Science.gov

Sample records for capture study funded

  1. Capturing Information on Arts Participants: Exploring Engagement Fund Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Irvine Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Exploring Engagement Fund provides risk capital for arts nonprofits to experiment with innovative ideas about how to engage diverse Californians. In order to understand the variety of Californians engaged in arts experiences, this guide is intended to support current and future Fund grantees in collecting participant information. Exploring…

  2. International Alzheimer's Disease Research Portfolio (IADRP) aims to capture global Alzheimer's disease research funding.

    PubMed

    Liggins, Charlene; Snyder, Heather M; Silverberg, Nina; Petanceska, Suzana; Refolo, Lorenzo M; Ryan, Laurie; Carrillo, Maria C

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a recognized international public health crisis. There is an urgent need for public and private funding agencies around the world to coordinate funding strategies and leverage existing resources to enhance and expand support of AD research. To capture and compare their existing investments in AD research and research-related resources, major funding organizations are starting to utilize the Common Alzheimer's Disease Research Ontology (CADRO) to categorize their funding information. This information is captured in the International Alzheimer's Disease Research Portfolio (IADRP) for further analysis. As of January, 2014, over fifteen organizations from the US, Canada, Europe and Australia have contributed their information. The goal of the IADRP project is to enable funding organizations to assess the changing landscape of AD research and coordinate strategies, leverage resources, and avoid duplication of effort.

  3. Rapid sulfur capture studies at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Lawson, W.F.; Maloney, D.J.; Shaw, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    Determine conditions that would reproduce optimum sulfur capture ( super-equilibrium'') behavior. No attempt was made to extract kinetic data for calcination or sulfur capture, as might be done in a comprehensive study of sorbent behavior. While some interesting anomalies are present in the calcination data and in the limited surface area data, no attempt was made to pursue those issues. Since little sulfur capture was observed at operating conditions where super-equilibrium'' might be expected to occur, tests were stopped when the wide range of parameters that were studied failed to produce significant sulfur capture via the super-equilibrium mechanism. Considerable space in this report is devoted to a description of the experiment, including details of the GTRC construction. This description is included because we have received requests for a detailed description of the GTRC itself, as well as the pressurized dry powder feed system. In addition, many questions about accurately sampling the sulfur species from a high-temperature, high-pressure reactor were raised during the course of this investigation. A full account of the development of the gas and particulate sampling train in thus provided. 8 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Neutron capture studies on /sup 189/Os

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, A.M.; Colvin, G.G.; Gelletly, W.; Warner, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive study of the level structure of /sup 189/Os has been carried out using the (n,..gamma..) and (n,e-) reactions. The use of the Average Resonance Capture technique ensures that the complete set of 1/2-, 3/2- states has been established up to 1500 keV in excitation energy and secondary ..gamma..-rays have been measured in singles and coincidence to build up the detailed level scheme. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Case Studies in Performance Funding. The Performance Funding Project, Tennessee Higher Education Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. Grady; Troutt, William E.

    Case studies of five Tennessee state colleges where pilot projects in performance funding were undertaken are presented. The Performance Funding Project of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission is designed to explore the feasibility of allocating some portion of state funds to institutions on a performance effectiveness criterion as compared…

  6. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study.

    PubMed

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-03-17

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system's architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  7. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results. PMID:28304337

  8. 7 CFR 4280.173 - Grant funding for feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant funding for feasibility studies. 4280.173... America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants § 4280.173 Grant funding for feasibility studies. (a) Maximum grant amount. The maximum amount of grant funds that will be made...

  9. Harvard University: Green Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Green Loan Fund at Harvard University has been an active source of capital for energy efficiency and waste reduction projects for almost a decade. This case study examines the revolving fund's history from its inception as a pilot project in the 1990s to its regeneration in the early 2000s to its current operations today. The green revolving…

  10. Special Education Funding Reform: A Review of Impact Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Moore, Dennis; Brown, Don; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2010-01-01

    Various models for funding special education services have been described in the literature. This paper aims at moving the debate concerning special education funding reform beyond the descriptive level by reviewing studies that investigated the impact of various models for funding special education. Systematic searches were conducted of ERIC and…

  11. A Guide. Planning and Funding International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Maurice

    How can colleges and universities best plan for international programs? Where are applications made for funding? This brochure is an attempt to provide an initial response to these questions and to offer some general guidelines. The list of sources of funding are suggestive, not exhaustive. It is geared to the institution that has not been…

  12. Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay; Lieberman, Joanne; Parrish, Tom; Kaleba, Daniel; Van Campen, James; Stullich, Stephanie

    The Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding (SERFF) examined the allocation and use of funds provided to school districts and schools through the Goals 2000 and five of the largest Elementary and Secondary Education Act programs for fiscal year 1997, corresponding to the 1997-1998 school year. The six federal programs included in this…

  13. Estimation methodology in contemporary small mammal capture-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Estimators of population size and survival rate based on the Jolly-Seber capture-recapture model and the 'enumeration method' are described. Enumeration estimators are shown to estimate complicated functions of capture and survival probabilities and, in the case of the population size estimator, population size. Frequently-listed reasons for preferring enumeration estimators are discussed and the Jolly-Seber estimators are shown to be superior even in the case of heterogeneity and trap-happy response, the two sources of unequal capture probability most likely to occur in small mammal studies. New developments in probabilistic capture-recapture models are described, and these models are recommended for future small mammal capture-recapture studies.

  14. Funding Mechanisms, Cost Drivers, and the Distribution of Education Funds in Alberta: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neu, Dean; Taylor, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Critical analysis of historical financial data of the Calgary Board of Education (CBE) examined the impact of Alberta's 1994 funding changes on the CBE and the distribution of Alberta's education funding. Findings illustrate how funding mechanisms are used to govern from a distance and how seemingly neutral accounting/funding techniques function…

  15. Western Michigan University: Quasi-Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University has designed an innovative "Quasi-Revolving Fund" model that demonstrates the institution's full commitment to incorporating sustainability into campus operations. The Quasi-Revolving Fund recaptures money from cost-savings, similar to a typical green revolving fund, but it also sources capital from the…

  16. [Therapy optimization studies torn between science and funding].

    PubMed

    Freund, M

    2002-01-01

    There is no doubt that clinical studies are valuable cornerstones in the development of rational diagnostics and therapy, for the patients' safety, for quality assurance as well as for the development of a body of evidence in medicine. Well recognized multicentric study groups are active in several medical disciplines in Germany. Public funding resources however are miserable as compared to other countries. For example in hematology and oncology funds are almost exclusively available by private foundations as the Deutsche Krebshilfe only. Additionally physicians and institutions who are actively promoting clinical studies have to pay charges for patients' insurance and for registration of studies by the authorities. Furthermore there are increasing difficulties obtaining reimbursement for patients' care in clinical studies. In this context outdated regulations of the German Sozialgesetzbuch V lawbook play an important role. In summary a pronounced reform deficit paired with bureocratic tendencies has become manifested. The most important demands are in this situation: a reliable and realistic regulatory basis for treatment-related clinical studies has to be created. Studies on treatment strategies with registered drugs have to be free from the obligatory patients' insurance which is required for study with non-registered drugs. It has to be clarified that in these studies some regulations of good clinical practice as obligatory external monitoring and source data verification are not feasible and will not be required. The Sozialgesetzbuch V has to be adapted and the actual ban of clinical studies in private practice has to be ended. Treatment related clinical studies have to be free from charges of ethical committees and regulatory authorities. Thereby the financial overload of clinical studies could be reduced and some motivation for further bureocratic proliferation is removed. Finally a longterm, reliable funding resource has to be created independently from the

  17. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

  18. Funding, Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Micah

    2009-01-01

    I show herein how to develop fundable proposals to support your research. Although the proposal strategy I discuss is commonly used in successful proposals, most junior faculty (and many senior scholars) in political science and other social sciences seem to be unaware of it. I dispel myths about funding, and discuss how to find funders and target…

  19. Current Developments in Community College Performance Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Thornton, Zoë M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the initiation of performance funding in Tennessee in the late 1970s, approximately 30 states have, at some point, attempted a funding model that includes performance on a set of indicators. The purpose of the present study was to capture the current status of performance funding in public statewide community college systems and to assess…

  20. Boston University: Sustainability Revolving Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Boston University's (BU) Sustainability Revolving Loan Fund was created in 2008 through an allocation of $1 million from the university's administrative budget. The fund is administered by the Vice President of Operations. Potential projects are identified by the university's Director of Energy Administration and Operations along with the…

  1. Federal energy efficiency and water conservation funding study

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study required by section 162 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). It outlines options for financing energy and water conservation measures at Federal facilities as required by Part 3 of Title V of the National Energy Policy and Conservation Act (NECPA) (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.) as amended by EPAct. It addresses: (1) the estimated Federal financial investment necessary to install energy and water conservation measures to meet NECPA and Executive Order requirements; (2) the use of revolving funds and other funding mechanisms which offer stable, long-term financing of energy and water conservation measures; and (3) the means for capitalizing such funds. On March 8, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902. This Executive Order is an aggressive mandate to improve energy efficiency and water conservation in Federal buildings nationwide. This Executive Order is designed to meet and exceed requirements for Federal energy and water efficiency that were contained in section 152 of EPAct. Section 152 mandated that Federal agencies use all cost effective measures with less than a ten year payback to reduce energy consumption in their facilities by 20% by the year 2000 compared to 1985 levels. In addition, Executive Order 12902 established a requirement to use cost effective measures to reduce energy use by fiscal year 2005 by 30% compared to 1985 energy use. This report provides estimates for the energy and water conservation investments needed to achieve the NECPA and Executive Order goals as well as estimates for the contribution from various funding sources and a review of the mechanisms for funding these investments.

  2. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to evaluate the benefits of using algae to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial and small-scale utility power boilers. The operations are being studied for the use of CO2 from flue gas for algae growth along with the production of biofuels and other useful products to prepare a comprehensive characterization of the economic feasibility of using algae to capture CO2. Information is being generated for analyses of the potential for these technologies to advance in the market and assist in meeting environmental goals, as well as to examine their associated environmental implications. Three electric power generation plants (coal and fuel oil fired) equipped to send flue-gas emissions to algae culture at demonstration facilities are being studied. Data and process information are being collected and developed to facilitate feasibility and modeling evaluations of the CO2 to algae technology. An understanding of process requirements to apply this technology to existing industries would go far in advancing carbon capture opportunities. Documenting the successful use of this technology could help bring “low-tech”, low-cost, CO2 to algae, carbon capture to multiple size industries and

  3. An independent review of NCCAM-funded studies of chiropractic.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard; Posadzki, Paul

    2011-05-01

    To promote an independent and critical evaluation of 11 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of chiropractic funded by the National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Electronic searches were conducted to identify all relevant RCTs. Key data were extracted and the risk of bias of each study was determined. Ten RCTs were included, mostly related to chiropractic spinal manipulation for musculoskeletal problems. Their quality was frequently questionable. Several RCTs failed to report adverse effects and the majority was not described in sufficient detail to allow replication. The criticism repeatedly aimed at NCCAM seems justified, as far as their RCTs of chiropractic is concerned. It seems questionable whether such research is worthwhile.

  4. Iowa State University: Live Green Revolving Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The $3 million Live Green Revolving Loan Fund (LGRLF) at Iowa State University (ISU) was launched in 2008. The LGRLF is unique in its decentralized implementation structure which allows each department and building to reap the benefits of their own efficiency measures and gives individual departments the incentive to propose resource-saving…

  5. Funding for cerebral palsy research in Australia, 2000–2015: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    White, R; Novak, I; Badawi, N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the funding for cerebral palsy (CP) research in Australia, as compared with the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Design Observational study. Setting For Australia, philanthropic funding from Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation (CPARF) (2005–2015) was compared with National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2000–2015) and Australian Research Council (ARC, 2004–2015) and CPARF and NHMRC funding were compared with NIH funding (USA). Participants Cerebral Palsy researchers funded by CPARF, NHMRC or NIH. Results Over 10 years, total CPARF philanthropic funding was $21.9 million, including people, infrastructure, strategic and project support. As competitive grants, CPARF funded $11.1 million, NHMRC funded $53.5 million and Australian Research Council funded $1.5 million. CPARF, NHMRC and NIH funding has increased in real terms, but only the NIH statistically significantly increased in real terms (mean annual increase US$4.9 million per year, 95% CI 3.6 to 6.2, p<0.001). The NHMRC budget allocated to CP research remained steady over time at 0.5%. A network analysis indicated the relatively small number of CP researchers in Australia is mostly connected through CPARF or NHMRC funding. Conclusions Funding for CP research from the Australian government schemes has stabilised and CP researchers rely on philanthropic funding to fill this gap. In comparison, the NIH is funding a larger number of CP researchers and their funding pattern is consistently increasing. PMID:27798026

  6. Scissors Mode of 162Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ') reactions.

  7. Scissors mode of Gd nuclei studied from resonance neutron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; and others

    2012-10-20

    Spectra of {gamma} rays following the neutron capture at isolated resonances of stable Gd nuclei were measured. The objectives were to get new information on photon strength of {sup 153,155-159}Gd with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors-mode vibration. An analysis of the data obtained clearly indicates that the scissors mode is coupled not only to the ground state, but also to all excited levels of the nuclei studied. The specificity of our approach ensures unbiasedness in estimating the sumed scissors-mode strength {Sigma}B(M1){up_arrow}, even for odd product nuclei, for which conventional nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements yield only limited information. Our analysis indicates that for these nuclei the sum {Sigma}B(M1){up_arrow} increases with A and for {sup 157,159}Gd it is significantly higher compared to {sup 156,158}Gd.

  8. Scissors Mode of 162 Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    DOE PAGES

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; ...

    2015-05-28

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions,more » (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ’) reactions.« less

  9. A Study of Late Funding of Elementary and Secondary Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Washington, DC.

    This publication presents findings of a nationwide study of the impact of late or uncertain funding on elementary secondary educational programs funded by the U.S. Office of Education (USOE). Emphasis of the report is on detailed documentation of the problems created by current funding flow patterns to state and local education agencies. In phase…

  10. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: a lion case study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sam M; Maruping, Nkabeng T; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R

    2013-05-24

    Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  11. Neutron tube design study for boron neutron capture therapy application

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, J.M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Wu, L.K.; Zahir, N.

    1999-05-06

    Radio-frequency (RF) driven ion sources are being developed in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for sealed-accelerator-tube neutron generator application. By using a 5-cm-diameter RF-driven multicusp source H{sup +} yields over 95% have been achieved. These experimental findings will enable one to develop compact neutron generators based on the D-D or D-T fusion reactions. In this new neutron generator, the ion source, the accelerator and the target are all housed in a sealed metal container without external pumping. Recent moderator design simulation studies have shown that 14 MeV neutrons could be moderated to therapeutically useful energy ranges for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The dose near the center of the brain with optimized moderators is about 65% higher than the dose obtained from a typical neutron spectrum produced by the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), and is comparable to the dose obtained by other accelerator-based neutron sources. With a 120 keV and 1 A deuteron beam, a treatment time of {approx}35 minutes is estimated for BNCT.

  12. An adverse event capture and management system for cancer studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive capture of Adverse Events (AEs) is crucial for monitoring for side effects of a therapy while assessing efficacy. For cancer studies, the National Cancer Institute has developed the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) as a required standard for recording attributes and grading AEs. The AE assessments should be part of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) system; yet, due to patient-centric EHR design and implementation, many EHR's don't provide straightforward functions to assess ongoing AEs to indicate a resolution or a grade change for clinical trials. Methods At UAMS, we have implemented a standards-based Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) that is integrated with the Epic EHR and other research systems to track new and existing AEs, including automated lab result grading in a regulatory compliant manner. Within a patient's chart, providers can launch AERS, which opens the patient's ongoing AEs as default and allows providers to assess (resolution/ongoing) existing AEs. In another tab, it allows providers to create a new AE. Also, we have separated symptoms from diagnoses in the CTCAE to minimize inaccurate designation of the clinical observations. Upon completion of assessments, a physician would submit the AEs to the EHR via a Health Level 7 (HL7) message and then to other systems utilizing a Representational State Transfer Web Service. Conclusions AERS currently supports CTCAE version 3 and 4 with more than 65 cancer studies and 350 patients on those studies. This type of standard integrated into the EHR aids in research and data sharing in a compliant, efficient, and safe manner. PMID:26424052

  13. Conflicts of interest in government-funded studies.

    PubMed

    Pickar, J H

    2015-06-01

    Conflict of interest in scientific publications has become a topic of critical importance. A primary focus has been the relationship between authors, journals and the pharmaceutical industry. That focus must be expanded to include government funding organizations. There are significant benefits to authors and investigators in participating in government-funded research, and to journals in publishing it. There are substantial risks to patients in not considering the potential for conflict of interest.

  14. What Do Students Want in Advising? A Policy Capturing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottarella, Karen E.; Fritzsche, Barbara A.; Cerabino, Kara C.

    2004-01-01

    A policy capturing approach was used to examine the advising variables that contribute to student satisfaction. Students (N = 468) rated 48 scenarios in which advising approach, relationship, advisor gender, emotional nature of the relationship, and type of advisor were manipulated. Results show that being known to the advisor, having a…

  15. Progress on the Europium Neutron-Capture Study using DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J A; Macri, R A; Parker, W; Wilk, P; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T A; Esch, E; Haight, R C; O'Donnell, J M; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R S; Schwantes, J M; Ullmann, J L; Vieira, D J; Wilhelmy, J B; Wouters, J M; Mitchell, G E; Sheets, S A; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

    2006-09-05

    The accurate measurement of neutron-capture cross sections of the Eu isotopes is important for many reasons including nuclear astrophysics and nuclear diagnostics. Neutron capture excitation functions of {sup 151,153}Eu targets were measured recently using a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter array DANCE located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for E{sub n} = 0.1-100 keV. The progress on the data analysis efforts is given in the present paper. The {gamma}-ray multiplicity distributions for the Eu targets and Be backing are significantly different. The {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution is found to be the same for different neutron energies for both {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu. The statistical simulation to model the {gamma}-ray decay cascade is summarized.

  16. Time to publication for publicly funded clinical trials in Australia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Linn Beate; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the length of time between receiving funding and publishing the protocol and main paper for randomised controlled trials. Design An observational study using survival analysis. Setting Publicly funded health and medical research in Australia. Participants Randomised controlled trials funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia between 2008 and 2010. Main outcome measures Time from funding to the protocol paper and main results paper. Multiple variable survival models examining whether study characteristics predicted publication times. Results We found 77 studies with a total funding of $A59 million. The median time to publication of the protocol paper was 6.4 years after funding (95% CI 4.1 to 8.1). The proportion with a published protocol paper 8 years after funding was 0.61 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.74). The median time to publication of the main results paper was 7.1 years after funding (95% CI 6.3 to 7.6). The proportion with a published main results paper 8 years after funding was 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.87). The HRs for how study characteristics might influence timing were generally close to one with narrow CIs, the notable exception was that a longer study length lengthened the time to the main paper (HR=0.62 per extra study year, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.89). Conclusions Despite the widespread registration of clinical trials, there remain serious concerns of trial results not being published or being published with a long delay. We have found that these same concerns apply to protocol papers, which should be publishable soon after funding. Funding agencies could set a target of publishing the protocol paper within 18 months of funding. PMID:28336734

  17. An Exploratory Study of Staff Capture at the South African Inspectorate of Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Steven

    2012-01-01

    When prison inspectorates are co-opted or “captured” by those they are monitoring, their ability to bring transparency, accountability, and a human rights culture to prisons becomes harder. Using survey data from 102 staff at the South African Judicial Inspectorate of Prisons (JIOP), this exploratory study measured the severity of staff capture (i.e. they were not protecting the exclusive interests of prisoners) and potential correlates of capture. Overall, study participants exhibited significant levels of capture with Ordinary Least Squares regression indicating higher levels of capture among staff that were African, thought about someday working for the Department of Correctional Services, felt powerless when prison officials ignored them, and if prison officials respected their work (p’s < .05). Length of JIOP employment was not associated with capture. These findings suggest that the JIOP’s policy of not renewing many staffs’ three year contracts could ironically be putting them at risk for capture. PMID:22581999

  18. Review of Livermore-Led Neutron Capture Studies Using DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W; Sheets, S; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Becvar, F; Bredeweg, T; Clement, R; Couture, A; Esch, E; Haight, R; Jandel, M; Krticka, M; Mitchell, G; Macri, R; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Schwantes, J; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Wilk, P

    2007-05-11

    We have made neutron capture cross-section measurements using the white neutron source at the Los Alamos Science Center, the DANCE detector array (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) and targets important for basic science and stockpile stewardship. In this paper, we review results from (n,{gamma}) reactions on {sup 94,95}Mo, {sup 152,154,157,160,nat}Gd, {sup 151,153}Eu and {sup 242m}Am for neutron energies from < 1eV up to {approx} 20 keV. We measured details of the {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture, for comparison with results of statistical model simulations. We determined the neutron energy dependent (n,{gamma}) cross section and gained information about statistical decay properties, including the nuclear level density and the photon strength function. Because of the high granularity of the detector array, it is possible to look at gamma cascades with a specified number of transitions (a specific multiplicity). We simulated {gamma}-ray cascades using a combination of the DICEBOX/GEANT computer codes. In the case of the deformed nuclei, we found evidence of a scissors-mode resonance. For the Eu, we also determined the (n,{gamma}) cross sections. For the {sup 94,95}Mo, we focused on the spin and parity assignments of the resonances and the determination of the photon strength functions for the compound nuclei {sup 95,96}Mo. Future plans include measurements on actinide targets; our immediate interest is in {sup 242m}Am.

  19. Decay curve study in a standard electron capture decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, D.; Fukuda, M.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Makisaka, K.; Matsumiya, R.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Izumikawa, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2010-05-12

    We have searched for a time-modulated decay in a standard electron capture experiment for {sup 140}Pr, in order to confirm a report from GSI, where an oscillatory decay has been observed for hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr and {sup 142}Pm ions in the cooler storage ring. {sup 140}Pr has been produced with the {sup 140}Ce(p, n) reaction by a pulsed proton beam accelerated from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. Resultant time dependence of the K{sub a}lpha and K{sub b}eta X-ray intensities from the daughter shows no oscillatory behavior.

  20. Report on Legislative and Funding Recommendations, DoDDS Comprehensive Study [of Dependents Schools].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Ted; LeBlanc, Linda

    The final volume of a comprehensive study of the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS), this report consists of a brief background description of the DoDDS system, followed by 10 legislative and funding recommendations based on the findings of the study: (1) increase funding in fiscal year 1984 and beyond to accommodate anticipated…

  1. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Monica; Rudge, James W; Adisasmito, Wiku; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in financing the response to HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) in Indonesia. As part of a series of case studies, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of Global Fund portfolios into the national HIV and TB programmes, integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support on the health care system in Indonesia. The study relied on a literature review and interviews with 22 key informants using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund programmes in Indonesia are highly vertical and centralized, in contrast with the decentralized nature of the Indonesian health system. Consequently, there is more integration of all functions at local levels than centrally. There is a high level of integration of planning of Global Fund HIV and TB portfolios into the National AIDS and TB programmes and some limited integration of these programmes with other disease programmes, through joint working groups. Other synergies include strengthening of stewardship and governance and increased staff recruitment encouraged by incentive payments and training. Monitoring and evaluation functions of the Global Fund programmes are not integrated with the disease programmes, with parallel indicators and reporting systems. System-wide effects include greater awareness of governance and stewardship in response to the temporary suspension of Global Fund funding in 2008, and increased awareness of the need to integrate programme planning, financing and service delivery. Global Fund investment has freed up resources for other programmes, particularly at local levels. However, this may hinder a robust exit strategy from Global Fund funding. Furthermore, Global Fund monetary incentives may result in staff shifting into HIV and TB programmes.

  2. Canadian Institutes of Health Research funding of prison health research: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; McIsaac, Kathryn E.; Foran, Jessica E.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health research provides a means to define health status and to identify ways to improve health. Our objective was to define the proportion of grants and funding from the Government of Canada's health research investment agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), that was awarded for prison health research, and to describe the characteristics of funded grants. Methods: In this descriptive study, we defined prison health research as research on the health and health care of people in prisons and at the time of their release. We searched the CIHR Funding Decisions Database by subject and by investigator name for funded grants for prison health research in Canada in all competitions between 2010 and 2014. We calculated the proportion of grants and funding awarded for prison health research, and described the characteristics of funded grants. Results: During the 5-year study period, 21 grants were awarded that included a focus on prison health research, for a total of $2 289 948. Six of these grants were operating grants and 6 supported graduate or fellowship training. In total, 0.13% of all grants and 0.05% of all funding was for prison health research. Interpretation: A relatively small proportion of CIHR grants and funding were awarded for prison health research between 2010 and 2014. If prison health is a priority for Canada, strategic initiatives that include funding opportunities could be developed to support prison health research in Canada.

  3. Mechanical stability study of capture cavity II at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Problematic resonant conditions at both 18 Hz and 180 Hz were encountered and identified early during the commissioning of Capture Cavity II (CC2) at Fermilab. CC2 consists of an external vacuum vessel and a superconducting high gradient (close to 25 MV/m) 9-cell 1.3 GHz niobium cavity, transported from DESY for use in the A0 Photoinjector at Fermilab. An ANSYS modal finite element analysis (FEA) was performed in order to isolate the source of the resonance and directed the effort towards stabilization. Using a fast piezoelectric tuner to excite (or shake) the cavity at different frequencies (from 5 Hz to 250 Hz) at a low-range sweep for analysis purposes. Both warm (300 K) and cold (1.8 K) accelerometer measurements at the cavity were taken as the resonant ''fix'' was applied. FEA results, cultural and technical noise investigation, and stabilization techniques are discussed.

  4. Funding for Postgraduate Studies in Librarianship and Information Science in the UK since 1990: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Geraint

    2005-01-01

    Potential applicants for postgraduate courses in librarianship and information science (LIS) have always had to consider how they would finance their studies. This paper examines how the funding axis for such courses has changed and how applicants from the UK are now looking to employers to fund courses rather than seeking support from national…

  5. Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding: Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay; Lieberman, Joanne; Parrish, Tom; Kaleba, Daniel; Van Campen, James; Stullich, Stephanie

    The Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding (SERFF) examined the allocation and use of funds provided to school districts and schools through the Goals 2000 and five of the largest Elementary and Secondary Education Act programs for fiscal year 1997, corresponding to the 1997-1998 school year. The six federal programs included in this…

  6. Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding: Final Report. Technical Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay; Lieberman, Joanne; Parrish, Tom; Kaleba, Daniel; Van Campen, James; Stullich, Stephanie

    The Study of Education Resources and Federal Funding (SERFF) examined the allocation and use of funds provided to school districts and schools through the Goals 2000 and five of the largest Elementary and Secondary Education Act programs for fiscal year 1997, corresponding to the 1997-1998 school year. The six federal programs included in this…

  7. Early Childhood Funding at the Community Level: A Case Study from Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, David; Joseph, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Early Childhood Block Grant (ECBG) distributes state funding for preschool and birth-to-three programs in Illinois. The authors conducted a case study in Evanston, a city in north Cook County, Illinois, interviewing community representatives and analyzing ECBG program data to discern how ECBG funds are used to provide early childhood services.…

  8. Target studies for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1996-03-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron ``filter``, which has a deep ``window`` in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is reaccelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator -- target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production -- resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons -- while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current.

  9. In Silico Knockout Studies of Xenophagic Capturing of Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Scheidel, Jennifer; Amstein, Leonie; Ackermann, Jörg; Dikic, Ivan; Koch, Ina

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of cytosol-invading pathogens by autophagy, a process known as xenophagy, is an important mechanism of the innate immune system. Inside the host, Salmonella Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and resides within a specialized intracellular compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole. A fraction of these bacteria does not persist inside the vacuole and enters the host cytosol. Salmonella Typhimurium that invades the host cytosol becomes a target of the autophagy machinery for degradation. The xenophagy pathway has recently been discovered, and the exact molecular processes are not entirely characterized. Complete kinetic data for each molecular process is not available, so far. We developed a mathematical model of the xenophagy pathway to investigate this key defense mechanism. In this paper, we present a Petri net model of Salmonella xenophagy in epithelial cells. The model is based on functional information derived from literature data. It comprises the molecular mechanism of galectin-8-dependent and ubiquitin-dependent autophagy, including regulatory processes, like nutrient-dependent regulation of autophagy and TBK1-dependent activation of the autophagy receptor, OPTN. To model the activation of TBK1, we proposed a new mechanism of TBK1 activation, suggesting a spatial and temporal regulation of this process. Using standard Petri net analysis techniques, we found basic functional modules, which describe different pathways of the autophagic capture of Salmonella and reflect the basic dynamics of the system. To verify the model, we performed in silico knockout experiments. We introduced a new concept of knockout analysis to systematically compute and visualize the results, using an in silico knockout matrix. The results of the in silico knockout analyses were consistent with published experimental results and provide a basis for future investigations of the Salmonella xenophagy pathway. PMID:27906974

  10. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  11. 21 CFR 20.106 - Studies and reports prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Studies and reports prepared by or with funds... Categories of Records § 20.106 Studies and reports prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. (a) The following types of reports and studies prepared by or with funds provided by the Food...

  12. The Australian Research Quality Framework: A Live Experiment in Capturing the Social, Economic, Environmental, and Cultural Returns of Publicly Funded Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    The author regards development of Australia's ill-fated Research Quality Framework (RQF) as a "live experiment" in determining the most appropriate approach to evaluating the extra-academic returns, or "impact," of a nation's publicly funded research. The RQF was at the forefront of an international movement toward richer…

  13. A mobile and asynchronous electronic data capture system for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jens; Fredrich, Daniel; Piegsa, Jens; Habes, Mohamad; van den Berg, Neeltje; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    A Central Data Management (CDM) system based on electronic data capture (EDC) software and study specific databases is an essential component for assessment and management of large data volumes in epidemiologic studies. Conventional CDM systems using web applications for data capture depend on permanent access to a network. However, in many study settings permanent network access cannot be guaranteed, e.g. when participants/patients are visited in their homes. In such cases a different concept for data capture is needed. The utilized EDC software must be able to ensure data capture as stand-alone instance and to synchronize captured data with the server at a later point in time. This article describes the design of the mobile information capture (MInCa) system an EDC software meeting these requirements. In particular, we focus on client and server design, data synchronization, and data privacy as well as data security measures. The MInCa software has already proven its efficiency in epidemiologic studies revealing strengths and weaknesses concerning both concept and practical application which will be addressed in this article.

  14. Sustainable funding for biocuration: The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as a case study of a subscription-based funding model.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Leonore; Berardini, Tanya Z; Li, Donghui; Muller, Robert; Strait, Emily M; Li, Qian; Mezheritsky, Yarik; Vetushko, Andrey; Huala, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Databases and data repositories provide essential functions for the research community by integrating, curating, archiving and otherwise packaging data to facilitate discovery and reuse. Despite their importance, funding for maintenance of these resources is increasingly hard to obtain. Fueled by a desire to find long term, sustainable solutions to database funding, staff from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), founded the nonprofit organization, Phoenix Bioinformatics, using TAIR as a test case for user-based funding. Subscription-based funding has been proposed as an alternative to grant funding but its application has been very limited within the nonprofit sector. Our testing of this model indicates that it is a viable option, at least for some databases, and that it is possible to strike a balance that maximizes access while still incentivizing subscriptions. One year after transitioning to subscription support, TAIR is self-sustaining and Phoenix is poised to expand and support additional resources that wish to incorporate user-based funding strategies. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org.

  15. Sustainable funding for biocuration: The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as a case study of a subscription-based funding model

    PubMed Central

    Berardini, Tanya Z.; Li, Donghui; Muller, Robert; Strait, Emily M.; Li, Qian; Mezheritsky, Yarik; Vetushko, Andrey; Huala, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Databases and data repositories provide essential functions for the research community by integrating, curating, archiving and otherwise packaging data to facilitate discovery and reuse. Despite their importance, funding for maintenance of these resources is increasingly hard to obtain. Fueled by a desire to find long term, sustainable solutions to database funding, staff from the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), founded the nonprofit organization, Phoenix Bioinformatics, using TAIR as a test case for user-based funding. Subscription-based funding has been proposed as an alternative to grant funding but its application has been very limited within the nonprofit sector. Our testing of this model indicates that it is a viable option, at least for some databases, and that it is possible to strike a balance that maximizes access while still incentivizing subscriptions. One year after transitioning to subscription support, TAIR is self-sustaining and Phoenix is poised to expand and support additional resources that wish to incorporate user-based funding strategies. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org PMID:26989150

  16. Feasibility study of algae-based CO2 capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being underta...

  17. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertak...

  18. Feasibility study of algae-based CO2 capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to eval...

  19. Movement patterns and study area boundaries: Influences on survival estimation in capture-mark-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to account for the availability of individuals in the study area during capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies and the resultant confounding of parameter estimates can make correct interpretation of CMR model parameter estimates difficult. Although important advances based on the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model have resulted in estimators of true survival that work by unconfounding either death or recapture probability from availability for capture in the study area, these methods rely on the researcher's ability to select a method that is correctly matched to emigration patterns in the population. If incorrect assumptions regarding site fidelity (non-movement) are made, it may be difficult or impossible as well as costly to change the study design once the incorrect assumption is discovered. Subtleties in characteristics of movement (e.g. life history-dependent emigration, nomads vs territory holders) can lead to mixtures in the probability of being available for capture among members of the same population. The result of these mixtures may be only a partial unconfounding of emigration from other CMR model parameters. Biologically-based differences in individual movement can combine with constraints on study design to further complicate the problem. Because of the intricacies of movement and its interaction with other parameters in CMR models, quantification of and solutions to these problems are needed. Based on our work with stream-dwelling populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we used a simulation approach to evaluate existing CMR models under various mixtures of movement probabilities. The Barker joint data model provided unbiased estimates of true survival under all conditions tested. The CJS and robust design models provided similarly unbiased estimates of true survival but only when emigration information could be incorporated directly into individual encounter histories. For the robust design model, Markovian emigration (future

  20. Funding Full-Time Study through Part-Time Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Mark; Evans, Carl; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2009-01-01

    Full-time students engaged in part-time studies have been a subject of increasing academic attention. This study extends work in this area by examining: the extent to which full-time undergraduate students undertake part-time employment, the reasons for working whilst studying full-time and the extent to which students relate their part-time…

  1. Field Initiated Studies Program. Abstracts of Funded Projects 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Research.

    The Field-Initiated Studies program is open to institutions of higher education, public and private organizations, institutions, and agencies, as well as individuals. Applicants may propose projects that last up to 18 months, and proposals are reviewed and evaluated based on their technical quality and national importance judged by scholars and…

  2. Study of the Effectiveness of OCR for Decentralized Data Capture and Conversion. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, David M.; And Others

    The ERIC network conversion to an OCR (Optical Character Recognition) mode of data entry was studied to analyze the potential effectiveness of OCR data entry for future EPC/s (Editorial Processing Centers). Study results are also applicable to any other system involving decentralized bibliographic data capture and conversion functions. The report…

  3. British government, industry agree to fund Hotel launcher studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. A.

    1986-02-01

    A program status assessment is presented for the horizontal takeoff and landing 'Hotol' single-stage-to-orbit space launcher, for which parallel, two-year airframe and propulsion system proof-of-concept studies have been approved. A two-year initial development program for the airframe would be followed by a four-year development and manufacturing phase that would begin upon the propulsion system concept's successful demonstration. Flight trials could begin in 1996. A number of significant modifications have already been made to the initial design concept, such as to the foreplanes, afterbody, engine intake, and orbital control system.

  4. Process comparison study. MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, T.; Krawiec, J.

    1992-11-01

    A process comparison study was conducted using four different advanced manufacturing techniques to fabricate a composite solid rocket booster systems tunnel cover. Costs and labor hours were tracked to provide the comparison between the processes. A relative structural comparison of the components is also included. The processes utilized included filament winding, pultrusion, automated tape laying, and thermoplastic thermoforming. The hand layup technique is also compared. Of the four advanced processes evaluated, the thermoformed thermoplastic component resulted in the least total cost. The automated tape laying and filament winding techniques closely followed the thermoplastic component in terms of total cost; and, these techniques show the most promise for high quality components and lower production costs. The pultruded component, with its expensive tooling and material requirements, was by far the most expensive process evaluated, although the results obtained would not be representative of large production runs.

  5. Process comparison study. MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, T.; Krawiec, J.

    1992-01-01

    A process comparison study was conducted using four different advanced manufacturing techniques to fabricate a composite solid rocket booster systems tunnel cover. Costs and labor hours were tracked to provide the comparison between the processes. A relative structural comparison of the components is also included. The processes utilized included filament winding, pultrusion, automated tape laying, and thermoplastic thermoforming. The hand layup technique is also compared. Of the four advanced processes evaluated, the thermoformed thermoplastic component resulted in the least total cost. The automated tape laying and filament winding techniques closely followed the thermoplastic component in terms of total cost; and, these techniques show the most promise for high quality components and lower production costs. The pultruded component, with its expensive tooling and material requirements, was by far the most expensive process evaluated, although the results obtained would not be representative of large production runs.

  6. Descriptive Analysis of Title VII-Funded State Education Agency Activities. Volume II: Nine Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Hector; And Others

    Results of a national study of the use of funds provided by the 1974 amendments to Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act by the state education agencies (SEAs) are presented. The study was undertaken to (1) describe and analyze SEA policies and activities regarding bilingual education, (2) describe and analyze the SEA-level…

  7. Is predictability salient? A study of attentional capture by auditory patterns

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Rosy; Baumann, Anna; Gal, Cécile; Barascud, Nicolas; Friston, Karl

    2017-01-01

    In this series of behavioural and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments, we investigate the extent to which repeating patterns of sounds capture attention. Work in the visual domain has revealed attentional capture by statistically predictable stimuli, consistent with predictive coding accounts which suggest that attention is drawn to sensory regularities. Here, stimuli comprised rapid sequences of tone pips, arranged in regular (REG) or random (RAND) patterns. EEG data demonstrate that the brain rapidly recognizes predictable patterns manifested as a rapid increase in responses to REG relative to RAND sequences. This increase is reminiscent of the increase in gain on neural responses to attended stimuli often seen in the neuroimaging literature, and thus consistent with the hypothesis that predictable sequences draw attention. To study potential attentional capture by auditory regularities, we used REG and RAND sequences in two different behavioural tasks designed to reveal effects of attentional capture by regularity. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that regularity does not capture attention. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044016

  8. Molecular dynamics study of ion capture from water by a model ionophore, tetraprotonated cryptand SC24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owenson, Brian; Macelroy, Robert D.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The molecular dynamics of chloride capture from water by the tetraprotonated cryptand SC24 has been studied for the cases of 19 distances between the criptand and the chloride. The chloride capture is found to be characterized by a rapid cooperative change in the conformation of the cryptand when the Cl(-) begins to enter the ligand and just as it encounters the energy barrier. The conformational transition is associated with a shift of three N-H bonds from the pure endo orientation, such that they point toward the chloride.

  9. Subaru/HDS study of CH stars: elemental abundances for stellar neutron-capture process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako; Karinkuzhi, Drisya

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive abundance analysis providing rare insight into the chemical history of lead stars is still lacking. We present results from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) spectral analyses of three CH stars, HD 26, HD 198269 and HD 224959, and, a carbon star with a dusty envelope, HD 100764. Previous studies on these objects are limited by both resolution and wavelength regions and the results differ significantly from each other. We have undertaken to reanalyse the chemical composition of these objects based on high-resolution Subaru spectra covering the wavelength regions 4020-6775 Å. Considering local thermodynamic equilibrium and using model atmospheres, we have derived the stellar parameters, the effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, and metallicities [Fe/H] for these objects. The derived parameters for HD 26, HD 100764, HD 198269 and HD 224959 are (5000, 1.6, -1.13), (4750, 2.0 -0.86), (4500, 1.5, -2.06) and (5050, 2.1, -2.44), respectively. The stars are found to exhibit large enhancements of heavy elements relative to iron in conformity to previous studies. Large enhancement of Pb with respect to iron is also confirmed. Updates on the elemental abundances for several s-process elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Pb) along with the first-time estimates of abundances for a number of other heavy elements (Sr, Ba, Pr, Eu, Er and W) are reported. Our analysis suggests that neutron-capture elements in HD 26 primarily originate in the s-process while the major contributions to the abundances of neutron-capture elements in the more metal-poor objects HD 224959 and HD 198269 are from the r-process, possibly from materials that are pre-enriched with products of the r-process.

  10. Studying Pensions Funds Through an Infinite Servers Nodes Network: A Theoretical Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. A. M.; Andrade, M.; Filipe, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    This study intends to present a representation of a pensions fund through a stochastic network with two infinite servers nodes. With this representation it is allowed to deduce an equilibrium condition of the system with basis on the identity of the random rates expected values, for which the contributions arrive to the fund and the pensions are paid by the fund. In our study a stochastic network is constructed where traffic is represented. This network allows to study the equilibrium in the system and it is admissible to get a balance to a pensions fund. A specific case is studied. When the arrivals from outside at nodes A and B are according to a Poisson process, with rates λA and λB, respectively, the system may be seen as a two nodes network where the first node is a M/G/∞ queue and second a Mt/G/∞ queue. For this case in the long term the conditions of equilibrium are as follows: mAλAαA = mB(ρλA + λB)αB. In this formula it is established a relationship among the two nodes. Several examples are given in the study.

  11. Computer-Based Basic Skills Instruction in a CETA Funded Project: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Robert M.; Hedl, John J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a study that (1) examined the effectiveness of computer-based education in developing literacy and mathematics skills in young adults to enable them to secure unsubsidized employment and (2) compared motivation of CETA-funded students with those who sought training voluntarily. Discusses failures of CETA training projects and makes…

  12. International Monetary Fund and World Bank policies can hurt poor, study says.

    PubMed

    Drajem, M

    2001-01-01

    According to a study by a World Bank economist, developing countries that do not follow International Monetary Fund and World Bank economic programs have seen more of their people lifted out of poverty in times of economic growth than have countries that do take the advice of these lenders.

  13. Funding and Assessment in British Universities: Impact on Theology and Religious Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnells, John R.

