BPA uptake by this kind of tumor.

  8. The SAFE ESA-funded Project: how to approach for an integrated system of earthquake physics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, A.; De Franceschi, G.; Di Giovambattista, R.; Perrone, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Cianchini, G.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Cesaroni, C.; Spogli, L.; Malagnini, A.; Amoruso, L.; Carbone, M.; Abbattista, C.; Drimaco, D.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of the Swarm satellite mission by ESA is to measure the magnetic signals from the Earth. The SAFE (Swarm for Earthquake study) project (funded by ESA in the framework "STSE Swarm+Innovation", 2014) aims at applying the new approach of geosystemics to the analysis of Swarm data for investigating the preparatory phase of earthquakes. The main objective is to explore the possible link between magnetic/ionospheric anomalies and large earthquakes analysing Swarm as well as ground based data (seismic, magnetic, GNSS, etc.). This presentation will show the state of the art in lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) and the expected contribution of SAFE in the field, showing some recent case studies.

  9. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating mean throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-11-01

    The selection of an appropriate spatial extent of a sampling plot is one among several important decisions involved in planning a throughfall sampling scheme. In fact, the choice of the extent may determine whether or not a study can adequately characterize the hydrological fluxes of the studied ecosystem. Previous attempts to optimize throughfall sampling schemes focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design, while comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent. In this contribution, we investigated the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for three forest ecosystems of varying stand structure. Our study is based on virtual sampling of simulated throughfall fields. We derived these fields from throughfall data sampled in a simply structured forest (young tropical forest) and two heterogeneous forests (old tropical forest, unmanaged mixed European beech forest). We then sampled the simulated throughfall fields with three common extents and various sample sizes for a range of events and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the complexity of the system under study and to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus accumulated). Generally, event-based sampling in complex structured forests (conditions that favor comparatively long autocorrelations in throughfall) requires the largest extents. For event-based sampling, the choice of an appropriate extent can be as important as using an adequate sample size.

  10. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of {approx} {+-}22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than {approx} 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance {approx} 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance {approx} 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  11. Tracking Global Fund HIV/AIDS resources used for sexual and reproductive health service integration: case study from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mookherji, Sangeeta; Ski, Samantha; Huntington, Dale

    2015-05-27

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria (GF) strives for high value for money, encouraging countries to integrate synergistic services and systems strengthening to maximize investments. The GF needs to show how, and how much, its grants support more than just HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) has been part of HIV/AIDS grants since 2007. Previous studies showed the GF PBF system does not allow resource tracking for SRH integration within HIV/AIDS grants. We present findings from a resource tracking case study using primary data collected at country level. Ethiopia was the study site. We reviewed data from four HIV/AIDS grants from January 2009-June 2011 and categorized SDAs and activities as directly, indirectly, or not related to SRH integration. Data included: GF PBF data; financial, performance, in-depth interview and facility observation data from Ethiopia. All HIV/AIDS grants in Ethiopia support SRH integration activities (12-100%). Using activities within SDAs, expenditures directly supporting SRH integration increased from 25% to 66% for the largest HIV/AIDS grant, and from 21% to 34% for the smaller PMTCT-focused grant. Using SDAs to categorize expenditures underestimated direct investments in SRH integration; activity-based categorization is more accurate. The important finding is that primary data collection could not resolve the limitations in using GF GPR data for resource tracking. The remedy is to require existing activity-based budgets and expenditure reports as part of PBF reporting requirements, and make them available in the grant portfolio database. The GF should do this quickly, as it is a serious shortfall in the GF guiding principle of transparency. Showing high value for money is important for maximizing impact and replenishments. The Global Fund should routinely track HIV/AIDs grant expenditures to disease control, service integration, and overall health systems strengthening. The current PBF system

  12. Methods for systematic reviews of administrative database studies capturing health outcomes of interest.

    PubMed

    McPheeters, Melissa L; Sathe, Nila A; Jerome, Rebecca N; Carnahan, Ryan M

    2013-12-30

    This report provides an overview of methods used to conduct systematic reviews for the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Mini-Sentinel project, which is designed to inform the development of safety monitoring tools for FDA-regulated products including vaccines. The objective of these reviews was to summarize the literature describing algorithms (e.g., diagnosis or procedure codes) to identify health outcomes in administrative and claims data. A particular focus was the validity of the algorithms when compared to reference standards such as diagnoses in medical records. The overarching goal was to identify algorithms that can accurately identify the health outcomes for safety surveillance. We searched the MEDLINE database via PubMed and required dual review of full text articles and of data extracted from studies. We also extracted data on each study's methods for case validation. We reviewed over 5600 abstracts/full text studies across 15 health outcomes of interest. Nearly 260 studies met our initial criteria (conducted in the US or Canada, used an administrative database, reported case-finding algorithm). Few studies (N=45), however, reported validation of case-finding algorithms (sensitivity, specificity, positive or negative predictive value). Among these, the most common approach to validation was to calculate positive predictive values, based on a review of medical records as the reference standard. Of the studies reporting validation, the ease with which a given clinical condition could be identified in administrative records varied substantially, both by the clinical condition and by other factors such as the clinical setting, which relates to the disease prevalence.

  13. Collaborative Embodied Learning in Mixed Reality Motion-Capture Environments: Two Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Birchfield, David A.; Tolentino, Lisa; Koziupa, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigate the extent to which an Embodied Mixed Reality Learning Environment (EMRELE) can enhance science learning compared to regular classroom instruction. Mixed reality means that physical tangible and digital components were present. The content for the EMRELE required that students map abstract concepts and relations onto…

  14. Design-Based Research Principles for Student Orientation to Online Study: Capturing the Lessons Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Helen; Pizzica, Jenny; Mahony, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    Few institutions have reported research on students' "use" of orientation programs designed for mature students returning to study in contemporary learning environments now regularly amalgamating distance and online strategies. We report within a design-based research framework the student experience of "GetLearning," the third…

  15. Responses to Curriculum Pressures: A Policy-Capturing Study of Teacher Decisions about Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floden, R. E.; And Others

    This study attempts to determine the relative power of six factors that might influence decisions of teachers about the content of fourth-grade mathematics: district tests, mandated textbooks, the principal's opinion, and parents' opinions. Sixty-six teachers were presented with descriptions of hypothetical school districts constructed to provide…

  16. Remote Capture of Human Voice Acoustical Data by Telephone: A Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Reilly, Nicole; Mundt, James C.; Snyder, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    In this pilot study we sought to determine the reliability and validity of collecting speech and voice acoustical data via telephone transmission for possible future use in large clinical trials. Simultaneous recordings of each participant's speech and voice were made at the point of participation, the local recording (LR), and over a telephone…

  17. Collaborative Embodied Learning in Mixed Reality Motion-Capture Environments: Two Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Birchfield, David A.; Tolentino, Lisa; Koziupa, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigate the extent to which an Embodied Mixed Reality Learning Environment (EMRELE) can enhance science learning compared to regular classroom instruction. Mixed reality means that physical tangible and digital components were present. The content for the EMRELE required that students map abstract concepts and relations onto…

  18. Study on the ultrasonic inspection method using the full matrix capture for the in service railway wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Jianping; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Peng, Chaoyong

    2014-02-18

    The quality of wheel is especially important for the safety of high speed railway. In this paper, a new ultrasonic array inspection method, the Full Matrix Capture (FMC) has been studied and applied to the high speed railway wheel inspection, especially in the wheel web from the tread. Firstly, the principle of FMC and TFM algorithm is discussed, and then the new optimization is applied to the standard FMC; Secondly the fundamentals of optimization is described in detail and the performance is analyzed. Finally, the experiment has been built with a standard phased array block and railway wheel, and then the testing results are discussed and analyzed. It is demonstrated that this change for the ultrasonic data acquisition and image reconstruction has higher efficiency and lower cost comparing to the FMC's procedure.

  19. Data capture by digital pen in clinical trials: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Estellat, Candice; Tubach, Florence; Costa, Yolande; Hoffmann, Isabelle; Mantz, Jean; Ravaud, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the use of the digital pen (DP) system to collect data in a clinical trial. To assess the accuracy of the system in this setting. Qualitative study based on semistructured interviews and a focus group. Quantitative study comparing the DP system and a double manual data-entry system in accuracy of acquiring data by variable type (tick boxes, dates, numbers, letters). An ongoing randomised multicentric clinical trial in tertiary care in France. 27 investigators involved in the trial (anaesthetists) who did or did not include patients, 4 study monitors and the study coordinator. Six key findings emerged: 1) the DP system was easy to use; its utilisation was intuitive, even for investigators inexperienced in informatics; 2) despite its portability, the DP was not always used in front of patients; 3) the DP system did not affect patient recruitment; 4) most of the technical problems of the system occurred during setup (compatibility, password access, antivirus software); 5) the main advantage was quickness of data availability for the study coordination staff and the main hindrance was the extra time required for online verification; and 6) all investigators were ready to use the system again. The investigators had to check 16% of data obtained by the DP system during the verification step. There is no relevant difference between the number of errors for the DP and the double manual data-entry systems: 8/5022 versus 6/5022 data entries. 5 out of 8 DP-system failures were due to the intelligent character recognition system. The DP system has a good acceptability among all investigators in a clinical setting, whether they are experienced with computers or not, and a good accuracy, as compared with double manual data entry.

  20. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating net precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise estimates of net precipitation are required for many hydrological applications. For instance, most interception models require high quality estimates of the canopy storage capacity and the free throughfall coefficient. Good estimates of these parameters, in turn, critically depend on the quality of throughfall estimates. Previous attempts to guide throughfall sampling focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design. Comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent, i.e. the size of the area under study. In this contribution we investigate the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for simply structured and heterogeneous forest ecosystems. We based our investigation on stochastic simulations which we derived from large empirical throughfall datasets. Using the simulated throughfall fields, we conducted virtual sampling experiments using a number of typical extents. We ran these tests both for a range of event sizes and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus long-term) and to the complexity of the system under study.

  1. A grand canonical Monte Carlo study of SO2 capture using functionalized bilayer graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Manish; Singh, Jayant K.

    2017-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation is used to study the adsorption of pure SO2 using a functionalized bilayer graphene nanoribbon (GNR) at 303 K. The functional groups considered in this work are OH, COOH, NH2, NO2, and CH3. The mole percent of functionalization considered in this work is in the range of 3.125%-6.25%. GCMC simulation is further used to study the selective adsorption of SO2 from binary and ternary mixtures of SO2, CO2, and N2, of variable composition using the functionalized bilayer graphene nanoribbon at 303 K. This study shows that the adsorption and selectivity of SO2 increase after the functionalization of the nanoribbon compared to the hydrogen terminated nanoribbon. The order of adsorption capacity and selectivity of the functionalized nanoribbon is found to follow the order COOH > NO2 > NH2 > CH3 > OH > H. The selectivity of SO2 is found to be maximum at a pressure less than 0.2 bar. Furthermore, SO2 selectivity and adsorption capacity decrease with increase in the molar ratio of SO2/N2 mixture from 1:1 to 1:9. In the case of ternary mixture of SO2, CO2, N2, having compositions of 0.05, 0.15, 0.8, the selectivity of SO2 over N2 is higher than that of CO2 over N2. The maximum selectivity of SO2 over CO2 is observed for the COOH functionalized GNR followed by NO2 and other functionalized GNRs.

  2. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2017-01-01

    There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smart-phone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness–eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R2=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R2=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R2=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances. PMID:28331379

  3. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2017-01-01

    There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smart-phone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness-eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R(2)=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R(2)=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R(2)=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances.

  4. Radiative capture studies of the electromagnetic decays of highly excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Snover, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Selected examples of interesting E1, M1, and E2 resonance studies in (p,..gamma..) and (..cap alpha..,..gamma..) reactions are discussed. These include a unique determination of E1 amplitudes in the /sup 12/C(P,..gamma../sub 0/)/sup 13/N reaction, E2 strength in light nuclei, M1 decays to the ground states and to the excited O/sup +/ states of the doubly magic /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca nuclei, second harmonic E1 resonances in (p,..gamma..), and M1 ..gamma..-decay of stretched particle-hole states in /sup 16/O and /sup 28/Si.

  5. A stochastic simulation model for Anelosimus studiosus during prey capture: a case study for determination of optimal spacing.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michele L; Ross, Chelsea R; Watts, Colton; Jones, Thomas C

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a stochastic differential equation model to simulate the movement of a social/subsocial spider species, Anelosimus studiosus, during prey capture using experimental data collected in a structured environment. In a subsocial species, females and their maturing offspring share a web and cooperate in web maintenance and prey capture. Furthermore, observations indicate these colonies change their positioning throughout the day, clustered during certain times of the day while spaced out at other times. One key question was whether or not the spiders spaced out ``optimally'' to cooperate in prey capture. In this paper, we first show the derivation of the model where experimental data is used to determine key parameters within the model. We then use this model to test the success of prey capture under a variety of different spatial configurations for varying colony sizes to determine the best spatial configuration for prey capture.

