Science.gov

Sample records for carbenoid cyclization-cycloaddition cascade

  1. The Rhodium(II) Carbenoid Cyclization-Cycloaddition Cascade of α-Diazo Dihydroindolinones for the Synthesis of Novel Azapolycyclic Ring Systems‡

    PubMed Central

    England, Dylan B.; Eagan, James M.; Merey, Gokce; Anac, Olcay; Padwa, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Tandem carbonyl ylide formation-1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of α-diazo N-acetyl-tetrahydro-β-carbolin-1-one derivatives occur efficiently in the presence of a dirhodium catalyst to afford bimolecular cycloadducts in high yield. The Rh(II)-catalyzed reaction also takes place intramolecularly to give products derived from trapping of the carbonyl ylide dipole with a tethered alkene. The power of the intramolecular cascade sequence is that it rapidly assembles a pentacyclic ring system containing three new stereocenters and two adjacent quaternary centers stereospecifically in a single step and in high yield. PMID:18437248

  2. Dimensioning the Term Carbenoid.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ana; Pérez, Pedro J

    2017-06-22

    The current use of the term carbenoid is discussed, particularly in the context of carbene transfer reactions from diazo compounds, in which intermediates of type Ln M=CR(1) R(2) , or one of its resonance forms, are tagged which such a name. We discuss this issue, on the basis of the data evidencing the metal-carbene nature of those intermediates, as well as the existence of carbenoids of type (N2 )(M)CR(1) R(2) en route to the formation to Ln M=CR(1) R(2') from diazo reagents. We propose the exclusive use of the carbenoid term to species of type (X)(M)CR(1) R(2) with a tetrasubstituted carbon center that upon loss of X afford an effective carbene transfer process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Polyyne synthesis using carbene/carbenoid rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Chalifoux, Wesley A; Tykwinski, Rik R

    2006-01-01

    Rearrangement of a carbene/carbenoid intermediate to form an acetylene moiety, known as the Fritsch-Buttenberg-Wiechell (FBW) rearrangement, was developed for the formation of polyynes and polyyne frameworks within highly conjugated organic materials. Necessary precursors can be prepared through formation of an alkynyl ketone, followed by dibromoolefination under Corey-Fuchs conditions. The carbenoid rearrangement is brought about by treatment of the dibromoolefin with BuLi under mild conditions. The success of these FBW reactions is quite solvent-dependent, and nonpolar hydrocarbon solvents (e.g., hexanes, toluene, benzene) work quite well, while use of ethereal solvents such as diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran (THF) does not provide the desired polyyne product. This protocol was successfully applied to the formation of silyl, alkyl, alkenyl, and aryl polyynes, including di-, tri-, and tetrayne products, as well as the construction of two-dimensional carbon-rich molecules. A one-pot variant of this procedure is being developed and is particularly applicable toward the synthesis of polyyne natural products. Formation of a series of triisopropylsilyl end-capped polyynes, from the triyne to decayne, was achieved. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of these polyynes were evaluated. This study shows that the molecular second hyperpolarizabilities for the polyynes as a function of length increase at a rate that is higher than all other nonaromatic organic oligomers.

  4. [Exploitation of the chemistry of magnesium carbenoids and their use in organic synthesis].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tsuyoshi

    2009-09-01

    Synthetic organic chemistry is a base of medicinal chemistry and the exploitation of new methods for carbon-carbon bond formation is of most importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Carbenes and carbenoids have long been known to be highly reactive carbon species that show a variety of unique reactivity. However, those reactive species are not fully used in organic synthesis. The reasons are as follows: one is the precursors for the generation of carbenes and carbenoids are quite limited and the other is that the reactivity of the species is too high to control. In order to solve the problem mentioned above, we used alpha-haloalkyl (or alkenyl) aryl sulfoxides as the precursors and used sulfoxide-magnesium exchange reaction for generation of much mild magnesium carbenoids. alpha-Haloalkyl (or alkenyl) aryl sulfoxides are quite easily synthesized in high overall yields. Magnesium carbenoids, cyclopropylmagnesium carbenoids, cyclobutylmagnesium carbenoids, magnesium beta-oxido carbenoids, and magnesium alkylidene carbenoids are generated at low temperature from the corresponding sulfoxides with a Grignard reagent in quantitative yields. They were found to be stable usually at below -60 degrees C for at least 30 min. The each magnesium carbenoids have their own unique reactivities and we could find many unprecedented reactions from these reactive species. Recent results for the developments of new synthetic methods based on the chemistry of magnesium carbenoids are described.

  5. Alkynoate Synthesis via Vinylogous Reactivity of Rh(II) Carbenoids

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Damien; Lian, Yajing; Haydek, John P.; Hardcastle, Kenneth I.; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2013-01-01

    A new rhodium carbenoid approach to access alkynoates has been developed. This transformation combines the addition of enol ethers at the vinylogous position of β-siloxy-substituted vinyldiazo derivatives and an unprecedented siloxy group migration to yield the products as single diastereomers. PMID:22807172

  6. Formation of Olefins by Eliminative Dimerization and Eliminative Cross-Coupling of Carbenoids: A Stereochemical Exercise.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, Paul R; Hoffmann, Reinhard W

    2017-08-22

    Two carbenoids combine to generate an olefin by a mechanism involving ate-complex formation, 1,2-metallate rearrangement, and beta-elimination. Because each stage of this eliminative coupling is stereospecific, the overall stereochemical outcome can be understood, and in principle fully controlled, providing that the absolute stereochemical configurations of the reacting carbenoid species are defined. By contrast to traditional alkene syntheses, the eliminative cross-coupling of carbenoids offers a connective approach to olefins capable of precisely targeting a given isomer regardless of the nature of the features distinguishing isomers. The formation of olefins by eliminative dimerization and eliminative cross-coupling of carbenoids is reviewed for a range of illustrative examples, including the reactions of lithiated -haloalkanes, -epoxides, and -carbamates. An emphasis is placed on stereochemical analysis and methods to generate sp3-hybridized carbenoids in stereodefined form are surveyed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Alkali Metal Chlorine and Bromine Carbenoids: Their Thermal Stability and Structural Properties.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Sebastian; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2017-09-07

    The synthesis and structures of a series of M/X carbenoids of the type [Ph2 P(S)]2 CMX with M=Li, Na, and K and X=Cl and Br are reported, amongst the first isolated Na/Br and K/Br carbenoids. NMR spectroscopic as well as crystallographic studies showed distinct differences between the lithium carbenoids and their heavier congeners. In the solid state, all carbenoids showed no direct metal-carbon interaction, but an interaction between the metal and the halogen atom. This contact is only very weak in the case of the Li/Br carbenoid, but much more pronounced in the corresponding potassium and sodium compounds. Nevertheless, these interactions did not significantly influence the stability of the carbenoids by weakening the C-X bond and facilitating the MX elimination. As such all compounds were found to be stable up to approximately 60 °C in solution. Hence, M-X interactions-albeit being an essential feature for the structure formation of carbenoids-are not the only criterion determining the stability of such compounds. In the present systems, the stabilization by the thiophosphinoyl moieties is more important than the metal/halogen combination. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Gold Carbene or Carbenoid: Is There a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yahui; Muratore, Michael E; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    By reviewing the recent progress on the elucidation of the structure of gold carbenes and the definitions of metal carbenes and carbenoids, we recommend to use the term gold carbene to describe gold carbene-like intermediates, regardless of whether the carbene or carbocation extreme resonance dominates. Gold carbenes, because of the weak metal-to-carbene π-back-donation and their strongly electrophilic reactivity, could be classified into the broader family of Fischer carbenes, although their behavior and properties are very specific. PMID:25786384

  9. Enantioselective reactions of donor/acceptor carbenoids derived from alpha-aryl-alpha-diazoketones.

    PubMed

    Denton, Justin R; Davies, Huw M L

    2009-02-19

    The reaction of a variety of alpha-aryl-alpha-diazo ketones with activated olefins, catalyzed by the adamantyl glycine-derived dirhodium complex Rh(2)(S-PTAD)(4), generates cyclopropyl ketones with high diastereoselectivity (up to >95:5 dr) and enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). Intermolecular C-H functionalization of 1,4-cyclohexadiene by means of carbenoid-induced C-H insertion was also possible with this type of carbenoid.

  10. Reagent-controlled asymmetric homologation of boronic esters by enantioenriched main-group chiral carbenoids.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, Paul R; Marsden, Stephen P; Vater, Huw D

    2006-02-16

    [reaction: see text] Putative enantioenriched carbenoid species, (R)-1-chloro-2-phenylethylmagnesium chloride (9) and (S)-1-chloro-2-phenylethyllithium (26), generated in situ by sulfoxide ligand exchange from (-)-(R(S),R)-1-chloro-2-phenylethyl p-tolyl sulfoxide (8), effected the stereocontrolled homologation of boronic esters. sec-Alcohols derived from the product boronates by oxidation with basic hydrogen peroxide exhibited % ee closely approaching that of sulfoxide 8 in examples employing Li-carbenoid 26.

  11. Rhodium(II)-Alkynyl Carbenoids Insertion into Si-H bonds: An Entry to Propargylic Geminal Bis(silanes).

    PubMed

    Courant, Thibaut; Kumar, Rahul; Turcaud, Serge; Micouin, Laurent

    2016-10-07

    α-Alkynyl-α'-trimethylsilylhydrazones are used as novel Rh(II)-carbenoids precursors. These new carbenoids have shown very good reactivity in Si-H insertion reactions, leading to original propargylic geminal-bis(silanes) in a two-step sequential process.

  12. Alkali Metal Carbenoids: A Case of Higher Stability of the Heavier Congeners.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Sebastian; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2016-06-27

    As a result of the increased polarity of the metal-carbon bond when going down the group of the periodic table, the heavier alkali metal organyl compounds are generally more reactive and less stable than their lithium congeners. We now report a reverse trend for alkali metal carbenoids. Simple substitution of lithium by the heavier metals (Na, K) results in a significant stabilization of these usually highly reactive compounds. This allows their isolation and handling at room temperature and the first structure elucidation of sodium and potassium carbenoids. The control of stability was used to control reactivity and selectivity. Hence, the Na and K carbenoids act as selective carbene-transfer reagents, whereas the more labile lithium systems give rise to product mixtures. Additional fine tuning of the M-C interaction by means of crown ether addition further allows for control of the stability and reactivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dirhodium tetracarboxylate derived from adamantylglycine as a chiral catalyst for carbenoid reactions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ravisekhara P; Lee, Gene H; Davies, Huw M L

    2006-08-03

    [reaction: see text] The dirhodium tetracarboxylate, Rh2(S-PTAD)4, derived from adamantylglycine, is a very effective chiral catalyst for carbenoid reactions. High asymmetric induction was obtained in Rh2(S-PTAD)4-catalyzed intramolecular C-H insertion (94% ee), intermolecular cyclopropanation (99% ee), and intermolecular C-H insertion (92% ee).

  14. Computational studies on a carbenoid mechanism for the Doering-Moore-Skattebøl reaction.

    PubMed

    Voukides, Alicia C; Cahill, Katharine J; Johnson, Richard P

    2013-12-06

    The reaction of geminal dihalocyclopropanes with metals or alkyllithiums affords carbenoids which undergo low-temperature ring opening to allenes; this is known as the Doering-Moore-Skattebøl reaction. DFT and CCSD(T)//DFT computations have been used to model the structure, coordination state, and ring opening of 1-bromo-1-lithiocyclopropane as a model for cyclopropylcarbenoid chemistry. Both implicit (PCM) and explicit solvation models have been applied. Carbenoid ring opening is similar to the process predicted in earlier studies on cyclopropylidene. The initial disrotatory stereochemistry becomes conrotatory en route to the allene-LiBr complex. Predissociation of the carbenoid to cyclopropylidene + LiBr is not supported by computations. DFT computations predict modestly exergonic dimerization of the carbenoid, with or without solvation, and the dimer appears to be the most likely reactive species in solution. Predicted barriers to ring opening are only modestly affected by solvation or by dimer formation, remaining in the range of 9-12 kcal/mol throughout.

  15. Dualism of carbonium ion and carbenoid reactivity of surface methoxyl groups on zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chuvylkin, N.D.; Korsunov, V.A.; Kazanskii, V.B.

    1987-05-01

    The dualism of the carbonium ion and carbenoid reactivity of the surface methoxyl groups on zeolite catalysts was analyzed within the framework of the cluster method of boundary pseudoions, using uncharged and moderately charged ionic models and the unified quantum chemical procedure CINDORU.

  16. Gold(I) Carbenoids: On-Demand Access to Gold(I) Carbenes in Solution.

    PubMed

    Sarria Toro, Juan M; García-Morales, Cristina; Raducan, Mihai; Smirnova, Ekaterina S; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2017-02-06

    Chloromethylgold(I) complexes of phosphine, phosphite, and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands are easily synthesized by reaction of trimethylsilyldiazomethane with the corresponding gold chloride precursors. Activation of these gold(I) carbenoids with a variety of chloride scavengers promotes reactivity typical of metallocarbenes in solution, namely homocoupling to ethylene, olefin cyclopropanation, and Buchner ring expansion of benzene.

  17. Enantioselective carbenoid insertion into C(sp3)–H bonds

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, J V

    2016-01-01

    Summary The enantioselective carbenoid insertion into C(sp3)–H bonds is an important tool for the synthesis of complex molecules due to the high control of enantioselectivity in the formation of stereogenic centers. This paper presents a brief review of the early issues, related mechanistic studies and recent applications on this chemistry area. PMID:27340479

  18. Gold(I) Carbenoids: On‐Demand Access to Gold(I) Carbenes in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Sarria Toro, Juan M.; García‐Morales, Cristina; Raducan, Mihai; Smirnova, Ekaterina S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chloromethylgold(I) complexes of phosphine, phosphite, and N‐heterocyclic carbene ligands are easily synthesized by reaction of trimethylsilyldiazomethane with the corresponding gold chloride precursors. Activation of these gold(I) carbenoids with a variety of chloride scavengers promotes reactivity typical of metallocarbenes in solution, namely homocoupling to ethylene, olefin cyclopropanation, and Buchner ring expansion of benzene. PMID:28090747

  19. Solid-state structure of a Li/F carbenoid: pentafluoroethyllithium.

    PubMed

    Waerder, Benedikt; Steinhauer, Simon; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Mix, Andreas; Vishnevskiy, Yury V; Hoge, Berthold; Mitzel, Norbert W

    2014-10-20

    Lithium carbenoids are versatile compounds for synthesis owing to their intriguing ambiphilic behavior. Although this class of compounds has been known for several years, few solid-state structures exist because of their high reactivity and often low thermal stability. Using cryo X-ray techniques, we were now able to elucidate the first solid-state structure of a Li/F alkyl carbenoid, pentafluoroethyllithium (LiC2F5), finally yielding a prototype for investigating structure-reactivity relationships for this class of molecules. The compound forms a diethyl ether-solvated dimer bridged by a rare C-F-Li link. Complementary NMR spectroscopy studies in solution show dynamic processes and indicate rapid exchange of starting material and product. Theoretical investigations help to understand the formation of the observed unusual structural motif. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enantioselective Intramolecular C–H Insertion Reactions of Donor–Donor Metal Carbenoids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first asymmetric insertion reactions of donor–donor carbenoids, i.e., those with no pendant electron-withdrawing groups, are reported. This process enables the synthesis of densely substituted benzodihydrofurans with high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity. Preliminary results show similar efficiency in the preparation of indanes. This new method is used in the first enantioselective synthesis of an oligoresveratrol natural product (E-δ-viniferin). PMID:25308822

  1. Design and Synthesis of C2-Symmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precursors and Metal Carbenoids

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Abigail; Eddings, Daniel; Black, Regina; Welch, Christopher J.; Gerasimchuk, Nikolay N.; Gawley, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Chiral, C2-symmetric imidazolium and imidazolinium ions, as well as the corresponding copper or silver bound carbenoids, have been prepared. Structural study of these compounds by X-ray crystallography reveals a chiral pocket that surrounds the putative carbene site or the metal-carbene bond, at carbon 2, in three of the four ligands prepared. Preliminary investigation into the application of these complexes has shown one of them to be highly enantioselective in the hydrosilylation of acetophenone. PMID:21823580

  2. Intramolecular cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions with metal carbenoids generated from cyclopropenes.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Alexis; Miege, Frédéric; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine

    2015-04-21

    Activation of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds by means of transition metal catalysts is an exceptionally active research field in organic synthesis. In this context, due to their high ring strain, cyclopropenes constitute an interesting class of substrates that displays a versatile reactivity in the presence of transition metal catalysts. Metal complexes of vinyl carbenes are involved as key intermediates in a wide variety of transition metal-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropenes. Most of the reported transformations rely on intermolecular or intramolecular addition of nucleophiles to these latter reactive species. This Account focuses specifically on the reactivity of carbenoids resulting from the ring-opening of cyclopropenes in cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions, which are arguably two of the most representative transformations of metal complexes of carbenes. Compared with the more conventional α-diazo carbonyl compounds, the use of cyclopropenes as precursors of metal carbenoids in intramolecular cyclopropanation or C-H insertion reactions has been largely underexploited. One of the challenges is to devise appropriately substituted and readily available cyclopropenes that would not only undergo regioselective ring-opening under mild conditions but also trigger the subsequent desired transformations with a high level of chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity. These goals were met by considering several substrates derived from the readily available 3,3-dimethylcyclopropenylcarbinols or 3,3-dimethylcyclopropenylcarbinyl amines. In the case of 1,6-cyclopropene-enes, highly efficient and diastereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed ring-opening/intramolecular cyclopropanations were developed as a route to diversely substituted heterocycles and carbocycles possessing a bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane framework. The use of rhodium(II) catalysts enabled us to widen the scope of this transformation for the synthesis of medium-sized heterocyclic scaffolds

  3. Intramolecular cycloaddition reactions of furo[3,4-b]indoles for alkaloid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Padwa, Albert; Zou, Yan; Cheng, Bo; Li, Hao; Downer-Riley, Nadale; Straub, Christopher S

    2014-04-04

    Model studies dealing with the Cu(II)- or Rh(II)-catalyzed carbenoid cyclization/cycloaddition cascade of several α-diazo indolo amido esters have been carried out as an approach to the alkaloid scandine. The Cu(II)-catalyzed reaction of an α-diazo indolo diester that contains a tethered oxa-pentenyl side chain was found to give rise to a reactive benzo[c]furan which undergoes a subsequent [4 + 2]-cycloaddition across the tethered π-bond. The reaction proceeds by the initial generation of a copper carbenoid intermediate which cyclizes onto the adjacent carbonyl group to give a reactive benzo[c]furan which in certain cases can be isolated. Disappointingly, the analogous reaction with the related amido indolo ester failed to take place, even when the tethered π-bond contained an electron-withdrawing carbomethoxy group. It would seem that the geometric requirements for the intramolecular cycloaddition of the furo[3,4-b]indole system with the tethered π-bond imposes distinct restrictions upon the bond angles of the reacting centers to prevent the cycloaddition reaction from occurring. However, the incorporation of another carbonyl group on the nitrogen atom of the tethered alkenyl diazo amido indolo ester seemingly provides better orbital overlap between the reacting π-systems and allows the desired cycloaddition reaction to occur.

  4. Rhodium chemzymes: Michaelis-Menten kinetics in dirhodium(II) carboxylate-catalyzed carbenoid reactions.

    PubMed

    Pirrung, Michael C; Liu, Hao; Morehead, Andrew T

    2002-02-13

    Rhodium carboxylate-mediated reactions of diazoketones involving cyclopropanation, C-H insertion, and aromatic C-C double bond addition/electrocyclic ring opening obey saturation (Michaelis-Menten) kinetics. Axial ligands for rhodium, including aromatic hydrocarbons and Lewis bases such as nitriles, ethers, and ketones, inhibit these reactions by a mixed kinetic inhibition mechanism, meaning that they can bind both to the free catalyst and to the catalyst-substrate complex. Substrate inhibition can also be exhibited by diazocompounds bearing these groupings in addition to the diazo group. The analysis of inhibition shows that the active catalyst uses only one of its two coordination sites at a time for catalysis. Some ketones exhibit the interesting property that they selectively bind to the catalyst-substrate complex. The similarity of the kinetic constants from different types of reactions with similar diazoketones, regardless of the linking unit or the environment of the reacting alkene, suggests that the rate-determining step is the generation of the rhodium carbenoid. A very useful rhodium carboxylate catalyst for asymmetric synthesis, Rh(2)(DOSP)(4), shows slightly slower kinetic parameters than the achiral catalysts, implying that enantioselectivity of this catalyst is based on slowing reactions from one of the enantiotopic faces of the reactant, rather than any type of ligand-accelerated catalysis. A series of rhodium catalysts derived from acids with pK(a)s spanning 4 orders of magnitude give very similar kinetic constants.

  5. Axial coordination dichotomy in dirhodium carbenoid catalysis: a curious case of cooperative asymmetric dual-catalytic approach toward amino esters.

    PubMed

    Kisan, Hemanta K; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2015-02-20

    One of the most recent developments in asymmetric catalysis is to employ two or more catalysts under one-pot reaction conditions. This article presents some interesting mechanistic insights on a cooperative dual-catalytic protocol relying on the catalytic ability of dirhodium carbenoid (derived from rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate and a diazo compound) and a chiral spirophosphoric acid ((R)-SPA) in an asymmetric N-H insertion reaction. We have employed DFT(M06 and B3LYP) computational methods to identify the stereocontrolling transition states wherein a chiral (R)-SPA protonates a dirhodium-bound enol intermediate. A true cooperative action elicited by both catalysts has been noted in the enantioselective protonation. More importantly, whether the second axial ligand on the remote rhodium atom could influence the energetic features of the reaction has been probed for the first time. In all steps (such as nitrogen extrusion, addition of amine to the dirhodium carbenoid, and the enol formation), except that in the stereocontrolling event, no major effect of axial ligation has been noticed. However, the presence of the axial ligand helps in stabilizing the protonation transition state and reduces the activation barrier for protonation, suggesting a vital role in stereoselectivity. The predicted sense of stereoselectivities is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. α-Sulfinyl Benzoates as Precursors to Li and Mg Carbenoids for the Stereoselective Iterative Homologation of Boronic Esters.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Giorgia; Kucukdisli, Murat; Fordham, James M; Burns, Matthew; Myers, Eddie L; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2017-08-30

    The stereoselective reagent-controlled homologation of boronic esters is one of a small number of iteratable synthetic transformations that if automated could form the basis of a veritable molecule-making machine. Recently, α-stannyl triisopropylbenzoates and α-sulfinyl chlorides have emerged as useful building blocks for the iterative homologation of boronic esters. However, α-stannyl benzoates need to be prepared using stoichiometric amounts of the (+)- or (-)-enantiomer of the scarcely available and expensive diamine sparteine; also, these building blocks, together with the byproducts that are generated during homologation, are perceived as being toxic. On the other hand, α-sulfinyl chlorides are difficult to prepare with high levels of enantiopurity and are prone to undergo deleterious acid-base side-reactions under the reaction conditions for homologation, leading to low stereospecificity. Here, we show that the use of a hybrid of these two building blocks, namely, α-sulfinyl triisopropylbenzoates, largely overcomes the above drawbacks. Through either the sulfinylation of α-magnesiated benzoates with either enantiomer of Andersen's readily available menthol-derived sulfinate or the α-alkylation of enantiopure S-chiral α-sulfinyl benzoates, we have prepared a range of highly enantiopure mono- and disubstituted α-sulfinyl benzoates, some bearing sensitive functional groups. Barbier-type reaction conditions have been developed that allow these building blocks to be converted into lithium (t-BuLi) and magnesium (i-PrMgCl·LiCl) carbenoids in the presence of boronic esters, thus allowing efficient and highly stereospecific homologation. The use of magnesium carbenoids allows carbon chains to be grown with the incorporation of sensitive functional groups, such as alkyl/aryl halides, azides, and esters. The use of lithium carbenoids, which are less sensitive to steric hindrance, allows sterically encumbered carbon-carbon bonds to be forged. We have also

  7. Structures and aggregation states of fluoromethyllithium and chloromethyllithium carbenoids in the gas phase and in ethereal solvent.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Lawrence M; Ramachandran, Bala; Xidos, James D; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2002-11-01

    Using high-level quantum mechanical calculations and various models to account for solvation effects, monomers and dimers of fluoromethyllithium and chloromethyllithium carbenoids are studied in the gas phase and in dimethyl ether solvent. A combination of explicit microsolvation and a continuum reaction field is required to account fully for the structural and energetic effects of solvation. One important effect of solvent is the stabilization of charge-separated structures in which the lithium-halogen distance is much greater than in the gas-phase structures. At the most complete level of theory the 173 K standard-state free energy of dimerization of fluoromethyllithium in dimethyl ether is predicted to be -0.9 kcal mol(-)(1), while that for chloromethyllithium in the same solvent is predicted to be 3.7 kcal mol(-)(1). This suggests that, under typical experimental conditions, dimers of chloroalkyllithiums will not be observed, while dimers of fluoroalkyllithiums may contribute to the equilibrium population at a detectable level.

  8. Enantioselective synthesis of α-phenyl- and α-(dimethylphenylsilyl)alkylboronic esters by ligand mediated stereoinductive reagent-controlled homologation using configurationally labile carbenoids.

    PubMed

    Barsamian, Adam L; Wu, Zhenhua; Blakemore, Paul R

    2015-03-28

    Chain extension of boronic esters by the action of configurationally labile racemic lithium carbenoids in the presence of scalemic bisoxazoline ligands was explored for the enantioselective synthesis of the two title product classes. Enantioenriched 2° carbinols generated by oxidative work-up (NaOOH) of initial α-phenylalkylboronate products were obtained in 35-83% yield and 70-96% ee by reaction of B-alkyl and B-aryl neopentyl glycol boronates with a combination of O-(α-lithiobenzyl)-N,N-diisopropylcarbamate and ligand 3,3-bis[(4S)-4,5-dihydro-4-isopropyloxazol-2-yl] pentane in toluene solvent (-78 °C to rt) with MgBr2·OEt2 additive. Enantioenriched α-(dimethylsilylphenylsilyl)alkylboronates were obtained in 35-69% yield and 9-57% ee by reaction of B-alkyl pinacol boronates with a combination of lithio(dimethylphenylsilyl)methyl 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzoate and ligand 2,2-bis[(4S)-4,5-dihydro-4-isopropyloxazol-2-yl]propane in cumene solvent (-45 °C to -95 °C to rt). The stereochemical outcome of the second type of reaction depended on the temperature history of the organolithium·ligand complex indicating that the stereoinduction mechanism in this case involves some aspect of dynamic thermodynamic resolution.

  9. Cascades frog conservation assessment

    Treesearch

    Karen Pope; Catherine Brown; Marc Hayes; Gregory Green; Diane Macfarlane

    2014-01-01

    The Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) is a montane, lentic-breeding amphibian that has become rare in the southern Cascade Range and remains relatively widespread in the Klamath Mountains of northern California. In the southern Cascades, remaining populations occur primarily in meadow habitats where the fungal disease, chytridiomycosis, and habitat...

  10. Southern cascades bioregion

    Treesearch

    Carl N. Skinner; Alan H. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The Cascade Range extends from British Columbia, Canada, south to northern California where it meets the Sierra Nevada. The Southern Cascades bioregion in California is bounded on the west by the Sacramento Valley and the Klamath Mountains, and on the east by the Modoc Plateau and Great Basin. The bioregion encompasses the Southern Cascades section of Miles and Goudey...

  11. Ruthenium(II)/chiral Brønsted acid co-catalyzed enantioselective four-component reaction/cascade aza-Michael addition for efficient construction of 1,3,4-tetrasubstituted tetrahydroisoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Ma, Xiaochu; Ji, Changge; Guo, Zhenqiu; Shi, Taoda; Liu, Shunying; Hu, Wenhao

    2014-02-03

    An elegant synergistic catalytic system comprising a ruthenium complex with a chiral Brønsted acid was developed for a four-component Mannich/cascade aza-Michael reaction. The ruthenium-associated ammonium ylides successfully trapped with in situ generated imines indicates a stepwise process of proton transfer in the ruthenium-catalyzed carbenoid N-H insertion reaction. The different decomposition abilities of various ruthenium complexes towards diazo compounds were well explained by the calculated thermodynamic data. The transformation features a mild, rapid, and efficient method for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure 1,3,4-tetrasubstituted tetrahydroquinolines bearing a quaternary stereogenic carbon center from simple starting precursors in moderate yields with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. South Cascade Glacier bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, A.G.; Fulk, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    South Cascade Glacier, in Washington State, resides in a well-defined basin with mainly unglacierized divides making it ideal for most glaciological and hydrological studies. This bibliography is divided into three cateogories: (1) studies done about South Cascade Glacier specifically; (2) studies that use data from South Cascade Glacier but do not focus on or give insight to the glacier itself; and (3) instrumentation studies and non-glacier projects including snow studies done in the basin. (ACR)

  13. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  14. Theory of cascade refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quack, Hans H.

    2012-06-01

    The maximum difference between the warm and cold temperature of a refrigeration cycle is limited by properties of the refrigerant and/or losses associated with the transport of the refrigerant. For larger temperature differences, one has to arrange several refrigeration cycles "above" each other, each cycle spanning a certain temperature difference. This approach is called cascade refrigeration and has played an important role in the history of cryogenics. For a theory of cascade refrigeration it is helpful to define a general one-stage non-reversible refrigeration step and to visualize it within the temperature-entropy diagram. Then one can combine several one-stage cycles to a cascade. There exist two types of cascades: "Full" cascades, where all entropy gains of a lower stage are transferred to the next higher temperature stage, and "partial" cascades, where each single cycle goes up to ambient temperature, where a part of the entropy gain is removed, and only the rest of the entropy gain is transferred to the next higher temperature stage. In cryogenic refrigeration "partial" cascades are generally more efficient than "full" cascades.

  15. 5. VIEW OF UPPER AND LOWER CASCADE BRIDGES AND CASCADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPPER AND LOWER CASCADE BRIDGES AND CASCADE CREEK FROM 100 YARDS WEST OF THE ROSTRUM (ROCK FORMATION ON SOUTH SIDE OF MERCED RIVER). HIGHWAY 140 IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. HIGHWAY 120, THE BIG OAK FLAT ROAD CROSSES FRAME JUST ABOVE CENTER. - Cascade Creek Bridge, Spanning Cascade Creek on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  16. Biocatalysis: Chiral cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Bo; Reetz, Manfred T.

    2015-12-01

    Racemic or enantiomerically pure alcohols can be converted with high yield into enantiopure chiral amines in a one-pot redox-neutral cascade process by the clever combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase and an appropriate amine dehydrogenase.

  17. The nitrogen cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway J.N.; Aber J.D.; Erisman J.W.; Seitzinger S.P.; Howarth R.W.; Cowling E.B.; Cosby B.J.

    2003-04-01

    Human production of food and energy is the dominant continental process that breaks the triple bond in molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and creates reactive nitrogen (Nr) species. Circulation of anthropogenic Nr in Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere has a wide variety of consequences, which are magnified with time as Nr moves along its biogeochemical pathway. The same atom of Nr can cause multiple effects in the atmosphere, in terrestrial ecosystems, in freshwater and marine systems, and on human health. We call this sequence of effects the nitrogen cascade. As the cascade progresses, the origin of Nr becomes unimportant. Reactive nitrogen does not cascade at the same rate through all environmental systems; some systems have the ability to accumulate Nr, which leads to lag times in the continuation of the cascade. These lags slow the cascade and result in Nr accumulation in certain reservoirs, which in turn can enhance the effects of Nr on that environment. The only way to eliminate Nr accumulation and stop the cascade is to convert Nr back to nonreactive N{sub 2}.

  18. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  19. Hadron cascades produced by electromagnetic cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, T.M.; Ranft, J.

    1986-12-01

    A method for calculating high energy hadron cascades induced by multi-GeV electron and photon beams is described. Using the EGS4 computer program, high energy photons in the EM shower are allowed to interact hadronically according to the vector meson dominance (VMD) model, facilitated by a Monte Carlo version of the dual multistring fragmentation model which is used in the hadron cascade code FLUKA. The results of this calculation compare very favorably with experimental data on hadron production in photon-proton collisions and on the hadron production by electron beams on targets (i.e., yields in secondary particle beam lines). Electron beam induced hadron star density contours are also presented and are compared with those produced by proton beams. This FLUKA-EGS4 coupling technique could find use in the design of secondary beams, in the determination high energy hadron source terms for shielding purposes, and in the estimation of induced radioactivity in targets, collimators and beam dumps.

  20. Resonant Cascaded Downconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Weedbrook, Christian; Parrett, Ben; Kheruntsyan, Karen; Drummond, Peter; Pooser, Raphael C; Pfister, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We analyze an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in which cascaded down-conversion occurs inside a cavity resonant for all modes but the initial pump. Due to the resonant cascade design, the OPO presents two {chi}{sup (2)}-level oscillation thresholds that are therefore much lower than for a {chi}{sup (3)} OPO. This is promising for reaching the regime of an effective third-order nonlinearity well above both thresholds. Such a {chi}{sup (2)} cascaded device also has potential applications in frequency conversion to far-infrared regimes. But, most importantly, it can generate novel multipartite quantum correlations in the output radiation, which represent a step beyond squeezed or entangled light. The output can be highly non-Gaussian and therefore not describable by any semiclassical model. In this paper, we derive quantum stochastic equations in the positive-P representation and undertake an analysis of steady-state and dynamical properties of this system.

  1. Critical Mandelbrot Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, Julien; Kupiainen, Antti; Nikula, Miika; Saksman, Eero; Webb, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We study Mandelbrot's multiplicative cascade measures at the critical temperature. As has been recently shown by Barral et al. (C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 350:535-538, 2012), an appropriately normalized sequence of cascade measures converges weakly in probability to a nontrivial limit measure. We prove that these limit measures have no atoms and give bounds for the modulus of continuity of the cumulative distribution function of the measure. Using the earlier work of Barral and Seuret (Adv Math 214:437-468, 2007), we compute the multifractal spectrum of the measures. We also extend the result of Benjamini and Schramm (Commun Math Phys 289:653-662, 2009), in which the KPZ formula from quantum gravity is validated for the high temperature cascade measures, to the critical and low temperature cases.

  2. Collisional Cascades Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hilke; Pan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Collisional cascades are believed to be the primary mechanism operating in circumstellar dusty debris disks, and are thought to be important in the Kuiper and Asteroid belt. Collisional cascades transfer mass via destructive collisions from larger bodies to smaller ones. Their widespread occurrence and potential importance in understanding planet formation and planet-disk interactions have motivated detailed studies of collisional cascades. The standard theoretical treatment of collisional cascades derives a steady-state size distribution assuming a single constant velocity dispersion for all bodies regardless of size. We relax this assumption and solve self-consistently for the bodies' steady-state size and size-dependent velocity distributions. Specifically, we account for viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and collisional damping of the bodies' random velocities in addition to the mass conservation requirement typically applied to find the size distribution in a steady-state cascade. The resulting size distributions are significantly steeper than those derived without velocity evolution. For example, accounting self-consistently for the velocities can change the standard q = 3.5 power-law index of the Dohnanyi differential size spectrum to an index as large as q = 4. Similarly, for bodies held together by their own gravity, the corresponding power-law index range 2.88 < q < 3.14 of Pan & Sari (2005) can steepen to values as large as q = 3.26. These differences in the size distribution power law index are very important when estimating the total disk mass, including larger bodies, by extrapolating from the observed dust masses. Our velocity results allow quantitative predictions of the bodies' scale heights as a function of size. Together with our predictions, observations of the scale heights for different-sized bodies in, for example, extrasolar debris disks may constrain the total mass in large bodies stirring the cascade as well as the colliding bodies

  3. Triangular rogue wave cascades.

    PubMed

    Kedziora, David J; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Akhmediev, Nail

    2012-11-01

    By numerically applying the recursive Darboux transformation technique, we study high-order rational solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation that appear spatiotemporally as triangular arrays of Peregrine solitons. These can be considered as rogue wave cascades and complement previously discovered circular cluster forms. In this analysis, we reveal a general parametric restriction for their existence and investigate the interplay between cascade and cluster forms. As a result, we demonstrate how to generate many more hybrid rogue wave solutions, including semicircular clusters that resemble claws.

  4. Cascades Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Driedger, Carolyn; Pallister, John

    2008-01-01

    Washington's Mount St. Helens volcano reawakens explosively on October 1, 2004, after 18 years of quiescence. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) study and observe Mount St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, and northern California that hold potential for future eruptions. CVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Mount St. Helens and CVO at http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/.

  5. Howling about Trophic Cascades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalewski, David

    2012-01-01

    Following evolutionary theory and an agriculture model, ecosystem research has stressed bottom-up dynamics, implying that top wild predators are epiphenomenal effects of more basic causes. As such, they are assumed expendable. A more modern co-evolutionary and wilderness approach--trophic cascades--instead suggests that top predators, whose…

  6. Quantum Cascade Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    predicted small linewidth enhancement factor of QC lasers was measured in outside collaboration ( Prof . Shun-Lien Chuang at UIUC) and confirmed to be...Gmachl, Michael C. Wanke, Federico Capasso, Albert L. Hutchinson, Deborah L. Sivco, Sung- Nee G. Chu, and Alfred Y. Cho “Surface plasmon quantum cascade

  7. 'Cascade Gold' raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cascade Gold’ is a new gold fruited, floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). It has been evaluated at Puyallup, Wash. in plantings from 1988 to 2008. ...

  8. Cascaded thermoacoustic devices

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.; Gardner, David L.

    2003-12-09

    A thermoacoustic device is formed with a resonator system defining at least one region of high specific acoustic impedance in an acoustic wave within the resonator system. A plurality of thermoacoustic units are cascaded together within the region of high specific acoustic impedance, where at least one of the thermoacoustic units is a regenerator unit.

  9. Inflation from flux cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Guido; Gobbetti, Roberto; Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie L.

    2013-10-01

    When electric-type flux threads compact extra dimensions, a quantum nucleation event can break a flux line and initiate a cascade that unwinds many units of flux. Here, we present a novel mechanism for inflation based on this phenomenon. From the 4D point of view, the cascade begins with the formation of a bubble containing an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, but the vacuum energy inside the bubble is initially only slightly reduced, and subsequently decreases gradually throughout the cascade. If the initial flux number Q0 ≳ O (100), during the cascade the universe can undergo N ≳ 60 efolds of inflationary expansion with gradually decreasing Hubble constant, producing a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations with amplitude and tilt consistent with observation, and a potentially observable level of non-Gaussianity and tensor modes. The power spectrum has a small oscillatory component that does not decay away during inflation, with a period set approximately by the light-crossing time of the compact dimension(s). Since the ingredients are fluxes threading compact dimensions, this mechanism fits naturally into the string landscape, but does not appear to suffer from the eta problem or require fine-tuning (beyond the usual anthropic requirement of small vacuum energy after reheating).

  10. Howling about Trophic Cascades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalewski, David

    2012-01-01

    Following evolutionary theory and an agriculture model, ecosystem research has stressed bottom-up dynamics, implying that top wild predators are epiphenomenal effects of more basic causes. As such, they are assumed expendable. A more modern co-evolutionary and wilderness approach--trophic cascades--instead suggests that top predators, whose…

  11. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  12. A cascade thermoacoustic engine.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D L; Swift, G W

    2003-10-01

    A cascade thermoacoustic engine is described, consisting of one standing-wave stage plus two traveling-wave stages in series. Most of the acoustic power is produced in the efficient traveling-wave stages. The straight-line series configuration is easy to build and allows no Gedeon streaming. The engine delivers up to 2 kW of acoustic power, with an efficiency (the ratio of acoustic power to heater power) of up to 20%. An understanding of the pressure and volume-velocity waves is very good. The agreement between measured and calculated powers and temperatures is reasonable. Some of the measured thermal power that cannot be accounted for by calculation can be attributed to Rayleigh streaming in the two thermal buffer tubes with the largest aspect ratios. A straightforward extension of this work should yield cascade thermoacoustic engines with efficiencies of around 35-40% of the Carnot efficiency.

  13. Electromagnetic cascades in pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, J. K.; Harding, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of pair photon cascades initiated by high energy electrons above a pulsar polar cap is simulated numerically. The calculation uses the energy of the primary electron, the magnetic field strength, and the period of rotation as parameters and follows the curvature radiation emitted by the primary, the conversion of this radiation e(+) - e(-) pairs in the intense fields, and the quantized synchrotron radiation by the secondary pairs. A recursive technique allows the tracing of an indefinite number of generations using a Monte Carlo method. Gamma ray and pair spectra are calculated for cascades in different parts of the polar cap and with different acceleration models. It is found that synchrotron radiation from secondary pairs makes an important contribution to the gamma ray spectrum above 25 MeV, and that the final gamma ray and pair spectra are insensitive to the height of the accelerating region, as long as the acceleration of the primary electrons is not limited by radiation reaction.

  14. Superconducting cascade electron refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Camarasa-Gómez, M.; Giazotto, F.; Di Marco, A.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, H.

    2014-05-12

    The design and operation of an electronic cooler based on a combination of superconducting tunnel junctions is described. The cascade extraction of hot-quasiparticles, which stems from the energy gaps of two different superconductors, allows for a normal metal to be cooled down to about 100 mK starting from a bath temperature of 0.5 K. We discuss the practical implementation, potential performance, and limitations of such a device.

  15. Information cascade on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barabási-Albert (BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters-herders and independents-and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discuss the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade transition prevails when herder effects are stronger than the super-normal transition. In the BA and fitness models, the critical point of the information cascade transition is the same as that of the random network model. However, the critical point of the super-normal transition disappears when these two models are used. In conclusion, the influence of networks is shown to only affect the convergence speed and not the information cascade transition. We are therefore able to conclude that the influence of hubs on voters' perceptions is limited.

  16. Maxwellian cascade model

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.

    1989-11-01

    A model for gamma-ray cascade de-excitation of a nucleus derived from the Maxwellian energy distribution function but imposing energy conservation was investigated. Energy distributions and multiplicities and their averages were found over a range of nuclear temperatures and excitation energies appropriate to neutron capture. The model was compared to existing measurements for tantalum, a case where the level density was high and thus a good approximation to the model. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Cascade ICF power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

    1986-05-20

    The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO/sub 2/. The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor.

  18. COMPACT CASCADE IMPACTS

    DOEpatents

    Lippmann, M.