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at policies of the British Government relating to teaching, the curriculum, and research and how they impact Theology and Religious Studies (TRS). It reflects on the use of Government funding to steer research outputs and to focus such activity on a small number of selected institutions. It further discusses Government attempts…

  14. 2 Centers for International Studies Fight To Survive Without Federal Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Amy Magaro

    1997-01-01

    The East-West Center (Hawaii) and North-South Center (Florida) for hemisphere-oriented international studies have lost most federal funding and have had to trim staff, cut programs, and begin solicitation of private support. While lawmakers admit the centers do important work, they feel they are unnecessary and the work could be done elsewhere.…

  15. Community College Noncredit Occupational Programming: A Study of State Policies and Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiw, Catherine A.; Kremidas, Chloe C.; Johnson-Lewis, Mark; Lekes, Natasha

    2007-01-01

    This study inventoried state policies and regulations on and financial support for noncredit occupational programming offered by community colleges. Information collected from state- and community college-level administrators and Web-based searches is organized by a range of issues related to noncredit occupational programming and funding, such as…

  16. Modeling misidentification errors that result from use of genetic tags in capture-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshizaki, J.; Brownie, C.; Pollock, K.H.; Link, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Misidentification of animals is potentially important when naturally existing features (natural tags) such as DNA fingerprints (genetic tags) are used to identify individual animals. For example, when misidentification leads to multiple identities being assigned to an animal, traditional estimators tend to overestimate population size. Accounting for misidentification in capture-recapture models requires detailed understanding of the mechanism. Using genetic tags as an example, we outline a framework for modeling the effect of misidentification in closed population studies when individual identification is based on natural tags that are consistent over time (non-evolving natural tags). We first assume a single sample is obtained per animal for each capture event, and then generalize to the case where multiple samples (such as hair or scat samples) are collected per animal per capture occasion. We introduce methods for estimating population size and, using a simulation study, we show that our new estimators perform well for cases with moderately high capture probabilities or high misidentification rates. In contrast, conventional estimators can seriously overestimate population size when errors due to misidentification are ignored. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  18. Are we studying what matters? Health priorities and NIH-funded biomedical engineering research.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Jessica B; Paltiel, A David; Saltzman, W Mark

    2010-07-01

    With the founding of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) in 1999, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) made explicit its dedication to expanding research in biomedical engineering. Ten years later, we sought to examine how closely federal funding for biomedical engineering aligns with U.S. health priorities. Using a publicly accessible database of research projects funded by the NIH in 2008, we identified 641 grants focused on biomedical engineering, 48% of which targeted specific diseases. Overall, we found that these disease-specific NIH-funded biomedical engineering research projects align with national health priorities, as quantified by three commonly utilized measures of disease burden: cause of death, disability-adjusted survival losses, and expenditures. However, we also found some illnesses (e.g., cancer and heart disease) for which the number of research projects funded deviated from our expectations, given their disease burden. Our findings suggest several possibilities for future studies that would serve to further inform the allocation of limited research dollars within the field of biomedical engineering.

  19. Funding Based on Needs? A Study on the Use of Needs Assessment Data by a Major Humanitarian Health Assistance Donor in its Decisions to Allocate Funds

    PubMed Central

    Olin, Emma; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background: International humanitarian assistance is essential for disaster-affected populations, particularly in resource scarce settings. To target such assistance, needs assessments are required. According to internationally endorsed principles, donor governments should provide funding for humanitarian assistance based on need. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore a major donor’s use of needs assessment data in decision-making for allocations of funds for health-related humanitarian assistance contributions. Setting: This is a case study of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), a major and respected international donor of humanitarian assistance. Methods: To explore Sida’s use of needs assessment data in practice for needs-based allocations, we reviewed all decision documents and assessment memoranda for humanitarian assistance contributions for 2012 using content analysis; this was followed by interviews with key personnel at Sida. Results: Our document analysis found that needs assessment data was not systematically included in Sida’s assessment memoranda and decision documents. In the interviews, we observed various descriptions of the concept of needs assessments, the importance of contextual influences as well as previous collaborations with implementing humanitarian assistance organizations. Our findings indicate that policies guiding funding decisions on humanitarian assistance need to be matched with available needs assessment data and that terminologies and concepts have to be clearly defined. Conclusion: Based on the document analysis and the interviews, it is unclear how well Sida used needs assessment data for decisions to allocate funds. However, although our observations show that needs assessments are seldom used in decision making, Sida’s use of needs assessments has improved compared to a previous study. To improve project funds allocations based on needs assessment data, it will be critical to develop

  20. Capture-recapture studies for multiple strata including non-markovian transitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hestbeck, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    We consider capture-recapture studies where release and recapture data are available from each of a number of strata on every capture occasion. Strata may, for example, be geographic locations or physiological states. Movement of animals among strata occurs with unknown probabilities, and estimation of these unknown transition probabilities is the objective. We describe a computer routine for carrying out the analysis under a model that assumes Markovian transitions and under reduced parameter versions of this model. We also introduce models that relax the Markovian assumption and allow 'memory' to operate (i.e., allow dependence of the transition probabilities on the previous state). For these models, we sugg st an analysis based on a conditional likelihood approach. Methods are illustrated with data from a large study on Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in three geographic regions. The assumption of Markovian transitions is rejected convincingly for these data, emphasizing the importance of the more general models that allow memory.

  1. A policy-capturing study of the simultaneous effects of fit with jobs, groups, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Kristof-Brown, Amy L; Jansen, Karen J; Colbert, Amy E

    2002-10-01

    The authors report an experimental policy-capturing study that examines the simultaneous impact of person-job (PJ), person-group (PG), and person-organization (PO) fit on work satisfaction. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors determined that all 3 types of fit had important, independent effects on satisfaction. Work experience explained systematic differences in how participants weighted each type of fit. Multiple interactions also showed participants used complex strategies for combining fit cues.

  2. Modeling misidentification errors in capture-recapture studies using photographic identification of evolving marks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshizaki, J.; Pollock, K.H.; Brownie, C.; Webster, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Misidentification of animals is potentially important when naturally existing features (natural tags) are used to identify individual animals in a capture-recapture study. Photographic identification (photoID) typically uses photographic images of animals' naturally existing features as tags (photographic tags) and is subject to two main causes of identification errors: those related to quality of photographs (non-evolving natural tags) and those related to changes in natural marks (evolving natural tags). The conventional methods for analysis of capture-recapture data do not account for identification errors, and to do so requires a detailed understanding of the misidentification mechanism. Focusing on the situation where errors are due to evolving natural tags, we propose a misidentification mechanism and outline a framework for modeling the effect of misidentification in closed population studies. We introduce methods for estimating population size based on this model. Using a simulation study, we show that conventional estimators can seriously overestimate population size when errors due to misidentification are ignored, and that, in comparison, our new estimators have better properties except in cases with low capture probabilities (<0.2) or low misidentification rates (<2.5%). ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Improving inferences from fisheries capture-recapture studies through remote detection of PIT tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Shively, Rip S.

    2010-01-01

    Models for capture-recapture data are commonly used in analyses of the dynamics of fish and wildlife populations, especially for estimating vital parameters such as survival. Capture-recapture methods provide more reliable inferences than other methods commonly used in fisheries studies. However, for rare or elusive fish species, parameter estimation is often hampered by small probabilities of re-encountering tagged fish when encounters are obtained through traditional sampling methods. We present a case study that demonstrates how remote antennas for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can increase encounter probabilities and the precision of survival estimates from capture-recapture models. Between 1999 and 2007, trammel nets were used to capture and tag over 8,400 endangered adult Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) during the spawning season in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Despite intensive sampling at relatively discrete spawning areas, encounter probabilities from Cormack-Jolly-Seber models were consistently low (< 0.2) and the precision of apparent annual survival estimates was poor. Beginning in 2005, remote PIT tag antennas were deployed at known spawning locations to increase the probability of re-encountering tagged fish. We compare results based only on physical recaptures with results based on both physical recaptures and remote detections to demonstrate the substantial improvement in estimates of encounter probabilities (approaching 100%) and apparent annual survival provided by the remote detections. The richer encounter histories provided robust inferences about the dynamics of annual survival and have made it possible to explore more realistic models and hypotheses about factors affecting the conservation and recovery of this endangered species. Recent advances in technology related to PIT tags have paved the way for creative implementation of large-scale tagging studies in systems where they were previously considered impracticable.

  4. Experimental study of transport and capture of colloids in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Harmand, B.; Rodier, E.; Sardin, M.; Dodds, J.

    1995-12-01

    In the field of radioactive wastes storage, it is well known that radioactive substances can be transported in the geosphere by colloids. The mechanisms which control the interactions between radionuclide and colloid and the transport and capture of colloids are therefore studied in artificial and in natural porous media. Liquid chromatography methods are used to carry out impulse and step injections of latex suspensions in glass beads and sand columns. The physico-chemical and hydrodynamic conditions are changed to determine the effects of parameters as liquid flow rate, ionic strength, and pH on the retention of colloids. The main result is that conditions of low flow rate and high ionic strength can induce a delayed breakthrough of colloids in the medium. The definition of two types of capture sites is proposed from the good simulation of experimental curves with a linear mixing-cell-in-series model.

  5. On the use of capture-recapture models in mist-net studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Pradel, R.; Hines, J.E.; Ralph, C. John; Dunn, Erica H.

    2004-01-01

    Capture-recapture models provide a statistical framework for estimating population parameters from mist-net data. Although Cormack-Jolly-Seber and related models have recently been used to estimate survival rates of birds sampled with mist nets, we believe that the full potential for use of capture-recapture models has not been realized by many researchers involved in mist-net studies. We present a brief discussion of the overall framework for estimation using capture-recapture methods, and review several areas in which recent statistical methods can be, but generally have not yet been, applied to mist-net studies. These areas include estimation of (I) rates of movement among areas; (2) survival rates in the presence of transients: (3) population sizes or migrating birds: (4) proportion of birds alive but not present at a breeding site (one definition of proportion of nonbreeding birds in a population): (5) population change and recruitment: and (6) species richness. Using these models will avoid the possible bias associated with use of indices. and provide statistically valid variance estimates and inference.

  6. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental

  7. Stress response of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during capture-release health assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Schaefer, Adam M; Romano, Tracy A; Bossart, Gregory D; Lamb, Stephen V; Reif, John S

    2014-09-15

    There is a growing concern about the impacts of stress in marine mammals as they face a greater array of threats. The stress response of free-ranging dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was examined by measuring their physiologic response to capture and handling. Samples were collected from 168 dolphins during capture-release health assessments 2003-2007 at two study sites: Charleston, SC (CHS) and the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone (ALD) and catecholamines (epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NOR), dopamine (DA)), were measured in blood and cortisol in urine. Mean time to collect pre-examination samples after netting the animals was 22min; post-examination samples were taken prior to release (mean 1h 37min). EPI and DA concentrations decreased significantly with increased time to blood sampling. ACTH and cortisol levels increased from the initial capture event to the post-examination sample. EPI concentrations increased significantly with increasing time to the pre-examination sample and decreased significantly with time between the pre- and post-examination sample. Cortisol concentrations increased between the pre- and post-examination in CHS dolphins. Age- and sex-adjusted mean pre-examination values of catecholamines were significantly higher in CHS dolphins; ALD was higher in IRL dolphins. Significant differences related to age or sex included higher NOR concentrations in males; higher ALD and urine cortisol levels in juveniles than adults. Wild dolphins exhibited a typical mammalian response to acute stress of capture and restraint. Further studies that relate hormone levels to biological and health endpoints are warranted.

  8. AVIATION SECURITY: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for...local law enforcement support relating to air carrier and airport security measures. The funding of the security operations is divided among FAA, the...generally agreed with the current division of airport security responsibilities. These officials stated that the continuity of screening would be

  9. Prey capture in zebrafish larvae serves as a model to study cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Akira; Kawakami, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Prey capture in zebrafish larvae is an innate behavior which can be observed as early as 4~days postfertilization, the day when they start to swim. This simple behavior apparently involves several neural processes including visual perception, recognition, decision-making, and motor control, and, therefore, serves as a good model system to study cognitive functions underlying natural behaviors in vertebrates. Recent progresses in imaging techniques provided us with a unique opportunity to image neuronal activity in the brain of an intact fish in real-time while the fish perceives a natural prey, paramecium. By expanding this approach, it would be possible to image entire brain areas at a single-cell resolution in real-time during prey capture, and identify neuronal circuits important for cognitive functions. Further, activation or inhibition of those neuronal circuits with recently developed optogenetic tools or neurotoxins should shed light on their roles. Thus, we will be able to explore the prey capture in zebrafish larvae more thoroughly at cellular levels, which should establish a basis of understanding of the cognitive function in vertebrates. PMID:23781176

  10. Probabilistic study of well capture zones distribution at the Lauswiesen field site.

    PubMed

    Riva, M; Guadagnini, L; Guadagnini, A; Ptak, T; Martac, E

    2006-11-20

    The delineation of well capture zones is of utmost environmental and engineering relevance as pumping wells are commonly used both for drinking water supply needs, where protection zones have to be defined, and for investigation and remediation of contaminated aquifers. We analyze the probabilistic nature of well capture zones within the well field located at the "Lauswiesen" experimental site. The test site is part of an alluvial heterogeneous aquifer located in the Neckar river valley, close to the city of Tübingen in South-West Germany. We explore the effect of different conceptual models of the structure of aquifer heterogeneities on the delineation of three-dimensional probabilistic well catchment and time-related capture zones, in the presence of migration of conservative solutes. The aquifer is modeled as a three-dimensional, doubly stochastic composite medium, where distributions of geo-materials and hydraulic properties are uncertain. We study the relative importance of uncertain facies geometry and uncertain hydraulic conductivity and porosity on predictions of catchment and solute time of travel to the pumping well by focusing on cases in which (1) the facies distribution is random, but the hydraulic properties of each material are fixed, and (2) both facies geometry and material properties vary stochastically. The problem is tackled within a conditional numerical Monte Carlo framework. Results are provided in terms of probabilistic demarcations of the three-dimensional well catchment and time-related capture zones. Our findings suggest that the uncertainty associated with the prediction of the location of the outer boundary of well catchment at the "Lauswiesen" site is significantly affected by the conceptual model adopted to incorporate the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer domain in a predictive framework. Taking into account randomness of both lithofacies distribution and materials hydraulic conductivity allows recognizing the existence of

  11. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  12. The Political Origins of Higher Education Performance Funding in Six States. CCRC Brief. Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.; Hare, Rachel J.; Vega, Blanca E.

    2010-01-01

    This Brief summarizes a study that examined the origins of state performance funding in six states: Tennessee, Missouri, Florida, South Carolina, Washington, and Illinois. In order to capture a wide range of possible forces at work in the origins of performance funding, the authors selected states that differed in a variety of ways, including when…

  13. Understanding and Visualizing Multitasking and Task Switching Activities: A Time Motion Study to Capture Nursing Workflow.

    PubMed

    Yen, Po-Yin; Kelley, Marjorie; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Rosado, Amber L; Migliore, Elaina M; Chipps, Esther M; Buck, Jacalyn

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of multitasking within nursing workflow is important in today's dynamic and complex healthcare environment. We conducted a time motion study to understand nursing workflow, specifically multitasking and task switching activities. We used TimeCaT, a comprehensive electronic time capture tool, to capture observational data. We established inter-observer reliability prior to data collection. We completed 56 hours of observation of 10 registered nurses. We found, on average, nurses had 124 communications and 208 hands-on tasks per 4-hour block of time. They multitasked (having communication and hands-on tasks simultaneously) 131 times, representing 39.48% of all times; the total multitasking duration ranges from 14.6 minutes to 109 minutes, 44.98 minutes (18.63%) on average. We also reviewed workflow visualization to uncover the multitasking events. Our study design and methods provide a practical and reliable approach to conducting and analyzing time motion studies from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives.

  14. Understanding and Visualizing Multitasking and Task Switching Activities: A Time Motion Study to Capture Nursing Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Po-Yin; Kelley, Marjorie; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Rosado, Amber L.; Migliore, Elaina M.; Chipps, Esther M.; Buck, Jacalyn

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of multitasking within nursing workflow is important in today’s dynamic and complex healthcare environment. We conducted a time motion study to understand nursing workflow, specifically multitasking and task switching activities. We used TimeCaT, a comprehensive electronic time capture tool, to capture observational data. We established inter-observer reliability prior to data collection. We completed 56 hours of observation of 10 registered nurses. We found, on average, nurses had 124 communications and 208 hands-on tasks per 4-hour block of time. They multitasked (having communication and hands-on tasks simultaneously) 131 times, representing 39.48% of all times; the total multitasking duration ranges from 14.6 minutes to 109 minutes, 44.98 minutes (18.63%) on average. We also reviewed workflow visualization to uncover the multitasking events. Our study design and methods provide a practical and reliable approach to conducting and analyzing time motion studies from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. PMID:28269924

  15. Bayesian inference in camera trapping studies for a class of spatial capture-recapture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Karanth, K. Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, N. Samba

    2009-01-01

    We develop a class of models for inference about abundance or density using spatial capture-recapture data from studies based on camera trapping and related methods. The model is a hierarchical model composed of two components: a point process model describing the distribution of individuals in space (or their home range centers) and a model describing the observation of individuals in traps. We suppose that trap- and individual-specific capture probabilities are a function of distance between individual home range centers and trap locations. We show that the models can be regarded as generalized linear mixed models, where the individual home range centers are random effects. We adopt a Bayesian framework for inference under these models using a formulation based on data augmentation. We apply the models to camera trapping data on tigers from the Nagarahole Reserve, India, collected over 48 nights in 2006. For this study, 120 camera locations were used, but cameras were only operational at 30 locations during any given sample occasion. Movement of traps is common in many camera-trapping studies and represents an important feature of the observation model that we address explicitly in our application.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Release by Anions with Solvent-Dependent Behaviour: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Varandas, António J C

    2016-09-19

    Recently, Clyburne and co-workers [Science, 2014, 344, 75-78] reported the novel synthesis of the elusive cyanoformate anion, NCCO2(-) . The stability of this anion is dependent on the dielectric constant of the local environment (polarity-switchable solvent): it is stable in low-polarity media and unstable in high-polarity solvents; hence, capturing and then releasing CO2 . The possibility of extending such behaviour to other anions is explored herein. Specifically, the CO2 capture process is studied for 26 anions in the gas phase and 3 distinct solvents (water, tetrahydrofuran, and toluene) by using the polarisable continuum model. Calculations are performed with the M06-2X and B3LYP-D3 density functionals and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The design of new CO2 complexes with the anion, which can be formed or destroyed on demand by changing the solvent, is possible; the results for the alkoxylate and thiolate anions are especially promising. The nature of the substituents connected to the atom that bonds to CO2 in the anion is crucial in modulating the relative stability of the products-a key point for reversibility in the CO2 capture process. A moderate interaction for the anion-CO2 adduct-about 10 kcal mol(-1) relative free energy with respect to the isolated reactants in the gas phase-and a relevant effect in the dielectric constant of the local environment are also key ingredients to achieve solvent dependency.

  17. Evergreen or deciduous trees for capturing PAHs from ambient air? A case study.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Flavia; Concha Graña, Estefanía; López Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada Rodríguez, Darío; Retuerto, Rubén; Carballeira, Alejo; Aboal, Jesús R; Fernández, J Ángel

    2017-02-01

    Tree canopies play a key role in the cycling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in terrestrial ecosystems, as leaves can capture PAHs from the air. In this study, accumulation of PAHs was compared in an evergreen species, P. pinaster, and in a deciduous species, Q. robur, in relation to some physio-morphological characteristics. For this purpose, pine needles and oak leaves collected from different sites across Galicia (NW Spain) were analysed to determine PAH contents, specific leaf area, stomatal density and conductance. Leaves and needles contained similar total amounts of PAHs. The major contribution of particle-bound PAHs in oak (the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring PAHs were two times higher, and those of 6-ring PAHs five times higher in oak than in pine) may be related to the higher specific leaf area (13 and 4 cm(2) g(-1) dry mass in respectively oak and pine). However, the major contribution of vapor-phase PAHs in pines may be affected by the stomatal conductance (two times higher in pine than in oak). Moreover, an increase in the diameter at breast height of trees led to an increase in accumulation of PAHs, with pine capturing higher amounts of low and medium molecular weight PAHs. The study findings underline the potential role of trees in improving air quality, taking into account the canopy biomass and life cycle.

  18. More heritability probably captured by psoriasis genome-wide association study in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Long; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Yuyan; Lin, Yan; Shen, Changbing; Zhu, Caihong; Yang, Sen; Yin, Xianyong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-11-15

    Missing heritability is a common problem in genome-wide association studies in complex diseases/traits. To quantify the unbiased heritability estimate, we applied the phenotype correlation-genotype correlation regression in psoriasis genome-wide association data in Han Chinese which comprises 1139 cases and 1132 controls. We estimated that 45.7% heritability of psoriasis in Han Chinese were captured by common variants (s.e.=12.5%), which reinforced that the majority of psoriasis heritability can be covered by common variants in genome-wide association data (68.2%). The results provided evidence that the heritability covered by psoriasis genome-wide genotyping data was probably underestimated in previous restricted maximum likelihood method. Our study highlights the broad role of common variants in the etiology of psoriasis and sheds light on the possibility to identify more common variants of small effect by increasing the sample size in psoriasis genome-wide association studies.

  19. The pricing and procurement of antiretroviral drugs: an observational study of data from the Global Fund.

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, Ashwin; Hoos, David; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Farmer, Paul E.; Rosenfield, Allan G.; Perriëns, Joseph H.

    2006-01-01

    The Purchase price report released in August 2004 by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) was the first publication of a significant amount of real transaction purchase data for antiretrovirals (ARVs). We did an observational study of the ARV transaction data in the Purchase price report to examine the procurement behaviour of principal recipients of Global Fund grants in developing countries. We found that, with a few exceptions for specific products (e.g. lamivudine) and regions (e.g. eastern Europe), prices in low-income countries were broadly consistent or lower than the lowest differential prices quoted by the research and development sector of the pharmaceutical industry. In lower middle-income countries, prices were more varied and in several instances (lopinavir/ritonavir, didanosine, and zidovudine/lamivudine) were very high compared with the per capita income of the country. In all low- and lower middle-income countries, ARV prices were still significantly high given limited local purchasing power and economic strength, thus reaffirming the need for donor support to achieve rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy. However, the price of ARVs will have to decrease to render scale-up financially sustainable for donors and eventually for governments themselves. An important first step in reducing prices will be to make available in the public domain as much ARV transaction data as possible to provide a factual basis for discussions on pricing. The price of ARVs has considerable implications for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatment in the developing world. PMID:16710550

  20. The pricing and procurement of antiretroviral drugs: an observational study of data from the Global Fund.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Ashwin; Hoos, David; Mukherjee, Joia S; Farmer, Paul E; Rosenfield, Allan G; Perriëns, Joseph H

    2006-05-01

    The Purchase price report released in August 2004 by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) was the first publication of a significant amount of real transaction purchase data for antiretrovirals (ARVs). We did an observational study of the ARV transaction data in the Purchase price report to examine the procurement behaviour of principal recipients of Global Fund grants in developing countries. We found that, with a few exceptions for specific products (e.g. lamivudine) and regions (e.g. eastern Europe), prices in low-income countries were broadly consistent or lower than the lowest differential prices quoted by the research and development sector of the pharmaceutical industry. In lower middle-income countries, prices were more varied and in several instances (lopinavir/ritonavir, didanosine, and zidovudine/lamivudine) were very high compared with the per capita income of the country. In all low- and lower middle-income countries, ARV prices were still significantly high given limited local purchasing power and economic strength, thus reaffirming the need for donor support to achieve rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy. However, the price of ARVs will have to decrease to render scale-up financially sustainable for donors and eventually for governments themselves. An important first step in reducing prices will be to make available in the public domain as much ARV transaction data as possible to provide a factual basis for discussions on pricing. The price of ARVs has considerable implications for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatment in the developing world.

  1. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  2. Comparative study of high-resolution shock-capturing schemes for a real gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.

    1988-01-01

    Recently developed second-order explicit shock-capturing methods, in conjunction with generalized flux-vector splittings, and a generalized approximate Riemann solver for a real gas are studied. The comparisons are made on different one-dimensional Riemann (shock-tube) problems for equilibrium air with various ranges of Mach numbers, densities and pressures. Six different Riemann problems are considered. These tests provide a check on the validity of the generalized formulas, since theoretical prediction of their properties appears to be difficult because of the non-analytical form of the state equation. The numerical results in the supersonic and low-hypersonic regimes indicate that these produce good shock-capturing capability and that the shock resolution is only slightly affected by the state equation of equilibrium air. The difference in shock resolution between the various methods varies slightly from one Riemann problem to the other, but the overall accuracy is very similar. For the one-dimensional case, the relative efficiency in terms of operation count for the different methods is within 30 percent. The main difference between the methods lies in their versatility in being extended to multidimensional problems with efficient implicit solution procedures.

  3. Rate-based process modeling study of CO{sub 2} capture with aqueous monoethanolamine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.; Chen, C.C.; Plaza, J.M.; Dugas, R.; Rochelle, G.T.

    2009-10-15

    Rate-based process modeling technology has matured and is increasingly gaining acceptance over traditional equilibrium-stage modeling approaches. Recently comprehensive pilot plant data for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) solution have become available from the University of Texas at Austin. The pilot plant data cover key process variables including CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas stream, CO{sub 2} loading in lean MEA solution, liquid to gas ratio, and packing type. In this study, we model the pilot plant operation with Aspen RateSep, a second generation rate-based multistage separation unit operation model in Aspen Plus. After a brief review of rate-based modeling, thermodynamic and kinetic models for CO{sub 2} absorption with the MEA solution, and transport property models, we show excellent match of the rate-based model predictions against the comprehensive pilot plant data and we validate the superiority of the rate-based models over the traditional equilibrium-stage models. We further examine the impacts of key rate-based modeling options, i.e., film discretization options and flow model options. The rate-based model provides excellent predictive capability, and it should be very useful for design and scale-up of CO{sub 2} capture processes.

  4. Mechanistic Study on Electron Capture Dissociation of the Oligosaccharide-Mg2+ Complex

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yiqun; Pu, Yi; Yu, Xiang; Costello, Catherine E.; Lin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) has shown great potential in structural characterization of glycans. However, our current understanding of the glycan ECD process is inadequate for accurate interpretation of the complex glycan ECD spectra. Here, we present the first comprehensive theoretical investigation on the ECD fragmentation behavior of metal-adducted glycans, using the cellobiose-Mg2+ complex as the model system. Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to determine the typical glycan-Mg2+ binding patterns and the lowest-energy conformer identified was used as the initial geometry for density functional theory-based theoretical modeling. It was found that the electron is preferentially captured by Mg2+ and the resultant Mg+• can abstract a hydroxyl group from the glycan moiety to form a carbon radical. Subsequent radical migration and α-cleavage(s) result in the formation of a variety of product ions. The proposed hydroxyl abstraction mechanism correlates well with the major features in the ECD spectrum of the Mg2+-adducted cellohexaose. The mechanism presented here also predicts the presence of secondary, radical-induced fragmentation pathways. These secondary fragment ions could be misinterpreted, leading to erroneous structural determination. The present study highlights an urgent need for continuing investigation of the glycan ECD mechanism, which is imperative for successful development of bioinformatics tools that can take advantage of the rich structural information provided by ECD of metal-adducted glycans. PMID:24845360

  5. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Phase B: Data capture facility definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Aerospace Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) initiated the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to obtain more accurate measurements of tropical rainfall then ever before. The measurements are to improve scientific understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms effecting the intra-annual and interannual variability of the Earth's climate. The TRMM is largely dependent upon the handling and processing of the data by the TRMM Ground System supporting the mission. The objective of the TRMM is to obtain three years of climatological determinations of rainfall in the tropics, culminating in data sets of 30-day average rainfall over 5-degree square areas, and associated estimates of vertical distribution of latent heat release. The scope of this study is limited to the functions performed by TRMM Data Capture Facility (TDCF). These functions include capturing the TRMM spacecraft return link data stream; processing the data in the real-time, quick-look, and routine production modes, as appropriate; and distributing real time, quick-look, and production data products to users. The following topics are addressed: (1) TRMM end-to-end system description; (2) TRMM mission operations concept; (3) baseline requirements; (4) assumptions related to mission requirements; (5) external interface; (6) TDCF architecture and design options; (7) critical issues and tradeoffs; and (8) recommendation for the final TDCF selection process.

  6. Assessment of DFT methods for studying acid gas capture by ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-10-28

    For the first time, this work reports an analysis of the performance of Density Functional methods for studying acid gas capture (CO2 and SO2) by ionic liquids (ILs). The considered functionals were selected as representatives of the available families: pure GGA (PBE and BLYP), hybrid (PBE0 and B3LYP), hybrid meta-GGA (M06, M06-2X and M06-HF), long range corrected (LC-PBEPBE, CAM-B3LYP, ωB97X) and dispersion corrected (PBE-D2, B3LYP-D2 and ωB97XD). Likewise, HF and MP2 were also applied. Binding energies of cation-anion interacting pairs as well as IL-CO2 and IL-SO2 systems were calculated for a set of 54 ILs and compared against MP2/aug-cc-pvDZ. Unlike previously reported DFT benchmarks on ILs, which calculated binding energies through single point calculations on fixed geometries, properties in this work were calculated for geometries optimized at each theoretical level. DFT functionals that are suitable for describing ion-ion and ion-gas interactions were identified, considering both Coulombic forces and dispersion interactions. The reported results allowed us to infer relationships to the rational design of ILs for acid gas capture.

  7. Comparative study of high-resolution shock-capturing schemes for a real gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently developed second-order explicit shock-capturing methods, in conjunction with generalized flux-vector splittings, and a generalized approximate Riemann solver for a real gas are studied. The comparisons are made on different one-dimensional Riemann (shock-tube) problems for equilibrium air with various ranges of Mach numbers, densities and pressures. Six different Riemann problems are considered. These tests provide a check on the validity of the generalized formulas, since theoretical prediction of their properties appears to be difficult because of the non-analytical form of the state equation. The numerical results in the supersonic and low-hypersonic regimes indicate that these produce good shock-capturing capability and that the shock resolution is only slightly affected by the state equation of equilibrium air. The difference in shock resolution between the various methods varies slightly from one Riemann problem to the other, but the overall accuracy is very similar. For the one-dimensional case, the relative efficiency in terms of operation count for the different methods is within 30%. The main difference between the methods lies in their versatility in being extended to multidimensional problems with efficient implicit solution procedures.

  8. DCB Funding

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Biology (DCB) funds and supports extramural basic research that investigates the fundamental biology behind cancer. Find out more about DCB's grants process and funding opportunities.

  9. Innovation, renewable energy, and state investment: Case studies of leading clean energy funds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Milford, Lewis; Porter, Kevin; Clark, Roger

    2002-09-01

    Over the last several years, many U.S. states have established clean energy funds to help support the growth of renewable energy markets. Most often funded by system-benefits charges (SBC), the 15 states that have established such funds are slated to collect nearly $3.5 billion from 1998 to 2012 for renewable energy investments. These clean energy funds are expected to have a sizable impact on the energy future of the states in which the funds are being collected and used. For many of the organizations tapped to administer these funds, however, this is a relatively new role that presents the challenge of using public funds in the most effective and innovative fashion possible. Fortunately, each state is not alone in its efforts; many other U.S. states and a number of countries are undertaking similar efforts. Early lessons are beginning to be learned by clean energy funds about how to effectively target public funds towards creating and building renewable energy markets. A number of innovative programs have already been developed that show significant leadership by U.S. states in supporting renewable energy. It is important that clean energy fund administrators learn from this emerging experience.

  10. Borehole parametric study for neutron induced capture gamma-ray spectrometry using the MCNP code.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, M; Sohrabpour, M

    2000-01-01

    The MCNP Monte Carlo code has been used to simulate neutron transport from an Am-Be source into a granite formation surrounding a borehole. The effects of the moisture and the neutron poison on the thermal neutron flux distribution and the capture by the absorbing elements has been calculated. Thermal and nonthermal captures for certain absorbers having resonance structures in the epithermal and fast energy regions such as W and Si were performed. It is shown that for those absorbers having large resonances in the epithermal regions when they are present in dry formation or when accompanied by neutron poisons the resonance captures may be significant compared to the thermal captures.

  11. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John S. F.; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002–13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009–13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  12. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mursheda; Lewison, Grant; Wright, John S F; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002-13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009-13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals.

  13. Scissors Mode of 162 Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ’) reactions.

  14. How funding structures for HIV/AIDS research shape outputs and utilization: a Swiss case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research policy in the field of HIV has changed substantially in recent decades in Switzerland. Until 2004, social science research on HIV/AIDS was funded by specialized funding agencies. After 2004, funding of such research was “normalized” and integrated into the Swiss National Science Foundation as the main funding agency for scientific research in Switzerland. This paper offers a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between the changing nature of funding structures on the one hand and the production and communication of policy-relevant scientific knowledge in the field of HIV on the other hand. Methods The analysis relies on an inventory of all social sciences research projects on HIV in Switzerland that were funded between 1987 and 2010, including topics covered and disciplines involved, as well as financial data. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 stakeholders. Results The analysis highlights that the pre-2004 funding policy ensured good coverage of important social science research themes. Specific incentives and explicit promotion of social science research related to HIV gave rise to a multidisciplinary, integrative and health-oriented approach. The abolition of a specific funding policy in 2004 was paralleled by a drastic reduction in the number of social science research projects submitted for funding, and a decline of public money dedicated to such research. Although the public administration in charge of HIV policy still acknowledges the relevance of findings from social sciences for the development of prevention, treatment and care, HIV-related social science research does not flourish under current funding conditions. Conclusions The Swiss experience sheds light on the difficulties of sustaining social science research and multidisciplinary approaches related to HIV without specialized funding agencies. Future funding policy might not necessarily require specialized agencies, but should better take into

  15. Fiscal mapping autism spectrum disorder funds: a case study of Ohio.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Hilary D; Hoffman, Jill; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Moodie-Dyer, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have complex needs requiring regular service utilization. Policymakers, administrators, and community leaders are looking for ways to finance ASD services and systems. Understanding the fiscal resources that support ASD services is essential. This article uses fiscal mapping to explore ASD funding streams in Ohio. Fiscal mapping steps are overviewed to assist ASD stakeholders in identifying and examining ASD-related funding. Implications are drawn related to how fiscal mapping could be used to identify and leverage funding for ASD services. The resulting information is critical to utilizing existing resources, advocating for resources, and leveraging available funds.

  16. Rights and Responsibilities of Tuberculosis Patients, and the Global Fund: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Muhammad; Javaid, Sareema; Farooqui, Maryam; Sarwar, Muhammad Rehan

    2016-01-01

    Background Implementation of the Charter to protect patients’ rights is an important criterion to achieve patient-centered approach and receive financial support from the Global Fund. Our study aims to explore the knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) patients about their rights and responsibilities at the Chest Disease Unit of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Methods This was a qualitative study. The data from purposefully selected TB patients was collected by in-depth interviews. Eligibility criteria included confirmed diagnosis of TB and enrollment in the TB program. A pilot tested interview protocol was based upon the objectives of the study, and was used uniformly in each interview to maintain the consistency. The sample size was limited by applying the saturation criteria. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Inductive thematic content analysis was applied to analyze the data and draw conclusions. Results Out of the total 16 patients, four were female, and seven were illiterate. Eight patients were known cases of multi-drug resistant TB. Analysis of the data yielded seven themes; tuberculosis care services, moral support and stigmatization, dignity and privacy, complaints, fear of losing job, information sharing and compliance to the treatment plan, and contribution to eradicate TB. First five represented the rights section while latter two were related to the responsibilities section of the Charter. Conclusion Discriminatory access to TB care services and the right to privacy were two major concerns identified in this study. However, the respondents recognized their responsibilities as a TB patient. To ensure uninterrupted investment from the Global Fund, there is a need to implement fair TB care policies which support human rights-based approach. PMID:26998830

  17. Capturing the Active Ingredients of Multicomponent Participatory Organizational Stress Interventions Using an Adapted Study Design.

    PubMed

    Biron, Caroline; Ivers, Hans; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Adapted study designs use process evaluation to incorporate a measure of intervention exposure and create an artificial control and intervention groups. Taking into account exposure levels to interventions combines process and outcome evaluation and strengthens the design of the study when exposure levels cannot be controlled. This study includes longitudinal data (two assessments) with added process measures at time 2 gathered from three complex participatory intervention projects in Canada in a hospital and a university. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the specific working mechanisms of particular interventions on stress outcomes. Results showed that higher exposure to interventions aiming to modify tasks and working conditions reduced demands and improved social support, but not job control, which in turn, reduced psychological distress. Exposure to interventions aiming to improve relationships was not related to psychosocial risks. Most studies cannot explain how interventions produce their effects on outcomes, especially when there are multiple concurrent interventions delivered in several contexts. This study advances knowledge on process evaluation by using an adapted study design to capture the active ingredients of multicomponent interventions and suggesting some mechanisms by which the interventions produce their effects on stress outcomes. It provides an illustration of how to conduct process evaluation and relate exposure levels to observed outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Do glucocorticoids in droppings reflect baseline level in birds captured in the wild? A case study in snow geese.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Gauthier, Gilles; Chastel, Olivier; Picard, Gérald; Bêty, Joël

    2011-07-01

    Baseline glucocorticoid (CORT) levels in plasma are increasingly used as physiological indices of the relative condition or health of individuals and populations. The major limitation is that CORT production is stimulated by the stress associated with capture and handling. Measuring fecal CORT is one way to solve this problem because elevation of fecal CORT usually does not occur before 1-12h after a stressful event in captive animals. However, the effect of capture and handling on fecal CORT levels has seldom been investigated in the wild. In a first experiment, we validated that fecal CORT levels starts to increase in droppings (a mixture of fecal and urinary material) about 1-2h following injection of CORT-release hormone (ACTH) in captive greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). In a second experiment, we investigated whether dropping and plasma CORT were related and if the capture affected fecal CORT levels in wild birds. Baseline CORT was obtained by bleeding individuals within 4 min after capture. No relationship was found between baseline and CORT in droppings shortly after capture (<4 min). In addition, CORT levels in droppings increased linearly with time after capture and was already elevated by a factor two 40 min after capture. The different turnover time of CORT between urine and feces could explain such results. We conclude that droppings cannot provide an index of basal CORT levels in snow geese captured in the wild. Such a result contrast with previous studies conducted on habituated, captive animals. We thus recommend that use of droppings as a non-invasive technique to measure baseline CORT be restricted to non-manipulated individuals in the wild.

  19. Prevalence of inherited ichthyosis in France: a study using capture-recapture method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inherited ichthyoses represent a group of rare skin disorders characterized by scaling, hyperkeratosis and inconstant erythema, involving most of the tegument. Epidemiology remains poorly described. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of inherited ichthyosis (excluding very mild forms) and its different clinical forms in France. Methods Capture – recapture method was used for this study. According to statistical requirements, 3 different lists (reference/competence centres, French association of patients with ichthyosis and internet network) were used to record such patients. The study was conducted in 5 areas during a closed period. Results The prevalence was estimated at 13.3 per million people (/M) (CI95%, [10.9 – 17.6]). With regard to autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, the prevalence was estimated at 7/M (CI 95% [5.7 – 9.2]), with a prevalence of lamellar ichthyosis and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma of 4.5/M (CI 95% [3.7 – 5.9]) and 1.9/M (CI 95% [1.6 – 2.6]), respectively. Prevalence of keratinopathic forms was estimated at 1.1/M (CI 95% [0.9 – 1.5]). Prevalence of syndromic forms (all clinical forms together) was estimated at 1.9/M (CI 95% [1.6 – 2.6]). Conclusions Our results constitute a crucial basis to properly size the necessary health measures that are required to improve patient care and design further clinical studies. PMID:24393603

  20. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) Funding for Studies of Hospital-Associated Bacterial Pathogens: Are Funds Proportionate to Burden of Disease?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) are associated with a considerable burden of disease and direct costs greater than $17 billion. The pathogens that cause the majority of serious HAIs are Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species, referred as ESCKAPE. We aimed to determine the amount of funding the National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) allocates to research on antimicrobial resistant pathogens, particularly ESCKAPE pathogens. Methods The NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) database was used to identify NIAID antimicrobial resistance research grants funded in 2007-2009 using the terms "antibiotic resistance," "antimicrobial resistance," and "hospital-associated infection." Results Funding for antimicrobial resistance grants has increased from 2007-2009. Antimicrobial resistance funding for bacterial pathogens has seen a smaller increase than non-bacterial pathogens. The total funding for all ESKCAPE pathogens was $ 22,005,943 in 2007, $ 30,810,153 in 2008 and $ 49,801,227 in 2009. S. aureus grants received $ 29,193,264 in FY2009, the highest funding amount of all the ESCKAPE pathogens. Based on 2009 funding data, approximately $1,565 of research money was spent per S. aureus related death and $750 of was spent per C. difficile related death. Conclusions Although the funding for ESCKAPE pathogens has increased from 2007 to 2009, funding levels for antimicrobial resistant bacteria-related grants is still lower than funding for antimicrobial resistant non-bacterial pathogens. Efforts may be needed to improve research funding for resistant-bacterial pathogens, particularly as their clinical burden increases. PMID:22958856

  1. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing; Henderson, Jr., Hugh

    2016-12-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  2. Youth Opportunity Fund and Youth Capital Fund: Evaluation Findings from Initial Case-Study Visits. Research Report DCSF-RR004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lisa; Bielby, Gill; Golden, Sarah; Morris, Marian; Walker, Matthew; Maguire, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Education and Skills (Replace by the Department for Children, Schools and Families as of June 28, 2007) commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to conduct an evaluation of the Youth Opportunity Fund and Youth Capital Fund (YOF/YCF). This summary presents the main findings from the interim report of…

  3. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    PubMed

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  4. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  5. Boulder Capture System Design Options for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belbin, Scott P.; Merrill, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a boulder acquisition and asteroid surface interaction electromechanical concept developed for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It details the down select process and ranking of potential boulder capture methods, the evolution of a simple yet elegant articulating spaceframe, and ongoing risk reduction and concept refinement efforts. The capture system configuration leverages the spaceframe, heritage manipulators, and a new microspine technology to enable the ARRM boulder capture. While at the NEA it enables attenuation of terminal descent velocity, ascent to escape velocity, boulder collection and restraint. After departure from the NEA it enables, robotic inspection, sample caching, and crew Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA).

  6. A discrete choice experiment investigating preferences for funding drugs used to treat orphan diseases: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Stefanowska, Patricia; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2011-07-01

    Policy debate about funding criteria for drugs used to treat rare, orphan diseases is gaining prominence. This study presents evidence from a discrete choice experiment using a convenience sample of university students to investigate individual preferences regarding public funding for drugs used to treat rare diseases and common diseases. This pilot study finds that: other things equal, the respondents do not prefer to have the government spend more for drugs used to treat rare diseases; that respondents are not willing to pay more per life year gained for a rare disease than a common disease; and that respondents weigh relevant attributes of the coverage decisions (e.g. costs, disease severity and treatment effectiveness) similarly for both rare and common diseases. The results confirm the importance of severity and treatment effectiveness in preferences for public funding. Although this is the first study of its kind, the results send a cautionary message regarding the special treatment of orphan drugs in coverage decision-making.

