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Sample records for carbon content niti

  1. Fabrication and static characterization of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers with embedded NiTi shape memory wire actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, C. J.; Rodrigues, L. F. A.; Coutinho Neto, J. F.; Reis, R. P. B.

    2008-12-01

    In this work, unidirectional carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) with embedded NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators were manufactured using a universal testing machine equipped with a thermally controlled chamber. Beam specimens containing cold-worked, annealed and trained NiTi SMA wires distributed along their neutral plane were fabricated. Several tests in a three-point bending mode at different constant temperatures were performed. To verify thermal buckling effects, electrical activation of the specimens was realized in a cantilevered beam mode and the influence of the SMA wire actuators on the tip deflection of the composite is demonstrated.

  2. Microstructure, mechanical properties and superelasticity of biomedical porous NiTi alloy prepared by microwave sintering.

    PubMed

    Xu, J L; Bao, L Z; Liu, A H; Jin, X J; Tong, Y X; Luo, J M; Zhong, Z C; Zheng, Y F

    2015-01-01

    Porous NiTi alloys were prepared by microwave sintering using ammonium hydrogen carbonate (NH4HCO3) as the space holder agent to adjust the porosity in the range of 22-62%. The effects of porosities on the microstructure, hardness, compressive strength, bending strength, elastic modulus, phase transformation temperature and superelasticity of the porous NiTi alloys were investigated. The results showed that the porosities and average pore sizes of the porous NiTi alloys increased with increasing the contents of NH4HCO3. The porous NiTi alloys consisted of nearly single NiTi phase, with a very small amount of two secondary phases (Ni3Ti, NiTi2) when the porosities are lower than 50%. The amount of Ni3Ti and NiTi2 phases increased with further increasing of the porosity proportion. The porosities had few effects on the phase transformation temperatures of the porous NiTi alloys. By increasing the porosities, all of the hardness, compressive strength, elastic modulus, bending strength and superelasticity of the porous NiTi alloys decreased. However, the compressive strength and bending strength were higher or close to those of natural bone and the elastic modulus was close to the natural bone. The superelastic recovery strain of the trained porous NiTi alloys could reach between 3.1 and 4.7% at the pre-strain of 5%, even if the porosity was up to 62%. Moreover, partial shape memory effect was observed for all porosity levels under the experiment conditions. Therefore, the microwave sintered porous NiTi alloys could be a promising candidate for bone implant.

  3. Characterization of mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano tubes composite coatings synthesized by EPD on NiTi alloys for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Sengstock, Christina; Motemani, Yahya; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther; Köller, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Release of Ni(1+) ions from NiTi alloy into tissue environment, biological response on the surface of NiTi and the allergic reaction of atopic people towards Ni are challengeable issues for biomedical application. In this study, composite coatings of hydroxyapatite-silicon multi walled carbon nano-tubes with 20wt% Silicon and 1wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes of HA were deposited on a NiTi substrate using electrophoretic methods. The SEM images of coated samples exhibit a continuous and compact morphology for hydroxyapatite-silicon and hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coatings. Nano-indentation analysis on different locations of coatings represents the highest elastic modulus (45.8GPa) for HA-Si-MWCNTs which is between the elastic modulus of NiTi substrate (66.5GPa) and bone tissue (≈30GPa). This results in decrease of stress gradient on coating-substrate-bone interfaces during performance. The results of nano-scratch analysis show the highest critical distance of delamination (2.5mm) and normal load before failure (837mN) as well as highest critical contact pressure for hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coating. The cell culture results show that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to adhere and proliferate on the pure hydroxyapatite and composite coatings. The presence of both silicon and multi walled carbon nano-tubes (CS3) in the hydroxyapatite coating induce more adherence of viable human mesenchymal stem cells in contrast to the HA coated samples with only silicon (CS2). These results make hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes a promising composite coating for future bone implant application.