  6. Quantum Dynamics Study of the Isotopic Effect on Capture Reactions: HD, D2 + CH3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Dunyou; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Time-dependent wave-packet-propagation calculations are reported for the isotopic reactions, HD + CH3 and D2 + CH3, in six degrees of freedom and for zero total angular momentum. Initial state selected reaction probabilities for different initial rotational-vibrational states are presented in this study. This study shows that excitations of the HD(D2) enhances the reactivities; whereas the excitations of the CH3 umbrella mode have the opposite effects. This is consistent with the reaction of H2 + CH3. The comparison of these three isotopic reactions also shows the isotopic effects in the initial-state-selected reaction probabilities. The cumulative reaction probabilities (CRP) are obtained by summing over initial-state-selected reaction probabilities. The energy-shift approximation to account for the contribution of degrees of freedom missing in the six dimensionality calculation is employed to obtain approximate full-dimensional CRPs. The rate constant comparison shows H2 + CH3 reaction has the biggest reactivity, then HD + CH3, and D2 + CH3 has the smallest.

  7. A Contra Capture Protein Array Platform for Studying Post-translationally Modified (PTM) Auto-antigenomes*

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Kailash; Barker, Kristi; Tang, Yanyang; Kahn, Peter; Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Knabben, Vinicius; Takulapalli, Bharath; Buckner, Jane; Nepom, Gerald; LaBaer, Joshua; Qiu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant modifications of proteins occur during disease development and elicit disease-specific antibody responses. We have developed a protein array platform that enables the modification of many proteins in parallel and assesses their immunogenicity without the need to express, purify, and modify proteins individually. We used anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as a model modification and profiled antibody responses to ∼190 citrullinated proteins in 20 RA patients. We observed unique antibody reactivity patterns in both clinical anticyclic citrullinated peptide assay positive (CCP+) and CCP- RA patients. At individual antigen levels, we detected antibodies against known citrullinated autoantigens and discovered and validated five novel antibodies against specific citrullinated antigens (osteopontin (SPP1), flap endonuclease (FEN1), insulin like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), insulin like growth factor I (IGF1) and stanniocalcin-2 (STC2)) in RA patients. We also demonstrated the utility of our innovative array platform in the identification of immune-dominant epitope(s) for citrullinated antigens. We believe our platform will promote the study of post-translationally modified antigens at a breadth that has not been achieved before, by both identifying novel autoantigens and investigating their roles in disease development. The developed platforms can potentially be used to study many autoimmune disease-relevant modifications and their immunogenicity. PMID:27141097

  8. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  9. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  10. A DFT study on SO3 capture and activation over Si- or Al-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Saeidi, Nasibeh; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the adsorption and favorable reaction mechanism of SO3 reduction by CO molecule over Si- or Al-doped graphene using DFT calculations. The adsorption energy of the most stable configuration of SO3 is calculated to be about -103 and -124 kcal/mol over the Si- and Al-doped graphene, respectively. The SO3 reduction over these surfaces proceeds through the following elementary steps (a) SO3 → SO2 + Oads and (b) Oads + CO → CO2. The estimated activation energy (Eact) for the dissociation of SO3 over the Si-doped graphene is about 9 kcal/mol smaller than that on the Al-doped graphene.

  11. Ambient carbon dioxide capture by different dimensional AlN nanostructures: A comparative DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Nurazar, Roghaye; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-08-01

    Strong binding of an isolated carbon dioxide molecule over three different aluminium nitride (AlN) nanostructures (nanocage, nanotube and nanosheet) is verified using density functional calculations. Equilibrium geometries, electronic properties, adsorption energies and thermodynamic stability of each adsorbed configuration are also identified. Optimized configurations are shown at least one corresponding physisorption and chemisorption of CO2 molecule over different AlN nanostructures. Also, the effect of chirality on the adsorption of CO2 molecule is studied over two different finite-sized zigzag (6,0) and armchair (4,4) AlN nanotubes. It is found that the electronic properties of the Al12N12 nanocage are more sensitive to the CO2 molecule than other AlN nanostructures. This indicates the significant potential of Al12N12 nanocage toward the CO2 adsorption, fixation and catalytic applications in contrast to other AlN nanostructures.

  12. A family smoking index to capture genetic influence in smoking: rationale and two validation studies.

    PubMed

    Drobes, David J; Munafò, Marcus R; Leigh, Fiona; Saladin, Michael E

    2005-02-01

    Despite a growing appreciation that genetic factors may impart vulnerability toward smoking behavior, only a modest consensus has been created about the specific genetic mechanisms that may underlie various aspects of smoking. A core feature of genetic contribution toward any complex human behavior is familial resemblance. Most previous attempts to index familial smoking have classified individuals into discrete categories, based on the number of smokers in a family. We discuss the development of a continuous measure of familial smoking, the Family Smoking Index (FSI), which is based on the proportion of smokers in first- and second-degree family members and provides a more precise weighting according to genetic proximity. We present the psychometric characteristics of the FSI as well as initial validation data from two studies. We also describe current and future directions for continued FSI validation and application.

  13. Ceftaroline fosamil for treatment of diabetic foot infections: the CAPTURE study experience.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Cannon, Chad M; Ramani, Ananthakrishnan; Jandourek, Alena; Calmaggi, Anibal; Friedland, H D; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2015-05-01

    To ascertain which demographic, clinical, and microbiological factors might affect clinical outcomes of patients with diabetic foot infections, excluding known osteomyelitis, by analysing Clinical Assessment Program and Teflaro® Utilization Registry study data of patients treated with ceftaroline fosamil. At participating study centres, we collected data by randomized selection and chart review, including patient demographics, co-morbidities, infecting pathogens, antibiotic use, surgical interventions, and clinical response. Evaluable patients were those with data sufficient to determine clinical outcome. Clinical success was defined as clinical cure with no use of other antibiotics or clinical improvement with a switch to oral antibiotic therapy at the end of intravenous ceftaroline fosamil treatment. Among 201 patients (mean age 61.7 years, mean body mass index 33.2 and 57% male patients), 40% had peripheral vascular disease. Prior antibiotic therapy had been given to 161 (80%) of the patients, most commonly with vancomycin and/or piperacillin-tazobactam. Patients received ceftaroline fosamil for mean duration of 6.1 days (range 1-30), as monotherapy in 130 (65%) patients and concurrently with other antibiotics in 71 (35%). Bacterial pathogens were identified in 114 (57%) of the patients; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus were isolated from 56 (49%) and 28 (25%) of culture-positive patients respectively. Clinical success was noted in 81% of patients and was not significantly associated with co-morbidities, pathogen type, or need for surgical intervention. Ceftaroline fosamil treatment of diabetic foot infections was associated with high clinical success, including inpatients with obesity, co-morbidities, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or mixed infections or requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Predictive error detection in pianists: a combined ERP and motion capture study

    PubMed Central

    Maidhof, Clemens; Pitkäniemi, Anni; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing a piece of music involves the interplay of several cognitive and motor processes and requires extensive training to achieve a high skill level. However, even professional musicians commit errors occasionally. Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have investigated the neurophysiological correlates of pitch errors during piano performance, and reported pre-error negativity already occurring approximately 70–100 ms before the error had been committed and audible. It was assumed that this pre-error negativity reflects predictive control processes that compare predicted consequences with actual consequences of one's own actions. However, in previous investigations, correct and incorrect pitch events were confounded by their different tempi. In addition, no data about the underlying movements were available. In the present study, we exploratively recorded the ERPs and 3D movement data of pianists' fingers simultaneously while they performed fingering exercises from memory. Results showed a pre-error negativity for incorrect keystrokes when both correct and incorrect keystrokes were performed with comparable tempi. Interestingly, even correct notes immediately preceding erroneous keystrokes elicited a very similar negativity. In addition, we explored the possibility of computing ERPs time-locked to a kinematic landmark in the finger motion trajectories defined by when a finger makes initial contact with the key surface, that is, at the onset of tactile feedback. Results suggest that incorrect notes elicited a small difference after the onset of tactile feedback, whereas correct notes preceding incorrect ones elicited negativity before the onset of tactile feedback. The results tentatively suggest that tactile feedback plays an important role in error-monitoring during piano performance, because the comparison between predicted and actual sensory (tactile) feedback may provide the information necessary for the detection of an upcoming error. PMID

  15. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How much Federal funding can Reclamation... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.33 How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion...

  16. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How much Federal funding can Reclamation... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.33 How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion...

  17. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How much Federal funding can Reclamation... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.33 How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion...

  18. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How much Federal funding can Reclamation... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.33 How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion...

  19. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How much Federal funding can Reclamation... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.33 How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion...

  20. Accountability and Rural Development Partnerships: A Study of Objective 5b EAGGF Funding in South West England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Julie; Warren, Martyn; Turner, Martin; Hutchcroft, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Funding for Rural Development Partnerships has signalled a shift in rural policy, towards actively involving the rural population in determining the direction and implementation of change. However, early experience with partnerships has indicated that the funding bodies have retained significant control. One reason for this is that they are…

  1. Accountability and Rural Development Partnerships: A Study of Objective 5b EAGGF Funding in South West England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Julie; Warren, Martyn; Turner, Martin; Hutchcroft, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Funding for Rural Development Partnerships has signalled a shift in rural policy, towards actively involving the rural population in determining the direction and implementation of change. However, early experience with partnerships has indicated that the funding bodies have retained significant control. One reason for this is that they are…

  2. The physics of intact capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Peter; Griffiths, D. J.; Albee, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to capture projectiles intact at hypervelocities in underdense media open a new area of study in physics. Underdense material behaves markedly different than solid, liquid, or gas upon hypervelocity impact. This new phenomenon enables applications in science that would either not be possible or would be very costly by other means. This phenomenon has been fully demonstrated in the laboratory and validated in space. Even more interesting is the fact that this hypervelocity intact capture was accomplished passively. A better understanding of the physics of intact capture will lead to improvements in intact capture. A collection of physical observations of this phenomenon is presented here.

  3. The physics of intact capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Peter; Griffiths, D. J.; Albee, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to capture projectiles intact at hypervelocities in underdense media open a new area of study in physics. Underdense material behaves markedly different than solid, liquid, or gas upon hypervelocity impact. This new phenomenon enables applications in science that would either not be possible or would be very costly by other means. This phenomenon has been fully demonstrated in the laboratory and validated in space. Even more interesting is the fact that this hypervelocity intact capture was accomplished passively. A better understanding of the physics of intact capture will lead to improvements in intact capture. A collection of physical observations of this phenomenon is presented here.

  4. Effects of Sulfur Doping and Humidity on CO2 Capture by Graphite Split Pore: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Xue, Qingzhong; Chang, Xiao; Zhu, Lei; Ling, Cuicui; Zheng, Haixia

    2017-03-08

    By use of grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations, we study the effects of sulfur doping and humidity on the performance of graphite split pore as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. It is demonstrated that S doping can greatly enhance pure CO2 uptake by graphite split pore. For example, S-graphite split pore with 33.12% sulfur shows a 39.85% rise in pure CO2 uptake (51.001 mmol/mol) compared with pristine graphite split pore at 300 K and 1 bar. More importantly, it is found that S-graphite split pore can still maintain much higher CO2 uptake than that by pristine graphite split pore in the presence of water. Especially, uptake by 33.12% sulfur-doped S-graphite split pore is 51.963 mmol of CO2/mol in the presence of water, which is 44.34% higher than that by pristine graphite split pore at 300 K and 1 bar. In addition, CO2/N2 selectivity of S-graphite split pore increases with increasing S content, resulting from stronger interactions between CO2 and S-graphite split pore. Moreover, by use of density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that S doping can enhance adsorption energy between CO2 molecules and S-graphene surface at different humidities and furthermore enhance CO2 uptake by S-graphite split pore. Our results indicate that S-graphite split pore is a promising adsorbent material for humid CO2 capture.

  5. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the north Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKiver, W. J.; Sannino, G.; Braga, F.; Bellafiore, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM (shallow water hydrodynamic finite element model) and MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model), to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the north Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the north Adriatic Sea.