  7. A4-4: Do Projects Have Complete Data Capture for Their Study Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Donald; Hornbrook, Mark; Ritzwoller, Debra; Pardee, Roy; Bauck, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Investigators often assume that when patients are enrolled in a health plan, they have complete capture of utilization data from their health plan sources. This assumption may not always be true as patients have many incentives to choose care at multiple settings (convenience, price, residence, insurance type, drug coverage), which can give rise to missing data. Complete capture of medical data for population-based research is crucial to our ability to identify populations who have not had particular exposures or outcomes. In case-control designs, where the control group does not have a specified exposure, we measure this condition by absence of data. To address this problem, the VDW enrollment work group created a new enrollment variable, called “Outside_utilization”, designed to identify members suspected of incomplete capture of encounters or pharmacy fills. This work reports on a quality assurance analysis of the extent and nature of the data gaps at different sites. Methods For V3, HMORN sites added new VDW variables in their enrollment file including the “Outside_utilization” variable. This variable identifies populations suspected of having incomplete health care utilization capture. Since the reasons for incomplete data capture vary among the sites, the methods for identifying members with incomplete data capture were determined by the local site data managers. The authors distributed a program that computed utilization rates for specific cohorts for “complete” and “incomplete” data capture populations. We also computed rates for those on high deductible plans. We compared differences in these rates by year and site. In addition, we conducted a survey to determine how the incomplete populations were identified for each participating site. Results Some sites clearly identify populations that have incomplete capture of data using the “Outside_utilization” variable. At other sites, the difference in rates is less apparent

  8. Spatial capture-recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sollmann, Rahel; Gardner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Spatial Capture-Recapture provides a revolutionary extension of traditional capture-recapture methods for studying animal populations using data from live trapping, camera trapping, DNA sampling, acoustic sampling, and related field methods. This book is a conceptual and methodological synthesis of spatial capture-recapture modeling. As a comprehensive how-to manual, this reference contains detailed examples of a wide range of relevant spatial capture-recapture models for inference about population size and spatial and temporal variation in demographic parameters. Practicing field biologists studying animal populations will find this book to be a useful resource, as will graduate students and professionals in ecology, conservation biology, and fisheries and wildlife management.

  9. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  10. Case Study for the ARRA-funded GSHP Demonstration at University at Albany

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing; Malhotra, Mini; Xiong, Zeyu

    2015-03-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects—a distributed GSHP system at a new 500-bed apartment-style student residence hall at the University at Albany. This case study is based on the analysis of detailed design documents, measured performance data, published catalog data of heat pump equipment, and actual construction costs. Simulations with a calibrated computer model are performed for both the demonstrated GSHP system and a baseline heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) system to determine the energy savings and other related benefits achieved by the GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, as well as the pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the demonstrated GSHP system compared with the baseline HVAC system. This case study also identifies opportunities for improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  11. Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Study Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the study methods used for the "Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho" report. The purpose of this study was to describe how Title I 1003(g) School Improvement Grants awarded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) in the…

  12. Early Implementation Experiences of the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund Grantees. NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  13. Density functional theory study of CO2 capture with transition metal oxides and hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Duan, Yuhua; Johnson, Karl

    2012-02-01

    We have used density functional theory (DFT) employing several different exchange-correlation functionals (PW91, PBE, PBEsol, TPSS, and revTPSS) coupled with lattice dynamics calculations to compute the thermodynamics of CO2 absorption/desorption reactions for selected transition metal oxides, (TMO), and hydroxides, TM(OH)2, where TM = Mn, Ni, Zn, and Cd. The van't Hoff plots, which describe the reaction equilibrium as a function of the partial pressures of CO2 and H2O as well as temperature, were computed from DFT total energies, complemented by the free energy contribution of solids and gases from lattice dynamics and statistical mechanics, respectively. We find that the PBEsol functional calculations are generally in better agreement with experimental phase equilibrium data compared with the other functionals we tested. In contrast, the formation enthalpies of the compounds are better computed with the TPSS and revTPSS functionals. The PBEsol functional gives better equilibrium properties due to a partial cancellation of errors in the enthalpies of formation. We have identified all CO2 capture reactions that lie on the Gibbs free energy convex hull as a function of temperature and the partial pressures of CO2 and H2O for all TMO and TM(OH)2 systems studied here.

  14. Laser capture microdissection enables cellular and molecular studies of tooth root development

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian-Xun; Horst, Orapin V; Bumgarner, Roger; Lakely, Bryce; Somerman, Martha J; Zhang, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) are critical for tooth development. Molecular mechanisms mediating these interactions in root formation is not well understood. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and subsequent microarray analyses enable large scale in situ molecular and cellular studies of root formation but to date have been hindered by technical challenges of gaining intact histological sections of non-decalcified mineralized teeth or jaws with well-preserved RNA. Here,we describe a new method to overcome this obstacle that permits LCM of dental epithelia,adjacent mesenchyme,odontoblasts and cementoblasts from mouse incisors and molars during root development. Using this method,we obtained RNA samples of high quality and successfully performed microarray analyses. Robust differences in gene expression,as well as genes not previously associated with root formation,were identified. Comparison of gene expression data from microarray with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) supported our findings. These genes include known markers of dental epithelia,mesenchyme,cementoblasts and odontoblasts,as well as novel genes such as those in the fibulin family. In conclusion,our new approach in tissue preparation enables LCM collection of intact cells with well-preserved RNA allowing subsequent gene expression analyses using microarray and RT-PCR to define key regulators of tooth root development. PMID:22422086

  15. A novel mobile-cloud system for capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering data: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Jones, Maria; Liu, Tao; Hao, Wei; Yan, Yuqing; Qian, Gang; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to provide a new approach for capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering data, which are critical for evaluating wheelchair users' activity levels. We proposed a mobile-cloud (MC) system, which incorporated the emerging mobile and cloud computing technologies. The MC system employed smartphone sensors to collect wheelchair maneuvering data and transmit them to the cloud for storage and analysis. A k-nearest neighbor (KNN) machine-learning algorithm was developed to mitigate the impact of sensor noise and recognize wheelchair maneuvering patterns. We conducted 30 trials in an indoor setting, where each trial contained 10 bouts (i.e., periods of continuous wheelchair movement). We also verified our approach in a different building. Different from existing approaches that require sensors to be attached to wheelchairs' wheels, we placed the smartphone into a smartphone holder attached to the wheelchair. Experimental results illustrate that our approach correctly identified all 300 bouts. Compared to existing approaches, our approach was easier to use while achieving similar accuracy in analyzing the accumulated movement time and maximum period of continuous movement (p > 0.8). Overall, the MC system provided a feasible way to ease the data collection process and generated accurate analysis results for evaluating activity levels.

  16. Neutron Tube Design Study for Boron Neutron Capture TherapyApplication

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, J.M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Wu, L.K.; Zahir, N.

    1998-01-04

    Radio-frequency (RF) driven ion sources are being developed in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for sealed-accelerator-tube neutron generator application. By using a 5-cm-diameter RF-driven multicusp source H{sup +} yields over 95% have been achieved. These experimental findings will enable one to develop compact neutron generators based on the D-D or D-T fusion reactions. In this new neutron generator, the ion source, the accelerator and the target are all housed in a sealed metal container without external pumping. Recent moderator design simulation studies have shown that 14 MeV neutrons could be moderated to therapeutically useful energy ranges for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The dose near the center of the brain with optimized moderators is about 65% higher than the dose obtained from a typical neutron spectrum produced by the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), and is comparable to the dose obtained by other accelerator-based neutron sources. With a 120 keV and 1 A deuteron beam, a treatment time of {approx}35 minutes is estimated for BNCT.

  17. Capturing the Semantics of User Interaction: A Review and Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Donn; Marchand-Maillet, Stéphane; Bruno, Eric

    In many retrieval domains there exists a problematic gap between what computers can describe and what humans are capable of perceiving. This gap is most evident in the indexing of multimedia data such as images, video and sound where the low-level features are too semantically deficient to be of use from a typical users' perspective. On the other hand, users possess the ability to quickly examine and summarise these documents, even subconsciously. Examples include specifying relevance between a query and results, rating preferences in film databases, purchasing items from online retailers, and even browsing web sites. Data from these interactions, captured and stored in log files, can be interpreted to have semantic meaning, which proves indispensable when used in a collaborative setting where users share similar preferences or goals. In this chapter we summarise techniques for efficiently exploiting user interaction in its many forms for the generation and augmentation of semantic data in large databases. This user interaction can be applied to improve performance in recommender and information retrieval systems. A case study is presented which applies a popular technique, latent semantic analysis, to improve retrieval on an image database.

  18. A fundamental study on hyper-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K

    1994-12-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum with a Maxwellian distribution at a higher temperature than room temperature (300 K), was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at depth in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using a Monte Carlo code 'MCNP-V3' in order to investigate the characteristics of hyper-thermal neutrons, i.e. (i) depth dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, and (ii) depth distribution of the reaction rate in a water phantom for materials with 1/v neutron absorption. It is confirmed that hyper-thermal neutron irradiation can improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in the deeper areas in a living body compared with thermal neutron irradiation. When hyper-thermal neutrons with a 3000 K Maxwellian distribution are incident on a body, the reaction rates of 1/v materials such as 14N, 10B etc are about twice that observed for incident thermal neutrons at 300 K, at a depth of 5 cm. The limit of the treatable depth for tumours having 30 ppm 10B is expected to be about 1.5 cm greater by utilizing hyper-thermal neutrons at 3000 K compared with the incidence of thermal neutrons at 300 K.

  19. Missing Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A high school drama coach informs assistant principal Laura Madison that the money students earned through fund-raising activities seems to have vanished and that the male assistant principal may be involved in the disappearance of the funds. Laura has to determine how to address this situation. She considers her past experiences with problematic…

  20. Hoofbeats From the Currituck Outer Banks: A Study of the Corolla Wild Horse Fund Adoption Program.

    PubMed

    Koncel, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Research on the adoption and relinquishment of horses, both domestic and wild, remains limited. As a result, little is known about adopters, their adopted horses, and their adoption experience. This study surveyed and interviewed 17 adopters of Colonial Spanish mustangs through the Corolla Wild Horse Fund (CWHF). Together, they adopted 22 horses of varying ages and genders from 2002 to 2012. The participants, who had a range of previous experience with and knowledge of horses, were generally very satisfied with their horses and their adoption experience. Being able to adopt a gentled/trained mustang and receiving support from the CWHF during the adoption process played key roles in adoption success. Additionally, participants' strong desire to preserve a perceived endangered species or national treasure appeared to be a major reason for adopting a Colonial Spanish mustang and served as motivation for making the adoption successful. The results of the study provide insights into ways to improve the number and success of adoptions through other equine programs, especially the Bureau of Land Management's wild horse and burro program.

  1. The use of a robust capture-recapture design in small mammal population studies: A field example with Microtus pennsylvanicus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The robust design of Pollock (1982) was used to estimate parameters of a Maryland M. pennsylvanicus population. Closed model tests provided strong evidence of heterogeneity of capture probability, and model M eta (Otis et al., 1978) was selected as the most appropriate model for estimating population size. The Jolly-Seber model goodness-of-fit test indicated rejection of the model for this data set, and the M eta estimates of population size were all higher than the Jolly-Seber estimates. Both of these results are consistent with the evidence of heterogeneous capture probabilities. The authors thus used M eta estimates of population size, Jolly-Seber estimates of survival rate, and estimates of birth-immigration based on a combination of the population size and survival rate estimates. Advantages of the robust design estimates for certain inference procedures are discussed, and the design is recommended for future small mammal capture-recapture studies directed at estimation.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme: clinical studies in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Capala, Jacek; Stenstam, Britta H; Sköld, Kurt; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Giusti, Valerio; Persson, Charlotta; Wallin, Eva; Brun, Arne; Franzen, Lars; Carlsson, Jörgen; Salford, Leif; Ceberg, Crister; Persson, Bertil; Pellettieri, Luigi; Henriksson, Roger

    2003-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility has been constructed at Studsvik, Sweden. It includes two filter/moderator configurations. One of the resulting neutron beams has been optimized for clinical irradiations with a filter/moderator system that allows easy variation of the neutron spectrum from the thermal to the epithermal energy range. The other beam has been designed to produce a large uniform field of thermal neutrons for radiobiological research. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia. The clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, presently, involve a protocol for BNCT treatment of glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery. In this protocol, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), administered as a 6-h intravenous infusion, is used as the boron delivery agent. As of January 2002, 17 patients were treated. The 6-h infusion of 900 mg BPA/kg body weight was shown to be safe and resulted in the average blood-boron concentration of 24 microg/g (range: 15-32 microg/g) at the time of irradiation (approximately 2-3 h post-infusion). Peak and average weighted radiation doses to the brain were in the ranges of 8.0-15.5 Gy(W) and 3.3-6.1 Gy(W), respectively. So far, no severe BNCT-related acute toxicities have been observed. Due to the short follow-up time, it is too early to evaluate the efficacy of these studies.

  3. Allocating funds for HIV/AIDS: a descriptive study of KwaDukuza, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Objective Through a descriptive study, we determined the factors that influence the decision-making process for allocating funds to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes, and the extent to which formal decision tools are used in the municipality of KwaDukuza, South Africa. Methods We conducted 35 key informant interviews in KwaDukuza. The interview questions addressed specific resource allocation issues while allowing respondents to speak openly about the complexities of the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Results Donors have a large influence on the decision-making process for HIV/AIDS resource allocation. However, advocacy groups, governmental bodies and local communities also play an important role. Political power, culture and ethics are among a set of intangible factors that have a strong influence on HIV/AIDS resource allocation. Formal methods, including needs assessment, best practice approaches, epidemiologic modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis are sometimes used to support the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Historical spending patterns are an important consideration in future HIV/AIDS allocation strategies. Conclusions Several factors and groups influence resource allocation in KwaDukuza. Although formal economic and epidemiologic information is sometimes used, in most cases other factors are more important for resource allocation decision-making. These other factors should be considered in any attempts to improve the resource allocation processes. PMID:20551138

  4. A data capture system for outcomes studies that integrates with electronic health records: development and potential uses.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Tada, Harue; Yanagihara, Kazuhiro; Teramukai, Satoshi; Takemura, Tadamasa; Fukushima, Masanori

    2008-10-01

    In conventional clinical studies, the costs of data management for quality control tend to be high and collecting paper-based case report forms (CRFs) tends to be burdensome, because paper-based CRFs must be developed and filled out for each clinical study protocol. Use of electronic health records for this purpose could result in reductions in cost and improvements in data quality in clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to develop a data capture system for observational cancer clinical studies (i.e. outcomes studies) that would integrate with an electronic health records system, to enable evaluation of patient prognosis, prognostic factors, outcomes and drug safety. At the Outpatient Oncology Unit of Kyoto University Hospital, we developed a data capture system that includes a cancer clinical database system and a data warehouse for outcomes studies. We expect that our new system will reduce the costs of data management and analysis and improve the quality of data in clinical studies.

  5. Relationships of a Circular Singer Arm Gesture to Acoustical and Perceptual Measures of Singing: A Motion Capture Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate previous research that suggests using movement in conjunction with singing tasks can affect intonation and perception of the task. Singers (N = 49) were video and audio recorded, using a motion capture system, while singing a phrase from a familiar song, first with no motion, and then while doing a low,…

  6. The Dual Promise of Green Jobs: A Qualitative Study of Federally Funded Energy Training Programmes in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the policy literature on green jobs and green jobs training in the USA and to present findings of a qualitative study on the start-up of two Energy Training Partnerships (ETP) funded by the US Department of Labour to train workers for green jobs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes a review…

  7. From Awareness to Funding: A Study of Library Support in America. A Report to the OCLC Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) received a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to conduct research, develop strategies, create materials and evaluate the potential of marketing and communications programs to sustain and increase funding for U.S. public libraries. The quantitative study targeted two audiences: residents in…

  8. A Critical Examination of Diverse Students' Funds of Knowledge Inclusion in High School Mathematics: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Celethia Keith

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes teaching practices that involve students' funds of knowledge ([FoK], Gonzalez, 1995; Moll, 1992; Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992). FoK may be defined as bodies of knowledge, skills, language, and experiences found in students' homes and communities for potential use in formal learning. I investigated how high…

  9. Mission, Enrollment and Staffing Patterns, Funding Procedures, and Administration and Governance. The North Carolina Community College Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Junius A.; And Others

    The study described in this report was conducted by by the Research Triangle Institute as an inquiry into the staffing patterns, funding allocation formulas and procedures, enrollment trends, and mission and governance of the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) and its 58 institutions. Section I of the report provides an introduction…

  10. A study on the temperature dependency and time course of the cold capture antibody secretion assay.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Johannes; Hesse, Friedemann; Wieser, Matthias; Kunert, Renate; Galosy, Sybille S; Mott, John E; Borth, Nicole

    2009-04-20

    The cold capture assay as described by Brezinsky et al. [Brezinsky, S.C.G., Chiang, G.G., Szilvasi, A., Mohan, S., Shapiro, R.I., MacLean, A., Sisk, W., Thill, G., 2003. A simple method for enriching populations of transfected CHO cells for cells of higher specific productivity. J. Immunol. Methods 277, 141-155] stands out as the most simple of single cell secretion assays which can be used to sort for high productivity in recombinant cell lines. At low temperatures the process of protein release from transport vesicles is assumed to be delayed as both vesicle fusion and product release is slowed, so that secreted proteins can be stained on the cell surface using a fluorescent antibody. Typically, the fluorescent signal obtained correlates to the cell specific production rate of the analysed cell. In the present study we compared staining of human antibody producing CHO cells performed at different temperatures and we observed the fluorescent signal over 24h. We found that the staining temperature did not influence signal intensity. The fluorescent signal was stable for 24h at 4 degrees C, decreased to 80% at room temperature (21 degrees C), while it decreased significantly already after 2h at 37 degrees C. Initially, the fluorescent signal was observed on the cell surface, however, at later stages it was found in compartments in the cytoplasm. Finally we compared differences in signal stability depending on whether the antibody used for staining bound to the light or heavy chain of the product and on whether the fluorescent label was a relatively stable protein (phycoerythrin) or a pH-dependent small molecule (FITC). Our results indicate that the secreted product is trapped by the staining antibody on the cell surface at all temperatures. Subsequently these aggregates are endocytosed by the cells, a process which is slowed down at low temperatures.

  11. Interactive Business Development, Capturing Business Knowledge and Practice: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvie, Gregor; Dotsika, Fefie; Patrick, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to follow the planning and development of MapaWiki, a Knowledge Management System for Mapa, an independent research company that specialises in competitor benchmarking. Starting with the standard requirements to capture, store and share information and knowledge, a system was sought that would allow growth and…

  12. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Murray, Thomas D.; Koehl, Antoine; Araci, Ismail Emre; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-04-01

    A microfluidic platform has been developed for the capture and X-ray analysis of protein microcrystals, affording a means to improve the efficiency of XFEL and synchrotron experiments. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat for conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.

  13. Dynamic modeling and transient studies of a solid-sorbent adsorber for CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    (ACM). The BFB stages are of overflow-type configuration where the solids leave the stage by flowing over the overflow-weir. Each bed is divided into three regions, namely emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake regions. In all three regions, the model considers mass and energy balances. Along with the models of the BFB stages, models of other associated hardware are developed and integrated in a single flowsheet. A valid pressure-flow network is developed and a lower-level control system is designed so that the overall CO{sub 2} capture can be maintained at a desired level in face of the typical disturbances. The dynamic model is used for studying the transient responses of a number of important process variables as a result of the disturbances that are typical of post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture processes.

  14. Report on all ARRA Funded Technical Work

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-10-05

    The main focus of this American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funded project was to design an energy efficient carbon capture and storage (CCS) process using the Recipients membrane system for H{sub 2} separation and CO{sub 2} capture. In the ARRA-funded project, the Recipient accelerated development and scale-up of ongoing hydrogen membrane technology research and development (R&D). Specifically, this project focused on accelerating the current R&D work scope of the base program-funded project, involving lab scale tests, detail design of a 250 lb/day H{sub 2} process development unit (PDU), and scale-up of membrane tube and coating manufacturing. This project scope included the site selection and a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study of a nominally 4 to 10 ton-per-day (TPD) Pre-Commercial Module (PCM) hydrogen separation membrane system. Process models and techno-economic analysis were updated to include studies on integration of this technology into an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation system with CCS.

  15. Does the funding source influence the results in economic evaluations? A case study in bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Spackman, D Eldon; Hollenbeak, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Research sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry is often assumed to be more likely to report favourable cost-effectiveness results. To determine whether there was a relationship between the source of funding and the reporting of positive results. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify economic evaluations of bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis. We extracted the source of funding, region of study, the journal name and impact factor, and all reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We identified which ICERs were under the thresholds of $US20 000, $US50 000 and $US100 000 per QALY. A quality score between 0 and 7 was also given to each of the studies. We used generalized estimating equations for the analysis. The systematic review yielded 532 potential abstracts; 17 of these met our final eligibility criteria. Ten studies (59%) were funded by non-industry sources. A total of 571 ICERs were analysed. There was no significant difference between the number of industry- and non-industry-funded studies reporting ICERs below the thresholds of $US20 000 and $US50 000. However, industry-sponsored studies were more likely to report ICERs below $US100 000 (odds ratio = 4.69, 95% CI 1.77, 12.43). Studies of higher methodological quality (scoring >4.5 of 7) were less likely to report ICERs below $US20 000 and $US50 000 than studies of lower methodological quality (scores <4). Methodological quality was not significantly different between studies reporting ICERs under $US100 000. In this relatively small sample of studies of bisphosphonates, the funding source (industry vs non-industry) did not seem to significantly affect the reporting of ICERs below the $US20 000 and $US50 000 thresholds. We hypothesize that methodological quality might be a more significant factor than the source of funding in differentiating which studies are likely to report favourable ICERs, with the higher-quality studies significantly less likely to

  16. Facts and Narrative - the Concept of 4d Capturing of Heritage Building; a Case Study of Sompur Mahavihara, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Md. M.; Rahaman, H.

    2013-07-01

    This study embarked upon a premise that considers architecture of building as a dynamic phenomenon. A building from its conception is susceptible to change due to various reasons. An historical building that is several hundred years old must have undergone through changes due to political, social, religious and most importantly functional reasons. Hence capturing building and its dynamic evolution is necessary to appreciate its architecture as well as its heritage value. Whereas the conventional method of fact based historiography only captures the building in particular moment. It makes architectural historians to become perplexed over to which particular moment to be documented. It is a great challenge for the architectural historians to bring back these dynamic characters of the building that are mostly inconspicuous in nature from this point of time. In this situation the historical discourse also remains elusive and blurred. The idea of 4d capturing comes in front in this scenario. Current research would venture into this emerging idea to record the architecture of the early period. This paper highlights the need for a flexible tool to capture this dynamic character of the building. By citing the case study of the 7th century Buddhist Monastery in Bengal, this paper thus argues for the need of capturing the narrative of a historical building than the facts to get a complete picture of its architecture. This study aims at capturing the narrative of Sompur Mahavihara, the UNESCO World Heritage site in Bangladesh, which is currently in ruinous condition. However, it's few hundred years life suggests that as architecture it was subject to change due to different reasons, mainly political, religious and rituals. Being a monument that belongs to the flourishing phase of a society, traditionally this monastery architecture certainly played a role as a stage for religious and political pageantry as well as different religious performances. As architecture it works as

  17. Enhancing Doctoral Completion in Women: Evidence from a Qualitative Study of a Unique Federally Funded Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.; Drake-Clark, Donna; Grasso, Maureen; Banta, Trudy

    2014-01-01

    In an era where campus environments were often unwelcoming to women, and there were few women role models, an innovative program funded by the National Institute of Education produced 100% completion by female and minority doctoral students. At a 25-year reunion, the graduates reflected on their program experiences and careers. Reflections were…

  18. Output-Related Funding in Vocational Education and Training. A Discussion Paper and Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstead, Alan

    The benefits of and issues associated with output-related funding (ORF) were assessed by examining the use of ORF in vocational education and training (VET) in the European Union and the United States. Data were gathered in the following ways: several online bibliographic searches; consultation with 54 experts, including VET researchers, national…

  19. An Experimental Study Evaluating Professional Development Activities within a State Funded Pre-Kindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Assel, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation for scaling up a comprehensive early childhood teacher professional development program into 11 communities across 2 years with funding through state legislative actions. The comprehensive program had four major components based on results from a previous multi-condition random assignment…

  20. Funds of Knowledge: An Approach to Studying Latina(o) Students' Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Kiyama, Judy Marquez

    2012-01-01

    A feature of the existing literature on minority students' transition to college is the preponderance of models that have "imagined" what students (and their families) need to have in order to be successful. In this paper we discuss how the theoretical framework of funds of knowledge can be used by researchers in higher education to challenge…

  1. Funds of Knowledge in Child-Headed Households: A Ugandan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Maureen; Kakuru, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research on orphan and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa has focused on their risks and vulnerabilities. This article describes the "funds of knowledge" (Moll and Greenberg, 1990) and means of acquiring new knowledge of children living in child-headed households in Uganda's Rakai District. Using ethnographic methods,…

  2. McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund: A Case Study of a Green Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Sharon M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the public discourse of McDonald's and the Environmental Defense Fund's alliance. Shows that both partners drew from the emerging discourse of market environmentalism and from the older paradigm of command and control. Argues that this rhetorical ambivalence is emblematic of the contemporaneous sociopolitical conflict over how the…

  3. Formula Funding, the Delaware Study, and the University of North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrigan, Sarah D.

    2008-01-01

    Public higher education has relied on a variety of funding structures since the 1950s. Layzell (2007) describes five general approaches in contemporary use in the United States. "Incremental (baseline) budgeting" uses the current year budget as the base and then makes adjustments to account for expected changes in activities, revenues,…

  4. Research and Development Funding in the Proposed Fiscal Year 1985 Budget. Special Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorsch, Louis; Dailey, Theresa

    This report discusses in detail the research and development (R&D) elements of the Reagan Administration's budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 1985. Following an introduction (chapter I), chapter II presents an overview of R&D funding in the President's FY 1985 budget. The chapter begins by describing overall R&D spending in terms of the major catagories…

  5. Recoil Momentum Spectroscopy Study of Electron Capture from He by 10 MeV Hydrogenlike Fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, L.; Winecki, S.; Stöckli, M.; Cocke, C. L.; Richard, P.; Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.

    1996-05-01

    We have used recoil momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS (J. Ullrich, et al., Comm. At. Mol. Phys. \\underline30), 285 (1994).) to determine final state momentum distributions in the single electron capture from He by 10 MeV F^8+ ions. A momentum resolution below 0.15 a.u. was obtained. The longitidunal momentum resolution is sufficient to allow the separation of final state populations of the L, M and higher states, and to identify excitation of the residual He^+ ion. This probability of this excitation is large in the capture process. Transverse momentum distributions were used to extract transverse cross sections (angular distributions) for different final states. Comparison of the data to theoretical expectations will be presented.

  6. Study on Capturing Functional Requirements of the New Product Based on Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Song, Liya; Bai, Zhonghang; Zhang, Peng

    In order to exist in an increasingly competitive global marketplace, it is important for corporations to forecast the evolutionary direction of new products rapidly and effectively. Most products in the world are developed based on the design of existing products. In the product design, capturing functional requirements is a key step. Function is continuously evolving, which is driven by the evolution of needs and technologies. So the functional requirements of new product can be forecasted based on the functions of existing product. Eight laws of function evolution are put forward in this paper. The process model of capturing the functional requirements of new product based on function evolution is proposed. An example illustrates the design process.

  7. In situ infrared study of the role of PEG in stabilizing silica-supported amines for CO(2) capture.

    PubMed

    Tanthana, Jak; Chuang, Steven S C

    2010-08-23

    The CO(2) capture capacity, adsorption mechanism, and degradation characteristics of two sorbents, silica-supported tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA/SiO(2)) and polyethylene-glycol-modified TEPA/SiO(2) (PEG/TEPA/SiO(2)), are studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The CO(2) capture capacities of TEPA/SiO(2) and PEG/TEPA/SiO(2) are determined to be 2087 and 1110 micromol CO(2) g(-1) sorbent, respectively. Both sorbents adsorb CO(2) as hydrogen-bonding species, NH(2)--O, and carbamate/carboxylate species. The CO(2) adsorption half-time increases with the number of CO(2) capture cycles. Infrared results suggest that the increased adsorption half-time is a result of diffusion limitation, caused by accumulation of TEPA and PEG species on the surface of the sorbent particles. The degradation of TEPA/SiO(2) is found to correlate with the accumulation of carboxylate/carbamic species. The addition of PEG decreases the degradation rate of the sorbent and slows down the formation of carboxylate species. These carboxylate species can block CO(2) capture on amine (NH(2)/NH) sites. The stabilizing role of PEG on TEPA/SiO(2) can be attributed to hydrogen-bonding between TEPA (NH(2)/NH)and PEG (OH).

  8. Study of Design Knowledge Capture (DKC) schemes implemented in magnetic bearing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A design knowledge capture (DKC) scheme was implemented using frame-based techniques. The objective of such a system is to capture not only the knowledge which describes a design, but also that which explains how the design decisions were reached. These knowledge types were labelled definitive and explanatory, respectively. Examination of the design process helped determine what knowledge to retain and at what stage that knowledge is used. A discussion of frames resulted in the recognition of their value to knowledge representation and organization. The FORMS frame system was used as a basis for further development, and for examples using magnetic bearing design. The specific contributions made by this research include: determination that frame-based systems provide a useful methodology for management and application of design knowledge; definition of specific user interface requirements, (this consists of a window-based browser); specification of syntax for DKC commands; and demonstration of the feasibility of DKC by applications to existing designs. It was determined that design knowledge capture could become an extremely valuable engineering tool for complicated, long-life systems, but that further work was needed, particularly the development of a graphic, window-based interface.

  9. A motion capture library for the study of identity, gender, and emotion perception from biological motion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingliang; Paterson, Helena M; Pollick, Frank E

    2006-02-01

    We present the methods that were used in capturing a library of human movements for use in computer-animated displays of human movement. The library is an attempt to systematically tap into and represent the wide range of personal properties, such as identity, gender, and emotion, that are available in a person's movements. The movements from a total of 30 nonprofessional actors (15 of them female) were captured while they performed walking, knocking, lifting, and throwing actions, as well as their combination in angry, happy, neutral, and sad affective styles. From the raw motion capture data, a library of 4,080 movements was obtained, using techniques based on Character Studio (plug-ins for 3D Studio MAX, AutoDesk, Inc.), MATLAB The MathWorks, Inc.), or a combination of these two. For the knocking, lifting, and throwing actions, 10 repetitions of the simple action unit were obtained for each affect, and for the other actions, two longer movement recordings were obtained for each affect. We discuss the potential use of the library for computational and behavioral analyses of movement variability, of human character animation, and of how gender, emotion, and identity are encoded and decoded from human movement.

  10. Capture of Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin) by the Blood Clot: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Margaret T.; Rickles, Frederick R.; Armstrong, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal. PMID:24282521

  11. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array.

    PubMed

    Lyubimov, Artem Y; Murray, Thomas D; Koehl, Antoine; Araci, Ismail Emre; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B; Cohen, Aina E; Soltis, S Michael; Baxter, Elizabeth L; Brewster, Aaron S; Sauter, Nicholas K; Brunger, Axel T; Berger, James M

    2015-04-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat for conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.

  12. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Murray, Thomas D.; Koehl, Antoine; Araci, Ismail Emre; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-03-27

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat for conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.

  13. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array

    DOE PAGES

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Murray, Thomas D.; Koehl, Antoine; ...

    2015-03-27

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat formore » conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.« less

  14. Feasibility study of using brine for carbon dioxide capture and storage from fixed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Dziedzic; Kenneth B. Gross; Robert A. Gorski; John T. Johnson

    2006-12-15

    A laboratory-scale reactor was developed to evaluate the capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a gas into a liquid as an approach to control greenhouse gases emitted from fixed sources. CO{sub 2} at 5-50% concentrations was passed through a gas-exchange membrane and transferred into liquid media - tap water or simulated brine. When using water, capture efficiencies exceeded 50% and could be enhanced by adding base (e.g., sodium hydroxide) or the combination of base and carbonic anhydrase, a catalyst that speeds the conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonic acid. The transferred CO{sub 2} formed ions, such as bicarbonate or carbonate, depending on the amount of base present. Adding precipitating cations, like Ca{sup ++}, produced insoluble carbonate salts. Simulated brine proved nearly as efficient as water in absorbing CO{sub 2}, with less than a 6% reduction in CO{sub 2} transferred. The CO{sub 2} either dissolved into the brine or formed a mixture of gas and ions. If the chemistry was favorable, carbonate precipitate spontaneously formed. Energy expenditure of pumping brine up and down from subterranean depths was modeled. We concluded that using brine in a gas-exchange membrane system for capturing CO{sub 2} from a gas stream to liquid is technically feasible and can be accomplished at a reasonable expenditure of energy. 24 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  15. Reduction in Public Funding for Postsecondary Education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010: A Study Documenting Change and the Resulting Shift from Public to Private Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines and chronicles the change in public funding for postsecondary education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010. Colorado was ranked sixth among states in per capita funding for public higher education in 1970 and declined to 48th in 2010. The study analyzed state appropriations over this time period in five broad categories of spending:…

  16. A comparative study of advanced shock-capturing schemes applied to Burgers' equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; Przekwas, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic evaluation is conducted of all extant numerical schemes for nonlinear scalar transport problems, and several advanced shock-capturing schemes are used to solve the nonlinear Burgers' equation in order to characterize their ability to resolve the sharp discontinuity, expansion zone, and propagation and collision features of shocks. For discontinuous functions, the Warming-Beam scheme generates preshock wiggles, while the Lax-Wendroff scheme generates postshock ones. Such limiters as the MUSCL or the superbee are more compressive than minimod or monotonic limiters. The performance of such TVD schemes as the upwind, the symmetric, and the Roe-Sweby, resemble each other.

  17. Tomographic image of prompt gamma ray from boron neutron capture therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key

    2014-02-24

    Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography image from boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo simulation. Prompt gamma ray (478 keV) was used to reconstruct image with ordered subsets expectation maximization method. From analysis of receiver operating characteristic curve, area under curve values of three boron regions were 0.738, 0.623, and 0.817. The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm, and 1.4 cm.

  18. Aluminum-based water treatment residual use in a constructed wetland for capturing urban runoff phosphorus: Column study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) have a strong affinity to sorb phosphorus. In a proof-of-concept greenhouse column study, Al-WTR was surface-applied at 0, 62, 124, and 248 Mg/ha to 15 cm of soil on top of 46 cm of sand; Al-WTR rates were estimated to capture 0, 10, 20, and 40 year...

  19. The debate about the funding of Herceptin: a case study of 'countervailing powers'.

    PubMed

    Gabe, Jonathan; Chamberlain, Kerry; Norris, Pauline; Dew, Kevin; Madden, Helen; Hodgetts, Darrin

    2012-12-01

    In December 2008 the newly elected Prime Minister of New Zealand bypassed the agency that negotiates with manufacturers about the cost of medicines and agreed to fund Herceptin for women with early stage breast cancer for a twelve months course of treatment. This paper describes the unfolding of this decision and seeks to explain it in terms of the theory of countervailing powers, which has recently been applied to understand the rapid growth of medicines and the governance of the pharmaceutical industry. We explore the role of various actors in this debate about Herceptin funding, drawing on documentary analysis based on a systematic search of journals, websites and media databases. The case of Herceptin both confirms and questions the propositions of countervailing powers theory. On the one hand the manufacturers of the drug proved to be highly influential in their attempts to get Herceptin funded and were generally supported by consumer groups. On the other hand some scientists and regulators attempted to challenge the power of the manufacturers, with the regulators not showing signs of corporate bias as one might expect. Groups did not, as has been proposed, exert power monolithically, with several groups exhibiting opposing factions. The media, ignored in this literature, are considered as a potential countervailing force in the debate. In the end the government bypassed the recommendation of its regulators, thereby undermining the latter's efforts to act as a countervailing power.

  20. Capturing Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) captured these two images of Jupiter's outermost large moon, Callisto, as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in late February. New Horizons' closest approach distance to Jupiter was 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles), not far outside Callisto's orbit, which has a radius of 1.9 million kilometers (1.2 million miles). However, Callisto happened to be on the opposite side of Jupiter during the spacecraft's pass through the Jupiter system, so these images, taken from 4.7 million kilometers (3.0 million miles) and 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) away, are the closest of Callisto that New Horizons obtained.

    Callisto's ancient, crater-scarred surface makes it very different from its three more active sibling satellites, Io, Europa and Ganymede. Callisto, 4,800 kilometers (3000 miles) in diameter, displays no large-scale geological features other than impact craters, and every bright spot in these images is a crater. The largest impact feature on Callisto, the huge basin Valhalla, is visible as a bright patch at the 10 o'clock position. The craters are bright because they have excavated material relatively rich in water ice from beneath the dark, dusty material that coats most of the surface.

    The two images show essentially the same side of Callisto -- the side that faces Jupiter -- under different illumination conditions. The images accompanied scans of Callisto's infrared spectrum with New Horizons' Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA). The New Horizons science team designed these scans to study how the infrared spectrum of Callisto's water ice changes as lighting and viewing conditions change, and as the ice cools through Callisto's late afternoon. The infrared spectrum of water ice depends slightly on its temperature, and a goal of New Horizons when it reaches the Pluto system (in 2015) is to use the water ice features in the spectrum of Pluto's moon Charon, and

  1. Creatively Employing Funding to Support Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Luke; Hargreaves, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Innovations within higher education are often prompted through the capture of supportive funding. One of the largest examples of this arose from the Centres for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETLs) initiative in England (2005-2010). Drawing on the experience of two such Centres, this paper analyses some of the consequences of that funding.…

  2. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods : Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results : Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions : Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high.

  3. The Biological Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent as a Model to Study Carbon Dioxide Capturing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zoran; Thongbam, Premila D.

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis) a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO2 from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO2 fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture. PMID:21673885

  4. Structural studies on protein O-fucosylation by electron capture dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormann, Michael; Macek, Boris; de Peredo, Anne Gonzalez; Hofsteenge, Jan; Peter-Katalinic, Jasna

    2004-05-01

    The low energy dissociation technique electron capture dissociation has been applied to a series of thrombospondin and properdin derived O-fucosylated glycopeptides. Followed by capture of an electron by multiply protonated precursor ions [M+nH]n+ reduced odd electron radical cations [M+nH](n-1)[radical sign]+ were generated. The latter mainly fragment by cleavage of the N---C[alpha] bonds of the peptide chain without loss of the labile sugar moiety allowing an unambiguous assignment of the glycosylation site. Apart from peptide backbone cleavages, side chain losses of aminocarbonylmethyl and aminocarbonylmethylthiyl radicals from carboxyamidomethylated cysteins are observed. The N---C[alpha] bond cleavage is greatly reduced on both sides of alkylated Cys. However, fragment ions that are formed by secondary fragmentations of z-type radical cations containing N-terminal cystein give rise to even electron z---[radical sign]SCH2CONH2 ions. The potential of the high mass accuracy for the identification of the protein modification topology has been fully explored.

  5. The biological deep sea hydrothermal vent as a model to study carbon dioxide capturing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zoran; Thongbam, Premila D

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis) a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO₂ from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO₂ fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO₂ fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture.

  6. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high. PMID:23957324

  7. Combination of boron and gadolinium compounds for neutron capture therapy. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, A; Zhang, T; Nakai, K; Endo, K; Kumada, H; Yamamoto, T; Yoshida, F; Sakurai, Y; Yamamoto, K; Nose, T

    2005-03-01

    In neutron capture therapy, the therapeutic effect of the boron compound is based on alpha particles produced by the B(n, alpha) reaction while with the gadolinium compound the main radiation effect is from gamma rays derived from the Gd(n, gamma) reaction. The uptake and distribution within the tumor may be different among these compounds. Thus, the combination of the boron and gadolinium compounds may be beneficial for enhancing the radiation dose to the tumor. Chinese hamster fibroblast V79 cells were used. For the neutron targeting compounds, 10B (BSH) at 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm, and 157Gd (Gd-BOPTA) at 0, 800, 1600, 2400, 3200, and 4800 ppm, were combined. The neutron irradiation was performed with thermal neutrons for 30 min. (neutron flux: 0.84 x 10(8) n/cm2/s in free air). The combination of the boron and gadolinium compounds showed an additive effect when the gadolinium concentration was lower than 1600 ppm. This additive effect decreased as a function of gadolinium concentration at 2400 ppm and resulted in no additive effect at more than 3200 ppm of gadolinium. In conclusion, the combination of the boron and gadolinium compounds can enhance the therapeutic effect with an optimum concentration ratio. When the gadolinium concentration is too high, it may weaken the boron neutron capture reaction due to the high cross-section of gadolinium compound against neutrons.

  8. Capturing citation activity in three health sciences departments: a comparison study of Scopus and Web of Science.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Alexandra; Slyman, Alison; Wu, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Scopus and Web of Science are the two major citation databases that collect and disseminate bibliometric statistics about research articles, journals, institutions, and individual authors. Liaison librarians are now regularly called upon to utilize these databases to assist faculty in finding citation activity on their published works for tenure and promotion, grant applications, and more. But questions about the accuracy, scope, and coverage of these tools deserve closer scrutiny. Discrepancies in citation capture led to a systematic study on how Scopus and Web of Science compared in a real-life situation encountered by liaisons: comparing three different disciplines at a medical school and nursing program. How many articles would each database retrieve for each faculty member using the author-searching tools provided? How many cited references for each faculty member would each tool generate? Results demonstrated troubling differences in publication and citation activity capture between Scopus and Web of Science. Implications for librarians are discussed.

  9. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Aaron Joseph

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  10. The Ways and Means: A Study of the Needs and Resources of Students Enrolled in United Negro College Fund Member Institutions. Research Report Vol. 2, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry S.; Kirschner, Alan H.

    A study funded by the Southern Education Foundation had as its purpose to identify, describe, and assess: (1) the costs of education to United Negro College Fund (UNCF) students in 1975-76; (2) the resources available to meet those costs; (3) the need for additional aid resources; and (4) some major relationships among college costs, financial aid…

  11. Applications of targeted gene capture and next-generation sequencing technologies in studies of human deafness and other genetic disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xi; Tang, Wenxue; Ahmad, Shoeb; Lu, Jingqiao; Colby, Candice C; Zhu, Jason; Yu, Qing

    2012-06-01

    The goal of sequencing the entire human genome for $1000 is almost in sight. However, the total costs including DNA sequencing, data management, and analysis to yield a clear data interpretation are unlikely to be lowered significantly any time soon to make studies on a population scale and daily clinical uses feasible. Alternatively, the targeted enrichment of specific groups of disease and biological pathway-focused genes and the capture of up to an entire human exome (~1% of the genome) allowing an unbiased investigation of the complete protein-coding regions in the genome are now routine. Targeted gene capture followed by sequencing with massively parallel next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the advantages of 1) significant cost saving, 2) higher sequencing accuracy because of deeper achievable coverage, 3) a significantly shorter turnaround time, and 4) a more feasible data set for a bioinformatic analysis outcome that is functionally interpretable. Gene capture combined with NGS has allowed a much greater number of samples to be examined than is currently practical with whole-genome sequencing. Such an approach promises to bring a paradigm shift to biomedical research of Mendelian disorders and their clinical diagnoses, ultimately enabling personalized medicine based on one's genetic profile. In this review, we describe major methodologies currently used for gene capture and detection of genetic variations by NGS. We will highlight applications of this technology in studies of genetic disorders and discuss issues pertaining to applications of this powerful technology in genetic screening and the discovery of genes implicated in syndromic and non-syndromic hearing loss.