  4. Bioactivity and electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes composite coatings synthesized by EPD on NiTi alloys in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Khalili, V; Khalil-Allafi, J; Frenzel, J; Eggeler, G

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the surface bioactivity of NiTi bone implant and corrosion resistance, hydroxyapatite coating with addition of 20wt% silicon, 1wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes and both of them were deposited on a NiTi substrate using a cathodic electrophoretic method. The apatite formation ability was estimated using immersion test in the simulated body fluid for 10days. The SEM images of the surface of coatings after immersion in simulated body fluid show that the presence of silicon in the hydroxyapatite coatings accelerates in vitro growth of apatite layer on the coatings. The Open-circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were measured to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of the coatings in the simulated body fluid at 37°C. The results indicate that the compact structure of hydroxyapatite-20wt% silicon and hydroxyapatite-20wt% silicon-1wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes coatings could efficiently increase the corrosion resistance of NiTi substrate.

  5. Carbon content of sediments of small reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Carbon content was measured in sediments deposited in 58 small reservoirs across the US. Reservoirs varied from 0.2 to 4,000 km{sup 2} in surface area. The carbon content of sediment ranged from 0.3 to 5.6 percent, with a mean of 1.9 {plus minus} 1.1 percent. No significant differences between the soil and sediment carbon content were found using a paired t-test or ANOVA. The carbon content of sediments in reservoirs was similar to the carbon content of surface soils in the watershed, except in watersheds with shrub or steppe (desert) vegetation. Based on the sediment accumulation rates measured in each reservoir, the calculated organic carbon accumulation rates among reservoirs ranged from 26 to 3,700 gC m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}, with a mean of 675 {plus minus} 739 gC m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}. The carbon content and accumulation rates were highest in sediments from grassland watersheds. High variability was found in carbon content, carbon accumulation, and sediment accumulation rates due to individual watershed and reservoir characteristics rather than to any broad physiographic patterns. The carbon accumulation rates in these reservoir sediments indicate that reservoir sediments could be a significant sink of organic carbon.

  6. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  7. Aerosol and graphitic carbon content of snow

    SciTech Connect

    Chy-acute-accentlek, P.; Srivastava, V.; Cahenzli, L.; Pinnick, R.G.; Dod, R.L.; Novakov, T.; Cook, T.L.; Hinds, B.D.

    1987-08-20

    Snow samples from southern New Mexico, west Texas, Antarctica, and Greenland were analyzed for aerosol and graphitic carbon. Graphitic carbon contents were found to be between 2.2 and 25 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ of snow meltwater; water-insoluble aerosol content varied between 0.62 and 8.5 mg L/sup -1/. For comparison, two samples of Camp Century, Greenland, ice core, having approximate ages of 4,000 and 6,000 years, were also analyzed. Ice core graphitic carbon contents were found to be 2.5 and 1.1 ..mu..g L/sup -1/. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  8. Preparing hydroxyapatite-silicon composite suspensions with homogeneous distribution of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes for electrophoretic coating of NiTi bone implant and their effect on the surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Xia, Wei; Parsa, Alireza B.; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Eggeler, Gunther

    2016-03-01

    Preparing a stable suspension is a main step towards the electrophoretically depositing of homogeneous and dense composite coatings on NiTi for its biomedical application. In the present study, different composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes were prepared using n-butanol and triethanolamine as media and dispersing agent, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were first functionalized in the nitric acid vapor for 15 h at 175 °C, and then mixed into suspensions. Thermal desorption spectroscopy profiles indicate the formation of functional groups on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes. An excellent suspension stability can be achieved for different amounts of triethanolamine. The amount of triethanolamine can be increased by adding a second component to a stable hydroxyapatite suspension due to an electrostatic interaction between components in suspension. The stability of composite suspension is less than that of the hydroxyapatite suspension, due to density differences, which under the gravitational force promote the demixing. The scanning electron microscopy images of the coatings surface show that more dense coatings are developed on NiTi substrate using electrophoretic deposition and sintering at 850 °C in the simultaneous presence of silicon and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the hydroxyapatite coatings. The atomic force microscopy results of the coatings surface represent that composite coatings of hydroxyapatite-20 wt.% silicon and hydroxyapatite-20 wt.% silicon-1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nano-tubes with low zeta potential have rougher surfaces.