  6. Special Education Funding in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braeger, Todd; Cottle, Valerie; Gee, Eric J.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the funding of education programs for children with disabilities in Colorado. The report describes the characteristics of the students being served in special education, reviews Colorado's current system of funding special education, reviews the results of a survey given to…

  7. Biweekly disturbance capture and attribution: case study in western Alberta grizzly bear habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Thomas; Coops, Nicholas C.; Gaulton, Rachel; Wulder, Michael A.; Cranston, Jerome; Stenhouse, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the impact of landscape disturbance on ecosystems. Satellite remote sensing can be used for mapping disturbances, and fusion techniques of sensors with complimentary characteristics can help to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of satellite-based mapping techniques. Classification of different disturbance types from satellite observations is difficult, yet important, especially in an ecological context as different disturbance types might have different impacts on vegetation recovery, wildlife habitats, and food resources. We demonstrate a possible approach for classifying common disturbance types by means of their spatial characteristics. First, landscape level change is characterized on a near biweekly basis through application of a data fusion model (spatial temporal adaptive algorithm for mapping reflectance change) and a number of spatial and temporal characteristics of the predicted disturbance patches are inferred. A regression tree approach is then used to classify disturbance events. Our results show that spatial and temporal disturbance characteristics can be used to classify disturbance events with an overall accuracy of 86% of the disturbed area observed. The date of disturbance was identified as the most powerful predictor of the disturbance type, together with the patch core area, patch size, and contiguity.

  8. A pilot study of mercury liberation and capture from coal-fired power plant fly ash.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Gao, Xiaobing; Goeckner, Bryna; Kollakowsky, Dave; Ramme, Bruce

    2005-03-01

    The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal combustion products for use in construction materials. Both bench- and pilot-scale tests were conducted to liberate Hg using a thermal desorption process. The results indicated that up to 90% of the Hg could be liberated from the fly ash or fly-ash-and-activated-carbon mixture using a pilot-scale apparatus (air slide) at 538 degrees C with a very short retention time (less than 1 min). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation indicated no significant change in fly ash carbon particle morphology following the thermal treatment. Fly ash particles collected in the baghouse of the pilot-scale apparatus were smaller in size than those collected at the exit of the air slide. A similar trend was observed in carbon particles separated from the fly ash using froth flotation. The results of this study suggest a means for power plants to reduce the level of Hg in coal-combustion products and potentially recycle activated carbon while maintaining the resale value of fly ash. This technology is in the process of being patented.

  9. Capturing Heaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.

    2009-02-01

    Science communication, like other areas of study, features prominent figures who lead the field. One such individual is Jean-Pierre Luminet, a researcher, communicator, artist and author. As recipient of the 2007 European Science Communication Prize for Communicator of the Year, Jean-Pierre is at the forefront of his field. The CAPjournal editorial team interviewed Jean-Pierre to discover more about the man, his mission and his methods.

  10. "Can we declare victory and move on?" The case against funding burden-of-disease studies.

    PubMed

    Kymes, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Resources devoted to the development of burden-of-disease studies detract from much needed cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies. Practitioners need to help funders of burden-of-disease projects recognize the potential of all tools of decision analysis and economic evaluation in improving the efficiency and equity for the health care system.

  11. Creating Effective Learning Environments. Report of a Study Funded by the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    In 1987, Arizona State University initiated a national study of two-year college faculty behaviors that contribute to educational equity. During phase 1 of the study, field interviews and a literature review were used to develop an inventory of effective faculty behaviors. To determine the emphasis placed on these behaviors, phase 2 consisted of a…

  12. The impact of funding deadlines on personal workloads, stress and family relationships: a qualitative study of Australian researchers

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Danielle L; Coveney, John; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of applying for funding on personal workloads, stress and family relationships. Design Qualitative study of researchers preparing grant proposals. Setting Web-based survey on applying for the annual National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Project Grant scheme. Participants Australian researchers (n=215). Results Almost all agreed that preparing their proposals always took top priority over other work (97%) and personal (87%) commitments. Almost all researchers agreed that they became stressed by the workload (93%) and restricted their holidays during the grant writing season (88%). Most researchers agreed that they submitted proposals because chance is involved in being successful (75%), due to performance requirements at their institution (60%) and pressure from their colleagues to submit proposals (53%). Almost all researchers supported changes to the current processes to submit proposals (95%) and peer review (90%). Most researchers (59%) provided extensive comments on the impact of writing proposals on their work life and home life. Six major work life themes were: (1) top priority; (2) career development; (3) stress at work; (4) benefits at work; (5) time spent at work and (6) pressure from colleagues. Six major home life themes were: (1) restricting family holidays; (2) time spent on work at home; (3) impact on children; (4) stress at home; (5) impact on family and friends and (6) impact on partner. Additional impacts on the mental health and well-being of researchers were identified. Conclusions The process of preparing grant proposals for a single annual deadline is stressful, time consuming and conflicts with family responsibilities. The timing of the funding cycle could be shifted to minimise applicant burden, give Australian researchers more time to work on actual research and to be with their families. PMID:24682577

  13. Demographic and regional disparities in insulin pump utilization in a setting of universal funding: a New Zealand nationwide study.

    PubMed

    McKergow, Erin; Parkin, Lianne; Barson, David J; Sharples, Katrina J; Wheeler, Benjamin J

    2017-01-01

    Insulin pumps have been publically funded in New Zealand since 2012 for patients who meet certain clinical criteria; however, the patterns of utilization have not been described. We undertook a nationwide study to estimate the annual proportions of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who used a pump between 2012 and 2014, overall, and according to sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and region. We used data from the New Zealand Virtual Diabetes Register and routinely collected national demographic, health, and pharmaceutical dispensing data from the Ministry of Health to identify patients with type 1 diabetes and to calculate the overall, and subgroup, proportions using pumps. Between 2012 and 2014, funded pump use among patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 13,727) increased from 1.8 to 9.3 % overall; however, there were differences in uptake according to demographic characteristics and region. In 2014, proportionate pump use was significantly higher in females versus males (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.0 [95 % confidence interval 1.8-2.3]), in those aged <20 years, and in some regions. Māori (indigenous people), Pacific, and Asian patients were significantly less likely to use pumps than New Zealand Europeans (ORs 0.30 [0.23-0.41], 0.26 [0.14-0.46], 0.22 [0.14-0.35], respectively), as were those in the most versus the least deprived socioeconomic decile (OR 0.36 [0.25-0.52]). It is essential to explore the factors driving differential insulin pump uptake, in both New Zealand and elsewhere, if all patients are to have equal opportunity to benefit from intensive diabetes management.

  14. The impact of funding deadlines on personal workloads, stress and family relationships: a qualitative study of Australian researchers.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Danielle L; Coveney, John; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G

    2014-03-28

    To examine the impact of applying for funding on personal workloads, stress and family relationships. Qualitative study of researchers preparing grant proposals. Web-based survey on applying for the annual National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Project Grant scheme. Australian researchers (n=215). Almost all agreed that preparing their proposals always took top priority over other work (97%) and personal (87%) commitments. Almost all researchers agreed that they became stressed by the workload (93%) and restricted their holidays during the grant writing season (88%). Most researchers agreed that they submitted proposals because chance is involved in being successful (75%), due to performance requirements at their institution (60%) and pressure from their colleagues to submit proposals (53%). Almost all researchers supported changes to the current processes to submit proposals (95%) and peer review (90%). Most researchers (59%) provided extensive comments on the impact of writing proposals on their work life and home life. Six major work life themes were: (1) top priority; (2) career development; (3) stress at work; (4) benefits at work; (5) time spent at work and (6) pressure from colleagues. Six major home life themes were: (1) restricting family holidays; (2) time spent on work at home; (3) impact on children; (4) stress at home; (5) impact on family and friends and (6) impact on partner. Additional impacts on the mental health and well-being of researchers were identified. The process of preparing grant proposals for a single annual deadline is stressful, time consuming and conflicts with family responsibilities. The timing of the funding cycle could be shifted to minimise applicant burden, give Australian researchers more time to work on actual research and to be with their families.

  15. [Prioritization and Consentation of Criteria for the Appraisal, Funding and Evaluation of Projects from the German Innovationsfonds: A multi-perspective Delphi study].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J; Petzold, T; Nellessen-Martens, G; Pfaff, H

    2015-09-01

    The German Innovationsfonds provides the chance for evidence-based developments of the German healthcare system. Prioritization of recommendations for an effective, efficient, fair, transparent, and sustainable granting of funds through a transparent, evidence-driven consensus-process involving all relevant stakeholder groups. Representatives from health and research policy, payers, patient representatives, healthcare providers, and scientists were invited to nominate participants for an electronic 3 round iterative Delphi-study to prioritize the thematic focus, requirements concerning study methods, the team of applicants, evaluation, utilization of study results, and for the selection of reviewers. Criteria considered as relevant by at least 60% of the panel (consensus definition) in the first 2 Delphi rounds were rated as facultative, preferable, or obligatory criteria for project funding. Data were analyzed descriptively. ( Datenbank Versorgungsforschung Deutschland VfD_15_003561). All invited stakeholder groups except payers participated. 34 (85%) of 40 nominated representatives participated in the Delphi-study. A total of 64 criteria were consented as relevant for project review and funding concerning the thematic focus (n=28), methodological requirements (n=13), requirements for applicants (n=4), for the evaluation (n=4), utilization (n=6), and selection of peer reviewers (n=9). It is the collective responsibility of all stakeholders to spend the designated funds as efficient and sustainable as possible. The consented recommendations shall serve decision makers as a resource for the granting of funds and the evaluation of the Innovationsfonds. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2017-09-20

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  17. Implementing the Mission-Funded Naval Shipyard: A Case Study on Change Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    change management and an organizational open-systems framework are used to provide guidelines for shipyard change managers. The transition of the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard provided a case study for applying this managerial theory. The six guidelines of change management were found to have applications for the case study, revealing the need for a clear vision statement, a leadership core, communication on multiple levels, attention to change inertia, and rewards for change behavior during a transformation. Furthermore, six key factors for success at

  18. Sample size and number of outcome measures of veterinary randomised controlled trials of pharmaceutical interventions funded by different sources, a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wareham, K J; Hyde, R M; Grindlay, D; Brennan, M L; Dean, R S

    2017-10-04

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are a key component of the veterinary evidence base. Sample sizes and defined outcome measures are crucial components of RCTs. To describe the sample size and number of outcome measures of veterinary RCTs either funded by the pharmaceutical industry or not, published in 2011. A structured search of PubMed identified RCTs examining the efficacy of pharmaceutical interventions. Number of outcome measures, number of animals enrolled per trial, whether a primary outcome was identified, and the presence of a sample size calculation were extracted from the RCTs. The source of funding was identified for each trial and groups compared on the above parameters. Literature searches returned 972 papers; 86 papers comprising 126 individual trials were analysed. The median number of outcomes per trial was 5.0; there were no significant differences across funding groups (p = 0.133). The median number of animals enrolled per trial was 30.0; this was similar across funding groups (p = 0.302). A primary outcome was identified in 40.5% of trials and was significantly more likely to be stated in trials funded by a pharmaceutical company. A very low percentage of trials reported a sample size calculation (14.3%). Failure to report primary outcomes, justify sample sizes and the reporting of multiple outcome measures was a common feature in all of the clinical trials examined in this study. It is possible some of these factors may be affected by the source of funding of the studies, but the influence of funding needs to be explored with a larger number of trials. Some veterinary RCTs provide a weak evidence base and targeted strategies are required to improve the quality of veterinary RCTs to ensure there is reliable evidence on which to base clinical decisions.

  19. Patient and Other Stakeholder Engagement in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Funded Studies of Patients with Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cukor, Daniel; Cohen, Lewis M.; Cope, Elizabeth L.; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Hedayati, S. Susan; Hynes, Denise M.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Tentori, Francesca; Unruh, Mark; Bobelu, Jeanette; Cohen, Scott; Dember, Laura M.; Faber, Thomas; Fischer, Michael J.; Gallardo, Rani; Germain, Michael J.; Ghahate, Donica; Grote, Nancy; Hartwell, Lori; Heagerty, Patrick; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kutner, Nancy; Lawson, Susan; Marr, Lisa; Nelson, Robert G.; Porter, Anna C.; Sandy, Phillip; Struminger, Bruce B.; Subramanian, Lalita; Weisbord, Steve; Young, Bessie

    2016-01-01

    Including target populations in the design and implementation of research trials has been one response to the growing health disparities endemic to our health care system, as well as an aid to study generalizability. One type of community-based participatory research is “Patient Centered-Research”, in which patient perspectives on the germane research questions and methodologies are incorporated into the study. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) has mandated that meaningful patient and stakeholder engagement be incorporated into all applications. As of March 2015, PCORI funded seven clinically-focused studies of patients with kidney disease. The goal of this paper is to synthesize the experiences of these studies to gain an understanding of how meaningful patient and stakeholder engagement can occur in clinical research of kidney diseases, and what the key barriers are to its implementation. Our collective experience suggests that successful implementation of a patient- and stakeholder-engaged research paradigm involves: (1) defining the roles and process for the incorporation of input; (2) identifying the particular patients and other stakeholders; (3) engaging patients and other stakeholders so they appreciate the value of their own participation and have personal investment in the research process; and (4) overcoming barriers and challenges that arise and threaten the productivity of the collaboration. It is our hope that the experiences of these studies will further interest and capacity for incorporating patient and stakeholder perspectives in research of kidney diseases. PMID:27197911

  20. Cost-effective enrichment hybridization capture of chloroplast genomes at deep multiplexing levels for population genetics and phylogeography studies.