  12. Applications of targeted gene capture and next-generation sequencing technologies in studies of human deafness and other genetic disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xi; Tang, Wenxue; Ahmad, Shoeb; Lu, Jingqiao; Colby, Candice C.; Zhu, Jason; Yu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The goal of sequencing the entire human genome for $1,000 is almost in sight. However, the total costs including DNA sequencing, data management, and analysis to yield a clear data interpretation are unlikely to be lowered significantly any time soon to make studies on a population scale and daily clinical uses feasible. Alternatively, the targeted enrichment of specific groups of disease and biological pathway-focused genes and the capture of up to an entire human exome (~1% of the genome) allowing an unbiased investigation of the complete protein-coding regions in the genome are now routine. Targeted gene capture followed by sequencing with massively parallel next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the advantages of 1) significant cost saving, 2) higher sequencing accuracy because of deeper achievable coverage, 3) a significantly shorter turnaround time, and 4) a more feasible data set for a bioinformatic analysis outcome that is functionally interpretable. Gene capture combined with NGS has allowed a much greater number of samples to be examined than is currently practical with whole-genome sequencing. Such an approach promises to bring a paradigm shift to biomedical research of Mendelian disorders and their clinical diagnoses, ultimately enabling personalized medicine based on one’s genetic profile. In this review, we describe major methodologies currently used for gene capture and detection of genetic variations by NGS. We will highlight applications of this technology in studies of genetic disorders and discuss issues pertaining to applications of this powerful technology in genetic screening and the discovery of genes implicated in syndromic and non-syndromic hearing loss. PMID:22269275

  13. Feasibility study of nuclear transmutation by negative muon capture reaction using the PHITS code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Feasibility of nuclear transmutation of fission products in high-level radioactive waste by negative muon capture reaction is investigated using the Particle and Heave Ion Transport code System (PHITS). It is found that about 80 % of stopped negative muons contribute to transmute target nuclide into stable or short-lived nuclide in the case of 135Cs, which is one of the most important nuclide in the transmutation. The simulation result also indicates that the position of transmutation is controllable by changing the energy of incident negative muon. Based on our simulation, it takes approximately 8.5 × 108years to transmute 500 g of 135Cs by negative muon beam with the highest intensity currently available.

  14. NWTC Aerodynamics Studies Improve Energy Capture and Lower Costs of Wind-Generated Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have expanded wind turbine aerodynamic research from blade and rotor aerodynamics to wind plant and atmospheric inflow effects. The energy capture from wind plants is dependent on all of these aerodynamic interactions. Research at the NWTC is crucial to understanding how wind turbines function in large, multiple-row wind plants. These conditions impact the cumulative fatigue damage of turbine structural components that ultimately effect the useful lifetime of wind turbines. This work also is essential for understanding and maximizing turbine and wind plant energy production. Both turbine lifetime and wind plant energy production are key determinants of the cost of wind-generated electricity.

  15. How does CO capture process on microporous NaY zeolites? A FTIR and DFT combined study.

    PubMed

    Cairon, O; Guesmi, H

    2011-06-21

    Reliable experimental IR and theoretical approaches, both investigating CO adsorption on NaY faujasites, are supporting that CO capture occurs through the completion of the vacant coordination of Na(+) cations located in the accessible S(II) sites. As a result, carbonyl adsorbed species are formed by the capture of one, two or three CO molecules and are experimentally discernable by their respective IR positions that are down-shifted by an average 11-12 cm(-1) value for each captured CO molecule. DFT analysis is proposed for comparison and reproduces well the observed experimental shift of the ν(CO) positions of the different polycarbonyls of interest. In addition, the effect of Si or Al composition surrounding the SII Na(+) cation is investigated and results suggest that polycarbonyls that are formed might be in connection with the acidic strength of the cationic sites. This combined study completes and improves the understanding of the complex issue of CO adsorption at 80 K widely used as a model to explain how physical adsorption takes place in NaY faujasites working as an efficient industrial adsorbent in gas separation or gas purification processes.

  16. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  17. Natural Language Processing–Enabled and Conventional Data Capture Methods for Input to Electronic Health Records: A Comparative Usability Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Barbara; Stetson, Peter; Bhatt, Ashish R; Field, Adele I; Patel, Chirag; Maisel, James Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background The process of documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is known to be time consuming, inefficient, and cumbersome. The use of dictation coupled with manual transcription has become an increasingly common practice. In recent years, natural language processing (NLP)–enabled data capture has become a viable alternative for data entry. It enables the clinician to maintain control of the process and potentially reduce the documentation burden. The question remains how this NLP-enabled workflow will impact EHR usability and whether it can meet the structured data and other EHR requirements while enhancing the user’s experience. Objective The objective of this study is evaluate the comparative effectiveness of an NLP-enabled data capture method using dictation and data extraction from transcribed documents (NLP Entry) in terms of documentation time, documentation quality, and usability versus standard EHR keyboard-and-mouse data entry. Methods This formative study investigated the results of using 4 combinations of NLP Entry and Standard Entry methods (“protocols”) of EHR data capture. We compared a novel dictation-based protocol using MediSapien NLP (NLP-NLP) for structured data capture against a standard structured data capture protocol (Standard-Standard) as well as 2 novel hybrid protocols (NLP-Standard and Standard-NLP). The 31 participants included neurologists, cardiologists, and nephrologists. Participants generated 4 consultation or admission notes using 4 documentation protocols. We recorded the time on task, documentation quality (using the Physician Documentation Quality Instrument, PDQI-9), and usability of the documentation processes. Results A total of 118 notes were documented across the 3 subject areas. The NLP-NLP protocol required a median of 5.2 minutes per cardiology note, 7.3 minutes per nephrology note, and 8.5 minutes per neurology note compared with 16.9, 20.7, and 21.2 minutes, respectively, using the Standard

  18. Electron capture and emission spectroscopy to study surface and interface magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Carl

    1994-07-01

    Electron capture spectroscopy (ECS) and spin-polarized electron emission spectroscopy (SPEES) are extremely sensitive techniques to probe surface magnetic properties. Ultra-thin bct Fe(100)(1×1)/Pd(100) films exhibit 2D Ising critical behavior. The surface electron spin polarization (ESP) follows precisely the exact solution of the 2D Ising model as given by Yang. The average magnetization of the topmost surface layer is enhanced by 32% compared to that of bulk layers. Pd Auger electrons emitted from the Fe/Pd interface are spin-polarized, and the ESP is oriented parallel to that of emitted Fe Auger electrons. At surfaces of 5nm thick hcp Tb(0001)/W(110) films, strong surface magnetic surface anisotropies are found. The onset of ferromagnetism occurs ≈30 K above the bulk Curie temperature (220K) of Tb. For clean Fe and Fe/Pd surfaces, the ESP of low-energy (≈2 eV) emitted electrons is substantially enhanced by Stoner excitations. The existence of a nonzero ESP at O/Fe surfaces demonstrates the absence of a magnetically dead surface layer.

  19. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 3: Photon production evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    Lower limits of photon fluxes were evaluated from electron capture during acceleration in solar flares, because the arbitrary q sub c asterisk assumed in this work evolves very slow with velocity, probably much more slowly than the physical actual situation: in fact, more emission is expected toward the IR region. Nevertheless the authors claim to show that the factibility of sounding acceleration processes, charge evolution processes and physical parameters of the source itself, by the observational analysis of this kind of emissions. For instance, it would be interesting to search observationally, for the predicted flux and energy drift of F sub e ions interacting with the atomic 0 and F sub e of the source matter, or, even more feasible for the X-ray lines at 4.2 keV and 2.624 + 0.003 KeV from Fe and S ions in ionized Fe at T = 10 to the 7th power K respectively, the 418 + or - 2 eV and 20 + or - 4 eV lines of Fe and S in ionized Fe at 5 x 10 to the 6th power K, which are predicted from Fermi acceleration.

  20. A study of resonance electron capture ionization on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wei, J; Liu, S; Fedoreyev, S A; Voinov, V G

    2000-01-01

    Procedures that allow the realization of resonance electron capture (REC) mode on a commercial triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, after some simple modifications, are described. REC mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were performed and spectra for some compounds were recorded. In particular, the charge-remote fragmentation (CRF) spectra of [M - H](-) ions of docosanoic and docosenoic acids under low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) conditions were obtained, and showed that there were no significant differences for [M - H](-) ions produced at different resonances (i.e. for [M - H](-) ions with different structures). This observation was explained on the basis of results obtained from deuterium-labeled fatty acids, which showed that different CRF ions (but with the same m/z value in the absence of labels) could be produced by different mechanisms, and all of them were obviously realized under CAD conditions that made spectra practically indistinguishable. The other example, which compared the REC-MS/MS spectrum of [M - H](-) ions and EI-MS/MS spectrum of M(+.) ions of daidzein, demonstrated the potential of the REC-MS/MS technique for more complex structure elucidation.

  1. Dose evaluation of boron neutron capture synovectomy using the THOR epithermal neutron beam: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jay; Chang, Shu-Jun; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Hsueh, Yen-Wan; Yeh, Kuan-Chuan; Wang, Jeng-Ning; Tsai, Wen-Pin

    2007-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common epidemic diseases in the world. For some patients, the treatment with steroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is not effective, thus necessitating physical removal of the inflamed synovium. Alternative approaches other than surgery will provide appropriate disease control and improve the patient's quality of life. In this research, we evaluated the feasibility of conducting boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) with the Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) as a neutron source. Monte Carlo simulations were performed with arthritic joint models and uncertainties were within 5%. The collimator, reflector and boron concentration were optimized to reduce the treatment time and normal tissue doses. For the knee joint, polyethylene with 40%-enriched Li2CO3 was used as the collimator material, and a rear reflector of 15 cm thick graphite and side reflector of 10 cm thick graphite were chosen. The optimized treatment time was 5.4 min for the parallel-opposed irradiation. For the finger joint, polymethyl methacrylate was used as the reflector material. The treatment time can be reduced to 3.1 min, while skin and bone doses can be effectively reduced by approximately 9% compared with treatment using the graphite reflector. We conclude that using THOR as a treatment modality for BNCS could be a feasible alternative in clinical practice.

  2. C-ing the genome: A compendium of chromosome conformation capture methods to study higher-order chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Barutcu, A. Rasim; Fritz, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; vanWijnen, André J.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.; Stein, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional organization of the chromatin has important roles in transcription, replication, DNA repair, and pathologic events such as translocations. There are two fundamental ways to study higher-order chromatin organization: microscopic and molecular approaches. In this review, we briefly introduce the molecular approaches, focusing on chromosome conformation capture or “3C” technology and its derivatives, which can be used to probe chromatin folding at resolutions beyond that provided by microscopy techniques. We further discuss the different types of data generated by the 3C-based methods and how they can be used to answer distinct biological questions. PMID:26059817

  3. Proton transfer step in the carbon dioxide capture by monoethanol amine: a theoretical study at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kenji; Sato, Hirofumi

    2012-02-23

    An aqueous solution of monoethanol amine (MEA) has been utilized in an industrial process of CO(2) absorption. The chemical reaction between CO(2) and MEA, which is employed in the process, consists of two steps. After the formation of the MEA-CO(2) complex ("capture"), a proton transfers from the complex to give a final product. In the present study, the overall mechanism of the reaction is discussed, especially focusing on the proton transfer step. Using RISM-SCF-SEDD, a hybrid method of electronic structure theory and statistical mechanics for molecular liquid, we clarified that the role of MEA as a base is crucial in the proton transfer step.

  4. How Does National Scientific Funding Support Emerging Interdisciplinary Research: A Comparison Study of Big Data Research in the US and China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    How do funding agencies ramp-up their capabilities to support research in a rapidly emerging area? This paper addresses this question through a comparison of research proposals awarded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of Big Data. Big data is characterized by its size and difficulties in capturing, curating, managing and processing it in reasonable periods of time. Although Big Data has its legacy in longstanding information technology research, the field grew very rapidly over a short period. We find that the extent of interdisciplinarity is a key aspect in how these funding agencies address the rise of Big Data. Our results show that both agencies have been able to marshal funding to support Big Data research in multiple areas, but the NSF relies to a greater extent on multi-program funding from different fields. We discuss how these interdisciplinary approaches reflect the research hot-spots and innovation pathways in these two countries.

  5. How Does National Scientific Funding Support Emerging Interdisciplinary Research: A Comparison Study of Big Data Research in the US and China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    How do funding agencies ramp-up their capabilities to support research in a rapidly emerging area? This paper addresses this question through a comparison of research proposals awarded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of Big Data. Big data is characterized by its size and difficulties in capturing, curating, managing and processing it in reasonable periods of time. Although Big Data has its legacy in longstanding information technology research, the field grew very rapidly over a short period. We find that the extent of interdisciplinarity is a key aspect in how these funding agencies address the rise of Big Data. Our results show that both agencies have been able to marshal funding to support Big Data research in multiple areas, but the NSF relies to a greater extent on multi-program funding from different fields. We discuss how these interdisciplinary approaches reflect the research hot-spots and innovation pathways in these two countries. PMID:27219466

  6. Hands-free image capture, data tagging and transfer using Google Glass: a pilot study for improved wound care management.

    PubMed

    Aldaz, Gabriel; Shluzas, Lauren Aquino; Pickham, David; Eris, Ozgur; Sadler, Joel; Joshi, Shantanu; Leifer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds, including pressure ulcers, compromise the health of 6.5 million Americans and pose an annual estimated burden of $25 billion to the U.S. health care system. When treating chronic wounds, clinicians must use meticulous documentation to determine wound severity and to monitor healing progress over time. Yet, current wound documentation practices using digital photography are often cumbersome and labor intensive. The process of transferring photos into Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) requires many steps and can take several days. Newer smartphone and tablet-based solutions, such as Epic Haiku, have reduced EMR upload time. However, issues still exist involving patient positioning, image-capture technique, and patient identification. In this paper, we present the development and assessment of the SnapCap System for chronic wound photography. Through leveraging the sensor capabilities of Google Glass, SnapCap enables hands-free digital image capture, and the tagging and transfer of images to a patient's EMR. In a pilot study with wound care nurses at Stanford Hospital (n=16), we (i) examined feature preferences for hands-free digital image capture and documentation, and (ii) compared SnapCap to the state of the art in digital wound care photography, the Epic Haiku application. We used the Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test to evaluate differences in mean ranks between preference options. Preferred hands-free navigation features include barcode scanning for patient identification, Z(15) = -3.873, p < 0.001, r = 0.71, and double-blinking to take photographs, Z(13) = -3.606, p < 0.001, r = 0.71. In the comparison between SnapCap and Epic Haiku, the SnapCap System was preferred for sterile image-capture technique, Z(16) = -3.873, p < 0.001, r = 0.68. Responses were divided with respect to image quality and overall ease of use. The study's results have contributed to the future implementation of new features aimed at enhancing mobile hands-free digital photography

  7. The Intersection of Massage Practice and Research: Community Massage Therapists as Research Personnel on an NIH-funded Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Niki; Stewart, Katie; Love, Margaret M.; Carter, Eddie; Elder, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Few NIH funded studies give community massage therapists the opportunity to become study personnel. A recent NIH/NCCAM-funded study investigating chronic low back pain (CLBP) recruited, trained, and utilized community massage practitioners (CMPs) as study personnel. This study’s aim was to determine whether health-related outcomes for CLBP improve when patients are referred from primary care to select CAM modalities including massage therapy (MT). The purpose of this paper is to report the results of the study’s three massage practice-driven study objectives which were to: 1) identify challenges and solutions to recruiting and retaining ample CMPs, 2) develop a practice-informed protocol reflecting real-world MT, and 3) determine the extent to which CMPs comply with rigorous research methodology in their clinical practices as study personnel. Methods Eligible CMPs in urban and rural Kentucky counties were identified through licensure board records, professional organizations, and personal contact opportunities. Interested CMPs completed 6 CE hours of research and Human Subjects Protection training and agreed to comply with a study protocol reflecting MT as practiced. Once trained, study CMPs were matched with study participants to provide and document up to 10 MT sessions per participant. Results Utilizing prominent MT community members proved invaluable to CMP recruitment and protocol development. CMP recruitment challenges included mixed interest, low number of available rural CMPs, busy clinic schedules, and compensation. Ethics CE credits were offered to encourage CMP interest. A total of 28 Kentucky licensed massage therapists with 5–32 years of experience completed study training. A total of 127 CLBP patients consented to participate (n = 104 for MT). Twenty-five CMPs were assigned CLBP patients and provided 1–10 treatments for 94 study participants. Treatment documentation was provided by CMPs for 97% of treatments provided. Conclusions

  8. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe

  9. Hands-Free Image Capture, Data Tagging and Transfer Using Google Glass: A Pilot Study for Improved Wound Care Management

    PubMed Central

    Aldaz, Gabriel; Shluzas, Lauren Aquino; Pickham, David; Eris, Ozgur; Sadler, Joel; Joshi, Shantanu; Leifer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds, including pressure ulcers, compromise the health of 6.5 million Americans and pose an annual estimated burden of $25 billion to the U.S. health care system. When treating chronic wounds, clinicians must use meticulous documentation to determine wound severity and to monitor healing progress over time. Yet, current wound documentation practices using digital photography are often cumbersome and labor intensive. The process of transferring photos into Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) requires many steps and can take several days. Newer smartphone and tablet-based solutions, such as Epic Haiku, have reduced EMR upload time. However, issues still exist involving patient positioning, image-capture technique, and patient identification. In this paper, we present the development and assessment of the SnapCap System for chronic wound photography. Through leveraging the sensor capabilities of Google Glass, SnapCap enables hands-free digital image capture, and the tagging and transfer of images to a patient’s EMR. In a pilot study with wound care nurses at Stanford Hospital (n=16), we (i) examined feature preferences for hands-free digital image capture and documentation, and (ii) compared SnapCap to the state of the art in digital wound care photography, the Epic Haiku application. We used the Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test to evaluate differences in mean ranks between preference options. Preferred hands-free navigation features include barcode scanning for patient identification, Z(15) = -3.873, p < 0.001, r = 0.71, and double-blinking to take photographs, Z(13) = -3.606, p < 0.001, r = 0.71. In the comparison between SnapCap and Epic Haiku, the SnapCap System was preferred for sterile image-capture technique, Z(16) = -3.873, p < 0.001, r = 0.68. Responses were divided with respect to image quality and overall ease of use. The study’s results have contributed to the future implementation of new features aimed at enhancing mobile hands-free digital

  10. Capture of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Simulated Blood Vessels: Effects of Proteins and Coating with Poly(ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee; Brazel, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have applications in cancer treatment as they can be captured and localized to a diseased site by use of an external magnetic field. After localization, cancer treatments such as magnetically targeted chemotherapy and localized hyperthermia can be applied. Previously, our lab has shown that the percent capture of MNPs is significantly reduced when MNPs are dispersed in protein solutions compared to water or aqueous polymer solutions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of proteins on capture efficiency and to investigate the ability of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, coatings to reduce aggregation of MNPs with proteins, allowing for a greater capture of MNPs in flow. Using Tygon® tubing to simulate blood vessels, a maghemite nanoparticle solution was pumped through a capture zone, where a magnetic field was applied. After passing through the capture zone, the fluid flowed to a spectrophotometer, which measured the absorbance of the solution. The introduction of proteins into the nanoparticle solution reduced the percent capture of MNPs. However, coating the MNPs with PEG aided in preventing aggregation and led to higher capture efficiencies in protein solutions. Additionally, the effects of capture length and protein exposure time were examined. It was found that a higher percent capture is attainable with a longer capture length. Furthermore, on a scale of hours, the percent capture is not affected by the protein exposure time. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611 and NIH NCI R21CA 141388.

  11. Impact of self-funding on patient experience of oral anticoagulation self-monitoring: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice; Heneghan, Carl; Sutton, Stephen; Fitzmaurice, David; Ward, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact self-funding has on patient experience of oral anticoagulation therapy self-monitoring. Design Semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Transcripts were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Setting England. Participants Interviewees were participants of the Cohort Study of Anticoagulation Self-Monitoring (CASM). Cohort members were recruited as they bought a monitor from the major manufacturer in the UK. A purposive sample was invited to be interviewed on completion of the 12-month cohort follow-up. Data Patient narratives on their experiences of self-monitoring their oral anticoagulation therapy in non-trial conditions. Results 26 interviews were completed. Interviewees viewed purchasing the monitoring device as a long-term commitment balancing the limitations of clinic-based monitoring against the cost. They were unable to try out the monitor prior to purchase and therefore had to be confident in their own ability to use it. The variable provision of self-monitoring equipment caused resentment, and interviewees were uncomfortable negotiating with healthcare professionals. High test strip usage while learning how to use the monitor caused anxiety that was exacerbated by worries about their cost. However, self-funding did mean that interviewees felt a sense of ownership and were determined to persevere to overcome problems. Conclusions Self-funding has negative implications in terms of equity of access; however, the money invested acts as a barrier to discontinuation. If oral anticoagulation therapy self-monitoring devices and consumables were provided free of charge in routine care, the training and support available in England may need to be reviewed to prevent discontinuation rates rising to those observed in clinical trials. PMID:28011812

  12. Capturing Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Election through Metaphor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamarat, Ercenk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the perception of pre-service social studies teachers (PSSTs) about the concept of election via metaphors. A study group of this work consisted of 61 PSSTs from Nigde University, Faculty of Education, Social Studies Teaching Department. Implementation and data collection was done in 2014 to 2015 academic year.…

  13. Electron capture gas chromatography study of the acid and alcohol products of Clostridium septicum and Clostridium chauvoei.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J B; Selin, M J; Alley, C C

    1976-02-01

    The metabolic products produced by several strains of Clostridium septicum obtained from patients and animals, along with strains of Clostridium chauvoei, were studied in chopped meat glucose medium by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography (EC-GLC). The strains of C. septicum and C. chauvoei were shown to comprise five different metabolic groups. Both the EC-GLC study and the O and H antigenic study performed previously showed that strains of C. septicum comprise a heterogeneous group. One type of metabolic profile was found only in strains of C. chauvoei. The O antigen types and EC-GLC metabolic types of C. septicum correlated fairly well in isolates from cancer patients but not in stock culture and animal isolates.

  14. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines

    SciTech Connect

    Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO{sub 2} capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO{sub 2} absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  15. A new hue capturing technique for the quantitative interpretation of liquid crystal images used in convective heat transfer studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camci, C.; Kim, K.; Hippensteele, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new image processing based color capturing technique for the quantitative interpretation of liquid crystal images used in convective heat transfer studies is presented. This method is highly applicable to the surfaces exposed to convective heating in gas turbine engines. It is shown that, in the single-crystal mode, many of the colors appearing on the heat transfer surface correlate strongly with the local temperature. A very accurate quantitative approach using an experimentally determined linear hue vs temperature relation is found to be possible. The new hue-capturing process is discussed in terms of the strength of the light source illuminating the heat transfer surface, the effect of the orientation of the illuminating source with respect to the surface, crystal layer uniformity, and the repeatability of the process. The present method is more advantageous than the multiple filter method because of its ability to generate many isotherms simultaneously from a single-crystal image at a high resolution in a very time-efficient manner.

  16. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines.

    PubMed

    Puxty, Graeme; Rowland, Robert; Allport, Andrew; Yang, Qi; Bown, Mark; Burns, Robert; Maeder, Marcel; Attalla, Moetaz

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO2 capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO2 absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO2 absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation.

  17. Selective CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal–Organic Frameworks-A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  18. The administrative costs of community-based health insurance: a case study of the community health fund in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine; Makawia, Suzan; Kuwawenaruwa, August

    2015-02-01

    Community-based health insurance expansion has been proposed as a financing solution for the sizable informal sector in low-income settings. However, there is limited evidence of the administrative costs of such schemes. We assessed annual facility and district-level costs of running the Community Health Fund (CHF), a voluntary health insurance scheme for the informal sector in a rural and an urban district from the same region in Tanzania. Information on resource use, CHF membership and revenue was obtained from district managers and health workers from two facilities in each district. The administrative cost per CHF member household and the cost to revenue ratio were estimated. Revenue collection was the most costly activity at facility level (78% of total costs), followed by stewardship and management (13%) and pooling of funds (10%). Stewardship and management was the main activity at district level. The administration cost per CHF member household ranged from USD 3.33 to USD 12.12 per year. The cost to revenue ratio ranged from 50% to 364%. The cost of administering the CHF was high relative to revenue generated. Similar studies from other settings should be encouraged.

  19. The administrative costs of community-based health insurance: a case study of the community health fund in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Josephine; Makawia, Suzan; Kuwawenaruwa, August

    2015-01-01

    Community-based health insurance expansion has been proposed as a financing solution for the sizable informal sector in low-income settings. However, there is limited evidence of the administrative costs of such schemes. We assessed annual facility and district-level costs of running the Community Health Fund (CHF), a voluntary health insurance scheme for the informal sector in a rural and an urban district from the same region in Tanzania. Information on resource use, CHF membership and revenue was obtained from district managers and health workers from two facilities in each district. The administrative cost per CHF member household and the cost to revenue ratio were estimated. Revenue collection was the most costly activity at facility level (78% of total costs), followed by stewardship and management (13%) and pooling of funds (10%). Stewardship and management was the main activity at district level. The administration cost per CHF member household ranged from USD 3.33 to USD 12.12 per year. The cost to revenue ratio ranged from 50% to 364%. The cost of administering the CHF was high relative to revenue generated. Similar studies from other settings should be encouraged. PMID:24334331

  20. How Well Do Survey Studies Capture Alcohol’s Harm to Others?

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies assessing alcohol’s harm to others very often rely on population survey data. This study addresses some of the problems and challenges in using survey data for this purpose. Such problems include the limited capacity of population surveys in identifying infrequent harm and long-term consequences of drinking. Moreover, the drinker may report the alcohol-related harm or the person being harmed may report the damage. However, irrespective of who reports the harm, causal attribution to drinking is problematic. Challenges for future population surveys to address alcohol’s harm to others include the need for improved models and understanding of complex mechanisms to guide empirical studies within the broad range of harm. Study designs other than cross-sectional surveys, such as longitudinal study designs and combinations of population surveys and other data sources, are likely to overcome some of the identified problems in current population surveys of alcohol’s harm to others. PMID:26819555

  1. Muon capture in deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, E.; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-06-01

    Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the NΔπρωa system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant d that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant d.

  2. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  3. Studies for the application of boron neutron capture therapy to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Dagrosa, A; Carpano, M; Perona, M; Thomasz, L; Nievas, S; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. These carcinomas are well controlled with surgery followed by therapy with (131)I; however, some patients do not respond to this treatment. BPA uptake was analyzed both in vitro and in nude mice implanted with cell lines of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The boron intracellular concentration in the different cell lines and the biodistribution studies showed the selectivity of the BPA uptake by this kind of tumor.

  4. The SAFE ESA-funded Project: how to approach for an integrated system of earthquake physics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, A.; De Franceschi, G.; Di Giovambattista, R.; Perrone, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Cianchini, G.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Cesaroni, C.; Spogli, L.; Malagnini, A.; Amoruso, L.; Carbone, M.; Abbattista, C.; Drimaco, D.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of the Swarm satellite mission by ESA is to measure the magnetic signals from the Earth. The SAFE (Swarm for Earthquake study) project (funded by ESA in the framework "STSE Swarm+Innovation", 2014) aims at applying the new approach of geosystemics to the analysis of Swarm data for investigating the preparatory phase of earthquakes. The main objective is to explore the possible link between magnetic/ionospheric anomalies and large earthquakes analysing Swarm as well as ground based data (seismic, magnetic, GNSS, etc.). This presentation will show the state of the art in lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) and the expected contribution of SAFE in the field, showing some recent case studies.

  5. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating mean throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-11-01

    The selection of an appropriate spatial extent of a sampling plot is one among several important decisions involved in planning a throughfall sampling scheme. In fact, the choice of the extent may determine whether or not a study can adequately characterize the hydrological fluxes of the studied ecosystem. Previous attempts to optimize throughfall sampling schemes focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design, while comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent. In this contribution, we investigated the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for three forest ecosystems of varying stand structure. Our study is based on virtual sampling of simulated throughfall fields. We derived these fields from throughfall data sampled in a simply structured forest (young tropical forest) and two heterogeneous forests (old tropical forest, unmanaged mixed European beech forest). We then sampled the simulated throughfall fields with three common extents and various sample sizes for a range of events and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the complexity of the system under study and to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus accumulated). Generally, event-based sampling in complex structured forests (conditions that favor comparatively long autocorrelations in throughfall) requires the largest extents. For event-based sampling, the choice of an appropriate extent can be as important as using an adequate sample size.

  6. Methods for systematic reviews of administrative database studies capturing health outcomes of interest.

    PubMed

    McPheeters, Melissa L; Sathe, Nila A; Jerome, Rebecca N; Carnahan, Ryan M

    2013-12-30

    This report provides an overview of methods used to conduct systematic reviews for the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Mini-Sentinel project, which is designed to inform the development of safety monitoring tools for FDA-regulated products including vaccines. The objective of these reviews was to summarize the literature describing algorithms (e.g., diagnosis or procedure codes) to identify health outcomes in administrative and claims data. A particular focus was the validity of the algorithms when compared to reference standards such as diagnoses in medical records. The overarching goal was to identify algorithms that can accurately identify the health outcomes for safety surveillance. We searched the MEDLINE database via PubMed and required dual review of full text articles and of data extracted from studies. We also extracted data on each study's methods for case validation. We reviewed over 5600 abstracts/full text studies across 15 health outcomes of interest. Nearly 260 studies met our initial criteria (conducted in the US or Canada, used an administrative database, reported case-finding algorithm). Few studies (N=45), however, reported validation of case-finding algorithms (sensitivity, specificity, positive or negative predictive value). Among these, the most common approach to validation was to calculate positive predictive values, based on a review of medical records as the reference standard. Of the studies reporting validation, the ease with which a given clinical condition could be identified in administrative records varied substantially, both by the clinical condition and by other factors such as the clinical setting, which relates to the disease prevalence.

  7. Study on the ultrasonic inspection method using the full matrix capture for the in service railway wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Jianping; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Peng, Chaoyong

    2014-02-18

    The quality of wheel is especially important for the safety of high speed railway. In this paper, a new ultrasonic array inspection method, the Full Matrix Capture (FMC) has been studied and applied to the high speed railway wheel inspection, especially in the wheel web from the tread. Firstly, the principle of FMC and TFM algorithm is discussed, and then the new optimization is applied to the standard FMC; Secondly the fundamentals of optimization is described in detail and the performance is analyzed. Finally, the experiment has been built with a standard phased array block and railway wheel, and then the testing results are discussed and analyzed. It is demonstrated that this change for the ultrasonic data acquisition and image reconstruction has higher efficiency and lower cost comparing to the FMC's procedure.

  8. Design-Based Research Principles for Student Orientation to Online Study: Capturing the Lessons Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Helen; Pizzica, Jenny; Mahony, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    Few institutions have reported research on students' "use" of orientation programs designed for mature students returning to study in contemporary learning environments now regularly amalgamating distance and online strategies. We report within a design-based research framework the student experience of "GetLearning," the third…

  9. Collaborative Embodied Learning in Mixed Reality Motion-Capture Environments: Two Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Birchfield, David A.; Tolentino, Lisa; Koziupa, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigate the extent to which an Embodied Mixed Reality Learning Environment (EMRELE) can enhance science learning compared to regular classroom instruction. Mixed reality means that physical tangible and digital components were present. The content for the EMRELE required that students map abstract concepts and relations onto…

  10. Capturing heterogeneity: The role of a study area's extent for estimating net precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Voss, Sebastian; Metzger, Johanna Clara; Hildebrandt, Anke; Zimmermann, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise estimates of net precipitation are required for many hydrological applications. For instance, most interception models require high quality estimates of the canopy storage capacity and the free throughfall coefficient. Good estimates of these parameters, in turn, critically depend on the quality of throughfall estimates. Previous attempts to guide throughfall sampling focused on the selection of an appropriate sample size, support, and sampling design. Comparatively little attention has been given to the role of the extent, i.e. the size of the area under study. In this contribution we investigate the influence of the extent on the representativeness of mean throughfall estimates for simply structured and heterogeneous forest ecosystems. We based our investigation on stochastic simulations which we derived from large empirical throughfall datasets. Using the simulated throughfall fields, we conducted virtual sampling experiments using a number of typical extents. We ran these tests both for a range of event sizes and for accumulated data. Our findings suggest that the size of the study area should be carefully adapted to the required temporal resolution of the throughfall data (i.e. event-based versus long-term) and to the complexity of the system under study.

  11. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2017-01-01

    There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smart-phone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness–eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R2=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R2=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R2=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances. PMID:28331379

  12. A grand canonical Monte Carlo study of SO2 capture using functionalized bilayer graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Manish; Singh, Jayant K.

    2017-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation is used to study the adsorption of pure SO2 using a functionalized bilayer graphene nanoribbon (GNR) at 303 K. The functional groups considered in this work are OH, COOH, NH2, NO2, and CH3. The mole percent of functionalization considered in this work is in the range of 3.125%-6.25%. GCMC simulation is further used to study the selective adsorption of SO2 from binary and ternary mixtures of SO2, CO2, and N2, of variable composition using the functionalized bilayer graphene nanoribbon at 303 K. This study shows that the adsorption and selectivity of SO2 increase after the functionalization of the nanoribbon compared to the hydrogen terminated nanoribbon. The order of adsorption capacity and selectivity of the functionalized nanoribbon is found to follow the order COOH > NO2 > NH2 > CH3 > OH > H. The selectivity of SO2 is found to be maximum at a pressure less than 0.2 bar. Furthermore, SO2 selectivity and adsorption capacity decrease with increase in the molar ratio of SO2/N2 mixture from 1:1 to 1:9. In the case of ternary mixture of SO2, CO2, N2, having compositions of 0.05, 0.15, 0.8, the selectivity of SO2 over N2 is higher than that of CO2 over N2. The maximum selectivity of SO2 over CO2 is observed for the COOH functionalized GNR followed by NO2 and other functionalized GNRs.

  13. Radiative capture studies of the electromagnetic decays of highly excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Snover, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Selected examples of interesting E1, M1, and E2 resonance studies in (p,..gamma..) and (..cap alpha..,..gamma..) reactions are discussed. These include a unique determination of E1 amplitudes in the /sup 12/C(P,..gamma../sub 0/)/sup 13/N reaction, E2 strength in light nuclei, M1 decays to the ground states and to the excited O/sup +/ states of the doubly magic /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca nuclei, second harmonic E1 resonances in (p,..gamma..), and M1 ..gamma..-decay of stretched particle-hole states in /sup 16/O and /sup 28/Si.

  14. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of {approx} {+-}22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than {approx} 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance {approx} 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance {approx} 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  15. Quantum Dynamics Study of the Isotopic Effect on Capture Reactions: HD, D2 + CH3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Dunyou; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Time-dependent wave-packet-propagation calculations are reported for the isotopic reactions, HD + CH3 and D2 + CH3, in six degrees of freedom and for zero total angular momentum. Initial state selected reaction probabilities for different initial rotational-vibrational states are presented in this study. This study shows that excitations of the HD(D2) enhances the reactivities; whereas the excitations of the CH3 umbrella mode have the opposite effects. This is consistent with the reaction of H2 + CH3. The comparison of these three isotopic reactions also shows the isotopic effects in the initial-state-selected reaction probabilities. The cumulative reaction probabilities (CRP) are obtained by summing over initial-state-selected reaction probabilities. The energy-shift approximation to account for the contribution of degrees of freedom missing in the six dimensionality calculation is employed to obtain approximate full-dimensional CRPs. The rate constant comparison shows H2 + CH3 reaction has the biggest reactivity, then HD + CH3, and D2 + CH3 has the smallest.

  16. Ambient carbon dioxide capture by different dimensional AlN nanostructures: A comparative DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Nurazar, Roghaye; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-08-01

    Strong binding of an isolated carbon dioxide molecule over three different aluminium nitride (AlN) nanostructures (nanocage, nanotube and nanosheet) is verified using density functional calculations. Equilibrium geometries, electronic properties, adsorption energies and thermodynamic stability of each adsorbed configuration are also identified. Optimized configurations are shown at least one corresponding physisorption and chemisorption of CO2 molecule over different AlN nanostructures. Also, the effect of chirality on the adsorption of CO2 molecule is studied over two different finite-sized zigzag (6,0) and armchair (4,4) AlN nanotubes. It is found that the electronic properties of the Al12N12 nanocage are more sensitive to the CO2 molecule than other AlN nanostructures. This indicates the significant potential of Al12N12 nanocage toward the CO2 adsorption, fixation and catalytic applications in contrast to other AlN nanostructures.

  17. A family smoking index to capture genetic influence in smoking: rationale and two validation studies.

    PubMed

    Drobes, David J; Munafò, Marcus R; Leigh, Fiona; Saladin, Michael E

    2005-02-01

    Despite a growing appreciation that genetic factors may impart vulnerability toward smoking behavior, only a modest consensus has been created about the specific genetic mechanisms that may underlie various aspects of smoking. A core feature of genetic contribution toward any complex human behavior is familial resemblance. Most previous attempts to index familial smoking have classified individuals into discrete categories, based on the number of smokers in a family. We discuss the development of a continuous measure of familial smoking, the Family Smoking Index (FSI), which is based on the proportion of smokers in first- and second-degree family members and provides a more precise weighting according to genetic proximity. We present the psychometric characteristics of the FSI as well as initial validation data from two studies. We also describe current and future directions for continued FSI validation and application.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  19. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  20. Predictive error detection in pianists: a combined ERP and motion capture study

    PubMed Central

    Maidhof, Clemens; Pitkäniemi, Anni; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing a piece of music involves the interplay of several cognitive and motor processes and requires extensive training to achieve a high skill level. However, even professional musicians commit errors occasionally. Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have investigated the neurophysiological correlates of pitch errors during piano performance, and reported pre-error negativity already occurring approximately 70–100 ms before the error had been committed and audible. It was assumed that this pre-error negativity reflects predictive control processes that compare predicted consequences with actual consequences of one's own actions. However, in previous investigations, correct and incorrect pitch events were confounded by their different tempi. In addition, no data about the underlying movements were available. In the present study, we exploratively recorded the ERPs and 3D movement data of pianists' fingers simultaneously while they performed fingering exercises from memory. Results showed a pre-error negativity for incorrect keystrokes when both correct and incorrect keystrokes were performed with comparable tempi. Interestingly, even correct notes immediately preceding erroneous keystrokes elicited a very similar negativity. In addition, we explored the possibility of computing ERPs time-locked to a kinematic landmark in the finger motion trajectories defined by when a finger makes initial contact with the key surface, that is, at the onset of tactile feedback. Results suggest that incorrect notes elicited a small difference after the onset of tactile feedback, whereas correct notes preceding incorrect ones elicited negativity before the onset of tactile feedback. The results tentatively suggest that tactile feedback plays an important role in error-monitoring during piano performance, because the comparison between predicted and actual sensory (tactile) feedback may provide the information necessary for the detection of an upcoming error. PMID

  1. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the north Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKiver, W. J.; Sannino, G.; Braga, F.; Bellafiore, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM (shallow water hydrodynamic finite element model) and MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model), to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the north Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the north Adriatic Sea.

  2. Effects of Sulfur Doping and Humidity on CO2 Capture by Graphite Split Pore: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Xue, Qingzhong; Chang, Xiao; Zhu, Lei; Ling, Cuicui; Zheng, Haixia

    2017-03-08

    By use of grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations, we study the effects of sulfur doping and humidity on the performance of graphite split pore as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. It is demonstrated that S doping can greatly enhance pure CO2 uptake by graphite split pore. For example, S-graphite split pore with 33.12% sulfur shows a 39.85% rise in pure CO2 uptake (51.001 mmol/mol) compared with pristine graphite split pore at 300 K and 1 bar. More importantly, it is found that S-graphite split pore can still maintain much higher CO2 uptake than that by pristine graphite split pore in the presence of water. Especially, uptake by 33.12% sulfur-doped S-graphite split pore is 51.963 mmol of CO2/mol in the presence of water, which is 44.34% higher than that by pristine graphite split pore at 300 K and 1 bar. In addition, CO2/N2 selectivity of S-graphite split pore increases with increasing S content, resulting from stronger interactions between CO2 and S-graphite split pore. Moreover, by use of density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that S doping can enhance adsorption energy between CO2 molecules and S-graphene surface at different humidities and furthermore enhance CO2 uptake by S-graphite split pore. Our results indicate that S-graphite split pore is a promising adsorbent material for humid CO2 capture.

  3. 75 FR 47525 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Renewable Energy Feasibility Studies Grants Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Feasibility Studies Grants Under the Rural Energy for America Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative... development assistance; and grants for conducting renewable energy feasibility studies. The Agency is...; Energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants; and Renewable energy feasibility...

  4. A pilot study of mercury liberation and capture from coal-fired power plant fly ash.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Gao, Xiaobing; Goeckner, Bryna; Kollakowsky, Dave; Ramme, Bruce

    2005-03-01

    The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal combustion products for use in construction materials. Both bench- and pilot-scale tests were conducted to liberate Hg using a thermal desorption process. The results indicated that up to 90% of the Hg could be liberated from the fly ash or fly-ash-and-activated-carbon mixture using a pilot-scale apparatus (air slide) at 538 degrees C with a very short retention time (less than 1 min). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation indicated no significant change in fly ash carbon particle morphology following the thermal treatment. Fly ash particles collected in the baghouse of the pilot-scale apparatus were smaller in size than those collected at the exit of the air slide. A similar trend was observed in carbon particles separated from the fly ash using froth flotation. The results of this study suggest a means for power plants to reduce the level of Hg in coal-combustion products and potentially recycle activated carbon while maintaining the resale value of fly ash. This technology is in the process of being patented.

  5. Biweekly disturbance capture and attribution: case study in western Alberta grizzly bear habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Thomas; Coops, Nicholas C.; Gaulton, Rachel; Wulder, Michael A.; Cranston, Jerome; Stenhouse, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the impact of landscape disturbance on ecosystems. Satellite remote sensing can be used for mapping disturbances, and fusion techniques of sensors with complimentary characteristics can help to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of satellite-based mapping techniques. Classification of different disturbance types from satellite observations is difficult, yet important, especially in an ecological context as different disturbance types might have different impacts on vegetation recovery, wildlife habitats, and food resources. We demonstrate a possible approach for classifying common disturbance types by means of their spatial characteristics. First, landscape level change is characterized on a near biweekly basis through application of a data fusion model (spatial temporal adaptive algorithm for mapping reflectance change) and a number of spatial and temporal characteristics of the predicted disturbance patches are inferred. A regression tree approach is then used to classify disturbance events. Our results show that spatial and temporal disturbance characteristics can be used to classify disturbance events with an overall accuracy of 86% of the disturbed area observed. The date of disturbance was identified as the most powerful predictor of the disturbance type, together with the patch core area, patch size, and contiguity.

  6. Accountability and Rural Development Partnerships: A Study of Objective 5b EAGGF Funding in South West England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Julie; Warren, Martyn; Turner, Martin; Hutchcroft, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Funding for Rural Development Partnerships has signalled a shift in rural policy, towards actively involving the rural population in determining the direction and implementation of change. However, early experience with partnerships has indicated that the funding bodies have retained significant control. One reason for this is that they are…

  7. The physics of intact capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Peter; Griffiths, D. J.; Albee, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to capture projectiles intact at hypervelocities in underdense media open a new area of study in physics. Underdense material behaves markedly different than solid, liquid, or gas upon hypervelocity impact. This new phenomenon enables applications in science that would either not be possible or would be very costly by other means. This phenomenon has been fully demonstrated in the laboratory and validated in space. Even more interesting is the fact that this hypervelocity intact capture was accomplished passively. A better understanding of the physics of intact capture will lead to improvements in intact capture. A collection of physical observations of this phenomenon is presented here.