    1964-04-01

    A cascade particle impactor capable of collecting particles and distributing them according to size is described. In addition the device is capable of collecting on a pair of slides a series of different samples so that less time is required for the changing of slides. Other features of the device are its compactness and its ruggedness making it useful under field conditions. Essentially the unit consists of a main body with a series of transverse jets discharging on a pair of parallel, spaced glass plates. The plates are capable of being moved incremental in steps to obtain the multiple samples. (AEC)

  19. The Ufm1 Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Jens; Liebau, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (Ufm1) is a posttranslational modifier that belongs to the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) family. Ufm1 is present in nearly all eukaryotic organisms, with the exception of fungi. It resembles ubiquitin in its ability to be ligated to other proteins, as well as in the mechanism of ligation. While the Ufm1 cascade has been implicated in endoplasmic reticulum functions and cell cycle control, its biological role still remains poorly understood. In this short review, we summarize the current state of Ufm1 research and its potential role in human diseases, like diabetes, ischemic heart disease and cancer. PMID:24921187

  20. Crossover behavior in driven cascades.

    PubMed

    Burridge, James

    2013-09-01

    We propose a model which explains how power-law crossover behavior can arise in a system which is capable of experiencing cascading failure. In our model the susceptibility of the system to cascades is described by a single number, the propagation power, which measures the ease with which cascades propagate. Physically, such a number could represent the density of unstable material in a system, its internal connectivity, or the mean susceptibility of its component parts to failure. We assume that the propagation power follows an upward drifting Brownian motion between cascades, and drops discontinuously each time a cascade occurs. Cascades are described by a continuous state branching process with distributional properties determined by the value of the propagation power when they occur. In common with many cascading models, pure power-law behavior is exhibited at a critical level of propagation power, and the mean cascade size diverges. This divergence constrains large systems to the subcritical region. We show that as a result, crossover behavior appears in the cascade distribution when an average is performed over the distribution of propagation power. We are able to analytically determine the exponents before and after the crossover.

  1. Cascade Mtns. Oregon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-19

    The ground near one of the long-dormant Three Sisters volcanoes in the Cascade Mountains of west-central Oregon has risen approximately 10centimeters in a 10-by-20-km parcel since 1996, meaning that magma or underground lava is slowly flowing into the area, according to a research team from the U.S. Geological Survey. The Three Sisters area -- which contains five volcanoes -- is only about 170 miles from Mount St. Helens, which erupted in 1980. Both are part of the Cascades Range, a line of 27volcanoes stretching from British Columbia in Canada to northern California. This perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER image over digital topography from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset. This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03492

  2. Quantum dot cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated an unambiguous quantum dot cascade laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/InAs/InAlAs heterostructure by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode and two-step strain compensation active region design. The prototype generates stimulated emission at λ ~ 6.15 μm and a broad electroluminescence band with full width at half maximum over 3 μm. The characteristic temperature for the threshold current density within the temperature range of 82 to 162 K is up to 400 K. Moreover, our materials show the strong perpendicular mid-infrared response at about 1,900 cm-1. These results are very promising for extending the present laser concept to terahertz quantum cascade laser, which would lead to room temperature operation. PACS 42.55.Px; 78.55.Cr; 78.67.Hc PMID:24666965

  3. The Cascade Forestry Service Nursery

    Treesearch

    Don Westefer

    2002-01-01

    Cascade Forestry Service, Inc., is a private reforestation nursery and service company that has grown from a shoestring operation into an employee-owned company that both produces reforestation trees and assists landowners with forestry development and management. The Northeastern Forest and Conservation Nursery Association has proven instrumental in Cascade Forestry...

  4. Cascade sample matrix inversion arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Timothy; Essman, Joseph

    It is shown that if a narrowband adaptive array is partitioned and processed as a cascade of adaptive arrays, computational complexity is reduced and performance is only slightly degraded. The sample matrix inversion (SMI) and covariance matrix estimation are discussed. Cascade SMI complexity is examined. Simulation results are presented.

  5. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  6. Dynamics of cavitating cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, A. J.; Brennen, C.; Kim, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Brief accounts of the theoretical research conducted on the unsteady cavitation characteristics of liquid rocket engine turbopumps are reported. The objective is to produce estimates of the cavitation compliance and other unsteady characteristics which could then be used in analysis of the pogo instability. Blade cavitation is the particular pheonomenon which is investigated and line arized free streamline methods were employed in both quasistatic and complete dynamic cascade analyses of the unsteady flow. The simpler quasistatic analysis was applied to particular turbopumps but yielded values of compliances significantly smaller than those indirectly obtained from experiments. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. The complete dynamic analysis presents a new problem in fundamental hydrodynamics and, though the basic solution is presented, numerical results have not as yet been obtained.

  7. Unsteady turbulence cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5 /3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935), 10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.

  8. Unsteady turbulence cascades.

    PubMed

    Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J C

    2016-11-01

    We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5/3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935)1364-502110.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.

  9. Cascade Mtns. Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The ground near one of the long-dormant Three Sisters volcanoes in the Cascade Mountains of west-central Oregon has risen approximately 10centimeters in a 10-by-20-km parcel since 1996, meaning that magma or underground lava is slowly flowing into the area, according to a research team from the U.S. Geological Survey. The Three Sisters area -- which contains five volcanoes -- is only about 170 miles from Mount St. Helens, which erupted in 1980. Both are part of the Cascades Range, a line of 27volcanoes stretching from British Columbia in Canada to northern California. This perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER image over digital topography from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical

  10. Error bounds in cascading regressions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cascading regressions is a technique for predicting a value of a dependent variable when no paired measurements exist to perform a standard regression analysis. Biases in coefficients of a cascaded-regression line as well as error variance of points about the line are functions of the correlation coefficient between dependent and independent variables. Although this correlation cannot be computed because of the lack of paired data, bounds can be placed on errors through the required properties of the correlation coefficient. The potential meansquared error of a cascaded-regression prediction can be large, as illustrated through an example using geomorphologic data. ?? 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  11. Inferring network structure from cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghonge, Sushrut; Vural, Dervis Can

    2017-07-01

    Many physical, biological, and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we offer three topological methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for several different cascade models.

  12. Trophic cascades across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Knight, Tiffany M; McCoy, Michael W; Chase, Jonathan M; McCoy, Krista A; Holt, Robert D

    2005-10-06

    Predation can be intense, creating strong direct and indirect effects throughout food webs. In addition, ecologists increasingly recognize that fluxes of organisms across ecosystem boundaries can have major consequences for community dynamics. Species with complex life histories often shift habitats during their life cycles and provide potent conduits coupling ecosystems. Thus, local interactions that affect predator abundance in one ecosystem (for example a larval habitat) may have reverberating effects in another (for example an adult habitat). Here we show that fish indirectly facilitate terrestrial plant reproduction through cascading trophic interactions across ecosystem boundaries. Fish reduce larval dragonfly abundances in ponds, leading to fewer adult dragonflies nearby. Adult dragonflies consume insect pollinators and alter their foraging behaviour. As a result, plants near ponds with fish receive more pollinator visits and are less pollen limited than plants near fish-free ponds. Our results confirm that strong species interactions can reverberate across ecosystems, and emphasize the importance of landscape-level processes in driving local species interactions.

  13. Terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Ruedeger; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Beltram, Fabio; Beere, Harvey E.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. G.; Ritchie, David A.

    2003-07-01

    The terahertz region (1-10 THz) of the electromagnetic spectrum offers ample opportunities in spectroscopy, free space communications, remote sensing and medical imaging. Yet, the use of THz radiation in all these fields has been hampered by the lack of appropriate, convenient sources. We here report on unipolar semiconductor injection lasers that emit at THz frequencies (4.3 THz, λ ~ 69μm and 3.5 THz, λ ~ 85μm) and possess the potential for device-like implementation. They are based on the quantum cascade scheme employing interminiband transitions in the technologically mature AlGaAs/GaAs material system and feature a novel kind of waveguide loosely relying on the surface plasmon concpt. Continuous-wave laser emission is achieved with low thresholds of a few hundred A/cm2 up to 45 K heat sink temperature and maximum output powers of more than 4mW. Under pulsed excitation, peak output powers of 4.5mW at low temperatures and still 1 mW at 65 K are measured. The amximum operating temperature is 67 K.

  14. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  15. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  16. What is a Trophic Cascade?

    PubMed

    Ripple, William J; Estes, James A; Schmitz, Oswald J; Constant, Vanessa; Kaylor, Matthew J; Lenz, Adam; Motley, Jennifer L; Self, Katharine E; Taylor, David S; Wolf, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Few concepts in ecology have been so influential as that of the trophic cascade. Since the 1980s, the term has been a central or major theme of more than 2000 scientific articles. Despite this importance and widespread usage, basic questions remain about what constitutes a trophic cascade. Inconsistent usage of language impedes scientific progress and the utility of scientific concepts in management and conservation. Herein, we offer a definition of trophic cascade that is designed to be both widely applicable yet explicit enough to exclude extraneous interactions. We discuss our proposed definition and its implications, and define important related terms, thereby providing a common language for scientists, policy makers, conservationists, and other stakeholders with an interest in trophic cascades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrarelativistic cascades and strangeness production

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, D.E.; Kahana, S.H.

    1998-02-01

    A two phase cascade, LUCIFER II, developed for the treatment of ultra high energy Ion-Ion collisions is applied to the production of strangeness at SPS energies. This simulation is able to simultaneously describe both hard processes such as Drell-Yan and slower, soft processes such as the production of light mesons by separating the dynamics into two steps, a fast cascade involving only the nucleons in the original colliding relativistic ions followed, after an appropriate delay, by a normal multiscattering of the resulting excited baryons and mesons produced virtually in the first step. No energy loss can take place in the short time interval over which the first cascade takes place. The chief result is a reconciliation of the important Drell-Yan measurements with the apparent success of standard cascades to describe the nucleon stopping and meson production in heavy ion experiments at the CERN SPS.

  18. The cascade high productivity language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

  19. Aeroelasticity in Turbomachine-Cascades.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-10

    STABLE -180 UNSTABLE -360 ’ - ’ - -180 0. 󈧖O DIAGRAM 3 AERODYNAMIC LIFT (OENT)COEFFICIENTI AND PHASE LEADS IN DEPENDANCE OF FLOM GUANTATIES AND CASCADE...ABL -0.8 0.0 -5 0. -5 DIAGRAM ’. AERODYNAMIC NORK AND DAMPING COEFFICIENTS (FOR A RIGID NOTION) IN DEPENDANCE OF FLOW OURNTATIES AND CASCADE GEOMETRY...coefficients on blades + blade vibration + vizualization in the transonic flow domain (Schlieren) + instability dependance on flow conditions, blade

  20. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1981-01-01

    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to Tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed.

  1. The cascade high productivity language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

  2. Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, G. ); Wlodarczyk, Z. )

    1993-06-15

    Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions.

  3. Cascading gravity is ghost free

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2010-06-15

    We perform a full perturbative stability analysis of the 6D cascading gravity model in the presence of 3-brane tension. We demonstrate that for sufficiently large tension on the (flat) 3-brane, there are no ghosts at the perturbative level, consistent with results that had previously only been obtained in a specific 5D decoupling limit. These results establish the cascading gravity framework as a consistent infrared modification of gravity.

  4. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  5. Cascaded-cladding-pumped cascaded Raman fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huawei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The conversion efficiency of double-clad Raman fiber laser is limited by the cladding-to-core area ratio. To get high conversion efficiency, the inner-cladding-to-core area ratio has to be less than about 8, which limits the brightness enhancement. To overcome the problem, a cascaded-cladding-pumped cascaded Raman fiber laser with multiple-clad fiber as the Raman gain medium is proposed. A theoretical model of Raman fiber amplifier with multiple-clad fiber is developed, and numerical simulation proves that the proposed scheme can improve the conversion efficiency and brightness enhancement of cladding pumped Raman fiber laser.

  6. Autoregressive cascades on random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Srikanth K.; Vaze, Rahul; Narasimha, Dheeraj

    2016-04-01

    A network cascade model that captures many real-life correlated node failures in large networks via load redistribution is studied. The considered model is well suited for networks where physical quantities are transmitted, e.g., studying large scale outages in electrical power grids, gridlocks in road networks, and connectivity breakdown in communication networks, etc. For this model, a phase transition is established, i.e., existence of critical thresholds above or below which a small number of node failures lead to a global cascade of network failures or not. Theoretical bounds are obtained for the phase transition on the critical capacity parameter that determines the threshold above and below which cascade appears or disappears, respectively, that are shown to closely follow numerical simulation results.

  7. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  8. Bosonic cascades of indirect excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalitov, A. V.; De Liberato, S.; Lagoudakis, P.; Savvidis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the concept of the terahertz bosonic cascade laser (BCL) based on a parabolic quantum well (PQW) embedded in a microcavity was proposed. We refine this proposal by suggesting transitions between indirect exciton (IX) states as a source of terahertz emission. We explicitly propose a structure containing a narrow-square QW and a wide-parabolic QW for the realisation of a bosonic cascade. Advantages of this type of structures are in large dipole matrix elements for terahertz transitions and in long exciton radiative lifetimes which are crucial for realisation of threshold and quantum efficiency BCLs.

  9. Cascading dynamics in modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galstyan, Aram; Cohen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we study a simple cascading process in a structured heterogeneous population, namely, a network composed of two loosely coupled communities. We demonstrate that under certain conditions the cascading dynamics in such a network has a two-tiered structure that characterizes activity spreading at different rates in the communities. We study the dynamics of the model using both simulations and an analytical approach based on annealed approximation and obtain good agreement between the two. Our results suggest that network modularity might have implications in various applications, such as epidemiology and viral marketing.

  10. Nanowire terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, Thomas

    2014-10-06

    Quantum cascade lasers made of nanowire axial heterostructures are proposed. The dissipative quantum dynamics of their carriers is theoretically investigated using non-equilibrium Green functions. Their transport and gain properties are calculated for varying nanowire thickness, from the classical-wire regime to the quantum-wire regime. Our calculation shows that the lateral quantum confinement provided by the nanowires allows an increase of the maximum operation temperature and a strong reduction of the current density threshold compared to conventional terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

  11. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    ScienceCinema

    Claire Gmachl

    2016-07-12

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  12. Applications of cascade multilevel inverters.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fang-zen; Qian, Zhao-ming

    2003-01-01

    Cascade multilevel inverters have been developed for electric utility applications. A cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 H-bridges in which each bridge's dc voltage is supported by its own dc capacitor. The new inverter can: (1) generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage while only switching one time per fundamental cycle; (2) dispense with multi-pulse inverters' transformers used in conventional utility interfaces and static var compensators; (3) enables direct parallel or series transformer-less connection to medium- and high-voltage power systems. In short, the cascade inverter is much more efficient and suitable for utility applications than traditional multi-pulse and pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The authors have experimentally demonstrated the superiority of the new inverter for power supply, (hybrid) electric vehicle (EV) motor drive, reactive power (var) and harmonic compensation. This paper summarizes the features, feasibility, and control schemes of the cascade inverter for utility applications including utility interface of renewable energy, voltage regulation, var compensation, and harmonic filtering in power systems. Analytical, simulated, and experimental results demonstrated the superiority of the new inverters.

  13. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Claire Gmachl

    2010-03-17

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  14. CASCADE: Introducing AI into CBT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendley, R. J.; Jurascheck, N.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses changes in training requirements of commerce and industry in the United Kingdom and describes a project, CASCADE, that was developed to investigate and implement the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques into computer-based training (CBT). An overview of pilot projects in higher education settings is provided. (eight…

  15. Activation Cascading in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Peressotti, Francesca; Lerose, Luigi; Miozzo, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how activation unfolds in sign production by examining whether signs that are not produced have their representations activated by semantics (cascading of activation). Deaf signers were tested with a picture-picture interference task. Participants were presented with pairs of overlapping pictures and named the green…

  16. Unsteady transonic flow in cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S. P.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    There is a need for methods to predict the unsteady air loads associated with flutter of turbomachinery blading at transonic speeds. The results of such an analysis in which the steady relative flow approaching a cascade of thin airfoils is assumed to be transonic, irrotational, and isentropic is presented. The blades in the cascade are allowed to undergo a small amplitude harmonic oscillation which generates a small unsteady flow superimposed on the existing steady flow. The blades are assumed to oscillate with a prescribed motion of constant amplitude and interblade phase angle. The equations of motion are obtained by linearizing about a uniform flow the inviscid nonheat conducting continuity and momentum equations. The resulting equations are solved by employing the Weiner Hopf technique. The solution yields the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the cascade at Mach number equal to 1. Making use of an unsteady transonic similarity law, these results are compared with the results obtained from linear unsteady subsonic and supersonic cascade theories. A parametric study is conducted to find the effects of reduced frequency, solidity, stagger angle, and position of pitching axis on the flutter.

  17. Activation Cascading in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Peressotti, Francesca; Lerose, Luigi; Miozzo, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how activation unfolds in sign production by examining whether signs that are not produced have their representations activated by semantics (cascading of activation). Deaf signers were tested with a picture-picture interference task. Participants were presented with pairs of overlapping pictures and named the green…

  18. Dynamics robustness of cascading systems.

    PubMed

    Young, Jonathan T; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro S; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A most important property of biochemical systems is robustness. Static robustness, e.g., homeostasis, is the insensitivity of a state against perturbations, whereas dynamics robustness, e.g., homeorhesis, is the insensitivity of a dynamic process. In contrast to the extensively studied static robustness, dynamics robustness, i.e., how a system creates an invariant temporal profile against perturbations, is little explored despite transient dynamics being crucial for cellular fates and are reported to be robust experimentally. For example, the duration of a stimulus elicits different phenotypic responses, and signaling networks process and encode temporal information. Hence, robustness in time courses will be necessary for functional biochemical networks. Based on dynamical systems theory, we uncovered a general mechanism to achieve dynamics robustness. Using a three-stage linear signaling cascade as an example, we found that the temporal profiles and response duration post-stimulus is robust to perturbations against certain parameters. Then analyzing the linearized model, we elucidated the criteria of when signaling cascades will display dynamics robustness. We found that changes in the upstream modules are masked in the cascade, and that the response duration is mainly controlled by the rate-limiting module and organization of the cascade's kinetics. Specifically, we found two necessary conditions for dynamics robustness in signaling cascades: 1) Constraint on the rate-limiting process: The phosphatase activity in the perturbed module is not the slowest. 2) Constraints on the initial conditions: The kinase activity needs to be fast enough such that each module is saturated even with fast phosphatase activity and upstream changes are attenuated. We discussed the relevance of such robustness to several biological examples and the validity of the above conditions therein. Given the applicability of dynamics robustness to a variety of systems, it will provide a

  19. PANEL CODE FOR PLANAR CASCADES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Code for Planar Cascades was developed as an aid for the designer of turbomachinery blade rows. The effective design of turbomachinery blade rows relies on the use of computer codes to model the flow on blade-to-blade surfaces. Most of the currently used codes model the flow as inviscid, irrotational, and compressible with solutions being obtained by finite difference or finite element numerical techniques. While these codes can yield very accurate solutions, they usually require an experienced user to manipulate input data and control parameters. Also, they often limit a designer in the types of blade geometries, cascade configurations, and flow conditions that can be considered. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades accelerates the design process and gives the designer more freedom in developing blade shapes by offering a simple blade-to-blade flow code. Panel, or integral equation, solution techniques have been used for several years by external aerodynamicists who have developed and refined them into a primary design tool of the aircraft industry. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades adapts these same techniques to provide a versatile, stable, and efficient calculation scheme for internal flow. The code calculates the compressible, inviscid, irrotational flow through a planar cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. Since the panel solution technique is for incompressible flow, a compressibility correction is introduced to account for compressible flow effects. The analysis is limited to flow conditions in the subsonic and shock-free transonic range. Input to the code consists of inlet flow conditions, blade geometry data, and simple control parameters. Output includes flow parameters at selected control points. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 590K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1982.

  20. Cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.

  1. Cascade aeroacoustics including steady loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Fleeter, Sanford

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the effects of airfoil and cascade geometry, steady aerodynamic loading, and the characteristics of the unsteady flow field on the discrete frequency noise generation of a blade row in an incompressible flow. The unsteady lift which generates the noise is predicted with a complex first-order cascade convected gust analysis. This model was then applied to the Gostelow airfoil cascade and variations, demonstrating that steady loading, cascade solidity, and the gust direction are significant. Also, even at zero incidence, the classical flat plate cascade predictions are unacceptable.

  2. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Along its Oregon segment, the Cascade Range is almost entirely volcanic in origin. The volcanoes and their eroded remnants are the visible magmatic expression of the Cascadia subduction zone, where the offshore Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is subducted beneath North America. Subduction occurs as two lithospheric plates collide, and an underthrusted oceanic plate is commonly dragged into the mantle by the pull of gravity, carrying ocean-bottom rock and sediment down to where heat and pressure expel water. As this water rises, it lowers the melting temperature in the overlying hot mantle rocks, thereby promoting melting. The molten rock supplies the volcanic arcs with heat and magma. Cascade Range volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire, a popular term for the numerous volcanic arcs that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Bankruptcy Cascades in Interbank Markets

    PubMed Central

    Tedeschi, Gabriele; Mazloumian, Amin; Gallegati, Mauro; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank’s liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable. PMID:23300760

  4. Cascade Chaotic System With Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yicong; Hua, Zhongyun; Pun, Chi-Man; Chen, C L Philip

    2015-09-01

    Chaotic maps are widely used in different applications. Motivated by the cascade structure in electronic circuits, this paper introduces a general chaotic framework called the cascade chaotic system (CCS). Using two 1-D chaotic maps as seed maps, CCS is able to generate a huge number of new chaotic maps. Examples and evaluations show the CCS's robustness. Compared with corresponding seed maps, newly generated chaotic maps are more unpredictable and have better chaotic performance, more parameters, and complex chaotic properties. To investigate applications of CCS, we introduce a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a data encryption system using a chaotic map generated by CCS. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the proposed PRNG has high quality of randomness and that the data encryption system is able to protect different types of data with a high-security level.

  5. Cascade model of coronal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanballegooijen, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that the quasi-static evolution of coronal magnetic structures is characterized by a cascade of magnetic energy to smaller length scales. This cascade process takes place on a time scale t sub b determined entirely by the photospheric motions. The Ohmic heating rate E sub H in the statistically stationary state was estimated using observational data on the diffusivity of photospheric motions; E sub H turned out to be too small by a factor of 40 when compared with observed coronal energy losses. However, given the fact that the theoretical estimate is based on a rather uncertain extrapolation to the diffusive regime, current heating cannot be ruled out as a viable mechanism of coronal heating.

  6. Bankruptcy cascades in interbank markets.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Gabriele; Mazloumian, Amin; Gallegati, Mauro; Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank's liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable.

  7. Can 'Cascades' make guidelines global?

    PubMed

    Fried, Michael; Krabshuis, Justus

    2008-10-01

    Why are guidelines in medicine so important today? What role do they have? Why and how did the World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO) choose a global focus? What does this mean for guidelines? These are the underlying questions addressed by our article. We argue that the addition of 'Cascades' to guidelines will increase their impact in large parts of the world. By so doing, we hope to add a new dimension to the 'knowledge into action' debate. A number of illustrations shows how raised expectations and resource restrictions pose - or should pose - an enormous challenge for guideline makers. Furthermore, the emphasis on evidence also creates problems for guideline making. If resources are limited it is unlikely gold-standard technologies are available. We believe Cascades can help. A Cascade is a selection of two or more hierarchical diagnostic or therapeutic options, based on proven medical procedures, methods, tools or products for the same disease, condition or diagnosis, aiming to achieve the same outcome and ranked by available resources. The construction of such a cascade is a hazardous intellectual journey that goes, to some extent, against established practice. But lives can be saved by matching options for diagnosis and treatment to available resources. While the optimal strategy, defined through an evidence-based approach, should always be the goal, one must be aware of the resource limitations that confront our colleagues in certain parts of the world and we should endeavour to work with them in the guideline development process to develop strategies that are clinically sound yet economically feasible and dacceptable to their populace.

  8. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  9. Dynamics robustness of cascading systems

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    A most important property of biochemical systems is robustness. Static robustness, e.g., homeostasis, is the insensitivity of a state against perturbations, whereas dynamics robustness, e.g., homeorhesis, is the insensitivity of a dynamic process. In contrast to the extensively studied static robustness, dynamics robustness, i.e., how a system creates an invariant temporal profile against perturbations, is little explored despite transient dynamics being crucial for cellular fates and are reported to be robust experimentally. For example, the duration of a stimulus elicits different phenotypic responses, and signaling networks process and encode temporal information. Hence, robustness in time courses will be necessary for functional biochemical networks. Based on dynamical systems theory, we uncovered a general mechanism to achieve dynamics robustness. Using a three-stage linear signaling cascade as an example, we found that the temporal profiles and response duration post-stimulus is robust to perturbations against certain parameters. Then analyzing the linearized model, we elucidated the criteria of when signaling cascades will display dynamics robustness. We found that changes in the upstream modules are masked in the cascade, and that the response duration is mainly controlled by the rate-limiting module and organization of the cascade’s kinetics. Specifically, we found two necessary conditions for dynamics robustness in signaling cascades: 1) Constraint on the rate-limiting process: The phosphatase activity in the perturbed module is not the slowest. 2) Constraints on the initial conditions: The kinase activity needs to be fast enough such that each module is saturated even with fast phosphatase activity and upstream changes are attenuated. We discussed the relevance of such robustness to several biological examples and the validity of the above conditions therein. Given the applicability of dynamics robustness to a variety of systems, it will provide a

  10. Enantioselective organo-cascade catalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Walji, Abbas M; Larsen, Catharine H; MacMillan, David W C

    2005-11-02

    A new strategy for organocatalysis based on the biochemical blueprints of biosynthesis has enabled a new laboratory approach to cascade catalysis. Imidazolidinone-based catalytic cycles, involving iminium and enamine activation, have been successfully combined to allow a large diversity of nucleophiles (furans, thiophenes, indoles, butenolides, hydride sources, tertiary amino lactone equivalents) and electrophiles (fluorinating and chlorinating reagents) to undergo sequential addition with a wide array of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. These new cascade catalysis protocols allow the invention of enantioselective transformations that were previously unknown, including the asymmetric catalytic addition of the elements of HF across a trisubstituted olefin. Importantly, these domino catalysis protocols can be mediated by a single imidazolidinone catalyst or using cycle-specific amine catalysts. In the latter case, cascade catalysis pathways can be readily modulated to provide a required diastereo- and enantioselective outcome via the judicious selection of the enantiomeric series of the amine catalysts. A central benefit of combining multiple asymmetric organocatalytic events into one sequence is the intrinsic requirement for enantioenrichment in the second induction cycle, as demonstrated by the enantioselectivities obtained throughout this study (>/=99% ee in all cases).

  11. Turbulence: Does Energy Cascade Exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josserand, Christophe; Le Berre, Martine; Lehner, Thierry; Pomeau, Yves

    2017-05-01

    To answer the question whether a cascade of energy exists or not in turbulence, we propose a set of correlation functions able to test if there is an irreversible transfert of energy, step by step, from large to small structures. These tests are applied to real Eulerian data of a turbulent velocity flow, taken in the wind grid tunnel of Modane, and also to a prototype model equation for wave turbulence. First we demonstrate the irreversible character of the flow by using multi-time correlation function at a given point of space. Moreover the unexpected behavior of the test function leads us to connect irreversibility and finite time singularities (intermittency). Secondly we show that turbulent cascade exists, and is a dynamical process, by using a test function depending on time and frequency. The cascade shows up only in the inertial domain where the kinetic energy is transferred more rapidly (on average) from the wavenumber k1 to k2 than from k1 to k'2 larger than k2.

  12. Demixing cascades in cluster crystals.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Nigel B; Sollich, Peter

    2014-09-07

    In a cluster crystal, each lattice site is occupied by multiple soft-core particles. As the number density is increased at zero temperature, a "cascade" of isostructural phase transitions can occur between states whose site occupancy differs by unity. For low but finite temperature, each of these transitions terminates in a critical point. Using tailored Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we have studied such demixing cascades in systems of soft particles interacting via potentials of the generalized exponential form u(r) = ε exp [-(r/σ)(n)]. We have estimated the critical parameters of the first few transitions in the cascade as a function of the softness parameter n. The critical temperature and pressure exhibit non-monotonic behavior as n is varied, although the critical chemical potential remains monotonic. The trends for the pressure and chemical potential are confirmed by cell model calculations at zero temperature. As n → 2(+), all the transitions that we have observed are preempted by melting although we cannot rule out that clustering transitions survive at high density.

  13. Cascade defense via routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Lan; Du, Wen-Bo; Hong, Chen

    2015-05-01

    As the cascading failures in networked traffic systems are becoming more and more serious, research on cascade defense in complex networks has become a hotspot in recent years. In this paper, we propose a traffic-based cascading failure model, in which each packet in the network has its own source and destination. When cascade is triggered, packets will be redistributed according to a given routing strategy. Here, a global hybrid (GH) routing strategy, which uses the dynamic information of the queue length and the static information of nodes' degree, is proposed to defense the network cascade. Comparing GH strategy with the shortest path (SP) routing, efficient routing (ER) and global dynamic (GD) routing strategies, we found that GH strategy is more effective than other routing strategies in improving the network robustness against cascading failures. Our work provides insight into the robustness of networked traffic systems.

  14. Cascade photo production at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, John; Hicks, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-01

    The famous discovery of the Omega in 1964 put the quark model on firm ground and since then a lot of effort has been spent on mapping out the baryonic and mesonic states. Over the following decades, many excited baryons with light quarks (up, down and strange) have been measured, but by most predictions, only a small percentage of those expected have been found. In this talk, I will discuss a newly developing technique using an (unflavored) photon beam to excite protons to doubly-strange "Cascade" (Xi) states. Advantages of such an experiment and associated difficulties will be presented, along with recent results from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab in Virginia.

  15. Flat Plate Cascades at Supersonic Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El Badrawy, Rashad M

    1956-01-01

    A brief review of exact two-dimensional supersonic flow theory and Ackeret's linearized theory are first presented. The lift and drag coefficients of a cascade of flat plates are calculated exactly and compared to those obtained using the linearized theory. The forces on the cascade are determined for unsteady inlet flow. The flat plate cascade theory is extended to compute the efficiency of a supersonic propeller with friction and finite blade thickness.

  16. Cascades on clique-based graphs.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Adam; Gleeson, James P

    2013-06-01

    We present an analytical approach to determining the expected cascade size in a broad range of dynamical models on the class of highly clustered random graphs introduced by Gleeson [J. P. Gleeson, Phys. Rev. E 80, 036107 (2009)]. A condition for the existence of global cascades is also derived. Applications of this approach include analyses of percolation, and Watts's model. We show how our techniques can be used to study the effects of in-group bias in cascades on social networks.

  17. Hydraulic machine with non-uniform cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Habán, V.

    2012-11-01

    In this article is introduced the sentence of an extension of operational zone of hydraulic machines. The problems of its extending is based on the design of non-uniform cascade. The non-uniform cascade is connected with other factors. The change of own frequency of the runner of a hydraulic machine and pressure pulsations. The suitable construction of non-uniform cascade is introduced on the results of computational simulation and experiment.

  18. WHISTLER TURBULENCE FORWARD CASCADE VERSUS INVERSE CASCADE: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph E-mail: pgary@lanl.gov

    2015-02-20

    We present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta β {sub e} = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in the inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.

  19. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  20. Tri-bimaximal Mixing from Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ryo

    2008-11-23

    We investigate fermion mass matrices of the cascade form which lead to the tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector. The cascade neutrino matrix predicts a parameter-independent relation among the observables, which are the neutrino mixing angles and mass squared differences. The relation predicts that the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle is close to maximal. We also study phenomenological aspect of the cascade form in supersymmetric theory, which are lepton flavor violation and thermal leptogenesis. A dynamical realivation of the cascade mass matrix are also presented in U(1) flavor theory.

  1. Dynamics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Report chronicles advances in understanding and predicting unsteady dynamic characteristics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps. It includes bibliography of 19 papers authored between 1972 and 1980.

  2. Quantum cascade lasers on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spott, Alexander; Peters, Jon; Davenport, Michael L.; Stanton, Eric J.; Zhang, Chong; Bewley, William W.; Merritt, Charles D.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Kim, Chul Soo; Meyer, Jerry R.; Kirch, Jeremy; Mawst, Luke J.; Botez, Dan; Bowers, John E.

    2017-02-01

    Silicon integration of mid-infrared (MIR) photonic devices promises to enable low-cost, compact sensing and detection capabilities that are compatible with existing silicon photonic and silicon electronic technologies. Heterogeneous integration by bonding III-V wafers to silicon waveguides has been employed previously to build integrated diode lasers for wavelengths from 1310 to 2010 nm. Recently, Fabry-Perot Quantum Cascade Lasers integrated on silicon provided a 4800 nm light source for MIR silicon photonic applications. Distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are appealing for many high-sensitivity chemical spectroscopic sensing applications that require a single frequency, narrow-linewidth MIR source. While heterogeneously integrated 1550 nm DFB lasers have been demonstrated by introducing a shallow surface grating on a silicon waveguide within the active region, no mid-infrared DFB laser on silicon had previously been reported. Here we demonstrate quantum cascade DFB lasers heterogeneously integrated with silicon-on-nitride-oninsulator (SONOI) waveguides. These lasers emit over 200 mW of pulsed power at room temperature and operate up to 100 °C. Although the output is not single mode, the DFB grating nonetheless imposes wavelength selectivity with 22 nm of thermal tuning.

  3. Lifespans of Cascade Arc volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Compiled argon ages reveal inception, eruptive episodes, ages, and durations of Cascade stratovolcanoes and their ancestral predecessors. Geologic mapping and geochronology show that most Cascade volcanoes grew episodically on multiple scales with periods of elevated behavior lasting hundreds of years to ca. 100 kyr. Notable examples include the paleomag-constrained, few-hundred-year-long building of the entire 15-20 km3 Shastina edifice at Mt. Shasta, the 100 kyr-long episode that produced half of Mt. Rainier's output, and the 30 kyr-long episode responsible for all of South and Middle Sister. Despite significant differences in timing and rates of construction, total durations of active and ancestral volcanoes at discrete central-vent locations are similar. Glacier Peak, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams, Mt. Hood, and Mt. Mazama all have inception ages of 400-600 ka. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Jefferson, Newberry Volcano, Mt. Shasta and Lassen Domefield have more recent inception ages of 200-300 ka. Only the Sisters cluster and Mt. Baker have established eruptive histories spanning less than 50 kyr. Ancestral volcanoes centered 5-20 km from active stratocones appear to have similar total durations (200-600 kyr), but are less well exposed and dated. The underlying mechanisms governing volcano lifecycles are cryptic, presumably involving tectonic and plumbing changes and perhaps circulation cycles in the mantle wedge, but are remarkably consistent along the arc.

  4. Geothermal Resources of the Cascades: USGS Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Muffler, Patrick

    Since 1979, the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has carried out a multidisciplinary research effort in the Cascade Range. The goal of this effort is to understand the tectonics, geology, and hydrology of the Cascades as a framework for characterizing and quantifying its geothermal resources. In May 1985, 5 years after an initial USGS-sponsored Cascades conference [Bacon, 1980], the Geothermal Research Program again sponsored a workshop on geothermal resources of the Cascade Range. Motivation for the workshop came primarily from the conviction within the Geothermal Research Program that the Cascade effort had advanced sufficiently that a forum with an explicitly geothermal focus was needed to promote the synthesis of ideas from diverse research projects. In addition, it was thought that research drilling plans in the Cascades that were being formulated by various other agencies also could benefit from the examination and evaluation that a workshop would foster. Accordingly, the workshop was designed to develop a common understanding of the status of various investigations among USGS and other scientists working in the Cascades, to stimulate renewed interest in understanding the geothermal regime of this volcanic chain, and to encourage the tectonic, geologic, and hydrologic synthesis necessary for a quantitative assessment of geothermal resources of the Cascades, a major objective of the USGS Geothermal Research Program.

  5. Cascading disaster models in postburn flash flood

    Treesearch

    Fred May

    2007-01-01

    A useful method of modeling threats from hazards and documenting their disaster causation sequences is called “cascading threat modeling.” This type of modeling enables emergency planners to address hazard and risk assessments systematically. This paper describes a cascading threat modeling and analysis process. Wildfire and an associated postburn flash flood disaster...

  6. Cascading costs: an economic nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Moomaw, William R; Birch, Melissa B L

    2005-09-01

    The chemical nitrogen cycle is becoming better characterized in terms of fluxes and reservoirs on a variety of scales. Galloway has demonstrated that reactive nitrogen can cascade through multiple ecosystems causing environmental damage at each stage before being denitrified to N(2). We propose to construct a parallel economic nitrogen cascade (ENC) in which economic impacts of nitrogen fluxes can be estimated by the costs associated with each stage of the chemical cascade. Using economic data for the benefits of damage avoided and costs of mitigation in the Chesapeake Bay basin, we have constructed an economic nitrogen cascade for the region. Since a single ton of nitrogen can cascade through the system, the costs also cascade. Therefore evaluating the benefits of mitigating a ton of reactive nitrogen released needs to consider the damage avoided in all of the ecosystems through which that ton would cascade. The analysis reveals that it is most cost effective to remove a ton of nitrogen coming from combustion since it has the greatest impact on human health and creates cascading damage through the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We will discuss the implications of this analysis for determining the most cost effective policy option for achieving environmental quality goals.

  7. Cascading costs: an economic nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Moomaw, William R; Birch, Melissa B L

    2005-12-01

    The chemical nitrogen cycle is becoming better characterized in terms of fluxes and reservoirs on a variety of scales. Galloway has demonstrated that reactive nitrogen can cascade through multiple ecosystems causing environmental damage at each stage before being denitrified to N2. We propose to construct a parallel economic nitrogen cascade (ENC) in which economic impacts of nitrogen fluxes can be estimated by the costs associated with each stage of the chemical cascade. Using economic data for the benefits of damage avoided and costs of mitigation in the Chesapeake Bay basin, we have constructed an economic nitrogen cascade for the region. Since a single tonne of nitrogen can cascade through the system, the costs also cascade. Therefore evaluating the benefits of mitigating a tonne of reactive nitrogen released needs to consider the damage avoided in all of the ecosystems through which that tonne would cascade. The analysis reveals that it is most cost effective to remove a tonne of nitrogen coming from combustion since it has the greatest impact on human health and creates cascading damage through the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We will discuss the implications of this analysis for determining the most cost effective policy option for achieving environmental quality goals.

  8. Cascade Harvest’ red raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...

  9. Cascades in interdependent flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Antonio; De Sanctis Lucentini, Pier Giorgio; Caldarelli, Guido; D'Agostino, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    In this manuscript, we investigate the abrupt breakdown behavior of coupled distribution grids under load growth. This scenario mimics the ever-increasing customer demand and the foreseen introduction of energy hubs interconnecting the different energy vectors. We extend an analytical model of cascading behavior due to line overloads to the case of interdependent networks and find evidence of first order transitions due to the long-range nature of the flows. Our results indicate that the foreseen increase in the couplings between the grids has two competing effects: on the one hand, it increases the safety region where grids can operate without withstanding systemic failures; on the other hand, it increases the possibility of a joint systems' failure.

  10. Weak Interactions and Instability Cascades.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Taku; McCann, Kevin S

    2015-07-29

    Food web theory states that a weak interactor which is positioned in the food web such that it tends to deflect, or mute, energy away from a potentially oscillating consumer-resource interaction often enhances community persistence and stability. Here we examine how adding other weak interactions (predation/harvesting) on the stabilizing weak interactor alters the stability of food web using a set of well-established food web models/modules. We show that such "weak on weak" interaction chains drive an indirect dynamic cascade that can rapidly ignite a distant consumer-resource oscillator. Nonetheless, we also show that the "weak on weak" interactions are still more stable than the food web without them, and so weak interactions still generally act to stabilize food webs. Rather, these results are best interpreted to say that the degree of the stabilizing effect of a given important weak interaction can be severely compromised by other weak interactions (including weak harvesting).

  11. Cascade Joule-Thomson refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tward, E.; Steyert, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design criteria for cascade Joule-Thomson refrigerators for cooling in the temperature range from 300 K to 4.2 K were studied. The systems considered use three or four refrigeration stages with various working gases to achieve the low temperatures. Each stage results in cooling to a progressively lower temperature and provides cooling at intermediate temperatures to remove the substantial amount of parasitic heat load encountered in a typical dewar. With careful dewar design considerable cooling can be achieved with moderate gas flows. For many applications, e.g., in the cooling of sensitive sensors, the fact that the refrigerator contains no moving parts and may be remotely located from the gas source is of considerable advantage. A small compressor suitable for providing the gas flows required was constructed.

  12. The Geant4 Bertini Cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D. H.; Kelsey, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    One of the medium energy hadron–nucleus interaction models in the Geant4 simulation toolkit is based partly on the Bertini intranuclear cascade model. Since its initial appearance in the toolkit, this model has been largely re-written in order to extend its physics capabilities and to reduce its memory footprint. Physics improvements include extensions in applicable energy range and incident particle types, and improved hadron–nucleon cross-sections and angular distributions. Interfaces have also been developed which allow the model to be coupled with other Geant4 models at lower and higher energies. The inevitable speed reductions due to enhanced physics have been mitigated by memory and CPU efficiency improvements. Details of these improvements, along with selected comparisons of the model to data, are discussed.

  13. Cascade replication of dissipative solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Tuz, Vladimir R.

    2017-07-01

    We report a new effect of a cascade replication of dissipative solitons from a single one. It is discussed in the framework of a common model based on the one-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in which an additional linear term is introduced to account the perturbation from a particular potential of externally applied force. The effect is demonstrated on the light beams propagating through a planar waveguide. The waveguide consists of a nonlinear layer able to guide dissipative solitons and a magneto-optic substrate. In the waveguide an externally applied force is considered to be an inhomogeneous magnetic field which is induced by modulated electric currents flowing along a set of conducting wires adjusted on the top of the waveguide.

  14. Physics of cosmological cascades and observable properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitoussi, T.; Belmont, R.; Malzac, J.; Marcowith, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Jean, P.

    2017-04-01

    TeV photons from extragalactic sources are absorbed in the intergalactic medium and initiate electromagnetic cascades. These cascades offer a unique tool to probe the properties of the universe at cosmological scales. We present a new Monte Carlo code dedicated to the physics of such cascades. This code has been tested against both published results and analytical approximations, and is made publicly available. Using this numerical tool, we investigate the main cascade properties (spectrum, halo extension and time delays), and study in detail their dependence on the physical parameters (extragalactic magnetic field, extragalactic background light, source redshift, source spectrum and beaming emission). The limitations of analytical solutions are emphasized. In particular, analytical approximations account only for the first generation of photons and higher branches of the cascade tree are neglected.

  15. Stochastic annealing simulation of cascades in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1996-04-01

    The stochastic annealing simulation code ALSOME is used to investigate quantitatively the differential production of mobile vacancy and SIA defects as a function of temperature for isolated 25 KeV cascades in copper generated by MD simulations. The ALSOME code and cascade annealing simulations are described. The annealing simulations indicate that the above Stage V, where the cascade vacancy clusters are unstable,m nearly 80% of the post-quench vacancies escape the cascade volume, while about half of the post-quench SIAs remain in clusters. The results are sensitive to the relative fractions of SIAs that occur in small, highly mobile clusters and large stable clusters, respectively, which may be dependent on the cascade energy.