    PubMed

    Mariac, Cédric; Scarcelli, Nora; Pouzadou, Juliette; Barnaud, Adeline; Billot, Claire; Faye, Adama; Kougbeadjo, Ayite; Maillol, Vincent; Martin, Guillaume; Sabot, François; Santoni, Sylvain; Vigouroux, Yves; Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-11-01

    Biodiversity, phylogeography and population genetic studies will be revolutionized by access to large data sets thanks to next-generation sequencing methods. In this study, we develop an easy and cost-effective protocol for in-solution enrichment hybridization capture of complete chloroplast genomes applicable at deep-multiplexed levels. The protocol uses cheap in-house species-specific probes developed via long-range PCR of the entire chloroplast. Barcoded libraries are constructed, and in-solution enrichment of the chloroplasts is carried out using the probes. This protocol was tested and validated on six economically important West African crop species, namely African rice, pearl millet, three African yam species and fonio. For pearl millet, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of this protocol to retrieve 95% of the sequence of the whole chloroplast on 95 multiplexed individuals in a single MiSeq run at a success rate of 95%. This new protocol allows whole chloroplast genomes to be retrieved at a modest cost and will allow unprecedented resolution for closely related species in phylogeography studies using plastomes.

  1. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing cement plant using MEA scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Nazmul Hassan; Peter L. Douglas; Eric Croiset

    2007-03-15

    Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Man-made CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 63% of greenhouse gases and the cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of CO{sub 2} emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO{sub 2} per 1000 kg of cement. CO{sub 2} from a cement plant was captured and purified to 98% using the monoethanolamine (MEA) based absorption process. The capture cost was $51 per tonne of CO{sub 2} captured, representing approximately 90% of total cost. Steam was the main operating cost representing 39% of the total capture cost. Switching from coal to natural gas reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by about 18%. At normal load, about 36 MW of waste heat is available for recovery to satisfy the parasitic heat requirements of MEA process; however, it is very difficult to recover. 18 refs.

  2. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing cement plant using MEA scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, S.M.N.; Douglas, P.L.; Croiset, E.

    2007-03-15

    Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Man-made CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 63% of greenhouse gases and the cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of CO{sub 2} emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO{sub 2} per 1000 kg of cement. CO{sub 2} from a cement plant was captured and purified to 98% using the monoethanolamine (MEA) based absorption process. The capture cost was $51 per tonne of CO{sub 2} captured, representing approximately 90% of total cost. Steam was the main operating cost representing 39% of the total capture cost. Switching from coal to natural gas reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by about 18%. At normal load, about 36 MW of waste heat is available for recovery to satisfy the parasitic heat requirements of MEA process; however, it is very difficult to recover.

  3. Molecular Structural Analysis of Spider's Capture Thread and Viscid Droplets Studied by Microscopic FT-IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Hironobu; Katayama, Norihisa; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The molecular structural analysis of capture thread, including its viscid droplets of oriental golden orb-web spider Nephila clavata, has been performed by microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained spectra of capture threads with and without viscid droplets indicate that the features in the region of 1400 - 1000 cm(-1) will be useful as marker bands for the degree of the dissolving of viscid droplet; further, the bands at 1395 and 1335 cm(-1) are attributable to the components of anchoring granules located at the inner side of viscid droplets. By recrystallization and its infrared measurements, the main chemical component of viscid droplets is assignable to glycosylated proline. It has also been demonstrated that the components of the anchoring granule of a viscid droplet are decomposed by UV irradiation, and that the molecular conformation of silk fiber protein of a capture thread is denatured at over 60°C, whereas the viscid droplets on a capture thread retain their structure.

  4. Studies on depth-dose-distribution controls by deuteration and void formation in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori

    2004-08-07

    Physical studies on (i) replacement of heavy water for body water (deuteration), and (ii) formation of a void in human body (void formation) were performed as control techniques for dose distribution in a human head under neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were performed for a human-head-size cylindrical phantom using a two-dimensional transport calculation code for mono-energetic incidences of higher-energy epi-thermal neutrons (1.2-10 keV), lower-energy epi-thermal neutrons (3.1-23 eV) and thermal neutrons (1 meV to 0.5 eV). The deuteration was confirmed to be effective both in thermal neutron incidence and in epi-thermal neutron incidence from the viewpoints of improvement of the thermal neutron flux distribution and elimination of the secondary gamma rays. For the void formation, a void was assumed to be 4 cm in diameter and 3 cm in depth at the surface part in this study. It was confirmed that the treatable depth was improved almost 2 cm for any incident neutron energy in the case of the 10 cm irradiation field diameter. It was made clear that the improvement effect was larger in isotropic incidence than in parallel incidence, in the case that an irradiation field size was delimited fitting into a void diameter.

  5. Study of human body: Kinematics and kinetics of a martial arts (Silat) performers using 3D-motion capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi Awang; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2015-04-01

    The Interest in this studies of human kinematics goes back very far in human history drove by curiosity or need for the understanding the complexity of human body motion. To find new and accurate information about the human movement as the advance computing technology became available for human movement that can perform. Martial arts (silat) were chose and multiple type of movement was studied. This project has done by using cutting-edge technology which is 3D motion capture to characterize and to measure the motion done by the performers of martial arts (silat). The camera will detect the markers (infrared reflection by the marker) around the performer body (total of 24 markers) and will show as dot in the computer software. The markers detected were analyzing using kinematic kinetic approach and time as reference. A graph of velocity, acceleration and position at time,t (seconds) of each marker was plot. Then from the information obtain, more parameters were determined such as work done, momentum, center of mass of a body using mathematical approach. This data can be used for development of the effectiveness movement in martial arts which is contributed to the people in arts. More future works can be implemented from this project such as analysis of a martial arts competition.

  6. In vitro and in vivo studies of boron neutron capture therapy: boron uptake/washout and cell death.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C; Bakeine, J; Ballarini, F; Boninella, A; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Coppola, A; Di Liberto, R; Dionigi, P; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy based on thermal-neutron irradiation of cells enriched with (10)B, which produces α particles and (7)Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness. The selective uptake of boron by tumor cells is a crucial issue for BNCT, and studies of boron uptake and washout associated with cell survival studies can be of great help in developing clinical applications. In this work, boron uptake and washout were characterized both in vitro for the DHDK12TRb (DHD) rat colon carcinoma cell line and in vivo using rats bearing liver metastases from DHD cells. Despite a remarkable uptake, a large boron release was observed after removal of the boron-enriched medium from in vitro cell cultures. However, analysis of boron washout after rat liver perfusion in vivo did not show a significant boron release, suggesting that organ perfusion does not limit the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. The survival of boron-loaded cells exposed to thermal neutrons was also assessed; the results indicated that the removal of extracellular boron does not limit treatment effectiveness if adequate amounts of boron are delivered and if the cells are kept at low temperature. Cell survival was also investigated theoretically using a mechanistic model/Monte Carlo code originally developed for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and extended here to cell death; good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental data was obtained. © 2011 by Radiation Research Society

  7. NCLB Low Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the impact brought about by the "No Child Left Behind" Act (NCLB) on school funding. Because of changes in the funding formulas, most of the increased funding will go to districts in which the highest number of poor children reside. Districts which are less impacted by poverty will lose funding. The…

  8. Successful Community College Fund-Raising Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Spencer

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a study whose primary purposes were to determine the characteristics of an effective fund-raising program, the marketing practices that contribute to the success of a fund-raising program, and factors of the development system's influence on a fund-raising program. This study utilized a Delphi research instrument. Initially,…

  9. Video capture of the circumstances of falls in elderly people residing in long-term care: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Robinovitch, Stephen N; Feldman, Fabio; Yang, Yijian; Schonnop, Rebecca; Lueng, Pet Ming; Sarraf, Thiago; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Loughin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Falls in elderly people are a major health burden, especially in the long-term care environment. Yet little objective evidence is available for how and why falls occur in this population. We aimed to provide such evidence by analysing real-life falls in long-term care captured on video. Methods We did this observational study between April 20, 2007, and June 23, 2010, in two long-term care facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Digital video cameras were installed in common areas (dining rooms, lounges, hallways). When a fall occurred, facility staff completed an incident report and contacted our teams so that we could collect video footage. A team reviewed each fall video with a validated questionnaire that probed the cause of imbalance and activity at the time of falling. We then tested whether differences existed in the proportion of participants falling due to the various causes, and while engaging in various activities, with generalised linear models, repeated measures logistic regression, and log-linear Poisson regression. Findings We captured 227 falls from 130 individuals (mean age 78 years, SD 10). The most frequent cause of falling was incorrect weight shifting, which accounted for 41% (93 of 227) of falls, followed by trip or stumble (48, 21%), hit or bump (25, 11%), loss of support (25, 11%), and collapse (24, 11%). Slipping accounted for only 3% (six) of falls. The three activities associated with the highest proportion of falls were forward walking (54 of 227 falls, 24%), standing quietly (29 falls, 13%), and sitting down (28 falls, 12%). Compared with previous reports from the long-term care setting, we identified a higher occurrence of falls during standing and transferring, a lower occurrence during walking, and a larger proportion due to centre-of-mass perturbations than base-of-support perturbations. Interpretation By providing insight into the sequences of events that most commonly lead to falls, our results should lead to

  10. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Classroom Quality and Child Language and Academic Outcomes in a State-Funded Prekindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Googe, Heather Smith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to evaluate the relationship between classroom process quality and child language and academic outcomes from the beginning of the pre-kindergarten year to the beginning of the kindergarten year for one cohort of children participating in a state-funded pre-kindergarten program in South Carolina. Data for my study were…

  11. A Study of the Students and Programs Supported by General Fund Grants to School Districts for the Special Education of Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young (Arthur) and Co., Portland, OR.

    Presented is the final report of an Oregon study (for the 1975-77 biennium) to determine existing funding patterns for state special education programs and to suggest alternative formulas for state reimbursement of school district expenditures for handicapped children. After an introduction, major study findings (such as the need for clarification…

  12. Funding Continuing Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Discussion and Case Studies from across the EU. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukkinen, Tommi; Romijn, Clemens; Elson-Rogers, Sarah

    There are three main parts to this report of a study that used case studies to showcase the different approaches used to encourage more continuing training within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across the European Union (EU). Section 1 discusses the importance of funding training in SMEs and highlights the various types of funding…

  13. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Classroom Quality and Child Language and Academic Outcomes in a State-Funded Prekindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Googe, Heather Smith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to evaluate the relationship between classroom process quality and child language and academic outcomes from the beginning of the pre-kindergarten year to the beginning of the kindergarten year for one cohort of children participating in a state-funded pre-kindergarten program in South Carolina. Data for my study were…

  14. Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance: The 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) Grantees after Two Years. NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2015-4022

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  15. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    SciTech Connect

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Jorge E. Cardoso; Lucas L. Colombo; Susana Nievas; David W. Nigg; Romina F. Aromando

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of liver metastases: biodistribution studies of boron compounds in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J; Heber, Elisa M; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Cardoso, Jorge E; Colombo, Lucas L; Nievas, Susana; Nigg, David W; Aromando, Romina F; Itoiz, Maria E; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2011-03-01

    We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of (10)B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na(2)(10)B(10)H(10)), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  17. Comparison between proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): a Monte Carlo study

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Brendan; Lee, Heui Chang; Suh, Tae Suk; Lu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare between proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and to analyze dose escalation using a Monte Carlo simulation. We simulated a proton beam passing through the water with a boron uptake region (BUR) in MCNPX. To estimate the interaction between neutrons/protons and borons by the alpha particle, the simulation yielded with a variation of the center of the BUR location and proton energies. The variation and influence about the alpha particle were observed from the percent depth dose (PDD) and cross-plane dose profile of both the neutron and proton beams. The peak value of the maximum dose level when the boron particle was accurately labeled at the region was 192.4% among the energies. In all, we confirmed that prompt gamma rays of 478 keV and 719 keV were generated by the nuclear reactions in PBFT and BNCT, respectively. We validated the dramatic effectiveness of the alpha particle, especially in PBFT. The utility of PBFT was verified using the simulation and it has a potential for application in radiotherapy. PMID:28427153

  18. Thermal degradation of aqueous 2-aminoethylethanolamine in CO2 capture; identification of degradation products, reaction mechanisms and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Idris Mohamed; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Mazari, Shaukat Ali; Si Ali, B; Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Asghar, Anam; Ghalib, Lubna; Jan, Badrul Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Amine degradation is the main significant problems in amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture, causes foaming, increase in viscosity, corrosion, fouling as well as environmental issues. Therefore it is very important to develop the most efficient solvent with high thermal and chemical stability. This study investigated thermal degradation of aqueous 30% 2-aminoethylethanolamine (AEEA) using 316 stainless steel cylinders in the presence and absence of CO2 for 4 weeks. The degradation products were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS). The results showed AEEA is stable in the absence of CO2, while in the presence of CO2 AEEA showed to be very unstable and numbers of degradation products were identified. 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2-imidazolidinone (HEIA) was the most abundance degradation product. A possible mechanism for the thermal degradation of AEEA has been developed to explain the formation of degradation products. In addition, the reaction energy of formation of the most abundance degradation product HEIA was calculated using quantum mechanical calculation.