  8. Creating Effective Learning Environments. Report of a Study Funded by the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    In 1987, Arizona State University initiated a national study of two-year college faculty behaviors that contribute to educational equity. During phase 1 of the study, field interviews and a literature review were used to develop an inventory of effective faculty behaviors. To determine the emphasis placed on these behaviors, phase 2 consisted of a…

  9. Capturing Heaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.

    2009-02-01

    Science communication, like other areas of study, features prominent figures who lead the field. One such individual is Jean-Pierre Luminet, a researcher, communicator, artist and author. As recipient of the 2007 European Science Communication Prize for Communicator of the Year, Jean-Pierre is at the forefront of his field. The CAPjournal editorial team interviewed Jean-Pierre to discover more about the man, his mission and his methods.

  10. Cost-effective enrichment hybridization capture of chloroplast genomes at deep multiplexing levels for population genetics and phylogeography studies.

    PubMed

    Mariac, Cédric; Scarcelli, Nora; Pouzadou, Juliette; Barnaud, Adeline; Billot, Claire; Faye, Adama; Kougbeadjo, Ayite; Maillol, Vincent; Martin, Guillaume; Sabot, François; Santoni, Sylvain; Vigouroux, Yves; Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-11-01

    Biodiversity, phylogeography and population genetic studies will be revolutionized by access to large data sets thanks to next-generation sequencing methods. In this study, we develop an easy and cost-effective protocol for in-solution enrichment hybridization capture of complete chloroplast genomes applicable at deep-multiplexed levels. The protocol uses cheap in-house species-specific probes developed via long-range PCR of the entire chloroplast. Barcoded libraries are constructed, and in-solution enrichment of the chloroplasts is carried out using the probes. This protocol was tested and validated on six economically important West African crop species, namely African rice, pearl millet, three African yam species and fonio. For pearl millet, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of this protocol to retrieve 95% of the sequence of the whole chloroplast on 95 multiplexed individuals in a single MiSeq run at a success rate of 95%. This new protocol allows whole chloroplast genomes to be retrieved at a modest cost and will allow unprecedented resolution for closely related species in phylogeography studies using plastomes.

  11. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing cement plant using MEA scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Nazmul Hassan; Peter L. Douglas; Eric Croiset

    2007-03-15

    Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Man-made CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 63% of greenhouse gases and the cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of CO{sub 2} emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO{sub 2} per 1000 kg of cement. CO{sub 2} from a cement plant was captured and purified to 98% using the monoethanolamine (MEA) based absorption process. The capture cost was $51 per tonne of CO{sub 2} captured, representing approximately 90% of total cost. Steam was the main operating cost representing 39% of the total capture cost. Switching from coal to natural gas reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by about 18%. At normal load, about 36 MW of waste heat is available for recovery to satisfy the parasitic heat requirements of MEA process; however, it is very difficult to recover. 18 refs.

  12. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing cement plant using MEA scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, S.M.N.; Douglas, P.L.; Croiset, E.

    2007-03-15

    Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Man-made CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 63% of greenhouse gases and the cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of CO{sub 2} emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO{sub 2} per 1000 kg of cement. CO{sub 2} from a cement plant was captured and purified to 98% using the monoethanolamine (MEA) based absorption process. The capture cost was $51 per tonne of CO{sub 2} captured, representing approximately 90% of total cost. Steam was the main operating cost representing 39% of the total capture cost. Switching from coal to natural gas reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by about 18%. At normal load, about 36 MW of waste heat is available for recovery to satisfy the parasitic heat requirements of MEA process; however, it is very difficult to recover.

  13. Molecular Structural Analysis of Spider's Capture Thread and Viscid Droplets Studied by Microscopic FT-IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Hironobu; Katayama, Norihisa; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The molecular structural analysis of capture thread, including its viscid droplets of oriental golden orb-web spider Nephila clavata, has been performed by microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained spectra of capture threads with and without viscid droplets indicate that the features in the region of 1400 - 1000 cm(-1) will be useful as marker bands for the degree of the dissolving of viscid droplet; further, the bands at 1395 and 1335 cm(-1) are attributable to the components of anchoring granules located at the inner side of viscid droplets. By recrystallization and its infrared measurements, the main chemical component of viscid droplets is assignable to glycosylated proline. It has also been demonstrated that the components of the anchoring granule of a viscid droplet are decomposed by UV irradiation, and that the molecular conformation of silk fiber protein of a capture thread is denatured at over 60°C, whereas the viscid droplets on a capture thread retain their structure.

  14. In vitro and in vivo studies of boron neutron capture therapy: boron uptake/washout and cell death.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C; Bakeine, J; Ballarini, F; Boninella, A; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Coppola, A; Di Liberto, R; Dionigi, P; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy based on thermal-neutron irradiation of cells enriched with (10)B, which produces α particles and (7)Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness. The selective uptake of boron by tumor cells is a crucial issue for BNCT, and studies of boron uptake and washout associated with cell survival studies can be of great help in developing clinical applications. In this work, boron uptake and washout were characterized both in vitro for the DHDK12TRb (DHD) rat colon carcinoma cell line and in vivo using rats bearing liver metastases from DHD cells. Despite a remarkable uptake, a large boron release was observed after removal of the boron-enriched medium from in vitro cell cultures. However, analysis of boron washout after rat liver perfusion in vivo did not show a significant boron release, suggesting that organ perfusion does not limit the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. The survival of boron-loaded cells exposed to thermal neutrons was also assessed; the results indicated that the removal of extracellular boron does not limit treatment effectiveness if adequate amounts of boron are delivered and if the cells are kept at low temperature. Cell survival was also investigated theoretically using a mechanistic model/Monte Carlo code originally developed for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and extended here to cell death; good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental data was obtained.

  15. Study of human body: Kinematics and kinetics of a martial arts (Silat) performers using 3D-motion capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi Awang; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2015-04-01

    The Interest in this studies of human kinematics goes back very far in human history drove by curiosity or need for the understanding the complexity of human body motion. To find new and accurate information about the human movement as the advance computing technology became available for human movement that can perform. Martial arts (silat) were chose and multiple type of movement was studied. This project has done by using cutting-edge technology which is 3D motion capture to characterize and to measure the motion done by the performers of martial arts (silat). The camera will detect the markers (infrared reflection by the marker) around the performer body (total of 24 markers) and will show as dot in the computer software. The markers detected were analyzing using kinematic kinetic approach and time as reference. A graph of velocity, acceleration and position at time,t (seconds) of each marker was plot. Then from the information obtain, more parameters were determined such as work done, momentum, center of mass of a body using mathematical approach. This data can be used for development of the effectiveness movement in martial arts which is contributed to the people in arts. More future works can be implemented from this project such as analysis of a martial arts competition.

  16. Studies on depth-dose-distribution controls by deuteration and void formation in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori

    2004-08-07

    Physical studies on (i) replacement of heavy water for body water (deuteration), and (ii) formation of a void in human body (void formation) were performed as control techniques for dose distribution in a human head under neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were performed for a human-head-size cylindrical phantom using a two-dimensional transport calculation code for mono-energetic incidences of higher-energy epi-thermal neutrons (1.2-10 keV), lower-energy epi-thermal neutrons (3.1-23 eV) and thermal neutrons (1 meV to 0.5 eV). The deuteration was confirmed to be effective both in thermal neutron incidence and in epi-thermal neutron incidence from the viewpoints of improvement of the thermal neutron flux distribution and elimination of the secondary gamma rays. For the void formation, a void was assumed to be 4 cm in diameter and 3 cm in depth at the surface part in this study. It was confirmed that the treatable depth was improved almost 2 cm for any incident neutron energy in the case of the 10 cm irradiation field diameter. It was made clear that the improvement effect was larger in isotropic incidence than in parallel incidence, in the case that an irradiation field size was delimited fitting into a void diameter.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of liver metastases: biodistribution studies of boron compounds in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J; Heber, Elisa M; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Cardoso, Jorge E; Colombo, Lucas L; Nievas, Susana; Nigg, David W; Aromando, Romina F; Itoiz, Maria E; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2011-03-01

    We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of (10)B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na(2)(10)B(10)H(10)), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  18. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    SciTech Connect

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Jorge E. Cardoso; Lucas L. Colombo; Susana Nievas; David W. Nigg; Romina F. Aromando

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  19. A Study of the Students and Programs Supported by General Fund Grants to School Districts for the Special Education of Handicapped Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young (Arthur) and Co., Portland, OR.

    Presented is the final report of an Oregon study (for the 1975-77 biennium) to determine existing funding patterns for state special education programs and to suggest alternative formulas for state reimbursement of school district expenditures for handicapped children. After an introduction, major study findings (such as the need for clarification…

  20. Funding Continuing Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Discussion and Case Studies from across the EU. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukkinen, Tommi; Romijn, Clemens; Elson-Rogers, Sarah

    There are three main parts to this report of a study that used case studies to showcase the different approaches used to encourage more continuing training within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across the European Union (EU). Section 1 discusses the importance of funding training in SMEs and highlights the various types of funding…

  1. Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance: The 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) Grantees after Two Years. NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2015-4022

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The study measures the impact of pay-for-performance bonuses as part of a comprehensive compensation system within a large, multisite random assignment study design. The treatment schools were to…

  2. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Classroom Quality and Child Language and Academic Outcomes in a State-Funded Prekindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Googe, Heather Smith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to evaluate the relationship between classroom process quality and child language and academic outcomes from the beginning of the pre-kindergarten year to the beginning of the kindergarten year for one cohort of children participating in a state-funded pre-kindergarten program in South Carolina. Data for my study were…

  3. Video capture of the circumstances of falls in elderly people residing in long-term care: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Robinovitch, Stephen N; Feldman, Fabio; Yang, Yijian; Schonnop, Rebecca; Lueng, Pet Ming; Sarraf, Thiago; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Loughin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Falls in elderly people are a major health burden, especially in the long-term care environment. Yet little objective evidence is available for how and why falls occur in this population. We aimed to provide such evidence by analysing real-life falls in long-term care captured on video. Methods We did this observational study between April 20, 2007, and June 23, 2010, in two long-term care facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Digital video cameras were installed in common areas (dining rooms, lounges, hallways). When a fall occurred, facility staff completed an incident report and contacted our teams so that we could collect video footage. A team reviewed each fall video with a validated questionnaire that probed the cause of imbalance and activity at the time of falling. We then tested whether differences existed in the proportion of participants falling due to the various causes, and while engaging in various activities, with generalised linear models, repeated measures logistic regression, and log-linear Poisson regression. Findings We captured 227 falls from 130 individuals (mean age 78 years, SD 10). The most frequent cause of falling was incorrect weight shifting, which accounted for 41% (93 of 227) of falls, followed by trip or stumble (48, 21%), hit or bump (25, 11%), loss of support (25, 11%), and collapse (24, 11%). Slipping accounted for only 3% (six) of falls. The three activities associated with the highest proportion of falls were forward walking (54 of 227 falls, 24%), standing quietly (29 falls, 13%), and sitting down (28 falls, 12%). Compared with previous reports from the long-term care setting, we identified a higher occurrence of falls during standing and transferring, a lower occurrence during walking, and a larger proportion due to centre-of-mass perturbations than base-of-support perturbations. Interpretation By providing insight into the sequences of events that most commonly lead to falls, our results should lead to

  4. Thermal degradation of aqueous 2-aminoethylethanolamine in CO2 capture; identification of degradation products, reaction mechanisms and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Idris Mohamed; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Mazari, Shaukat Ali; Si Ali, B; Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Asghar, Anam; Ghalib, Lubna; Jan, Badrul Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Amine degradation is the main significant problems in amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture, causes foaming, increase in viscosity, corrosion, fouling as well as environmental issues. Therefore it is very important to develop the most efficient solvent with high thermal and chemical stability. This study investigated thermal degradation of aqueous 30% 2-aminoethylethanolamine (AEEA) using 316 stainless steel cylinders in the presence and absence of CO2 for 4 weeks. The degradation products were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS). The results showed AEEA is stable in the absence of CO2, while in the presence of CO2 AEEA showed to be very unstable and numbers of degradation products were identified. 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2-imidazolidinone (HEIA) was the most abundance degradation product. A possible mechanism for the thermal degradation of AEEA has been developed to explain the formation of degradation products. In addition, the reaction energy of formation of the most abundance degradation product HEIA was calculated using quantum mechanical calculation.

  5. Successful Community College Fund-Raising Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Spencer

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a study whose primary purposes were to determine the characteristics of an effective fund-raising program, the marketing practices that contribute to the success of a fund-raising program, and factors of the development system's influence on a fund-raising program. This study utilized a Delphi research instrument. Initially,…

  6. Coincidence studies of capture and ionization in highly charged Iq+-He and Uq+-He collisions at medium velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datz, S.; Hippler, R.; Andersen, L. H.; Dittner, P. F.; Knudsen, H.; Krause, H. F.; Miller, P. D.; Pepmiller, P. L.; Rosseel, T.; Schuch, R.; Stolterfoht, N.; Yamazaki, Y.; Vane, C. R.

    1990-04-01

    Electron capture and ionization processes were investigated for Iq+-He and Uq+-He collisions at incident energies 0.1-1.0 MeV/nucleon and for incident charge states q=5-44. Cross sections for single-electron capture, transfer ionization, single ionization, and double ionization were obtained using a projectile-ion recoil-ion coincidence technique. A pronounced interplay among the different electronic processes was observed. Cross sections for single ionization show a rather weak charge-state dependence, in disagreement with recent calculations of McKenzie and Olson [Phys. Rev. A 35, 2863 (1987)]. In a second experiment, photon recoil-ion coincidences were measured to obtain partial cross sections for capture into certain projectile n states. These measurements provide strong evidence that transfer ionization populates lower projectile n states than does single-electron capture. Zero-degree electron spectroscopy, coincident with charge capture for 0.5 MeV/nucleon U30+ projectiles revealed that the free electron in transfer ionization is released from the projectile to its continuum and from high-lying Rydberg states of the projectile.

  7. UK research funding bodies’ views towards public participation in health-related research decisions: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A challenge facing science is how to renew and improve its relationship with society. One potential solution is to ensure that the public are more involved in the scientific process from the inception of research plans to scientific dissemination strategies. However, to date, little is known about how research funding bodies view public participation in research funding decisions, and how they involve the public into their strategies and practices. This paper provides insights into how key representatives working in the UK non-commercial research funding sector perceive public participation in health-related research funding decisions and the possible implications of these. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders from 10 UK non-commercial research funding bodies that either partially or exclusively fund health-related research. The findings were written up in thematic narrative form. Results The different disciplines that encompass health research, and their differing frames of ‘science and society’, were found to influence how research funding bodies viewed and implemented public participation in research funding decisions. Relevant subsets of the public were more likely to be involved in research funding decisions than lay public, which could be linked to underlying technocratic rationales. Concerns about public participation stemmed from the highly professionalised scientific environment that the public were exposed to. Additionally, from a more positivist frame, concerns arose regarding subjective views and values held by the public that may damage the integrity of science. Conclusion Underlying assumptions of technocracy largely appear to be driving PP/PE within the research grant review process, even in funding bodies that have overtly democratic ideals. Some conceptions of technocracy were more inclusive than others, welcoming different types of expertise such as patient or research-user experiences

  8. Single and double electron capture from He by Ar{sup 16+} studied using cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, M.A.; Wolff, W.; Wolf, H.E.; Kamber, E.Y.; Stoeckli, M.; Cocke, C.L.

    1998-10-01

    Single and double electron capture from He targets by Ar{sup 16+} ions have been studied at projectile velocities from 0.3 to 1.5 a.u. Cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy was used to record the energy gain and scattering angle simultaneously. For single capture, the reaction window is found to spread in width approximately as the square root of the projectile velocity and to shift slightly toward smaller energy-gain values as the velocity increases. The angular distributions center at the half Coulomb angle over most of the velocity range covered, but differ in shape from multichannel Landau-Zener model results. For double capture, transfer ionization dominates and feeds primarily n-symmetric states, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number. True double capture feeds mainly n-asymmetric states. The angular distributions for double capture lie outside the half Coulomb angle, indicating the importance of two-step processes in populating doubly excited states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. NCLB Low Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the impact brought about by the "No Child Left Behind" Act (NCLB) on school funding. Because of changes in the funding formulas, most of the increased funding will go to districts in which the highest number of poor children reside. Districts which are less impacted by poverty will lose funding. The…

  10. A participant observation study using actors at 30 publicly funded HIV counseling and testing sites in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, A J; Gehl, M B; Encandela, J; Schelzel, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to augment an evaluation of Pennsylvania publicly funded HIV counseling and testing sites, particularly of the staff-client interaction. METHODS: Actors were trained as research assistants and sent to 30 randomly chosen sites to be tested and counseled for HIV disease. Instruments based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines were designed and used to evaluate them. RESULTS: Data were generated that identified the range of compliance with CDC guidelines and state policy. Among the findings were that 10 of 30 sites required signed consents despite a state policy allowing anonymous testing. Only 17% of providers developed a written risk reduction plan, even though 69% of all sites surveyed by mail asserted that such plans were developed. Only 2 of 5 HIV-positive actors were offered partner notification services, even though 100% of sites visited by an interviewer claimed to offer such services. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that although evaluation methods such as mail surveys and site visits are useful for evaluating the existence of appropriate policies and protocols and gathering baseline data, they might not be sufficient for assessing actual staff-client interaction. PMID:10897188

  11. Marketing, Information, and Parental Choice: A Comparative Case Study of Third-Party, Federally Funded Out-of-School-Time Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Molly S.; Good, Annalee G.

    2016-01-01

    Information and promotional marketing play central but complex roles in market-based educational programs. This in-depth qualitative study examines these complexities using the case of Supplemental Educational Services, a parental choice program providing federally funded tutoring to low-income students in K-12 public schools. Examining the…

  12. Small High Schools at Work: A Case Study of Six Gates-Funded Schools in New York City. A Report to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancsali, Cheri; Jaffe-Walter, Reva; Mitchell-McKnight, Vernay; Nevarez, Nancy; Orellana, Eliana, Williams Rose, Lea

    2010-01-01

    The Academy for Educational Development (AED) conducted a case study of six public high schools in New York City as part of a multifaceted evaluation of a small schools initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, the authors gathered information and opinions from the schools'…

  13. The Funding of Higher Education. International Perspectives. Garland Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 1. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 919.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at a conference focused on the subject of funding for higher education and providing comparative perspectives on, and case studies of, educational financing from around the world. After an introduction by Ernest L. Boyer, the papers and their authors are as follows: "The Costs of Higher Education: Worldwide…

  14. Funding and Administrative Coordination of the Baja Field Studies Program at Glendale Community College during the Years 1974 to 1983: A Historical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercade, Jose A.

    Glendale Community College's (GCC's) Baja Field Studies Program began in 1974 as a faculty-initiated overseas field program in marine biology and developed into a college-wide, interdisciplinary program offering different courses under the leadership of a program coordinator. As changes in funding and administration took place due to the altered…

  15. Utilizing rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-capture studies on the desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of mark-capture dispersal studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder) with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein. In turn, short-range dispersal patterns of H. aureus were measured across a 20-m ...

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

    This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT

  17. Optimization study for an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy at the University of Virginia Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jr., Thomas Dean

    1995-05-01

    The non-surgical brain cancer treatment modality, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), requires the use of an epithermal neutron beam. This purpose of this thesis was to design an epithermal neutron beam at the University of Virginia Research Reactor (UVAR) suitable for BNCT applications. A suitable epithermal neutron beam for BNCT must have minimal fast neutron and gamma radiation contamination, and yet retain an appreciable intensity. The low power of the UVAR core makes reaching a balance between beam quality and intensity a very challenging design endeavor. The MCNP monte carlo neutron transport code was used to develop an equivalent core radiation source, and to perform the subsequent neutron transport calculations necessary for beam model analysis and development. The code accuracy was validated by benchmarking output against experimental criticality measurements. An epithermal beam was designed for the UVAR, with performance characteristics comparable to beams at facilities with cores of higher power. The epithermal neutron intensity of this beam is 2.2 x 108 n/cm2 • s. The fast neutron and gamma radiation KERMA factors are 10 x 10-11cGy•cm2/nepi and 20 x 10-11 cGy•cm2/nepi , respectively, and the current-to-flux ratio is 0.85. This thesis has shown that the UVAR has the capability to provide BNCT treatments, however the performance characteristics of the final beam of this study were limited by the low core power.

  18. A study on the optimum fast neutron flux for boron neutron capture therapy of deep-seated tumors.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Fatemeh S; Masoudi, S Farhad

    2015-02-01

    High-energy neutrons, named fast neutrons which have a number of undesirable biological effects on tissue, are a challenging problem in beam designing for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT. In spite of this fact, there is not a widely accepted criterion to guide the beam designer to determine the appropriate contribution of fast neutrons in the spectrum. Although a number of researchers have proposed a target value for the ratio of fast neutron flux to epithermal neutron flux, it can be shown that this criterion may not provide the optimum treatment condition. This simulation study deals with the determination of the optimum contribution of fast neutron flux in the beam for BNCT of deep-seated tumors. Since the dose due to these high-energy neutrons damages shallow tissues, delivered dose to skin is considered as a measure for determining the acceptability of the designed beam. To serve this purpose, various beam shaping assemblies that result in different contribution of fast neutron flux are designed. The performances of the neutron beams corresponding to such configurations are assessed in a simulated head phantom. It is shown that the previously used criterion, which suggests a limit value for the contribution of fast neutrons in beam, does not necessarily provide the optimum condition. Accordingly, it is important to specify other complementary limits considering the energy of fast neutrons. By analyzing various neutron spectra, two limits on fast neutron flux are proposed and their validity is investigated. The results show that considering these limits together with the widely accepted IAEA criteria makes it possible to have a more realistic assessment of sufficiency of the designed beam. Satisfying these criteria not only leads to reduction of delivered dose to skin, but also increases the advantage depth in tissue and delivered dose to tumor during the treatment time. The Monte Carlo Code, MCNP-X, is used to perform these simulations.

  19. River Capture in Disequilibrium Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.; Willett, S.; Goren, L.

    2013-12-01

    The process of river piracy or river capture has long drawn interest as a potential mechanism by which drainage basins large and small evolve towards an equilibrium state. River capture transfers both drainage area and drainage lines from one river basin to another, which can cause large, abrupt shifts in network topology, drainage divide positions, and river incision rates. Despite numerous case studies in which river capture has been proposed to have occurred, there is no general, mechanistic framework for understanding the controls on river capture, nor are there quantitative criteria for determining if capture has occurred. Here we use new metrics of landscape disequilibrium to first identify landscapes in which drainage reorganization is occurring. These metrics are based on a balance between an integral of the contributing drainage area and elevation. In an analysis of rivers in the Eastern United States we find that many rivers are in a state of disequilibrium and are experiencing recent or ongoing area exchange between basins. In these disequilibrium basins we find widespread evidence for network rearrangement via river capture at multiple scales. We then conduct numerical experiments with a 2-D landscape evolution model to explore the conditions in which area exchange among drainage basins is likely to occur as discrete capture events as opposed to continuous divide migration. These experiments indicate that: (1) capture activity increases with the degree of disequilibrium induced by persistent spatial gradients in tectonic forcing or by temporal changes in climate or tectonic forcing; (2) capture activity is strongly controlled by the initial planform drainage network geometry; and (3) capture activity scales with the fluvial incision rate constant in the river power erosion law.

  20. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 2: Delimitation of conditions for charge transfert establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for establishment of charge transfer during acceleration of nuclei up to Fe, for typical conditions of solar flare regions T = 5 x 10 to the 3rd power to 2.5 x 10 to the 8th power degrees K were explored. Results show that such conditions are widely assorted, depending on the acceleration mechanism, the kind of projections and their velocity, the target elements, the source temperature and consequently on the degree of ionization of matter and the local charge state of the accelerated ions. Nevertheless, in spite of that assorted behavior, there are some general tendencies that can be summarized as follows. In atomic H electron capture is systematically established from thermal energies up to high energies, whatever the element and for both acceleration process. For a given element and fixed temperature (T), the probability and energy domain of electron capture and loss with Fermi are higher than with Betatron acceleration. For a given acceleration process the heavier the ion the higher the probability and the wider the energy range for electron capture and loss. For given acceleration mechanism and fixed element the importance and energy domain of capture and loss increase with T: for those reasons, the energy range of charge equilibrium (illustrated with solid lines on the next figs.) is wider with Fermi and increases with temperature and atomic number of projectiles. For the same reasons, electron loss is smaller while the lighter the element, the lower the temperature and the Betatron process, such that there are conditions for which electron loss is not allowed at low energies, but only electron capture is established.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Genotyping After Denaturation of Specimens for Hybrid Capture 2 Testing: Feasibility Study for the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort†

    PubMed Central

    LaMere, Brandon J.; Kornegay, Janet; Fetterman, Barbara; Sadorra, Mark; Shieh, Jen; Castle, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping could be clinically useful, depending on the results of large, prospective studies like the HPV Persistence and Progression cohort. The cohort is based on genotyping and follow-up of Hybrid Capture-positive women at Kaiser Permanente, Northern California. HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture 2 requires denaturation with alkali, possibly damaging the DNA for optimal PCR-based genotyping. A feasibility study was conducted on paired aliquots of anonymized specimens from 100 women with low-grade intraepithelial lesion cytology. Test aliquots were left in denaturant for 10 or 18 hours at 4°C and then neutralized; comparison aliquots were not denatured but diluted to match the timing, temperature, concentration and salt conditions of the treated specimens. The masked aliquots were tested using a commercialized PCR-based assay that detects of 37 HPV genotypes. There was no overall effect of treatment on test positivity or number of types. HPV16 was marginally more likely to be detected in untreated versus treated aliquots (P = 0.09) but HPV45 was marginally more likely to be detected in treated than untreated aliquots (P = 0.07), suggesting that these differences represented chance (intra-test variability). It can be concluded that residual Hybrid Capture-positive specimens can be accurately genotyped by PCR after Hybrid Capture 2 processing. PMID:17673302

  2. [Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Maryland Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    Two schools in Maryland received ARRA SIG (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act School Improvement Grants) funds to enable them to implement their turnaround efforts. This paper describes the outcomes of these two ARRA SIG recipient schools: (1) G. James Gholson Middle School; and (2) Commodore John Rodgers Elementary School. The experiences of…

  3. [Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Michigan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caitlin; Dibner, Kenne

    2012-01-01

    Two schools in Michigan received ARRA SIG (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act School Improvement Grants) funds to enable them to implement their improvement efforts. This paper describes the outcomes of these two ARRA SIG recipient schools: (1) Phoenix Elementary-Middle School; and (2) Arthur Hill High School. The experiences of these…

  4. California Institute of Technology: Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program (CECIP) was initiated in 2009. It manages $8 million within an existing fund in the school's endowment, which had been created to finance capital projects. Any member of the Caltech community may submit a project proposal, and projects are considered for approval as long as they have at least a 15…

  5. Total Federal R&D Funding Estimated to Increase 7 Percent in 1982 After September Revisions. Science Resources Studies Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Data related to the 1982 budget for federal research and development funding are highlighted in this brief publication. Although budget authority for the total federal research and development programs in 1982 represents a seven percent increase, this figure also represents a constant-dollar decrease of almost two percent. The 1982 budget…

  6. [Opportunities and Obstacles: Implementing Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants in Maryland, Michigan, and Idaho. Idaho Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caitlin; McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    Two schools in Idaho received ARRA SIG (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act School Improvement Grants) funds to enable them to implement improvement efforts. This paper describes the outcomes of these two ARRA SIG recipient schools: (1) Jefferson Middle School; and (2) Lakeside Elementary School. The experiences of this non-recipient school is…

  7. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  8. Neutron Capture Reaction on 112Cd to Study of the s-process Origin of 115Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Toh, Yosuke; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    The astrophysical origin of 115Sn has remained still an open question. An isomer with a half-life of 14.1 y in 113Cd is a branching point from which a nucleosynthesis flow reaches to a rare isotope 115Sn. The s-process abundance of 115Sn depends on the ratio of the 112Cd(n, γ)113Cdm reaction cross section to the 112Cd(n, γ)113Cdgs reaction cross section. However, the isomer production ratio following the neutron capture reaction has not been measured in an energy region higher than the thermal energy. We have measured γ-ray intensity ratios following neutron capture reactions on 112Cd using the HPGe detectors in conjunction with a time-of-flight method at ANNRI in J-PARC.

  9. How much CO2 does vegetation capture in tropical cities? Case study of a residential neighborhood in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S.; Quak, M.; Seth, N.; Norford, L.

    2012-12-01

    Urban vegetation might have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly in cities with extensive and/or evergreen vegetation. In a few urban sites negative daytime CO2 fluxes during the growing season have been observed. These sites correspond to suburban neighborhoods with abundant vegetation and low population density. Usually urban surfaces are net sources of CO2 modulated in some cases by vegetation during daytime. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is a difficult task due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighborhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance were compared with emissions estimated by emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should primarily correspond to the biogenic flux. Independently, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the theory of metabolic ecology for tropical forests. This model predicts the biomass growth rate of woody trees as a function of their size. Palm trees were also included in the survey, but their annual CO2 uptake was obtained from growth curves/rates published in the literature. Both approaches suggest that vegetation captures between 5% and 8% of the CO2 emitted in this neighborhood. Annual uptakes of 510 and 324 ton km-2 were obtained from the difference between measured fluxes and estimated emissions, and the approach based on allometric equations, respectively. The difference between both approaches can be due to uncertainties in the emissions estimates and

  10. Muon Capture on ^3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golak, Jacek; Skibiński, Roman; Witała, Henryk; Topolnicki, Kacper; Kamada, Hiroyuki; Nogga, Andreas; Marcucci, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    The μ ^- + ^3H → ν _μ + n + n + n capture reaction is studied under full inclusion of final-state interactions with the AV18 nucleon-nucleon potential and the Urbana IX three-nucleon force. We employ the single nucleon weak current operator comprising the dominant relativistic corrections to obtain first estimates of the total capture rates based on realistic forces. Our results are compared with older theoretical predictions.

  11. Possible funding strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Funding strategies are examined for the AIA rocket propulsion strategic plan. Either the government, industry, or universities can fund the project alone, or it was concluded, it works best if is a combination of these sources.

  12. Fanconi Anemia Research Fund

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...

  13. Fund Raising with Panache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Robert

    1985-01-01

    The key to fund raising is the donor, and fund raisers should learn to cultivate potential donors, approach them with goals compatible with their own, supplement their thinking, get them involved, and swamp them with gratitude. (MSE)

  14. Capture Their Attention: Capturing Lessons Using Screen Capture Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumheller, Kristina; Lawler, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    When students miss classes for university activities such as athletic and academic events, they inevitably miss important class material. Students can get notes from their peers or visit professors to find out what they missed, but when students miss new and challenging material these steps are sometimes not enough. Screen capture and recording…

  15. Phillips funds AWG lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Association for Women Geoscientists Foundation has received a $9000 grant from Phillips Petroleum Company to fund the Phillips-AWG Distinguished Lectures. The money will pay travel expenses for the women geoscientists listed with the AWG Speakers Bureau.More than 100 women geoscientists are available through the AWG Speakers Bureau. Their topics cover all the Earth sciences including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, paleobotany, planetary geology and mineral exploration. Their areas of study range from the U.S., Europe and South America to Mars. They come from academia, government and industry in 33 states and the District of Columbia.

  16. Federal R&D Funding Shows Signiticant Rise in FY 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, September 8, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report reveals that federal research and development obligations are scheduled to rise from $17.4 billion in fiscal year 1974 to an estimated $18.9 billion in fiscal year 1975 and to $21.7 billion in fiscal year 1976. The gains in funding are 8.4 percent for 1975 and 14.5 percent for 1976, both of these the largest relative rises in the…

  17. Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-15

    IMPACCT Project: SES is developing a process to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants by desublimation - the conversion of a gas to a solid. Capturing CO2 as a solid and delivering it as a liquid avoids the large energy cost of CO2 gas compression. SES’ capture technology facilitates the prudent use of available energy resources. Coal is our most abundant energy resource and is an excellent fuel for baseline power production. SES capture technology can capture 99% of the CO2 emissions in addition to a wide range of other pollutants more efficiently and at lower costs than existing capture technologies. SES’ capture technology can be readily added to our existing energy infrastructure.

  18. A detailed study of cholinium chloride and levulinic acid deep eutectic solvent system for CO2 capture via experimental and molecular simulation approaches.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ruh; Atilhan, Mert; Anaya, Baraa; Khraisheh, Majeda; García, Gregorio; ElKhattat, Ahmed; Tariq, Mohammad; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-08-28

    Choline chloride + levulinic acid deep eutectic solvent is studied as a suitable material for CO2 capturing purposes. The most relevant physicochemical properties of this solvent are reported together with the CO2 solubility as a function of temperature. The corrosivity of this solvent is studied showing better performance than amine-based solvents. A theoretical study using both density functional theory and molecular dynamics approaches is carried out to analyze the properties of this fluid from the nanoscopic viewpoint, and their relationship with the macroscopic behavior of the system and its ability for CO2 capturing. The behavior of the liquid-gas interface is also studied and its role on the CO2 absorption mechanism is analyzed. The reported combined experimental and theoretical approach leads to a complete picture of the behavior of this new sorbent with regard to CO2, which together with its low cost, and the suitable environmental and toxicological properties of this solvent, lead to a promising candidate for CO2 capturing technological applications.

  19. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-03-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 10(5) n/cm(2)/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector will be useful for phantom experiments with BNCT neutron fields from low-current accelerator-based neutron sources.

  20. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector will be useful for phantom experiments with BNCT neutron fields from low-current accelerator-based neutron sources. PMID:25589504

  1. Do March-In Rights Ensure Access to Medical Products Arising From Federally Funded Research? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Treasure, Carolyn L; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2015-01-01

    Context The high cost of new prescription drugs and other medical products is a growing health policy issue. Many of the most transformative drugs and vaccines had their origins in public-sector funding to nonprofit research institutions. Although the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 provides for “march-in rights” through which the government can invoke some degree of control over the patents protecting products developed from public funding to ensure public access to these medications, the applicability of this provision to current policy options is not clear. Methods We conducted a primary-source document review of the Bayh-Dole Act’s legislative history as well as of hearings of past march-in rights petitions to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). We then conducted semistructured interviews of 12 key experts in the march-in rights of the Bayh-Dole Act to identify the sources of the disputes and the main themes in the statute’s implementation. We analyzed the interview transcripts using standard qualitative techniques. Findings Since 1980, the NIH has fully reviewed only 5 petitions to invoke governmental march-in rights for 4 health-related technologies or medical products developed from federally funded research. Three of these requests related to reducing the high prices of brand-name drugs, one related to relieving a drug shortage, and one related to a potentially patent-infringing medical device. In each of these cases, the NIH rejected the requests. Interviewees were split on the implications of these experiences, finding the NIH’s reluctance to implement its march-in rights to be evidence of either a system working as intended or of a flawed system needing reform. Conclusions The Bayh-Dole Act’s march-in rights continue to be invoked by policymakers and health advocates, most recently in the context of new, high-cost products originally discovered with federally funded research. We found that the existence of march-in rights may select for government

  2. Molecular simulation studies of CO2 adsorption by carbon model compounds for carbon capture and sequestration applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-01-02

    Effects of oxygen-containing surface functionalities on the adsorption of mixtures including CO(2)/CH(4), CO(2)/N(2), and CO(2)/H(2)O have been investigated in the current work. Together with Bader charge analysis, electronic structure calculations have provided the initial framework comprising both the geometry and corresponding charge information required to carry out statistical-based molecular simulations. The adsorption isotherms and selectivity of CO(2) from CO(2)/N(2), CO(2)/CH(4), and CO(2)/H(2)O gas mixtures were determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations at temperature/pressure conditions relevant to carbon capture and sequestration applications. The interactions between the surfaces with induced polarity and nonpolar/polar molecules have been investigated. It has been observed that, due to the induced polarity of the surface functionalization, the selectivity of CO(2) over CH(4) increases from approximately 2 to higher than 5, and the selectivity of CO(2) over N(2) increases from approximately 5 to 20, especially in the low-pressure regime. However, water vapor will always preferentially adsorb over CO(2) in carbon-based systems containing oxygen functionalized surfaces at conditions relevant to carbon capture application. Molecular simulation results indicate that the surface chemistry in micropores is tunable thereby influencing the selectivity for enhanced uptake of CO(2).

  3. Cosmic-ray exposure histories of Martian meteorites studied from neutron capture reactions of Sm and Gd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko

    2009-11-01

    The isotopic compositions of Sm and Gd in twelve Martian meteorites, ALH 77005, ALH 84001, DaG 735, Dhofar 019, EET 79001, Lafayette, Los Angeles, Nakhla, SaU 005, Y 000593, Y 000749 and Zagami, were determined to quantify the neutron capture records of individual meteorite specimens. Seven of these twelve samples, ALH 84001, Y 000749, DaG 735, Dhofar 019, EET 79001, SaU 005 and Zagami, showed significant isotopic shifts of 150Sm/ 149Sm and/or 158Gd/ 157Gd corresponding to neutron fluences of (0.7-3.4) × 10 15 n cm - 2 . Among these seven meteorites, the neutron fluences of ALH 84001, Y 000749, and Dhofar 019 apparently correlated with their cosmic-ray exposure ages, indicating that most of the irradiation took place while the meteoroids were small bodies in space after the ejection from Mars. However, our results suggest an accumulation of their inherited irradiation occurred on Mars. On the other hand, the exposure histories of the other four meteorites (basaltic shergottites), DaG 735, EET 79001, SaU 005, and Zagami, cannot be explained as single- or multistage irradiations in space, or as a single irradiation on the Martian surface. The mixing between basaltic lava with a significantly irradiated Martian regolith is a reasonable interpretation of the excess neutron capture records observed in these four basaltic shergottites.

  4. Dosimetry and stability studies of the boron neutron capture therapy agent F-BPA-Fr using PET and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Jonathan Paul

    The treatment of deep seated brain tumors such as glioblastoma Multiforme has been unsuccessful for many patients. Surgical debulking, chemotherapy and standard radiotherapy have met with limited success. Boron neutron capture therapy offers a binary mode brachytherapy based on the following capture reaction that may provide an innovative alternative to standard forms of treatment:10B + n /to/ 11B /to 7Li + 4He + 2.31 MeVBoron is chemically attached to a tumor binding compound creating a non-toxic neutron absorber. A dose of epithermal neutrons provides the catalyst to produce the lithium and alpha particles which destroy any tissue within a length of one cell diameter from the boron compound. This dissertation uses 19F-MRI and 18F-PET to provide answers to the localization and biodistribution questions that arise in such a treatment modality. Practical patient dosimetry and actual treatment planning using the PET data is also examined. Finally, theoretical work done in the areas of compartmental modelling dealing with pharmacokinetic uptake of the PET radiotracer and dose analysis in microdosimetry is also presented.

  5. Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2013-07-31

    A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

  6. Testing the Capture Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image of a model capture magnet was taken after an experiment in a Mars simulation chamber at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. It has some dust on it, but not as much as that on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's capture magnet. The capture and filter magnets on both Mars Exploration Rovers were delivered by the magnetic properties team at the Center for Planetary Science, Copenhagen, Denmark.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of Gd-based nanoparticles to tag boron compounds in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Corti, M.; Bonora, M.; Borsa, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S.; Altieri, S.; Zonta, C.; Clerici, A. M.; Cansolino, L.; Ferrari, C.; Dionigi, P.; Porta, A.; Zanoni, G.; Vidari, G.

    2011-04-01

    We report the investigation of new organic complexes containing a magnetic moment (Gd-based molecular nanomagnets), which can serve the double purpose of acting as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agents, and at the same time act as contrast agents to detect the molecule in the tissue by a proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also explore the possibility of monitoring the concentration of the BNCT agent directly via proton and boron NMR relaxation. The absorption of {sup 10}B-enriched molecules inside tumoral liver tissues has been shown by NMR measurements and confirmed by {alpha} spectroscopy. A new molecular Gd-tagged nanomagnet and BNCT agent (GdBPA) has been synthesized and characterized measuring its relaxivity R{sub 1} between 10 kHz and 66 MHz, and its use as a contrast agent in MRI has been demonstrated. The NMR-based evidence of the absorption of GdBPA into living tumoral cells is also shown.

  8. A Bystander Effect Observed in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A Study of the Induction of Mutations in the HPRT Locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kinashi, Yuko . E-mail: kinashi@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Nagata, Kenji; Suzuki, Minoru; Takahashi, Sentaro; Ono, Koji

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate bystander mutagenic effects induced by {alpha}-particles during boron neutron capture therapy, we mixed cells that were electroporated with borocaptate sodium (BSH), which led to the accumulation of {sup 10}B inside the cells, and cells that did not contain the boron compound. The BSH-containing cells were irradiated with {alpha}-particles produced by the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, whereas cells without boron were affected only by the {sup 1}H(n,{gamma}){sup 2}H and {sup 14}N(n,{rho}){sup 14}C reactions. Methods and Materials: The lethality and mutagenicity measured by the frequency of mutations induced in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus were examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells irradiated with neutrons (Kyoto University Research Reactor: 5 MW). Neutron irradiation of 1:1 mixtures of cells with and without BSH resulted in a survival fraction of 0.1, and the cells that did not contain BSH made up 99.4% of the resulting cell population. The molecular structures of the mutations were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Results: Because of the bystander effect, the frequency of mutations increased in the cells located nearby the BSH-containing cells compared with control cells. Molecular structural analysis indicated that most of the mutations induced by the bystander effect were point mutations and that the frequencies of total and partial deletions induced by the bystander effect were less than those induced by the original neutron irradiation. Conclusion: These results suggested that in boron neutron capture therapy, the mutations caused by the bystander effect and those caused by the original neutron irradiation are induced by different mechanisms.

  9. The funding and organization of infection control in NHS hospital trusts: a study of infection control professionals' views.

    PubMed

    Croxson, B; Allen, P; Roberts, J A; Archibald, K; Crawshaw, S; Taylor, L

    2003-05-01

    The problems associated with hospital-acquired infection have been causing increasing concern in England in recent years. This paper reports the results of a nationwide survey of hospital infection control professionals' views concerning the organizational structures used to manage and obtain funding for control of infection. A complex picture with significant variation between hospitals emerges. Although government policy dictates that specific funding for hospital infection control is formally made available, it is not always the case that infection control professionals have adequate resources to undertake their roles. In some cases this reflects the failure of hospitals' infection control budgetary mechanisms; in others it reflects the effects of decentralizing budgets to directorate or ward level. Some use was made of informal mechanisms either to supplement or to substitute for the formal ones. But almost all infection control professionals still believed they were constrained in their ability to protect the hospital population from the risk of infectious disease. It is clear that recent government announcements that increased effort will be made to support local structures and thereby improve the control of hospital acquired infection are to be welcomed.

  10. Ultrametricity in fund of funds diversification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, M. A.; Susinno, G.

    2004-12-01

    Minimum market transparency requirements impose hedge fund (HF) managers to use the statement declared strategy in practice. However, each declared strategy may actually generate a multiplicity of implemented management decisions. Is then the “actual ” strategy the same as the “announced” strategy? Can the actual strategy be monitored or compared to the actual strategy of HF belonging to the same “announced” class? Can the announced or actual strategy be used as a quantitative argument in the fund of funds policy? With the appropriate metric, it is possible to draw a minimum spanning tree (MST) to emphasize the similarity structure that could be hidden in the raw correlation matrix of HF returns.