  16. The body size dependence of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    DeLong, John P; Gilbert, Benjamin; Shurin, Jonathan B; Savage, Van M; Barton, Brandon T; Clements, Christopher F; Dell, Anthony I; Greig, Hamish S; Harley, Christopher D G; Kratina, Pavel; McCann, Kevin S; Tunney, Tyler D; Vasseur, David A; O'Connor, Mary I

    2015-03-01

    Trophic cascades are indirect positive effects of predators on resources via control of intermediate consumers. Larger-bodied predators appear to induce stronger trophic cascades (a greater rebound of resource density toward carrying capacity), but how this happens is unknown because we lack a clear depiction of how the strength of trophic cascades is determined. Using consumer resource models, we first show that the strength of a trophic cascade has an upper limit set by the interaction strength between the basal trophic group and its consumer and that this limit is approached as the interaction strength between the consumer and its predator increases. We then express the strength of a trophic cascade explicitly in terms of predator body size and use two independent parameter sets to calculate how the strength of a trophic cascade depends on predator size. Both parameter sets predict a positive effect of predator size on the strength of a trophic cascade, driven mostly by the body size dependence of the interaction strength between the first two trophic levels. Our results support previous empirical findings and suggest that the loss of larger predators will have greater consequences on trophic control and biomass structure in food webs than the loss of smaller predators.

  17. Cascade Screening in Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Advancing Forward.

    PubMed

    Santos, Raul D; Frauches, Thiago S; Chacra, Ana P M

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder associated with elevated LDL-cholesterol and high lifetime cardiovascular risk. Both clinical and molecular cascade screening programs have been implemented to increase early definition and treatment. In this systematic review, we discuss the main issues found in 65 different articles related to cascade screening and familial hypercholesterolemia, covering a range of topics including different types/strategies, considerations both positive and negative regarding cascade screening in general and associated with the different strategies, cost and coverage consideration, direct and indirect contact with patients, public policy around life insurance and doctor-patient confidentiality, the "right to know," and public health concerns regarding familial hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Living With Volcanic Risk in the Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    The Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest has more than a dozen potentially active volcanoes. Cascade volcanoes tend to erupt explosively, and on average two eruptions occur per century?the most recent were at Mount St. Helens, Washington (1980?86 and 2004?8), and Lassen Peak, California (1914?17). To help protect the Pacific Northwest?s rapidly expanding population, USGS scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, monitor and assess the hazards posed by the region?s volcanoes.

  19. Nonlocal effects and countermeasures in cascading failures.

    PubMed

    Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc

    2015-09-01

    We study the propagation of cascading failures in complex supply networks with a focus on nonlocal effects occurring far away from the initial failure. It is shown that a high clustering and a small average path length of a network generally suppress nonlocal overloads. These properties are typical for many real-world networks, often called small-world networks, such that cascades propagate mostly locally in these networks. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial aspects of countermeasures based on the intentional removal of additional edges. Nonlocal actions are generally required in networks that have a low redundancy and are thus especially vulnerable to cascades.

  20. Gust Response Analysis of a Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, R. S. R.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Reddy, D. R.; Kurkov, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the gust response of an annular turbine cascade using a two-dimensional Navier Stokes code. The time-marching CFD code, NPARC, was used to calculate the unsteady forces due to the fluid flow. The computational results were compared with a previously published experimental data for the annular cascade reported in the literature. Reduced frequency, Mach number and angle of incidence were varied independently and the gust velocity was sinusoidal. For the high inlet velocity case, the cascade was nearly choked.

  1. Cascades on clique-based graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Adam; Gleeson, James P.

    2013-06-01

    We present an analytical approach to determining the expected cascade size in a broad range of dynamical models on the class of highly clustered random graphs introduced by Gleeson [J. P. Gleeson, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.80.036107 80, 036107 (2009)]. A condition for the existence of global cascades is also derived. Applications of this approach include analyses of percolation, and Watts's model. We show how our techniques can be used to study the effects of in-group bias in cascades on social networks.

  2. Cascading blockages in channel bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, C.; Talbot, J.

    2015-11-01

    Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of Nc parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary Nc and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary Nc and N =1 for coupled channels. For N >1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N =1 but decreases for N >1 . This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.

  3. Cascading blockages in channel bundles.

    PubMed

    Barré, C; Talbot, J

    2015-11-01

    Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of N(c) parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary N(c) and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary N(c) and N=1 for coupled channels. For N>1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N=1 but decreases for N>1. This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.

  4. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  5. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  6. Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faist, Jérôme; Villares, Gustavo; Scalari, Giacomo; Rösch, Markus; Bonzon, Christopher; Hugi, Andreas; Beck, Mattias

    2016-06-01

    It was recently demonstrated that broadband quantum cascade lasers can operate as frequency combs. As such, they operate under direct electrical pumping at both mid-infrared and THz frequencies, making them very attractive for dual-comb spectroscopy. Performance levels are continuously improving, with average powers over 100mW and frequency coverage of 100 cm-1 in the mid-infrared region. In the THz range, 10mW of average power and 600 GHz of frequency coverage are reported. As a result of the very short upper state lifetime of the gain medium, the mode proliferation in these sources arises from four-wave mixing rather than saturable absorption. As a result, their optical output is characterized by the tendency of small intensity modulation of the output power, and the relative phases of the modes to be similar to the ones of a frequency modulated laser. Recent results include the proof of comb operation down to a metrological level, the observation of a Schawlow-Townes broadened linewidth, as well as the first dual-comb spectroscopy measurements. The capability of the structure to integrate monothically nonlinear optical elements as well as to operate as a detector shows great promise for future chip integration of dual-comb systems.

  7. Cascade-able spin torque logic gates with input-output isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2015-06-01

    Spin torque majority gate (STMG) is one of the promising options for beyond-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor non-volatile logic circuits for normally-off computing. Modeling of prior schemes demonstrated logic completeness using majority operation and nonlinear transfer characteristics. However significant problems arose with cascade-ability and input output isolation manifesting as domain walls (DWs) stopping, reflecting off ends of wires or propagating back to the inputs. We introduce a new scheme to enable cascade-ability and isolation based on (a) in-plane DW automotion in interconnects, (b) exchange coupling of magnetization between two FM layers, and (c) ‘round-about’ topology for the majority gate. We performed micro-magnetic simulations that demonstrate switching operation of this STMG scheme. These circuits were verified to enable isolation of inputs from output signals and to be cascade-able without limitations.

  8. Network effects, cascades and CCP interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Hu, Haibo; Pritsker, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    To control counterparty risk, financial regulations such as the Dodd Frank Act are increasingly requiring standardized derivatives trades to be cleared by central counterparties (CCPs). It is anticipated that in the near-term future, CCPs across the world will be linked through interoperability agreements that facilitate risk-sharing but also serve as a conduit for transmitting shocks. This paper theoretically studies a network with CCPs that are linked through interoperability arrangements, and studies the properties of the network that contribute to cascading failures. The magnitude of the cascading is theoretically related to the strength of network linkages, the size of the network, the logistic mapping coefficient, a stochastic effect and CCP's defense lines. Simulations indicate that larger network effects increase systemic risk from cascading failures. The size of the network N raises the threshold value of shock sizes that are required to generate cascades. Hence, the larger the network, the more robust it will be.

  9. Spatial filtering by using cascading plasmonic gratings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Ming; Chang, Yia-Chung; Tsai, Din Ping

    2009-04-13

    In this study, the optical properties of a plasmonic multilayer structure, consisting of two longitudinally cascaded gratings with a half pitch off-set, are investigated. The proposed structure, which is a system mixing extended and localized surface plasmon, forms transversely cascaded metal/insulator/metal cavities. The angle dependent reflection spectrum of the proposed structure displays a resonance peak at a specific angle. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the resonant peak is smaller than 3 degrees. The angular dispersion of the cascading plasmonic gratings is about d theta/d lambda =0.15 degrees/nm. The cascading plasmonic gratings can be used as a spatial filter to improve the spatial coherence of a light source.

  10. Determining the direction of a turbulent cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldburg, Walter; Cerbus, Rory

    2015-11-01

    In two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, one expects a cascade of energy to larger spatial scales, while the enstrophy cascade is to smaller ones. Here we present a new tool to study cascades using simple ideas borrowed from information theory. It is entirely unrelated to the Navier-Stoke's equations or any scaling arguments. We use the conditional entropy (conditioned uncertainty) of velocity fluctuations on one scale conditioned on another larger or smaller scale. If the entropy is larger after conditioning on larger scales rather than smaller ones, then the cascade is to smaller scales. By varying the scale of the velocity fluctuations used in the conditioning, we can test both direction and locality. We use these tools on experimental data taken from a flowing soap film, an approximately 2D turbulent flow. The Reynolds number is varied over a wide range to determine the entropy's scaling with Reynolds number OIST.

  11. Displacement Cascade Damage Production in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E; Malerba, Lorenzo; Nordlund, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in microstructure and mechanical properties in structural materials are the result of a complex set of physical processes initiated by the collision between an energetic particle (neutron or ion) and an atom in the lattice. This primary damage event is called an atomic displacement cascade. The simplest description of a displacement cascade is to view it as a series of many billiard-ball-like elastic collisions among the atoms in the material. This chapter describes the formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as well as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the relevant variables such as cascade energy and irradiation temperature is discussed, and defect formation in different materials is compared.

  12. Modeling and analysis of cascade solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, F. D.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is given of the present status of the development of cascade solar cells. It is known that photovoltaic efficiencies can be improved through this development. The designs and calculations of the multijunction cells, however, are quite complicated. The main goal is to find a method which is a compromise between accuracy and simplicity for modeling a cascade solar cell. Three approaches are presently under way, among them (1) equivalent circuit approach, (2) numerical approach, and (3) analytical approach. Here, the first and the second approaches are discussed. The equivalent circuit approach using SPICE (Simulation Program, Integrated Circuit Emphasis) to the cascade cells and the cascade-cell array is highlighted. The methods of extracting parameters for modeling are discussed.

  13. On Asymmetric Classifier Training for Detector Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Timothy Felix

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the Asymmetric AdaBoost algorithm introduced by Viola and Jones for cascaded face detection. The Viola and Jones face detector uses cascaded classifiers to successively filter, or reject, non-faces. In this approach most non-faces are easily rejected by the earlier classifiers in the cascade, thus reducing the overall number of computations. This requires earlier cascade classifiers to very seldomly reject true instances of faces. To reflect this training goal, Viola and Jones introduce a weighting parameter for AdaBoost iterations and show it enforces a desirable bound. During their implementation, a modification to the proposed weighting was introduced, while enforcing the same bound. The goal of this paper is to examine their asymmetric weighting by putting AdaBoost in the form of Additive Regression as was done by Friedman, Hastie, and Tibshirani. The author believes this helps to explain the approach and adds another connection between AdaBoost and Additive Regression.

  14. Quantum cascade driving: Dissipatively mediated coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizabadi, Shahabedin C.; Naumann, Nicolas L.; Katzer, Manuel; Knorr, Andreas; Carmele, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Quantum cascaded systems offer the possibility to manipulate a target system with the quantum state of a source system. Here, we study in detail the differences between a direct quantum cascade and coherent or incoherent driving for the case of two coupled cavity-QED systems. We discuss qualitative differences between these excitations scenarios, which are particularly strong for higher-order photon-photon correlations: g(n )(0 ) with n >2 . Quantum cascaded systems show a behavior differing from the idealized cases of individual coherent or incoherent driving and allow one to produce qualitatively different quantum statistics. Furthermore, the quantum cascaded driving exhibits an interesting mixture of quantum coherent and incoherent excitation dynamics. We develop a measure where the two regimes intermix and quantify these differences via experimentally accessible higher-order photon correlations.

  15. Cascaded coal dryer for a coking plant

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, V.; Heinz, R.; Jokisch, F.; Schmid, K.

    1984-02-07

    In a coking process, coal to be coked is preheated in a cascaded whirling bed dryer into which the coal is charged from above and exposed to an indirect heat transfer while whirling in a coal-steam mixture. Hot gas applied to the heating pipes in respective cascades of the dryer is branched off from the total amount of hot gases discharged from a dry cooler in which hot coke from the coke oven is cooled by recirculating cooler gas constituted by a partial gas stream discharged from the cascades of the dryer and reunited with the other partial stream subject to a heat exchange for generating steam. Steam from the whirling beds is discharged from the cascaded dryer, separated from the entrained dust particles, and then the excessive steam is drained in a branch conduit and the remaining steam is compressed and reintroduced into the lowermost whirling bed in the dryer.

  16. Innovation cascades: artefacts, organization and attributions.

    PubMed

    Lane, David A

    2016-03-19

    Innovation cascades inextricably link the introduction of new artefacts, transformations in social organization, and the emergence of new functionalities and new needs. This paper describes a positive feedback dynamic, exaptive bootstrapping, through which these cascades proceed, and the characteristics of the relationships in which the new attributions that drive this dynamic are generated. It concludes by arguing that the exaptive bootstrapping dynamic is the principal driver of our current Innovation Society. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Supersonic Chordwise Bending Flutter in Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-31

    such a flutter boundary can be made by utilizing the trend lines predicted from a supersonic analysis based on supersonic cascade theory (Appendix I...bonding agent was injected via hypodermic needles after the blade tabs were properly inserted, The integrity and repeatability of the mounting of the indi...in conjunction with NASTRAN predictions and supersonic cascade aerodynamic computa- tions. Comparisons between theory and experiment are discussed. DD

  18. Cascaded Second-Order Nonlinearities in Waveguides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundheimer, Michael Lee

    The cascaded second-order nonlinearity arising from the second-harmonic generation process in noncentrosymmetric media is a novel approach to achieving the nonlinear phase shifts required for all-optical signal processing. The research presented in this dissertation demonstrated and measured the cascaded second-order nonlinearity for the first time in viable integrated optical waveguide formats. Cascaded self-phase modulation was measured in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO_4 or KTP) segmented quasi-phasematched waveguides at wavelengths near 855 nm and in the optical fiber telecommunications window near 1.585 μm using picosecond and femtosecond pulses, respectively. Spectral modulation and broadening were observed on the output fundamental spectrum and compared to predictions from pulsed second -harmonic generation theory under conditions of group-velocity mismatch (temporal walk-off) and group-velocity dispersion. Peak cascaded phase shifts of the fundamental of approximately pi at 855 nm were inferred with 690 W of peak guided power. Peak cascaded phase shifts of approximately pi/2 were inferred at 1.585 μm with 760 W of peak power in the guide. Direct interferometric measurements of the magnitude and sign of the cascaded nonlinear phase shift of the fundamental were performed in temperature-tuned lithium niobate (LiNbO _3) channel waveguides at 1.32 mum. The cascaded phase shift was shown to change sign upon passing through the phasematching condition, as required by theory. Peak cascaded phase shifts of +0.53 pi and -0.13 pi were measured for 86 W peak power in these waveguides. A non-uniform temperature profile along the waveguide led to a non-uniform wavevector-mismatch along the guide, resulting in an enhanced positive phase shift and an increased temperature bandwidth for the phase shift. The phase shifts achieved in this research are large enough to be suitable for some all-optical signal processing functions.

  19. Recent biocatalytic oxidation–reduction cascades

    PubMed Central

    Schrittwieser, Joerg H; Sattler, Johann; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The combination of an oxidation and a reduction in a cascade allows performing transformations in a very economic and efficient fashion. The challenge is how to combine an oxidation with a reduction in one pot, either by running the two reactions simultaneously or in a stepwise fashion without isolation of intermediates. The broader availability of various redox enzymes nowadays has triggered the recent investigation of various oxidation–reduction cascades. PMID:21130024

  20. Recent biocatalytic oxidation-reduction cascades.

    PubMed

    Schrittwieser, Joerg H; Sattler, Johann; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    The combination of an oxidation and a reduction in a cascade allows performing transformations in a very economic and efficient fashion. The challenge is how to combine an oxidation with a reduction in one pot, either by running the two reactions simultaneously or in a stepwise fashion without isolation of intermediates. The broader availability of various redox enzymes nowadays has triggered the recent investigation of various oxidation-reduction cascades. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Innovation cascades: artefacts, organization and attributions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Innovation cascades inextricably link the introduction of new artefacts, transformations in social organization, and the emergence of new functionalities and new needs. This paper describes a positive feedback dynamic, exaptive bootstrapping, through which these cascades proceed, and the characteristics of the relationships in which the new attributions that drive this dynamic are generated. It concludes by arguing that the exaptive bootstrapping dynamic is the principal driver of our current Innovation Society. PMID:26926284

  2. Experimental determination of unsteady blade element aerodynamics in cascades. Volume 2: Translation mode cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riffel, R. E.; Rothrock, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic translational model flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.52 and a setting angle of 0.90 rad. Unique graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistic high reduced frequency level of 0.15. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time steady and time unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated.

  3. Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks

    PubMed Central

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlling a system to tame or facilitate fluctuations in the event-occurrences. The critical interaction for the emergence of cascades depends greatly on the network structure in which individuals are connected. We demonstrate that we can predict whether cascades may emerge, given information about the interactions between individuals. Furthermore, we develop a method of reallocating connections among individuals so that event cascades may be either impeded or impelled in a network. PMID:27625183

  4. Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlling a system to tame or facilitate fluctuations in the event-occurrences. The critical interaction for the emergence of cascades depends greatly on the network structure in which individuals are connected. We demonstrate that we can predict whether cascades may emerge, given information about the interactions between individuals. Furthermore, we develop a method of reallocating connections among individuals so that event cascades may be either impeded or impelled in a network.

  5. High Efficiency Cascade Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Deng, Seamus Curran, Igor Vasiliev

    2010-09-28

    This report summarizes the main work performed by New Mexico State University and University of Houston on a DOE sponsored project High Efficiency Cascade Solar Cells. The main tasks of this project include materials synthesis, characterization, theoretical calculations, organic solar cell device fabrication and test. The objective of this project is to develop organic nano-electronic-based photovoltaics. Carbon nanotubes and organic conjugated polymers were used to synthesize nanocomposites as the new active semiconductor materials that were used for fabricating two device architectures: thin film coating and cascade solar cell fiber. Chemical vapor deposition technique was employed to synthesized a variety of carbon nanotubes (single-walled CNT, doubled-walled CNT, multi-walled CNT, N-doped SWCNT, DWCNT and MWCNT, and B-doped SWCNT, DWCNT and MWCNT) and a few novel carbon structures (CNT-based nanolance, nanocross and supported graphene film) that have potential applications in organic solar cells. Purification procedures were developed for removing amorphous carbons from carbon nanotubes, and a controlled oxidation method was established for partial truncation of fullerene molecules. Carbon nanotubes (DWCNT and DWCNT) were functionalized with fullerenes and dyes covalently and used to form nanocomposites with conjugated polymers. Biologically synthesized Tellurium nanotubes were used to form composite with the conjugated polymers as well, which generated the highest reported optical limiting values from composites. Several materials characterization technique including SEM/TEM, Raman, AFM, UV-vis, adsorption and EDS were employed to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the carbon nanotubes, the functionalized carbon nanotubes and the nanocomposites synthesized in this project. These techniques allowed us to have a spectroscopic and morphological control of the composite formation and to understand the materials assembled. A parallel 136-CPU

  6. Duality cascade in brane inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, Rachel; Chen Xingang; Hailu, Girma; Henry Tye, S-H; Xu Jiajun E-mail: xgchen@mit.edu E-mail: tye@lepp.cornell.edu

    2008-03-15

    We show that brane inflation is very sensitive to tiny sharp features in extra dimensions, including those in the potential and in the warp factor. This can show up as observational signatures in the power spectrum and/or non-Gaussianities of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). One general example of such sharp features is a succession of small steps in a warped throat, caused by Seiberg duality cascade using gauge/gravity duality. We study the cosmological observational consequences of these steps in brane inflation. Since the steps come in a series, the prediction of other steps and their properties can be tested by future data and analysis. It is also possible that the steps are too close to be resolved in the power spectrum, in which case they may show up only in the non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations and/or EE polarization. We study two cases. In the slow-roll scenario, where steps appear in the inflaton potential, the sensitivity of brane inflation to the height and width of the steps is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to that in previously studied large field models. In the IR DBI scenario, where steps appear in the warp factor, we find that the glitches in the power spectrum caused by these sharp features are generally small or even unobservable, but associated distinctive non-Gaussianity can be large. Together with its large negative running of the power spectrum index, this scenario clearly illustrates how rich and different a brane inflationary scenario can be when compared to generic slow-roll inflation. Such distinctive stringy features may provide a powerful probe of superstring theory.

  7. Cascade reactions catalyzed by metal organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2014-09-01

    Cascade or tandem reactions where two or more individual reactions are carried out in one pot constitute a clear example of process intensification, targeting the maximization of spatial and temporal productivity with mobilization of minimum resources. In the case of catalytic reactions, cascade processes require bi-/multifunctional catalysts that contain different classes of active sites. Herein, we show that the features and properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make these solids very appropriate materials for the development of catalysts for cascade reactions. Due to composition and structure, MOFs can incorporate different types of sites at the metal nodes, organic linkers, or at the empty internal pores, allowing the flexible design and synthesis of multifunctional catalysts. After some introductory sections on the relevance of cascade reactions from the point of view of competitiveness, sustainability, and environmental friendliness, the main part of the text provides a comprehensive review of the literature reporting the use of MOFs as heterogeneous catalysts for cascade reactions including those that combine in different ways acid/base, oxidation/reduction, and metal-organic centers. The final section summarizes the current state of the art, indicating that the development of a first commercial synthesis of a high-added-value fine chemical will be a crucial milestone in this area.

  8. The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Research Grant NSG-3264 is to characterize the flowfield about an airfoil in a cascade at chord Reynolds number(R sub C)near 5 x 10 to the 5th power. The program is experimental and combines laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) measurements with flow visualization techniques in order to obtain detailed flow data, e.g., boundary layer profiles, points of separation and the transition zone, on a cascade of highly-loaded compressor blades. The information provided by this study is to serve as benchmark data for the evaluation of current and future compressor cascade predictive models, in this way aiding in the compressor design process. Summarized is the research activity for the period 1 December 1985 through 1 June 1986. Progress made from 1 June 1979 through 1 December 1985 is presented. Detailed measurements have been completed at the initial cascade angle of 53 deg. (incidence angle 5 degrees). A three part study, based on that data, has been accepted as part of the 1986 Gas Turbine Conference and will be submitted for subsequent journal publication. Also presented are data for a second cascade angle of 45 deg (an incidence angle of 3 degrees).

  9. Harmonic cascade FEL designs for LUX

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, G.; Reinsch, M.; Wurtele, J.; Corlett, J.N.; Fawley, W.M.; Zholents, A.; Wan, W.

    2004-07-16

    LUX is a design concept for an ultrafast X-ray science facility, based on an electron beam accelerated to GeV energies in are circulating linac. Included in the design are short duration (200 fs or shorter FWHM) light sources using multiple stages of higher harmonic generation, seeded by a 200-250 nm laser of similar duration. This laser modulates the energy of a group of electrons within the electron bunch; this section of the electron bunch then produces radiation at a higher harmonic after entering a second, differently tuned undulator. Repeated stages in a cascade yield increasing photon energies up to 1 keV. Most of the undulators in the cascade operate in the low-gain FEL regime. Harmonic cascades have been designed for each pass of the recirculating linac up to a final electron beam energy of 3.1 GeV. For a given cascade, the photon energy can be selected over a wide range by varying the seed laser frequency and the field strength in the undulators. We present simulation results using the codes GENESIS and GINGER, as well as the results of analytical models which predict FEL performance. We discuss lattice considerations pertinent for harmonic cascade FELs, as well as sensitivity studies and requirements on the electron beam.

  10. Janus spectra: cascades without local isotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional turbulent flows host two disparate cascades: of enstrophy and of energy. The phenomenological theory of turbulence, which provides the theoretical underpinning of these cascades, assumes local isotropy. This assumption has been amply verified via computational, experimental and field data amassed to date. Local isotropy mandates that the streamwise (u) and transverse (v) velocity fluctuations partake in the same cascade; consequently, the attendant spectral exponents (αu and αv) of the turbulent energy spectra are the same, αu =αv . Here we report experiments in soap-film flows where αu corresponds to the energy cascade, but concurrently αv corresponds to the enstrophy cascade, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Remarkably, the tools of phenomenological theory can be invoked to elucidate this manifestly anisotropic flow. Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology.

  11. Collapse of defect cascades to dislocation loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, M.A.; Robertson, I.M.; Jenkins, M.L.; English, C.A.; Black, T.J.; Vetrano, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    We review a number of experiments that we have recently performed to investigate the collapse of defect cascades to dislocation loops. This important ion and neutron irradiation phenomenon has been studied with in situ ion bombardment in the Argonne National Laboratory High Voltage Electron Microscope-Ion Accelerator Facility at temperatures of 30 and 300/sup 0/K in Cu/sub 3/Au, Cu, and Fe, and 30, 300 and 600/sup 0/K in Ni. These experiments have demonstrated that individual defect cascades collapse to dislocation loops athermally at 30/sup 0/K in some materials (Ni, Cu and Cu/sub 3/Au), while in another material (Fe) only overlapped cascades produced dislocation loops. A slight sensitivity to the irradiation temperature is demonstrated in Cu/sub 3/Au and Fe, and a strong dependence on the irradiation temperature is seen in Ni. This phenomenon of cascade collapse to dislocation loops in metals at 30/sup 0/K provides an understanding for previous neutron irradiation data. The more detailed dependencies of the collapse probability on material, temperature, bombarding ion dose, ion energy and ion mass contribute much information to a thermal spike model of the collision cascade which we will describe.

  12. Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sample Selection for Training Cascade Detectors.

    PubMed

    Vállez, Noelia; Deniz, Oscar; Bueno, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Automatic detection systems usually require large and representative training datasets in order to obtain good detection and false positive rates. Training datasets are such that the positive set has few samples and/or the negative set should represent anything except the object of interest. In this respect, the negative set typically contains orders of magnitude more images than the positive set. However, imbalanced training databases lead to biased classifiers. In this paper, we focus our attention on a negative sample selection method to properly balance the training data for cascade detectors. The method is based on the selection of the most informative false positive samples generated in one stage to feed the next stage. The results show that the proposed cascade detector with sample selection obtains on average better partial AUC and smaller standard deviation than the other compared cascade detectors.

  14. Seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Grismayer, T; Vranic, M; Martins, J L; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

    2017-02-01

    The growth rates of seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating lasers are calculated with first-principles two- and three-dimensional QED-PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. The dependence of the growth rate on the laser polarization and intensity is compared with analytical models that support the findings of the simulations. The models provide insight regarding the qualitative trend of the cascade growth when the intensity of the laser field is varied. A discussion about the cascade's threshold is included, based on the analytical and numerical results. These results show that relativistic pair plasmas and efficient conversion from laser photons to γ rays can be observed with the typical intensities planned to operate on future ultraintense laser facilities such as ELI or Vulcan.

  15. Sample Selection for Training Cascade Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Vállez, Noelia; Deniz, Oscar; Bueno, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Automatic detection systems usually require large and representative training datasets in order to obtain good detection and false positive rates. Training datasets are such that the positive set has few samples and/or the negative set should represent anything except the object of interest. In this respect, the negative set typically contains orders of magnitude more images than the positive set. However, imbalanced training databases lead to biased classifiers. In this paper, we focus our attention on a negative sample selection method to properly balance the training data for cascade detectors. The method is based on the selection of the most informative false positive samples generated in one stage to feed the next stage. The results show that the proposed cascade detector with sample selection obtains on average better partial AUC and smaller standard deviation than the other compared cascade detectors. PMID:26197221

  16. Cascade collapse in copper and nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Vetrano, J.S.; Robertson, I.M.; Averback, R.S. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Kirk, M.A. )

    1990-04-01

    In-situ TEM studies of the development of the damage structure produced by heavy ion irradiations have been performed in copper and nickel to investigate the possibility that melting occurs in local regions within displacement cascades. These experiments reveal that as the ion dose increases additional loops form from isolated displacement cascades, but more surprisingly some fo the pre-existing loops are annihilated, change position, size and/or Burgers vector. It was also found that the probability for loop formation and the defect image size are greater in copper than in nickel even at temperatures well below stage 3. It will be demonstrated that these observations provide supporting evidence, albeit indirect, that local melting occurs within the cascade core. These results will be compared to the molecular dynamic computer simulations of the damage created by low energy self-ions in copper and nickel. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Aeroelastic stability of cascades in turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Försching, H.

    State-of-the-art prediction of the aeroelastic stability of cascades in axial-flow turbomachines is reviewed. The first main chapter of the article presents a comprehensive formulation of the two- and three-dimensional classical (unstalled) flutter problem of tuned and mistuned rotor blade rows and bladed disc assemblies. Within the framework of linearized analysis, a complete and generalized theory in modal form is outlined, comprising the various formulations of the cascade flutter problem distributed in fragments throughout the literature. Brief outlines are also made of recent advances in unsteady aero-dynamic methods for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications. The second main chapter contains a parametric study of the classical flutter stability characteristics of compressor and turbine cascades in subsonic and supersonic flow. Stability boundaries and dominant trends in flutter behaviour are outlined, and the significant effects of blade mistuning on the aeroelastic stability of turbomachine bladings are highlighted.

  18. Seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grismayer, T.; Vranic, M.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2017-02-01

    The growth rates of seeded QED cascades in counterpropagating lasers are calculated with first-principles two- and three-dimensional QED-PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. The dependence of the growth rate on the laser polarization and intensity is compared with analytical models that support the findings of the simulations. The models provide insight regarding the qualitative trend of the cascade growth when the intensity of the laser field is varied. A discussion about the cascade's threshold is included, based on the analytical and numerical results. These results show that relativistic pair plasmas and efficient conversion from laser photons to γ rays can be observed with the typical intensities planned to operate on future ultraintense laser facilities such as ELI or Vulcan.

  19. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  20. Bifurcations analysis of turbulent energy cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Divitiis, Nicola de

    2015-03-15

    This note studies the mechanism of turbulent energy cascade through an opportune bifurcations analysis of the Navier–Stokes equations, and furnishes explanations on the more significant characteristics of the turbulence. A statistical bifurcations property of the Navier–Stokes equations in fully developed turbulence is proposed, and a spatial representation of the bifurcations is presented, which is based on a proper definition of the fixed points of the velocity field. The analysis first shows that the local deformation can be much more rapid than the fluid state variables, then explains the mechanism of energy cascade through the aforementioned property of the bifurcations, and gives reasonable argumentation of the fact that the bifurcations cascade can be expressed in terms of length scales. Furthermore, the study analyzes the characteristic length scales at the transition through global properties of the bifurcations, and estimates the order of magnitude of the critical Taylor-scale Reynolds number and the number of bifurcations at the onset of turbulence.

  1. Tandem Mass Spectrum Identification via Cascaded Search

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assignment of peptide sequences to observed fragmentation spectra is hindered by the large number of hypotheses that must be considered for each observed spectrum. A high score assigned to a particular peptide–spectrum match (PSM) may not end up being statistically significant after multiple testing correction. Researchers can mitigate this problem by controlling the hypothesis space in various ways: considering only peptides resulting from enzymatic cleavages, ignoring possible post-translational modifications or single nucleotide variants, etc. However, these strategies sacrifice identifications of spectra generated by rarer types of peptides. In this work, we introduce a statistical testing framework, cascade search, that directly addresses this problem. The method requires that the user specify a priori a statistical confidence threshold as well as a series of peptide databases. For instance, such a cascade of databases could include fully tryptic, semitryptic, and nonenzymatic peptides or peptides with increasing numbers of modifications. Cascaded search then gradually expands the list of candidate peptides from more likely peptides toward rare peptides, sequestering at each stage any spectrum that is identified with a specified statistical confidence. We compare cascade search to a standard procedure that lumps all of the peptides into a single database, as well as to a previously described group FDR procedure that computes the FDR separately within each database. We demonstrate, using simulated and real data, that cascade search identifies more spectra at a fixed FDR threshold than with either the ungrouped or grouped approach. Cascade search thus provides a general method for maximizing the number of identified spectra in a statistically rigorous fashion. PMID:26084232

  2. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  3. Cascading failure and robustness in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Smart, Ashley G; Amaral, Luis A N; Ottino, Julio M

    2008-09-09

    We investigate the relationship between structure and robustness in the metabolic networks of Escherichia coli, Methanosarcina barkeri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a cascading failure model based on a topological flux balance criterion. We find that, compared to appropriate null models, the metabolic networks are exceptionally robust. Furthermore, by decomposing each network into rigid clusters and branched metabolites, we demonstrate that the enhanced robustness is related to the organization of branched metabolites, as rigid cluster formations in the metabolic networks appear to be consistent with null model behavior. Finally, we show that cascading in the metabolic networks can be described as a percolation process.

  4. Design of supercritical cascades with high solidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The method of complex characteristics of Garabedian and Korn was successfully used to design shockless cascades with solidities of up to one. A code was developed using this method and a new hodograph transformation of the flow onto an ellipse. This code allows the design of cascades with solidities of up to two and larger turning angles. The equations of potential flow are solved in a complex hodograph like domain by setting a characteristic initial value problem and integrating along suitable paths. The topology that the new mapping introduces permits a simpler construction of these paths of integration.

  5. Design of supercritical cascades with high solidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The method of complex characteristics of Garabedian and Korn has been successfully used to design shockless cascades with solidities of up to one. A new code has been developed using this method and a new hodograph transformation of the flow onto an ellipse. This new code allows the design of cascades with solidities of up to two and larger turning angles. The equations of potential flow are solved in a complex hodograph-like domain by setting a characteristic initial value problem and integrating along suitable paths. The topology that the new mapping introduces permits a simpler construction of these paths of integration.

  6. GRAVITY STUDIES IN THE CASCADE RANGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol; Williams, David

    1983-01-01

    A compatible set of gravity data has been compiled for the entire Cascade Range. From this data set a series of interpretive color gravity maps have been prepared, including a free air anomaly map, Bouguer anomaly map at a principle, and an alternate reduction density, and filtered and derivative versions of the Bouguer anomaly map. The regional anomaly pattern and gradients outline the various geological provinces adjacent to the Cascade Range and delineate major structural elements in the range. The more local anomalies and gradients may delineate low density basin and caldera fill, faults, and shallow plutons. Refs.

  7. Optically Pumped Carbon Monoxide Cascade Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    absorption problems it poses. Instead, a 2.3 gtm GaSb diode laser could be used as a 1st overtone optically pumped source. The absorption cross section at...OPTICALLY PUMPED CARBON MONOXIDE CASCADE LASER BY NICHOLAS W. SAWRUK B.S., PHYSICS, US AIR FORCE ACADEMY, 2001 B.S., MATHEMATICS, US AIR FORCE...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS OPTICALLY PUMPED CARBON MONOXIDE CASCADE LASER 6. AUTHOR(S) 1ST LT SAWRUK NICHOLAS W 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  8. Self-organized model of cascade spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualdi, S.; Medo, M.; Zhang, Y.-C.

    2011-01-01

    We study simultaneous price drops of real stocks and show that for high drop thresholds they follow a power-law distribution. To reproduce these collective downturns, we propose a minimal self-organized model of cascade spreading based on a probabilistic response of the system elements to stress conditions. This model is solvable using the theory of branching processes and the mean-field approximation. For a wide range of parameters, the system is in a critical state and displays a power-law cascade-size distribution similar to the empirically observed one. We further generalize the model to reproduce volatility clustering and other observed properties of real stocks.

  9. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals.

    PubMed

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E; Wirth, Brian D; Kurtz, Richard J

    2015-06-10

    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, b, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy (N(F) ~ E(MD)(b)). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, μ, between the high- and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of μ as a function of displacement threshold energy, E(d), is presented for bcc metals.

  10. Experimental studies of cascade phenomena in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, M.L. . Dept. of Materials); Kirk, M.A. ); Phythian, W.J. . Harwell Lab.)

    1992-06-01

    We review recent ion-irradiation experiments which have been performed to investigate the collapse of displacement cascades to dislocation loops in a range of metals and alloys. Many of the results including the dependencies of the collapse probabilities on irradiation temperature, and ion dose, energy and mass, can be explained within the framework of a thermal spike/cascade melting model which has been suggested by computer molecular dynamics simulations. Other aspects, such as the dependence of collapse propabilities on the crystal structure and the effects of alloying and impurities, are less well understood.

  11. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  12. Robustness of network controllability in cascading failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi-Ming; Xu, Yun-Fei; Nie, Sen

    2017-04-01

    It is demonstrated that controlling complex networks in practice needs more inputs than that predicted by the structural controllability framework. Besides, considering the networks usually faces to the external or internal failure, we define parameters to evaluate the control cost and the variation of controllability after cascades, exploring the effect of number of control inputs on the controllability for random networks and scale-free networks in the process of cascading failure. For different topological networks, the results show that the robustness of controllability will be stronger through allocating different control inputs and edge capacity.

  13. Cascading failure and robustness in metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Ashley G.; Amaral, Luis A. N.; Ottino, Julio M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between structure and robustness in the metabolic networks of Escherichia coli, Methanosarcina barkeri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a cascading failure model based on a topological flux balance criterion. We find that, compared to appropriate null models, the metabolic networks are exceptionally robust. Furthermore, by decomposing each network into rigid clusters and branched metabolites, we demonstrate that the enhanced robustness is related to the organization of branched metabolites, as rigid cluster formations in the metabolic networks appear to be consistent with null model behavior. Finally, we show that cascading in the metabolic networks can be described as a percolation process. PMID:18765805

  14. Optimal digital redesign of cascaded analogue controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, L. S.; Decrocq, B. B.; Zhang, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a new, optimal digital redesign technique for finding an optimal cascaded digital controller from the given continuous-time counterpart by minimizing a quadratic performance index. The control gains can be obtained by solving a set of Liapunov equations. The developed optimal cascaded digital controller enables the state and/or outputs of the digitally controlled closed-loop sampled-data system to optimally match those of the original continuous-time closed-loop system at any instant between sampling periods. The developed control law can be implemented using inexpensive and reliable digital electronics with a relatively long sampling period.

  15. Damped coalescence cascade of liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Suin; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a regime of the coalescence cascade of a liquid drop—the damped coalescence cascade (DCC)—where the rebound of daughter drops is suppressed. DCC typically occurs when the surface tension difference between the bath and the drop is larger than a critical value. A local Marangoni flow generated in the bath at every pinch-off is expected to accelerate air drainage in the gap between the daughter drop and the bath, and thus leads to suppression of the rebound of the daughter drop. Both scaling arguments and lubrication calculations demonstrate faster air drainage in the presence of local Marangoni flow.

  16. Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.

    1988-10-27

    Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.

  17. Nested Canalyzing, Unate Cascade, and Polynomial Functions.

    PubMed

    Jarrah, Abdul Salam; Raposa, Blessilda; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2007-09-15

    This paper focuses on the study of certain classes of Boolean functions that have appeared in several different contexts. Nested canalyzing functions have been studied recently in the context of Boolean network models of gene regulatory networks. In the same context, polynomial functions over finite fields have been used to develop network inference methods for gene regulatory networks. Finally, unate cascade functions have been studied in the design of logic circuits and binary decision diagrams. This paper shows that the class of nested canalyzing functions is equal to that of unate cascade functions. Furthermore, it provides a description of nested canalyzing functions as a certain type of Boolean polynomial function. Using the polynomial framework one can show that the class of nested canalyzing functions, or, equivalently, the class of unate cascade functions, forms an algebraic variety which makes their analysis amenable to the use of techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra. As a corollary of the functional equivalence derived here, a formula in the literature for the number of unate cascade functions provides such a formula for the number of nested canalyzing functions.

  18. Cascade enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-mi; Jeong, Yujin; Kang, Hyo Jin; Chung, Sang J; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2009-10-15

    Immunoassays are representative biochemical detection methods. Among them, sandwich-type immunoassays, typified by sandwich ELISA, have used in disease diagnosis or biochemical detection with high target selectivity. Horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase have been typically used for signal amplification in ELISA. Recently developed sandwich-type immunoassays such as biobarcode immunoassays, immuno-PCR, and immuno-RCA have improved sensitivity by changing mainly the signal amplification method. To develop a novel amplification method in ELISA, an enzyme-cascading system was incorporated into an ELISA, and the new assay is termed a cascading enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA). This CELISA includes a trypsinogen-enterokinase combination as the cascading enzyme system, and was used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is a liver cancer marker, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Using a colorimetric reagent for signal generation, CELISA had 0.1-10pM limits-of-detection for AFP and PSA in whole human serum and assay buffers, depending on the platform, well plate, or microbead type used. This study represents the first example that incorporated an enzyme cascading step in an ELISA system, resulting in successful signal amplification with sensitive detection of pathogenic antigens in serum.

  19. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks.

    PubMed

    Buldyrev, Sergey V; Parshani, Roni; Paul, Gerald; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-04-15

    Complex networks have been studied intensively for a decade, but research still focuses on the limited case of a single, non-interacting network. Modern systems are coupled together and therefore should be modelled as interdependent networks. A fundamental property of interdependent networks is that failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in other networks. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of several interdependent networks. A dramatic real-world example of a cascade of failures ('concurrent malfunction') is the electrical blackout that affected much of Italy on 28 September 2003: the shutdown of power stations directly led to the failure of nodes in the Internet communication network, which in turn caused further breakdown of power stations. Here we develop a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that, on removal, will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks. Surprisingly, a broader degree distribution increases the vulnerability of interdependent networks to random failure, which is opposite to how a single network behaves. Our findings highlight the need to consider interdependent network properties in designing robust networks.

  20. A High Frequency Model of Cascade Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1998-01-01

    Closed form asymptotic expressions for computing high frequency noise generated by an annular cascade in an infinite duct containing a uniform flow are presented. There are two new elements in this work. First, the annular duct mode representation does not rely on the often-used Bessel function expansion resulting in simpler expressions for both the radial eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the duct. In particular, the new representation provides an explicit approximate formula for the radial eigenvalues obviating the need for solutions of the transcendental annular duct eigenvalue equation. Also, the radial eigenfunctions are represented in terms of exponentials eliminating the numerical problems associated with generating the Bessel functions on a computer. The second new element is the construction of an unsteady response model for an annular cascade. The new construction satisfies the boundary conditions on both the cascade and duct walls simultaneously adding a new level of realism to the noise calculations. Preliminary results which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new elements are presented. A discussion of the utility of the asymptotic formulas for calculating cascade discrete tone as well as broadband noise is also included.