  19. UK research funding bodies' views towards public participation in health-related research decisions: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Hilton, Shona

    2014-07-24

    A challenge facing science is how to renew and improve its relationship with society. One potential solution is to ensure that the public are more involved in the scientific process from the inception of research plans to scientific dissemination strategies. However, to date, little is known about how research funding bodies view public participation in research funding decisions, and how they involve the public into their strategies and practices. This paper provides insights into how key representatives working in the UK non-commercial research funding sector perceive public participation in health-related research funding decisions and the possible implications of these. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders from 10 UK non-commercial research funding bodies that either partially or exclusively fund health-related research. The findings were written up in thematic narrative form. The different disciplines that encompass health research, and their differing frames of 'science and society', were found to influence how research funding bodies viewed and implemented public participation in research funding decisions. Relevant subsets of the public were more likely to be involved in research funding decisions than lay public, which could be linked to underlying technocratic rationales. Concerns about public participation stemmed from the highly professionalised scientific environment that the public were exposed to. Additionally, from a more positivist frame, concerns arose regarding subjective views and values held by the public that may damage the integrity of science. Underlying assumptions of technocracy largely appear to be driving PP/PE within the research grant review process, even in funding bodies that have overtly democratic ideals. Some conceptions of technocracy were more inclusive than others, welcoming different types of expertise such as patient or research-user experiences and knowledge, while others suggested

  20. UK research funding bodies’ views towards public participation in health-related research decisions: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A challenge facing science is how to renew and improve its relationship with society. One potential solution is to ensure that the public are more involved in the scientific process from the inception of research plans to scientific dissemination strategies. However, to date, little is known about how research funding bodies view public participation in research funding decisions, and how they involve the public into their strategies and practices. This paper provides insights into how key representatives working in the UK non-commercial research funding sector perceive public participation in health-related research funding decisions and the possible implications of these. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders from 10 UK non-commercial research funding bodies that either partially or exclusively fund health-related research. The findings were written up in thematic narrative form. Results The different disciplines that encompass health research, and their differing frames of ‘science and society’, were found to influence how research funding bodies viewed and implemented public participation in research funding decisions. Relevant subsets of the public were more likely to be involved in research funding decisions than lay public, which could be linked to underlying technocratic rationales. Concerns about public participation stemmed from the highly professionalised scientific environment that the public were exposed to. Additionally, from a more positivist frame, concerns arose regarding subjective views and values held by the public that may damage the integrity of science. Conclusion Underlying assumptions of technocracy largely appear to be driving PP/PE within the research grant review process, even in funding bodies that have overtly democratic ideals. Some conceptions of technocracy were more inclusive than others, welcoming different types of expertise such as patient or research-user experiences

  1. Coincidence studies of capture and ionization in highly charged Iq+-He and Uq+-He collisions at medium velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datz, S.; Hippler, R.; Andersen, L. H.; Dittner, P. F.; Knudsen, H.; Krause, H. F.; Miller, P. D.; Pepmiller, P. L.; Rosseel, T.; Schuch, R.; Stolterfoht, N.; Yamazaki, Y.; Vane, C. R.

    1990-04-01

    Electron capture and ionization processes were investigated for Iq+-He and Uq+-He collisions at incident energies 0.1-1.0 MeV/nucleon and for incident charge states q=5-44. Cross sections for single-electron capture, transfer ionization, single ionization, and double ionization were obtained using a projectile-ion recoil-ion coincidence technique. A pronounced interplay among the different electronic processes was observed. Cross sections for single ionization show a rather weak charge-state dependence, in disagreement with recent calculations of McKenzie and Olson [Phys. Rev. A 35, 2863 (1987)]. In a second experiment, photon recoil-ion coincidences were measured to obtain partial cross sections for capture into certain projectile n states. These measurements provide strong evidence that transfer ionization populates lower projectile n states than does single-electron capture. Zero-degree electron spectroscopy, coincident with charge capture for 0.5 MeV/nucleon U30+ projectiles revealed that the free electron in transfer ionization is released from the projectile to its continuum and from high-lying Rydberg states of the projectile.

  2. Assessment of congruence and impingement of the hip joint in professional ballet dancers: a motion capture study.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Caecilia; Kolo, Frank C; Duthon, Victoria B; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Becker, Christoph D; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Menetrey, Jacques

    2011-03-01

    Early hip osteoarthritis in dancers could be explained by femoroacetabular impingements. However, there is a lack of validated noninvasive methods and dynamic studies to ascertain impingement during motion. Moreover, it is unknown whether the femoral head and acetabulum are congruent in typical dancing positions. The practice of some dancing movements could cause a loss of hip joint congruence and recurrent impingements, which could lead to early osteoarthritis. Descriptive laboratory study. Eleven pairs of female dancer's hips were motion captured with an optical tracking system while performing 6 different dancing movements. The resulting computed motions were applied to patient-specific hip joint 3-dimensional models based on magnetic resonance images. While visualizing the dancer's hip in motion, the authors detected impingements using computer-assisted techniques. The range of motion and congruence of the hip joint were also quantified in those 6 recorded dancing movements. The frequency of impingement and subluxation varied with the type of movement. Four dancing movements (développé à la seconde, grand écart facial, grand écart latéral, and grand plié) seem to induce significant stress in the hip joint, according to the observed high frequency of impingement and amount of subluxation. The femoroacetabular translations were high (range, 0.93 to 6.35 mm). For almost all movements, the computed zones of impingement were mainly located in the superior or posterosuperior quadrant of the acetabulum, which was relevant with respect to radiologically diagnosed damaged zones in the labrum. All dancers' hips were morphologically normal. Impingements and subluxations are frequently observed in typical ballet movements, causing cartilage hypercompression. These movements should be limited in frequency. The present study indicates that some dancing movements could damage the hip joint, which could lead to early osteoarthritis.

  3. Single and double electron capture from He by Ar{sup 16+} studied using cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, M.A.; Wolff, W.; Wolf, H.E.; Kamber, E.Y.; Stoeckli, M.; Cocke, C.L.

    1998-10-01

    Single and double electron capture from He targets by Ar{sup 16+} ions have been studied at projectile velocities from 0.3 to 1.5 a.u. Cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy was used to record the energy gain and scattering angle simultaneously. For single capture, the reaction window is found to spread in width approximately as the square root of the projectile velocity and to shift slightly toward smaller energy-gain values as the velocity increases. The angular distributions center at the half Coulomb angle over most of the velocity range covered, but differ in shape from multichannel Landau-Zener model results. For double capture, transfer ionization dominates and feeds primarily n-symmetric states, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number. True double capture feeds mainly n-asymmetric states. The angular distributions for double capture lie outside the half Coulomb angle, indicating the importance of two-step processes in populating doubly excited states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. A participant observation study using actors at 30 publicly funded HIV counseling and testing sites in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, A J; Gehl, M B; Encandela, J; Schelzel, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to augment an evaluation of Pennsylvania publicly funded HIV counseling and testing sites, particularly of the staff-client interaction. METHODS: Actors were trained as research assistants and sent to 30 randomly chosen sites to be tested and counseled for HIV disease. Instruments based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines were designed and used to evaluate them. RESULTS: Data were generated that identified the range of compliance with CDC guidelines and state policy. Among the findings were that 10 of 30 sites required signed consents despite a state policy allowing anonymous testing. Only 17% of providers developed a written risk reduction plan, even though 69% of all sites surveyed by mail asserted that such plans were developed. Only 2 of 5 HIV-positive actors were offered partner notification services, even though 100% of sites visited by an interviewer claimed to offer such services. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that although evaluation methods such as mail surveys and site visits are useful for evaluating the existence of appropriate policies and protocols and gathering baseline data, they might not be sufficient for assessing actual staff-client interaction. PMID:10897188

  5. Health and medical research funding agencies' promotion of public engagement within research: a qualitative interview study exploring the United Kingdom context.

    PubMed

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Fergie, Gillian M; Hilton, Shona

    2016-03-24

    Public engagement (PE) has become a common feature of many liberal governmental agendas worldwide. Since the turn of this century there has been a succession of United Kingdom policy initiatives to encourage research funding agencies, universities and researchers to reconsider how they engage with citizens and communities. Although most funding agencies now explicitly promote PE within research, little empirical work has been carried out in this area. In this study, we explored why and how health and medical research funding agencies in the United Kingdom have interpreted and implemented their role to promote PE within research. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 key informants from 10 agencies that fund health or medical research. Data were also gathered from agencies' websites and documentation. The analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Across agencies, we found that PE was being interpreted and operationalised in various different ways. The terminology used within funding agencies to describe PE seems to be flexibly applied. Disciplinary differences were evident both in the terminology used to describe PE and the drivers for PE highlighted by participants - with applied health science funders more aligned with participatory models of PE. Within the grant funding process PE was rarely systematically treated as a key component of research. In particular, PE was not routinely incorporated into the planning of funding calls. PE was more likely to be considered in the application and assessment phases, where it was largely appraised as a tool for enhancing science. Concerns were expressed regarding how to monitor and evaluate PE within research. This study suggests funding agencies working within specific areas of health and medicine can promote particular definitions of PE and aligned practices which determine the boundaries in which researchers working in these areas understand and practice PE. Our study also highlights how the

  6. How Far Can the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Fly?: Computerized Flight Mill Studies With Field-Captured Weevils.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S; Hoddle, C D; Faleiro, J R; El-Shafie, H A F; Jeske, D R; Sallam, A A

    2015-12-01

    Adult Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) captured in pheromone-baited traps in commercial date palm orchards in the Al Ahsaa Directorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were used in computerized flight mill studies to determine the flight characteristics of this highly invasive and destructive palm pest. Flight mill studies were run at three different time periods, winter (December), spring (March), and summer (May). Of the 192 weevils tethered to flight mills ∼30% failed to fly > 1 km. Of those weevils flying > 1 km (n = 139), 55% flew > 10 km, and of these flyers 5% flew > 50 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of 20-30% and nonflying control weevils lost ∼9-13% body weight in 24 h. Male and female weevils flying in summer (average laboratory temperature was ∼27°C) flew the longest average distances (∼25-35 km), exhibited highest weight reductions (∼30%), and greatest mortality rates (∼80%). Consequently, time of year not weevil sex or color morph had a consistent and significant effect on flight activity, weight loss, and survivorship rates. Flight activity was predominantly diurnal commencing around 5:00 a.m. and peaking between 9-11:00 a.m. before tapering off. The distribution of flight distances combined across season and sex was mesokurtic (i.e., normally distributed). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M.

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  8. River Capture in Disequilibrium Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.; Willett, S.; Goren, L.

    2013-12-01

    The process of river piracy or river capture has long drawn interest as a potential mechanism by which drainage basins large and small evolve towards an equilibrium state. River capture transfers both drainage area and drainage lines from one river basin to another, which can cause large, abrupt shifts in network topology, drainage divide positions, and river incision rates. Despite numerous case studies in which river capture has been proposed to have occurred, there is no general, mechanistic framework for understanding the controls on river capture, nor are there quantitative criteria for determining if capture has occurred. Here we use new metrics of landscape disequilibrium to first identify landscapes in which drainage reorganization is occurring. These metrics are based on a balance between an integral of the contributing drainage area and elevation. In an analysis of rivers in the Eastern United States we find that many rivers are in a state of disequilibrium and are experiencing recent or ongoing area exchange between basins. In these disequilibrium basins we find widespread evidence for network rearrangement via river capture at multiple scales. We then conduct numerical experiments with a 2-D landscape evolution model to explore the conditions in which area exchange among drainage basins is likely to occur as discrete capture events as opposed to continuous divide migration. These experiments indicate that: (1) capture activity increases with the degree of disequilibrium induced by persistent spatial gradients in tectonic forcing or by temporal changes in climate or tectonic forcing; (2) capture activity is strongly controlled by the initial planform drainage network geometry; and (3) capture activity scales with the fluvial incision rate constant in the river power erosion law.