  11. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  12. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  13. A power fund focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-04-01

    The Indeck North American Power Fund LP, which was formed for the purpose of purchasing established non-utility and utility power generating assets in the U.S. and Canada, is discussed in this article. Fund participants are listed, and the two acquisitions made to date are described. The 38 MW(e) Pepperell Power Project in Massachussets was acquired in August 1995 from Kenetech Energy Systems Inc. In October 1995, the Fund purchased the 76 MW(e) Harbor Cogeneration Project in California. The Fund will also consider purchasing equity interests in North American power projects.

  14. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2010-08-06

    Increased interest by state (and federal) policymakers and regulatory agencies in pursuing aggressive energy efficiency efforts could deliver significant utility bill savings for customers while having long-term implications for ratepayers (e.g. potential rate impacts). Equity and distributional concerns associated with the authorized recovery of energy efficiency program costs may necessitate the pursuit of alternative program funding approaches. In 2008, Massachusetts passed the Green Communities Act which directed its energy efficiency (EE) program administrators to obtain all cost-effective EE resources. This goal has translated into achieving annual electric energy savings equivalent to a 2.4% reduction in retail sales from energy efficiency programs in 2012. Representatives of electricity consumer groups supported the new portfolio of EE programs (and the projected bill savings) but raised concerns about the potential rate impacts associated with achieving such aggressive EE goals, leading policymakers to seek out alternative funding sources which can potentially mitigate these effects. Utility administrators have also raised concerns about under-recovery of fixed costs when aggressive energy efficiency programs are pursued and have proposed ratemaking policies (e.g. decoupling) and business models that better align the utility's financial interests with the state's energy efficiency public policy goals. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other states looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. We use a pro-forma utility financial model to quantify the bill and rate impacts on electricity customers when very aggressive annual energy efficiency savings goals ({approx}2.4%) are achieved over the long-term and also assess the impact of different

  15. Jupiter: its captured satellites.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M

    1971-08-27

    Because of the small size and irregular orbits of the seven outer satellites of Jupiter, it is often assumed that they were derived by capture. The conditions whereby Jupiter can capture satellites have therefore been examined. Relationships derived on the basis of the three-body problem for planets in elliptical orbits enable the dimensions of the capture orbits around Jupiter to be calculated. It is found that Jupiter may capture satellites through the inner Lagrangian point when at perihelion or at aphelion. Captures at perihelion should give rise to satellites in direct orbits of 11.48 x 10(6) kilometers and capture at aphelion to retrograde orbits of 21.7 x 10(6) kilometers. The correspondence with the seven outer satellites suggests that Jupiter VI, VIl, and X in direct orbits at 11.47, 11.74, and 11.85 x 10(6) kilometers were captured at Jupiter perihelion, whereas Jupiter VIII, IX, XI, and XII in retrograde orbits of 23.5, 23.7, 22.5, and 21.2 x 10(6) kilometers were captured when Jupiter was at aphelion. Examination of the precapture orbits indicates that the seven outer satellites were derived from the asteroid belt.

  16. Demonstrating carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Qader, A.; Hooper, B.; Stevens, G.

    2009-11-15

    Australia is at the forefront of advancing CCS technology. The CO2CRC's H3 (Post-combustion) and Mulgrave (pre-combustion) capture projects are outlined. The capture technologies for these 2 demonstration projects are described. 1 map., 2 photos.

  17. Funding Students, Not Units: Moving Alabama from a Regressive Public School Funding State to a Progressive Public School Funding State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    Two independent studies conducted by Baker, Sciarra, and Farrie (2015) and Augenblick, Palaich and Associates (2015) reveal Alabama's public school funding mechanism to be regressive and inequitable. The recommendation from both of these studies is to develop a funding formula including per pupil-based allocation and supplemental categorical…

  18. CHAOTIC CAPTURE OF NEPTUNE TROJANS

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2009-06-15

    Neptune Trojans (NTs) are swarms of outer solar system objects that lead/trail planet Neptune during its revolutions around the Sun. Observations indicate that NTs form a thick cloud of objects with a population perhaps {approx}10 times more numerous than that of Jupiter Trojans and orbital inclinations reaching {approx}25 deg. The high inclinations of NTs are indicative of capture instead of in situ formation. Here we study a model in which NTs were captured by Neptune during planetary migration when secondary resonances associated with the mean-motion commensurabilities between Uranus and Neptune swept over Neptune's Lagrangian points. This process, known as chaotic capture, is similar to that previously proposed to explain the origin of Jupiter's Trojans. We show that chaotic capture of planetesimals from an {approx}35 Earth-mass planetesimal disk can produce a population of NTs that is at least comparable in number to that inferred from current observations. The large orbital inclinations of NTs are a natural outcome of chaotic capture. To obtain the {approx}4:1 ratio between high- and low-inclination populations suggested by observations, planetary migration into a dynamically excited planetesimal disk may be required. The required stirring could have been induced by Pluto-sized and larger objects that have formed in the disk.

  19. Prey capture behavior of native vs. nonnative fishes: a case study from the Colorado River drainage basin (USA).

    PubMed

    Arena, Anthony; Ferry, Lara A; Gibb, Alice C

    2012-02-01

    The Colorado River drainage basin is home to a diverse but imperiled fish fauna; one putative challenge facing natives is competition with nonnatives. We examined fishes from Colorado River tributaries to address the following questions: Do natives and nonnatives from the same trophic guild consume the same prey items? Will a given species alter its behavior when presented with different prey types? Do different species procure the same prey types via similar feeding behaviors? Roundtail chub (Gila robusta) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), midwater predators, and Sonora sucker (Catostomus insignis) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), benthic omnivores, were offered six ecologically relevant prey types in more than 600 laboratory trials. Native species consumed a broader array of prey than nonnatives, and species from a given trophic guild demonstrated functional convergence in key aspects of feeding behavior. For example, roundtail chub and smallmouth bass consume prey attached to the substrate by biting, then ripping the prey from its point of attachment; in contrast, Sonora sucker remove attached prey via scraping. When presented with different prey types, common carp, roundtail chub, and smallmouth bass altered their prey capture behavior by modifying strike distance, gape, and angle of attack. Gape varied among the species examined here, with smallmouth bass demonstrating the largest functional and anatomical gape at a given body size. Because fish predators are gape-limited, smallmouth bass will be able to consume a variety of large prey items in the wild, including large, invasive crayfish and young roundtail chub-their presumptive trophic competitors.

  20. Direct-Semidirect Thermal Neutron Capture Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Arbanas, G; Dietrich, F S; Kerman, A K

    2005-12-20

    A method for computing direct-semidirect (DSD) neutron radiative capture is presented and applied to thermal neutron capture on {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28,29.30}Si, {sup 35,37}Cl, {sup 39,41}K, {sup 56}Fe, and {sup 238}U, in support of data evaluation effort at the O.R.N.L. The DSD method includes both direct and semidirect capture; the latter is a core-polarization term in which the giant dipole resonance is formed. We study the effects of a commonly used ''density'' approximation to the EM operator and find it to be unsatisfactory for the nuclei considered here. We also study the magnitude of semidirect capture relative to the pure direct capture. Furthermore, we compare our results with those obtained from another direct capture code (Tedca [17]). We also compare our results with those obtained from analytical expression for external capture derived by Lane and Lynn [3], and its extension to include internal capture [7]. To estimate the effect of nuclear deformation on direct capture, we computed direct thermal capture on {sup 238}U with and without imposition of spherical symmetry. Direct capture for a spherically symmetric {sup 238}U was approximately 6 mb, while a quadrupole deformation of 0.215 on the shape of {sup 238}U lowers this cross section down to approximately 2 mb. This result suggests that effects of nuclear deformation on direct capture warrant a further study. We also find out that contribution to the direct capture on {sup 238}U from the nuclear interior significantly cancels that coming from the exterior region, and hence both contributions must be taken into account. We reproduced a well known discrepancy between the computed and observed branching ratios in {sup 56}Fe(n,{gamma}). This will lead us to revisit the concept of doorway states in the particle-hole model.

  1. Raise Funds, Not Hackles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidel, Lisa Brusman

    1996-01-01

    Ten strategies for fundraising include setting start/stop dates, dividing the workload, stating a purpose for the funds, establishing financial goals, choosing quality products to sell, remembering the sellers' ages, learning about the fund-raising companies, motivating the volunteers, considering a business sponsorship, and conducting a…

  2. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  3. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  4. Funding Music Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Recommends that teachers write grants to obtain funds for using technology in music education. Explains that teachers should ask themselves two questions: "Who has funds to give and what do they require the recipient to do?" Provides a list of guidelines, a sample grant proposal, and information about the panel review. (CMK)

  5. National Education Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapp, Milton J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal from the governor of Pennsylvania for financing all levels of education through a National Education Trust Fund (NETF) that would operate as the present Federal Highway Trust Fund does on a revolving, self-liquidating basis with the cost of an individual's education repaid through a progressive education tax on income. (JT)

  6. School Funding's Tragic Flaw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin; Roza, Marguerite

    2008-01-01

    This report examines funding disparities between two seemingly similar schools in Virginia and North Carolina. It finds that the federal, state, and local policies designed to distribute education funds systematically provide more money to higher-income students and wealthier schools. (Contains 5 figures.) [This report was also produced by the…

  7. Performance Funding in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, John C.; Garland, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Greater accountability in public higher education systems is a fact of life in the current political climate. Increasingly, one form this accountability takes is performance funding, which arises from elected officials' need for assurance that taxpayer funds are not only being invested and used properly but are resulting in desired outcomes at…

  8. Effect of physical variables on capture of magnetic nanoparticles in simulated blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minghui; Brazel, Christopher

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated how the percent capture of magnetic nanoparticles in a simulated vessel varies with physical variables. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can used as part of therapeutic or diagnostic materials for cancer patients. By capturing these devices with a magnetic field, the particles can be concentrated in an area of diseased tissue. In this study, flow of nanoparticles in simulated blood vessels was used to determine the affect of applying an external magnetic field. This study used maghemite nanoparticles as the MNPs and either water or Fetal Bovine Serum as the carrier fluid. A UV-Vis collected capture data. The percent capture of MNPs was positively influenced by five physical variables: larger vessel diameters, lower linear flow velocity, higher magnetic field strength, better dispersion, lower MNP concentration, and lower protein content in fluid. Free MNPs were also compared to micelles, with the free particles having more successful magnetic capture. Four factors contributed to these trends: the strength of the magnetic field's influence on the MNPs, the MNPs' interactions with other particles and the fluid, the momentum of the nanoparticles, and magnetic mass to total mass ratio of the flowing particles. Funded by NSF REU Site #1062611.

  9. Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.

    PubMed

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

    2014-06-01

    A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC.

  10. Deciding between carbon trading and carbon capture and sequestration: an optimisation-based case study for methanol synthesis from syngas.

    PubMed

    Üçtuğ, Fehmi Görkem; Ağralı, Semra; Arıkan, Yıldız; Avcıoğlu, Eray

    2014-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems are gaining importance as CO2 emission reduction is becoming a more pressing issue for parties from production sectors. Public and private entities have to comply with national schemes imposing tighter limits on their emission allowances. Often these parties face two options as whether to invest in CCS or buy carbon credits for the excess emissions above their limits. CCS is an expensive system to invest in and to operate. Therefore, its feasibility depends on the carbon credit prices prevailing in the markets now and in the future. In this paper we consider the problem of installing a CCS unit in order to ensure that the amount of CO2 emissions is within its allowable limits. We formulate this problem as a non-linear optimisation problem where the objective is to maximise the net returns from pursuing an optimal mix of the two options described above. General Algebraic Modelling Systems (GAMS) software was used to solve the model. The results were found to be sensitive to carbon credit prices and the discount rate, which determines the choices with respect to the future and the present. The model was applied to a methanol synthesis plant as an example. However, the formulation can easily be extended to any production process if the CO2 emissions level per unit of physical production is known. The results showed that for CCS to be feasible, carbon credit prices must be above 15 Euros per ton. This value, naturally, depends on the plant-specific data, and the costs we have employed for CCS. The actual prices (≈5 Euros/ton CO2) at present are far from encouraging the investors into CCS technology.

  11. Analytical and computational studies of intramolecular electron transfer pertinent to electron transfer and electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Neff, Diane; Simons, Jack

    2010-01-28

    Earlier work from this group has suggested that, in electron capture and electron-transfer mass spectrometry experiments on positively charged gas-phase samples of polypeptides, the initial electron attachment event most likely occurs at one of the peptide's positively charged sites (e.g., protonated side chains), although electron attachment can occur at a disulfide or amide site ca. 1-10% of the time. Focusing on the 90-99% dominant channel in which initial electron attachment occurs at a positive site, this paper addresses to what extent and over what distances electron transfer can take place from a positively charged site to a disulfide sigma* or amide pi* orbital, because it is thought that it is through such orbitals that disulfide or N-C(alpha) backbone bond cleavage occurs. Ab initio electronic structure calculations show that, as long as an SS sigma* (or OCN pi*) orbital experiences sufficient Coulomb stabilization from proximal positively charged groups, there are a myriad of excited Rydberg states located on positive sites that are able to induce such intrapeptide electron transfer. Computational data show that the transfer rates decay exponentially with distance for a given Rydberg orbital. An analytical model is developed that allows us to estimate the rates of Rydberg-to-valence and Rydberg-to-Rydberg electron transfers as functions of the Rydberg orbitals' n quantum numbers. This model suggests that transfer can occur over very long distances at rates that are more than competitive with the rates of radiationless relaxation within the manifold of Rydberg states (the latter processes eventually terminate the electron-transfer process an thus the disulfide or N-C(alpha) bond cleavages), and it gives formulas for how these rates depend on n (and thus the radial span of the Rydberg orbitals).

  12. The role of atomic excited states of Au on N2O capture and activation: a multireference second-order perturbation theory study.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Neria, Oscar; Bertin, Virineya; Poulain, Enrique

    2010-12-28

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an intermediate compound formed during catalysis occurring in automobile exhaust pipes. Atomic Au in its ground state is unable to react with N(2)O, however, several Au excited states are bound to N(2)O, but not all of these states are able to activate N(2)O bonds. In this work, N(2)O capture and activation by a single Au atom are studied considering Au in the ground and excited states with multiplicities = 2, 4 and 6. The Au + N(2)O reactions are studied at multireference second-order perturbation level of theory using C(s) symmetry. The AuN(2)O ((4)A', (4)A'', (6)A' and (6)A'') adducts are spontaneously created from Au excited states. From these complexes, only the (4)A', (6)A' and (6)A'' states exhibit N(2)O activation reaction paths yielding N(2,) NO and O atoms as end products when N(2)O approaches Au excited states side-on. Cations both ground and excited states, capture N(2)O although only the Au(+) ((5)A') + N(2)O ((1)Σ(+)) → NAuNO(+) ((5)A') reaction (for the end-on and side-on approaches) shows N(2)O activation with N-N bond breaking. In the case of Au anions, the ground state and most of the excited states capture N(2)O and activation takes place according to Au(-) ((3)A', (5)A', (5)A'') + N(2)O ((1)Σ(+)) → AuO(-) ((3)A', (5)A', (5)A'') + N(2)(g) for the N(2)O end-on approach by the oxygen atom. The reaction paths show a metal-gas dative covalent bonding character. Mulliken charge population analysis obtained for the active states shows that the binding is done through charge donation and retro-donation between the metal and the N(2)O molecule.

  13. The role of atomic excited states of Au on N2O capture and activation: A multireference second-order perturbation theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera-Neria, Oscar; Bertin, Virineya; Poulain, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an intermediate compound formed during catalysis occurring in automobile exhaust pipes. Atomic Au in its ground state is unable to react with N2O, however, several Au excited states are bound to N2O, but not all of these states are able to activate N2O bonds. In this work, N2O capture and activation by a single Au atom are studied considering Au in the ground and excited states with multiplicities = 2, 4 and 6. The Au + N2O reactions are studied at multireference second-order perturbation level of theory using Cs symmetry. The AuN2O (4A', 4A'', 6A' and 6A'') adducts are spontaneously created from Au excited states. From these complexes, only the 4A', 6A' and 6A'' states exhibit N2O activation reaction paths yielding N2, NO and O atoms as end products when N2O approaches Au excited states side-on. Cations both ground and excited states, capture N2O although only the Au+ (5A') + N2O (1Σ+) → NAuNO+ (5A') reaction (for the end-on and side-on approaches) shows N2O activation with N-N bond breaking. In the case of Au anions, the ground state and most of the excited states capture N2O and activation takes place according to Au- (3A', 5A', 5A'') + N2O (1Σ+) → AuO- (3A', 5A', 5A'') + N2(g) for the N2O end-on approach by the oxygen atom. The reaction paths show a metal-gas dative covalent bonding character. Mulliken charge population analysis obtained for the active states shows that the binding is done through charge donation and retro-donation between the metal and the N2O molecule.

  14. School Funding System and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatadze, Shalva; Gorgadze, Natia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the effectiveness of general education funding system from the perspective of equal and equal educational opportunities for all in Georgia. Following the objective, the research aimed to respond three main research questions: 1. is the school financing formula effective and efficient enough to be administrated…

  15. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  16. Capture of particles in soft porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louvet, N.; Höhler, R.; Pitois, O.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the capture of particles in soft porous media. Liquid foam constitutes a model system for such a study, allowing the radii of passage in the pore space to be tuned over several orders of magnitude by adjusting the liquid volume fraction. We show how particle capture is determined by the coupling of interstitial liquid flow and network deformation, and present a simple model of the capture process that shows good agreement with our experimental data.

  17. Assessing debt-to-health swaps: a case study on the Global Fund Debt2Health Conversion Scheme.

    PubMed

    Cassimon, Danny; Renard, Robrecht; Verbeke, Karel

    2008-09-01

    The Debt2Health Conversion Scheme of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is used to reassess a range of recent initiatives that propose debt relief in exchange for spending in the health sector. The experience with debt swaps in the mid 1990s was far from positive, and recent improved insight in the economics of debt relief suggests extreme caution. We argue that the recent spade of debt swap proposals, even if targeting countries and debt titles that fall outside current major international debt relief mechanisms, share most of the design faults of previous initiatives. Proposals such as Debt2Health do not constitute efficient vehicles to increase net transfers to poor countries, to reduce the economic disadvantages of indebtedness, or to strengthen public health systems of partner countries. For debt relief to constitute a valuable mechanism to provide aid, it should be designed as a large-scale and comprehensive operation, with spending earmarked to broad country-established priorities, and reinforce rather than undermine national implementation systems.

  18. Revealing the structure-property relationship of covalent organic frameworks for CO₂ capture from postcombustion gas: a multi-scale computational study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Minman; Yang, Qingyuan; Xiao, Yuanlong; Zhong, Chongli

    2014-08-07

    With the aid of multi-scale computational methods, a diverse set of 46 covalent organic frameworks (COFs), covering the most typical COFs synthesized to date, were collected to study the structure-property relationship of COFs for CO2 capture. For this purpose, CO2 capture from postcombustion gas (CO2-N2 mixture) under industrial vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) conditions was considered as an example. This work shows that adsorption selectivity, CO2 working capacity and the sorbent selection parameter of COFs all exhibit strong correlation with the difference in the adsorbility of adsorbates (ΔAD), highlighting that realization of large ΔAD can be regarded as an important starting point for designing COFs with improved separation performance. Furthermore, it was revealed that the separation performance of 2D-layered COFs can be greatly enhanced by generating "splint effects", which can be achieved through structural realignment to form slit-like pores with suitable size in the structures. Such "splint effects" in 2D-COFs can find their similar counterpart of "catenation effects" in 3D-COFs or MOFs. On the basis of these observations, a new design strategy was proposed to strengthen the separation performance of COFs. It could be expected that the information obtained in this work not only will enrich the knowledge of the structure-property relationship of COFs for separation, but also will largely facilitate their future applications to the fields related to energy and environmental science, such as natural gas purification, CO2, NO(x) and SO(x) capture, etc.

  19. Methods for capturing and banding Kalij Pheasants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vetter, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    We developed methods to capture and band Kalij Pheasants (Lophura leucomelanos) in their introduced range at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, where they are not hunted and are relatively tame. Kalij were wary of foreign structures, such as traps, but readily took cracked corn bait and entered baited traps, provided they were introduced to them gradually. The majority of Kalij on the study site (53 of 64 birds) were captured using three trap designs: open-door trap, large box trap with hinged door, and drop trap. While the open-door trap was more mobile and easily set up in cramped forest spaces, only groups of as many as five birds could be captured at a time. The large, more cumber-some box traps captured groups of up to eight birds, whereas drop traps successfully captured only one bird at a time. Females were more difficult to capture than males. Band size was 7A for males and 6 for females.

  20. OPIC: Ontology-driven Patient Information Capturing system for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Zhao, Meng; Luo, Lingyun; Bozorgi, Alireza; Gupta, Deepak; Lhatoo, Samden D; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of paper or document-based forms for capturing patient information in various clinical settings, for example in epilepsy centers, is a critical barrier for large-scale, multi-center research studies that require interoperable, consistent, and error-free data collection. This challenge can be addressed by a web-accessible and flexible patient data capture system that is supported by a common terminological system to facilitate data re-usability, sharing, and integration. We present OPIC, an Ontology-driven Patient Information Capture (OPIC) system that uses a domain-specific epilepsy and seizure ontology (EpSO) to (1) support structured entry of multi-modal epilepsy data, (2) proactively ensure quality of data through use of ontology terms in drop-down menus, and (3) identify and index clinically relevant ontology terms in free-text fields to improve accuracy of subsequent analytical queries (e.g. cohort identification). EpSO, modeled using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), conforms to the recommendations of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and terminological commission. OPIC has been developed using agile software engineering methodology for rapid development cycles in close collaboration with domain expert and end users. We report the result from the initial deployment of OPIC at the University Hospitals Case Medical Center (UH CMC) epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) as part of the NIH-funded project on Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Preliminary user evaluation shows that OPIC has achieved its design objectives to be an intuitive patient information capturing system that also reduces the potential for data entry errors and variability in use of epilepsy terms.

  1. A controlled study of funding for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as resource capacity building in the health system in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Donald S; Zeng, Wu; Amico, Peter; Rwiyereka, Angelique K; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Because human inmmunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) receives more donor funding globally than that for all other diseases combined, some critics allege this support undermines general health care. This empirical study evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS funding on the primary health care system in Rwanda. Using a quasi-experimental design, we randomly selected 25 rural health centers (HCs) that started comprehensive HIV/AIDS services from 2002 through 2006 as the intervention group. Matched HCs with no HIV/AIDS services formed the control group. The analysis compared growth in inputs and services between intervention and control HCs with a difference-in-difference analysis in a random-effects model. Intervention HCs performed better than control HCs in most services (seven of nine), although only one of these improvements (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination) reached or approached statistical significance. In conclusion, this six-year controlled study found no adverse effects of the expansion of HIV/AIDS services on non-HIV services among rural health centers in Rwanda.

  2. 10 CFR 602.11 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding. 602.11 Section 602.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.11 Funding. (a) The project period during which DOE expects to provide support for an...

  3. 10 CFR 602.11 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding. 602.11 Section 602.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.11 Funding. (a) The project period during which DOE expects to provide support for an...

  4. 10 CFR 602.11 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding. 602.11 Section 602.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.11 Funding. (a) The project period during which DOE expects to provide support for an...

  5. 10 CFR 602.11 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding. 602.11 Section 602.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.11 Funding. (a) The project period during which DOE expects to provide support for an...

  6. 10 CFR 602.11 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding. 602.11 Section 602.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.11 Funding. (a) The project period during which DOE expects to provide support for an...

  7. Examining Equity in Texas Public School Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Wayne; Jones, Timothy B.; Jackson, Sherion H.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the level of equity of the public school funding system in Texas that in September of 2004 was held to be unconstitutional by a state district judge. The study also introduces a mechanism, referred to as the Revenue-to-Population Index or RTP Index, which compares funding equity within the unconstitutional system among 1031…

  8. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  9. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Booras, George; Powers, J.; Riley, C.; Hendrix, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  10. Clean Water State Revolving Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How the Clean Water State Revolving Fund works, how to obtain funding, program eligibility, innovative ways to use the funds to get the greatest water quality benefits and leverage financial resources of the program, and share success stories.

  11. Win the Funding Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amanda

    1981-01-01

    Discusses five possible alternative funding sources for the school music program: local businesses, corporate foundations, private foundations, wealthy individuals, and state arts councils. (Part of a theme issue on the crisis in music education.) (Author/SJL)

  12. Capture-recapture methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, William R.; Kendall, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Capture-recapture methods were initially developed to estimate human population abundance, but since that time have seen widespread use for fish and wildlife populations to estimate and model various parameters of population, metapopulation, and disease dynamics. Repeated sampling of marked animals provides information for estimating abundance and tracking the fate of individuals in the face of imperfect detection. Mark types have evolved from clipping or tagging to use of noninvasive methods such as photography of natural markings and DNA collection from feces. Survival estimation has been emphasized more recently as have transition probabilities between life history states and/or geographical locations, even where some states are unobservable or uncertain. Sophisticated software has been developed to handle highly parameterized models, including environmental and individual covariates, to conduct model selection, and to employ various estimation approaches such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. With these user-friendly tools, complex statistical models for studying population dynamics have been made available to ecologists. The future will include a continuing trend toward integrating data types, both for tagged and untagged individuals, to produce more precise and robust population models.

  13. The Feasibility of Capturing Learner Interactions Based on Logs Informed by Eye-Tracking and Remote Observation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego, Jonathan P.; McAndrew, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Two small studies, one an "eye-tracking" study and the other a "remote observation" study, have been conducted to investigate ways to identify two kinds of online learner interactions: users flicking through the web pages in "browsing" action, and users engaging with the content of a page in "learning"…

  14. Remarks on CO{sub 2} capture from electric power plants and recommendations for future investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsky, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    This paper recommends investigation of several topics that have not yet received sustained attention. Each bears directly on the cost and funding of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The reasons why each topic deserves attention are briefly sketched.

  15. Genetic fingerprinting proves cross-correlated automatic photo-identification of individuals as highly efficient in large capture-mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Axel; Helling, Tobias; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Capture-mark-recapture (CMR) approaches are the backbone of many studies in population ecology to gain insight on the life cycle, migration, habitat use, and demography of target species. The reliable and repeatable recognition of an individual throughout its lifetime is the basic requirement of a CMR study. Although invasive techniques are available to mark individuals permanently, noninvasive methods for individual recognition mainly rest on photographic identification of external body markings, which are unique at the individual level. The re-identification of an individual based on comparing shape patterns of photographs by eye is commonly used. Automated processes for photographic re-identification have been recently established, but their performance in large datasets (i.e., > 1000 individuals) has rarely been tested thoroughly. Here, we evaluated the performance of the program AMPHIDENT, an automatic algorithm to identify individuals on the basis of ventral spot patterns in the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) versus the genotypic fingerprint of individuals based on highly polymorphic microsatellite loci using GENECAP. Between 2008 and 2010, we captured, sampled and photographed adult newts and calculated for 1648 samples/photographs recapture rates for both approaches. Recapture rates differed slightly with 8.34% for GENECAP and 9.83% for AMPHIDENT. With an estimated rate of 2% false rejections (FRR) and 0.00% false acceptances (FAR), AMPHIDENT proved to be a highly reliable algorithm for CMR studies of large datasets. We conclude that the application of automatic recognition software of individual photographs can be a rather powerful and reliable tool in noninvasive CMR studies for a large number of individuals. Because the cross-correlation of standardized shape patterns is generally applicable to any pattern that provides enough information, this algorithm is capable of becoming a single application with broad use in CMR studies for many species.

  16. Genomics Research: World Survey of Public Funding

    PubMed Central

    Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Cook-Deegan, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, genomics has evolved as a scientific research discipline. Genomics research was fueled initially by government and nonprofit funding sources, later augmented by private research and development (R&D) funding. Citizens and taxpayers of many countries have funded much of the research, and have expectations about access to the resulting information and knowledge. While access to knowledge gained from all publicly funded research is desired, access is especially important for fields that have broad social impact and stimulate public dialogue. Genomics is one such field, where public concerns are raised for reasons such as health care and insurance implications, as well as personal and ancestral identification. Thus, genomics has grown rapidly as a field, and attracts considerable interest. Results One way to study the growth of a field of research is to examine its funding. This study focuses on public funding of genomics research, identifying and collecting data from major government and nonprofit organizations around the world, and updating previous estimates of world genomics research funding, including information about geographical origins. We initially identified 89 publicly funded organizations; we requested information about each organization's funding of genomics research. Of these organizations, 48 responded and 34 reported genomics research expenditures (of those that responded but did not supply information, some did not fund such research, others could not quantify it). The figures reported here include all the largest funders and we estimate that we have accounted for most of the genomics research funding from government and nonprofit sources. Conclusion Aggregate spending on genomics research from 34 funding sources averaged around $2.9 billion in 2003 – 2006. The United States spent more than any other country on genomics research, corresponding to 35% of the overall worldwide public funding (compared to 49% US

  17. TARGETED CAPTURE IN EVOLUTIONARY AND ECOLOGICAL GENOMICS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Matthew R.; Good, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of next-generation sequencing has yielded a powerful array of tools to address fundamental biological questions at a scale that was inconceivable just a few years ago. Various genome partitioning strategies to sequence select subsets of the genome have emerged as powerful alternatives to whole genome sequencing in ecological and evolutionary genomic studies. High throughput targeted capture is one such strategy that involves the parallel enrichment of pre-selected genomic regions of interest. The growing use of targeted capture demonstrates its potential power to address a range of research questions, yet these approaches have yet to expand broadly across labs focused on evolutionary and ecological genomics. In part, the use of targeted capture has been hindered by the logistics of capture design and implementation in species without established reference genomes. Here we aim to 1) increase the accessibility of targeted capture to researchers working in non-model taxa by discussing capture methods that circumvent the need of a reference genome, 2) highlight the evolutionary and ecological applications where this approach is emerging as a powerful sequencing strategy, and 3) discuss the future of targeted capture and other genome partitioning approaches in light of the increasing accessibility of whole genome sequencing. Given the practical advantages and increasing feasibility of high-throughput targeted capture, we anticipate an ongoing expansion of capture-based approaches in evolutionary and ecological research, synergistic with an expansion of whole genome sequencing. PMID:26137993

  18. Capturing Cognitive Fingerprints for Active Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    CAPTURING COGNITIVE FINGERPRINTS FOR ACTIVE AUTHENTICATION IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY OCTOBER 2014 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) SEP 2013 – APR 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CAPTURING COGNITIVE FINGERPRINTS FOR ACTIVE... fingerprints from individuals and use it as a biometric for continual authentication. This project proposed studying new biometric modalities for

  19. Neutron captures and the r-process

    SciTech Connect

    Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Pfeiffer, B.; Rauscher, T.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2006-03-13

    In order to study possible neutron-capture effects during an r-process, it is necessary to perform fully dynamical simulations. We have performed such calculations within the model of an adiabatically expanding high-entropy bubble of a SN II, using temperature-dependent reaction rates including the NON-SMOKER neutron-capture rates of Rauscher et al.

  20. Visual Field Asymmetry in Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Feng; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the spatial distribution of involuntary attentional capture over the two visual hemi-fields. A new experiment, and an analysis of three previous experiments showed that distractors in the left visual field that matched a sought-for target in color produced a much larger capture effect than identical distractors in the…

  1. Synthetic biology in the view of European public funding organisations

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841

  2. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  3. Overview: Permanent University Fund (PUF)/Higher Education Fund (HEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    All public institutions of higher education except community colleges and the Texas A&M University System College of Dentistry receive funding for construction and other capital purposes from the Permanent University Fund (PUF) or the Higher Education Fund (HEF) (sometimes referred to as the Higher Education Assistance Fund or HEAF). The…

  4. Perspective: Disclosing hidden sources of funding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    In this article, the author discusses ethical and policy issues related to the disclosure of hidden sources of funding in research. The author argues that authors have an ethical obligation to disclose hidden sources of funding and that journals should adopt policies to enforce this obligation. Journal policies should require disclosure of hidden sources of funding that authors know about and that have a direct relation to their research. To stimulate this discussion, the author describes a recent case: investigators who conducted a lung cancer screening study had received funding from a private foundation that was supported by a tobacco company, but they did not disclose this relationship to the journal. Investigators and journal editors must be prepared to deal with these issues in a manner that promotes honesty, transparency, fairness, and accountability in research. The development of well-defined, reasonable policies pertaining to hidden sources of funding can be a step in this direction.

  5. The local electric field favours more than exposed nitrogen atoms on CO2 capture: a case study on the rht-type MOF platform.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Space, Brian; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-06-14

    Two rht-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based upon the tetrazolate moiety and pyrazolate moiety, respectively, have been investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption and selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4, which shows that the rht-MOF featuring the pyrazolate moiety demonstrates superior performances compared to the rht-MOF based on the tetrazolate moiety. In spite of more exposed nitrogen atoms in the tetrazolate-based rht-MOF, the counter-intuitive observations of CO2 capture in the two rht-MOFs were interpreted by computational studies, which reveal that the local electric field favours more than the richness of exposed nitrogen atoms for the interactions with CO2 molecules.

  6. Capturing the Elite in Marine Conservation in Northeast Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Rini; Visser, Leontine

    This article takes the existence of power networks of local elites as a social fact of fundamental importance and the starting point for the study of patronage in the governance of the coastal waters of East Kalimantan. We address the question of how to capture the elites for project implementation, rather than assuming the inevitability of elite capture of project funds. We analyze the multiple-scale networks of local power holders (punggawa) and the collaboration and friction between the political-economic interests and historical values of local actors and the scientific motivations of international environmental organizations. We describe how collaboration and friction between members of the elite challenge models that categorically exclude or co-opt local elites in foreign projects. In-depth ethnographic study of these networks shows their resilience through flows of knowledge and power in a highly volatile coastal environment. Results indicate the need for inclusion in decision making of local entrepreneurs, and - indirectly - their dependents in decentralized coastal governance.

  7. The risk and consequences of clinical miscoding due to inadequate medical documentation: a case study of the impact on health services funding.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ping; Gilchrist, Annette; Robinson, Kerin M; Paul, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    As coded clinical data are used in a variety of areas (e.g. health services funding, epidemiology, health sciences research), coding errors have the potential to produce far-reaching consequences. In this study the causes and consequences of miscoding were reviewed. In particular, the impact of miscoding due to inadequate medical documentation on hospital funding was examined. Appropriate reimbursement of hospital revenue in the casemix-based (output-based) funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia relies upon accurate, comprehensive, and timely clinical coding. In order to assess the reliability of these data in a Melbourne tertiary hospital, this study aimed to: (a) measure discrepancies in clinical code assignment; (b) identify resultant Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) changes; (c) identify revenue shifts associated with the DRG changes; (d) identify the underlying causes of coding error and DRG change; and (e) recommend strategies to address the aforementioned. An internal audit was conducted on 752 surgical inpatient discharges from the hospital within a six-month period. In a blind audit, each episode was re-coded. Comparisons were made between the original codes and the auditor-assigned codes, and coding errors were grouped and statistically analysed by categories. Changes in DRGs and weighted inlier-equivalent separations (WIES) were compared and analysed, and underlying factors were identified. Approximately 16% of the 752 cases audited reflected a DRG change, equating to a significant revenue increase of nearly AU$575,300. Fifty-six percent of DRG change cases were due to documentation issues. Incorrect selection or coding of the principal diagnosis accounted for a further 13% of the DRG changes, and missing additional diagnosis codes for 29%. The most significant of the factors underlying coding error and DRG change was poor quality of documentation. It was concluded that the auditing process plays a critical role in the identification of causes

  8. Liquid biopsy in cancer patients: advances in capturing viable CTCs for functional studies using the EPISPOT assay.

    PubMed

    Alix-Panabières, Catherine; Pantel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients have received increasing attention as new diagnostic tool enabling 'liquid biopsies'. In contrast to the wealth of descriptive studies demonstrating the clinical relevance of CTCs as biomarkers, the extremely low concentration of CTCs in the peripheral blood of most cancer patients challenges further functional studies. This article discusses the current possibilities to enrich and, in particular, detect viable CTCs with emphasis on the EPithelial ImmunoSPOT technology. This functional assay detects viable CTCs at the single-cell level and has been used on hundreds of patients with different tumor types including epithelial tumors (breast, prostate and colon cancer) and melanomas. Moreover, the article summarizes recent advances in the in vitro and in vivo expansion of CTCs from cancer patients. These functional analyses will contribute to identifying the biological properties of metastatic cells and reveal new therapeutic targets against disseminating cancer cells.

  9. R&D in Vaccines Targeting Neglected Diseases: An Exploratory Case Study Considering Funding for Preventive Tuberculosis Vaccine Development from 2007 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Costa Barbosa Bessa, Theolis; Santos de Aragão, Erika; Medeiros Guimarães, Jane Mary; de Araújo Almeida, Bethânia

    2017-01-01

    Based on an exploratory case study regarding the types of institutions funding the research and development to obtain new tuberculosis vaccines, this article intends to provoke discussion regarding the provision of new vaccines targeting neglected disease. Although our findings and discussion are mainly relevant to the case presented here, some aspects are more generally applicable, especially regarding the dynamics of development in vaccines to prevent neglected diseases. Taking into account the dynamics of innovation currently seen at work in the vaccine sector, a highly concentrated market dominated by few multinational pharmaceutical companies, we feel that global PDP models can play an important role throughout the vaccine development cycle. In addition, the authors call attention to issues surrounding the coordination of actors and resources in the research, development, manufacturing, and distribution processes of vaccine products arising from PDP involvement.

  10. R&D in Vaccines Targeting Neglected Diseases: An Exploratory Case Study Considering Funding for Preventive Tuberculosis Vaccine Development from 2007 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Costa Barbosa Bessa, Theolis; Santos de Aragão, Erika; Medeiros Guimarães, Jane Mary

    2017-01-01

    Based on an exploratory case study regarding the types of institutions funding the research and development to obtain new tuberculosis vaccines, this article intends to provoke discussion regarding the provision of new vaccines targeting neglected disease. Although our findings and discussion are mainly relevant to the case presented here, some aspects are more generally applicable, especially regarding the dynamics of development in vaccines to prevent neglected diseases. Taking into account the dynamics of innovation currently seen at work in the vaccine sector, a highly concentrated market dominated by few multinational pharmaceutical companies, we feel that global PDP models can play an important role throughout the vaccine development cycle. In addition, the authors call attention to issues surrounding the coordination of actors and resources in the research, development, manufacturing, and distribution processes of vaccine products arising from PDP involvement. PMID:28133608

  11. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  12. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  13. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  14. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  15. Capturing the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Digital lecture capture and broadcast solutions have been around for only about 10 years, but are poised for healthy growth. Frost & Sullivan research analysts estimate that the market (which amounts to $25 million currently) will quadruple by 2013. It's still dominated by a few key players, however: Sonic Foundry holds a hefty 40 percent-plus…

  16. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema

    Jeffrey Long

    2016-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  17. Pilot plant studies of the CO{sub 2} capture performance of aqueous MEA and mixed MEA/MDEA solvents at the University of Regina CO{sub 2} capture technology development plant and the Boundary Dam CO{sub 2} capture demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Idem, R.; Wilson, M.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chakma, A.; Veawab, A.; Aroonwilas, A.; Gelowitz, D.

    2006-04-12

    Evaluations of the benefits of using a mixed MEA/MDEA solvent for CO{sub 2} capture in terms of the heat requirement for solvent regeneration, lean and rich loadings, CO{sub 2} production, and solvent stability were performed by comparing the performance of aqueous 5 kmol/m{sup 3} MEA with that of an aqueous 4:1 molar ratio MEA/MDEA blend of 5 kmol/ml total amine concentration as a function of the operating time. The tests were performed using two pilot CO{sub 2} capture plants of the International Test Centre for CO{sub 2} Capture (ITC), which provided two different sources and compositions of flue gas. The University of Regina CO{sub 2} plant (UR unit) processes flue gas from the combustion of natural gas while the Boundary Dam CO{sub 2} plant (BD unit) processes flue gas from a coal-fired electric power station. The results show that a huge heat-duty reduction can be achieved by using a mixed MEA/MDEA solution instead of a single MEA solution in an industrial environment of a CO{sub 2} capture plant. However, this benefit is dependent on whether the chemical stability of the solvent can be maintained.

  18. Interdisciplinary research has consistently lower funding success.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Dinnage, Russell; Hua, Xia

    2016-06-30

    Interdisciplinary research is widely considered a hothouse for innovation, and the only plausible approach to complex problems such as climate change. One barrier to interdisciplinary research is the widespread perception that interdisciplinary projects are less likely to be funded than those with a narrower focus. However, this commonly held belief has been difficult to evaluate objectively, partly because of lack of a comparable, quantitative measure of degree of interdisciplinarity that can be applied to funding application data. Here we compare the degree to which research proposals span disparate fields by using a biodiversity metric that captures the relative representation of different fields (balance) and their degree of difference (disparity). The Australian Research Council's Discovery Programme provides an ideal test case, because a single annual nationwide competitive grants scheme covers fundamental research in all disciplines, including arts, humanities and sciences. Using data on all 18,476 proposals submitted to the scheme over 5 consecutive years, including successful and unsuccessful applications, we show that the greater the degree of interdisciplinarity, the lower the probability of being funded. The negative impact of interdisciplinarity is significant even when number of collaborators, primary research field and type of institution are taken into account. This is the first broad-scale quantitative assessment of success rates of interdisciplinary research proposals. The interdisciplinary distance metric allows efficient evaluation of trends in research funding, and could be used to identify proposals that require assessment strategies appropriate to interdisciplinary research.

  19. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior... of a feasibility study? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 50 percent of the cost of a feasibility study conducted under § 404.11(a) or (b). You will be responsible to pay for the remaining...

  20. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior... of a feasibility study? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 50 percent of the cost of a feasibility study conducted under § 404.11(a) or (b). You will be responsible to pay for the remaining...

  1. Teacher Centers in Action: A Comprehensive Study of Program Activities, Staff Services, Resources and Policy Board Operations in 37 Federally-Funded Teacher Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Sally K.; Yarger, Sam J.