  1. Cascaded frequency doublers for broadband laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N F; Vlasova, K V; Davydov, V S; Kulikov, S M; Makarov, A I; Sukharev, Stanislav A; Freidman, Gennadii I; Shubin, S V

    2012-10-31

    A new scheme of a cascaded converter of the first harmonic of broadband cw laser radiation into the second harmonic (SH) with compensation for the group walk-off in cascades is proposed and investigated. The conditions under which high conversion coefficients of broadband ({approx}33 cm{sup -1}) single-mode fibre laser radiation with low peak power ({approx}300 W) into the SH are determined for frequency doublers based on the most promising LBO crystal. Conversion of cw radiation with an average power of 300 W and efficiency {eta} = 4.5 % into the SH is obtained in a single LBO crystal. Effect of coherent addition of SH radiation excited in different cascades is demonstrated for two- and three-stage schemes. The expected conversion efficiencies, calculated disregarding loss but taking into account real aberrations of elements, are 18 % and 38 %, respectively. The effect of pumping depletion begins to manifest itself in the third cascade of a three-stage converter; it may reduce the latter value to {approx}30 %. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J.; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen “on the ground.” Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26091012

  3. Modeling and simulation of cascading contingencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation proposes a new approach to model and study cascading contingencies in large power systems. The most important contribution of the work involves the development and validation of a heuristic analytic model to assess the likelihood of cascading contingencies, and the development and validation of a uniform search strategy. We model the probability of cascading contingencies as a function of power flow and power flow changes. Utilizing logistic regression, the proposed model is calibrated using real industry data. This dissertation analyzes random search strategies for Monte Carlo simulations and proposes a new uniform search strategy based on the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The proposed search strategy is capable of selecting the most significant cascading contingencies, and it is capable of constructing an unbiased estimator to provide a measure of system security. This dissertation makes it possible to reasonably quantify system security and justify security operations when economic concerns conflict with reliability concerns in the new competitive power market environment. It can also provide guidance to system operators about actions that may be taken to reduce the risk of major system blackouts. Various applications can be developed to take advantage of the quantitative security measures provided in this dissertation.

  4. Cascading Crater Detection with Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. I.; Stepinski, T. F.; Mu, Y.; Ding, W.

    2011-03-01

    Our strategy for automatic crater detection consists of employing a cascading AdaBoost classifier for identification of craters in images, and using the SOM as an active learning tool to minimize the number of image examples that need to be labeled by an analyst.

  5. Design and Evaluation of Cascade Test Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1979. 6. Erwin, John R., and James C. Emery. NACA TR 1016: Effect of Tunnel Configuration and Testing Technique on... Dgt .,opid 1 4 FEB 1983 S Force laut* 01 clbtebo legy (ATC) 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on ceverse side it necessary and identify by block number) Cascade

  6. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Maps

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trimble, John

    2015-12-15

    The maps in this submission include: heat flow, alkalinity, Cl, Mg, SiO2, Quaternary volcanic rocks, faults, and land ownership. All of the Oregon Cascade region. The work was done by John Trimble, in 2015, at Oregon State University.

  7. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  8. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  9. Electrically Tunable Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Soidel, Alexander; Mansour, Kamjou

    2006-01-01

    Improved quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are being developed as electrically tunable sources of radiation in the far infrared spectral region, especially in the frequency range of 2 to 5 THz. The structures of QCLs and the processes used to fabricate them have much in common with those of multiple- quantum-well infrared photodetectors.

  10. Cascade Training and Teachers' Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines the experience of a nationwide inservice teacher development project in Sri Lanka that aims to remedy the potential deficiencies of cascade models of teacher development. Shows how project training and development strategies that are context sensitive, collaborative, and reflexive seek to involve teachers in managing their own…

  11. Staged energy cascades for the LUX FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, G.

    2004-07-27

    Designs and simulation studies for harmonic cascades, consisting of multiple stages of harmonic generation in free electron lasers (FELs), are presented as part of the LUX R&D project to design ultrafast, high photon energy light sources for basic science. Beam energies of 1.1, 2.1, and 3.1 GeV, corresponding to each pass through a recirculating linac, have independent designs for the harmonic cascade. Simulations were performed using the GENESIS FEL code, to obtain predictions for the performance of these cascades over a wide range of photon energies in terms of the peak power and laser profile. The output laser beam consists of photon energies of up to 1 keV, with durations of the order of 200 fs or shorter. The contribution of shot noise to the laser output is minimal, however fluctuations in the laser and electron beam properties can lead to variations in the FEL output. The sensitivity of the cascade to electron beam properties and misalignments is studied, taking advantage of the fact that GENESIS is a fully 3-dimensional code.

  12. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  13. OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  14. Experimental determination of unsteady blade element aerodynamics in cascades. Volume 1: Torsion mode cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riffel, R. E.; Rothrock, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    A two dimensional cascade of harmonically oscillating airfoils was designed to model a near tip section from a rotor which was known to have experienced supersonic torsional flutter. This five bladed cascade had a solidity of 1.17 and a setting angle of 1.07 rad. Graphite epoxy airfoils were fabricated to achieve the realistically high reduced frequency level of 0.44. The cascade was tested over a range of static pressure ratios approximating the blade element operating conditions of the rotor along a constant speed line which penetrated the flutter boundary. The time-steady and time-unsteady flow field surrounding the center cascade airfoil were investigated. The effects of reduced solidity and decreased setting angle on the flow field were also evaluated.

  15. Component criticality in failure cascade processes of network systems.

    PubMed

    Zio, Enrico; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2011-08-01

    In this work, specific indicators are used to characterize the criticality of components in a network system with respect to their contribution to failure cascade processes. A realistic-size network is considered as reference case study. Three different models of cascading failures are analyzed, differing both on the failure load distribution logic and on the cascade triggering event. The criticality indicators are compared to classical measures of topological centrality to identify the one most characteristic of the cascade processes considered.

  16. DETAILED COMPARISON BETWEEN PARTON CASCADE AND HADRONIC CASCADE AT SPS AND RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    NARA,Y.

    1998-10-23

    The authors study the importance of the partonic phase produced in relativistic heavy ion collision by comparing the parton cascade model and the hadronic cascade model. Hadron yield, baryon stopping and transverse momentum distribution are calculated with JAM and discussions are given comparing with VNI. Both of these models give good description of experimental data. They also discuss the strangeness production mechanism and the directed transverse flow.

  17. Calculation of transonic flow in radial turbine blade cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, Straka

    2017-09-01

    Numerical modeling of transonic centripetal turbulent flow in radial blade cascade is described in this paper. Attention is paid to effect of the outlet confusor on flow through the radial blade cascade. Parameters of presented radial blade cascade are compared with its linear representation

  18. Multiperiod quantum-cascade nanoheterostructures: Epitaxy and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A. Yu. Brunkov, P. N.; Nikitina, E. V.; Pirogov, E. V.; Sobolev, M. S.; Lazarenko, A. A.; Baidakova, M. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Konnikov, S. G.

    2014-12-15

    Advances in the production technology of multiperiod nanoheterostructures of quantum-cascade lasers with 60 cascades by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on an industrial multiple-substrate MBE machine are discussed. The results obtained in studying the nanoheterostructures of quantum-cascade lasers by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, and photoluminescence mapping are presented.

  19. Quantum Cascade Lasers Modulation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzhansky, Edward

    The mid-wave IR (MWIR) spectral band, extending from 3 to 5 microns, is considered to be a low loss atmospheric window. There are several spectral sub-bands with relatively low atmospheric attenuation in this region making it popular for various commercial and military applications. Relatively low thermal and solar background emissions, effective penetration through the natural and anthropogenic obscurants and eye safety add to the long list of advantages of MWIR wavelengths. Quantum Cascade Lasers are compact semiconductor devices capable of operating in MWIR spectrum. They are based on inter-subband transitions in a multiple-quantum-well (QW) hetero-structure, designed by means of band-structure engineering. The inter-subband nature of the optical transition has several key advantages. First, the emission wavelength is primarily a function of the QW thickness. This characteristic allows choosing well-understood and reliable semiconductors for the generation of light in a wavelength range of interest. Second, a cascade process in which tens of photons are generated per injected electron. This cascading process is behind the intrinsic high-power capabilities of QCLs. This dissertation is focused on modulation properties of Quantum Cascade Lasers. Both amplitude and phase/frequency modulations were studied including modulation bandwidth, modulation efficiency and chirp linearity. Research was consisted of the two major parts. In the first part we describe the theory of frequency modulation (FM) response of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers (DFB QCL). It includes cascading effect on the QCL's maximum modulation frequency. The "gain levering" effect for the maximum FM response of the two section QCLs was studied as well. In the second part of research we concentrated on the Pulse Position Amplitude Modulation of a single section QCL. The low complexity, low size, weight and power Mid-Wavelength Infra-Red optical communications transceiver concept is

  20. Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2 byMonomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH: Experimental and Computational Support for a Carbenoid Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Werkema, Evan; Andersen, Richard; Yahia, Ahmed; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile

    2009-05-15

    The reaction between [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, referred to as Cp'2CeH, andCH3X where X is Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2, are described. The reactions fall intothree distinct classes. Class a, where X = Cl, Br and I rapidly form Cp'2CeX and CH4without formation of identifiable intermediates in the 1H NMR spectra. Class b, whereX = OMe proceeds rapidly to Cp'2Ce(eta2-CH2OMe) and H2 and then to Cp'2CeOMeand CH4. The methoxymethyl derivative is sufficiently stable to be isolated andcharacterized and it is rapidly converted to Cp'2CeOMe in presence of BPh3. Class c,where X = NMe2 does not result in formation of Cp'2CeNMe2, but deuterium labelingexperiments show that H for D exchange occurs in NMe3. Density functionalcalculations DFT(B3PW91) on the reaction of (C5H5)2CeH, referred to as Cp2CeH,and CH3X show that the barrier for alpha-CH activation, resulting in formation ofCp2Ce(eta2-CH2X), proceeds with a relatively low activation barrier (DeltaG++) but thesubsequent ejection of CH2 and trapping by H2 has a higher barrier; the height of thesecond barrier lies in the order F, Cl, Br, I< OMe<< NMe2, consistent with theexperimental studies. The DFT calculations also show that the two-step reaction,which proceeds through a carbenoid intermediate, has a lower barrier than a directone-step sigma bond metathesis mechanism. The reaction of Cp2CeCH2OMe and BPh3 is calculated to be a low barrier process and the ylide, CH2(+)BPh3(-), is a transition state and not an intermediate.

  1. Analytical model for electromagnetic cascades in rotating electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Nerush, E. N.; Bashmakov, V. F.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-15

    Electromagnetic cascades attract a lot of attention as an important quantum electrodynamics effect that will reveal itself in various electromagnetic field configurations at ultrahigh intensities. We study cascade dynamics in rotating electric field analytically and numerically. The kinetic equations for the electron-positron plasma and gamma-quanta are formulated. The scaling laws are derived and analyzed. For the cascades arising far above the threshold the dependence of the cascade parameters on the field frequency is derived. The spectra of high-energy cascade particles are calculated. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulations.

  2. Moment method in the theory of cascade-process fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Vetoshkin, V.V.; Uchaikin, V.V.

    1987-09-01

    A method for calculating the fluctuations and correlations in cascade processes is outlined, on the basis of deriving random cascade curves from their spatial (longitudinal) moment. The method reduces the problem of calculating cascade fluctuations in a homogeneous medium to calculating the covariational matrix of random moments, depending only on the energy variable. The set of elements of this matrix allows the fluctuations and core correlations of any track characteristics of the cascade to be calculated. The method is intended for calculations of high-energy cascades, when the influence of fluctuations of high-order longitudinal moments (n greater than or equal to 5) may be neglected.

  3. Scaling laws of wave-cascading superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Phenomenological model is constructed for superfluid turbulence for two distinct energy cascade scenarios, sound wave cascade and critically-balanced Kelvin wave cascade, using the method for magneto-fluid turbulence theory. Excitations along dispersion relations are used as the primary energy reservoir. The spectral indices in the inertial range are estimated as -3/2 for the long-wavelength sound wave cascade, -3 in the direction to the mean filaments for the Kelvin wave cascade, and -5/3 perpendicular to the filament direction.

  4. Gamma ray pulsars. [electron-photon cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegelman, H.; Ayasli, S.; Hacinliyan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data from the SAS-2 high-energy gamma-ray experiment reveal the existence of four pulsars emitting photons above 35 MeV. An attempt is made to explain the gamma-ray emission from these pulsars in terms of an electron-photon cascade that develops in the magnetosphere of the pulsar. Although there is very little material above the surface of the pulsar, the very intense magnetic fields (10 to the 12th power gauss) correspond to many radiation lengths which cause electrons to emit photons by magnetic bremsstrahlung and which cause these photons to pair-produce. The cascade develops until the mean photon energy drops below the pair-production threshold which is in the gamma-ray range; at this stage, the photons break out from the source.

  5. Quantum-cascade lasers enable infrared sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, John F. )

    2003-05-01

    Quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are semiconductor-injection lasers based on intersubband transitions in a multiple-quantum-well heterostructure. They are designed using band-structure engineering and grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The emission wavelength of a QCL is primarily a function of quantum-well thickness--thinner quantum wells lead to shorter wavelengths--and is essentially independent of the material bandgap. Quantum-cascade lasers can be designed to operate at any wavelength from 3.5 m (infrared) to 67 m (terahertz region) and are continuously tunable through ranges of a few inverse centimeters.1, 2, 3 This capability makes them well suited for spectroscopy in the infrared (see Laser Focus World, August 1999, p. 40).

  6. Single mode terahertz quantum cascade amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Y. Wallis, R.; Shah, Y. D.; Jessop, D. S.; Degl'Innocenti, R.; Klimont, A.; Kamboj, V.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2014-10-06

    A terahertz (THz) optical amplifier based on a 2.9 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure has been demonstrated. By depositing an antireflective coating on the QCL facet, the laser mirror losses are enhanced to fully suppress the lasing action, creating a THz quantum cascade (QC) amplifier. Terahertz radiation amplification has been obtained, by coupling a separate multi-mode THz QCL of the same active region design to the QC amplifier. A bare cavity gain is achieved and shows excellent agreement with the lasing spectrum from the original QCL without the antireflective coating. Furthermore, a maximum optical gain of ∼30 dB with single-mode radiation output is demonstrated.

  7. [Infrared spectroscopy based on quantum cascade lasers].

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhong-Quan; Chen, Gang; Peng, Chen; Yuan, Wei-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are promising infrared coherent sources. Thanks to the quantum theory and band-gap engineering, QCL can access the wavelength in the range from 3 to 100 microm. Since the fingerprint spectrum of most gases are located in the mid-infrared range, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser based gas sensing technique has become the research focus world wide because of its high power, narrow linewidth and fast scanning. Recent progress in the QCL technology leads to a great improvement in laser output power and efficiency, which stimulates a fast development in the infrared laser spectroscopy. The present paper gives a broad review on the QCL based spectroscopy techniques according to their working principles. A discussion on their applications in gas sensing and explosive detecting is also given at the end of the paper.

  8. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  9. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  10. Very long wave infrared quantum cascade detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun-qi; Zhai, Shen-qiang; Liu, Feng-qi; Wang, Zhan-guo

    2014-11-01

    Quantum cascade detectors (QCDs) are photovoltaic devices: they have a built in asymmetric conduction band potential formed by energy band engineering design, which allows for biasless operation. In this work, we focus on the very long wave infrared (VLWIR) quantum cascade photodectors involving energy band engineering, material technology, and devices physics. Targeting the common applications, we demonstrate a series of VLWIR QCDs from 14 to 20μm. The dark current density under 1.1×10-11 Acm-2 and the detectivity above 1×1011 cmHz1/2W-1 is achieved. Many of them exhibit high performance and give a cheerful prospect for the practical application in the near future.

  11. Multiplicative-cascade dynamics in pole balancing.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Henry S; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G; Vaz, Daniela V; Michaels, Claire F

    2014-06-01

    Pole balancing is a key task for probing the prospective control that organisms must engage in for purposeful action. The temporal structure of pole-balancing behaviors will reflect the on-line operation of control mechanisms needed to maintain an upright posture. In this study, signatures of multifractality are sought and found in time series of the vertical angle of a pole balanced on the fingertip. Comparisons to surrogate time series reveal multiplicative-cascade dynamics and interactivity across scales. In addition, simulations of a pole-balancing model generating on-off intermittency [J. L. Cabrera and J. G. Milton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 158702 (2002)] were analyzed. Evidence of multifractality is also evident in simulations, though comparing simulated and participant series reveals a significantly greater contribution of cross-scale interactivity for the latter. These findings suggest that multiplicative-cascade dynamics are an extension of on-off intermittency and play a role in prospective coordination.

  12. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals

    DOE PAGES

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P.; Juslin, Niklas; ...

    2015-01-01

    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, b, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy (N-F similar to E-MD(b)). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, mu, between the high-and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of mu as a function of displacement threshold energy, E-d,more » is presented for bcc metals.« less

  13. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P.; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E.; Wirth, Brian D.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, b, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy (N-F similar to E-MD(b)). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, mu, between the high-and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of mu as a function of displacement threshold energy, E-d, is presented for bcc metals.

  14. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, A.; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E.; Wirth, Brian D.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2015-06-10

    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, $b$, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy ($N_F$$ \\sim$$E_{MD}^b$). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, $\\mu$, between the high- and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of $\\mu$ as a function of displacement threshold energy, $E_d$, is presented for bcc metals.

  15. Overflow cascades on liquid-infused surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Ian; Wexler, Jason; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    The shear-driven dewetting of liquid-infused, micro-patterned surfaces is shown to exhibit a complex cascade of overflow, droplet generation and liquid displacement behaviors. Because liquid-infused surfaces are important in systems as varied as free-surface microfluidic devices and high Reynolds number drag-reducing coatings, understanding the dewetting mechanism is crucial to designing substrates capable of retaining infused liquid or, alternatively, dispensing it in a controlled way. Shear flow experiments on a variety of liquid-infused surface architectures are performed and the interfacial dynamics are characterized at macro- and microscopic scales. Analysis of the different stages of the dewetting cascade is then used to develop substrate design criteria for enhanced liquid control under a variety of shear flow conditions.

  16. Cascade models of synaptically stored memories.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Stefano; Drew, Patrick J; Abbott, L F

    2005-02-17

    Storing memories of ongoing, everyday experiences requires a high degree of plasticity, but retaining these memories demands protection against changes induced by further activity and experience. Models in which memories are stored through switch-like transitions in synaptic efficacy are good at storing but bad at retaining memories if these transitions are likely, and they are poor at storage but good at retention if they are unlikely. We construct and study a model in which each synapse has a cascade of states with different levels of plasticity, connected by metaplastic transitions. This cascade model combines high levels of memory storage with long retention times and significantly outperforms alternative models. As a result, we suggest that memory storage requires synapses with multiple states exhibiting dynamics over a wide range of timescales, and we suggest experimental tests of this hypothesis.

  17. Numerical calculation of turbomachinery cascade flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng

    A numerical method for solving both the Euler and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for flows in turbomachinery cascades is presented and verified. The method is based on a finite volume method with an explicit multi-stage time-stepping scheme originally developed by Jameson for the Euler equations. Modified discretization schemes, based on Martinelli's work for the second order derivatives in the Navier-Stokes equations, are proposed for both the cell-vertex and the cell-centered schemes. The new schemes avoid a potential discretization problem with kinked meshes. Use of artificial dissipation to stabilize a central difference scheme and capture shocks is discussed. Local time stepping and residual smoothing are used to increase the allowable time steps for stability. A multigrid method is employed to accelerate convergence to steady state. For steady inviscid flows enthalpy damping is also used. The method is capable of handling flows of low Mach number (lower than 0.3), and transonic and supersonic flows. Both laminar and turbulent flows are calculated in solving the Reynolds-averaged equations. The Reynolds number may range from order 1 to 10(exp 7) or even higher as long as enough mesh resolution and a proper turbulence model are provided. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used in the current work. An elliptic mesh generator is used to generate H-type meshes for cascades. The cell-centered scheme is programmed in both two- and three-dimensions for the Euler equations. Numerical results included a two-dimensional Hobson cascade, a supersonic wedge cascade and the VKI turbine cascade. The three-dimensional code is used to calculate the flow in a low pressure turbine cascade. Results compare well with experimental data at design conditions. At off-design conditions, the Euler method fails in regions of large separations.

  18. Inverse energy cascade in rotational turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Chen, Rou; Wang, Hengjie

    2012-11-01

    Rotation influences large-scale motions in the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and it is also important in many industrial applications such as turbo machinery, rotor-craft, and rotating channel etc. We study rotation effects on decaying isotropic turbulence through direct numerical simulation using lattice Boltzmann method. A Coriolis force characterized by the angular velocity of the frame of reference Ω is included in the lattice Boltzmann equations. The effects of rotation on fundamental turbulence features such as kinetic energy and enstrophy decay, energy spectrum, etc. are studied. The decay laws are quantitatively captured. Inverse energy cascade are observed in the 3D turbulence with and without rotation. The scaling of the inverse energy cascade and its relation to initial energy spectrum are explored. Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI).

  19. Electrophilic and nucleophilic enzymatic cascade reactions in biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ueberbacher, Barbara T; Hall, Mélanie; Faber, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    The biosynthesis of cyclic terpenoids and polyethers involves enzyme-initiated cascade reactions for ring formation. While the former are obtained by electrophilic cascades through carbenium ions as intermediates, cyclic polyethers are formed by nucleophilic cascade reactions of (poly)epoxide precursors. These mechanistically complementary pathways follow common principles via (i) triggering of the cascade by forming a reactive intermediate ('initiation'), (ii) sequential 'proliferation' of the cyclization and finally (iii) 'termination' of the cascade. As analyzed in this concept paper, the multiplicity of precursors, combined with various initiation and termination routes and kinetically favored or disfavored cyclization modes accounts for the enormous diversity in cyclic terpenoid and polyether scaffolds. Although the essential role of enzymes in the triggering of these cascades is reasonably well understood, remarkably little is known about their influence in proliferation reactions, especially those implying kinetically disfavored (anti-Markovnikov and anti-Baldwin) routes. Mechanistic analysis of enzymatic cascade reactions provides biomimetic strategies for natural product synthesis.

  20. Environmental solid particle effects on compressor cascade performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabakoff, W.; Balan, C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of suspended solid particles on the performance of the compressor cascade was investigated experimentally in a specially built cascade tunnel, using quartz sand particles. The cascades were made of NACA 65(10)10 airfoils. Three cascades were tested, one accelerating cascade and two diffusing cascades. The theoretical analysis assumes inviscid and incompressible two dimensional flow. The momentum exchange between the fluid and the particle is accounted for by the interphase force terms in the fluid momentum equation. The modified fluid phase momentum equations and the continuity equation are reduced to the conventional stream function vorticity formulation. The method treats the fluid phase in the Eulerian system and the particle phase in Lagrangian system. The experimental results indicate a small increase in the blade surface static pressures, while the theoretical results indicate a small decrease. The theoretical analysis, also predicts the loss in total pressure associated with the particulate flow through the cascade.

  1. Cascading failure in the wireless sensor scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Ran; Dong, Ming-Ru; Yin, Rong-Rong; Han, Li

    2015-05-01

    In the practical wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the cascading failure caused by a failure node has serious impact on the network performance. In this paper, we deeply research the cascading failure of scale-free topology in WSNs. Firstly, a cascading failure model for scale-free topology in WSNs is studied. Through analyzing the influence of the node load on cascading failure, the critical load triggering large-scale cascading failure is obtained. Then based on the critical load, a control method for cascading failure is presented. In addition, the simulation experiments are performed to validate the effectiveness of the control method. The results show that the control method can effectively prevent cascading failure. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. F2014203239), the Autonomous Research Fund of Young Teacher in Yanshan University (Grant No. 14LGB017) and Yanshan University Doctoral Foundation, China (Grant No. B867).

  2. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Peter G.; Saxena, Ram R.

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  3. A cascaded coding scheme for error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, T.; Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    A cascaded coding scheme for error control was investigated. The scheme employs a combination of hard and soft decisions in decoding. Error performance is analyzed. If the inner and outer codes are chosen properly, extremely high reliability can be attained even for a high channel bit-error-rate. Some example schemes are studied which seem to be quite suitable for satellite down-link error control.

  4. Cascading Effects of Fuel Network Interdiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    114  Table 11: Cascading Effects of Supply Interdiction in Select Industries ....................... 118  Table 12: Randomized Factor Settings for...there is an improvement in model stability to variations in stock, product, and demand factors that affect profit that is scaled by the risk attitude...system caused by a direct disruption in an interconnected industry . Likewise, resource availability and supply are quantified by the risk of

  5. A cascaded coding scheme for error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, L.; Kasami, T.

    1985-01-01

    A cascade coding scheme for error control is investigated. The scheme employs a combination of hard and soft decisions in decoding. Error performance is analyzed. If the inner and outer codes are chosen properly, extremely high reliability can be attained even for a high channel bit-error-rate. Some example schemes are evaluated. They seem to be quite suitable for satellite down-link error control.

  6. Transonic Cascade Measurements to Support Analytical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RECEIVED JUL 0 12005 FINAL REPORT FOR: AFOSR GRANT F49260-02-1-0284 TRANSONIC CASCADE MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT ANALYTICAL MODELING Paul A. Durbin ...PAD); 650-723-1971 (JKE) durbin @vk.stanford.edu; eaton@vk.stanford.edu submitted to: Attn: Dr. John Schmisseur Air Force Office of Scientific Research...both spline and control points for subsequent wall shape definitions. An algebraic grid generator was used to generate the grid for the blade-wall

  7. Evolution of Vertebrate Phototransduction: Cascade Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Trevor D.; Patel, Hardip; Chuah, Aaron; Natoli, Riccardo C.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Hart, Nathan S.; Collin, Shaun P.; Hunt, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We applied high-throughput sequencing to eye tissue from several species of basal vertebrates (a hagfish, two species of lamprey, and five species of gnathostome fish), and we analyzed the mRNA sequences for the proteins underlying activation of the phototransduction cascade. The molecular phylogenies that we constructed from these sequences are consistent with the 2R WGD model of two rounds of whole genome duplication. Our analysis suggests that agnathans retain an additional representative (that has been lost in gnathostomes) in each of the gene families we studied; the evidence is strong for the G-protein α subunit (GNAT) and the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6), and indicative for the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA and CNGB). Two of the species (the hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus and the lamprey Mordacia mordax) possess only a single class of photoreceptor, simplifying deductions about the composition of cascade protein isoforms utilized in their photoreceptors. For the other lamprey, Geotria australis, analysis of the ratios of transcript levels in downstream and upstream migrant animals permits tentative conclusions to be drawn about the isoforms used in four of the five spectral classes of photoreceptor. Overall, our results suggest that agnathan rod-like photoreceptors utilize the same GNAT1 as gnathostomes, together with a homodimeric PDE6 that may be agnathan-specific, whereas agnathan cone-like photoreceptors utilize a GNAT that may be agnathan-specific, together with the same PDE6C as gnathostomes. These findings help elucidate the evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade from an ancestral chordate phototransduction cascade that existed prior to the vertebrate radiation. PMID:27189541

  8. Unsteady Pressure Distributions on Airfoils in Cascade.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    of thin airfoil theory has been used by Henderson (-ftj’ and Bruce (1-7-)’to derive expressions for the unsteady response which includes the cascade...model in conjunction with the assumptions of thin airfoil theory has been used by Henderson (16) and Bruce (17) to derive expressions for the unsteady...effect, that is, a sharp change in the unsteady lift when the disturbance wavelength equals the blade spacing. Bruce (19) further extends this theory to

  9. Sustained oscillations in the MAP kinase cascade.

    PubMed

    Hell, Juliette; Rendall, Alan D

    2016-10-29

    The MAP kinase cascade is a network of enzymatic reactions arranged in layers. In each layer occurs a multiple futile cycle of phosphorylations. The fully phosphorylated substrate then serves as an enzyme for the layer below. This paper focusses on the existence of parameters for which Hopf bifurcations occur and generate periodic orbits. Furthermore it is explained how geometric singular perturbation theory allows to generalize results from simple models to more complex ones. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Absorption spectroscopy with quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers operating near lambda=8 micrometers were used for detection and quantification of trace gases in ambient air by means of sensitive absorption spectroscopy. N2O, 12CH4, 13CH4, and different isotopic species of H2O were detected. Also, a highly selective detection of ethanol vapor in air with a sensitivity of 125 parts per billion by volume (ppb) was demonstrated.

  11. Microsensors based on quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheng; Deev, Andrei; Tang, Yongchun

    2011-06-01

    We present our results on efficient coupling of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) into Whispering Gallery Resonators, Hollow Waveguide. We also present results of micro sensors using the unique properties of QCLs, e.g. online sensors for Gas Chromatography (GC). We show that because of the unique brightness properties of QCLs, we could improve GC-Infrared sensors' sensitivity to the same level as Mass Spectrometry, and with different dimension of chemical information.

  12. Gasdynamic Evaluation of Choking Cascade Turns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    often volume limited, requiring extensive integration of components. One such component is the air intake systems which are needed for environmental...GASDYNANqIC EVALUATION OF CHOKING CASCADE TURNS THESIS Dennis R. Perez Capt, USAF E T~ AFIT/GAE/AA/84D-21 SELECTE Approved for public release; distribution...Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in

  13. Prediction of Cascading Failures in Spatial Networks.

    PubMed

    Shunkun, Yang; Jiaquan, Zhang; Dan, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Cascading overload failures are widely found in large-scale parallel systems and remain a major threat to system reliability; therefore, they are of great concern to maintainers and managers of different systems. Accurate cascading failure prediction can provide useful information to help control networks. However, for a large, gradually growing network with increasing complexity, it is often impractical to explore the behavior of a single node from the perspective of failure propagation. Fortunately, overload failures that propagate through a network exhibit certain spatial-temporal correlations, which allows the study of a group of nodes that share common spatial and temporal characteristics. Therefore, in this study, we seek to predict the failure rates of nodes in a given group using machine-learning methods. We simulated overload failure propagations in a weighted lattice network that start with a center attack and predicted the failure percentages of different groups of nodes that are separated by a given distance. The experimental results of a feedforward neural network (FNN), a recurrent neural network (RNN) and support vector regression (SVR) all show that these different models can accurately predict the similar behavior of nodes in a given group during cascading overload propagation.

  14. Analysis of cascading failure in gene networks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Longxiao; Wang, Shudong; Li, Kaikai; Meng, Dazhi

    2012-01-01

    It is an important subject to research the functional mechanism of cancer-related genes make in formation and development of cancers. The modern methodology of data analysis plays a very important role for deducing the relationship between cancers and cancer-related genes and analyzing functional mechanism of genome. In this research, we construct mutual information networks using gene expression profiles of glioblast and renal in normal condition and cancer conditions. We investigate the relationship between structure and robustness in gene networks of the two tissues using a cascading failure model based on betweenness centrality. Define some important parameters such as the percentage of failure nodes of the network, the average size-ratio of cascading failure, and the cumulative probability of size-ratio of cascading failure to measure the robustness of the networks. By comparing control group and experiment groups, we find that the networks of experiment groups are more robust than that of control group. The gene that can cause large scale failure is called structural key gene. Some of them have been confirmed to be closely related to the formation and development of glioma and renal cancer respectively. Most of them are predicted to play important roles during the formation of glioma and renal cancer, maybe the oncogenes, suppressor genes, and other cancer candidate genes in the glioma and renal cancer cells. However, these studies provide little information about the detailed roles of identified cancer genes.

  15. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Parshani, Roni; Paul, Gerald; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-03-01

    Many complex systems are coupled together and therefore should be modeled by multiple interdependent networks. For example, a power network in which the nodes are power stations and a communication network in which the nodes are computers, are interdependent. In interdependent networks, failure of nodes in one network, cause failure of dependent nodes in another network. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures: a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system. We provide a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures and provide a basic analytic approach that may be useful in future work. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that upon removal will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two randomly connected interdependent networks in terms of the generating functions of their degree distributions. Surprisingly, networks with broad degree distributions are more vulnerable to random failures than networks with narrow degree distributions.

  16. Quantifying and Tracing Information Cascades in Swarms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Miller, Jennifer M.; Lizier, Joseph T.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Rossi, Louis F.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel, information-theoretic, characterisation of cascades within the spatiotemporal dynamics of swarms, explicitly measuring the extent of collective communications. This is complemented by dynamic tracing of collective memory, as another element of distributed computation, which represents capacity for swarm coherence. The approach deals with both global and local information dynamics, ultimately discovering diverse ways in which an individual’s spatial position is related to its information processing role. It also allows us to contrast cascades that propagate conflicting information with waves of coordinated motion. Most importantly, our simulation experiments provide the first direct information-theoretic evidence (verified in a simulation setting) for the long-held conjecture that the information cascades occur in waves rippling through the swarm. Our experiments also exemplify how features of swarm dynamics, such as cascades’ wavefronts, can be filtered and predicted. We observed that maximal information transfer tends to follow the stage with maximal collective memory, and principles like this may be generalised in wider biological and social contexts. PMID:22808095

  17. A cascade feedback control approach for hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Hector; Alvarez-Ramírez, José

    2005-10-01

    This article studies the problem of controlling the drug administration during an anesthesia process, where muscle relaxation, analgesia, and hypnosis are regulated by means of monitored administration of specific drugs. On the basis of a seventh-order nonlinear pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic representation of the hypnosis process dynamics, a cascade (master/slave) feedback control structure for controlling the bispectral index (BIS) is proposed. The master controller compares the measured BIS with its reference value to provide the expired isoflurane concentration reference to the slave controller. In turn, the slave controller manipulates the anesthetic isoflurane concentration entering the anesthetic system to achieve the reference from the master controller. The advantage of the proposed cascade control structure with respect to its noncascade counterpart is that the former provides operation protection against BIS measurement failures. In fact, under a BIS measurement fault, the master control feedback is broken and the slave controller operates under a safe reference value. Extensive numerical simulations are used to illustrate the functioning of the proposed cascade control structure.

  18. High power, electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-02-01

    Mid-infrared laser sources (3-14 μm wavelengths) which have wide spectral coverage and high output power are attractive for many applications. This spectral range contains unique absorption fingerprints of most molecules, including toxins, explosives, and nerve agents. Infrared spectroscopy can also be used to detect important biomarkers, which can be used for medical diagnostics by means of breath analysis. The challenge is to produce a broadband midinfrared source which is small, lightweight, robust, and inexpensive. We are currently investigating monolithic solutions using quantum cascade lasers. A wide gain bandwidth is not sufficient to make an ideal spectroscopy source. Single mode output with rapid tuning is desirable. For dynamic wavelength selection, our group is developing multi-section laser geometries with wide electrical tuning (hundreds of cm-1). These devices are roughly the same size as a traditional quantum cascade lasers, but tuning is accomplished without any external optical components. When combined with suitable amplifiers, these lasers are capable of multi-Watt single mode output powers. This manuscript will describe our current research efforts and the potential for high performance, broadband electrical tuning with the quantum cascade laser.

  19. Cascade laser applications: trends and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Humières, B.; Margoto, Éric; Fazilleau, Yves

    2016-03-01

    When analyses need rapid measurements, cost effective monitoring and miniaturization, tunable semiconductor lasers can be very good sources. Indeed, applications like on-field environmental gas analysis or in-line industrial process control are becoming available thanks to the advantage of tunable semiconductor lasers. Advances in cascade lasers (CL) are revolutionizing Mid-IR spectroscopy with two alternatives: interband cascade lasers (ICL) in the 3-6μm spectrum and quantum cascade lasers (QCL), with more power from 3 to 300μm. The market is getting mature with strong players for driving applications like industry, environment, life science or transports. CL are not the only Mid-IR laser source. In fact, a strong competition is now taking place with other technologies like: OPO, VCSEL, Solid State lasers, Gas, SC Infrared or fiber lasers. In other words, CL have to conquer a share of the Mid-IR application market. Our study is a market analysis of CL technologies and their applications. It shows that improvements of components performance, along with the progress of infrared laser spectroscopy will drive the CL market growth. We compare CL technologies with other Mid-IR sources and estimate their share in each application market.

  20. Cascading failures in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Rohden, Martin; Jung, Daniel; Tamrakar, Samyak; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Sudden failure of a single transmission element in a power grid can induce a domino effect of cascading failures, which can lead to the isolation of a large number of consumers or even to the failure of the entire grid. Here we present results of the simulation of cascading failures in power grids, using an alternating current (AC) model. We first apply this model to a regular square grid topology. For a random placement of consumers and generators on the grid, the probability to find more than a certain number of unsupplied consumers decays as a power law and obeys a scaling law with respect to system size. Varying the transmitted power threshold above which a transmission line fails does not seem to change the power-law exponent q≈1.6. Furthermore, we study the influence of the placement of generators and consumers on the number of affected consumers and demonstrate that large clusters of generators and consumers are especially vulnerable to cascading failures. As a real-world topology, we consider the German high-voltage transmission grid. Applying the dynamic AC model and considering a random placement of consumers, we find that the probability to disconnect more than a certain number of consumers depends strongly on the threshold. For large thresholds the decay is clearly exponential, while for small ones the decay is slow, indicating a power-law decay.

  1. HIV treatment cascade in tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Lessells, Richard J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Globally, the number of deaths associated with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection remains unacceptably high. We review the evidence around the impact of strengthening the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients and explore recent findings about how best to deliver integrated TB/HIV services. Recent findings There is clear evidence that the timely provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in TB/HIV coinfected adults. Despite this, globally in 2013, only around a third of known HIV-positive TB cases were treated with ART. Although there is some recent evidence exploring the barriers to achieve high coverage of HIV testing and ART initiation in TB patients, our understanding of which factors are most important and how best to address these within different health systems remains incomplete. There are some examples of good practice in the delivery of integrated TB/HIV services to improve the HIV treatment cascade. However, evidence of the impact of such strategies is of relatively low quality for informing integrated TB/HIV programming more broadly. In most settings, there remain barriers to higher-level organizational and functional integration. Summary There remains a need for commitment to patient-centred integrated TB/HIV care in countries affected by the dual epidemic. There is a need for better quality evidence around how best to deliver integrated services to strengthen the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients, both at primary healthcare level and within community settings. PMID:26352390

  2. Trophic cascade alters ecosystem carbon exchange.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Michael S; Hawlena, Dror; Reese, Aspen; Bradford, Mark A; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2013-07-02

    Trophic cascades--the indirect effects of carnivores on plants mediated by herbivores--are common across ecosystems, but their influence on biogeochemical cycles, particularly the terrestrial carbon cycle, are largely unexplored. Here, using a (13)C pulse-chase experiment, we demonstrate how trophic structure influences ecosystem carbon dynamics in a meadow system. By manipulating the presence of herbivores and predators, we show that even without an initial change in total plant or herbivore biomass, the cascading effects of predators in this system begin to affect carbon cycling through enhanced carbon fixation by plants. Prolonged cascading effects on plant biomass lead to slowing of carbon loss via ecosystem respiration and reallocation of carbon among plant aboveground and belowground tissues. Consequently, up to 1.4-fold more carbon is retained in plant biomass when carnivores are present compared with when they are absent, owing primarily to greater carbon storage in grass and belowground plant biomass driven largely by predator nonconsumptive (fear) effects on herbivores. Our data highlight the influence that the mere presence of predators, as opposed to direct consumption of herbivores, can have on carbon uptake, allocation, and retention in terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Towards automated design of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirčetić, Aleksandra; Indjin, Dragan; Ikonić, Zoran; Harrison, Paul; Milanović, Vitomir; Kelsall, Robert W.

    2005-04-01

    We present an advanced technique for the design and optimization of GaAs /AlGaAs quantum cascade laser structures. It is based on the implementation of the simulated annealing algorithm with the purpose of determining a set of design parameters that satisfy predefined conditions, leading to an enhancement of the device output characteristics. Two important design aspects have been addressed: improved thermal behavior, achieved by the use of higher conduction band offset materials, and a more efficient extraction mechanism, realized via a ladder of three lower laser states, with subsequent pairs separated by the optical phonon energy. A detailed analysis of performance of the obtained structures is carried out within a full self-consistent rate equations model of the carrier dynamics. The latter uses wave functions calculated by the transfer matrix method, and evaluates all relevant carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier scattering rates from each quantized state to all others within the same and neighboring periods of the cascade. These values are then used to form a set of rate equations for the carrier density in each state, enabling further calculation of the current density and gain as a function of the applied field and temperature. This paper addresses the application of the described procedure to the design of λ ˜9μm GaAs-based mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and presents the output characteristics of some of the designed optimized structures.

  4. Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time marching Full Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier Transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers.

  5. Cascading failures in ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohden, Martin; Jung, Daniel; Tamrakar, Samyak; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Sudden failure of a single transmission element in a power grid can induce a domino effect of cascading failures, which can lead to the isolation of a large number of consumers or even to the failure of the entire grid. Here we present results of the simulation of cascading failures in power grids, using an alternating current (AC) model. We first apply this model to a regular square grid topology. For a random placement of consumers and generators on the grid, the probability to find more than a certain number of unsupplied consumers decays as a power law and obeys a scaling law with respect to system size. Varying the transmitted power threshold above which a transmission line fails does not seem to change the power-law exponent q ≈1.6 . Furthermore, we study the influence of the placement of generators and consumers on the number of affected consumers and demonstrate that large clusters of generators and consumers are especially vulnerable to cascading failures. As a real-world topology, we consider the German high-voltage transmission grid. Applying the dynamic AC model and considering a random placement of consumers, we find that the probability to disconnect more than a certain number of consumers depends strongly on the threshold. For large thresholds the decay is clearly exponential, while for small ones the decay is slow, indicating a power-law decay.

  6. Survey of tools for risk assessment of cascading outages

    SciTech Connect

    Papic, Milorad; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Dobson, Ian; Fonte, Louis; Haq, Enamul; Hines, Paul; Kirschen, Daniel; Luo, Xiaochuan; Miller, Stephen; Samaan, Nader A.; Vaiman, Marianna; Varghese, Matthew; Zhang, Pei

    2011-10-01

    Abstract-This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers [1, 2] are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the second of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. The first paper reviews the state of the art in methodologies for performing risk assessment of potential cascading outages [3]. This paper describes the state of the art in cascading failure modeling tools, documenting the view of experts representing utilities, universities and consulting companies. The paper is intended to constitute a valid source of information and references about presently available tools that deal with prediction of cascading failure events. This effort involves reviewing published literature and other documentation from vendors, universities and research institutions. The assessment of cascading outages risk evaluation is in continuous evolution. Investigations to gain even better understanding and identification of cascading events are the subject of several research programs underway aimed at solving the complexity of these events that electrical utilities face today. Assessing the risk of cascading failure events in planning and operation for power transmission systems require adequate mathematical tools/software.