  9. Marketing, Information, and Parental Choice: A Comparative Case Study of Third-Party, Federally Funded Out-of-School-Time Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Molly S.; Good, Annalee G.

    2016-01-01

    Information and promotional marketing play central but complex roles in market-based educational programs. This in-depth qualitative study examines these complexities using the case of Supplemental Educational Services, a parental choice program providing federally funded tutoring to low-income students in K-12 public schools. Examining the…

  10. Funding and Administrative Coordination of the Baja Field Studies Program at Glendale Community College during the Years 1974 to 1983: A Historical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercade, Jose A.

    Glendale Community College's (GCC's) Baja Field Studies Program began in 1974 as a faculty-initiated overseas field program in marine biology and developed into a college-wide, interdisciplinary program offering different courses under the leadership of a program coordinator. As changes in funding and administration took place due to the altered…

  11. Small High Schools at Work: A Case Study of Six Gates-Funded Schools in New York City. A Report to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancsali, Cheri; Jaffe-Walter, Reva; Mitchell-McKnight, Vernay; Nevarez, Nancy; Orellana, Eliana, Williams Rose, Lea

    2010-01-01

    The Academy for Educational Development (AED) conducted a case study of six public high schools in New York City as part of a multifaceted evaluation of a small schools initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, the authors gathered information and opinions from the schools'…

  12. The Funding of Higher Education. International Perspectives. Garland Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 1. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 919.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at a conference focused on the subject of funding for higher education and providing comparative perspectives on, and case studies of, educational financing from around the world. After an introduction by Ernest L. Boyer, the papers and their authors are as follows: "The Costs of Higher Education: Worldwide…

  13. The Funding of Higher Education. International Perspectives. Garland Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 1. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 919.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at a conference focused on the subject of funding for higher education and providing comparative perspectives on, and case studies of, educational financing from around the world. After an introduction by Ernest L. Boyer, the papers and their authors are as follows: "The Costs of Higher Education: Worldwide…

  14. Marketing, Information, and Parental Choice: A Comparative Case Study of Third-Party, Federally Funded Out-of-School-Time Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Molly S.; Good, Annalee G.

    2016-01-01

    Information and promotional marketing play central but complex roles in market-based educational programs. This in-depth qualitative study examines these complexities using the case of Supplemental Educational Services, a parental choice program providing federally funded tutoring to low-income students in K-12 public schools. Examining the…

  15. Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, Larry R.

    2008-09-01

    This paper will briefly discuss carbon capture and storage options, mechanisms and costs. Risks from geologic storage risks will be addressed and the need for monitoring. Some current field studies will be described.

  16. Study cites unmet world demand for contraceptives.. House panel votes to increase Pop Aid funding, rescind program restrictions.

    PubMed

    1991-05-20

    In addition to increasing overseas family planning aid, the House Foreign Affairs Committee has voted to reverse restrictive policies begun during the Reagan administration. This decision comes after the publication of a UNFPA annual report entitled "The State of World Population," which indicates that the world's population could double to 10.2 billion with 60 years. Despite the Bush administration's opposition to earmarking funds for specific programs within the Agency for International Development (AID), the committee allocated funds specifically for population programs. For population assistance, it reserved $300 million for 1992 and $350 for 1993, up from $250 million the previous year. The committee also made available $100 million for family planning under the Development Fund for Africa, doubling the amount from the previous year. Besides increased funding, the committee also voted to renew funding to UNFPA and to reverse the "Mexico City" policy. In 1985, the Reagan administration ended all aid to UNFPA because the organization contributed money to China's family planning program. The administration viewed this as condoning coercive abortion practices. The Mexico City policy, named after the host city of the 1984 International Conference on Population, banned any US aid to family planning organizations in developing countries which provided abortion-related services or information, even if these programs were being funded without US money. Although just beginning to prepare its reauthorization bill, the Foreign Relations Committee in the Senate also appears ready to increase its support of population activities, including the reversal of the 2 policies. But critics of UNFPA and defenders of the Mexico City policy have threatened with a presidential veto if the measures are eventually adopted.

  17. Utilizing rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-capture studies on the desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of mark-capture dispersal studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder) with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein. In turn, short-range dispersal patterns of H. aureus were measured across a 20-m ...

  18. Can an auditory multi-feature optimal paradigm be used for the study of processes associated with attention capture in passive listeners?

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Campbell, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    A rarely occurring and highly relevant auditory stimulus occurring outside of the current focus of attention can cause a switching of attention. Such attention capture is often studied in oddball paradigms consisting of a frequently occurring "standard" stimulus which is changed at odd times to form a "deviant". The deviant may result in the capturing of attention. An auditory ERP, the P3a, is often associated with this process. To collect a sufficient amount of data is however very time-consuming. A more multi-feature "optimal" paradigm has been proposed but it is not known if it is appropriate for the study of attention capture. An optimal paradigm was run in which 6 different rare deviants (p=.08) were separated by a standard stimulus (p=.50) and compared to results when 4 oddball paradigms were also run. A large P3a was elicited by some of the deviants in the optimal paradigm but not by others. However, very similar results were observed when separate oddball paradigms were run. The present study indicates that the optimal paradigm provides a very time-saving method to study attention capture and the P3a. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cornell/Xerox Commission on Preservation and Access Joint Study in Digital Preservation. Report: Phase 1 (January 1990-December 1991). Digital Capture, Paper Facsimiles, and Network Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Anne R.; Personius, Lynne K.

    The primary emphasis of this study of the use of digital technology to preserve library materials was the capture of brittle books as digital images and the production of printed paper facsimiles. Of equal interest, however, was the role of digital technology in providing access to library resources, and preliminary work in this area has also been…

  20. A study on the optimum fast neutron flux for boron neutron capture therapy of deep-seated tumors.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Fatemeh S; Masoudi, S Farhad

    2015-02-01

    High-energy neutrons, named fast neutrons which have a number of undesirable biological effects on tissue, are a challenging problem in beam designing for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT. In spite of this fact, there is not a widely accepted criterion to guide the beam designer to determine the appropriate contribution of fast neutrons in the spectrum. Although a number of researchers have proposed a target value for the ratio of fast neutron flux to epithermal neutron flux, it can be shown that this criterion may not provide the optimum treatment condition. This simulation study deals with the determination of the optimum contribution of fast neutron flux in the beam for BNCT of deep-seated tumors. Since the dose due to these high-energy neutrons damages shallow tissues, delivered dose to skin is considered as a measure for determining the acceptability of the designed beam. To serve this purpose, various beam shaping assemblies that result in different contribution of fast neutron flux are designed. The performances of the neutron beams corresponding to such configurations are assessed in a simulated head phantom. It is shown that the previously used criterion, which suggests a limit value for the contribution of fast neutrons in beam, does not necessarily provide the optimum condition. Accordingly, it is important to specify other complementary limits considering the energy of fast neutrons. By analyzing various neutron spectra, two limits on fast neutron flux are proposed and their validity is investigated. The results show that considering these limits together with the widely accepted IAEA criteria makes it possible to have a more realistic assessment of sufficiency of the designed beam. Satisfying these criteria not only leads to reduction of delivered dose to skin, but also increases the advantage depth in tissue and delivered dose to tumor during the treatment time. The Monte Carlo Code, MCNP-X, is used to perform these simulations.

  1. Volumetric definition of shoulder range of motion and its correlation with clinical signs of shoulder hyperlaxity. A motion capture study.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Mickaël; Cretual, Armel; Thomazeau, Hervé; Kaila, Rajiv; Bonan, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Shoulder hyperlaxity (SHL) is assessed with clinical signs. Quantification of SHL remains difficult, however, because no quantitative definition has yet been described. With use of a motion capture system (MCS), the aim of this study was to categorize SHL through a volumetric MCS-based definition and to compare this volume with clinical signs used for SHL diagnosis. Twenty-three subjects were examined with passive and active measurement of their shoulder range of motion (SROM) and then with an MCS protocol, allowing computation of the shoulder configuration space volume (SCSV). Clinical data of SHL were assessed by the sulcus sign, external rotation with the arm at the side (ER1) >85° in a standing position, external rotation >90° in a lying position, and Beighton score for general joint laxity. Active and passive ER1, EIR2 (sum of external and internal rotation at 90° of abduction), flexion-extension, and abduction were also measured and correlated to SCSV. Except for the sulcus sign, SCSV was significantly correlated with all clinical signs used for SHL. Passive examination of the different SROMs was better correlated to SCSV than active examination. In passive examination, the worst SROM was ER1 (R = 0.36; P = .09), whereas EIR2, flexion, and abduction were highly correlated to SCSV (P < .01). SCSV appears to be an appealing tool for evaluation of SHL regarding its correlation with clinical signs used for SHL diagnosis. The sulcus sign and ER1 >85° in a standing position appear less discriminating and should be replaced by EIR2 measurement for SHL diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization study for an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy at the University of Virginia Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jr., Thomas Dean

    1995-05-01

    The non-surgical brain cancer treatment modality, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), requires the use of an epithermal neutron beam. This purpose of this thesis was to design an epithermal neutron beam at the University of Virginia Research Reactor (UVAR) suitable for BNCT applications. A suitable epithermal neutron beam for BNCT must have minimal fast neutron and gamma radiation contamination, and yet retain an appreciable intensity. The low power of the UVAR core makes reaching a balance between beam quality and intensity a very challenging design endeavor. The MCNP monte carlo neutron transport code was used to develop an equivalent core radiation source, and to perform the subsequent neutron transport calculations necessary for beam model analysis and development. The code accuracy was validated by benchmarking output against experimental criticality measurements. An epithermal beam was designed for the UVAR, with performance characteristics comparable to beams at facilities with cores of higher power. The epithermal neutron intensity of this beam is 2.2 x 108 n/cm2 • s. The fast neutron and gamma radiation KERMA factors are 10 x 10-11cGy•cm2/nepi and 20 x 10-11 cGy•cm2/nepi , respectively, and the current-to-flux ratio is 0.85. This thesis has shown that the UVAR has the capability to provide BNCT treatments, however the performance characteristics of the final beam of this study were limited by the low core power.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

    This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT

  4. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 2: Delimitation of conditions for charge transfert establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for establishment of charge transfer during acceleration of nuclei up to Fe, for typical conditions of solar flare regions T = 5 x 10 to the 3rd power to 2.5 x 10 to the 8th power degrees K were explored. Results show that such conditions are widely assorted, depending on the acceleration mechanism, the kind of projections and their velocity, the target elements, the source temperature and consequently on the degree of ionization of matter and the local charge state of the accelerated ions. Nevertheless, in spite of that assorted behavior, there are some general tendencies that can be summarized as follows. In atomic H electron capture is systematically established from thermal energies up to high energies, whatever the element and for both acceleration process. For a given element and fixed temperature (T), the probability and energy domain of electron capture and loss with Fermi are higher than with Betatron acceleration. For a given acceleration process the heavier the ion the higher the probability and the wider the energy range for electron capture and loss. For given acceleration mechanism and fixed element the importance and energy domain of capture and loss increase with T: for those reasons, the energy range of charge equilibrium (illustrated with solid lines on the next figs.) is wider with Fermi and increases with temperature and atomic number of projectiles. For the same reasons, electron loss is smaller while the lighter the element, the lower the temperature and the Betatron process, such that there are conditions for which electron loss is not allowed at low energies, but only electron capture is established.