    This report provides an information base about federally funded teacher center projects. The information was collected between January 1 and August 31, 1980 from 37 federally funded teacher center projects. During this eight month period, 247 structured telephone interviews were conducted. Three major categories of questions provided the focus for…

  2. A Study of Federal Academic Earmarks and Research Funding in Relation to the Institutional Research Culture of Research University/High (RU/H) Institutions in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James Hubert, III

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, reductions in public funding for higher education, a stagnate economy, looming sequestration, and a divisive political culture present a complex and challenging dynamic for research universities in pursuit of external funding for their research programs and infrastructure needs. These universities and their research initiatives have…

  3. In Vitro Capture of Small Ferrous Particles with a Magnetic Filtration Device Designed for Intravascular Use with Intraarterial Chemotherapy: Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Mabray, Marc C.; Lillaney, Prasheel; Sze, Chia-Hung; Losey, Aaron D.; Yang, Jeffrey; Kondapavulur, Sravani; Liu, Derek; Saeed, Maythem; Patel, Anand; Cooke, Daniel; Jun, Young-Wook; El-Sayed, Ivan; Wilson, Mark; Hetts, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To establish that a magnetic device designed for intravascular use can bind small iron particles in physiologic flow models. Materials and Methods Uncoated iron oxide particles 50–100 nm and 1–5 μm in size were tested in a water flow chamber over a period of 10 minutes without a magnet (ie, control) and with large and small prototype magnets. These same particles and 1-μm carboxylic acid–coated iron oxide beads were likewise tested in a serum flow chamber model without a magnet (ie, control) and with the small prototype magnet. Results Particles were successfully captured from solution. Particle concentrations in solution decreased in all experiments (P < .05 vs matched control runs). At 10 minutes, concentrations were 98% (50–100-nm particles in water with a large magnet), 97% (50–100-nm particles in water with a small magnet), 99% (1–5-μm particles in water with a large magnet), 99% (1–5-μm particles in water with a small magnet), 95% (50–100-nm particles in serum with a small magnet), 92% (1–5-μm particles in serum with a small magnet), and 75% (1-μm coated beads in serum with a small magnet) lower compared with matched control runs. Conclusions This study demonstrates the concept of magnetic capture of small iron oxide particles in physiologic flow models by using a small wire-mounted magnetic filter designed for intravascular use. PMID:26706187

  4. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus V50 and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-01

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus V50 by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present V50 is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a V50(d, He2)Ti50 experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of V50. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of Ti50, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  5. Effectiveness of intact capture media

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, P.; Aubert, J.; Brownlee, D.; Hrubesh, L.; Williams, J.; Albee, A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of capturing cosmic dust at hypervelocity has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in the unintended Solar Max spacecraft. This technology will enable a comet coma sample return mission and be important for the earth orbital cosmic dust collection mission, i.e., the Space Station Cosmic Dust Collection Facility. Since the only controllable factor in an intact capture of cosmic dust is the capturing medium, characterizing the effectiveness and properties of available capture media would be very important in the development of the technique for capturing hypervelocity cosmic dust intact. We have evaluated various capture underdense media for the relative effectiveness for intact capture. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. A case study of a Ross Ice Shelf Airstream event using high resolution observational data captured by SNOWWEB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Ben; McDonald, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The Ross Ice Shelf Airstream (RAS) is the dominant weather pattern over the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Characterised by a strong southerly flow over the ice shelf, the RAS plays a significant role in the northward transport of cold air from the interior of the continent out into the Ross Sea. As it passes by Ross Island - home to McMurdo Station and Scott Base - and out over the edge of the ice shelf, the RAS also helps to create and maintain the Ross Sea Polynya, the single largest contributor to sea ice growth in the Ross Sea region. Our area of interest is the McMurdo Ice Shelf, situated directly south of Ross Island and adjoining the north-western tip of the much larger Ross Ice Shelf. The terrain of this region is complex, with large mountains, islands, and cliffs dominating local flow. Additionally, severe weather - often experienced during a RAS event - can greatly impact human activity. These two factors make this region particularly interesting to study. During the 2013/14 austral summer season we deployed 14 weather stations on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, creating a dense spatial observational network. In combination with existing automatic weather stations and high resolution model output from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS), we present a case study of a three day RAS event observed in November 2013. We find that AMPS represents the RAS well in general, however at the local scale there are some large discrepancies between observed and forecast winds. Predominantly these are a result of errors in timing, with AMPS incorrectly forecasting 'lulls' in the RAS when none were observed and vice-versa. There also appear to be some differences between AMPS and observations regarding the split of the southerly RAS flow around Ross Island. The representation within AMPS of both Hut Point Peninsula - a small yet important orographic feature running south-west from Ross Island that blocks relatively weak flows - and the Windless Bight high pressure

  7. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-02-08

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  8. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  9. Comprehensive Study of the Impact of Steam on Polyethyleneimine on Silica for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Hammache, Sonia; Hoffman, James S.; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth, Daniel J.; Howard, Bret H.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2013-11-21

    An amine sorbent, prepared by impregnation of polyethyleneimine on silica, was tested for steam stability. The stability of the sorbent was investigated in a fixed bed reactor using multiple steam cycles of 90 vol % H2O/He at 105 °C, and the gas effluent was monitored with a mass spectrometer. CO2 uptake of sorbent was found to decrease with repeated exposure to steam. Characterization of the spent sorbent using N2 physisorption, SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the decrease in CO2 loading can possibly be attributed to a reagglomeration of the amine in the pores of the silica. No support effect was found in this study. The commercial SiO2 used, Cariact G10, was found to be stable under the conditions used. While it was found that subjecting the sorbent to several steam cycles decreased its CO2 uptake, a continuous exposure of the sorbent to steam did not have a significant performance impact. Finally, a silanated sorbent, consisting of a mixture of PEI and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane on SiO2 support, was also investigated for steam stability. Similarly to the nonsilanated sorbent, the CO2 loading of this sorbent decreased upon steam exposure, although a mechanism for this change has not been postulated at this time.

  10. Free energies of CO2/H-2 capture by p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene. A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Daschbach, John L.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Atwood, Jerry L.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.

    2007-09-14

    The interactions of CO2/H2 with p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (TBC4) were studied using potential of mean force (PMF) and free energy perturbation approaches. The computed PMFs for the interaction of CO2/H2 with a single TBC4 molecule establish that the interaction of CO2 with the open end of the cage structure is attractive while interaction with H2 is not. Free energy perturbation calculations were performed for the same two guest molecules with a pair of facing TBC4 molecules used as a representative model as found in the TBC4 molecular solid. At low temperature both CO2/H2 have favorable interactions with the TBC4 pair with the CO2 interaction considerably larger. These results are in agreement with recent experimental data showing considerable CO2 uptake by TBC4 at moderate pressures. This work was performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the DOE.

  11. CO2 capture by multivalent amino-functionalized calix[4]arenes: self-assembly, absorption, and QCM detection studies.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Laura; Melegari, Monica; Bagnacani, Valentina; Casnati, Alessandro; Dalcanale, Enrico; Sansone, Francesco; Ungaro, Rocco

    2011-05-20

    The reactivity of CO(2) with polyamino substrates based on calix[4]arenes and on a difunctional, noncyclic model has been studied. All the compounds react with CO(2) in chloroform to form ammonium carbamate salts. However, the number, topology, and conformational features of the amino-functionalized arms present on the multivalent scaffold have a remarkable influence on the reaction efficiency and on the product composition. Tetraaminocalix[4]arenes 1-3 rapidly and efficiently react with 2 equiv of CO(2), yielding highly stable hydrogen-bonded dimers formed by the self-assembly of two bis-ammonium bis-carbamate intramolecular salts. 1,3-Diaminocalix[4]arene 4 absorbs 1 mol of CO(2), affording less stable zwitterionic ammonium carbamates. Gemini compound 5 reacts with CO(2) in a 1:1 stoichiometry, forming hydrogen-bonded dimers of ammonium carbamate derivatives of moderate stability. For upper rim 1,3-diaminocalix[4]arene 6, in addition to the labile intramolecular salt, the presence of a self-assembled polymer was also detected. These systems were fully characterized in solution by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, whereas the corresponding gas-solid reactions were further investigated by QCM measurements. Interestingly, the high affinity and reversibility of CO(2) uptake shown by 1,3-diamino calix[4]arene 4 enabled us to attain a promising QCM device for carbon dioxide sensing.

  12. Funding Research Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  13. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  14. A Motion Capture Study to Measure the Feeling of Synchrony in Romantic Couples and in Professional Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Preissmann, Delphine; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué, Sylvain; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Llobera, Joan; Ansermet, Francois; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    The feeling of synchrony is fundamental for most social activities and prosocial behaviors. However, little is known about the behavioral correlates of this feeling and its modulation by intergroup differences. We previously showed that the subjective feeling of synchrony in subjects involved in a mirror imitation task was modulated by objective behavioral measures, as well as contextual factors such as task difficulty and duration of the task performance. In the present study, we extended our methodology to investigate possible interindividual differences. We hypothesized that being in a romantic relationship or being a professional musician can modulate both implicit and explicit synchronization and the feeling of synchrony as well as the ability to detect synchrony from a third person perspective. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find significant differences between people in a romantic relationship and control subjects. However, we observed differences between musicians and control subjects. For the implicit synchrony (spontaneous synchronization during walking), the results revealed that musicians that had never met before spontaneously synchronized their movements earlier among themselves than control subjects, but not better than people sharing a romantic relationship. Moreover, in explicit behavioral synchronization tasks (mirror game), musicians reported earlier feeling of synchrony and had less speed errors than control subjects. This was in interaction with tasks difficulty as these differences appeared only in tasks with intermediate difficulty. Finally, when subjects had to judge synchrony from a third person perspective, musicians had a better performance to identify if they were present or not in the videos. Taken together, our results suggest that being a professional musician can play a role in the feeling of synchrony and its underlying mechanisms. PMID:27833580

  15. Program development fund: FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    It is the objective of the Fund to encourage innovative research to maintain the Laboratory's position at the forefront of science. Funds are used to explore new ideas and concepts that may potentially develop into new directions of research for the Laboratory and that are consistent with the major needs, overall goals, and mission of the Laboratory and the DOE. The types of projects eligible for support from PDF include: work in forefront areas of science and technology for the primary purpose of enriching Laboratory research and development capabilities; advanced study of new hypotheses, new experimental concepts, or innovative approaches to energy problems; experiments directed toward ''proof of principle'' or early determination of the utility of a new concept; and conception, design analyses, and development of experimental devices, instruments, or components. This report is a review of these research programs.

  16. Theoretical studies on the electron capture properties of the H2SO4...HOO˙ complex and its implications as an alternative source of HOOH.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Ma, Zhiying; Wang, Weihua; Song, Rui; Zhai, Yazhou; Bi, Siwei; Sun, Haitao; Bu, Yuxiang

    2011-04-07

    To better understand the potential role of sulfuric acid aerosols in the atmosphere, the electron capture properties of the H(2)SO(4)...HOO˙ complex have been systematically investigated by employing the MP2 and B3LYP methods in combination with the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory, energy decomposition analysis (EDA), and ab initio molecular dynamics. It was found that the electron capture process is a favorable reaction thermodynamically and kinetically. The excess electron can be captured by the HOO˙ fragment initially, and then the proton of the H(2)SO(4) fragment associated with the intermolecular H-bonds is transferred to the HOO˙ fragment without any activation barriers, resulting in the formation of the HOOH species directly. Therefore, the electron capture process of the H(2)SO(4)...HOO˙ complex provides an alternative source of HOOH in the atmosphere. The nature of the coupling interactions in the electron capture products are clarified, and the most stable anionic complex is also determined. Additionally, the influences of the adjacent water molecules on the electron capture properties are investigated, as well as the distinct IR features of the most stable electron capture product.

  17. Toward a Theory of Fund Raising in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, W. Bruce; Lasher, William F.

    1996-01-01

    A study involving interviews with 50 academic leaders revealed that college fund raising is a team effort; the institution's president is typically the central player; presidents should focus fund-raising attention on major gifts and administrative leadership; academic quality and institutional prestige are critical factors; and fund raising is…

  18. Effectiveness of Ventricular Intrinsic Preference (VIP™) and Ventricular AutoCapture (VAC) algorithms in pacemaker patients: Results of the validate study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rakesh; Jaswal, Aparna; Chennapragada, Sridevi; Kamath, Prakash; Hiremath, Shirish M.S.; Kahali, Dhiman; Anand, Sumit; Sood, Naresh K.; Mishra, Anil; Makkar, Jitendra S.; Kaul, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past clinical studies have demonstrated that frequent and unnecessary right ventricular pacing in patients with sick sinus syndrome and compromised atrio-ventricular conduction (AVC) produces long-term adverse effects. The safety and efficacy of two pacemaker algorithms, Ventricular Intrinsic Preference™ (VIP) and Ventricular AutoCapture (VAC), were evaluated in a multi-center study in pacemaker patients. Methods We evaluated 80 patients across 10 centers in India. Patients were enrolled within 15 days of dual chamber pacemaker (DDDR) implantation, and within 45 days thereafter were classified to either a compromised AVC (cAVC) arm or an intact AVC (iAVC) arm based on intrinsic paced/sensed (AV/PV) delays. In each arm, patients were then randomized (1:1) into the following groups: VIP OFF and VAC OFF (Control group; CG), or VIP ON and VAC ON (Treatment Group; TG). Subsequently, the AV/PV delays in the CG groups were mandatorily programmed at 180/150 ms, and to up to 350 ms in the TG groups. The percentage of right ventricular pacing (%RVp) evaluated at 12-month post-implantation follow-ups were compared between the two groups in each arm. Additionally, in-clinic time required for collecting device data was compared between patients programmed with the automated AutoCapture algorithm activated (VAC ON) vs. the manually programmed method (VAC OFF). Results Patients randomized to the TG with the VIP algorithm activated exhibited a significantly lower %RVp at 12 months than those in the CG in both the cAVC arm (39±41% vs. 97±3%; p=0.0004) and the iAVC arm (15±25% vs. 68±39%; p=0.0067). In-clinic time required to collect device data was less in patients with the VAC algorithm activated. No device-related adverse events were reported during the year-long study period. Conclusions In our study cohort, the use of the VIP algorithm significantly reduced the %RVp, while the VAC algorithm reduced in-clinic time needed to collect device data. PMID

  19. Reflections One Year into the 22 Center NIH-funded WRIST Study. A Primer on Conducting a Multicenter Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Wrist and Radius Surgery Trial (WRIST) study group is a collaboration of 22 hand surgery centers in the US, Canada, and Singapore to showcase the interest and capability of hand surgeons to conduct a multicenter clinical trial. The WRIST study group was formed in response to the seminal systematic review by Margaliot et al. and the Cochrane report that indicated marked deficiency in the quality of evidence in the distal radius fracture literature. Since the initial description of this fracture by Colles in 1814, over 2,000 studies have been published on this subject, yet high level studies based on the principles of evidence-based medicine are lacking. As we continue to embrace evidence-based medicine to raise the quality of research, the lessons learned during the organization and conduct of WRIST can serve as a template for others contemplating similar efforts. This paper will trace the course of WRIST by sharing the triumphs, and more importantly the struggles, faced in the first year of this study. PMID:23608306

  20. Funding Art with Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Orland is a small agricultural town in Northern California. The community has been deluged with fundraisers and requests for money. The author knew there must be a way to self-fund. She took a closer look at what made some of their community artists successful, and she looked at what the public bought. Her challenge was to put together a project…

  1. Funding. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This paper provides tips and resources that communities can use to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. The names of national organizations, publications, and community leaders with expertise in funding are included. It describes how Join Together Online, a national resource for communities working to reduce substance abuse and gun violence,…

  2. AGU GIFT Fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, Charles

    Launched in 1980, the AGU GIFT fund has met with marked success. A special issue of Eos was published in early 1982 (Apr. 20), summarizing the current status of the fundraising efforts. Of particular significance is the rapidly growing list of Individual Supporting Members, which is published elsewhere in this issue.

  3. Director's discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This technical memorandum contains brief technical papers describing research and technology development programs sponsored by the ARC Director's Discretionary Fund during fiscal year 1992 (Oct. 1991 through Sep. 1992). An appendix provides administrative information for each of the 45 sponsored research programs.

  4. Specially Funded Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    A total of eight specially funded programs designed to improve social and human conditions are described. These programs are Adult Basic Education (ABE), Adult Personal Traffic Safety (APTS), Emergency Employment Act (EEA), Industry Sponsored Programs (ISP), Manpower Development Training Act (MDTA), Model Cities Projects, Work Incentive Program…

  5. PCT funding. Beggars belief.

    PubMed

    Hacking, John

    2003-04-10

    At the pace of change set for implementing the new PCT funding formula over the next three years, it will take more than 20 years to achieve equity. If the minimum increases were set lower it would largely be achieved within five years. The current state of affairs perpetuates the north-south health divide.

  6. Advanced Telemetry Data Capturing

    SciTech Connect

    Paschke, G.A.

    2000-05-16

    This project developed a new generation or advanced data capturing process specifically designed for use in future telemetry test systems at the Kansas City Plant (KCP). Although similar data capturing processes are performed both commercially and at other DOE weapon facilities, the equipment used is not specifically designed to perform acceptance testing requirements unique to the KCP. Commercially available equipment, despite very high cost (up to $125,000), is deficient in reliability and long-term maintainability necessary in test systems at this facility. There are no commercial sources for some requirements, specifically Terminal Data Analyzer (TDA) data processing. Although other custom processes have been developed to satisfy these test requirements, these designs have become difficult to maintain and upgrade.

  7. Federal Government Funding of Research in Universities in Nigeria, the University of Benin as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that research is extremely critical and important if universities are to serve as engines of development in their areas of locations. For a knowledge-driven world, investment in research and development (R&D) is a sine qua non for a nation. Few studies have examined the federal government's investment in research in…

  8. Inside the Pre-K Classroom: A Study of Staffing and Stability in State-Funded Prekindergarten Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellm, Dan; Burton, Alice; Whitebook, Marcy; Broatch, Linda; Young, Marci P.

    In response to increasing concerns about preparing young children to succeed in the primary grades, many states have increased their investment in prekindergarten programs over the past decade. Noting that increased demand for prekindergarten education coincides with a staffing shortage in the early care and education, this study documented the…

  9. An Experimental Study Evaluating a State Funded Pre-Kindergarten Program: Bringing Together Subsidized Childcare, Public School, and Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Assel, Mike A.; Swank, Paul R.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to enhance early childhood teachers' efforts to prepare young children for school. Thus, the first objective was to determine if teachers receiving comprehensive professional development (i.e., PD) would show gains in language and literacy instructional practices than teachers randomized to the control condition. Objective…

  10. A National Study of High School Newspaper Programs: Environmental and Adviser Characteristics, Funding and Pressures on Free Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lain, Laurence B.

    A study examined school, publication, and adviser characteristics most often associated with certain types of autonomy found in high school newspaper programs. From a compilation of all high schools in the United States, 434 schools were selected at random. Each school was sent a coded questionnaire concerning the school, the newspaper (if the…

  11. NCI-funded CCOP study shows antidepressant drug relieves painful neuropathy from chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The antidepressant drug duloxetine, known commercially as Cymbalta, helped relieve painful numbness and tingling feelings caused by chemotherapy in 59 percent of patients, a new study finds. This is the first clinical trial to find an effective treatment for this pain. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of certain chemotherapy drugs. |

  12. Contrasting the Forrest City School District's Magnet Program Operating with Federal Funding and without Federal Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Alice; Wesson, Linda

    This paper presents findings of a study that examined the effect of termination of funding on a magnet-school program. The federally funded program was implemented in Forrest City, Arkansas, to eliminate racial imbalance in the elementary schools. The program was based on the assumption that with enough time and financial assistance, racial…

  13. Title I Funding: Poor Children Benefit though Funding Per Poor Child Differs. Report to Congressional Addressees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    This study examined Title I funding allocations for school years 1999-2002 and actual allocations received by school districts, interviewing state Title I directors, surveying school district administrators nationwide, and interviewing representatives from relevant federal and national organizations. Title I funds were generally targeted based on…

  14. An experimental study of laser-supported plasmas for laser propulsion: Center director's discretionary fund project DFP-82-33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, R. H.; Mccay, T. D.; Vanzandt, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    The rudiments of a rocket thruster, which receives its enthalpy from an energy source which is remotely beamed from a laser, is described. An experimental study, now partially complete, is discussed which will eventually provide a detailed understanding of the physics for assessing the feasibility of using hydrogen plasmas for accepting and converting this energy to enthalpy. A plasma ignition scheme which uses a pulsed CO2 laser was develped and the properites of the ignition spark documented, including breakdown intensities in hydrogen. A complete diagnostic system capable of determining plasma temperature and the plasma absorptivitiy for subsequent steady-state absorption of a high power CO2 laser beam are developed and demonstrative use is discussed for the preliminary case study, a two atmosphere laser supported argon plasma.

  15. A Case Study for Probabilistic Methods Validation (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund, Project No. 94-26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price J. M.; Ortega, R.

    1998-01-01

    Probabilistic method is not a universally accepted approach for the design and analysis of aerospace structures. The validity of this approach must be demonstrated to encourage its acceptance as it viable design and analysis tool to estimate structural reliability. The objective of this Study is to develop a well characterized finite population of similar aerospace structures that can be used to (1) validate probabilistic codes, (2) demonstrate the basic principles behind probabilistic methods, (3) formulate general guidelines for characterization of material drivers (such as elastic modulus) when limited data is available, and (4) investigate how the drivers affect the results of sensitivity analysis at the component/failure mode level.

  16. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J

    2014-08-31

    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was

  17. Quantitative bioanalysis of antibody-conjugated payload in monkey plasma using a hybrid immuno-capture LC-MS/MS approach: Assay development, validation, and a case study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Kozhich, Alexander; Passmore, David; Gu, Huidong; Wong, Richard; Zambito, Frank; Rangan, Vangipuram S; Myler, Heather; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex molecules composed of two pharmacologically distinct components, the cytotoxic payload and the antibody. The measurement of the payload molecules that are attached to the antibody in vivo is important for the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ADCs, and can also provide distinct information compared to the antibody-related analytes. However, analyzing the antibody-conjugated payload is challenging and in some cases may not be feasible. The in vivo change in drug antibody ratio (DAR), due to deconjugation, biotransformation or other clearance phenomena, generates unique and additional challenges for ADC analysis in biological samples. Here, we report a novel hybrid approach with immuno-capture of the ADC, payload cleavage by specific enzyme, and LC-MS/MS of the cleaved payload to quantitatively measure the concentration of payload molecules still attached to the antibody via linker in plasma. The ADC reference material used for the calibration curve is not likely to be identical to the ADC measured in study samples due to the change in DAR distribution over the PK time course. The assay clearly demonstrated that there was no bias in the measurement of antibody-conjugated payload for ADC with varying DAR, which thus allowed accurate quantification even when the DAR distribution dynamically changes in vivo. This hybrid assay was fully validated based on a combination of requirements for both chromatographic and ligand binding methods, and was successfully applied to support a GLP safety study in monkeys.

  18. Thermodynamic and Experimental Study of the Energetic Cost Involved in the Capture of Carbon Dioxide by Aqueous Mixtures of Commonly Used Primary and Tertiary Amines.

    PubMed

    Arcis, Hugues; Coulier, Yohann; Coxam, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-05

    The capture of carbon dioxide with chemical solvents is one solution to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources and thus tackle climate change. Recent research has been focused on optimizing new kinds of advanced absorbents including aqueous amine blends, but critical downsides such as the large energetic cost involved with the industrial process remain. To address this issue, a better understanding of the energetic interactions existing in solution is necessary. In this paper, we report direct experimental measurements of the energy cost involved in the solvation of CO2 in two aqueous amine blends at different temperatures. The chemical solvents were designed as aqueous mixtures of commonly used primary and tertiary amines to study the influence of the different chemical properties inferred by the amine class. We have also applied a thermodynamic model to represent the energetic effects that take place in solution during CO2 dissolution in these mixtures, where all parameters were taken from previous studies focused on single amine absorbents. The noteworthy agreement observed with the reported experimental heats of absorption and with literature vapor liquid equilibrium properties confirmed the relevance of the underlying molecular mechanisms considered in our model, and suggest that this model would prove useful to investigate CO2 dissolution in other amine blends.

  19. A detailed study of Langmuir waves observed during extended intervals of waveform captures by the Cassini Wideband Receiver in the Saturn's foreshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisa, David; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Santolik, Ondrej; Soucek, Jan; Masters, Adam; Coates, Andrew J.

    2015-04-01

    The upstream region magnetically linked to the planetary bowshock is called the foreshock. In this region energetic electrons reflected by the bowshock create beams streaming along the field lines to the solar wind flow. These electrons beams can generate electrostatic Langmuir waves via a beam instability. Langmuir waves can be identified as narrowband intense emission at a frequency very close to the local plasma frequency, usually observed close to the foreshock boundary, and weaker broadband waves below and above the plasma frequency typically observed deeper in the foreshock. A process of wave generation highly depends on beam properties. Unfortunately due to instrumental limitations, it is often difficult to identify these beams. We present a detailed study of Langmuir waves in the upstream of the Saturnian bowshock. For the detailed study we used data from the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RWPS), Magnetometer (MAG) and Cassini Plasma Science (CAPS) instruments. We have analyzed several periods from the extended waveform captures by the Cassini Wideband Receiver. We show Langmuir waves as a bursty emission highly controlled by variations in solar wind conditions. The properties of the Langmuir wave packets along the satellite path through the foreshock are also discussed.

  20. Quantum chemical studies on solvents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture: calculation of pKa and carbamate stability of disubstituted piperazines.

    PubMed

    Gangarapu, Satesh; Wierda, Gerben J; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Zuilhof, Han

    2014-06-23

    Piperazine is a widely studied solvent for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. To investigate the possibilities of further improving this process, the electronic and steric effects of -CH(3), -CH(2)F, -CH(2)OH, -CH(2)NH(2), -COCH3 , and -CN groups of 2,5-disubstituted piperazines on the pKa and carbamate stability towards hydrolysis are investigated by quantum chemical methods. For the calculations, B3LYP, M11L, and spin-component-scaled MP2 (SCS-MP2) methods are used and coupled with the SMD solvation model. The experimental pK(a) values of piperazine, 2-methylpiperazine, and 2,5-dimethylpiperazine agree well with the calculated values. The present study indicates that substitution of -CH(3), -CH(2) NH(2), and -CH(2) OH groups on the 2- and 5-positions of piperazine has a positive impact on the CO(2) absorption capacity by reducing the carbamate stability towards hydrolysis. Furthermore, their higher boiling points, relative to piperazine itself, will lead to a reduction of volatility-related losses.

  1. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing

    2016-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  2. Radiative electron capture by channeled ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pitarke, J.M. . Zientzi Fakultatea); Ritchie, R.H. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Considerable experimental data have been accumulated relative to the emission of photons accompanying electron capture by swift, highly stripped atoms penetrating crystalline matter under channeling conditions. Recent data suggest that the photon energies may be less than that expected from simple considerations of transitions from the valence band of the solid to hydrogenic states on the moving ion. We have studied theoretically the impact parameter dependence of the radiative electron capture (REC) process, the effect of the ion's wake and the effect of capture from inner shells of the solid on the photon emission probability, using a statistical approach. Numerical comparisons of our results with experiment are made. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Value for Money in Donor HIV Funding.

    PubMed

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; Ryan, Gery W; Liu, Jenny; Palar, Kartika

    2012-01-01

    Countries with the highest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are heavily reliant on donor funding from such sources as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria for their HIV programs. In recent years, commitments from these organizations have flattened while demand for HIV/AIDS care continues to rise. To meet the continued need for more HIV services in developing countries, existing resources need to be better leveraged, i.e., to provide improved value for the money. This article examines options for improving value for money in HIV funding by using a case study that focuses on the two largest funders, PEPFAR and the Global Fund, with funding for antiretroviral therapy (ART) as its leading example. The authors' assessment of available input and output data suggests that current spending allocations across direct and indirect services are not based on increasing value for money. The authors recommend that expenditure data for PEPFAR be made available to the public in a transparent fashion on an annual basis in a usable format and that the Global Fund make its data accessible for each program funded. They find that program output indicators to track indirect services are incomplete and need to be further developed. The trade-off between providing current services and providing future ones needs to be stated clearly, and funding decisions made accordingly. Finally, given projections that funding for HIV will likely not increase, particularly for low-income countries facing the highest HIV burden, an explicit emphasis on improving value for money by finding ways to better leverage existing monies is imperative.

  4. Downside Risk analysis applied to the Hedge Funds universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelló, Josep

    2007-09-01

    Hedge Funds are considered as one of the portfolio management sectors which shows a fastest growing for the past decade. An optimal Hedge Fund management requires an appropriate risk metrics. The classic CAPM theory and its Ratio Sharpe fail to capture some crucial aspects due to the strong non-Gaussian character of Hedge Funds statistics. A possible way out to this problem while keeping the CAPM simplicity is the so-called Downside Risk analysis. One important benefit lies in distinguishing between good and bad returns, that is: returns greater or lower than investor's goal. We revisit most popular Downside Risk indicators and provide new analytical results on them. We compute these measures by taking the Credit Suisse/Tremont Investable Hedge Fund Index Data and with the Gaussian case as a benchmark. In this way, an unusual transversal lecture of the existing Downside Risk measures is provided.

  5. Federal R&D Funding Shows Strong Recent Rise But Little Real Growth in FY 1978. Science Resources Studies Highlights, October 17, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This document reports results of a review of estimated 1977 federal research and development (R&D) funding and requested 1978 federal R&D funding. Highlights include: 1978 estimated R&D total is $26.3 billion, an increase of 7.6% over 1977; average annual R&D growth rate for the period 1974-78 has risen to 10.9% compared to 1.5%…

  6. Covalent Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yongfei; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-04-20

    As an emerging class of porous crystalline materials, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are excellent candidates for various applications. In particular, they can serve as ideal platforms for capturing CO2 to mitigate the dilemma caused by the greenhouse effect. Recent research achievements using COFs for CO2 capture are highlighted. A background overview is provided, consisting of a brief statement on the current CO2 issue, a summary of representative materials utilized for CO2 capture, and an introduction to COFs. Research progresses on: i) experimental CO2 capture using different COFs synthesized based on different covalent bond formations, and ii) computational simulation results of such porous materials on CO2 capture are summarized. Based on these experimental and theoretical studies, careful analyses and discussions in terms of the COF stability, low- and high-pressure CO2 uptake, CO2 selectivity, breakthrough performance, and CO2 capture conditions are provided. Finally, a perspective and conclusion section of COFs for CO2 capture is presented. Recent advancements in the field are highlighted and the strategies and principals involved are discussed.

  7. Fund-raising fiasco.

    PubMed

    1997-05-16

    The Pennsylvania Attorney General's office was prepared to file a civil suit against three local AIDS agencies and a fund-raiser organization that they hired to solicit donations. The suit would have charged the fund-raiser, Pallotta and Associates of Los Angeles, with misrepresenting to donors that 60 percent of the Philadelphia-DC AIDS Ride would go to beneficiaries. The organizations agreed to pay $134,000 to settle claims that they violated the law. Organizers had hoped that 1,600 cyclists would participate in the AIDS Ride event; only 790 actually took part. The riders raised $1.6 million, yielding only a 16 percent profit for the AIDS groups. The proceeds of an out-of-court settlement will be disbursed to charities.

  8. CHEMICAL EFFECTS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS – DATA DICTIONARY (CEBS-DD): A COMPENDIUM OF TERMS FOR THE CAPTURE AND INTEGRATION OF BIOLOGICAL STUDY DESIGN DESCRIPTION, CONVENTIONAL PHENOTYPES AND ‘OMICS’ DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical component in the design of the Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) Knowledgebase is a strategy to capture toxicogenomics study protocols and the toxicity endpoint data (clinical pathology and histopathology). A Study is generally an experiment carried out du...

  9. Capturing neuroplastic changes after bimanual intensive rehabilitation in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A combined DTI, TMS and fMRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Dricot, Laurence; Gilis, Nathalie; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Grandin, Cécile; Bleyenheuft, Corinne; Gordon, Andrew M; Friel, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation interventions have been shown to be efficacious in improving upper extremity function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). These interventions are based on motor learning principles and engage children in skillful movements. Improvements in upper extremity function are believed to be associated with neuroplastic changes. However, these neuroplastic changes have not been well-described in children with cerebral palsy, likely due to challenges in defining and implementing the optimal tools and tests in children. Here we documented the implementation of three different neurological assessments (diffusion tensor imaging-DTI, transcranial magnetic stimulation-TMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging-fMRI) before and after a bimanual intensive treatment (HABIT-ILE) in two children with USCP presenting differential corticospinal developmental reorganization (ipsilateral and contralateral). The aim of the study was to capture neurophysiological changes and to document the complementary relationship between these measures, the potential measurable changes and the feasibility of applying these techniques in children with USCP. Independent of cortical reorganization, both children showed increases in activation and size of the motor areas controlling the affected hand, quantified with different techniques. In addition, fMRI provided additional unexpected changes in the reward circuit while using the affected hand.

  10. Capture and isotopic exchange method for water and hydrogen isotopes on zeolite catalysts up to technical scale for pre-study of processing highly tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Michling, R.; Braun, A.; Cristescu, I.; Dittrich, H.; Gramlich, N.; Lohr, N.; Glugla, M.; Shu, W.; Willms, S.

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) may be generated at ITER by various processes and, due to the excessive radio toxicity, the self-radiolysis and the exceedingly corrosive property of HTW, a potential hazard is associated with its storage and process. Therefore, the capture and exchange method for HTW utilizing Molecular Sieve Beds (MSB) was investigated in view of adsorption capacity, isotopic exchange performance and process parameters. For the MSB, different types of zeolite were selected. All zeolite materials were additionally coated with platinum. The following work comprised the selection of the most efficient zeolite candidate based on detailed parametric studies during the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}O laboratory scale exchange experiments (about 25 g zeolite per bed) at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). For the zeolite, characterization analytical techniques such as Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry and online mass spectrometry were implemented. Followed by further investigation of the selected zeolite catalyst under full technical operation, a MSB (about 22 kg zeolite) was processed with hydrogen flow rates up to 60 mol*h{sup -1} and deuterated water loads up to 1.6 kg in view of later ITER processing of arising HTW. (authors)

  11. Capturing neuroplastic changes after bimanual intensive rehabilitation in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A combined DTI, TMS and fMRI pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Dricot, Laurence; Gilis, Nathalie; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Grandin, Cécile; Bleyenheuft, Corinne; Gordon, Andrew M.; Friel, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation interventions have been shown to be efficacious in improving upper extremity function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). These interventions are based on motor learning principles and engage children in skillful movements. Improvements in upper extremity function are believed to be associated with neuroplastic changes. However, these neuroplastic changes have not been well-described in children with cerebral palsy, likely due to challenges in defining and implementing the optimal tools and tests in children. Here we documented the implementation of three different neurological assessments (diffusion tensor imaging-DTI, transcranial magnetic stimulation-TMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging-fMRI) before and after a bimanual intensive treatment (HABIT-ILE) in two children with USCP presenting differential corticospinal developmental reorganization (ipsilateral and contralateral). The aim of the study was to capture neurophysiological changes and to document the complementary relationship between these measures, the potential measurable changes and the feasibility of applying these techniques in children with USCP. Independent of cortical reorganization, both children showed increases in activation and size of the motor areas controlling the affected hand, quantified with different techniques. In addition, fMRI provided additional unexpected changes in the reward circuit while using the affected hand. PMID:26183338

  12. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: boron biodistribution study in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Trivillin, Verónica A; Abramson, David B; Bumaguin, Gaston E; Bruno, Leandro J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M; Feldman, Sara; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is explored for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in female New Zealand rabbits, with the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) to assess the potential feasibility of BNCS for RA. Rabbits in chronic phase of AIA were used for biodistribution studies employing the following protocols: intra-articular (ia) (a) BPA-f 0.14 M (0.7 mg (10)B), (b) GB-10 (5 mg (10)B), (c) GB-10 (50 mg (10)B) and intravenous (iv), (d) BPA-f 0.14 M (15.5 mg (10)B/kg), (e) GB-10 (50 mg (10)B/kg), and (f) BPA-f (15.5 mg (10)B/kg) + GB-10 (50 mg (10)B/kg). At different post-administration times (13-85 min for ia and 3 h for iv), samples of blood, pathological synovium (target tissue), cartilage, tendon, muscle, and skin were taken for boron measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The intra-articular administration protocols at <40 min post-administration both for BPA-f and GB-10, and intravenous administration protocols for GB-10 and [GB-10 + BPA-f] exhibited therapeutically useful boron concentrations (>20 ppm) in the pathological synovium. Dosimetric estimations suggest that BNCS would be able to achieve a therapeutically useful dose in pathological synovium without exceeding the radiotolerance of normal tissues in the treatment volume, employing boron carriers approved for use in humans. Radiobiological in vivo studies will be necessary to determine the actual therapeutic efficacy of BNCS to treat RA in an experimental model.

  13. Vulnerability-Based Spatial Sampling Stratification for the National Children’s Study, Worcester County, Massachusetts: Capturing Health-Relevant Environmental and Sociodemographic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Timothy J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena; Aupont, Onesky; Wang, Yangyang; Raj, Ann; Zimmerman, Paula; Goble, Robert; Taylor, Octavia; Churchill, Linda; Lemay, Celeste; McLaughlin, Thomas; Felice, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Children’s Study is the most ambitious study ever attempted in the United States to assess how environmental factors impact child health and development. It aims to follow 100,000 children from gestation until 21 years of age. Success requires breaking new interdisciplinary ground, starting with how to select the sample of > 1,000 children in each of 105 study sites; no standardized protocol exists for stratification of the target population by factoring in the diverse environments it inhabits. Worcester County, Massachusetts, like other sites, stratifies according to local conditions and local knowledge, subject to probability sampling rules. Objectives We answer the following questions: How do we divide Worcester County into viable strata that represent its health-relevant environmental and sociodemographic heterogeneity, subject to sampling rules? What potential does our approach have to inform stratification at other sites? Results We developed a multivariable, vulnerability-based method for spatial sampling consisting of two descriptive indices: a hazards/stressors exposure index (comprising three proxy variables), and an adaptive capacity/sociodemographic character index (five variables). Multivariable, health-relevant stratification at the start of the study may improve detection power for environment–child health associations down the line. Eighteen strata capture countywide heterogeneity in the indices and have optimal relative homogeneity within each. They achieve comparable expected birth counts and conform to local concepts of space. Conclusion The approach offers moderate to high potential to inform other sites, limited by intersite differences in data availability, geodemographics, and technical capacity. Energetic community engagement from the start promotes local stratification coherence, plus vital researcher–community trust and co-ownership for sustainability. PMID:20211802

  14. Laser Capture Microdissection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert-Buck, Michael R.; Bonner, Robert F.; Smith, Paul D.; Chuaqui, Rodrigo F.; Zhuang, Zhengping; Goldstein, Seth R.; Weiss, Rhonda A.; Liotta, Lance A.

    1996-11-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) under direct microscopic visualization permits rapid one-step procurement of selected human cell populations from a section of complex, heterogeneous tissue. In this technique, a transparent thermoplastic film (ethylene vinyl acetate polymer) is applied to the surface of the tissue section on a standard glass histopathology slide; a carbon dioxide laser pulse then specifically activates the film above the cells of interest. Strong focal adhesion allows selective procurement of the targeted cells. Multiple examples of LCM transfer and tissue analysis, including polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA and RNA, and enzyme recovery from transferred tissue are demonstrated.

  15. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  16. Is Privately Funded Research on the Rise in Ocean Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, M.; Cooksey, S. W.; Orcutt, J. A.; Ramberg, S. E.; Jankowski, J. E.; Mengelt, C.

    2014-12-01

    While federal funding for oceanography is leveling off or declining, private sector funding from industry and philanthropy appears to be on the rise. The Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council is discussing these changes in the ocean science funding landscape. In 2014 the Board convened experts to better understand the long term public and private funding trends for the ocean sciences and the implications of such trends for the ocean science enterprise and the nation. Specific topics of discussion included: (1) the current scope of philanthropic and industry funding for the ocean sciences; (2) the long-term trends in the funding balance between federal and other sources of funding; (3) the priorities and goals for private funders; and (4) the characteristics of various modes of engagement for private funders. Although public funding remains the dominant source of research funding, it is unclear how far or fast that balance might shift in the future nor what a shifting balance may mean. There has been no comprehensive assessment of the magnitude and impact of privately-funded science, particularly the ocean sciences, as public funding sources decline. Nevertheless, the existing data can shed some light on these questions. We will present available data on long-term trends in federal and other sources of funding for science (focusing on ocean science) and report on preliminary findings from a panel discussion with key private foundations and industry funders.

  17. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Cancer.gov

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  18. Step 4: NCI Funding Determinations

    Cancer.gov

    Funding determinations are made around Oct. 1 each federal fiscal year. These decisions take into account several factors, including Congressional mandates, new scientific opportunities and program priorities when deciding which grants receive funding.

  19. Handbook of capture-recapture analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, Trent L.; Manly, Bryan F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Every day, biologists in parkas, raincoats, and rubber boots go into the field to capture and mark a variety of animal species. Back in the office, statisticians create analytical models for the field biologists' data. But many times, representatives of the two professions do not fully understand one another's roles. This book bridges this gap by helping biologists understand state-of-the-art statistical methods for analyzing capture-recapture data. In so doing, statisticians will also become more familiar with the design of field studies and with the real-life issues facing biologists.Reliable outcomes of capture-recapture studies are vital to answering key ecological questions. Is the population increasing or decreasing? Do more or fewer animals have a particular characteristic? In answering these questions, biologists cannot hope to capture and mark entire populations. And frequently, the populations change unpredictably during a study. Thus, increasingly sophisticated models have been employed to convert data into answers to ecological questions. This book, by experts in capture-recapture analysis, introduces the most up-to-date methods for data analysis while explaining the theory behind those methods. Thorough, concise, and portable, it will be immensely useful to biologists, biometricians, and statisticians, students in both fields, and anyone else engaged in the capture-recapture process.

  20. The SAFE project: 'plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe' an EC-funded study.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2005-04-01

    The true prevalence of food allergy as an IgE mediated reaction is still under discussion. Using apple as a model allergen source a multidisciplinary consortium worked together at developing various strategies for reducing the incidence of fruit allergies in an EC-funded project. Patient allergen profiles were established using in vitro and in vivo tests with respect to geographic area and mild or severe symptoms. Apple allergens (Mal d 1-Mal d 4) were characterised, variants identified, cloned and sequenced. These individual allergens were used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Furthermore, they provided better prognosis of disease severity. RT-PCR and ELISA were developed for determining the allergen specific mRNA and expressed allergenic protein in a large number of apple cultivars. Similarly, changes in allergen characteristics from harvest through storage to processing and the impact of agronomic practices were investigated. Allergen genes were mapped on a molecular linkage map of apple. The biological function of Mal d 1 was studied using the RNA interference strategy. Finally, consumer attitudes in Northern, Central and Southern Europe were gauged on the acceptability of low allergen cultivars or a GMO and its impact on product quality.

  1. Performance-Based Funding Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A number of states have made progress in implementing performance-based funding (PFB) and accountability. This policy brief summarizes main features of performance-based funding systems in three states: Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana. The brief also identifies key issues that states considering performance-based funding must address, as well as…

  2. Report of the Commission to Study the Adequacy and Equity of Certain Cost Components of the School Funding Formula. Report to Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs, Maine State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Education Policy, Applied Research, and Evaluation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Commission to Study the Adequacy and Equity of Certain Cost Components of the School Funding Formula was created in legislation crafted by the Joint Standing Committee on Education of the 126th Legislature (the "Education Committee"). The legislation was enacted as Resolve 2014, chapter 114. Creation of the Commission is the latest…

  3. A Case Study of Selective Funding of Research in the United Kingdom Through Assessment of Some University Indicators (1990/91 to 1992/93). AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ecilamar M.

    This study examined the allocation of government research grants to universities in the United Kingdom in the context of the current funding system which distributes such grants based on universities' performance in the marketplace. Marketplace performance indicators include academic staff and postgraduate student counts, grants from Research…

  4. Funds Allocation and Expenditures under the Education Block Grant. A Special Issue Report from the National Study of Local Operations under Chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apling, Richard; Padilla, Christine L.