  7. Energy flow along the medium-induced parton cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Blaizot, J.-P.

    2016-05-15

    We discuss the dynamics of parton cascades that develop in dense QCD matter, and contrast their properties with those of similar cascades of gluon radiation in vacuum. We argue that such cascades belong to two distinct classes that are characterized respectively by an increasing or a constant (or decreasing) branching rate along the cascade. In the former class, of which the BDMPS, medium-induced, cascade constitutes a typical example, it takes a finite time to transport a finite amount of energy to very soft quanta, while this time is essentially infinite in the latter case, to which the DGLAP cascade belongs. The medium induced cascade is accompanied by a constant flow of energy towards arbitrary soft modes, leading eventually to the accumulation of the initial energy of the leading particle at zero energy. It also exhibits scaling properties akin to wave turbulence. These properties do not show up in the cascade that develops in vacuum. There, the energy accumulates in the spectrum at smaller and smaller energy as the cascade develops, but the energy never flows all the way down to zero energy. Our analysis suggests that the way the energy is shared among the offsprings of a splitting gluon has little impact on the qualitative properties of the cascades, provided the kernel that governs the splittings is not too singular.

  8. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  9. A stochastic model of cascades in two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditlevsen, Peter D.

    2012-10-01

    The dual cascade of energy and enstrophy in 2D turbulence cannot easily be understood in terms of an analog to the Richardson-Kolmogorov scenario describing the energy cascade in 3D turbulence. The coherent upscale and downscale fluxes point to non-locality of interactions in spectral space, and thus the specific spatial structure of the flow could be important. Shell models, which lack spatial structure and have only local interactions in spectral space, indeed fail in reproducing the correct scaling for the inverse cascade of energy. In order to exclude the possibility that non-locality of interactions in spectral space is crucial for the dual cascade, we introduce a stochastic spectral model of the cascades which is local in spectral space and which shows the correct scaling for both the direct enstrophy and the inverse energy cascade.

  10. Free Energy Cascade in Gyrokinetic Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Banon Navarro, A.; Morel, P.; Albrecht-Marc, M.; Carati, D.; Merz, F.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F.

    2011-02-04

    In gyrokinetic theory, the quadratic nonlinearity is known to play an important role in the dynamics by redistributing (in a conservative fashion) the free energy between the various active scales. In the present study, the free energy transfer is analyzed for the case of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. It is shown that it shares many properties with the energy transfer in fluid turbulence. In particular, one finds a (strongly) local, forward (from large to small scales) cascade of free energy in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field. These findings shed light on some fundamental properties of plasma turbulence, and encourage the development of large-eddy-simulation techniques for gyrokinetics.

  11. Optically Pumped Carbon Monoxide Cascade Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-30

    bother with the small absorption cross-sections of 2nd overtone pumping and the absorption problems it poses. Instead, a 2.3 µm GaSb diode laser ...could be used as a 1 st overtone optically pumped source. The absorption cross section at 2.3 µm is over 100 times larger. The 2.3 µm diode laser is...AFRL-DE-PS- AFRL-DE-PS- TR-2005-1093 TR-2005-1093 OPTICALLY PUMPED CARBON MONOXIDE CASCADE LASER NICHOLAS W. SAWRUK 30 June 2005 Final Report

  12. Cascaded proton acceleration by collisionless electrostatic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T. J.; Shen, B. F. E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, X. M. E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Yi, L. Q.; Wang, W. P.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Shi, Y.; Liu, C.; Pei, Z. K.

    2015-07-15

    A new scheme for proton acceleration by cascaded collisionless electrostatic shock (CES) is proposed. By irradiating a foil target with a moderate high-intensity laser beam, a stable CES field can be induced, which is employed as the accelerating field for the booster stage of proton acceleration. The mechanism is studied through simulations and theoretical analysis, showing that a 55 MeV seed proton beam can be further accelerated to 265 MeV while keeping a good energy spread. This scheme offers a feasible approach to produce proton beams with energy of hundreds of MeV by existing available high-intensity laser facilities.

  13. Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, Peter Schwarz, Benedikt; Harrer, Andreas; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Maxwell Andrews, Aaron; Gansch, Roman; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2013-12-09

    In this Letter, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of a photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector (PCS-QCD). By employing a specifically designed resonant cavity, the performance of the photodetector is improved in three distinct ways. The PCS makes the QCD sensitive to surface normal incident light. It resonantly enhances the photon lifetime inside the active zone, thus increasing the photocurrent significantly. And, the construction form of the device inherently decreases the noise. Finally, we compare the characteristics of the PCS-QCD to a PCS - quantum well infrared photodetector and outline the advantages for certain fields of applications.

  14. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOEpatents

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  15. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the availability cascade.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen

    2014-09-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in sports has been known for > 85 years, and has experienced a resurgence of interest over the past decade, both in the media and in the scientific community. However, there appears to be a disconnection between the public's perception of CTE and the currently available scientific data. The cognitive bias known as the "availability cascade" has been suggested as a reason to explain this rift in knowledge. This review summarizes and updates the history of CTE in sports, discusses recent epidemiological and autopsy studies, summarizes the evidence base related to CTE in sports, and offers recommendations for future directions.

  16. Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin G; Kansky, Jan; Goyal, Anish K; Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Belkin, Mikhail A; Sanchez, Antonio; Capasso, Federico A

    2009-08-31

    Wavelength beam combining was used to co-propagate beams from 28 elements in an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The beam-quality product of the array, defined as the product of near-field spot size and far-field divergence for the entire array, was improved by a factor of 21 by using wavelength beam combining. To demonstrate the applicability of wavelength beam combined DFB-QCL arrays for remote sensing, we obtained the absorption spectrum of isopropanol at a distance of 6 m from the laser array.

  17. Atomistic Simulation of Displacement Cascades in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.; BP McGrail and GA Cragnolino

    2002-05-06

    Low energy displacement cascades in zircon (ZrSiO4) initiated by a Zr primary knock-on atom have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using a Coulombic model for long-range interactions, Buckingham potential for short-range interactions and Ziegler-Biersack potentials for close pair interactions. Displacements were found to occur mainly in the O sublattice, and O replacements by a ring mechanism were predominant. Clusters containing Si interstitials bridged by O interstitials, vacancy clusters and anti-site defects were found to occur. This Si-O-Si bridging is considerable in quenched liquid ZrSiO4.

  18. Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, Peter; Schwarz, Benedikt; Harrer, Andreas; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Maxwell Andrews, Aaron; Gansch, Roman; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of a photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector (PCS-QCD). By employing a specifically designed resonant cavity, the performance of the photodetector is improved in three distinct ways. The PCS makes the QCD sensitive to surface normal incident light. It resonantly enhances the photon lifetime inside the active zone, thus increasing the photocurrent significantly. And, the construction form of the device inherently decreases the noise. Finally, we compare the characteristics of the PCS-QCD to a PCS - quantum well infrared photodetector and outline the advantages for certain fields of applications.

  19. Performance and Reliability of Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2013-05-01

    We present the burn-in behavior and power stability of multiple quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) that were measured to investigate their long-term performance. For these experiments, the current to the QCL was cycled every ten minutes, and the output power was monitored over time for durations as long as two months. A small increase in power for a given injection current is observed for almost all of the QCLs tested during the burn-in period. The data from these experiments will be presented along with the effects of packaging the QCLs to determine the impact on performance and reliability.

  20. The Cascade of Non-Stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmont, P.; Kumarasamy, K.; Kelly, S. A.; Schaffrath, K. R.; Beach, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes and channel networks are dynamic systems, often characterized by immense variability in time and space. Systematic shifts in hydrologic, geomorphic, or ecologic drivers can cause a cascade of changes within the system, which may fundamentally alter the way the system itself functions. Due to variability in resilience and resisting forces throughout the landscape, this cascade of changes may manifest in different ways within any given system. Humans may also exert considerable influence, often amplifying or damping system response. We illustrate the cascading effects of non-stationary hydrology and geomorphology in the Minnesota River Basin (MRB), a 44,000 km2 natural laboratory in which pervasive landscape disturbance has been triggered by several well-documented events. Rapid base-level lowering 13,400 YBP along the mainstem Minnesota River created a wave of incision, which continues to propagate up tributary channel networks. Temperature and precipitation have changed significantly in the MRB over the past century with rising temperatures, shifting precipitation patterns and an increase in heavy rainfall events. Streamflow has changed drastically and variably throughout the basin with 5% exceedance flows increasing 60-100% in recent decades, as increases in precipitation have been amplified by land management and artificial drainage. Increases in channel width and depth have occurred variably in the mainstem Minnesota River, the actively incising lower (knick zone) reaches of tributaries, and the low gradient, passively meandering reaches above the knick zones. Altered hydrologic regimes and channel morphologies, combined with increased sedimentation and nutrient loading have adversely affected aquatic biota via disruption of life cycles and habitat degradation. Existing landscape, water quality, and flood risk models are poorly equipped to deal with the cascading effects of non-stationarity and therefore may grossly over- or under

  1. Auto-tuning of cascade control systems.

    PubMed

    Song, Sihai; Cai, Wenjian; Wang, Ya-Gang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a novel auto-tuning method for a cascade control system is proposed. By employing a simple relay feedback test, both inner and outer loop model parameters can be simultaneously identified. Consequently, well-established proportional-integral-derivative (PID) tuning rules can be applied to tune both loops. Compared with existing methods, the new method is simpler and yet more effective. It can be directly integrated into commercially available industrial auto-tuning systems. Some examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  2. Dynamics of cavitating cascades. [transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The unsteady dynamics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps were studied with a view to understanding (and possibly predicting) the dynamic characteristics of these devices. The chronology of the research is summarized as well as the final conculsions for each task. The construction of a dynamic pump test facility and its use in making experimental measurements of the transfer function is described as well as tests conducted using a scale model of the low pressure liquid oxygen turbopump inducer in the shuttle main engine. Auto-oscillation and unsteady inlet flow characteristics are discussed in addition to blade cavity influence and bubbly cavitation.

  3. Power Grid Defense Against Malicious Cascading Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    proprietary computer hardware and software [26]. In this paper , we extend the work on cascading failure models to a two-player game where an attacker...information. However, in this paper , we use the following proxy (similar to [8]). cij(G0) = (1 + α)loadG0(ij) where α is a non-negative real that...NetworkX library2 as well as the PuLP library for linear programming3. All statistics presented in this section were calculated using the R statistics

  4. Large phase shift via polarization-coupling cascading.

    PubMed

    Huo, Juan; Chen, Xianfeng

    2012-06-04

    Herein, we propose a phenomenon of "polarization-coupling (PC) cascading" generated in MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal (PPMgLN). PC cascading contributes to the effective electro-optical (EO) Kerr effect that is several orders of magnitude stronger than the classical ones. Experiment of Newton's rings demonstrates the large phase accumulation during the PC cascaded processes, and the experimental data is identical with the theoretical simulation.

  5. Estimating Failure Propagation in Models of Cascading Blackouts

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Ian; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Nkei, Bertrand; Newman, David E

    2005-09-01

    We compare and test statistical estimates of failure propagation in data from versions of a probabilistic model of loading-dependent cascading failure and a power systems blackout model of cascading transmission line overloads. The comparisons suggest mechanisms affecting failure propagation and are an initial step towards monitoring failure propagation from practical system data. Approximations to the probabilistic model describe the forms of probability distributions of cascade sizes.

  6. Stopping pions in high-energy nuclear cascades.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Johnson, D. P.; Thompson, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results of Monte Carlo calculations for the number and energy spectra of charged pions from nuclear-electromagnetic cascades developing in rock are presented for primary hadron energies ranging from 3 to 3000 GeV. These spectra are given as functions of the longitudinal depth in the absorber and the lateral distance from the cascade axis. The number of charged pions which stop in the absorber increases with the primary energy of the hadron initiating the cascade.

  7. Diffraction Limited 3.15 Microns Cascade Diode Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    carriers recycling by the cascade pumping . The narrow ridge 6- m-wide waveguides were defined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactive ion etching...diffraction limited, diode lasers, cascade pumping REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...of GaSb-based type-I QW diode lasers by utilizing cascade pumping scheme4. The carriers were recycled with 100% efficiency between two gain stages

  8. Independent Stage Control of a Cascade Injector (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2006-264 INDEPENDENT STAGE CONTROL OF A CASCADE INJECTOR (POSTPRINT) H.L. Meicenheimer, E.J. Gutmark, M.R. Gruber, D.R...SUBTITLE INDEPENDENT STAGE CONTROL OF A CASCADE INJECTOR (POSTPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2308 5e. TASK NUMBER AI...whether the number of active stages in the cascade injector could be used to control penetration and mixing characteristics. The injector was tested at

  9. Independent Stage Control of a Cascade Injector (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2006-250 INDEPENDENT STAGE CONTROL OF A CASCADE INJECTOR (POSTPRINT) Heidi L. Meicenheimer, Ephraim J. Gutmark, Campbell D...house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INDEPENDENT STAGE CONTROL OF A CASCADE INJECTOR (POSTPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62203F 5d...investigation was to determine whether the number of active stages in the cascade injector could be used to control penetration and mixing characteristics

  10. Geographical effects on cascading breakdowns of scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Kongqing

    2006-03-01

    Cascading breakdowns of real networks have resulted in severe accidents in recent years. In this paper, we study the effects of geographical structure on the cascading phenomena of load-carrying scale-free networks. Our essential finding is that when networks are more geographically constrained, i.e., more locally interconnected, they tend to have larger cascading breakdowns. Explanations are provided in terms of the effects of cycles and the distributions of betweenness over degrees.

  11. Stopping pions in high-energy nuclear cascades.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Johnson, D. P.; Thompson, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results of Monte Carlo calculations for the number and energy spectra of charged pions from nuclear-electromagnetic cascades developing in rock are presented for primary hadron energies ranging from 3 to 3000 GeV. These spectra are given as functions of the longitudinal depth in the absorber and the lateral distance from the cascade axis. The number of charged pions which stop in the absorber increases with the primary energy of the hadron initiating the cascade.

  12. The comparison of extraction of energy in two-cascade and one-cascade targets

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgoleva, G. V.; Ponomarev, I. V.

    2016-01-15

    The paper is devoted to numerical designing of cylindrical microtargets on the basis of shock-free compression. When designing microtargets for the controlled thermonuclear fusion, the core tasks are to select geometry and make-up of layers, and the law of energy embedding as well, which allow receiving of “burning” of deuterium- tritium mix, that is, the existence of thermonuclear reactions of working area. Yet, the energy yield as a result of thermonuclear reactions has to be more than the embedded energy (the coefficient of amplification is more than a unit). So, an important issue is the value of the embedded energy. The purpose of the present paper is to study the extraction of energy by working DT area in one-cascade and two-cascade targets. A bigger extraction of energy will contribute to a better burning of DT mix and a bigger energy yield as a result of thermonuclear reactions. The comparison of analytical results to numerical calculations is carried out. The received results show advantages of a two-cascade target compared to a one-cascade one.

  13. Boise Cascade Mill Energy Assessment (Boise Cascade Mill, International Falls, MN)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    An integrated effluent heat reduction and water conservation study was performed at the Boise Cascade plant in International Falls, MN. The implementation of 4 projects and 2 process modifications are projected to remove 45.6 Btu/hr from the effluent.

  14. Survey of Tools for Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages

    SciTech Connect

    Papic, Milorad; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Dobson, Ian; Fonte, Louis; Haq, Enamul; Hines, Paul; Kirschen, Daniel; Luo, Xiaochuan; Miller, Stephen; Samaan, Nader A.; Vaiman, Marianna; Varghese, Matthew; Zhang, Pei

    2011-10-17

    Cascading failure can cause large blackouts, and a variety of methods are emerging to study this challenging topic. In parts 1 and 2 of this paper, the IEEE task force on cascading failure seeks to consolidate and review the progress of the field towards methods and tools of assessing the risk of cascading failure. Part 2 summarizes and discusses the state of the art in the available cascading failure modeling tools. The discussion integrates industry and research perspectives from a variety of institutions. Strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in current approaches are indicated.

  15. Production of defects in metals by collision cascades: TEM experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews experimental TEM data on production of dislocation loops by low energy ion bombardment to low doses, as simulations of similar collision cascades produced by fast neutrons, in various metals and alloys. Dependence of vacancy dislocation loop formation on recoil energy, temperature and metal/alloy is examined. Emphasis is placed on effects on dilute alloy additions. A model for cascade melting is used to understand these effects; this will require an examination of the role of electron-phonon coupling in cascade cooling and recrystallization. Formation of interstitial dislocation loops as cascade defects and the effect of nearby surfaces are briefly discussed.

  16. Large-scale separation and hysteresis in cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothmayer, A. P.; Smith, F. T.

    1985-01-01

    An approach using a two-dimensional thin aerofoil, allied with the theory of viscous bluff-body separation, is used to study the initial cross-over from massive separation to an attached flow in a single-row unstaggered cascade. Analytic solutions are developed for the limit of small cascade-spacing. From the analytic solutions several interesting features of the cascade are examined, including multiple-solution branches and multiple regions of hysteresis. In addition, numerical results are presented for several selected aerofoils. Some of the aerofoils are found to contain markedly enlarged regions of hysteresis for certain critical cascade spacings.

  17. Nonlinear modeling of thermoacoustically driven energy cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Prateek; Scalo, Carlo; Lodato, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We present an investigation of nonlinear energy cascade in thermoacoustically driven high-amplitude oscillations, from the initial weakly nonlinear regime to the shock wave dominated limit cycle. We develop a first principle based quasi-1D model for nonlinear wave propagation in a canonical minimal unit thermoacoustic device inspired by the experimental setup of Biwa et al.. Retaining up to quadratic nonlinear terms in the governing equations, we develop model equations for nonlinear wave propagation in the proximity of differentially heated no-slip boundaries. Furthermore, we discard the effects of acoustic streaming in the present study and focus on nonlinear energy cascade due to high amplitude wave propagation. Our model correctly predicts the observed exponential growth of the thermoacoustically amplified second harmonic, as well as the energy transfer rate to higher harmonics causing wave steepening. Moreover, we note that nonlinear coupling of local pressure with heat transfer reduces thermoacoustic amplification gradually thus causing the system to reach limit cycle exhibiting shock waves. Throughout, we verify the results from the quasi-1D model with fully compressible Navier-Stokes simulations.

  18. Regimes of turbulence without an energy cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenghi, C. F.; Sergeev, Y. A.; Baggaley, A. W.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations of turbulent 4He and 3He-B have established that, at hydrodynamic length scales larger than the average distance between quantum vortices, the energy spectrum obeys the same 5/3 Kolmogorov law which is observed in the homogeneous isotropic turbulence of ordinary fluids. The importance of the 5/3 law is that it points to the existence of a Richardson energy cascade from large eddies to small eddies. However, there is also evidence of quantum turbulent regimes without Kolmogorov scaling. This raises the important questions of why, in such regimes, the Kolmogorov spectrum fails to form, what is the physical nature of turbulence without energy cascade, and whether hydrodynamical models can account for the unusual behaviour of turbulent superfluid helium. In this work we describe simple physical mechanisms which prevent the formation of Kolmogorov scaling in the thermal counterflow, and analyze the conditions necessary for emergence of quasiclassical regime in quantum turbulence generated by injection of vortex rings at low temperatures. Our models justify the hydrodynamical description of quantum turbulence and shed light into an unexpected regime of vortex dynamics.

  19. Cascaded clocks measurement and simulation findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chislow, Don; Zampetti, George

    1994-05-01

    This paper will examine aspects related to network synchronization distribution and the cascading of timing elements. Methods of timing distribution have become a much debated topic in standards forums and among network service providers (both domestically and internationally). Essentially these concerns focus on the need to migrate their existing network synchronization plans (and capabilities) to those required for the next generation of transport technologies (namely, the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), Synchronous Optical Networks (SONET), and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). The particular choices for synchronization distribution network architectures are now being evaluated and are demonstrating that they can indeed have a profound effect on the overall service performance levels that will be delivered to the customer. The salient aspects of these concerns reduce to the following: (1) identifying that the devil is in the details of the timing element specifications and the distribution of timing information (i.e., small design choices can have a large performance impact); (2) developing a standardized method of performance verification that will yield unambiguous results; and (3) presentation of those results. Specifically, this will be done for two general cases: an ideal input, and a noisy input to a cascaded chain of slave clocks.

  20. Cascade Processes and Fully Developed Turbulence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucier, Antoine

    The energy cascade process in turbulent flows is studied. Kolmogorov inertial range theories are critically reviewed and the multifractal characterization is discussed. Multiplicative cascade models are compared to the energy dissipation field (EDF) measured in the atmosphere. Landau's objection to the 1941 Kolmogorov theory is extended to the predictions of statistical fluid mechanics. The hypothesis Delta v(lambda L) {buildrel {d}over=} lambda^ {1/3} Delta v(L) is rejected with a statistical test. The moments <( logvarepsilon(L))^{p}>, where varepsilon(L) denotes the EDF averaged over a volume of size L, are shown to be gaussian. For the EDF: Convergence tests showed that the exponents tau(q) were not reliable for q < 0; the correlations obey <(mu_{x}(delta)) ^{p}(mu_{x+delta }(delta))^{q}> ~ delta^{gamma(p,q)} but gamma does not always equal the value obtained with a multinomial measure; a privileged scale ration r ~ 1/2 is suggested by the prefactor oscillations of the correlation function. The implications of these results for the modelling of the EDF are discussed.

  1. Frequency division using a micromechanical resonance cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qalandar, K. R.; Strachan, B. S.; Gibson, B.; Sharma, M.; Ma, A.; Shaw, S. W.; Turner, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    A coupled micromechanical resonator array demonstrates a mechanical realization of multi-stage frequency division. The mechanical structure consists of a set of N sequentially perpendicular microbeams that are connected by relatively weak elastic elements such that the system vibration modes are localized to individual microbeams and have natural frequencies with ratios close to 1:2:⋯:2N. Conservative (passive) nonlinear inter-modal coupling provides the required energy transfer between modes and is achieved by finite deformation kinematics. When the highest frequency beam is excited, this arrangement promotes a cascade of subharmonic resonances that achieve frequency division of 2j at microbeam j for j = 1, …, N. Results are shown for a capacitively driven three-stage divider in which an input signal of 824 kHz is passively divided through three modal stages, producing signals at 412 kHz, 206 kHz, and 103 kHz. The system modes are characterized and used to delineate the range of AC input voltages and frequencies over which the cascade occurs. This narrow band frequency divider has simple design rules that are scalable to higher frequencies and can be extended to a larger number of modal stages.

  2. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  3. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-04-15

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  4. Particle energy cascade in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Evoli, C.; Ferrara, A.

    2010-05-01

    We study the development of high-energy (Ein <= 1 TeV) cascades produced by a primary electron of energy Ein injected into the intergalactic medium (IGM). To this aim we have developed the new code MEDEA (Monte Carlo Energy Deposition Analysis) which includes Bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton (IC) processes, along with H/He collisional ionizations and excitations, and electron-electron collisions. The cascade energy partition into heating, excitations and ionizations depends primarily not only on the IGM ionized fraction, xe, but also on redshift, z, due to IC on cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. While Bremsstrahlung is unimportant under most conditions, IC becomes largely dominant at energies Ein >= 1 MeV. The main effect of IC at injection energies Ein <= 100 MeV is a significant boost of the fraction of energy converted into low-energy photons (hν < 10.2 eV) which do not further interact with the IGM. For energies Ein >= 1 GeV CMB photons are preferentially upscattered within the X-ray spectrum (hν > 104 eV) and can free stream to the observer. Complete tables of the fractional energy depositions as a function of redshift, Ein and ionized fraction are given. Our results can be used in many astrophysical contexts, with an obvious application related to the study of decaying/annihilating dark matter (DM) candidates in the high-z Universe.

  5. Multistage WDM access architecture employing cascaded AWGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahal, F. I.; Mears, R. J.

    2009-03-01

    Here we propose passive/active arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) with enhanced performance for system applications mainly in novel access architectures employing cascaded AWG technology. Two technologies were considered to achieve space wavelength switching in these networks. Firstly, a passive AWG with semiconductor optical amplifiers array, and secondly, an active AWG. Active AWG is an AWG with an array of phase modulators on its arrayed-waveguides section, where a programmable linear phase-profile or a phase hologram is applied across the arrayed-waveguide section. This results in a wavelength shift at the output section of the AWG. These architectures can address up to 6912 customers employing only 24 wavelengths, coarsely separated by 1.6 nm. Simulation results obtained here demonstrate that cascaded AWGs access architectures have a great potential in future local area networks. Furthermore, they indicate for the first time that active AWGs architectures are more efficient in routing signals to the destination optical network units than passive AWG architectures.

  6. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  7. Regimes of turbulence without an energy cascade

    PubMed Central

    Barenghi, C. F.; Sergeev, Y. A.; Baggaley, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations of turbulent 4He and 3He-B have established that, at hydrodynamic length scales larger than the average distance between quantum vortices, the energy spectrum obeys the same 5/3 Kolmogorov law which is observed in the homogeneous isotropic turbulence of ordinary fluids. The importance of the 5/3 law is that it points to the existence of a Richardson energy cascade from large eddies to small eddies. However, there is also evidence of quantum turbulent regimes without Kolmogorov scaling. This raises the important questions of why, in such regimes, the Kolmogorov spectrum fails to form, what is the physical nature of turbulence without energy cascade, and whether hydrodynamical models can account for the unusual behaviour of turbulent superfluid helium. In this work we describe simple physical mechanisms which prevent the formation of Kolmogorov scaling in the thermal counterflow, and analyze the conditions necessary for emergence of quasiclassical regime in quantum turbulence generated by injection of vortex rings at low temperatures. Our models justify the hydrodynamical description of quantum turbulence and shed light into an unexpected regime of vortex dynamics. PMID:27761005

  8. Cascading walks model for human mobility patterns.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Xiang-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the mechanism behind the scaling laws and series of anomalies in human trajectories is of fundamental significance in understanding many spatio-temporal phenomena. Recently, several models, e.g. the explorations-returns model (Song et al., 2010) and the radiation model for intercity travels (Simini et al., 2012), have been proposed to study the origin of these anomalies and the prediction of human movements. However, an agent-based model that could reproduce most of empirical observations without priori is still lacking. In this paper, considering the empirical findings on the correlations of move-lengths and staying time in human trips, we propose a simple model which is mainly based on the cascading processes to capture the human mobility patterns. In this model, each long-range movement activates series of shorter movements that are organized by the law of localized explorations and preferential returns in prescribed region. Based on the numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show more than five statistical characters that are well consistent with the empirical observations, including several types of scaling anomalies and the ultraslow diffusion properties, implying the cascading processes associated with the localized exploration and preferential returns are indeed a key in the understanding of human mobility activities. Moreover, the model shows both of the diverse individual mobility and aggregated scaling displacements, bridging the micro and macro patterns in human mobility. In summary, our model successfully explains most of empirical findings and provides deeper understandings on the emergence of human mobility patterns.

  9. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-01-01

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm−1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy. PMID:28262834

  10. Kinase cascades regulating entry into apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1997-01-01

    All cells are constantly exposed to conflicting environment cues that signal cell survival or cell death. Survival signals are delivered by autocrine or paracrine factors that actively suppress a default death pathway. In addition to survival factor withdrawal, cell death can be triggered by environmental stresses such as heat, UV light, and hyperosmolarity or by dedicated death receptors (e.g., FAS/APO-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors) that are counterparts of growth factor or survival receptors at the cell surface. One of the ways that cells integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli is by phosphorylation (or dephosphorylation) of cellular constituents by interacting cascades of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases (and phosphatases). Survival factors (e.g., growth factors and mitogens) activate receptor tyrosine kinases and selected mitogen-activated, cyclin-dependent, lipid-activated, nucleic acid-dependent, and cyclic AMP-dependent kinases to promote cell survival and proliferation, whereas environmental stress (or death factors such as FAS/APO-1 ligand and TNF-alpha) activates different members of these kinase families to inhibit cell growth and, under some circumstances, promote apoptotic cell death. Because individual kinase cascades can interact with one another, they are able to integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli and provide a link between cell surface receptors and the biochemical pathways leading to cell proliferation or cell death. PMID:9106363

  11. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-03-01

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm‑1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.

  12. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Feng-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 10{sup 11} and 4.83 × 10{sup 6} Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

  13. Carrier Dynamics in Quantum Cascade Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, P.; Indjin, D.; Jovanović, V. D.; Mirčetić, A.; Ikonić, Z.; Kelsall, R. W.; McTavish, J.; Savić, I.; Vukmirović, N.; Milanović, V.

    2005-01-01

    A fully quantum-mechanical model for carrier scattering transport in semiconductor intersubband devices was applied to modelling of carrier dynamics in quantum cascade lasers. The standard model uses the envelope function and effective mass approximations to solve electron band structure under an applied bias. The k·p model has been employed in p-type systems where the more complex band structure requires it. The resulting wave functions are then used to evaluate all relevant carrier-phonon, carrier-carrier and alloy scattering rates from each quantised state to all others within the same and the neighbouring period. This piece of information is then used to construct a rate equation for the equilibrium carrier density in each subband and this set of coupled rate equations are solved self-consistently to obtain the carrier density in each eigenstate. The latter is a fundamental description of the device and can be used to calculate the current density and gain as a function of the applied bias and temperature, which in turn yields the threshold current and expected temperature dependence of the device characteristics. A recent extension which includes a further iteration of an energy balance equation also yields the electron (or hole) temperature over the subbands. This paper will review the method and describe its application to mid-infrared and terahertz, GaAs, GaN, and SiGe cascade laser designs.

  14. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-03-06

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm(-1) at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.

  15. INVERSE CASCADE IN IMBALANCED ELECTRON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hoonkyu; Cho, Jungyeon E-mail: jcho@cnu.ac.kr

    2015-03-10

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluid-like description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. Balanced EMHD turbulence has been studied for a long time. However, driven imbalanced EMHD turbulence, in which waves moving in one direction (dominant waves) have higher amplitudes than waves moving in the other direction (sub-dominant waves), has not been well studied. In this paper, we numerically study driven three-dimensional imbalanced weak EMHD turbulence. We find the following results. First, in driven imbalanced EMHD turbulence, we clearly observe inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, as well as magnetic energy. This is because magnetic helicity is a conserved quantity and non-zero magnetic helicity is injected into the system in driven imbalanced EMHD turbulence. Second, the magnetic energy spectrum of the dominant waves on scales larger than the energy injection scale does not show a single power-law spectrum, which indicates that the inverse cascade is not a self-similar process. The peak of the spectrum roughly follows a k {sup –3/2} spectrum, which can be explained by a Kolmogorov-type argument for weak turbulence. Third, a small amount of sub-dominant waves is induced by the dominant waves on large scales and the ratio of helicity densities of the dominant and the sub-dominant waves on large scales seems to converge to a certain value.

  16. Cascade biocatalysis by multienzyme-nanoparticle assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Jianpeng; Nie, Yunyu; Guo, Zhihong; Xia, Jiang

    2014-08-20

    Multienzyme complexes are of paramount importance in biosynthesis in cells. Yet, how sequential enzymes of cascade catalytic reactions synergize their activities through spatial organization remains elusive. Recent development of site-specific protein-nanoparticle conjugation techniques enables us to construct multienzyme assemblies using nanoparticles as the template. Sequential enzymes in menaquinone biosynthetic pathway were conjugated to CdSe-ZnS quantum dots (QDs, a nanosized particulate material) through metal-affinity driven self-assembly. The assemblies were characterized by electrophoretic methods, the catalytic activities were monitored by reverse-phase chromatography, and the composition of the multienzyme-QD assemblies was optimized through a progressive approach to achieve highly efficient catalytic conversion. Shorter enzyme-enzyme distance was discovered to facilitate intermediate transfer, and a fine control on the stoichiometric ratio of the assembly was found to be critical for the maximal synergy between the enzymes. Multienzyme-QD assemblies thereby provide an effective model to scrutinize the synergy of cascade enzymes in multienzyme complexes.

  17. Cascaded clocks measurement and simulation findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chislow, Don; Zampetti, George

    1994-01-01

    This paper will examine aspects related to network synchronization distribution and the cascading of timing elements. Methods of timing distribution have become a much debated topic in standards forums and among network service providers (both domestically and internationally). Essentially these concerns focus on the need to migrate their existing network synchronization plans (and capabilities) to those required for the next generation of transport technologies (namely, the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), Synchronous Optical Networks (SONET), and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). The particular choices for synchronization distribution network architectures are now being evaluated and are demonstrating that they can indeed have a profound effect on the overall service performance levels that will be delivered to the customer. The salient aspects of these concerns reduce to the following: (1) identifying that the devil is in the details of the timing element specifications and the distribution of timing information (i.e., small design choices can have a large performance impact); (2) developing a standardized method of performance verification that will yield unambiguous results; and (3) presentation of those results. Specifically, this will be done for two general cases: an ideal input, and a noisy input to a cascaded chain of slave clocks.

  18. Inverse Energy Cascades in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. L.; Marino, R.; Mininni, P.; Pouquet, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of rapidly rotating turbulent flows on grids of 20483 grid points that are forced at intermediate scales. Injection of energy at such scales at small Rossby numbers (~0.04) leads to a direct cascade toward small scales and an inverse cascade toward large scales. These results essentially validate those obtained using large eddy simulation (LES) (Sen et al., PRE 86:036319 (2012)): for a (helical) forcing that injects energy largely in 2D modes, the large scale energy spectrum scales as kperp-5/3, consistent with Kolmogorov-Kraichnan-Batchelor-Leith phenomenology; for a nonhelical isotropic forcing, the large scale energy spectrum scales as kperp-3. The (helical) anisotropic forcing DNS solution, like that of the LES models, shows a k-1 isotropic energy spectrum, which Sen et al. attribute to a large scale shear. The higher resolution of the DNS runs allows us to carry out probability distribution and conditional analyses that show that this interpretation may, in fact, be consistent with wall-bounded turbulent shear flow.

  19. Multiplicative-cascade dynamics in pole balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Henry S.; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Michaels, Claire F.

    2014-06-01

    Pole balancing is a key task for probing the prospective control that organisms must engage in for purposeful action. The temporal structure of pole-balancing behaviors will reflect the on-line operation of control mechanisms needed to maintain an upright posture. In this study, signatures of multifractality are sought and found in time series of the vertical angle of a pole balanced on the fingertip. Comparisons to surrogate time series reveal multiplicative-cascade dynamics and interactivity across scales. In addition, simulations of a pole-balancing model generating on-off intermittency [J. L. Cabrera and J. G. Milton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 158702 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.158702] were analyzed. Evidence of multifractality is also evident in simulations, though comparing simulated and participant series reveals a significantly greater contribution of cross-scale interactivity for the latter. These findings suggest that multiplicative-cascade dynamics are an extension of on-off intermittency and play a role in prospective coordination.

  20. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades - Geologic Perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes

    2007-01-01

    Foreward The Cascade magmatic arc is a belt of Quaternary volcanoes that extends 1,250 km from Lassen Peak in northern California to Meager Mountain in Canada, above the subduction zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate. This Professional Paper presents a synthesis of the entire volcanic arc, addressing all 2,300 known Quaternary volcanoes, not just the 30 or so visually prominent peaks that comprise the volcanic skyline. Study of Cascade volcanoes goes back to the geological explorers of the late 19th century and the seminal investigations of Howel Williams in the 1920s and 1930s. However, major progress and application of modern scientific methods and instrumentation began only in the 1970s with the advent of systematic geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the entire arc. Initial stimulus from the USGS Geothermal Research Program was enhanced by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Together, these two USGS Programs have provided more than three decades of stable funding, staffing, and analytical support. This Professional Paper summarizes the resultant USGS data sets and integrates them with the parallel contributions of other investigators. The product is based upon an all-encompassing and definitive geological database, including chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the rocks and geochronology to provide the critical time constraints. Until now, this massive amount of data has not been summarized, and a systematic and uniform interpretation firmly grounded in geological fact has been lacking. Herein lies the primary utility of this Cascade volume. It not only will be the mandatory starting point for new workers, but also will provide essential geological context to broaden the perspectives of current investigators of specific Cascade volcanoes. Wes Hildreth's insightful understanding of volcanic processes and his uncompromising scientific integrity make him

  1. The Orbis Cascade Merger and Its Impact on Patron-Initiated Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Doris M.; Milton, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, Eastern Washington University became part of the Cascade Consortium and participated in consortial borrowing through the Cascade Union Catalog. In 2003, the Orbis and Cascade consortia merged into the Orbis Cascade Alliance, which manages the Summit Union Catalog. Since 2000, Cascade or Summit consortial borrowing has increased while…

  2. The Orbis Cascade Merger and Its Impact on Patron-Initiated Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Doris M.; Milton, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, Eastern Washington University became part of the Cascade Consortium and participated in consortial borrowing through the Cascade Union Catalog. In 2003, the Orbis and Cascade consortia merged into the Orbis Cascade Alliance, which manages the Summit Union Catalog. Since 2000, Cascade or Summit consortial borrowing has increased while…

  3. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  4. Data On Flow About A Compressor Blade In Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Development and testing of software to compute values of flow-field characteristics greatly enhanced by using recorded experimental data to test results of computations. Report "The Measurement Of Boundary Layers On Compressor Blade In Cascade" is data base providing detailed measurements of boundary layer and wake in flow field about double-circular-arc compressor blades in cascade of such blades.

  5. Cascade vulnerability for risk analysis of water infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, R; Mair, M; Möderl, M; Rauch, W

    2011-01-01

    One of the major tasks in urban water management is failure-free operation for at least most of the time. Accordingly, the reliability of the network systems in urban water management has a crucial role. The failure of a component in these systems impacts potable water distribution and urban drainage. Therefore, water distribution and urban drainage systems are categorized as critical infrastructure. Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is likely to experience harm induced by perturbation or stress. However, for risk assessment, we usually assume that events and failures are singular and independent, i.e. several simultaneous events and cascading events are unconsidered. Although failures can be causally linked, a simultaneous consideration in risk analysis is hardly considered. To close this gap, this work introduces the term cascade vulnerability for water infrastructure. Cascade vulnerability accounts for cascading and simultaneous events. Following this definition, cascade risk maps are a merger of hazard and cascade vulnerability maps. In this work cascade vulnerability maps for water distribution systems and urban drainage systems based on the 'Achilles-Approach' are introduced and discussed. It is shown, that neglecting cascading effects results in significant underestimation of risk scenarios.

  6. Seeking the northern boundary of the Cascade strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fragaria cascadensis K.E. Hummer, an endemic decaploid strawberry species, was described from the Oregon Cascade Mountains in the Pacific North-western United States. Its range occurs near Mt. Hood, the highest peak in the northern Oregon Cascades, in a band of higher elevation sites southwards to n...

  7. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  8. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  9. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  10. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  11. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  12. RECONFIGURING POWER SYSTEMS TO MINIMIZE CASCADING FAILURES: MODELS AND ALGORITHMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bienstock, Daniel

    2014-04-11

    the main goal of this project was to develop new scientific tools, based on optimization techniques, with the purpose of controlling and modeling cascading failures of electrical power transmission systems. We have developed a high-quality tool for simulating cascading failures. The problem of how to control a cascade was addressed, with the aim of stopping the cascade with a minimum of load lost. Yet another aspect of cascade is the investigation of which events would trigger a cascade, or more appropriately the computation of the most harmful initiating event given some constraint on the severity of the event. One common feature of the cascade models described (indeed, of several of the cascade models found in the literature) is that we study thermally-induced line tripping. We have produced a study that accounts for exogenous randomness (e.g. wind and ambient temperature) that could affect the thermal behavior of a line, with a focus on controlling the power flow of the line while maintaining safe probability of line overload. This was done by means of a rigorous analysis of a stochastic version of the heat equation. we incorporated a model of randomness in the behavior of wind power output; again modeling an OPF-like problem that uses chance-constraints to maintain low probability of line overloads; this work has been continued so as to account for generator dynamics as well.

  13. Quantum cascade lasers with an integrated polarization mode converter.

    PubMed

    Dhirhe, D; Slight, T J; Holmes, B M; Hutchings, D C; Ironside, C N

    2012-11-05

    We discuss the design, fabrication and characterization of waveguide polarization mode converters for quantum cascade lasers operating at 4.6 μm. We have fabricated a quantum cascade laser with integrated polarization mode converter that emits light of 69% Transverse Electrical (TE) polarization from one facet and 100% Transverse Magnetic (TM) polarization from the other facet.

  14. Cascades for hydrogen isotope separation using metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, F.B.; Grzetic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Designs are presented for continuous countercurrent hydrogen isotope separation cascades based on the use of metal hydrides. The cascades are made up of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or temperature swing adsorption (TSA) stages. The designs were evolved from consideration of previously conducted studies of the separation performance of four types of PSA and TSA processes.

  15. Quantum beats in transitions from levels subject to optical cascades.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. J.; Druetta, M.; Church, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the g values of weakly aligned O II and O III multiplet levels subject to strong optical cascades, obtained by means of a beam-foil quantum beat method. Within the measurement precision limits of nearly plus or minus 1%, the effects of the optical cascades on the measured g values are shown to be negligible.

  16. Transonic turbine blade cascade testing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Camperchioli, William P.; Lopez, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    NASA LeRC has designed and constructed a new state-of-the-art test facility. This facility, the Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade, is used to evaluate the aerodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of blade geometries for future turbine applications. The facility's capabilities make it unique: no other facility of its kind can combine the high degree of airflow turning, infinitely adjustable incidence angle, and high transonic flow rates. The facility air supply and exhaust pressures are controllable to 16.5 psia and 2 psia, respectively. The inlet air temperatures are at ambient conditions. The facility is equipped with a programmable logic controller with a capacity of 128 input/output channels. The data acquisition system is capable of scanning up to 1750 channels per sec. This paper discusses in detail the capabilities of the facility, overall facility design, instrumentation used in the facility, and the data acquisition system. Actual research data is not discussed.

  17. Dispersion dynamics of quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Burghoff, David; Yang, Yang; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2016-12-20

    A key parameter underlying the efficacy of any nonlinear optical process is group velocity dispersion. In quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), there have been several recent demonstrations of devices exploiting nonlinearities in both the mid-infrared and the terahertz. Though the gain of QCLs has been well studied, the dispersion has been much less investigated, and several questions remain about its dynamics and precise origin. In this work, we use time-domain spectroscopy to investigate the dispersion of broadband terahertz QCLs, and demonstrate that contributions from both the material and the intersubband transitions are relevant. We show that in contrast to the laser gain—which is clamped to a fixed value above lasing threshold—the dispersion changes with bias even above threshold, which is a consequence of shifting intersubband populations. In conclusion, we also examine the role of higher-order dispersion in QCLs and discuss the ramifications of our result for devices utilizing nonlinear effects, such as frequency combs.