  5. Capturing the stories behind the numbers: the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study (ARCOS IV), a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Sandy J; Theadom, Alice; Jones, Amy; Hocking, Clare; Feigin, Valery; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Kent, Bruce; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative data can add value and understanding to more traditional epidemiological studies. This study was designed to complement the quantitative data from the incidence study the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study or ARCOS-IV by using qualitative methods to uncover the richer detail of life as a stroke survivor, thereby extending our understanding of the impact of stroke. The aims of the study were to identify how the experience of recovery and adaptation changes over time after stroke; and to elicit the strategies people with stroke and their whānau/family use and find helpful in living life after stroke. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology and also the challenges and advantages of embedding qualitative research into a large epidemiological study. Longitudinal study utilizing a Qualitative Description design in a subset of those taking part in the incidence study. Participants will be interviewed at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after stroke. Semistructured interviews will explore three key areas: (1) issues of importance to people following a stroke and their whānau/family; (2) the perceived impact on people's sense of recovery, adaptation, and hopes; and (3) key strategies that people with stroke and their whānau/family use and find most helpful in living life after stroke. Thematic analysis will be conducted using iterative constant comparative methods. This methodology paper demonstrates the application of mixed methods in epidemiology. It also considers some of the practical and methodological issues that have emerged and may provide a useful framework for other qualitative projects in population-based studies. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  6. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  7. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  8. Total Federal R&D Funding Estimated to Increase 7 Percent in 1982 After September Revisions. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Data related to the 1982 budget for federal research and development funding are highlighted in this brief publication. Although budget authority for the total federal research and development programs in 1982 represents a seven percent increase, this figure also represents a constant-dollar decrease of almost two percent. The 1982 budget…

  9. California Institute of Technology: Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program (CECIP) was initiated in 2009. It manages $8 million within an existing fund in the school's endowment, which had been created to finance capital projects. Any member of the Caltech community may submit a project proposal, and projects are considered for approval as long as they have at least a 15…

  10. A Study of Secondary Vocational Education in Arkansas: Funding Issues and Needs Assessment Results. Publication No. 96-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Gary; McManus, Mark L.; Davis, Patricia C.

    Research was conducted to provide Arkansas Advisory Council for Vocational-Technical Education (ACVTE) officials with support data and analysis for the development of funding strategies for recommendation to the Governor and General Assembly. It used internal vocational and technical education enrollment and expenditure data, external survey…

  11. Examining the Relationship between Educational Outcomes and Gaps in Funding: An Extension of the New York Adequacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.; Levin, Jesse D.; Parrish, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, the Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE) challenged New York State's school financing system on the grounds that it failed to provide students sufficient opportunity for a sound basic education in New York City. CFE prevailed in 2003, after the case went before the New York Court of Appeals, and the state's funding system was determined to be…

  12. [Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Maryland Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    Two schools in Maryland received ARRA SIG (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act School Improvement Grants) funds to enable them to implement their turnaround efforts. This paper describes the outcomes of these two ARRA SIG recipient schools: (1) G. James Gholson Middle School; and (2) Commodore John Rodgers Elementary School. The experiences of…

  13. Fire social science research from the Pacific Southwest research station: studies supported by national fire plan funds

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez; James D. Absher; Patricia L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    Fire events often have a large impact on recreation and tourism, yet these issues had not been addressed from a social science perspective. To address his, the Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Work Unit (RWU) of the Pacific Southwest Research Station acquired funding through the National Fire Plan within the community assistance topic area. The three...

  14. [Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Michigan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caitlin; Dibner, Kenne

    2012-01-01

    Two schools in Michigan received ARRA SIG (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act School Improvement Grants) funds to enable them to implement their improvement efforts. This paper describes the outcomes of these two ARRA SIG recipient schools: (1) Phoenix Elementary-Middle School; and (2) Arthur Hill High School. The experiences of these…

  15. An Empirical Study of the Effectiveness of Publicly-Funded "Structured On-Site Training": Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Phil; Moore, Richard; Blake, Daniel; Phillips, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports findings from an assessment of the effectiveness of privately administered "structured on-site training" (SOST) programs funded by the California Employment Training Panel. It reports on the characteristics of SOST programs that increased trainees' competitiveness in the internal and external labor markets. In…

  16. [Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Idaho Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caitlin; McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    Two schools in Idaho received ARRA SIG (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act School Improvement Grants) funds to enable them to implement improvement efforts. This paper describes the outcomes of these two ARRA SIG recipient schools: (1) Jefferson Middle School; and (2) Lakeside Elementary School. The experiences of this non-recipient school is…

  17. Possible funding strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Funding strategies are examined for the AIA rocket propulsion strategic plan. Either the government, industry, or universities can fund the project alone, or it was concluded, it works best if is a combination of these sources.

  18. Fund Raising with Panache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Robert

    1985-01-01

    The key to fund raising is the donor, and fund raisers should learn to cultivate potential donors, approach them with goals compatible with their own, supplement their thinking, get them involved, and swamp them with gratitude. (MSE)

  19. Fanconi Anemia Research Fund

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...

  20. Fund Raising with Panache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Robert

    1985-01-01

    The key to fund raising is the donor, and fund raisers should learn to cultivate potential donors, approach them with goals compatible with their own, supplement their thinking, get them involved, and swamp them with gratitude. (MSE)

  1. Human Papillomavirus Genotyping After Denaturation of Specimens for Hybrid Capture 2 Testing: Feasibility Study for the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort†

    PubMed Central

    LaMere, Brandon J.; Kornegay, Janet; Fetterman, Barbara; Sadorra, Mark; Shieh, Jen; Castle, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping could be clinically useful, depending on the results of large, prospective studies like the HPV Persistence and Progression cohort. The cohort is based on genotyping and follow-up of Hybrid Capture-positive women at Kaiser Permanente, Northern California. HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture 2 requires denaturation with alkali, possibly damaging the DNA for optimal PCR-based genotyping. A feasibility study was conducted on paired aliquots of anonymized specimens from 100 women with low-grade intraepithelial lesion cytology. Test aliquots were left in denaturant for 10 or 18 hours at 4°C and then neutralized; comparison aliquots were not denatured but diluted to match the timing, temperature, concentration and salt conditions of the treated specimens. The masked aliquots were tested using a commercialized PCR-based assay that detects of 37 HPV genotypes. There was no overall effect of treatment on test positivity or number of types. HPV16 was marginally more likely to be detected in untreated versus treated aliquots (P = 0.09) but HPV45 was marginally more likely to be detected in treated than untreated aliquots (P = 0.07), suggesting that these differences represented chance (intra-test variability). It can be concluded that residual Hybrid Capture-positive specimens can be accurately genotyped by PCR after Hybrid Capture 2 processing. PMID:17673302

  2. Muon Capture on ^3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golak, Jacek; Skibiński, Roman; Witała, Henryk; Topolnicki, Kacper; Kamada, Hiroyuki; Nogga, Andreas; Marcucci, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    The μ ^- + ^3H → ν _μ + n + n + n capture reaction is studied under full inclusion of final-state interactions with the AV18 nucleon-nucleon potential and the Urbana IX three-nucleon force. We employ the single nucleon weak current operator comprising the dominant relativistic corrections to obtain first estimates of the total capture rates based on realistic forces. Our results are compared with older theoretical predictions.

  3. Neutron Capture Reaction on 112Cd to Study of the s-process Origin of 115Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Toh, Yosuke; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    The astrophysical origin of 115Sn has remained still an open question. An isomer with a half-life of 14.1 y in 113Cd is a branching point from which a nucleosynthesis flow reaches to a rare isotope 115Sn. The s-process abundance of 115Sn depends on the ratio of the 112Cd(n, γ)113Cdm reaction cross section to the 112Cd(n, γ)113Cdgs reaction cross section. However, the isomer production ratio following the neutron capture reaction has not been measured in an energy region higher than the thermal energy. We have measured γ-ray intensity ratios following neutron capture reactions on 112Cd using the HPGe detectors in conjunction with a time-of-flight method at ANNRI in J-PARC.

  4. Electron capture by tetra- and di-chlorobenzene molecules. Comparative studies by position annihilation and ODESR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Lozovoy, V. V.; Pedersen, N. J.; Mogensen, O. P.

    1985-05-01

    Experiments on inhibition and anti-inhibition of Ps formation and also on optical detection of ESR spectra in squalene solutions with 1,2,4,5-C 6H 2Cl 4 and p-C 6H 4Cl 2 have demonstrated the presence of short-lived molecular radical-anions (products of the spur electron capture by additives), their lifetimes being longer than roughly 10 ps and shorter than 10-30 ns. The cross section of electron capture by p-C 6H 4Cl 2 in squalane is nearly one-tenth of that by 1,2,4,5-C 6H 2Cl 4 and CCl 4 at concentration ⩽ 0.02 M, while 10% of the electrons cannot be trapped even at 0.25 M p-C 6H 4Cl 2. Probably the electrons in the high-electric-field (0.3-3 MV/cm) regions of the spurs cannot be effectively captured by p-C 6H 4Cl 2, which is a shallow electron trap. Similar effects of the high electric fields of the charged spur series seem to influence the Ps formation appreciably, along with the other effects discussed in previous papers. Several new results can be predicted, by use of this interpretation. Both methods employed are emphasized to be selective with respect to geminate spur particles.

  5. Aminopolymer Mobility and Support Interactions in Silica-PEI Composites for CO 2 Capture Applications: A Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study

    DOE PAGES

    Holewinski, Adam; Sakwa-Novak, Miles A.; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; ...

    2017-05-30

    Composite gas sorbents, formed from an active polymer phase and a porous support, are promising materials for the separation of acid gases from a variety of gas streams. Significant changes in sorption performance (capacity, rate, stability etc.) can be achieved by tuning the properties of the polymer and the nature of interactions between polymer and support. We utilize quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the dynamic behavior of the most commonly reported polymer in such materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), both in bulk form and when supported in a mesoporous silica framework. The polymer chain dynamicsmore » (rotational and translational diffusion) are characterized using two neutron backscattering spectrometers that have overlapping time scales, ranging from picoseconds to a few nanoseconds. Two modes of motion are detected for the PEI molecule in QENS. At low energy transfers, a “slow process” on the time scale of ~200 ps is found and attributed to jump-mediated, center-of-mass diffusion. Second, a “fast process” at ~20 ps scale is also found and is attributed to a locally confined, jump-diffusion. Characteristic data (time scale and spectral weight) of these processes are compared to those characterized by MD, and reasonable agreement is found. For the nanopore-confined PEI, we observe a significant reduction in the time scale of polymer motion as compared to the bulk. The impacts of silica surface functionalization and of polymer fill fraction in the silica pores (controlling the portion of polymer molecules in contact with the pore walls), are both studied in detail. Hydrophobic functionalization of the silica leads to an increase of the PEI mobility above that in native silanol-terminated silica, but the dynamics are still slower than those in bulk PEI. Sorbents with faster PEI dynamics are also found to be more efficient for CO2 capture, possibly because sorption sites are

  6. Evaluation of the new capture vapourizer for aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) through laboratory studies of inorganic species

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Weiwei; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; ...

    2017-08-15

    Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (ACSMs) commercialized by Aerodyne are widely used to measure the non-refractory species in submicron particles. With the standard vapourizer (SV) that is installed in all commercial instruments to date, the quantification of ambient aerosol mass concentration requires the use of the collection efficiency (CE) to correct for the loss of particles due to bounce. A new capture vapourizer (CV) has been designed to reduce the need for a bounce-related CE correction. Two high-resolution AMS instruments, one with a SV and one with a CV, were operated side by side in themore » laboratory. Four standard species, NH4NO3, NaNO3, (NH4)2SO4 and NH4Cl, which typically constitute the majority of the mass of ambient submicron inorganic species, are studied. The effect of vapourizer temperature (Tv ∼ 200–800 °C) on the detected fragments, CE and size distributions are investigated. A Tv of 500–550 °C for the CV is recommended. In the CV, CE was identical (around unity) for more volatile species (e.g. NH4NO3) and comparable to or higher than the SV for less-volatile species (e.g. (NH4)2SO4), demonstrating an improvement in CE for laboratory inorganic species in the CV. The detected relative intensities of fragments of NO3 and SO4 species observed with the CV are different from those observed with the SV, and are consistent with additional thermal decomposition arising from the increased residence time and multiple collisions. Increased residence times with the CV also lead to broader particle size distribution measurements than with the SV. A method for estimating whether pure species will be detected in AMS sizing mode is proposed. Production of CO2(g) from sampled nitrate on the vapourizer surface, which has been reported for the SV, is negligible for the CV for NH4NO3 and comparable to the SV for NaNO3. . We observe an extremely consistent fragmentation for ammonium compared to very

  7. Aminopolymer Mobility and Support Interactions in Silica-PEI Composites for CO2 Capture Applications: A Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study.