    This document presents the findings from one aspect of the National Study of Local Operations under Chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981. The report examines the distribution of funds to school districts under Chapter 2, the federal education block grant. The introductory chapter reviews findings from early studies…

  5. How Actuated Particles Effectively Capture Biomolecular Targets

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and adaptable surface functionalization, particles are widely used in bioanalytical methods to capture molecular targets. In this article, a comprehensive study is reported of the effectiveness of protein capture by actuated magnetic particles. Association rate constants are quantified in experiments as well as in Brownian dynamics simulations for different particle actuation configurations. The data reveal how the association rate depends on the particle velocity, particle density, and particle assembly characteristics. Interestingly, single particles appear to exhibit target depletion zones near their surface, caused by the high density of capture molecules. The depletion effects are even more limiting in cases with high particle densities. The depletion effects are overcome and protein capture rates are enhanced by applying dynamic particle actuation, resulting in an increase in the association rate constants by up to 2 orders of magnitude. PMID:28192952

  6. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for HER2+ breast cancers: A feasibility study evaluating BNCT for potential role in breast conservation therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Peter Anthony

    A novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) regimen for the treatment of HER2+ breast cancers has been proposed as an alternative to whole breast irradiation for breast conservation therapy patients. The proposed therapy regimen is based on the assumed production of boron delivery agents that would be synthesized from compounds of Trastuzumab (Herceptin ®) and oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs). The combination of the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody and the high boron loading capability of OPDs has led to the assumption that boron could be delivered to the HER2+ cancer cells at Tumor to Healthy Tissue ratios (T:H) of up to 35:1 and boron concentrations above 50 μg/g. This significantly increased boron delivery efficiency has opened new BNCT possibilities. This proof of concept study examined treatment parameters derived as the results in previous efforts in the context of patient-specific geometry and compared calculated dose results to those observed during actual patient therapy. These results were based on dose calculations performed with a set of calculated Kerma coefficients derived from tissues specific to the regions of interest for breast cancer. A comparison was made of the dose to the tumor region, the patient's skin, and the peripheral organs. The results of this study demonstrated that, given the performance of the proposed boron delivery agent, the BNCT treatment regimen is feasible. The feasibility is based on the findings that the equivalent dose could be delivered to the treatment volume with less dose to the skin and peripheral organs. This is anticipated to improve the treatment outcomes by maintaining local control of tumor cells while reducing dose to healthy tissues.

  7. Electron capture gas-liquid chromatographic study of metabolites produced by some arthritic transudate-associated organisms in vitro and in vivo in rabbit models.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J B; Melton, A R

    1978-10-01

    Computerized, frequency-pulsed, modulated electron capture gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the acid metabolites produced in vitro in fetal calf serum and in vivo in an animal chamber model. Several strains of Diplostreptococcus agalactiae, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus serogroups A, B, and G were studied. All of these organisms have been reported to be associated with arthritic transudates in humans. Metabolites were detected by this method from derivatized extracts of both spent fetal calf serum and chamber fluids. Since there was little host response to the organisms cultured in the chambers, it is highly probable that the products detected represent metabolites produced in an in vivo type of environment. The metabolic patterns were reproducible and exhibited many similarities in vitro and in vivo. Production of the acids detected was reproducible, and these acids were useful identification markers. The data support published reports (J. B. Brooks, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, Anal. Chem. 46: 1930-1934, 1974; J. B. Brooks, G. Choudhary, R. B. Craven, D. Edman, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:625-628, 1977; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, A. R. Melton, and C. C. Alley, in H. H. Johnson and W. B. Newson, ed., Second International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation on Microbiology, 1976; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, D. Schlossberg, C. C. Alley, and F. M. Pitts, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:203-208, 1978; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, C. C. Alley, H. B. Short, and H. H. Handsfield, J. Infect. Dis. 129:660-668, 1974) that bacterial metabolites might be detectable in diseased body fluids. The growth characteristics of the organisms in the animal model and fetal calf serum are discussed, and a moderately priced computer for performing data manipulations is evaluated.

  8. Boron uptake in normal melanocytes and melanoma cells and boron biodistribution study in mice bearing B16F10 melanoma for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo Rogério Pinto; Arruda-Neto, João Dias Toledo; Camillo, Maria Aparecida Pires; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2012-08-01

    Information on (10)B distribution in normal tissues is crucial to any further development of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo boron biodistribution in B16F10 murine melanoma and normal tissues as a model for human melanoma treatment by a simple and rapid colorimetric method, which was validated by HR-ICP-MS. The B16F10 melanoma cell line showed higher melanin content than human melanocytes, demonstrating a greater potential for boronophenylalanine uptake. The melanocytes showed a moderate viability decrease in the first few minutes after BNCT application, stabilizing after 75 min, whereas the B16F10 melanoma showed the greatest intracellular boron concentration at 150 min after application, indicating a different boron uptake of melanoma cells compared to normal melanocytes. Moreover, at this time, the increase in boron uptake in melanoma cells was approximately 1.6 times higher than that in normal melanocytes. The (10)B concentration in the blood of mice bearing B16F10 melanoma increased until 90 min after BNCT application and then decreased after 120 min, and remained low until the 240th minute. On the other hand, the (10)B concentration in tumors was increased from 90 min and maximal at 150 min after application, thus confirming the in vitro results. Therefore, the present in vitro and in vivo study of (10)B uptake in normal and tumor cells revealed important data that could enable BNCT to be possibly used as a treatment for melanoma, a chemoresistant cancer associated with high mortality.

  9. L-Boronophenylalanine-Mediated Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Glioma Progressing After External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna; Vaelimaeki, Petteri; Beule, Annette; Collan, Juhani; Kortesniemi, Mika; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Kotiluoto, Petri; Auterinen, Iiro; Seren, Tom; Paetau, Anders; Saarilahti, Kauko; Savolainen, Sauli; Joensuu, Heikki

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine-mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of malignant gliomas that progress after surgery and conventional external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Adult patients who had histologically confirmed malignant glioma that had progressed after surgery and external beam radiotherapy were eligible for this Phase I study, provided that >6 months had elapsed from the last date of radiation therapy. The first 10 patients received a fixed dose, 290 mg/kg, of L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (L-BPA-F) as a 2-hour infusion before neutron irradiation, and the remaining patients were treated with escalating doses of L-BPA-F, either 350 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, or 450 mg/kg, using 3 patients on each dose level. Adverse effects were assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0. Results: Twenty-two patients entered the study. Twenty subjects had glioblastoma, and 2 patients had anaplastic astrocytoma, and the median cumulative dose of prior external beam radiotherapy was 59.4 Gy. The maximally tolerated L-BPA-F dose was reached at the 450 mg/kg level, where 4 of 6 patients treated had a grade 3 adverse event. Patients who were given >290 mg/kg of L-BPA-F received a higher estimated average planning target volume dose than those who received 290 mg/kg (median, 36 vs. 31 Gy [W, i.e., a weighted dose]; p = 0.018). The median survival time following BNCT was 7 months. Conclusions: BNCT administered with an L-BPA-F dose of up to 400 mg/kg as a 2-hour infusion is feasible in the treatment of malignant gliomas that recur after conventional radiation therapy.

  10. Selectivity of boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy: pharmacological studies with borocaptate sodium, L-boronophenylalanine and boric acid in murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, V; Begg, A C; Huiskamp, R; Verrijk, R; Bartelink, H

    1993-04-01

    Borocaptate sodium (BSH) and L-boronophenylalanine (L-BPA) are two boron carriers used for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of glioblastoma and melanoma, respectively. The suitability of these two compounds was evaluated on the basis of pharmacokinetic studies aiming at characterizing their biodistribution, tumor uptake and tumor selectivity. Boric acid was also used as a reference compound since it is nonselective and relatively freely diffusible. The compounds were investigated in two tumor models, a B16 pigmented melanoma and the RIF1 sarcoma. Mice were sacrificed after different boron doses at various post-injection times and tissue and plasma levels measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The proposed minimum effective tumor boron concentration of 15 ppm was achieved in both tumor models for the three compounds tested, although only for L-BPA in the melanoma was this achieved when tumor-plasma ratios were above 1. In the RIF1 model, maximum tumor concentrations of 44 and 31 ppm B were reached after administration of 50 micrograms B/g body weight for boric acid and BSH, respectively. After administration of 12.5 micrograms B/g of L-BPA, maximum concentrations of 15 and 21 ppm were found in the RIF1 and B16 models, respectively. Tumor-plasma ratios (TPR) for BSH remained close to or below unity at all times studied in both tumors. Brain levels of BSH were very low, however, leading to tumor-brain ratios markedly greater than 1 at all times. L-BPA and boric acid showed TPR values above unity in both tumor models, reaching 3.2 in B16.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Visually driven chaining of elementary swim patterns into a goal-directed motor sequence: a virtual reality study of zebrafish prey capture.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Chintan A; Bollmann, Johann H

    2013-01-01

    Prey capture behavior critically depends on rapid processing of sensory input in order to track, approach, and catch the target. When using vision, the nervous system faces the problem of extracting relevant information from a continuous stream of input in order to detect and categorize visible objects as potential prey and to select appropriate motor patterns for approach. For prey capture, many vertebrates exhibit intermittent locomotion, in which discrete motor patterns are chained into a sequence, interrupted by short periods of rest. Here, using high-speed recordings of full-length prey capture sequences performed by freely swimming zebrafish larvae in the presence of a single paramecium, we provide a detailed kinematic analysis of first and subsequent swim bouts during prey capture. Using Fourier analysis, we show that individual swim bouts represent an elementary motor pattern. Changes in orientation are directed toward the target on a graded scale and are implemented by an asymmetric tail bend component superimposed on this basic motor pattern. To further investigate the role of visual feedback on the efficiency and speed of this complex behavior, we developed a closed-loop virtual reality setup in which minimally restrained larvae recapitulated interconnected swim patterns closely resembling those observed during prey capture in freely moving fish. Systematic variation of stimulus properties showed that prey capture is initiated within a narrow range of stimulus size and velocity. Furthermore, variations in the delay and location of swim triggered visual feedback showed that the reaction time of secondary and later swims is shorter for stimuli that appear within a narrow spatio-temporal window following a swim. This suggests that the larva may generate an expectation of stimulus position, which enables accelerated motor sequencing if the expectation is met by appropriate visual feedback.

  12. Photoneutron cross sections for {sup 96}Zr: A systematic experimental study of photoneutron and radiative neutron capture cross sections for zirconium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Kondo, T.; Itoh, O.; Kamata, M.; Yamagata, T.; Goriely, S.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2010-03-15

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 96}Zr near neutron threshold with quasimonochromatic laser-Compton-scattering {gamma}-ray beams. A systematic analysis of photoneutron and radiative neutron capture data for zirconium isotopes within the statistical model calculation leads to a unified picture of low-energy {gamma}-ray strengths for zirconium isotopes that is described by the HFB + QRPA model of E1 strength supplemented with an extra {gamma} strength attributed to a giant M1 resonance. Results of the systematic analysis including radiative neutron capture cross sections for radioactive {sup 95}Zr and {sup 93}Zr nuclei are presented.

  13. Asteroid capture using lunar flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shengping; Li, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on the approach which enables us to capture an asteroid using the lunar flyby. Assume that the asteroid is able to enter the Earth-Moon system. The orbits of the asteroid before and after lunar flybys are investigated for different Jacobi constants in the restricted three body problem. The capture will happen when the post-flyby Jacobi constant reaches certain value due to the flyby. The capture regions of different pre-flyby initial Jacobi constants are numerically explored in the diagram that is represented by two defined angles. To give an intuitive description of the capture region, it is represented by the orbital elements of the asteroid. Based on this capture region, the asteroids that can be captured through lunar flybys are chosen from the asteroid database. Finally, the capture processes of selected asteroids are validated through the ephemerides model.

  14. Royal Society offers funds for technology start-ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clery, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Scientists with a good idea ripe for commercial exploitation will no longer have to hawk their wares to bankers and private investors to get financial backing: the Royal Society is also about to get into the venture-capital business. The society is planning to set up an enterprise fund to buy equity in start-up companies based on outstanding technology - covering everything from renewable energy and carbon capture to water purification. "If there are difficulties getting science into the marketplace, the society has a role helping with that," says chemical physicist Andrew Mackintosh, a former chief executive of Oxford Instruments who has been brought in to manage the fund.

  15. Publicly funded medical savings accounts: expenditure and distributional impacts in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Rynard, Vicki; Morgan, Steve

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the findings from simulations of the introduction of publicly funded medical savings accounts (MSAs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. The analysis exploits a unique data set linking population-based health survey information with individual-level information on all physician services and hospital services utilization over a four-year period. The analysis provides greater detail along three dimensions than have previous analyses: (1) the distributional impacts of publicly funded MSAs across individuals of differing health statuses, incomes, ages, and current expenditures; (2) the impact of differing degrees of risk adjustment for MSA contributions; and (3) the impact of MSA funding over multiple years, incorporating year-to-year variation in spending at the individual level. In addition, it analyses more plausible designs for publicly funded MSAs than the existing studies. Government uses information available from year t - 1 to allocate its budget for year t in a manner that is ex ante fiscally neutral for the public sector: the government first withholds funds equal to expected catastrophic insurance payments under the MSA plan, and then allocates only the balance to individual MSA accounts. The government captures the savings associated with reduced health-care utilization under MSAs and we examine deductibles that vary by income rather than by current health-care expenditures. The impacts on public expenditures under these designs are more modest than in the previous studies and under plausible assumptions MSAs are predicted to decrease public expenditures. MSAs, however, are also predicted to have unavoidable negative distributional consequences with respect to both public expenditures and out-of-pocket spending.

  16. Particle capture device

    DOEpatents

    Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-23

    In example embodiments, particle collection efficiency in aerosol analyzers and other particle measuring instruments is improved by a particle capture device that employs multiple collisions to decrease momentum of particles until the particles are collected (e.g., vaporized or come to rest). The particle collection device includes an aperture through which a focused particle beam enters. A collection enclosure is coupled to the aperture and has one or more internal surfaces against which particles of the focused beam collide. One or more features are employed in the collection enclosure to promote particles to collide multiple times within the enclosure, and thereby be vaporized or come to rest, rather than escape through the aperture.

  17. Capture-ejector satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Eldred, C. H.; Martin, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A satellite in the form of a large rotating rim which can be used to boost spacecraft from low-Earth orbit to higher orbits is described. The rim rotates in the plane of its orbit such that the lower portion of the rim is traveling at suborbital velocity, while the upper portion is travelling at greater than orbital velocity. Ascending spacecraft or payloads arrive at the lowest portion of the rim at suborbital velocities, where the payloads are released on a trajectory for higher orbits; descending payloads employ the reverse procedure. Electric thrusters placed on the rim maintain rim rotational speed and altitude. From the standpoint of currently known materials, the capture-ejector concept may be useful for relatively small velocity increments.

  18. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla; Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo; Pisarev, Mario; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  19. Post-capture immune gene expression studies in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus acclimatized to atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Barros, Inês; Divya, Baby; Martins, Inês; Vandeperre, Frederic; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Bettencourt, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are extreme habitats that are distributed worldwide in association with volcanic and tectonic events, resulting thus in the establishment of particular environmental conditions, in which high pressure, steep temperature gradients, and potentially toxic concentrations of sulfur, methane and heavy metals constitute driving factors for the foundation of chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. Of all the different macroorganisms found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus is the most abundant species inhabiting the vent ecosystems from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). In the present study, the effect of long term acclimatization at atmospheric pressure on host-symbiotic associations were studied in light of the ensuing physiological adaptations from which the immune and endosymbiont gene expressions were concomitantly quantified by means of real-time PCR. The expression of immune genes at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 72 h, 1 week and 3 weeks post-capture acclimatization was investigated and their profiles compared across the samples tested. The gene signal distribution for host immune and bacterial genes followed phasic changes in gene expression at 24 h, 1 week and 3 weeks acclimatization when compared to other time points tested during this temporal expression study. Analyses of the bacterial gene expression also suggested that both bacterial density and activity could contribute to shaping the intricate association between endosymbionts and host immune genes whose expression patterns seem to be concomitant at 1 week acclimatization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess the distribution and prevalence of endosymbiont bacteria within gill tissues confirming the gradual loss of sulfur-oxidizing (SOX) and methane-oxidizing (MOX) bacteria during acclimatization. The present study addresses the deep-sea vent mussel B. azoricus as a model organism to study how acclimatization in aquaria and the

  20. Viscoelasticity of thin biomolecular films: a case study on nucleoporin phenylalanine-glycine repeats grafted to a histidine-tag capturing QCM-D sensor.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Nico B; Andersson, Fredrik I; Frey, Steffen; Richter, Ralf P

    2012-08-13

    Immobilization of proteins onto surfaces is useful for the controlled generation of biomolecular assemblies that can be readily characterized with in situ label-free surface-sensitive techniques. Here we analyze the performance of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) sensor surface that enables the selective and oriented immobilization of histidine-tagged molecules for morphological and interaction studies. More specifically, we characterize monolayers of natively unfolded nucleoporin domains that are rich in phenylalanine-glycine repeats (FGRDs). An FGRD meshwork is thought to be responsible for the selectivity of macromolecular transport across the nuclear pore complex between the cytosol and the nucleus of living cells. We demonstrate that nucleoporin FGRD films can be formed on His-tag Capturing Sensors with properties comparable to a previously reported immobilization platform based on supported lipid bilayers (SLB). Approaches to extract the film thickness and viscoelastic properties in a time-resolved manner from the QCM-D response are described, with particular emphasis on the practical implementation of viscoelastic modeling and a detailed analysis of the quality and reliability of the fit. By comparing the results with theoretical predictions for the viscoelastic properties of polymer solutions and gels, and experimental data from an atomic force microscopy indentation assay, we demonstrate that detailed analysis can provide novel insight into the morphology and dynamics of FG repeat domain films. The immobilization approach is simple and versatile, and can be easily extended to other His-tagged biomolecules. The data analysis procedure should be useful for the characterization of other ultrathin biomolecular and polymer films.

  1. Door-to-door capture of incident and prevalent stroke cases in Durango, Mexico – the Brain Attack Surveillance in Durango (BASID) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Majersik, Jennifer J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Ruano, Angel; Becerra-Mendoza, Daniela; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke incidence and prevalence estimates in developing countries should include stroke cases not presenting to hospital. We performed door-to-door stroke case ascertainment in Durango Municipality, Mexico to estimate stroke incidence and prevalence, and to determine the error made by only ascertaining hospital cases. Methods Between September 2008 and March 2009, 1996 housing units were randomly sampled to screen for stroke in Durango Municipality residents ≥35 years of age. Field workers utilized a validated screening tool. Those screening positive were referred to a neurologist for history and examination and if confirmed, a head CT scan. Prevalence and cumulative incidence from the door-to-door surveillance were calculated and compared with previously reported hospitalization rates during the same defined time. Results Respondents included 2437 subjects from 1419 homes. The refusal rate was 3.8%. Twenty subjects had verified or probable stroke. The prevalence of probable or verified stroke was 7.7/1000 (95% CI: 4.3/1000, 11.2/1000). Five patients had a stroke during the time of the hospital surveillance, yielding a cumulative incidence of 232.3/100,000 (95% CI: 27.8, 436.9). Two of the 5 cases were captured by door-to-door surveillance but not by hospital surveillance. Conclusions This study provides the first community-based stroke prevalence and incidence estimates in Mexico. The wide confidence intervals, despite the large number of surveyed housing units, suggest the need for more advanced sampling strategies for stroke surveillance in the developing world. PMID:21212398

  2. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Munk, Christian; Stubenrauch, Frank; Antonello, Joseph; Bryan, Janine T; Taddeo, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is an essential test to establish efficacy in HPV vaccine clinical trials and HPV prevalence in natural history studies. A number of HPV DNA genotyping methods have been cited in the literature, but the comparability of the outcomes from the different methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example, were 0.806, 0.646, 0.920, and 0.860, respectively; the specificities were 0.986, 0.998, 0.960, and 0.986, respectively. The overall comparability of detection of the 15 HPV types was quite high. Analyses of DNA genotype testing compared to cytology results demonstrated a significant discordance between cytology-negative (normal) and HPV DNA-positive results. This demonstrates the challenges of cytological diagnosis and the possibility that a significant number of HPV-infected cells may appear cytologically normal.

  3. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program: Case Study on Saint Louis County, MO

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark

    2011-06-23

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized debt instruments that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of qualified energy conservation projects. QECBs offer issuers very attractive borrowing rates and long terms, and can fund low-interest energy efficiency loans for home and commercial property owners. Saint Louis County, MO recently issued over $10 million of QECBs to finance the Saint Louis County SAVES residential energy efficiency loan program. The county's experience negotiating QECB regulations and restrictions can inform future issuers.

  4. Comet assay study of DNA damage and repair of tumour cells following boron neutron capture irradiation with fast d(14) + Be neutrons.

    PubMed

    Pöller, F; Bauch, T; Sauerwein, W; Böcker, W; Wittig, A; Streffer, C

    1996-11-01

    We compared the amount of radiation-induced DNA damage and the extent of DNA repair in human melanoma cells (MeWo) using the 'comet assay' after neutron, boron neutron capture and X-irradiation. Using a colony-forming assay it was shown earlier that lethal effects in tumour cells treated with fast neutrons may be increased by the neutron capture reaction 10B(n, alpha)7Li. The effectiveness of boron neutron capture in killing tumour cells depends on the number of 10B atoms delivered to the tumour, the subcellular distribution of 10B and the thermal neutron fluence at the side of the tumour. Using the 'comet assay' the DNA damage of fast neutrons (mean energy 5.8 MeV) was shown to be significantly greater than for the same absorbed dose of X-rays. The presence of 600 ppm 10B (boric acid H5 10BO3) in the cell medium during irradiation with d(14) + Be neutrons in a phantom enhances the DNA damage by 20% compared with neutron irradiation alone. After DNA damage induction by neutrons and neutron capture of boron, the DNA repair capacity of the MeWo cells is significantly reduced in comparison with X-irradiation resulting in proportionally more residual DNA damage after 180 min of repair time.

  5. Library Services Funding Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorig, Jonathan A.

    2004-01-01

    The Glenn Technical Library is a science and engineering library that primarily supports research activities at the Glenn Research Center, and provides selected services to researchers at all of the NASA research centers. Resources available in the library include books, journals, CD-ROMs, and access to various online sources, as well as live reference and inter-library loan services. The collection contains over 77,000 books, 800,000 research reports, and print or online access to over 1,400 journals. Currently the library operates within the Logistics and Technical Information Division, and is funded as an open-access resource within the GRC. Some of the research units at the GRC have recently requested that the library convert to a "pay-for-services" model, in which individual research units could fund only those journal subscriptions for which they have a specific need. Under this model, the library would always maintain a certain minimum level of pooled-expense services, including the ready reference and book collections, and inter-library loan services. Theoretically the "pay-for-services" model would encourage efficient financial allocation, and minimize the extent to which paid journal subscriptions go unused. However, this model also could potentially negate the benefits of group purchases for journal subscriptions and access. All of the major journal publishers offer package subscriptions that compare favorably in cost with the sum of individual subscription costs for a similar selection of titles. Furthermore, some of these subscription packages are "consortium" purchases that are funded collectively by the libraries at multiple NASA research centers; such consortia1 memberships would be difficult for the library to pay, if enough GRC research units were to withdraw their pooled contributions. cost of collectively-funded journal access with the cost of individual subscriptions. My primary task this summer is to create the cost dataset framework, and

  6. Distributing College Budgets: A Study of Local Education Authority (LEA) Planning and Formulae-Funding Mechanisms in England. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Derek W.; Spencer, Anne C.

    The Education Reform Act 1988 provides for the reform of the funding and governance of colleges of further education in England and Wales, comprising about 400 colleges (equivalent to community colleges and vocational schools) across 104 local education authorities (LEAs). The process and formula for budget-setting is described, and a number of…

  7. Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance: The 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) Grantees after Three Years. NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2016-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Alison; Chiang, Hanley; Hallgren, Kristin; Speroni, Cecilia; Herrmann, Mariesa; Burkander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. The goal of the grants is to increase the number of high-performing teachers in high-need schools by rewarding educators for improving students' achievement. The report on which this snapshot is based…

  8. Ignorance Only: HIV/AIDS, Human Rights, and Federally Funded Abstinence-Only Programs in the United States. Texas: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleifer, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    This report contends that programs teaching teenagers to "just say no" to sex before marriage are threatening adolescent health by censoring basic information about how to prevent HIV/AIDS. The report focuses on federally funded "abstinence-only-until-marriage" programs in Texas, where advertising campaigns convey the message…

  9. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor

  10. Risk analytics for hedge funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Ankur

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the hedge fund industry presents significant business opportunity for the institutional investors particularly in the form of portfolio diversification. To facilitate this, there is a need to develop a new set of risk analytics for investments consisting of hedge funds, with the ultimate aim to create transparency in risk measurement without compromising the proprietary investment strategies of hedge funds. As well documented in the literature, use of dynamic options like strategies by most of the hedge funds make their returns highly non-normal with fat tails and high kurtosis, thus rendering Value at Risk (VaR) and other mean-variance analysis methods unsuitable for hedge fund risk quantification. This paper looks at some unique concerns for hedge fund risk management and will particularly concentrate on two approaches from physical world to model the non-linearities and dynamic correlations in hedge fund portfolio returns: Self Organizing Criticality (SOC) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT).Random Matrix Theory analyzes correlation matrix between different hedge fund styles and filters random noise from genuine correlations arising from interactions within the system. As seen in the results of portfolio risk analysis, it leads to a better portfolio risk forecastability and thus to optimum allocation of resources to different hedge fund styles. The results also prove the efficacy of self-organized criticality and implied portfolio correlation as a tool for risk management and style selection for portfolios of hedge funds, being particularly effective during non-linear market crashes.

  11. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  12. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT - AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Helen Kerr

    2003-08-01

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) is a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (1) European Union (DG Res & DG Tren), (2) Norway (Klimatek) and (3) the U.S.A. (Department of Energy). The project objective is to develop new technologies, which could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies are to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. The project budget is approximately $24 million over 3 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: (1) Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. (2) Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. (3) Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. (4) Capture Technology, Pre -Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum coke are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. (5) Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. (6) New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. (7) Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. (8) Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Technology development work dominated the past six months of the project. Numerous studies are making substantial progress

  13. Intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to capture projectiles intact at hypervelocities opens new applications in science and technology that would either not be possible or would be very costly by other means. This capability has been demonstrated in the laboratory for aluminum projectiles of 1.6 mm diameter, captured at 6 km/s, in one unmelted piece, and retaining up to 95% of the original mass. Furthermore, capture was accomplished passively using microcellular underdense polymer foam. Another advantage of capturing projectiles in an underdense medium is the ability of such a medium to preserve a record of the projectile's original velocity components of speed and direction. A survey of these experimental results is described in terms of a dozen parameters which characterize the amount of capture and the effect on the projectile due to different capture media.

  14. Intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles.

    PubMed

    Tsou, P

    1990-01-01

    The ability to capture projectiles intact at hypervelocities opens new applications in science and technology that would either not be possible or would be very costly by other means. This capability has been demonstrated in the laboratory for aluminum projectiles of 1.6 mm diameter, captured at 6 km/s, in one unmelted piece, and retaining up to 95% of the original mass. Furthermore, capture was accomplished passively using microcellular underdense polymer foam. Another advantage of capturing projectiles in an underdense medium is the ability of such a medium to preserve a record of the projectile's original velocity components of speed and direction. A survey of these experimental results is described in terms of a dozen parameters which characterize the amount of capture and the effect on the projectile due to different capture media.

  15. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 [ae-B20H17NH3], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 {+-} 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 {+-} 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  16. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Heber, Elisa M; Kueffer, Peter J; Lee, Mark W; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Garabalino, Marcela A; Molinari, Ana J; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of (10)B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH(3)(CH(2))(15)-7,8-C(2)B(9)H(11)] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH(3)(CH(2))(15)-7,8-C(2)B(9)H(11)] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na(3) [ae-B(20)H(17)NH(3)], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 ± 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 ± 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  17. SU-E-T-21: A D-D Based Neutron Generator System for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, M; Liu, Y; Nie, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator for application in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer Methods: MCNP simulations were performed using a head phantom and a monoenergetic neutron source, which resembles the point source in a DD generator that emits 2.45-MeV neutrons. Source energies ranging from 5eV to 2.45MeV were simulated to determine the optimal treatment energy. The phantom consisted of soft tissue, brain tissue, skull, skin layer, and a brain tumor of 5 cm in diameter. Tumor depth was varied from 5–10 cm. Boron-10 concentrations of 10 ppm, 15 ppm, and 30 ppm were used in the soft/brain tissues, skin, and tumor, respectively. The neutron flux required to deliver 60 Gy to the tumor as well as the normal tissue doses were determined. Results: Beam energies between 5eV and 10keV obtained doses with the highest dose ratios (3.3–25.9) between the tumor and the brain at various depths. The dose ratio with 2.45-MeV neutrons ranged from 0.8–6.6. To achieve the desired tumor dose in 40 minutes, the required neutron flux for a DD generator was between 8.8E10 and 5.2E11 n/s and the resulting brain dose was between 2.3 and 18 Gy, depending on the tumor depth. The skin and soft tissue doses were within acceptable tolerances. The boron-neutron interaction accounted for 54–58% of the total dose. Conclusion: This study shows that the DD neutron generator can be a feasible neutron source for BNCT. The required neutron flux for treatment is achievable with the current DD neutron technology. With a well-designed beam shaping assembly and treatment geometry, the neutron flux can be further improved and a 60-Gy prescription can be accurately delivered to the target while maintaining tolerable normal tissue doses. Further experimental studies will be developed and conducted to validate the simulation results.

  18. NADA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 19: The US government technical report and the transfer of federally funded aerospace R/D: An analysis of five studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the 'NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project'. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reprts and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from five studies of our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report and close with a brief overview of on-going research into the use of the U.S. government technical report as a rhetorical device for transferring federally funded aerospace R&D.

  19. Double-electron capture by highly-ionized atoms isolated at very low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwell Hoogerheide, Shannon; Dreiling, Joan M.; Sahiner, Arda; Tan, Joseph N.

    2016-05-01

    Charge exchange with background gases, also known as electron capture processes, is important in the study of comets, controlled fusion energy, anti-matter atoms, and proposed one-electron ions in Rydberg states. However, there are few experiments in the very low energy regime that could be useful for further theoretical development. At NIST, highly-charged ions extracted from an electron-beam ion trap can be isolated with energy < 10 eV in a compact Penning trap. By controlling the background gas pressure and composition, the charge exchange rates can be studied. Fully stripped neon or other ions are held in the trap for varying lengths of time and allowed to interact with different background gases at multiple pressures. The ions are then pulsed to a time-of-flight detector to count the population of each charge state. Analysis using a system of rate equations yields information about the ion cloud expansion and single-electron capture rates. A substantial amount of double-electron capture is also observed. We present the relative rates and discuss the error budget. SFH and JMD were funded by National Research Council Research Associateship Awards during some of this work.

  20. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  1. Inland capture fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Welcomme, Robin L.; Cowx, Ian G.; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. PMID:20713391

  2. Inland capture fisheries.

    PubMed

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  3. Captured by Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  4. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  5. Private Funding for Elementary and Secondary Public Education in British Columbia for 1983/84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Kirk

    This study examines major issues in, and effective practices for, private funding for elementary and secondary public education in British Columbia. The sources and allocation of funds for school districts and schools were investigated, along with their funding practices. Using data on funds obtained from a representative sampling of 13 districts…

  6. Evidence-Based Adequacy Model for School Funding: Success Rates in Illinois Schools that Meet Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explores the 2010 recommendation of the Educational Funding Advisory Board to consider the Evidence-Based Adequacy model of school funding in Illinois. This school funding model identifies and costs research based practices necessary in a prototypical school and sets funding levels based upon those practices. This study…

  7. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Who will fund Landsat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    A first-ever joint hearing of the Science, Space, and Technology Committee and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence was held on June 26 to ascertain the true value of the civilian satellite program—Landsat—to the scientific, environmental, and military communities.Landsats collect multispectral images that are used for such purposes as environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and national security. Since the first launch in 1972, Landsat has provided a continuous data record that has proved invaluable in global change research. Currently, Landsats 4 and 5 are in orbit, with Landsat 6 still on schedule for a mid-1992 launch. No funding has been requested for any follow-on to Landsat 6, making users of the data uncertain that their future projects will go ahead.

  9. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of surface changes on brominated and sulfur-treated activated carbon sorbents during mercury capture: performance of pellet versus fiber sorbents.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arindom; Abram, David N; Kuhl, Kendra P; Paradis, Jennifer; Crawford, Jenni L; Sasmaz, Erdem; Chang, Ramsay; Jaramillo, Thomas F; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-12-03

    This work explores surface changes and the Hg capture performance of brominated activated carbon (AC) pellets, sulfur-treated AC pellets, and sulfur-treated AC fibers upon exposure to simulated Powder River Basin-fired flue gas. Hg breakthrough curves yielded specific Hg capture amounts by means of the breakthrough shapes and times for the three samples. The brominated AC pellets showed a sharp breakthrough after 170-180 h and a capacity of 585 μg of Hg/g, the sulfur-treated AC pellets exhibited a gradual breakthrough after 80-90 h and a capacity of 661 μg of Hg/g, and the sulfur-treated AC fibers showed no breakthrough even after 1400 h, exhibiting a capacity of >9700 μg of Hg/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze sorbent surfaces before and after testing to show important changes in quantification and oxidation states of surface Br, N, and S after exposure to the simulated flue gas. For the brominated and sulfur-treated AC pellet samples, the amount of surface-bound Br and reduced sulfur groups decreased upon Hg capture testing, while the level of weaker Hg-binding surface S(VI) and N species (perhaps as NH4(+)) increased significantly. A high initial concentration of strong Hg-binding reduced sulfur groups on the surface of the sulfur-treated AC fiber is likely responsible for this sorbent's minimal accumulation of S(VI) species during exposure to the simulated flue gas and is linked to its superior Hg capture performance compared to that of the brominated and sulfur-treated AC pellet samples.

  10. Tradeoffs between physical captures and PIT tag antenna array detections: A case study for the Lower Colorado River Basin population of humpback chub (Gila cypha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Kristen Nicole; Kendall, William; Winkelman, Dana L.; Persons, William R.

    2016-01-01

    A key component of many monitoring programs for special status species involves capture and handling of individuals as part of capture-recapture efforts for tracking population health and demography. Minimizing negative impacts from sampling, such as through reduced handling, aids prevention of negative impacts on species from monitoring efforts. Using simulation analyses, we found that long-term population monitoring techniques, requiring physical capture (i.e. hoop-net sampling), can be reduced and supplemented with passive detections (i.e. PIT tag antenna array detections) without negatively affecting estimates of adult humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha) survival (S) and skipped spawning probabilities (γ' = spawner transitions to a skipped spawner, γ′ = skipped spawner remains a skipped spawner). Based on our findings of the array’s in situ detection efficiency (0.42), estimability of such demographic parameters would improve over hoop-netting alone. In addition, the array provides insight into HBC population dynamics and movement patterns outside of traditional sampling periods. However, given current timing of sampling efforts, spawner abundance estimates were negatively biased when hoop-netting was reduced, suggesting not all spawning HBC are present during the current sampling events. Despite this, our findings demonstrate that PIT tag antenna arrays, even with moderate potential detectability, may allow for reduced handling of special status species while also offering potentially more efficient monitoring strategies, especially if ideal timing of sampling can be determined.

  11. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Richard

    Biomedical imaging, and in particular MRI and CT, is often identified as among the top 10 most significant advances in healthcare in the 20th century. This presentation will describe some of the recent advances in medical physics and imaging being funded by NIH in this century and current funding opportunities. The presentation will also highlight the role of multidisciplinary research in bringing concepts from the physical sciences and applying them to challenges in biological and biomedical research.. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging.

  12. Clinton proposes science funding increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    President Bill Clinton proposed a major increase in science funding and several science and environment initiatives during his State of the Union address on January 28.As part of the White House Millennium Program the administration established to promote the nation's creativity and innovation, the President proposed a 21st Century Research Fund for scientific inquiry that would provide the largest one-year funding increase in history for the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health, and National Cancer Institute.

  13. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  14. 25 CFR 170.130 - How can tribes use Federal highway funds for toll and ferry facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ferry facilities? (a) A tribe can use Federal-aid highway funds, including IRR Program funds, to study... toll facility, these funds will cover a maximum of 80 percent of the project cost. In this case,...

  15. Experimental study of radiative pion capture on /sup 13/C, /sup 20/Ne, /sup 90/Zr, /sup 19/F and /sup 12/C

    SciTech Connect

    Martoff, C.J.

    1980-11-01

    Photon spectra for 50 < E/sub ..gamma../ < 135 MeV have been measured from the radiative capture of stopped negative pions by the nuclides /sup 13/C, /sup 19/F, /sup 20/Ne, and /sup 90/Zr. The e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair spectrometer system used has resolution 850 keV fwhm and photon detection efficiency 5 x 10/sup -6/. The total radiative capture branching ratios measured are /sup 13/C (1.66 +- 0.25)%, /sup 19/F (2.40 +- 0.48)%, /sup 20/Ne (1.60 +- 0.24)%, and /sup 90/Zr (2.1 +- 0.5)%. The partial radiative capture branching ratios to four bound states and two resonances in /sup 20/F, and two bound states and three resonances in /sup 13/B have also been measured. The branching ratio for /sup 13/C(..pi../sup -/,..gamma..)/sup 13/B g.s. is (6.1 +- 1.2) x 10/sup -4/. Comparison of this result with the beta decay rate of /sup 13/B shows that (84 +- 16)% of the pion capture amplitude is accounted for by the Gamow-Teller matrix element. Further analysis suggests that much of the remaining strength is E2. The measured branching ratios to resonant states in /sup 13/C(..pi../sup -/,..gamma..)/sup 13/B are shown to be in agreement with detailed shell model calculations. The total single-particle strength in these transitions is shown to be approximately half as large as that of the T = 3/2 part of the E1 photoresonance (the Giant Dipole Resonance) in /sup 13/C. The branching ratio for /sup 20/Ne(..pi../sup -/,..gamma..)/sup 20/F (T = 1, J/sup ..pi../ = 1/sup +/, E/sub x/ = 1.06 MeV) is 0.91 +- 0.52).10/sup -4/. Comparison with the electroexcitation of the analog giant M1 state in /sup 20/Ne (11.24 MeV) shows that the M1 transition amplitude is less than (46 +- 14)% Gamow-Teller. This result is in agreement with detailed shell model calculations of the M1 transition. The photon spectrum for radiative pion capture from flight (reaction /sup 12/C(..pi../sup +/ T = 44 MeV, ..gamma.. at 90/sup 0/)) has been measured. 13 figures, 12 tables.

  16. Rare Cell Capture in Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Erica D.; Huang, Chao; Hawkins, Benjamin G.; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews existing methods for the isolation, fractionation, or capture of rare cells in microfluidic devices. Rare cell capture devices face the challenge of maintaining the efficiency standard of traditional bulk separation methods such as flow cytometers and immunomagnetic separators while requiring very high purity of the target cell population, which is typically already at very low starting concentrations. Two major classifications of rare cell capture approaches are covered: (1) non-electrokinetic methods (e.g., immobilization via antibody or aptamer chemistry, size-based sorting, and sheath flow and streamline sorting) are discussed for applications using blood cells, cancer cells, and other mammalian cells, and (2) electrokinetic (primarily dielectrophoretic) methods using both electrode-based and insulative geometries are presented with a view towards pathogen detection, blood fractionation, and cancer cell isolation. The included methods were evaluated based on performance criteria including cell type modeled and used, number of steps/stages, cell viability, and enrichment, efficiency, and/or purity. Major areas for improvement are increasing viability and capture efficiency/purity of directly processed biological samples, as a majority of current studies only process spiked cell lines or pre-diluted/lysed samples. Despite these current challenges, multiple advances have been made in the development of devices for rare cell capture and the subsequent elucidation of new biological phenomena; this article serves to highlight this progress as well as the electrokinetic and non-electrokinetic methods that can potentially be combined to improve performance in future studies. PMID:21532971

  17. Semiparametric regression in capture-recapture modeling.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, O; Crainiceanu, C; Barbraud, C; Jenouvrier, S; Morgan, B J T

    2006-09-01

    Capture-recapture models were developed to estimate survival using data arising from marking and monitoring wild animals over time. Variation in survival may be explained by incorporating relevant covariates. We propose nonparametric and semiparametric regression methods for estimating survival in capture-recapture models. A fully Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations was employed to estimate the model parameters. The work is illustrated by a study of Snow petrels, in which survival probabilities are expressed as nonlinear functions of a climate covariate, using data from a 40-year study on marked individuals, nesting at Petrels Island, Terre Adélie.

  18. Capture of farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus): comparison of physiological parameters after manual capture and after capture with electrical stunning.

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Ganswindt, A; Fosgate, G T; Botha, P J; Myburgh, J G

    2014-09-27

    The electric stunner (e-stunner) is commonly used to handle Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) on commercial farms in South Africa, but while it seems to improve handling and safety for the keepers, no information regarding physiological reactions to e-stunning is currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to compare various physiological parameters in farmed C niloticus captured either manually (noosing) or by using an e-stunner. A total of 45 crocodiles were captured at a South African farm by either e-stunning or noosing, and blood samples were taken immediately as well as four hours after capture. Parameters monitored were serum corticosterone, lactate, glucose, as well as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in noosed compared with e-stunned animals (P<0.001). No other blood parameter differed significantly between the two methods of capture. In addition, recorded capture time confirmed that noosing takes significantly longer time compared with e-stunning (P<0.001), overall indicating that e-stunning seems to be the better option for restraint of especially large numbers of crocodiles in a commercial setup because it is quicker, safer and did not cause a significant increase in any of the parameters measured.

  19. Commerical-Scale CO2 Capture and Sequestration for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Adolfo Garza

    2010-07-28

    On June 8, 2009, DOE issued Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-FOA-000015 seeking proposals to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources. This FOA called for what was essentially a two-tier selection process. A number of projects would receive awards to conduct front-end engineering and design (FEED) studies as Phase I. Those project sponsors selected would be required to apply for Phase II, which would be the full design, construction, and operation of their proposed technology. Over forty proposals were received, and ten were awarded Phase I Cooperative Agreements. One of those proposers was CEMEX. CEMEX proposed to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from one of their existing cement plants and either sequester the CO2 in a geologic formation or use it for enhanced oil recovery. The project consisted of evaluating their plants to identify the plant best suited for the demonstration, identify the best available capture technology, and prepare a design basis. The project also included evaluation of the storage or sequestration options in the vicinity of the selected plant.

  20. Capture probabilities for secondary resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malhotra, Renu

    1990-01-01

    A perturbed pendulum model is used to analyze secondary resonances, and it is shown that a self-similarity between secondary and primary resonances exists. Henrard's (1982) theory is used to obtain formulas for the capture probability into secondary resonances. The tidal evolution of Miranda and Umbriel is considered as an example, and significant probabilities of capture into secondary resonances are found.