  18. Control of Cascaded Induction Generator Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-13

    itC itt N ’. . .3Z’ - - Zt it If - IA. 3 s - ~ J -~~~~ % 2. s 7a7. X- 0 -- -r u z A U. u 0 . * * c ~ ~ 4 -1 j L* _j *c AZOU + A , 4 .11* XX *- -1# X01X...34- . . . . . . . . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (, bateEntered). , REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE g~oREAD UIsDRucoI BEFORE COMPLETING FORM s -i’r 12 9 12 GVT ACCESSION...NO0 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NME 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED 9/1/83 - 8/30/84 --. / Control of Cascaded Induction

  19. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  20. Highly temperature insensitive quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Tsao, S.; Selcuk, E.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2010-12-20

    An InP based quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterostructure emitting around 5 {mu}m is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The QCL core design takes a shallow-well approach to maximize the characteristic temperatures, T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}, for operations above room temperature. A T{sub 0} value of 383 K and a T{sub 1} value of 645 K are obtained within a temperature range of 298-373 K. In room temperature continuous wave operation, this design gives a single facet output power of 3 W and a wall plug efficiency of 16% from a device with a cavity length of 5 mm and a ridge width of 8 {mu}m.

  1. Mechanical gating of a mechanochemical reaction cascade

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junpeng; Kouznetsova, Tatiana B.; Boulatov, Roman; Craig, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Covalent polymer mechanochemistry offers promising opportunities for the control and engineering of reactivity. To date, covalent mechanochemistry has largely been limited to individual reactions, but it also presents potential for intricate reaction systems and feedback loops. Here we report a molecular architecture, in which a cyclobutane mechanophore functions as a gate to regulate the activation of a second mechanophore, dichlorocyclopropane, resulting in a mechanochemical cascade reaction. Single-molecule force spectroscopy, pulsed ultrasonication experiments and DFT-level calculations support gating and indicate that extra force of >0.5 nN needs to be applied to a polymer of gated gDCC than of free gDCC for the mechanochemical isomerization gDCC to proceed at equal rate. The gating concept provides a mechanism by which to regulate stress-responsive behaviours, such as load-strengthening and mechanochromism, in future materials designs. PMID:27848956

  2. Electrical derivative measurement of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dingkai; Cheng, Liwei; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Fan, Jenyu; Worchesky, Terry

    2011-02-01

    The electrical derivative characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are investigated to test the QCL threshold, leakage current, and possibly explore carrier transport. QCL thresholds can be identified by searching for the slope peak of the first derivative of the I-V curves and can be further confirmed with its alignment to the peak of the second derivative of the I-V curves. Leakage current in QCLs with oxide-blocked ridge waveguides and buried heterostructure (BH) waveguides are studied and compared. The oxide-blocking structures provide the lowest leakage current although the capped-mesa-BH (CMBH) QCLs provide the toughest durability under highly stressful operations. The leakage current of CMBH QCLs are also compared at different temperatures.

  3. Monolithic cascade-type solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Shibukawa, A.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Solar cells consist of a semiconductor base, a bottom cell with a band-gap energy of E1, and a top cell with a band-gap energy of E2, and 0.96 E1 1.36 eV and (0.80 E + 0.77) eV E2 (0.80 E1 + 0.92) eV. A monolithic cascade-type solar cell was prepared with an n(+)-type GaAs base, a GaInAs bottom solar cell, and a GaAiInAs top solar cell. The surface of the cell is coated with a SiO antireflection film. The efficiency of the cell is 32%.

  4. Cascade inertial-confinement-fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Maya, I.

    1985-11-13

    The Cascade reactor is double-cone shaped with a maximum radius of 5 m. It rotates at 50 rpm. The average temperature of a three-material flowing granular blanket leaving the reactor is 1440 K. Heat from the blanket is transferred to helium gas in a shell- and ceramic-tube-type heat exchanger that has a separate region for each blanket material. Diffusion of tritium from the blanket granules through the heat exchanger is only 25 Ci/d, so no intermediate loop is needed for isolation. We selected a simple once-through, regenerative, 5-MPa helium gas-turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Fusion power is 1500 MW; this is multiplied to 1670 MW/sub t/ in the blanket. Power conversion efficiency is 55%. Net electric power is 815 MW/sub e/, produced with a net plant efficiency of 49%.

  5. Congestion and cascades in payment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyeler, Walter E.; Glass, Robert J.; Bech, Morten L.; Soramäki, Kimmo

    2007-10-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of the interbank payment system. The model incorporates an endogenous instruction arrival process, a scale-free topology of payments between banks, a fixed total liquidity which limits banks’ capacity to process arriving instructions, and a global market that distributes liquidity. We find that at low liquidity the system becomes congested and payment settlement loses correlation with payment instruction arrival, becoming coupled across the network. The onset of congestion is evidently related to the relative values of three characteristic times: the time for banks’ net position to return to 0, the time for a bank to exhaust its liquidity endowment, and the liquidity market relaxation time. In the congested regime settlement takes place in cascades having a characteristic length scale. A global liquidity market substantially attenuates congestion, requiring only a small fraction of the payment-induced liquidity flow to achieve strong beneficial effects.

  6. Hyperuniform disordered terahertz quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degl’Innocenti, R.; Shah, Y. D.; Masini, L.; Ronzani, A.; Pitanti, A.; Ren, Y.; Jessop, D. S.; Tredicucci, A.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Laser cavities have been realized in various different photonic systems. One of the forefront research fields regards the investigation of the physics of amplifying random optical media. The random laser is a fascinating concept because, further to the fundamental research investigating light transport into complex media, it allows us to obtain non-conventional spectral distribution and angular beam emission patterns not achievable with conventional approaches. Even more intriguing is the possibility to engineer a priori the optical properties of a disordered distribution in an amplifying medium. We demonstrate here the realization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser in an isotropic hyperuniform disordered distribution exhibiting unique features, such as the presence of a photonic band gap, low threshold current density, unconventional angular emission and optical bistability.

  7. Novel trophic cascades: apex predators enable coexistence.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Ripple, William J; Carroll, Scott P

    2015-03-01

    Novel assemblages of native and introduced species characterize a growing proportion of ecosystems worldwide. Some introduced species have contributed to extinctions, even extinction waves, spurring widespread efforts to eradicate or control them. We propose that trophic cascade theory offers insights into why introduced species sometimes become harmful, but in other cases stably coexist with natives and offer net benefits. Large predators commonly limit populations of potentially irruptive prey and mesopredators, both native and introduced. This top-down force influences a wide range of ecosystem processes that often enhance biodiversity. We argue that many species, regardless of their origin or priors, are allies for the retention and restoration of biodiversity in top-down regulated ecosystems.

  8. Information propagation in a noisy gene cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteoliva, D.; Diambra, L.

    2017-07-01

    We use information theory to study the information transmission through a simple gene cascade where the product of an unregulated gene regulates the expression activity of a cooperative genetic switch. While the input signal is provided by the upstream gene with two states, we consider that the expression of downstream gene is controlled by a cis-regulatory system with three binding sites for the regulator product, which can bind cooperatively. By computing exactly the associated probability distributions, we estimate information transmission thought the mutual information measure. We found that the mutual information associated with unimodal input signal is lower than the associated with bimodal inputs. We also observe that mutual information presents a maximum in the cooperativity intensity, and the position of this maximum depends on the kinetic rates of the promoter. Furthermore, we found that the bursting dynamics of the input signal can enhance the information transmission capacity.

  9. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-01

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm-2 sr-1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  10. Cascade Electronic Refrigerator Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. Q.; Peltonen, J. T.; Meschke, M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Microrefrigerators that operate in the subkelvin regime are key devices in quantum technology. A well-studied candidate, an electronic cooler using normal-metal-insulator-superconductor (N -I -S ) tunnel junctions, offers substantial performance and power. However, its superconducting electrodes are severely overheated due to exponential suppression of their thermal conductance towards low temperatures, and the cooler performs unsatisfactorily—especially in powerful devices needed for practical applications. We employ a second N -I -S cooling stage to thermalize the hot superconductor at the backside of the main N -I -S cooler. Not only providing a lower bath temperature, the second-stage cooler actively evacuates quasiparticles out of the hot superconductor, especially in the low-temperature limit. We demonstrate the apparent advantage of our approach. This cascade design can also be employed to manage excess heat in other cryoelectronic devices.

  11. Decoherence in high barrier quantum cascade structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Will

    2017-07-01

    High barrier AlxGa1-xAs terahertz quantum cascade structures with AlAs compositions up to 30% are studied. The influence of thermally excited leakage scattering to higher bound energy states and decoherence effects are investigated using a density matrix method where the pure dephasing time is self-consistently solved. The lattice temperature dependence of the light output in diagonal optical transition structures is calculated and shown to be consistent with experiment. Scattering from the upper lasing state to higher bound energy states is found to have minimal effects, and rather the decoherence from the calculated reduction of the pure dephasing time due to the impurity interaction is primarily responsible for the temperature dependence of a recently reported structure. This shows that the effects from an increased impurity interaction due to thinner barriers and different well dimensions can dominate over that from the increased interface roughness interaction due to higher potentials.

  12. Atomistic Simulation of Collision Cascades in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Corrales, Louis R.; Weber, William J.; Chartier, Alain; Meis, Constantin

    2006-09-01

    Defect production in energetic collision cascades in zircon has been studied by molecular dynamics simulation using a partial charge model combined with the Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potential. Energy dissipation, defect accumulation, Si-O-Si polymerization, and Zr coordination number were examined for 10 keV and 30 keV U recoils simulated in the constant NVE ensemble. For both energies an amorphous core was produced with features similar to that of melt quenched zircon. Disordered Si ions in this core were polymerized with an average degree of polymerization of 1.5, while disordered Zr ions showed a coordination number of about 6 in agreement with EXAFS results. These results suggest that nano-scale phase separation into silica- and zirconia-rich regions occurs in the amorphous core.

  13. Control of cascaded induction generator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmeyer, T. H.

    1984-12-01

    This report documents an investigation of the stability and control of cascaded doubly fed machines (CDFM). These machines are brushless variable speed constant frequency electric power generators with potential for application in aircraft. A previous analytical study indicated the CDFM system would be controllable in the subsynchronous operating mode with a passive RL load. The present study contains two steps. First is an investigation of the machine operation in the supersynchronous mode. The second step is an investigation of machine operation with output capacitors providing excitation VARs for the machine and load. Step 1 results show that the machines exhibit stability characteristics in the supersynchronous mode similar to those observed in the subsynchronous mode. Step 2 results show that output capacitors degrade the system performance, particularly at light loads. The results show that output current feedback can be employed to improve the system performance.

  14. Cascaded generation of coherent Raman dissipative solitons.

    PubMed

    Kharenko, Denis S; Bednyakova, Anastasia E; Podivilov, Evgeniy V; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Apolonski, Alexander; Babin, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    The cascaded generation of a conventional dissipative soliton (at 1020 nm) together with Raman dissipative solitons of the first (1065 nm) and second (1115 nm) orders inside a common fiber laser cavity is demonstrated experimentally and numerically. With sinusoidal (soft) spectral filtering, the generated solitons are mutually coherent at a high degree and compressible down to 300 fs. Numerical simulation shows that an even higher degree of coherence and shorter pulses could be achieved with step-like (hard) spectral filtering. The approach can be extended toward a high-order coherent Raman dissipative soliton source offering numerous applications such as frequency comb generation, pulse synthesis, biomedical imaging, and the generation of a coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum.

  15. Quantum cascade laser FM spectroscopy of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Zach; Clasp, Trocia; Lue, Chris; Johnson, Tiffani; Ingle, Taylor; Jamison, Janet; Buchanan, Roger; Reeve, Scott

    2013-05-01

    Polyisobutylene is an industrial polymer that is widely used in a number of applications including the manufacture of military grade explosives. We have examined the vapor emanating from a series of different molecular weight samples of polyisobutylene using high resolution Quantum Cascade Laser FM spectroscopy. The vapor phase spectra all exhibit a rovibrational structure similar to that for the gas phase isobutylene molecule. We have assigned the structure in the 890 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1 regions to the isobutylene ν28 and ν7 fundamental bands respectively. These spectroscopic signatures may prove useful for infrared sensing applications. Here we will present the infrared signatures along with recent GCMS data from a sample of C4, utilizing solid-phase microextraction vapor collection fibers, which confirm the presence of isobutylene as one of the volatile bouquet species in RDX-based explosives.

  16. Cascaded multiple classifiers for secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Ouali, M.; King, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new classifier for protein secondary structure prediction that is formed by cascading together different types of classifiers using neural networks and linear discrimination. The new classifier achieves an accuracy of 76.7% (assessed by a rigorous full Jack-knife procedure) on a new nonredundant dataset of 496 nonhomologous sequences (obtained from G.J. Barton and J.A. Cuff). This database was especially designed to train and test protein secondary structure prediction methods, and it uses a more stringent definition of homologous sequence than in previous studies. We show that it is possible to design classifiers that can highly discriminate the three classes (H, E, C) with an accuracy of up to 78% for beta-strands, using only a local window and resampling techniques. This indicates that the importance of long-range interactions for the prediction of beta-strands has been probably previously overestimated. PMID:10892809

  17. Mechanical gating of a mechanochemical reaction cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junpeng; Kouznetsova, Tatiana B.; Boulatov, Roman; Craig, Stephen L.

    2016-11-01

    Covalent polymer mechanochemistry offers promising opportunities for the control and engineering of reactivity. To date, covalent mechanochemistry has largely been limited to individual reactions, but it also presents potential for intricate reaction systems and feedback loops. Here we report a molecular architecture, in which a cyclobutane mechanophore functions as a gate to regulate the activation of a second mechanophore, dichlorocyclopropane, resulting in a mechanochemical cascade reaction. Single-molecule force spectroscopy, pulsed ultrasonication experiments and DFT-level calculations support gating and indicate that extra force of >0.5 nN needs to be applied to a polymer of gated gDCC than of free gDCC for the mechanochemical isomerization gDCC to proceed at equal rate. The gating concept provides a mechanism by which to regulate stress-responsive behaviours, such as load-strengthening and mechanochromism, in future materials designs.

  18. Monolithic widely tunable quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascola, Kevin M.; Leavitt, Richard P.; Bruno, John D.; Bradshaw, John L.; Pham, John T.; Towner, Frederick J.

    2012-06-01

    Maxion Technologies has designed a monolithic, widely tunable Quantum Cascade (QC) laser for use in chemical sensing applications. This multi-section QC laser is a monolithically tunable device, similar to those demonstrated in the near IR for telecommunications. Wideband tuning is achieved through grating assisted coupling of the optical mode between lateral waveguides, allowing ~10 times the tuning range normally achieved by distributed feedback lasers without incorporation of external optical elements. Compared to implementations in the near IR, the use of lateral waveguides (rather than vertically stacked waveguides) allows the optical mode to maintain the high overlap with the active region necessary for room temperature lasing in the mid-IR. Due to its monolithic design, this laser is expected to be rapidly tunable and usable in field environments due to its insensitivity to shock and vibration, while the wide tuning range of the device will allow for an enhanced ability to discriminate against background chemicals.

  19. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Morales-Rodríguez, M E; Senesac, L R; Rajic, S; Lavrik, N V; Smith, D B; Datskos, P G

    2013-02-15

    We have investigated an IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the IR photothermal spectra of molecules adsorbed on the surface of uncooled thermal micromechanical detectors. Although we use a chemical layer to absorb target molecules, IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy requires no chemical specific coatings. The chemical specificity of the presented method is a consequence of the wavelength-specific absorption of IR photons from tunable quantum cascade lasers due to vibrational spectral bands of the analyte. We have obtained IR photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine and a monolayer of 2-Sulfanylethan-1-ol (2-mercaptoethanol) over the wavelength region from 6 to 10 μm. We found that both chemicals exhibit a number of photothermal absorption features that are in good agreement with their respective IR spectra.

  20. Cascading ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.; Cameron, Angus I.; Morris, David J.; Speirs, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Discarding by fisheries is perceived as contrary to responsible harvesting. Legislation seeking to end the practice is being introduced in many jurisdictions. However, discarded fish are food for a range of scavenging species; so, ending discarding may have ecological consequences. Here we investigate the sensitivity of ecological effects to discarding policies using an ecosystem model of the North Sea—a region where 30–40% of trawled fish catch is currently discarded. We show that landing the entire catch while fishing as usual has conservation penalties for seabirds, marine mammals and seabed fauna, and no benefit to fish stocks. However, combining landing obligations with changes in fishing practices to limit the capture of unwanted fish results in trophic cascades that can benefit birds, mammals and most fish stocks. Our results highlight the importance of considering the broader ecosystem consequences of fishery management policy, since species interactions may dissipate or negate intended benefits. PMID:24820200

  1. Cascading ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M; Cameron, Angus I; Morris, David J; Speirs, Douglas C

    2014-05-13

    Discarding by fisheries is perceived as contrary to responsible harvesting. Legislation seeking to end the practice is being introduced in many jurisdictions. However, discarded fish are food for a range of scavenging species; so, ending discarding may have ecological consequences. Here we investigate the sensitivity of ecological effects to discarding policies using an ecosystem model of the North Sea--a region where 30-40% of trawled fish catch is currently discarded. We show that landing the entire catch while fishing as usual has conservation penalties for seabirds, marine mammals and seabed fauna, and no benefit to fish stocks. However, combining landing obligations with changes in fishing practices to limit the capture of unwanted fish results in trophic cascades that can benefit birds, mammals and most fish stocks. Our results highlight the importance of considering the broader ecosystem consequences of fishery management policy, since species interactions may dissipate or negate intended benefits.

  2. Hyperuniform disordered terahertz quantum cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    Degl’Innocenti, R.; Shah, Y. D.; Masini, L.; Ronzani, A.; Pitanti, A.; Ren, Y.; Jessop, D. S.; Tredicucci, A.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Laser cavities have been realized in various different photonic systems. One of the forefront research fields regards the investigation of the physics of amplifying random optical media. The random laser is a fascinating concept because, further to the fundamental research investigating light transport into complex media, it allows us to obtain non-conventional spectral distribution and angular beam emission patterns not achievable with conventional approaches. Even more intriguing is the possibility to engineer a priori the optical properties of a disordered distribution in an amplifying medium. We demonstrate here the realization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser in an isotropic hyperuniform disordered distribution exhibiting unique features, such as the presence of a photonic band gap, low threshold current density, unconventional angular emission and optical bistability. PMID:26758959

  3. A modeling framework for system restoration from cascading failures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoran; Li, Daqing; Zio, Enrico; Kang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    System restoration from cascading failures is an integral part of the overall defense against catastrophic breakdown in networked critical infrastructures. From the outbreak of cascading failures to the system complete breakdown, actions can be taken to prevent failure propagation through the entire network. While most analysis efforts have been carried out before or after cascading failures, restoration during cascading failures has been rarely studied. In this paper, we present a modeling framework to investigate the effects of in-process restoration, which depends strongly on the timing and strength of the restoration actions. Furthermore, in the model we also consider additional disturbances to the system due to restoration actions themselves. We demonstrate that the effect of restoration is also influenced by the combination of system loading level and restoration disturbance. Our modeling framework will help to provide insights on practical restoration from cascading failures and guide improvements of reliability and resilience of actual network systems.

  4. A Modeling Framework for System Restoration from Cascading Failures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaoran; Li, Daqing; Zio, Enrico; Kang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    System restoration from cascading failures is an integral part of the overall defense against catastrophic breakdown in networked critical infrastructures. From the outbreak of cascading failures to the system complete breakdown, actions can be taken to prevent failure propagation through the entire network. While most analysis efforts have been carried out before or after cascading failures, restoration during cascading failures has been rarely studied. In this paper, we present a modeling framework to investigate the effects of in-process restoration, which depends strongly on the timing and strength of the restoration actions. Furthermore, in the model we also consider additional disturbances to the system due to restoration actions themselves. We demonstrate that the effect of restoration is also influenced by the combination of system loading level and restoration disturbance. Our modeling framework will help to provide insights on practical restoration from cascading failures and guide improvements of reliability and resilience of actual network systems. PMID:25474408

  5. Geothermal segmentation of the Cascade Range in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Muffler, L.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, James G.; Blackwell, D.D.; Weaver, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of the crustal thermal regime of the Quaternary Cascades vary systematically along the range. Spatially congruent changes in volcanic vent distribution, volcanic extrusion rate, hydrothermal discharge rate, and regional conductive heat flow define 5 geothermal segments. These segments are, from north to south: (1) the Washington Cascades north of Mount Rainier, (2) the Cascades from Mount Rainier to Mount Hood, (3) the Oregon Cascades from south of Mount Hood to the California border, (4) northernmost California, including Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcano, and (5) the Lassen region of northern California. This segmentation indicates that geothermal resource potential is not uniform in the Cascade Range. Potential varies from high in parts of Oregon to low in Washington north of Mount Rainier.

  6. A statistical analysis of mesoscale rainfall as a random cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Vijay K.; Waymire, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the random cascade theory for spatial rainfall. Particular attention was given to the following four areas: (1) the relationship of the random cascade theory of rainfall to the simple scaling and the hierarchical cluster-point-process theories, (2) the mathematical foundations for some of the formalisms commonly applied in the develpment of statistical cascade theory, (3) the empirical evidence for a random cascade theory of rainfall, and (4) the way of using data for making estimates of parameters and for making statistical inference within this theoretical framework. An analysis of space-time rainfall data is presented. Cascade simulations are carried out to provide a comparison with methods of analysis that are applied to the rainfall data.

  7. Orexin/hypocretin receptor signalling cascades

    PubMed Central

    Kukkonen, JP; Leonard, CS

    2014-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin) peptides and their two known G-protein-coupled receptors play essential roles in sleep–wake control and powerfully influence other systems regulating appetite/metabolism, stress and reward. Consequently, drugs that influence signalling by these receptors may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treating sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. It is therefore critical to understand how these receptors operate, the nature of the signalling cascades they engage and their physiological targets. In this review, we evaluate what is currently known about orexin receptor signalling cascades, while a sister review (Leonard & Kukkonen, this issue) focuses on tissue-specific responses. The evidence suggests that orexin receptor signalling is multifaceted and is substantially more diverse than originally thought. Indeed, orexin receptors are able to couple to members of at least three G-protein families and possibly other proteins, through which they regulate non-selective cation channels, phospholipases, adenylyl cyclase, and protein and lipid kinases. In the central nervous system, orexin receptors produce neuroexcitation by postsynaptic depolarization via activation of non-selective cation channels, inhibition of K+ channels and activation of Na+/Ca2+ exchange, but they also can stimulate the release of neurotransmitters by presynaptic actions and modulate synaptic plasticity. Ca2+ signalling is also prominently influenced by these receptors, both via the classical phospholipase C−Ca2+ release pathway and via Ca2+ influx, mediated by several pathways. Upon longer-lasting stimulation, plastic effects are observed in some cell types, while others, especially cancer cells, are stimulated to die. Thus, orexin receptor signals appear highly tunable, depending on the milieu in which they are operating. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10

  8. Cascading Walks Model for Human Mobility Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Xiang-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Uncovering the mechanism behind the scaling laws and series of anomalies in human trajectories is of fundamental significance in understanding many spatio-temporal phenomena. Recently, several models, e.g. the explorations-returns model (Song et al., 2010) and the radiation model for intercity travels (Simini et al., 2012), have been proposed to study the origin of these anomalies and the prediction of human movements. However, an agent-based model that could reproduce most of empirical observations without priori is still lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, considering the empirical findings on the correlations of move-lengths and staying time in human trips, we propose a simple model which is mainly based on the cascading processes to capture the human mobility patterns. In this model, each long-range movement activates series of shorter movements that are organized by the law of localized explorations and preferential returns in prescribed region. Conclusions/Significance Based on the numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show more than five statistical characters that are well consistent with the empirical observations, including several types of scaling anomalies and the ultraslow diffusion properties, implying the cascading processes associated with the localized exploration and preferential returns are indeed a key in the understanding of human mobility activities. Moreover, the model shows both of the diverse individual mobility and aggregated scaling displacements, bridging the micro and macro patterns in human mobility. In summary, our model successfully explains most of empirical findings and provides deeper understandings on the emergence of human mobility patterns. PMID:25860140

  9. Fluctuation sensitivity of a transcriptional signaling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkiewicz, Kevin R.; Mayo, Michael L.

    2016-09-01

    The internal biochemical state of a cell is regulated by a vast transcriptional network that kinetically correlates the concentrations of numerous proteins. Fluctuations in protein concentration that encode crucial information about this changing state must compete with fluctuations caused by the noisy cellular environment in order to successfully transmit information across the network. Oftentimes, one protein must regulate another through a sequence of intermediaries, and conventional wisdom, derived from the data processing inequality of information theory, leads us to expect that longer sequences should lose more information to noise. Using the metric of mutual information to characterize the fluctuation sensitivity of transcriptional signaling cascades, we find, counter to this expectation, that longer chains of regulatory interactions can instead lead to enhanced informational efficiency. We derive an analytic expression for the mutual information from a generalized chemical kinetics model that we reduce to simple, mass-action kinetics by linearizing for small fluctuations about the basal biological steady state, and we find that at long times this expression depends only on a simple ratio of protein production to destruction rates and the length of the cascade. We place bounds on the values of these parameters by requiring that the mutual information be at least one bit—otherwise, any received signal would be indistinguishable from noise—and we find not only that nature has devised a way to circumvent the data processing inequality, but that it must be circumvented to attain this one-bit threshold. We demonstrate how this result places informational and biochemical efficiency at odds with one another by correlating high transcription factor binding affinities with low informational output, and we conclude with an analysis of the validity of our assumptions and propose how they might be tested experimentally.

  10. Orexin/hypocretin receptor signalling cascades.

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, J P; Leonard, C S

    2014-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin) peptides and their two known G-protein-coupled receptors play essential roles in sleep-wake control and powerfully influence other systems regulating appetite/metabolism, stress and reward. Consequently, drugs that influence signalling by these receptors may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treating sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. It is therefore critical to understand how these receptors operate, the nature of the signalling cascades they engage and their physiological targets. In this review, we evaluate what is currently known about orexin receptor signalling cascades, while a sister review (Leonard & Kukkonen, this issue) focuses on tissue-specific responses. The evidence suggests that orexin receptor signalling is multifaceted and is substantially more diverse than originally thought. Indeed, orexin receptors are able to couple to members of at least three G-protein families and possibly other proteins, through which they regulate non-selective cation channels, phospholipases, adenylyl cyclase, and protein and lipid kinases. In the central nervous system, orexin receptors produce neuroexcitation by postsynaptic depolarization via activation of non-selective cation channels, inhibition of K⁺ channels and activation of Na⁺/Ca²⁺ exchange, but they also can stimulate the release of neurotransmitters by presynaptic actions and modulate synaptic plasticity. Ca²⁺ signalling is also prominently influenced by these receptors, both via the classical phospholipase C-Ca²⁺ release pathway and via Ca²⁺ influx, mediated by several pathways. Upon longer-lasting stimulation, plastic effects are observed in some cell types, while others, especially cancer cells, are stimulated to die. Thus, orexin receptor signals appear highly tunable, depending on the milieu in which they are operating.

  11. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  12. Systematic two-dimensional cascade tests. Volume 4: Cascade test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrin, T. A.; Taylor, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    The data pertaining to the performance characteristics of hydrofoils are presented. The hydrofoils are: (1) double circular arc, (2) multiple circular arc, and (3) slotted doubled circular arc. The experimental data are organized into a systematic presentation format and provided with scale factors and reference values for interpretation. The data include local pressure distributions upstream and downstream of the cascade test section, continuous records from flow angle and total pressure surveys, hydrofoil local pressure distributions, and cavitation data.

  13. A thermal modelling of displacement cascades in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Garcia, P.; Sabathier, C.; Devynck, F.; Krack, M.; Maillard, S.

    2014-05-01

    The space and time dependent temperature distribution was studied in uranium dioxide during displacement cascades simulated by classical molecular dynamics (MD). The energy for each simulated radiation event ranged between 0.2 keV and 20 keV in cells at initial temperatures of 700 K or 1400 K. Spheres into which atomic velocities were rescaled (thermal spikes) have also been simulated by MD to simulate the thermal excitation induced by displacement cascades. Equipartition of energy was shown to occur in displacement cascades, half of the kinetic energy of the primary knock-on atom being converted after a few tenths of picoseconds into potential energy. The kinetic and potential parts of the system energy are however subjected to little variations during dedicated thermal spike simulations. This is probably due to the velocity rescaling process, which impacts a large number of atoms in this case and would drive the system away from a dynamical equilibrium. This result makes questionable MD simulations of thermal spikes carried out up to now (early 2014). The thermal history of cascades was compared to the heat equation solution of a punctual thermal excitation in UO2. The maximum volume brought to a temperature above the melting temperature during the simulated cascade events is well reproduced by this simple model. This volume eventually constitutes a relevant estimate of the volume affected by a displacement cascade in UO2. This definition of the cascade volume could also make sense in other materials, like iron.

  14. Out of control: Fluctuation of cascading dynamics in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Cai, Lin; Xu, Bo; Li, Peng; Sun, Enhui; Zhu, Zhiguo

    2016-11-01

    Applying two preferential selection mechanisms of flow destination, we develop two new methods to quantify the initial load of a node, where the flow is transported along the shortest path between two nodes. We propose a simple cascading model and study cascading dynamics induced by attacking the node with the highest load in some synthetic and actual networks. Surprisingly, we observe the abnormal fluctuation of cascading dynamics, i.e., more damage can be triggered if we spend significantly higher cost to protect a network. In particular, this phenomenon is independent of the initial flow distribution and the preferential selection mechanisms of flow destination. However, it remains unclear which specific structural patterns may affect the fluctuation of cascading dynamics. In this paper, we examine the local evolution of the cascading propagation by constructing some special networks. We show that revivals of some nodes in the double ring structure facilitate the transportation of the flow between two unconnected sub-networks, cause more damage and subsequently lead to the abnormal fluctuation of cascading dynamics. Compared with the traditional definition of the betweenness, we adopt two new proposed methods to further evaluate the resilience of several actual networks. We find that some real world networks reach the strongest resilience level against cascading failures in our preferential selection mechanisms of flow destination. Moreover, we explore how to use the minimum cost to maximize the resilience of the studied networks.

  15. Factors Associated with PMTCT Cascade Completion in Four African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Thomas K.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many countries are working to reduce or eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Prevention efforts have been conceptualized as steps in a cascade but cascade completion rates during and after pregnancy are low. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed across 26 communities in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Women who reported a pregnancy within two years were enrolled. Participant responses were used to construct the PMTCT cascade with all of the following steps required for completion: at least one antenatal visit, HIV testing performed, HIV testing result received, initiation of maternal prophylaxis, and initiation of infant prophylaxis. Factors associated with cascade completion were identified using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Results. Of 976 HIV-infected women, only 355 (36.4%) completed the PMTCT cascade. Although most women (69.2%) did not know their partner's HIV status; awareness of partner HIV status was associated with cascade completion (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01–2.0). Completion was also associated with receiving an HIV diagnosis prior to pregnancy compared with HIV diagnosis during or after pregnancy (aOR 14.1, 95% CI 5.2–38.6). Conclusions. Pregnant women with HIV infection in Africa who were aware of their partner's HIV status and who were diagnosed with HIV before pregnancy were more likely to complete the PMTCT cascade. PMID:27872760

  16. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2012-05-31

    Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

  17. Seismicity of Cascade Volcanoes: Characterization and Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    Here we summarize and compare the seismicity around each of the Very High Threat Volcanoes of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon and California as defined by the National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) threat assessment (Ewert et al., 2005). Understanding the background seismic activity and processes controlling it is critical for assessing changes in seismicity and their implications for volcanic hazards. Comparing seismicity at different volcanic centers can help determine what critical factors or processes affect the observed seismic behavior. Of the ten Very High Threat Volcanoes in the Cascade Range, five volcanoes are consistently seismogenic when considering earthquakes within 10 km of the volcanic center or caldera edge (Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, Newberry Caldera, Lassen Volcanic Center). Other Very High Threat volcanoes (South Sister, Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Crater Lake and Mount Shasta) have comparatively low rates of seismicity and not enough recorded earthquakes to calculate catalog statistics. Using a swarm definition of 3 or more earthquakes occurring in a day with magnitudes above the largest of the network's magnitude of completenesses (M 0.9), we find that Lassen Volcanic Center is the "swarmiest" in terms of percent of seismicity occurring in swarms, followed by Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens and Rainier. The predominance of swarms at Mount Hood may be overstated, as much of the seismicity is occurring on surrounding crustal faults (Jones and Malone, 2005). Newberry Caldera has a relatively short record of seismicity since the permanent network was installed in 2011, however there have been no swarms detected as defined here. Future work will include developing discriminates for volcanic versus tectonic seismicity to better filter the seismic catalog and more precise binning of depths at some volcanoes so that we may better consider different processes. Ewert J. W., Guffanti, M. and Murray, T. L. (2005). An

  18. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  19. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  20. Active control of light based on polarization-coupling cascading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Juan; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-10-01

    In this letter, we proposed a novel method for optical manipulation based on polarization-coupling cascading in MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Polarization-coupling cascading, a series of energy exchanges between two orthogonally polarized beams close to phase matching condition, can also lead to phase shifts, in analogy with that in cascaded second-order nonlinearities. In addition, the parameters of light such as phase, amplitude, and group velocity can be modulated by changing the relative power ratio of the incident continuous wave beams. The phase control was demonstrated by Newton's rings experiment, which was in good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  1. Probabilistic analysis of cascade failure dynamics in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ding-Xue; Zhao, Dan; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Yonghong; Chi, Ming; Zheng, Gui-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The impact of initial load and tolerance parameter distribution on cascade failure is investigated. By using mean field theory, a probabilistic cascade failure model is established. Based on the model, the damage caused by certain attack size can be predicted, and the critical attack size is derived by the condition of cascade failure end, which ensures no collapse. The critical attack size is larger than the case of constant tolerance parameter for network of random distribution. Comparing three typical distributions, simulation results indicate that the network whose initial load and tolerance parameter both follow Weibull distribution performs better than others.

  2. Crossover from Localized to Cascade Relaxations in Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-07-24

    Thermally activated deformation is investigated in two metallic glass systems with different cooling histories. By probing the atomic displacements and stress changes on the potential energy landscape, two deformation modes, a localized process and cascade process, have observed. The localized deformation involves fewer than 30 atoms and appears in both systems, and its size is invariant with cooling history. However, the cascade deformation is more frequently observed in the fast quenched system than in the slowly quenched system. The origin of the cascade process in the fast quenched system is attributed to the higher density of local minima on the underlying potential energy landscape.

  3. Design of transonic compressor cascades using hodograph method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zuoyi; Guo, Jingrong

    1991-01-01

    The use of the Hodograph Method in the design of a transonic compressor cascade is discussed. The design of the flow mode in the transonic compressor cascade must be as follows: the flow in the nozzle part should be uniform and smooth; the location of the sonic line should be reasonable; and the aerodynamic character of the flow canal in the subsonic region should be met. The rate through cascade may be determined by the velocity distribution in the subsonic region (i.e., by the numerical solution of the Chaplygin equation). The supersonic sections A'C' and AD are determined by the analytical solution of the Mixed-Type Hodograph equation.

  4. Crossover from localized to cascade relaxations in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-07-21

    Thermally activated deformation is investigated in two metallic glass systems with different cooling histories. By probing the atomic displacements and stress changes on the potential energy landscape, two deformation modes, a localized process and cascade process, have observed. The localized deformation involves fewer than 30 atoms and appears in both systems, and its size is invariant with cooling history. However, the cascade deformation is more frequently observed in the fast quenched system than in the slowly quenched system. As a result, the origin of the cascade process in the fast quenched system is attributed to the higher density of local minima on the underlying potential energy landscape.

  5. Crossover from Localized to Cascade Relaxations in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    Thermally activated deformation is investigated in two metallic glass systems with different cooling histories. By probing the atomic displacements and stress changes on the potential energy landscape, two deformation modes, a localized process and cascade process, have observed. The localized deformation involves fewer than 30 atoms and appears in both systems, and its size is invariant with cooling history. However, the cascade deformation is more frequently observed in the fast quenched system than in the slowly quenched system. The origin of the cascade process in the fast quenched system is attributed to the higher density of local minima on the underlying potential energy landscape.

  6. Optimization of Quantum Correlation in Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jingliang; Jing, Jietai

    2017-03-01

    We propose a measurement strategy that can be used to optimize quantum correlation for a cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) structure. By calculating the covariance matrix of a cascaded FWM structure, we can get all the correlations between any two parties in the outputs. We then calculate the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenmodes of the covariance matrix to find the squeezing degrees of the squeezed modes. Our theoretical model can explain our previous experimental results very well and is useful to optimize the squeezing degree in the cascaded FWM structure.

  7. Search for acoustic signals from high energy cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Bowen, T.

    1985-01-01

    High energy cosmic ray secondaries can be detected by means of the cascades they produce when they pass through matter. When the charged particles of these cascades ionize the matter they are traveling through, the heat produced and resulting thermal expansion causes a thermoacoustic wave. These sound waves travel at about one hundred-thousandth the speed of light, and should allow an array of acoustic transducers to resolve structure in the cascade to about 1 cm without high speed electronics or segmentation of the detector.

  8. Redundancy in information transmission in a two-step cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Ayan; Banik, Suman K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a stochastic framework to study signal transmission in a generic two-step cascade S→X→Y . Starting from a set of Langevin equations obeying Gaussian noise processes we calculate the variance and covariance while considering both linear and nonlinear production terms for different biochemical species of the cascade. These quantities are then used to calculate the net synergy within the purview of partial information decomposition. We show that redundancy in information transmission is essentially an important consequence of Markovian property of the two-step cascade motif. We also show that redundancy increases fidelity of the signaling pathway.

  9. Self-organization, the cascade model, and natural hazards

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Donald L.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola

    2002-01-01

    We consider the frequency-size statistics of two natural hazards, forest fires and landslides. Both appear to satisfy power-law (fractal) distributions to a good approximation under a wide variety of conditions. Two simple cellular-automata models have been proposed as analogs for this observed behavior, the forest fire model for forest fires and the sand pile model for landslides. The behavior of these models can be understood in terms of a self-similar inverse cascade. For the forest fire model the cascade consists of the coalescence of clusters of trees; for the sand pile model the cascade consists of the coalescence of metastable regions. PMID:11875206

  10. Operation of polarization order of vector beams with cascaded metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xunong; Huang, Panli; Huang, Xiuzhang; Xu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Ai, Yuqian; Chen, Huan

    2017-09-01

    Metasurface is an effective tool for smanipulating optical wave and can be used to generate vector beams. In this work, we propose a method to realize the operation of the polarization order of vector beams with cascaded metasurfaces. Employing Jones calculation, we theoretically analyze the transformation of cascaded metasurfaces for linearly polarized incident light. The results show that two directly cascaded metasurfaces can realize the subtraction operation of polarization order of vector beam. When a half-wave plate is inserted between the two metasurfaces, the addition operation of polarization order can be achieved. Lastly, verification experiments are performed. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  11. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  12. Criticality safety study of shutdown diffusion cascade coolers

    SciTech Connect

    Paschal, L.S.; Basoglu, B.; Bentley, C.L.; Dunn, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Gaseous diffusion plants use cascade coolers in the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to remove heat from the enriched stream of UF{sub 6}. The cascade coolers operate like shell and tube heat exchangers with the UF{sub 6} on the shell side and Freon on the tube side. Recirculating cooling water (RCW) in condensers is used to cool the Freon. A criticality safety analysis was previously performed for cascade coolers during normal operation. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate several different hypothetical accidents regarding RCW ingress into the cooler to determine whether criticality safety concerns exist.

  13. Flutter Analysis of Annular Cascades in Counter Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Ryohei; Namba, Masanobu

    The paper studies the effect of neighboring blade rows on flutter characteristics of cascading blades. For this purpose the computation program to calculate the unsteady blade loading based on the unsteady lifting surface theory for contra-rotating annular cascades was formulated and coded. Then a computation program to solve the coupled bending-torsion flutter equation for the contra-rotating annular cascades was also developed. Some results of the flutter analysis are presented. The presence of the neighboring blade row gives rise to significant change in the critical flutter condition when the main acoustic duct mode is of cut-on state.

  14. SiGe quantum cascade structures for light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Li, X. B.; Neave, J. H.; Norris, D. J.; Cullis, A. G.; Kelsall, R. W.; Lynch, S.; Towsend, P.; Paul, D. J.; Fewster, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The realisation of III-V quantum cascade lasers has initiated a strong interest in developing a Si/SiGe-based quantum cascade laser over the last 3 years. Most efforts were focused on the growth of strain-balanced Si/SiGe superlattices on strain-relaxed SiGe virtual substrates. This paper discusses the progress so far and addresses some of the material issues related to the epitaxy of Si/SiGe quantum cascade structures, including strain-stress balance and production of strain-relaxed SiGe virtual substrates.

  15. Cascade focusing in the beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, P.; Bell, A.R.

    1988-10-03

    The 2D wave-envelope equationf for the beat-wave--cascade system are studied analytically and numerically. An expression for the mean square width of the cascade envelope is obtained, and is used to predict the long-term behavior of the waves. The amplitude or a resonantly driven plasma wave falls significantly over a stage length due to enhanced diffraction of the cascade envelope. Conversely, detuning the pumps from the plasma frequency can lead to focusing of the envelope and a corresponding increase in plasmon amplitude of up to 200% over the same distance.

  16. Dispersion dynamics of quantum cascade lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Burghoff, David; Yang, Yang; Reno, John L.; ...

    2016-12-20

    A key parameter underlying the efficacy of any nonlinear optical process is group velocity dispersion. In quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), there have been several recent demonstrations of devices exploiting nonlinearities in both the mid-infrared and the terahertz. Though the gain of QCLs has been well studied, the dispersion has been much less investigated, and several questions remain about its dynamics and precise origin. In this work, we use time-domain spectroscopy to investigate the dispersion of broadband terahertz QCLs, and demonstrate that contributions from both the material and the intersubband transitions are relevant. We show that in contrast to the lasermore » gain—which is clamped to a fixed value above lasing threshold—the dispersion changes with bias even above threshold, which is a consequence of shifting intersubband populations. In conclusion, we also examine the role of higher-order dispersion in QCLs and discuss the ramifications of our result for devices utilizing nonlinear effects, such as frequency combs.« less

  17. Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; King, Aaron J.; El-Aini, Yehia M.; Capece, Vincent R.

    1996-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low aspect ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 deg and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 x l0(exp 6). For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.