    PubMed

    Holewinski, Adam; Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y; Potter, Matthew E; Ellebracht, Nathan; Rother, Gernot; Sumpter, Bobby G; Jones, Christopher W

    2017-07-13

    Composite gas sorbents, formed from an active polymer phase and a porous support, are promising materials for the separation of acid gases from a variety of gas streams. Significant changes in sorption performance (capacity, rate, stability etc.) can be achieved by tuning the properties of the polymer and the nature of interactions between polymer and support. Here we utilize quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the dynamic behavior of the most commonly reported polymer in such materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), both in bulk form and when supported in a mesoporous silica framework. The polymer chain dynamics (rotational and translational diffusion) are characterized using two neutron backscattering spectrometers that have overlapping time scales, ranging from picoseconds to a few nanoseconds. Two modes of motion are detected for the PEI molecule in QENS. At low energy transfers, a "slow process" on the time scale of ∼200 ps is found and attributed to jump-mediated, center-of-mass diffusion. A second, "fast process" at ∼20 ps scale is also found and is attributed to a locally confined, jump-diffusion. Characteristic data (time scale and spectral weight) of these processes are compared to those characterized by MD, and reasonable agreement is found. For the nanopore-confined PEI, we observe a significant reduction in the time scale of polymer motion as compared to the bulk. The impacts of silica surface functionalization and of polymer fill fraction in the silica pores (controlling the portion of polymer molecules in contact with the pore walls), are both studied in detail. Hydrophobic functionalization of the silica leads to an increase of the PEI mobility above that in native silanol-terminated silica, but the dynamics are still slower than those in bulk PEI. Sorbents with faster PEI dynamics are also found to be more efficient for CO2 capture, possibly because sorption sites are more

  8. Evaluation of the new capture vapourizer for aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) through laboratory studies of inorganic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weiwei; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Croteau, Philip; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2017-08-01

    Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (ACSMs) commercialized by Aerodyne are widely used to measure the non-refractory species in submicron particles. With the standard vapourizer (SV) that is installed in all commercial instruments to date, the quantification of ambient aerosol mass concentration requires the use of the collection efficiency (CE) to correct for the loss of particles due to bounce. A new capture vapourizer (CV) has been designed to reduce the need for a bounce-related CE correction. Two high-resolution AMS instruments, one with a SV and one with a CV, were operated side by side in the laboratory. Four standard species, NH4NO3, NaNO3, (NH4)2SO4 and NH4Cl, which typically constitute the majority of the mass of ambient submicron inorganic species, are studied. The effect of vapourizer temperature (Tv ˜ 200-800 °C) on the detected fragments, CE and size distributions are investigated. A Tv of 500-550 °C for the CV is recommended. In the CV, CE was identical (around unity) for more volatile species (e.g. NH4NO3) and comparable to or higher than the SV for less-volatile species (e.g. (NH4)2SO4), demonstrating an improvement in CE for laboratory inorganic species in the CV. The detected relative intensities of fragments of NO3 and SO4 species observed with the CV are different from those observed with the SV, and are consistent with additional thermal decomposition arising from the increased residence time and multiple collisions. Increased residence times with the CV also lead to broader particle size distribution measurements than with the SV. A method for estimating whether pure species will be detected in AMS sizing mode is proposed. Production of CO2(g) from sampled nitrate on the vapourizer surface, which has been reported for the SV, is negligible for the CV for NH4NO3 and comparable to the SV for NaNO3. . We observe an extremely consistent fragmentation for ammonium compared to very large changes for the

  9. How much CO2 does vegetation capture in tropical cities? Case study of a residential neighborhood in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S.; Quak, M.; Seth, N.; Norford, L.

    2012-12-01

    Urban vegetation might have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly in cities with extensive and/or evergreen vegetation. In a few urban sites negative daytime CO2 fluxes during the growing season have been observed. These sites correspond to suburban neighborhoods with abundant vegetation and low population density. Usually urban surfaces are net sources of CO2 modulated in some cases by vegetation during daytime. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is a difficult task due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighborhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance were compared with emissions estimated by emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should primarily correspond to the biogenic flux. Independently, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the theory of metabolic ecology for tropical forests. This model predicts the biomass growth rate of woody trees as a function of their size. Palm trees were also included in the survey, but their annual CO2 uptake was obtained from growth curves/rates published in the literature. Both approaches suggest that vegetation captures between 5% and 8% of the CO2 emitted in this neighborhood. Annual uptakes of 510 and 324 ton km-2 were obtained from the difference between measured fluxes and estimated emissions, and the approach based on allometric equations, respectively. The difference between both approaches can be due to uncertainties in the emissions estimates and

  10. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  11. Phillips funds AWG lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Association for Women Geoscientists Foundation has received a $9000 grant from Phillips Petroleum Company to fund the Phillips-AWG Distinguished Lectures. The money will pay travel expenses for the women geoscientists listed with the AWG Speakers Bureau.More than 100 women geoscientists are available through the AWG Speakers Bureau. Their topics cover all the Earth sciences including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, paleobotany, planetary geology and mineral exploration. Their areas of study range from the U.S., Europe and South America to Mars. They come from academia, government and industry in 33 states and the District of Columbia.

  12. Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-15

    IMPACCT Project: SES is developing a process to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants by desublimation - the conversion of a gas to a solid. Capturing CO2 as a solid and delivering it as a liquid avoids the large energy cost of CO2 gas compression. SES’ capture technology facilitates the prudent use of available energy resources. Coal is our most abundant energy resource and is an excellent fuel for baseline power production. SES capture technology can capture 99% of the CO2 emissions in addition to a wide range of other pollutants more efficiently and at lower costs than existing capture technologies. SES’ capture technology can be readily added to our existing energy infrastructure.

  13. Moving toward True Inclusion of Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Federally Funded Studies. A Key Step for Achieving Respiratory Health Equality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sam S.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds. PMID:25584658

  14. Moving toward true inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities in federally funded studies. A key step for achieving respiratory health equality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Burchard, Esteban G; Oh, Sam S; Foreman, Marilyn G; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-03-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds.

  15. Capturing Public Opinion on Public Health Topics: A Comparison of Experiences from a Systematic Review, Focus Group Study, and Analysis of Online, User-Generated Content.

    PubMed

    Giles, Emma Louise; Adams, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Capturing public opinion toward public health topics is important to ensure that services, policy, and research are aligned with the beliefs and priorities of the general public. A number of approaches can be used to capture public opinion. We are conducting a program of work on the effectiveness and acceptability of health promoting financial incentive interventions. We have captured public opinion on financial incentive interventions using three methods: a systematic review, focus group study, and analysis of online user-generated comments to news media reports. In this short editorial-style piece, we compare and contrast our experiences with these three methods. Each of these methods had their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include tailoring of the research question for systematic reviews, probing of answers during focus groups, and the ability to aggregate a large data set using online user-generated content. However, disadvantages include needing to update systematic reviews, participants conforming to a dominant perspective in focus groups, and being unable to collect respondent characteristics during analysis of user-generated online content. That said, analysis of user-generated online content offers additional time and resource advantages, and we found it elicited similar findings to those obtained via more traditional methods, such as systematic reviews and focus groups. A number of methods for capturing public opinions on public health topics are available. Public health researchers, policy makers, and practitioners should choose methods appropriate to their aims. Analysis of user-generated online content, especially in the context of news media reports, may be a quicker and cheaper alternative to more traditional methods, without compromising on the breadth of opinions captured.

  16. Federal R&D Funding Shows Signiticant Rise in FY 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, September 8, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report reveals that federal research and development obligations are scheduled to rise from $17.4 billion in fiscal year 1974 to an estimated $18.9 billion in fiscal year 1975 and to $21.7 billion in fiscal year 1976. The gains in funding are 8.4 percent for 1975 and 14.5 percent for 1976, both of these the largest relative rises in the…

  17. Federal R&D Funding Shows Signiticant Rise in FY 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, September 8, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report reveals that federal research and development obligations are scheduled to rise from $17.4 billion in fiscal year 1974 to an estimated $18.9 billion in fiscal year 1975 and to $21.7 billion in fiscal year 1976. The gains in funding are 8.4 percent for 1975 and 14.5 percent for 1976, both of these the largest relative rises in the…

  18. Career flexibility and family-friendly policies: an NIH-funded study to enhance women's careers in biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Villablanca, Amparo C; Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia P

    2011-10-01

    Although women receive nearly half of all doctoral degrees and show a high interest in academic careers, the pipeline is leaky. The challenge of balancing life course events with career trajectory is an important determinant leading to premature dropout or slower career advancement. This report describes the findings of the first phase of a National Institute of Health Office of Research on Women's Health (NIH ORWH)-funded study using survey and academic data for exploring satisfaction and awareness of/intent to use specific career flexibility options at the University of California, Davis (UCD). All men and women faculty in the UCD's Schools of Medicine (SOM) and Veterinary Medicine (SVM) and College of Biological Science (CBS) were surveyed. Data also were obtained from deans' offices on use of family-friendly benefits by faculty. Three hundred twenty-five total survey responses were received from the SOM, 83 from SVM, and 64 from CBS, representing 42%, 46%, and 52% of their total faculty, respectively. In each school, large percentages of men (32%-60%) and women (46%-53%) faculty have children under 18 and a moderately high level of demand of family care responsibilities. Women were significantly more likely to be childless, particularly in the SOM (35% vs. 14%, p<0.001). For all schools, documented use of any family-friendly policy was low (0%-11.5%), as was awareness of policies, although both were significantly higher for women than for men. Significantly more women than men wanted to use policies or chose not to, particularly in the SOM (51% vs. 28%, p<0.001, and 37% vs. 23%, p=0.016, respectively), because of multiple barriers. Faculty in all schools agreed/highly agreed that policies were important to recruitment, retention, and career advancement. Family-friendly policies are pertinent to men and women, as both demonstrate interest and need, linked to increased career satisfaction. A family-friendly policy is important, particularly for women in the

  19. Career Flexibility and Family-Friendly Policies: An NIH-Funded Study to Enhance Women's Careers in Biomedical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although women receive nearly half of all doctoral degrees and show a high interest in academic careers, the pipeline is leaky. The challenge of balancing life course events with career trajectory is an important determinant leading to premature dropout or slower career advancement. This report describes the findings of the first phase of a National Institute of Health Office of Research on Women's Health (NIH ORWH)-funded study using survey and academic data for exploring satisfaction and awareness of/intent to use specific career flexibility options at the University of California, Davis (UCD). Methods All men and women faculty in the UCD's Schools of Medicine (SOM) and Veterinary Medicine (SVM) and College of Biological Science (CBS) were surveyed. Data also were obtained from deans' offices on use of family-friendly benefits by faculty. Results Three hundred twenty-five total survey responses were received from the SOM, 83 from SVM, and 64 from CBS, representing 42%, 46%, and 52% of their total faculty, respectively. In each school, large percentages of men (32%–60%) and women (46%–53%) faculty have children under 18 and a moderately high level of demand of family care responsibilities. Women were significantly more likely to be childless, particularly in the SOM (35% vs. 14%, p<0.001). For all schools, documented use of any family-friendly policy was low (0%–11.5%), as was awareness of policies, although both were significantly higher for women than for men. Significantly more women than men wanted to use policies or chose not to, particularly in the SOM (51% vs. 28%, p<0.001, and 37% vs. 23%, p=0.016, respectively), because of multiple barriers. Faculty in all schools agreed/highly agreed that policies were important to recruitment, retention, and career advancement. Conclusions Family-friendly policies are pertinent to men and women, as both demonstrate interest and need, linked to increased career satisfaction. A family

  20. Do March-In Rights Ensure Access to Medical Products Arising From Federally Funded Research? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Treasure, Carolyn L; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2015-01-01

    Context The high cost of new prescription drugs and other medical products is a growing health policy issue. Many of the most transformative drugs and vaccines had their origins in public-sector funding to nonprofit research institutions. Although the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 provides for “march-in rights” through which the government can invoke some degree of control over the patents protecting products developed from public funding to ensure public access to these medications, the applicability of this provision to current policy options is not clear. Methods We conducted a primary-source document review of the Bayh-Dole Act’s legislative history as well as of hearings of past march-in rights petitions to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). We then conducted semistructured interviews of 12 key experts in the march-in rights of the Bayh-Dole Act to identify the sources of the disputes and the main themes in the statute’s implementation. We analyzed the interview transcripts using standard qualitative techniques. Findings Since 1980, the NIH has fully reviewed only 5 petitions to invoke governmental march-in rights for 4 health-related technologies or medical products developed from federally funded research. Three of these requests related to reducing the high prices of brand-name drugs, one related to relieving a drug shortage, and one related to a potentially patent-infringing medical device. In each of these cases, the NIH rejected the requests. Interviewees were split on the implications of these experiences, finding the NIH’s reluctance to implement its march-in rights to be evidence of either a system working as intended or of a flawed system needing reform. Conclusions The Bayh-Dole Act’s march-in rights continue to be invoked by policymakers and health advocates, most recently in the context of new, high-cost products originally discovered with federally funded research. We found that the existence of march-in rights may select for government