  18. Magnetic reconnection from a multiscale instability cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Auna L.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection, the process whereby magnetic field lines break and then reconnect to form a different topology, underlies critical dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas in both nature and the laboratory. Magnetic reconnection involves localized diffusion of the magnetic field across plasma, yet observed reconnection rates are typically much higher than can be accounted for using classical electrical resistivity. It is generally proposed that the field diffusion underlying fast reconnection results instead from some combination of non-magnetohydrodynamic processes that become important on the `microscopic' scale of the ion Larmor radius or the ion skin depth. A recent laboratory experiment demonstrated a transition from slow to fast magnetic reconnection when a current channel narrowed to a microscopic scale, but did not address how a macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic system accesses the microscale. Recent theoretical models and numerical simulations suggest that a macroscopic, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic current sheet might do this through a sequence of repetitive tearing and thinning into two-dimensional magnetized plasma structures having successively finer scales. Here we report observations demonstrating a cascade of instabilities from a distinct, macroscopic-scale magnetohydrodynamic instability to a distinct, microscopic-scale (ion skin depth) instability associated with fast magnetic reconnection. These observations resolve the full three-dimensional dynamics and give insight into the frequently impulsive nature of reconnection in space and laboratory plasmas.

  19. Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in biomedical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schwaighofer, Andreas; Brandstetter, Markus; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-10-02

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are the first room temperature semiconductor laser source for the mid-IR spectral region, triggering substantial development for the advancement of mid-IR spectroscopy. Mid-IR spectroscopy in general provides rapid, label-free and objective analysis, particularly important in the field of biomedical analysis. Due to their unique properties, QCLs offer new possibilities for development of analytical methods to enable quantification of clinically relevant concentration levels and to support medical diagnostics. Compared to FTIR spectroscopy, novel and elaborated measurement techniques can be implemented that allow miniaturized and portable instrumentation. This review illustrates the characteristics of QCLs with a particular focus on their benefits for biomedical analysis. Recent applications of QCL-based spectroscopy for analysis of a variety of clinically relevant samples including breath, urine, blood, interstitial fluid, and biopsy samples are summarized. Further potential for technical advancements is discussed in combination with future prospects for employment of QCL-based devices in routine and point-of-care diagnostics.

  20. Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product.

    PubMed

    Razeghi, M; Lu, Q Y; Bandyopadhyay, N; Zhou, W; Heydari, D; Bai, Y; Slivken, S

    2015-04-06

    The quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an important laser source in the mid-infrared and terahertz frequency range. The past twenty years have witnessed its tremendous development in power, wall plug efficiency, frequency coverage and tunability, beam quality, as well as various applications based on QCL technology. Nowadays, QCLs can deliver high continuous wave power output up to 5.1 W at room temperature, and cover a wide frequency range from 3 to 300 μm by simply varying the material components. Broadband heterogeneous QCLs with a broad spectral range from 3 to 12 μm, wavelength agile QCLs based on monolithic sampled grating design, and on-chip beam QCL combiner are being developed for the next generation tunable mid-infrared source for spectroscopy and sensing. Terahertz sources based on nonlinear generation in QCLs further extend the accessible wavelength into the terahertz range. Room temperature continuous wave operation, high terahertz power up to 1.9 mW, and wide frequency tunability form 1 to 5 THz makes this type of device suitable for many applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and communication.

  1. Remote chemical sensing with quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.

    2004-10-15

    A trailer based sensor system has been developed for remote chemical sensing applications. The sensor uses quantum cascade lasers (QCL) that operate in the long wave infrared. The QCL is operated continuous wave, and its wavelength is both ramped over a molecular absorption feature and frequency modulated. Lock-in techniques are used to recover weak laser return signals. Field experiments have monitored ambient water vapor and small quantities of nitrous oxide, tetrafluoroethane (R134a), and hydrogen sulfide released as atmospheric plumes. Round trip path lengths up to 10 km were obtained using a retro-reflector. Atmospheric turbulence was found to be the dominating noise source. It causes intensity fluctuations in the received power, which can significantly degrade the sensor performance. Unique properties associated with QCLs enabled single beam normalization techniques to be implemented thus reducing the impact that turbulence has on experimental signal to noise. Weighted data averaging was additionally used to increase the signal to noise of data traces. Absorbance sensitivities as low as {approx}1 x 10{sup -4} could be achieved with 5 seconds of data averaging, even under high turbulence conditions.

  2. Inverse turbulent cascade in swarming sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa; Plouraboue, Franck; Inra, Cnrs, Umr, F-37380 Nouzilly, France Team; Université de Toulouse, Inpt, Ups, Imft, Umr 5502, France Team

    2014-11-01

    Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small scale turbulence arising where viscosity effects are dominant. We report the first observation of an universal inverse enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of velocity field power-spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in two-dimensional turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures the size of which provides turbulence's integral scale. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-two-dimensional turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interaction and alignment, a state of active matter that we call ``swarming liquid crystal.'' We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation. The implication of multi-scale collective dynamics of sperm's collective motility for fertility assessment is discussed. This work has been supported by the French Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR) in the frame of the Contract MOTIMO (ANR-11-MONU-009-01). We thank Pierre Degond, Eric Climent, Laurent Lacaze and Frédéric Moulin for interesting discussions.

  3. Quantum cascade lasers for defense and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Timothy; Pushkarsky, Michael; Caffey, Dave; Cecchetti, Kristen; Arp, Ron; Whitmore, Alex; Henson, Michael; Takeuchi, Eric B.

    2013-10-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) systems are mature and at the vanguard of a new generation of products that support military applications such as Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM) and targeting. The demanding product requirements for aircraft platforms that include reduced size, weight, power consumption and cost (SWaP-C) extends to portable, battery powered handheld products. QCL technology operates throughout the mid-wave (MWIR) and long-wave (LWIR) infrared to provide new capabilities that leverage existing thermal imaging cameras. In addition to their suitability for aircraft platforms, QCL products are a natural fit to meet operator demands for small, lightweight pointer and beacon capabilities. Field-testing of high power, lightweight, battery operated devices has demonstrated their utility across a range of air and ground applications. This talk will present an overview of QCL technology and the Defense and Security products and capabilities that are enabled by it. This talk will also provide an overview of the extensive environmental and performance testing associated with products based on QCL technology.

  4. Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that social networks influence the evolution of cooperation, but to date there have been few experimental studies. Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference. Here, we exploit a seminal set of laboratory experiments that originally showed that voluntary costly punishment can help sustain cooperation. In these experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of different groups to play a series of single-shot public goods games with strangers; this feature allowed us to draw networks of interactions to explore how cooperative and uncooperative behaviors spread from person to person to person. We show that, in both an ordinary public goods game and in a public goods game with punishment, focal individuals are influenced by fellow group members’ contribution behavior in future interactions with other individuals who were not a party to the initial interaction. Furthermore, this influence persists for multiple periods and spreads up to three degrees of separation (from person to person to person to person). The results suggest that each additional contribution a subject makes to the public good in the first period is tripled over the course of the experiment by other subjects who are directly or indirectly influenced to contribute more as a consequence. These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks. PMID:20212120

  5. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOEpatents

    Danesi, Pier R.

    1986-01-01

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

  6. Geothermal resource potential of Cascade volcanic arc

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-08-01

    The central and southern cascade volcanic arc has the following features that suggest a high potential for geothermal resources: (1) extensive Quaternary volcanism with some silicic to intermediate volcanoes, (2) hundreds of square kilometers with regional background heat flow in excess of 100 mW/m/sup 2/, (3) shallow (4-9 km) calculated depth to Curie point in the same areas that have heat flow in excess of 100 mW/m/sup 2/, (4) a thick pile of volcanic rock with moderate to low thermal conductivity, (5) hot springs with minimum reservoir temperatures of 174/sup 0/-186/sup 0/C (from the anhydrite geothermometer of Mariner, 1985), and (6) fault zones for fracture permeability. These features are the result of interactions between the North American plate (NAP), the Pacific plate (PP), and the subducted Gorda, Juan de Fuca, and Explorer plates (GJEP). Interactions between the NAP and the PP produce north-south compression and east-west extension, causing extensive development of north-south normal faults and partial melting episodes in upper mantle. Northeast-southwest convergence between the NAP and the GJEP produce subduction-related magmas and crustal deformation from northeast-southwest compression. NAP-GJEP interactions dominate in the northern part of the arc, whereas NAP-PP and NAP-GJEP interactions have combined in the central and southern part of the arc to produce rates of magmatism and heat flow higher than in the north.

  7. A screening cascade to identify ERβ ligands

    PubMed Central

    Filgueira, Carly S.; Benod, Cindy; Lou, Xiaohua; Gunamalai, Prem S.; Villagomez, Rosa A.; Strom, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Berkenstam, Anders L.; Webb, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of effective high throughput screening cascades to identify nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that will trigger defined, therapeutically useful sets of NR activities is of considerable importance. Repositioning of existing approved drugs with known side effect profiles can provide advantages because de novo drug design suffers from high developmental failure rates and undesirable side effects which have dramatically increased costs. Ligands that target estrogen receptor β (ERβ) could be useful in a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to neurological to cardiovascular disorders. In this context, it is important to minimize cross-reactivity with ERα, which has been shown to trigger increased rates of several types of cancer. Because of high sequence similarities between the ligand binding domains of ERα and ERβ, preferentially targeting one subtype can prove challenging. Here, we describe a sequential ligand screening approach comprised of complementary in-house assays to identify small molecules that are selective for ERβ. Methods include differential scanning fluorimetry, fluorescence polarization and a GAL4 transactivation assay. We used this strategy to screen several commercially-available chemical libraries, identifying thirty ERβ binders that were examined for their selectivity for ERβ versus ERα, and tested the effects of selected ligands in a prostate cancer cell proliferation assay. We suggest that this approach could be used to rapidly identify candidates for drug repurposing. PMID:25422593

  8. Cascade model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Harding, A. K.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    If, in a neutron star magnetosphere, an electron is accelerated to an energy of 10 to the 11th or 12th power eV by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field, motion of the electron along the curved field line leads to a cascade of gamma rays and electron-positron pairs. This process is believed to occur in radio pulsars and gamma ray burst sources. Results are presented from numerical simulations of the radiation and photon annihilation pair production processes, using a computer code previously developed for the study of radio pulsars. A range of values of initial energy of a primary electron was considered along with initial injection position, and magnetic dipole moment of the neutron star. The resulting spectra was found to exhibit complex forms that are typically power law over a substantial range of photon energy, and typically include a dip in the spectrum near the electron gyro-frequency at the injection point. The results of a number of models are compared with data for the 5 Mar., 1979 gamma ray burst. A good fit was found to the gamma ray part of the spectrum, including the equivalent width of the annihilation line.

  9. Thermal nonequilibrium effects on turbine cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jill L.

    1991-12-01

    The AFIT Total Variation Diminishing Euler Code (ATEC) was modified to include a thermal nonequilibrium model to investigate high temperature effects associated with vibrational relaxation in a transonic turbine cascade. Incorporation of this model into ATEC and creating ANTEC (AFIT Nonequilibrium TVD Euler Code) was accomplished in three steps. Steady-state solutions obtained with ANTEC were compared with those obtained with ATEC for various inlet and exit conditions. The Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion was held constant to ATEC; however, it required variation for ANTEC. Blade temperature profiles, temperature difference contours in the vicinity of the trailing edge and the value of the ratio of specific heats (gamma) along the blade were analyzed. Even when corrected for high temperatures, the assumptions of a calorically perfect gas and thus a constant value of gamma are inaccurate due to the temperature dependent nature of specific heats at constant pressure and at constant value. Maximum temperature differences of -741 K and 539 K were found near the trailing edge for the highest temperature case, with differences being most noticeable through the expansion at the trailing edge on the pressure surface and across the shocks from both surfaces. The vibrational relaxation model showed limitations at low temperatures.

  10. Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Hu, Tomonori; Jackson, Stuart D

    2012-06-15

    A diode-cladding-pumped dual wavelength Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride cascade fiber laser operating in the mid-infrared is demonstrated. Stable pulse trains from the (5)I6 → (5)I7 and (5)I7 → (5)I8 laser transitions were produced, and the μs-level time delay between the pulses from each transition was dependent on the pump power. At maximum pump power and at an acousto-optic modulator repetition rate of 25 kHz, the (5)I6 → (5)I7 transition pulse operated at 3.005 μm, a pulse energy of 29 μJ, and a pulse width of 380 ns; the (5)I7 → (5)I8 transition pulse correspondingly produced 7 μJ pulse energy and 260 ns pulse width at 2.074 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a Q-switched fiber laser operating beyond 3 μm.

  11. Astronomical Forcing of Salt Marsh Biogeochemical Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. T.; Sundberg, K.

    2008-12-01

    Astronomically forced changes in the hydroperiod of a salt marsh affect the rate of marsh primary production leading to a biogeochemical cascade. For example, salt marsh primary production and biogeochemical cycles in coastal salt marshes are sensitive to the 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle, which alters the tidal amplitude by about 5 cm. For marshes that are perched high in the tidal frame, a relatively small increase in tidal amplitude and flooding lowers sediment salinity and stimulates primary production. Porewater sulfide concentrations are positively correlated with tidal amplitude and vary on the same cycle as primary production. Soluble reactive phosphate and ammonium concentrations in pore water also vary on this 18.6- year cycle. Phosphate likely responds to variation in the reaction of sulfide with iron-phosphate compounds, while the production of ammonium in sediments is coupled to the activity of diazotrophs that are carbon- limited and, therefore, are regulated by primary productivity. Ammonium also would accumulate when sulfides block nitrification. These dependencies work as a positive feedback between primary production and nutrient supply and are predictive of the near-term effects of sea-level rise.

  12. Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Liu, Zhen; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Zhengyang; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Zhou, Lihui; Shen, Fei; Kim, Myeongseob; Swafford, Laura; Sengupta, Louise; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-07-08

    Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes including V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional lithium-ion battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water completely within minutes due to triggered cascade reactions. With a simple cut-and-stack method, we designed a fully transient device with an area of 0.5 cm by 1 cm and total energy of 0.1 J. A shadow-mask technique was used to demonstrate the miniature device, which is compatible with transient electronics manufacturing. The materials, fabrication methods, and integration strategy discussed will be of interest for future developments in transient, self-powered electronics. The demonstration of a miniature Li battery shows the feasibility toward system integration for all transient electronics.

  13. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  14. Herbivore release through cascading risk effects

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Entling, Martin H.; Siegenthaler, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Predators influence prey through consumption, and through trait-mediated effects such as emigration in response to predation risk (risk effects). We studied top-down effects of (sub-) adult wolf spiders (Lycosidae) on arthropods in a meadow. We compared risk effects with the overall top-down effect (including consumption) by gluing the chelicers of wolf spiders to prevent them from killing the prey. In a field experiment, we created three treatments that included either: (i) intact (‘predation’) wolf spiders; (ii) wolf spiders with glued chelicers (‘risk spiders’); or (iii) no (sub-) adult wolf spiders. Young wolf spiders were reduced by their (sub-) adult congeners. Densities of sheetweb spiders (Linyphiidae), a known intraguild prey of wolf spiders, were equally reduced by the presence of risk and predation wolf spiders. Plant- and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) showed the inverse pattern of higher densities in the presence of both risk and predation wolf spiders. We conclude that (sub-) adult wolf spiders acted as top predators, which reduced densities of intermediate predators and thereby enhanced herbivores. Complementary to earlier studies that found trait-mediated herbivore suppression, our results demonstrate that herbivores can be enhanced through cascading risk effects by top predators. PMID:19586964

  15. Wavelength independent normal incident quantum cascade detectors.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Arvind P; Sivco, Deborah; Gmachl, Claire F

    2016-10-31

    We demonstrate a novel technique for normal-incident absorption in intersubband infrared detectors by taking advantage of light scattering from the side-walls of a wet-etched mesa. We fabricate 'spiral' and 'hairpin' shaped quantum cascade detector at a peak wavelength of 6.6 μm, and compare their performance with a standard rectangular mesa. We achieve a peak responsivity of 6 mA/W for the spiral and 12 mA/W for the hairpin detectors at normal incidence, comparable to the 8.8 mA/W obtained for the mesa at 45 degree incidence. We obtain a background limited detectivity of about 3×1010 cmHz/W for the spiral and hairpin detectors at 80 K, compared to 3×108 cmHz/W for the standard mesa. This method to achieve normal incidence absorption is wavelength independent, and does not involve complicated fabrication procedures, paving the way for widespread use of intersubband detectors in sensor applications.

  16. Pressure wave propagation studies for oscillating cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady flowfield around an oscillating cascade of flat plates is studied using a time marching Euler code. Exact solutions based on linear theory serve as model problems to study pressure wave propagation in the numerical solution. The importance of using proper unsteady boundary conditions, grid resolution, and time step is demonstrated. Results show that an approximate non-reflecting boundary condition based on linear theory does a good job of minimizing reflections from the inflow and outflow boundaries and allows the placement of the boundaries to be closer than cases using reflective boundary conditions. Stretching the boundary to dampen the unsteady waves is another way to minimize reflections. Grid clustering near the plates does a better job of capturing the unsteady flowfield than cases using uniform grids as long as the CFL number is less than one for a sufficient portion of the grid. Results for various stagger angles and oscillation frequencies show good agreement with linear theory as long as the grid is properly resolved.

  17. Pressure wave propagation studies for oscillating cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady flow field around an oscillating cascade of flat plates is studied using a time marching Euler code. Exact solutions based on linear theory serve as model problems to study pressure wave propagation in the numerical solution. The importance of using proper unsteady boundary conditions, grid resolution, and time step is demonstrated. Results show that an approximate non-reflecting boundary condition based on linear theory does a good job of minimizing reflections from the inflow and outflow boundaries and allows the placement of the boundaries to be closer than cases using reflective boundary conditions. Stretching the boundary to dampen the unsteady waves is another way to minimize reflections. Grid clustering near the plates does a better job of capturing the unsteady flow field than cases using uniform grids as long as the CFL number is less than one for a sufficient portion of the grid. Results for various stagger angles and oscillation frequencies show good agreement with linear theory as long as the grid is properly resolved.

  18. Pressure wave propagation studies for oscillating cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady flowfield around an oscillating cascade of flat plates is studied using a time marching Euler code. Exact solutions based on linear theory serve as model problems to study pressure wave propagation in the numerical solution. The importance of using proper unsteady boundary conditions, grid resolution, and time step is demonstrated. Results show that an approximate non-reflecting boundary condition based on linear theory does a good job of minimizing reflections from the inflow and outflow boundaries and allows the placement of the boundaries to be closer than cases using reflective boundary conditions. Stretching the boundary to dampen the unsteady waves is another way to minimize reflections. Grid clustering near the plates does a better job of capturing the unsteady flowfield than cases using uniform grids as long as the CFL number is less than one for a sufficient portion of the grid. Results for various stagger angles and oscillation frequencies show good agreement with linear theory as long as the grid is properly resolved.

  19. Herbivore release through cascading risk effects.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Entling, Martin H; Siegenthaler, Eva

    2009-12-23

    Predators influence prey through consumption, and through trait-mediated effects such as emigration in response to predation risk (risk effects). We studied top-down effects of (sub-) adult wolf spiders (Lycosidae) on arthropods in a meadow. We compared risk effects with the overall top-down effect (including consumption) by gluing the chelicers of wolf spiders to prevent them from killing the prey. In a field experiment, we created three treatments that included either: (i) intact ('predation') wolf spiders; (ii) wolf spiders with glued chelicers ('risk spiders'); or (iii) no (sub-) adult wolf spiders. Young wolf spiders were reduced by their (sub-) adult congeners. Densities of sheetweb spiders (Linyphiidae), a known intraguild prey of wolf spiders, were equally reduced by the presence of risk and predation wolf spiders. Plant- and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) showed the inverse pattern of higher densities in the presence of both risk and predation wolf spiders. We conclude that (sub-) adult wolf spiders acted as top predators, which reduced densities of intermediate predators and thereby enhanced herbivores. Complementary to earlier studies that found trait-mediated herbivore suppression, our results demonstrate that herbivores can be enhanced through cascading risk effects by top predators.

  20. Steady rotation of the Cascade arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; McCaffrey, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Displacement of the Miocene Cascade volcanic arc (northwestern North America) from the active arc is in the same sense and at nearly the same rate as the present clockwise block motions calculated from GPS velocities in a North American reference frame. Migration of the ancestral arc over the past 16 m.y. can be explained by clockwise rotation of upper-plate blocks at 1.0°/m.y. over a linear melting source moving westward 1–4.5 km/m.y. due to slab rollback. Block motion and slab rollback are in opposite directions in the northern arc, but both are westerly in the southern extensional arc, where rollback may be enhanced by proximity to the edge of the Juan de Fuca slab. Similarities between post–16 Ma arc migration, paleomagnetic rotation, and modern GPS block motions indicate that the secular block motions from decadal GPS can be used to calculate long-term strain rates and earthquake hazards. Northwest-directed Basin and Range extension of 140 km is predicted behind the southern arc since 16 Ma, and 70 km of shortening is predicted in the northern arc. The GPS rotation poles overlie a high-velocity slab of the Siletzia terrane dangling into the mantle beneath Idaho (United States), which may provide an anchor for the rotations.

  1. Fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Antoshchenkova, E.; Luneville, L.; Simeone, D.; Stoller, R. E.; Hayoun, M.

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades in copper and iron has been investigated through the molecular dynamics technique. A two-point density correlation function has been used to analyze the cascades as a function of the primary knock-on (PKA) energy. This approach is used as a tool for detecting subcascade formation. The fragmentation can already be identified at the end of the ballistic phase. Its resulting evolution in the peak damage state discriminates between unconnected and connected subcascades. The damage zone at the end of the ballistic phase is the precursor of the extended regions that contain the surviving defects. A fractal analysis of the cascade exhibits a dependence on both the stage of the cascade development and the PKA energy. This type of analysis enables the minimum and maximum displacement spike energies together with the subcascade formation threshold energy to be determined. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple approaches to enantiopure spirocyclic benzofuranones using organocatalytic cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Carlo; Tian, Xu; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2011-01-07

    Three distinct aminocatalytic cascade reactions leading to enantiomerically pure spirocyclic benzofuranones have been devised, highlighting the ability of organocascade to generate high degrees of stereochemical and architectural complexity in a single chemical transformation.

  3. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Faults and Heat Flow maps

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes a fault map of the Oregon Cascades and backarc, a probability map of heat flow, and a fault density probability layer. More extensive metadata can be found within each zip file.

  4. Prescribing cascade. A proposed new way to evaluate it.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Marcelo L; Wachs, Lionel; Wachs, Adolfo; Serra, Héctor A

    2017-01-01

    Prescribing cascade is defined as the situation in which a first drug administered to a patient causes adverse event signs and symptoms, that are misinterpreted as a new condition, resulting in a new medication being prescribed. The cascade may have multiple steps and differ in complexity and severity. Despite being well identified, prescribing cascade is an increasingly common problem in medical practice. It constitutes a warning about irrational use of medicines that puts health at risk and increases treatment costs if it is not taken into account. In this article, representative cases taken from Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Cosme Argerich pharmacovigilance database were selected to assess a proper score and an algorithm that define the probable prescribing cascade.

  5. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Pfitzner, Rene; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  6. Abnormal Behavior in Cascading Dynamics with Node Weight

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianwei; Cai, Lin; Xu, Bo; Wu, Yuedan

    2015-01-01

    Considering a preferential selection mechanism of load destination, we introduce a new method to quantify initial load distribution and subsequently construct a simple cascading model. By attacking the node with the highest load, we investigate the cascading dynamics in some synthetic networks. Surprisingly, we observe that for several networks of different structural patterns, a counterintuitive phenomenon emerges if the highest load attack is applied to the system, i.e., investing more resources to protect every node in a network inversely makes the whole network more vulnerable. We explain this ability paradox by analyzing the micro-structural components of the underlying network and therefore reveals how specific structural patterns may influence the cascading dynamics. We discover that the robustness of the network oscillates as the capacity of each node increases. The conclusion of the paper may shed lights on future investigations to avoid the demonstrated ability paradox and subsequent cascading failures in real-world networks. PMID:26451594

  7. Cascading dynamics with local weighted flow redistribution in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuzhuo

    2013-07-01

    We study load cascading dynamics in a system composed of coupled interdependent networks while adopting a local weighted flow redistribution rule. We find that when the intra- or inter-connectivity increases, robustness against the cascade of load failures in the symmetrically coupled interdependent networks increases. In addition, when a failed link has to first split its flow asymmetrically to its neighbouring link groups according to the link types, even though there exists an optimal split, the robustness is lowered in contrast with the non-split situation. Furthermore, the optimal weighting mechanism in an isolated network no longer holds in interdependent networks. Finally, robustness against the cascade of load failures is not guaranteed to increase by making the distribution of the degree of intra-connectivity broader. We confirm these phenomena by theoretical analysis based on mean-field theory. Our findings might have great implications for preventing load-failure-induced local cascades in symmetrically coupled interdependent networks.

  8. Wind tunnel wall effects in a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    Experiments in a linear oscillating cascade reveal that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the airfoils have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the oscillating cascade aerodynamics. In a subsonic flow field, biconvex airfoils are driven simultaneously in harmonic, torsion-mode oscillations for a range of interblade phase angle values. It is found that the cascade dynamic periodicity - the airfoil to airfoil variation in unsteady surface pressure - is good for some values of interblade phase angle but poor for others. Correlation of the unsteady pressure data with oscillating flat plate cascade predictions is generally good for conditions where the periodicity is good and poor where the periodicity is poor. Calculations based upon linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory indicate that pressure waves reflected from the wind tunnel walls are responsible for the cases where there is poor periodicity and poor correlation with the predictions.

  9. Vulnerability and cosusceptibility determine the size of network cascades

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yang; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-01-27

    In a network, a local disturbance can propagate and eventually cause a substantial part of the system to fail in cascade events that are easy to conceptualize but extraordinarily difficult to predict. Furthermore, we develop a statistical framework that can predict cascade size distributions by incorporating two ingredients only: the vulnerability of individual components and the cosusceptibility of groups of components (i.e., their tendency to fail together). Using cascades in power grids as a representative example, we show that correlations between component failures define structured and often surprisingly large groups of cosusceptible components. Aside from their implications for blackout studies,more » these results provide insights and a new modeling framework for understanding cascades in financial systems, food webs, and complex networks in general.« less

  10. Cascaded spintronic logic with low-dimensional carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Joseph S.; Girdhar, Anuj; Gelfand, Ryan M.; Memik, Gokhan; Mohseni, Hooman; Taflove, Allen; Wessels, Bruce W.; Leburton, Jean-Pierre; Sahakian, Alan V.

    2017-06-01

    Remarkable breakthroughs have established the functionality of graphene and carbon nanotube transistors as replacements to silicon in conventional computing structures, and numerous spintronic logic gates have been presented. However, an efficient cascaded logic structure that exploits electron spin has not yet been demonstrated. In this work, we introduce and analyse a cascaded spintronic computing system composed solely of low-dimensional carbon materials. We propose a spintronic switch based on the recent discovery of negative magnetoresistance in graphene nanoribbons, and demonstrate its feasibility through tight-binding calculations of the band structure. Covalently connected carbon nanotubes create magnetic fields through graphene nanoribbons, cascading logic gates through incoherent spintronic switching. The exceptional material properties of carbon materials permit Terahertz operation and two orders of magnitude decrease in power-delay product compared to cutting-edge microprocessors. We hope to inspire the fabrication of these cascaded logic circuits to stimulate a transformative generation of energy-efficient computing.

  11. Inferring missing data in satellite chlorophyll maps using turbulent cascading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, C.; Turiel, A.; Garcon, V.

    2009-04-01

    Oceanic turbulent flows develop complicated patterns, with eddies, filaments and shear currents. Although usually referred as chaotic, their inner organization is strongly hierarchical: turbulent flows develop cascades, which transfer properties such as energy or scalar density from larger to smaller scales. We present a novel algorithm based on the cascade and able to fill data gaps in satellite images (particularly, chlorophyll concentration maps). The first step is to show that cascade processes for chlorophyll-a concentration images take a simple, explicit form when an appropriate wavelet (here Battle-Lemarié of order 3) representation is used. A reconstruction algorithm exploiting the cascade structure is then given with a detailed description. We discuss the validity and quality of this algorithm when applied to SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua ocean color images. An application to merging data from multiple satellite missions is presented together with a demonstration of the benefit of this algorithm over two other merging methods.

  12. NASA’s SDO Captures Cascading Magnetic Arches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A dark solar filament above the sun's surface became unstable and erupted on Dec. 16-17, 2015, generating a cascade of magnetic arches. A small eruption to the upper right of the filament was likel...

  13. Cascade ({xi}) Physics: a New Approach to Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B. M. K.

    2006-11-17

    Cascade hyperons have two special characteristics, which are particularly valuable as experimental and theoretical tools: cascades have strangeness minus two and their widths are quite narrow compared to the N* and {delta}+ resonances. The narrow width allows the detection by the missing mass or invariant mass techniques. The makeup of the cascade states is two ''massive'' strange and one light quark, this makes them much more amendable to Lattice Gauge calculations. Using the well established Flavor Symmetry of QCD we can use a comparison of the Cascades with the N* and {delta}* resonances to make a conclusive search for the 'Unseen Resonances' of the quark model, for Hybrid Baryons, Meson-Baryon Bound States and other Exotica. We can investigate the flavor dependence of confinement: is the string tension between two strange quarks the same as between two down quarks?.

  14. Electron-positron cascades in multiple-laser optical traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranic, Marija; Grismayer, Thomas; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Silva, Luis O.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytical and numerical study of multiple-laser QED cascades induced with linearly polarised laser pulses. We analyse different polarisation orientations and propose a configuration that maximises cascade multiplicity and favours laser absorption. We generalise the analytical estimate for the cascade growth rate previously calculated in the field of two colliding linearly polarised laser pulses and account for multiple laser interaction. The estimate is verified by a comprehensive numerical study of four-laser QED cascades across a range of different laser intensities with QED PIC module of OSIRIS. We show that by using four linearly polarised 30 fs laser pulses, one can convert more than 50% of the total energy to gamma-rays at laser intensity I≃ {{10}24}~\\text{W}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2} . In this configuration, the laser conversion efficiency is higher compared with the case with two colliding lasers.

  15. Vulnerability and Cosusceptibility Determine the Size of Network Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-01-01

    In a network, a local disturbance can propagate and eventually cause a substantial part of the system to fail in cascade events that are easy to conceptualize but extraordinarily difficult to predict. Here, we develop a statistical framework that can predict cascade size distributions by incorporating two ingredients only: the vulnerability of individual components and the cosusceptibility of groups of components (i.e., their tendency to fail together). Using cascades in power grids as a representative example, we show that correlations between component failures define structured and often surprisingly large groups of cosusceptible components. Aside from their implications for blackout studies, these results provide insights and a new modeling framework for understanding cascades in financial systems, food webs, and complex networks in general.

  16. Wind tunnel wall effects in a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, D. H.; Fleeter, S.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments in a linear oscillating cascade reveal that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the airfoils have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the oscillating cascade aerodynamics. In a subsonic flowfield, biconvex airfoils are driven simultaneously in harmonic, torsion-mode oscillations for a range of interblade phase angle values. It is found that the cascade dynamic periodicity - the airfoil to airfoil variation in unsteady surface pressure - is good for some values of interblade phase angle but poor for others. Correlation of the unsteady pressure data with oscillating flat plate cascade predictions is generally good for conditions where the periodicity is good and poor where the periodicity is poor. Calculations based upon linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory indicate that pressure waves reflected from the wind tunnel walls are responsible for the cases where there is poor periodicity and poor correlation with the predictions.

  17. OBJECT KINETIC MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF CASCADE ANNEALING IN TUNGSTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-03-31

    The objective of this work is to study the annealing of primary cascade damage created by primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) of various energies, at various temperatures in bulk tungsten using the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) method.

  18. The biogeography of trophic cascades on US oyster reefs.

    PubMed

    Kimbro, David L; Byers, James E; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Hughes, A Randall; Piehler, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    Predators can indirectly benefit prey populations by suppressing mid-trophic level consumers, but often the strength and outcome of trophic cascades are uncertain. We manipulated oyster reef communities to test the generality of potential causal factors across a 1000-km region. Densities of oyster consumers were weakly influenced by predators at all sites. In contrast, consumer foraging behaviour in the presence of predators varied considerably, and these behavioural effects altered the trophic cascade across space. Variability in the behavioural cascade was linked to regional gradients in oyster recruitment to and sediment accumulation on reefs. Specifically, asynchronous gradients in these factors influenced whether the benefits of suppressed consumer foraging on oyster recruits exceeded costs of sediment accumulation resulting from decreased consumer activity. Thus, although predation on consumers remains consistent, predator influences on behaviour do not; rather, they interact with environmental gradients to cause biogeographic variability in the net strength of trophic cascades.

  19. Production of defects in metals by collision cascades: TEM experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, M.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper reviews experimental TEM data on production of dislocation loops by low energy ion bombardment to low doses, as simulations of similar collision cascades produced by fast neutron irradiation, in various metals and alloys. The dependence of vacancy dislocation loop formation on recoil energy, sample temperature, and specific metal or alloy will be examined. Special emphasis will be placed on the effects of dilute alloy additions. A model for cascade melting will be employed to understand these effects, and will require an examination of the role of electron-phonon coupling in cascade cooling and recrystallization. The formation of interstitial dislocation loops as cascade defects, and the influence of the nearby surfaces in these experiments is briefly discussed.

  20. Secondary flows in cascades of highly loaded turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Moustapha, S.H.; Paron, G.J.; Wade, J.H.T.

    1985-10-01

    Experimental measurements of the flow field in a low-speed, large-scale, annular cascade of highly loaded turbine rotor blades are presented. The blade has a turning angle of 128.5 deg, an aspect ratio of 0.88, and a Zweifel coefficient of 1. Detailed cascade tests consisted of inlet and exit flow parameter traverses, blade passage pressure distributions, and flow visualization. The results are presented in the form of contour plots and pitch-averaged radial distributions of losses and flow angles. The measurements are compared with the results obtained for the same blade section tested in a planar cascade. Distribution of the losses and flow angles revealed the presence of two large vortices that occupied a major portion of the trailing edge plane. A large high-loss core was visible in the center of the blade passage and coincided with regions of maximum flow underturning. The measured cascade secondary losses compared well with existing correlations.

  1. Signal Transduction Cascades Regulating Fungal Development and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lengeler, Klaus B.; Davidson, Robert C.; D'souza, Cletus; Harashima, Toshiaki; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Wang, Ping; Pan, Xuewen; Waugh, Michael; Heitman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Cellular differentiation, mating, and filamentous growth are regulated in many fungi by environmental and nutritional signals. For example, in response to nitrogen limitation, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo a dimorphic transition to filamentous growth referred to as pseudohyphal differentiation. Yeast filamentous growth is regulated, in part, by two conserved signal transduction cascades: a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and a G-protein regulated cyclic AMP signaling pathway. Related signaling cascades play an analogous role in regulating mating and virulence in the plant fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis and the human fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. We review here studies on the signaling cascades that regulate development of these and other fungi. This analysis illustrates both how the model yeast S. cerevisiae can serve as a paradigm for signaling in other organisms and also how studies in other fungi provide insights into conserved signaling pathways that operate in many divergent organisms. PMID:11104818

  2. The Year in Basic Science: calmodulin kinase cascades.

    PubMed

    Means, Anthony R

    2008-12-01

    This article highlights studies published during the past year that represent significant scientific achievements in the world of calmodulin kinase cascades. Calmodulin is the primary receptor for calcium present in all cells. The binding of its calcium ligand results in a conformational change in calmodulin, which allows the calcium-calmodulin complex to interact with many different targets. In the studies to be summarized in this review, the particular calmodulin cascade involved is shown to be the pathway responsible for important biological responses, including long-term memory formation, dendritic cell survival, hypercapnia, neuronal migration, synapse formation, autophagy, fatty acid oxidation, and energy balance. In some cases, the pathway was previously unknown, and the identification of the calmodulin cascade represents the definition of roles. In other cases, manipulating the cascade has suggested therapeutic approaches to certain diseases, most significantly, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  3. Geologic Map of the North Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugerud, Ralph A.; Tabor, Rowland W.

    2009-01-01

    The North Cascade Range, commonly referred to as the North Cascades, is the northern part of the Cascade Range that stretches from northern California into British Columbia, where it merges with the Coast Mountains of British Columbia at the Fraser River. The North Cascades are generally characterized by exposure of plutonic and metamorphic rocks in contrast to the volcanic terrain to the south. The rocks of the North Cascades are more resistant to erosion, display greater relief, and show evidence of more pronounced uplift and recent glaciation. Although the total length of the North Cascade Range, extending north from Snoqualmie Pass in Washington, is about 200 mi (320 km), this compilation map at 1:200,000 scale covers only that part (~150 mi) in the United States. The compilation map is derived mostly from eight 1:100,000-scale quadrangle maps that include all of the North Cascade Range in Washington and a bit of the mostly volcanic part of the Cascade Range to the south (fig. 1, sheet 2). Overall, the area represented by this compilation is about 12,740 mi2 (33,000 km2). The superb alpine scenery of the North Cascade Range and its proximity to major population centers has led to designation of much of the area for recreational use or wilderness preservation. A major part of the map area is in North Cascade National Park. Other restricted use areas are the Alpine Lakes, Boulder River, Clearwater, Glacier Peak, Henry M. Jackson, Lake Chelan-Sawtooth, Mount Baker, Noisy-Diobsud, Norse Peak, and Pasayten Wildernesses and the Mount Baker, Lake Chelan, and Ross Lake National Recreation Areas. The valleys traversed by Washington State Highway 20 east of Ross Lake are preserved as North Cascades Scenic Highway. The map area is traversed by three major highways: U.S. Interstate 90, crossing Snoqualmie Pass; Washington State Highway 2, crossing Stevens Pass; and Washington State Highway 20, crossing Washington Pass. Major secondary roads, as well as a network of U

  4. Spatial distribution of Cherenkov light from cascade showers in water

    SciTech Connect

    Khomyakov, V. A. Bogdanov, A. G.; Kindin, V. V.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Khokhlov, S. S.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    2016-12-15

    The spatial distribution of the Cherenkov light generated by cascade showers is analyzed using the NEVOD Cherenkov water detector. The dependence of the Cherenkov light intensity on the depth of shower development at various distances from the shower axis is investigated for the first time. The experimental data are compared with the Cherenkov light distributions predicted by various models for the scattering of cascade particles.

  5. Transient dynamics increasing network vulnerability to cascading failures.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Ingve; Buzna, Lubos; Peters, Karsten; Bornholdt, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk

    2008-05-30

    We study cascading failures in networks using a dynamical flow model based on simple conservation and distribution laws. It is found that considering the flow dynamics may imply reduced network robustness compared to previous static overload failure models. This is due to the transient oscillations or overshooting in the loads, when the flow dynamics adjusts to the new (remaining) network structure. The robustness of networks showing cascading failures is generally given by a complex interplay between the network topology and flow dynamics.

  6. Electroluminescence of quantum-dash-based quantum cascade laser structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liverini, V.; Bismuto, A.; Nevou, L.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.

    2011-12-23

    We developed two mid-infrared quantum cascade structures based on InAs quantum dashes. The dashes were embedded either in AlInGaAs lattice-matched to InP or in tensile-strained AlInAs. The devices emit between 7 and 11 {mu}m and are a step forward in the development of quantum cascade lasers based on 3-D confined active regions.

  7. Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines. Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Cascade Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    time: T = t/T o To period of a cycle s t time s v velocity m/s Vre f reference velocity for reduced frequency m/s Vref Y for compresor cascade Vref...or quasi- three-dimensional cascades. Such interesting phenomena as rotor-stator interactions, stalled flutter and fully three-dimensional effects... stall , choke, shockwaves, coupling effects between the steady and unsteady flow fields...). The distribution of the blade surface pressure difference

  8. Mitigate Cascading Failures on Networks using a Memetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Jing; Hao, Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    Research concerning cascading failures in complex networks has become a hot topic. However, most of the existing studies have focused on modelling the cascading phenomenon on networks and analysing network robustness from a theoretical point of view, which considers only the damage incurred by the failure of one or several nodes. However, such a theoretical approach may not be useful in practical situation. Thus, we first design a much more practical measure to evaluate the robustness of networks against cascading failures, termed Rcf. Then, adopting Rcf as the objective function, we propose a new memetic algorithm (MA) named MA-Rcf to enhance network the robustness against cascading failures. Moreover, we design a new local search operator that considers the characteristics of cascading failures and operates by connecting nodes with a high probability of having similar loads. In experiments, both synthetic scale-free networks and real-world networks are used to test the efficiency and effectiveness of the MA-Rcf. We systematically investigate the effects of parameters on the performance of the MA-Rcf and validate the performance of the newly designed local search operator. The results show that the local search operator is effective, that MA-Rcf can enhance network robustness against cascading failures efficiently, and that it outperforms existing algorithms. PMID:27934964

  9. An efficient local cascade defense method in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    Cascading failures in networked systems often lead to catastrophic consequence. Defending cascading failure propagation by employing local load redistribution method is an efficient way. Given initial load of every node, the key of improving network robustness against cascading failures is to maximally defend cascade propagation with minimum total extra capacity of all nodes. With finite total extra capacity of all nodes, we first discuss three general extra capacity distributions including degree-based distribution (DD), average distribution (AD) and random distribution (RD). To sufficiently use the total spare capacity (SC) of all neighboring nodes of a failed node, then we propose a novel SC-based local load redistribution mechanism to improve the cascade defense ability of network. We investigate the network robustness against cascading failures induced by a single node failure under the three extra capacity distributions in both scale-free networks and random networks. Compared with the degree-based (DB) local load redistribution method, our SC method achieves higher robustness under all of the three extra capacity distributions. The extensive simulation results can well confirm the effectiveness of the SC local load redistribution method.

  10. Cascading failures in spatially-embedded random networks.

    PubMed

    Asztalos, Andrea; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw K; Korniss, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Cascading failures constitute an important vulnerability of interconnected systems. Here we focus on the study of such failures on networks in which the connectivity of nodes is constrained by geographical distance. Specifically, we use random geometric graphs as representative examples of such spatial networks, and study the properties of cascading failures on them in the presence of distributed flow. The key finding of this study is that the process of cascading failures is non-self-averaging on spatial networks, and thus, aggregate inferences made from analyzing an ensemble of such networks lead to incorrect conclusions when applied to a single network, no matter how large the network is. We demonstrate that this lack of self-averaging disappears with the introduction of a small fraction of long-range links into the network. We simulate the well studied preemptive node removal strategy for cascade mitigation and show that it is largely ineffective in the case of spatial networks. We introduce an altruistic strategy designed to limit the loss of network nodes in the event of a cascade triggering failure and show that it performs better than the preemptive strategy. Finally, we consider a real-world spatial network viz. a European power transmission network and validate that our findings from the study of random geometric graphs are also borne out by simulations of cascading failures on the empirical network.

  11. Mitigate Cascading Failures on Networks using a Memetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Jing; Hao, Xingxing

    2016-12-09

    Research concerning cascading failures in complex networks has become a hot topic. However, most of the existing studies have focused on modelling the cascading phenomenon on networks and analysing network robustness from a theoretical point of view, which considers only the damage incurred by the failure of one or several nodes. However, such a theoretical approach may not be useful in practical situation. Thus, we first design a much more practical measure to evaluate the robustness of networks against cascading failures, termed Rcf. Then, adopting Rcf as the objective function, we propose a new memetic algorithm (MA) named MA-Rcf to enhance network the robustness against cascading failures. Moreover, we design a new local search operator that considers the characteristics of cascading failures and operates by connecting nodes with a high probability of having similar loads. In experiments, both synthetic scale-free networks and real-world networks are used to test the efficiency and effectiveness of the MA-Rcf. We systematically investigate the effects of parameters on the performance of the MA-Rcf and validate the performance of the newly designed local search operator. The results show that the local search operator is effective, that MA-Rcf can enhance network robustness against cascading failures efficiently, and that it outperforms existing algorithms.

  12. Mitigate Cascading Failures on Networks using a Memetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Jing; Hao, Xingxing

    2016-12-01

    Research concerning cascading failures in complex networks has become a hot topic. However, most of the existing studies have focused on modelling the cascading phenomenon on networks and analysing network robustness from a theoretical point of view, which considers only the damage incurred by the failure of one or several nodes. However, such a theoretical approach may not be useful in practical situation. Thus, we first design a much more practical measure to evaluate the robustness of networks against cascading failures, termed Rcf. Then, adopting Rcf as the objective function, we propose a new memetic algorithm (MA) named MA-Rcf to enhance network the robustness against cascading failures. Moreover, we design a new local search operator that considers the characteristics of cascading failures and operates by connecting nodes with a high probability of having similar loads. In experiments, both synthetic scale-free networks and real-world networks are used to test the efficiency and effectiveness of the MA-Rcf. We systematically investigate the effects of parameters on the performance of the MA-Rcf and validate the performance of the newly designed local search operator. The results show that the local search operator is effective, that MA-Rcf can enhance network robustness against cascading failures efficiently, and that it outperforms existing algorithms.

  13. Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H

    2014-01-01

    Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades-that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web-varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic 'top-down' cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled 'bottom-up' cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  14. Cascaded combiners for a high power CW fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qirui; Ge, Tingwu; Zhang, Xuexia; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    We report cascaded combiners for a high power continuous wave (CW) fiber laser in this paper. The cascaded combiners are fabricated with an improved lateral splicing process. During the fusing process, there is no stress or tension between the pump fiber and the double-cladding fiber. Thus, the parameters of the combiner are better than those that have been reported. The coupling efficiency is 98.5%, and the signal insertion loss is 1%. The coupling efficiency of the cascaded combiners is 97.5%. The pump lights are individually coupled into the double-cladding fiber via five combiners. The thermal effects cannot cause damage to the combiners and the cascaded combiners can operate stably in high power CW fiber lasers. We also develop a high power CW fiber laser that generates a maximum 780 W of CW signal power at 1080 nm with 71% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. The fiber laser is pumped via five intra-cavity cascaded combiners and five extra-cavity cascaded combiners with a maximum pump power of 1096 W and a pump wavelength of 975 nm.

  15. Damped trophic cascades driven by fishing in model marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K H; Pedersen, M

    2010-03-07

    The largest perturbation on upper trophic levels of many marine ecosystems stems from fishing. The reaction of the ecosystem goes beyond the trophic levels directly targeted by the fishery. This reaction has been described either as a change in slope of the overall size spectrum or as a trophic cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show that fishing does not change the overall slope of the size spectrum, but depletes the largest individuals and induces trophic cascades. A trophic cascade can propagate both up and down in trophic levels driven by a combination of changes in predation mortality and food limitation. The cascade is damped as it comes further away from the perturbed trophic level. Fishing on several trophic levels leads to a disappearance of the signature of the trophic cascade. Differences in fishing patterns among ecosystems might influence whether a trophic cascade is observed.

  16. Planktonic dispersal dampens temporal trophic cascades in pond metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Howeth, Jennifer G; Leibold, Mathew A

    2008-03-01

    Trophic cascades, in which changes in predation affect the biomass of lower trophic levels, vary substantially in strength and incidence. Most work to explain this variation has focused on local factors and has ignored larger regional effects. To study how metacommunity dynamics can alter trophic cascades, we constructed mesocosm metacommunities consisting of three pond communities with heterogeneous levels of fish predation and examined how planktonic dispersal rate (5-140% per week) affected biomass partitioning. Two of the three communities differed continually in the occurrence of fish and supported different but constant environments in a 'spatial trophic cascade,' while the third community supported temporally variable fish occurrence in a 'temporal trophic cascade.' We find that the presence, but the not the magnitude, of dispersal dampens temporal trophic cascades through an increase in grazer biomass. In contrast, dispersal has no effect on the strength of spatial cascades due to strong sorting pressures in the communities with constant presence or absence of fish as top predators.

  17. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Part I - Overview of Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2011-07-31

    This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which will extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses diffeent approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies.

  18. Cascading Failures in Spatially-Embedded Random Networks

    PubMed Central

    Asztalos, Andrea; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Cascading failures constitute an important vulnerability of interconnected systems. Here we focus on the study of such failures on networks in which the connectivity of nodes is constrained by geographical distance. Specifically, we use random geometric graphs as representative examples of such spatial networks, and study the properties of cascading failures on them in the presence of distributed flow. The key finding of this study is that the process of cascading failures is non-self-averaging on spatial networks, and thus, aggregate inferences made from analyzing an ensemble of such networks lead to incorrect conclusions when applied to a single network, no matter how large the network is. We demonstrate that this lack of self-averaging disappears with the introduction of a small fraction of long-range links into the network. We simulate the well studied preemptive node removal strategy for cascade mitigation and show that it is largely ineffective in the case of spatial networks. We introduce an altruistic strategy designed to limit the loss of network nodes in the event of a cascade triggering failure and show that it performs better than the preemptive strategy. Finally, we consider a real-world spatial network viz. a European power transmission network and validate that our findings from the study of random geometric graphs are also borne out by simulations of cascading failures on the empirical network. PMID:24400101

  19. Power system cascading risk assessment based on complex network theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuoyang; Hill, David J.; Chen, Guo; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2017-09-01

    When a single failure occurs in a vulnerable part of a power system, this may cause a large area cascading event. Therefore, an advanced method that can assess the risks during cascading events is needed. In this paper, an improved complex network model for power system risk assessment is proposed. Risk is defined by consequence and probability of the failures in this model, which are affected by both power factors and network structure. Compared with existing risk assessment models, the proposed one can evaluate the risk of the system comprehensively during a cascading event by combining the topological and electrical information. A new cascading event simulation module is adopted to identify the power grid cascading chain from a system-level view. In addition, simulations are investigated on the IEEE 14 bus system and IEEE 39 bus system respectively to illustrate the performance of the proposed module. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in a power grid risk assessment during cascading event.

  20. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  1. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  2. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  3. Large beam deflection using cascaded prism array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi-Leung

    2012-04-01

    Endoscopes have been utilize in the medical field to observe the internals of the human body to assist the diagnosis of diseases, such as breathing disorders, internal bleeding, stomach ulcers, and urinary tract infections. Endoscopy is also utilized in the procedure of biopsy for the diagnosis of cancer. Conventional endoscopes suffer from the compromise between overall size and image quality due to the required size of the sensor for acceptable image quality. To overcome the size constraint while maintaining the capture image quality, we propose an electro-optic beam steering device based on thermal-plastic polymer, which has a small foot-print (~5mmx5mm), and can be easily fabricated using conventional hot-embossing and micro-fabrication techniques. The proposed device can be implemented as an imaging device inside endoscopes to allow reduction in the overall system size. In our previous work, a single prism design has been used to amplify the deflection generated by the index change of the thermal-plastic polymer when a voltage is applied; it yields a result of 5.6° deflection. To further amplify the deflection, a new design utilizing a cascading three-prism array has been implemented and a deflection angle to 29.2° is observed. The new design amplifies the beam deflection, while keeping the advantage of simple fabrication made possible by thermal-plastic polymer. Also, a photo-resist based collimator lens array has been added to reduce and provide collimation of the beam for high quality imaging purposes. The collimator is able to collimate the exiting beam at 4 μm diameter for up to 25mm, which potentially allows high resolution image capturing.

  4. Product lifecycle approach to cascade impaction measurements.

    PubMed

    Tougas, Terrence P; Christopher, Dave; Mitchell, Jolyon; Lyapustina, Svetlana; Van Oort, Michiel; Bauer, Richard; Glaab, Volker

    2011-03-01

    Over the lifecycle of an orally inhaled product (OIP), multi-stage cascade impactor (CI) measurements are used for different purposes and to address different questions. Full-resolution CIs can provide important information during product development and are widely used but are time- and resource-intensive, highly variable, and suboptimal for OIP quality control (QC) testing. By contrast, Efficient Data Analysis (EDA) combined with Abbreviated Impactor Measurement (AIM) systems pertinent either for QC and-possibly-for adult Human Respiratory Tract (pHRT) has been introduced for OIP performance assessment during and post-development. This article summarizes available evidence and discusses a strategy for using either abbreviated or full-resolution CI systems depending on the purpose of the measurement, such that adequate, accurate, and efficient testing of aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of OIPs can be achieved throughout the lifecycle of a product. Under these proposals, a comprehensive testing program should initially be conducted by full-resolution CI in OIP development to ascertain the product's APSD. Subsequently, correlations should be established from the selected AIM CIs to the corresponding full-resolution system, ideally developing specifications common to both techniques. In the commercial phase, it should be possible to release product using AIM/EDA, keeping the full-resolution CI for investigations, change control, and trouble-shooting, thus optimizing resources for APSD characterization throughout the product lifecycle. If an in vitro-in vivo relationship is established and clinically relevant sizes are known, an AIM-pHRT could serve as a quick indicator that clinically relevant fractions have not changed and also, in the management of post-approval changes. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  5. Low power-consumption quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuyama, Tsukuru; Hashimoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshinaga, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroki; Tsuji, Yukihiro; Murata, Makoto; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Tanahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are promising light sources for real time high-sensitivity gas sensing in the mid-infrared region. For the practical use of QCLs as a compact and portable gas sensor, their power-consumption needs to be reduced. We report a successful operation of a low power-consumption distributed feedback (DFB) QCL. For the reduction of power consumption, we introduced a vertical-transition structure in a core region to improve carrier transition efficiency and reduced the core volume. DFB-QCL epitaxial structure was grown by low-pressure OMVPE. The core region consists of AlInAs/GaInAs superlattices lattice-matched to InP. A first-order Bragg-grating was formed near the core region to obtain a large coupling coefficiency. A mesa-strip was formed by reactive ion etching and a buried-heterostructure was fabricated by the regrowth of semi-insulating InP. High-reflective facet coatings were also performed to decrease the mirror loss for the reduction of the threshold current. A device (5x500μm) operated with a single mode in the wavelength region from 7.23μm to 7.27μm. The threshold current and threshold voltage under CW operation at 20 °C were 52mA and 8.4V respectively. A very low threshold power-consumption as low as 0.44 W was achieved, which is among the lowest values at room temperature to our knowledge.

  6. Cascadable excitability in optically injected microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Alexander, Koen; Fiers, Martin; Mechet, Pauline; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2014-05-01

    All-optical spiking neural networks would allow high speed parallelized processing of time-encoded information, using the same energy efficient computational principles as our brain. As the neurons in these networks need to be able to process pulse trains, they should be excitable. Using simulations, we demonstrate Class 1 excitability in optically injected microdisk lasers, and propose a cascadable optical spiking neuron design. The neuron has a clear threshold and an integrating behavior. In addition, we show that the optical phase of the input pulses can be used to create inhibitory, as well as excitatory perturbations. Furthermore, we incorporate our optical neuron design in a topology that allows a disk to react on excitations from other disks. Phase tuning of the intermediate connections allows to control the disk response. Additionally, we investigate the sensitivity of the disk circuit to deviations in driving current and locking signal wavelength detuning. Using state-of-the-art fabrication techniques for microdisk laser, the standard deviation of the lasing wavelength is still about one order of magnitude too large. Finally, as the dynamical behavior of the microdisks is identical to the behavior in Semiconductor Ring Lasers (SRL), we compare the excitability mechanism due to optically injection with the previously proposed excitability due to asymmetry in the intermodal coupling in SRLs, as the latter mechanism can also be induced in disks due to, e.g., asymmetry in the external reaction. In both cases, the symmetry between the two counter-propagating modes of the cavity needs to be broken to prevent switching to the other mode, and allow the system to relax to its initial state after a perturbation. However, the asymmetry due to optical injection results in an integrating spiking neuron, whereas the asymmetry in the intermodal coupling is known to result in a resonating spiking neuron.

  7. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production. PMID:25954182

  8. Spatial gradients in kinase cascade regulation.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, B; Lipniacki, T

    2010-11-01

    The spatiotemporal kinetics of proteins and other substrates regulate cell fate and signaling. In this study, we consider a reaction-diffusion model of interaction of membrane receptors with a two-step kinase cascade. The receptors activate the 'up-stream' kinase, which may diffuse over cell volume and activate the 'down-stream' kinase, which is also diffusing. Both kinase species and receptors are inactivated by uniformly distributed phosphatases. The positive feedback, key to the considered dynamics, arises since the up-stream kinase activates the receptors. Such a mutual interaction is characteristic for immune cell receptors. Based on the proposed model, we demonstrated that cell sensitivity (measured as a critical value of phosphatase activity at which cell maybe activated) increases with decreasing motility of receptor-interacting kinases and with increasing polarity of receptors distribution. These two effects are cooperating, the effect of receptors localisation close to one pole of the cell grows with the decreasing kinase diffusion and vanishes in the infinite diffusion limit. As the cell sensitivity increases with decreasing diffusion of receptor-interacting kinase, the overall activity of the down-stream kinase increases with its diffusion. In conclusion, the analysis of the proposed model shows that, for the fixed substrate interaction rates, spatial distribution of the surface receptors together with the motility of intracellular kinases control cell signalling and sensitivity to extracellular signals. The increase of the cell sensitivity can be achieved by (i) localisation of receptors in a small subdomain of the cell membrane, (ii) lowering the motility of receptor-interacting kinase, (iii) increasing the motility of down-stream kinases which distribute the signal over the whole cell.

  9. Deep-cascade: Cascading 3D Deep Neural Networks for Fast Anomaly Detection and Localization in Crowded Scenes.

    PubMed

    Sabokrou, Mohammad; Fayyaz, Mohsen; Fathy, Mahmood; Klette, Reinhard

    2017-02-17

    This paper proposes a fast and reliable method for anomaly detection and localization in video data showing crowded scenes. Time-efficient anomaly localization is an ongoing challenge and subject of this paper. We propose a cubicpatch- based method, characterised by a cascade of classifiers, which makes use of an advanced feature-learning approach. Our cascade of classifiers has two main stages. First, a light but deep 3D auto-encoder is used for early identification of "many" normal cubic patches. This deep network operates on small cubic patches as being the first stage, before carefully resizing remaining candidates of interest, and evaluating those at the second stage using a more complex and deeper 3D convolutional neural network (CNN). We divide the deep autoencoder and the CNN into multiple sub-stages which operate as cascaded classifiers. Shallow layers of the cascaded deep networks (designed as Gaussian classifiers, acting as weak single-class classifiers) detect "simple" normal patches such as background patches, and more complex normal patches are detected at deeper layers. It is shown that the proposed novel technique (a cascade of two cascaded classifiers) performs comparable to current top-performing detection and localization methods on standard benchmarks, but outperforms those in general with respect to required computation time.

  10. Aeration efficiency over stepped cascades: better predictions from flow regimes.

    PubMed

    Khdhiri, Hatem; Potier, Olivier; Leclerc, Jean-Pierre

    2014-05-15

    Stepped cascades are recognized as high potential air-water gas exchangers. In natural rivers, these structures enhance oxygen transfer to water by creating turbulence at interface with increasing air entrainment in water and air-water surface exchange. Stepped cascades could be really useful to improve the natural self-purification process by providing oxygen to aerobic micro-organisms. The aeration performance of these structures depends on several operating and geometrical parameters. In the literature, several empirical correlations for aeration efficiency prediction on stepped cascades exist. Most of these correlations are only applicable for operating and geometrical parameters in the range of which they have been developed. In this paper, 398 experimental sets of data (from our experiments and collected from literature) were used to develop a correlation for aeration prediction over stepped cascades derived from dimensional analysis and parameterized for each individual flow regime in order to consider change in flow regime effect on oxygen transfer. This new correlation allowed calculating the whole set of data obtained for cascades with steps heights between 0.05 m and 0.254 m, cascade total height between 0.25 m and 2.5 m, for discharges per unit of width ranging from 0.28 10(-3) m(2)/s to 600 10(-3) m(2)/s and for cascade steps number between 3 and 25. In these ranges of parameters, standard deviation for aeration efficiency estimation was found to be less than 17%. Finally, advices were proposed to help and improve the structure design in order to improve aeration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The HIV care cascade: Japanese perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Rikizo; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Rahman, Mahbubur; Izumi, Yoko; Tadokoro, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Japan has been known as a low HIV-prevalence country with a concentrated epidemic among high-risk groups. However, it has not been determined whether Japan meets the 90-90-90 goals set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, to date, the HIV care cascade has not been examined. We estimated the total number of diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (n = 22,840) based on legal reports to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare by subtracting the number of foreigners who left Japan (n = 2,273) and deaths (n = 2,321) from the cumulative diagnosis report (n = 27,434). The number of total undiagnosed PLWHA was estimated by age and sex specific HIV-positive rates observed among first-time blood donors between 2011–2015 in Japan. Our estimates show that 14.4% (n = 3,830) of all PLWHA (n = 26,670) were undiagnosed in Japan at the end of 2015. The number of patients retained in care (n = 20,615: 77.3% of PLWHA), the percentage of those on antiretroviral therapy (n = 18,921: 70.9% of PLWHA) and those with suppressed viral loads (<200 copies/mL; n = 18,756: 70.3% of PLWHA) were obtained through a questionnaire survey conducted in the AIDS Core Hospitals throughout the country. According to these estimates, Japan failed to achieve the first two of the three UNAIDS/WHO targets (22,840/26,670 = 85.6% of HIV-positive cases were diagnosed; 18,921/22,840 = 82.8% of those diagnosed were treated; 18,756/18,921 = 99.1% of those treated experienced viral suppression). Although the antiretroviral treatment uptake and success after retention in medical care appears to be excellent in Japan, there are unmet needs, mainly at the surveillance level before patients are retained in care. The promotion of HIV testing and treatment programs among the key affected populations (especially men who have sex with men) may contribute to further decreasing the HIV epidemic and achieving the UNAIDS/WHO targets in Japan. PMID

  12. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial

  13. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at

  14. Hydrogeology of the Cascade Springs area near Tullahoma, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The ground-water-flow system contributing to Cascade Springs near Tullahoma, Tennessee, was investigated from September 1991 to May 1992. Cascade Springs, consisting of Left Cascade and Right Cascade Springs, are located on the escarpment of the Highland Rim and discharge immediately above the Chattanooga Shale from the cherty Fort Payne Formation. Left Cascade Spring is the sole source of water for the Town of Wartrace and for a local whiskey distillery. Two major aquifers, the Manchester and the Fort Payne aquifers, contribute ground-water flow to Cascade Springs. The Manchester aquifer is composed of unconsolidated chert gravel with minimal clay content and the upper, well- fractured interval of the Fort Payne Formation. The Fort Payne aquifer consists of dense, bedded, cherty limestone with few fractures. Where present, the fractures of the Fort Payne aquifer are concentrated immediately above the Chattanooga Shale along horizontal bedding planes. The Manchester and the Fort Payne aquifers are hydraulically connected. However, the dense cherty limestone of the Fort Payne Formation, where unfractured, can impede the downward flow of ground water from the Manchester aquifer. Near the Highland Rime escarpment, as a result of this local confinement, the potentiometric head of wells completed in the Manchester aquifer is 36- to 80-feet higher than the head of wells completed in the Fort Payne aquifer. The primary recharge area for Cascade Springs is located southeast of the springs. The estimated recharge area for the Manchester aquifer encompaasses approximately 1 square mile. The lateral extent of the recharge area for the Fort Payne aquifer cannot be delineated because few wells completed in the Fort Payne aquifer are located southeast of Cascade Springs. The water quality of Left Cascade Spring is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate ions with low concentrations of inorganic constituents and dissolved solids. Two volatile organic compounds (1.3 micrograms per

  15. Measuring the Turbulent Cascade in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacBride, B. T.; Forman, M. A.; Smith, C. W.

    2006-12-01

    Kolmogorov's famous 4/5 law for the Navier-Stokes equation states that in isotropic hydrodynamic (HD) turbulence, the third moment of longitudinal velocity fluctuations at a spatial distance L is (4/5) ɛ ěrt L ěrt where ɛ is the turbulent energy cascade rate = heating rate per unit mass. A definite, signed, third moment is a fundamental property of the turbulent velocity fluctuations arising from the non-linear term in the Navier-Stokes equation, the only direct indicator that a cascade exists, the only measure of what direction that cascade takes (to smaller or larger spatial scales), and the truest indication of the cascade rate. The solar wind is MHD, however, and its turbulence is anisotropic. Dasso et al. (2005) perform a study on the anisotropy in the solar wind as a function of flow speed and find that there exists "quasi-two-dimensional" turbulence in low speed streams and a one dimensional "slab" structure in high speed flow. Politano and Pouquet (1998; PP) have derived an exact expression, valid in anisotropic situations, for the divergence with lag vector L of a certain vector third moment of the fluctuations in the Elsasser variables as a function of L. We perform an analysis of the third-order moment derived by PP. We use 8 years of ACE combine 64-s magnetic field and plasma measurements in variably defined subsets to compute the Elsasser variables in mean-field coordinates for different solar wind conditions (high/low wind speed, yearly, etc.). Most significantly, we attempt to separately resolve parallel and perpendicular cascades relative to the mean magnetic field. We find (1) the third moment structure functions are approximately proportional to lag as expected, (2) the inferred energy dissipation rate for outward-moving waves is larger than for inward-moving waves with many intervals showing evidence of an inverse cascade of the minority component, (3) the total energy-dissipation rate inferred by this method is frequently in disagreement

  16. A hidden feedback in signaling cascades is revealed.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alejandra C; Sepulchre, Jacques-A; Merajver, Sofía D

    2008-03-21

    Cycles involving covalent modification of proteins are key components of the intracellular signaling machinery. Each cycle is comprised of two interconvertable forms of a particular protein. A classic signaling pathway is structured by a chain or cascade of basic cycle units in such a way that the activated protein in one cycle promotes the activation of the next protein in the chain, and so on. Starting from a mechanistic kinetic description and using a careful perturbation analysis, we have derived, to our knowledge for the first time, a consistent approximation of the chain with one variable per cycle. The model we derive is distinct from the one that has been in use in the literature for several years, which is a phenomenological extension of the Goldbeter-Koshland biochemical switch. Even though much has been done regarding the mathematical modeling of these systems, our contribution fills a gap between existing models and, in doing so, we have unveiled critical new properties of this type of signaling cascades. A key feature of our new model is that a negative feedback emerges naturally, exerted between each cycle and its predecessor. Due to this negative feedback, the system displays damped temporal oscillations under constant stimulation and, most important, propagates perturbations both forwards and backwards. This last attribute challenges the widespread notion of unidirectionality in signaling cascades. Concrete examples of applications to MAPK cascades are discussed. All these properties are shared by the complete mechanistic description and our simplified model, but not by previously derived phenomenological models of signaling cascades.

  17. Critical assessment and ramifications of a purported marine trophic cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, R. Dean; Carlson, John K; Romine, Jason G.; Curtis, Tobey H; McElroy, W. David; McCandless, Camilla T; Cotton, Charles F; Musick, John A.

    2016-01-01

    When identifying potential trophic cascades, it is important to clearly establish the trophic linkages between predators and prey with respect to temporal abundance, demographics, distribution, and diet. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the depletion of large coastal sharks was thought to trigger a trophic cascade whereby predation release resulted in increased cownose ray abundance, which then caused increased predation on and subsequent collapse of commercial bivalve stocks. These claims were used to justify the development of a predator-control fishery for cownose rays, the “Save the Bay, Eat a Ray” fishery, to reduce predation on commercial bivalves. A reexamination of data suggests declines in large coastal sharks did not coincide with purported rapid increases in cownose ray abundance. Likewise, the increase in cownose ray abundance did not coincide with declines in commercial bivalves. The lack of temporal correlations coupled with published diet data suggest the purported trophic cascade is lacking the empirical linkages required of a trophic cascade. Furthermore, the life history parameters of cownose rays suggest they have low reproductive potential and their populations are incapable of rapid increases. Hypothesized trophic cascades should be closely scrutinized as spurious conclusions may negatively influence conservation and management decisions.

  18. Trend-driven information cascades on random networks.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Threshold models of global cascades have been extensively used to model real-world collective behavior, such as the contagious spread of fads and the adoption of new technologies. A common property of those cascade models is that a vanishingly small seed fraction can spread to a finite fraction of an infinitely large network through local infections. In social and economic networks, however, individuals' behavior is often influenced not only by what their direct neighbors are doing, but also by what the majority of people are doing as a trend. A trend affects individuals' behavior while individuals' behavior creates a trend. To analyze such a complex interplay between local- and global-scale phenomena, I generalize the standard threshold model by introducing a type of node called global nodes (or trend followers), whose activation probability depends on a global-scale trend, specifically the percentage of activated nodes in the population. The model shows that global nodes play a role as accelerating cascades once a trend emerges while reducing the probability of a trend emerging. Global nodes thus either facilitate or inhibit cascades, suggesting that a moderate share of trend followers may maximize the average size of cascades.

  19. Critical assessment and ramifications of a purported marine trophic cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, R. Dean; Carlson, John K.; Romine, Jason G.; Curtis, Tobey H.; McElroy, W. David; McCandless, Camilla T.; Cotton, Charles F.; Musick, John A.

    2016-02-01

    When identifying potential trophic cascades, it is important to clearly establish the trophic linkages between predators and prey with respect to temporal abundance, demographics, distribution, and diet. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the depletion of large coastal sharks was thought to trigger a trophic cascade whereby predation release resulted in increased cownose ray abundance, which then caused increased predation on and subsequent collapse of commercial bivalve stocks. These claims were used to justify the development of a predator-control fishery for cownose rays, the “Save the Bay, Eat a Ray” fishery, to reduce predation on commercial bivalves. A reexamination of data suggests declines in large coastal sharks did not coincide with purported rapid increases in cownose ray abundance. Likewise, the increase in cownose ray abundance did not coincide with declines in commercial bivalves. The lack of temporal correlations coupled with published diet data suggest the purported trophic cascade is lacking the empirical linkages required of a trophic cascade. Furthermore, the life history parameters of cownose rays suggest they have low reproductive potential and their populations are incapable of rapid increases. Hypothesized trophic cascades should be closely scrutinized as spurious conclusions may negatively influence conservation and management decisions.

  20. Up and down cascades: three-dimensional magnetic field model.

    PubMed

    Blanter, E M; Shnirman, M G; Le Mouël, J L

    2002-06-01

    In our previous works we already have proposed a two-dimensional model of geodynamo. Now we use the same approach to build a three-dimensional self-excited geodynamo model that generates a large scale magnetic field from whatever small initial field, using the up and down cascade effects of a multiscale turbulent system of cyclones. The multiscale system of turbulent cyclones evolves in six domains of an equatorial cylindrical layer of the core. The appearance of new cyclones is realized by two cascades: a turbulent direct cascade and an inverse cascade of coupling of similar cyclones. The interaction between the different domains is effected through a direct cascade parameter which is essential for the statistics of the long-life symmetry breaking. Generation of the secondary magnetic field results from the interaction of the components of the primary magnetic field with the turbulent cyclones. The amplification of the magnetic field is due to the transfer of energy from the turbulent helical motion to the generated magnetic field. The model demonstrates a phase transition through the parameter characterizing this energy transfer. In the supercritical domain we obtain long-term intervals of constant polarity (chrons) and quick reversals; relevant time constants agree with paleomagnetic observations. Possible application of the model to the study of the geometrical structure of the geomagnetic field (and briefly other planetary fields) is discussed.

  1. Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-11-01

    Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.

  2. Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H; Lafferty, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades–that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web–varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic ‘top-down’ cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled ‘bottom-up’ cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

  3. Cascaded linear shift-invariant processors in optical pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Reed, S; Coupland, J

    2001-08-10

    We study a cascade of linear shift-invariant processing modules (correlators), each augmented with a nonlinear threshold as a means to increase the performance of high-speed optical pattern recognition. This configuration is a special class of multilayer, feed-forward neural networks and has been proposed in the literature as a relatively fast best-guess classifier. However, it seems that, although cascaded correlation has been proposed in a number of specific pattern recognition problems, the importance of the configuration has been largely overlooked. We prove that the cascaded architecture is the exact structure that must be adopted if a multilayer feed-forward neural network is trained to produce a shift-invariant output. In contrast with more generalized multilayer networks, the approach is easily implemented in practice with optical techniques and is therefore ideally suited to the high-speed analysis of large images. We have trained a digital model of the system using a modified backpropagation algorithm with optimization using simulated annealing techniques. The resulting cascade has been applied to a defect recognition problem in the canning industry as a benchmark for comparison against a standard linear correlation filter, the minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter. We show that the nonlinear performance of the cascade is a significant improvement over that of the linear MACE filter in this case.

  4. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence.

    PubMed

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G; Tivnan, Brian F; Bagrow, James P; Hines, Paul D H

    2017-03-20

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a "smart" power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  5. Mitigation strategies on scale-free networks against cascading failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei

    2013-05-01

    According to the dynamic characteristics of the cascading propagation, we introduce a mitigation mechanism and propose four mitigation methods on four types of nodes. By the normalized average avalanche size and a new measure, we demonstrate the efficiencies of the mitigation strategies on enhancing the robustness of scale-free networks against cascading failures and give the order of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies. Surprisingly, we find that only adopting once mitigation mechanism on a small part of the overload nodes can dramatically improve the robustness of scale-free networks. In addition, we also show by numerical simulations that the optimal mitigation method strongly depends on the total capacities of all nodes in a network and the distribution of the load in the cascading model. Therefore, according to the protection strength for scale-free networks, by the distribution of the load and the protection price of networks, we can reasonably select how many nodes and which mitigation method to efficiently protect scale-free networks at the lower price. These findings may be very useful for avoiding various cascading-failure-induced disasters in the real world and for leading to insights into the mitigation of cascading failures.

  6. Effect of laser polarization on quantum electrodynamical cascading

    SciTech Connect

    Bashmakov, V. F.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Fedotov, A. M.; Narozhny, N. B.

    2014-01-15

    Development of quantum electrodynamical (QED) cascades in a standing electromagnetic wave for circular and linear polarizations is simulated numerically with a 3D PIC-MC code. It is demonstrated that for the same laser energy the number of particles produced in a circularly polarized field is greater than in a linearly polarized field, though the acquiring mean energy per particle is larger in the latter case. The qualitative model of laser-assisted QED cascades is extended by including the effect of polarization of the field. It turns out that cascade dynamics is notably more complicated in the case of linearly polarized field, where separation into the qualitatively different “electric” and “magnetic” regions (where the electric field is stronger than the magnetic field and vice versa) becomes essential. In the “magnetic” regions, acceleration is suppressed, and moreover the high-energy electrons are even getting cooled by photon emission. The volumes of the “electric” and “magnetic” regions evolve periodically in time and so does the cascade growth rate. In contrast to the linear polarization, the charged particles can be accelerated by circularly polarized wave even in “magnetic region.” The “electric” and “magnetic” regions do not evolve in time, and cascade growth rate almost does not depend on time for circular polarization.

  7. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained. PMID:28317835

  8. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-03-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  9. Critical assessment and ramifications of a purported marine trophic cascade

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, R. Dean; Carlson, John K.; Romine, Jason G.; Curtis, Tobey H.; McElroy, W. David; McCandless, Camilla T.; Cotton, Charles F.; Musick, John A.

    2016-01-01

    When identifying potential trophic cascades, it is important to clearly establish the trophic linkages between predators and prey with respect to temporal abundance, demographics, distribution, and diet. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the depletion of large coastal sharks was thought to trigger a trophic cascade whereby predation release resulted in increased cownose ray abundance, which then caused increased predation on and subsequent collapse of commercial bivalve stocks. These claims were used to justify the development of a predator-control fishery for cownose rays, the “Save the Bay, Eat a Ray” fishery, to reduce predation on commercial bivalves. A reexamination of data suggests declines in large coastal sharks did not coincide with purported rapid increases in cownose ray abundance. Likewise, the increase in cownose ray abundance did not coincide with declines in commercial bivalves. The lack of temporal correlations coupled with published diet data suggest the purported trophic cascade is lacking the empirical linkages required of a trophic cascade. Furthermore, the life history parameters of cownose rays suggest they have low reproductive potential and their populations are incapable of rapid increases. Hypothesized trophic cascades should be closely scrutinized as spurious conclusions may negatively influence conservation and management decisions. PMID:26876514

  10. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Aker, Pam M.; Schultz, John F.

    2004-01-20

    instrument detection limit. The range of chemicals detectable by FM DIAL has also been extended. Prior to FY03 only water and nitrous oxide (N2O) had been seen. Experiments on extending the tuning range of the quantum cascade laser (QCL) currently used in the experiments demonstrate that many more species are now accessible including H2S, C2F4H2, and CH4. We additionally demonstrated that FM DIAL measurements can be made using short wave infrared (SWIR) telecommunications lasers. While measurements made using these components are noisier because turbulence and particulate matter cause more interference in this spectral region, monitoring in this region enables larger species to be detected simply because these lasers have a greater tuning range. In addition, SWIR monitoring also allows for the detection of second-row hydride species such as HF and HCl, which are important nuclear and CWA proliferation signatures.

  11. Spectrally high performing quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, Fatima

    Quantum cascade (QC) lasers are versatile semiconductor light sources that can be engineered to emit light of almost any wavelength in the mid- to far-infrared (IR) and terahertz region from 3 to 300 mum [1-5]. Furthermore QC laser technology in the mid-IR range has great potential for applications in environmental, medical and industrial trace gas sensing [6-10] since several chemical vapors have strong rovibrational frequencies in this range and are uniquely identifiable by their absorption spectra through optical probing of absorption and transmission. Therefore, having a wide range of mid-IR wavelengths in a single QC laser source would greatly increase the specificity of QC laser-based spectroscopic systems, and also make them more compact and field deployable. This thesis presents work on several different approaches to multi-wavelength QC laser sources that take advantage of band-structure engineering and the uni-polar nature of QC lasers. Also, since for chemical sensing, lasers with narrow linewidth are needed, work is presented on a single mode distributed feedback (DFB) QC laser. First, a compact four-wavelength QC laser source, which is based on a 2-by-2 module design, with two waveguides having QC laser stacks for two different emission wavelengths each, one with 7.0 mum/11.2 mum, and the other with 8.7 mum/12.0 mum is presented. This is the first design of a four-wavelength QC laser source with widely different emission wavelengths that uses minimal optics and electronics. Second, since there are still several unknown factors that affect QC laser performance, results on a first ever study conducted to determine the effects of waveguide side-wall roughness on QC laser performance using the two-wavelength waveguides is presented. The results are consistent with Rayleigh scattering effects in the waveguides, with roughness effecting shorter wavelengths more than longer wavelengths. Third, a versatile time-multiplexed multi-wavelength QC laser system that

  12. The Alzheimer's disease mitochondrial cascade hypothesis: progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Russell H; Burns, Jeffrey M; Khan, Shaharyar M

    2014-08-01

    Ten years ago we first proposed the Alzheimer's disease (AD) mitochondrial cascade hypothesis. This hypothesis maintains that gene inheritance defines an individual's baseline mitochondrial function; inherited and environmental factors determine rates at which mitochondrial function changes over time; and baseline mitochondrial function and mitochondrial change rates influence AD chronology. Our hypothesis unequivocally states in sporadic, late-onset AD, mitochondrial function affects amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, APP processing, or beta amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and argues if an amyloid cascade truly exists, mitochondrial function triggers it. We now review the state of the mitochondrial cascade hypothesis, and discuss it in the context of recent AD biomarker studies, diagnostic criteria, and clinical trials. Our hypothesis predicts that biomarker changes reflect brain aging, new AD definitions clinically stage brain aging, and removing brain Aβ at any point will marginally impact cognitive trajectories. Our hypothesis, therefore, offers unique perspective into what sporadic, late-onset AD is and how to best treat it.

  13. Multiple-junction quantum cascade photodetectors for thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Paiella, Roberto

    2010-01-18

    The use of intersubband transitions in quantum cascade structures for thermophotovoltaic energy conversion is investigated numerically. The intrinsic cascading scheme, spectral agility, and design flexibility of these structures make them ideally suited to the development of high efficiency multiple-junction thermophotovoltaic detectors. A specific implementation of this device concept is designed, based on bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in large-conduction-band-offset In(0.7)Ga(0.3)As/AlAs(0.8)Sb(0.2) quantum wells. The device electrical characteristics in the presence of thermal radiation from a blackbody source at 1300 K are calculated, from which a maximum extracted power density of 1.4 W/cm(2) is determined. This value compares favorably with the present state-of-the-art in interband thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, indicating that quantum cascade photodetectors may provide a promising approach to improve energy extraction from thermal sources.

  14. Cascading failure analysis and restoration strategy in an interdependent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sheng; Lv, Chuan; Zhao, Tingdi; Wang, Baoqing; Wang, Jianghui; Zhu, Juxing

    2016-05-01

    In modern society, many infrastructures are interdependent owing to functional and logical relations among components in different systems. These networked infrastructures can be modeled as interdependent networks. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads whose values are dynamic and stem from the load redistribution in the same network and disturbance from the interdependent network. Interdependency makes interdependent networks so fragile that even a slight initial disturbance may lead to a cascading failure of the entire systems. In this paper, interdependencies among networks are modeled and a failure cascade process is studied considering their effects on failure propagation. Meanwhile, an in-process restoration strategy after the initial failure is investigated. The restoration effects depend strongly on the trigger timing, restoration probability and priority of the restoration actions along with the additional disturbances. Our findings highlight the necessity to decrease the large-scale cascading failure by structuring and managing an interdependent network reasonably.

  15. Measurement of Gust Response on a Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, A. P.; Lucci, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents benchmark experimental data on a gust response of an annular turbine cascade. The experiment was particularly designed to provide data for comparison with the results of a typical linearized gust-response analysis. Reduced frequency, Mach number, and incidence were varied independently. Except for the lowest reduced frequency, the gust velocity distribution was nearly sinusoidal. For the high inlet-velocity series of tests, the cascade was near choking. The mean flow was documented by measuring blade surface pressures and the cascade exit flow. High-response pressure transducers were used to measure the unsteady pressure distribution. Inlet-velocity components and turbulence parameters were measured using hot wire. In addition to the synchronous time-average pressure spectra, typical power spectra are included for several representative conditions.

  16. Vortex annihilation and inverse cascades in two dimensional superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew; Chesler, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of a dilute mixture of vortices and antivortices in a turbulent two-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature is well described by first order Hall-Vinen-Iordanskii equations, or dissipative point vortex dynamics. These equations are governed by a single dimensionless parameter: the ratio of the strength of drag forces to Magnus forces on vortices. When this parameter is small, we demonstrate using numerical simulations that the resulting superfluid enjoys an inverse energy cascade where small scale stirring leads to large scale vortex clustering. We argue analytically and numerically that the vortex annihilation rate in a laminar flow may be parametrically smaller than the rate in a turbulent flow with an inverse cascade. This suggests a new way to detect inverse cascades in experiments on two-dimensional superfluid turbulence using cold atomic gases, where traditional probes of turbulence such as the energy spectrum are not currently accessible.

  17. Compressor cascade performance deterioration caused by sand ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabakoff, W.; Balan, C.

    1982-01-01

    Airfoil cascade erosion and performance deterioration was investigated in a gas particle cascade tunnel. The cascade blades were made of 2024 aluminum alloy and the solid particles used were quartz sand. The results of the experimental measurements are presented to show the change in the blade surface erosion, pressure distribution and the total loss coefficient with erosion. The surface quality of the blades exposed to particulate flows are changing the material surfaces. With time, the surface roughness increases and leads to a decrease in engine performance. It was found that the surface roughness values increase asymptotically to a maximum value with increased erosion. The experimental results indicate that the roughness parameters correlate well against the mass of particles impacting unit area of the surface. Such a correlation is useful in aerodynamics and performance computations in turbomachinery.

  18. Crossover from localized to cascade relaxations in metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-07-21

    Thermally activated deformation is investigated in two metallic glass systems with different cooling histories. By probing the atomic displacements and stress changes on the potential energy landscape, two deformation modes, a localized process and cascade process, have observed. The localized deformation involves fewer than 30 atoms and appears in both systems, and its size is invariant with cooling history. However, the cascade deformation is more frequently observed in the fast quenched system than in the slowly quenched system. As a result, the origin of the cascade process in the fast quenched system is attributed to the higher density of localmore » minima on the underlying potential energy landscape.« less

  19. Cascaded VLSI Chips Help Neural Network To Learn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1993-01-01

    Cascading provides 12-bit resolution needed for learning. Using conventional silicon chip fabrication technology of VLSI, fully connected architecture consisting of 32 wide-range, variable gain, sigmoidal neurons along one diagonal and 7-bit resolution, electrically programmable, synaptic 32 x 31 weight matrix implemented on neuron-synapse chip. To increase weight nominally from 7 to 13 bits, synapses on chip individually cascaded with respective synapses on another 32 x 32 matrix chip with 7-bit resolution synapses only (without neurons). Cascade correlation algorithm varies number of layers effectively connected into network; adds hidden layers one at a time during learning process in such way as to optimize overall number of neurons and complexity and configuration of network.

  20. Cascaded Photoenhancement: Implications for Photonic Chemical and Biological Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Kirk A.; Smith, David D.

    2006-01-01

    Our analysis shows that coupling of gold nanoparticles to microspheres will evoke a cascading effect from the respective photoenhancement mechanisms. We refer to this amplification process as cascaded photoenhancement, and the resulting cavity amplification of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence as CASERS and CAF, respectively. Calculations, based on modal analysis of scattering and absorption by compound spheres, presented herein indicate that the absorption cross sections of metal nanoparticles immobilized onto dielectric microspheres can be greatly enhanced by cavity resonances in the microspheres without significant degradation of the resonators. Gain factors associated with CSP of 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 4) are predicted for realistic experimental conditions using homogenous microspheres. Cascaded surface photoenhancement thus has the potential of dramatically increasing the sensitivities of fluorescence and vibrational spectroscopies.