  9. Carbon content on perturbed wetlands of Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ojeda, S. M.; Orellana, R.; Herrera Silveira, J.

    2013-05-01

    The north coast of Yucatan Peninsula is a karstic scenario where the water flows mainly underground through the so called "cenotes"-ring system ("sink holes") toward the coast. This underground water system enhances the connection between watershed condition and coastal ecosystem health. Inland activities such as livestock, agriculture and urban development produce changes in the landscape, hydrological connectivity and in the water quality that can decrease wetland coverage specially mangroves and seagrasses. We conducted studies on the description of structure, biomass and carbon content of the soil, above and below ground of four different types of wetland in a perturbed region. The wetland ecological types were freshwater (Typha domingensis), dwarf mangroves (Avicenia germinans), grassland (Cyperacea) and Seagrasses. Due to the area is mainly covered by mangroves, they represent the most important carbon storage nevertheless the condition of the structure determine the carbon content in soil. Through GIS tools we explore the relationships between land use and costal condition in order to determine priority areas for conservation within the watershed that could be efficient to preserve the carbon storage of this area.

  10. Effects of Ni content on the shape memory properties and microstructure of Ni-rich NiTi-20Hf alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghaian, S. M.; Karaca, H. E.; Tobe, H.; Pons, J.; Santamarta, R.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Noebe, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory properties and microstructure of four Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys (Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20, Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20, Ni51.2Ti28.8Hf20, and Ni52Ti28Hf20 (at.%)) were systematically characterized in the furnace cooled condition. H-phase precipitates were formed during furnace cooling in compositions with greater than 50.3Ni and the driving force for nucleation increased with Ni content. Alloy strength increased while recoverable strain decreased with increasing Ni content due to changes in precipitate characteristics. When the precipitates were small (˜5-15 nm), they were readily absorbed by martensite plates, which resulted in maximum recoverable strain of 2% in Ni50.7Ti29.3Hf20. With increasing Ni content, the size (>100 nm) and volume fraction of precipitates increased and the growth of martensite plates was constrained between the precipitates when the Ni concentration was greater than 50.7 at.%. Near perfect dimensional stability with negligible irrecoverable strain was observed at stress levels as high as 2 GPa in the Ni52Ti28Hf20 alloy, though the recoverable strain was rather small. In general, strong local stress fields were created at precipitate/matrix interphases, which lead to high stored elastic energy during the martensitic transformation.

  11. Jellyfish Body Plans Provide Allometric Advantages beyond Low Carbon Content

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Kylie A.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lucas, Cathy H.; Sutherland, Kelly R.; Condon, Robert H.; Mianzan, Hermes; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Robinson, Kelly L.; Uye, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish form spectacular blooms throughout the world’s oceans. Jellyfish body plans are characterised by high water and low carbon contents which enables them to grow much larger than non-gelatinous animals of equivalent carbon content and to deviate from non-gelatinous pelagic animals when incorporated into allometric relationships. Jellyfish have, however, been argued to conform to allometric relationships when carbon content is used as the metric for comparison. Here we test the hypothesis that differences in allometric relationships for several key functional parameters remain for jellyfish even after their body sizes are scaled to their carbon content. Data on carbon and nitrogen contents, rates of respiration, excretion, growth, longevity and swimming velocity of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were assembled. Allometric relationships between each variable and the equivalent spherical diameters of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were compared before and after sizes of jellyfish were standardised for their carbon content. Before standardisation, the slopes of the allometric relationships for respiration, excretion and growth were the same for jellyfish and other pelagic taxa but the intercepts differed. After standardisation, slopes and intercepts for respiration were similar but excretion rates of jellyfish were 10× slower, and growth rates 2× faster than those of other pelagic animals. Longevity of jellyfish was independent of size. The slope of the allometric relationship of swimming velocity of jellyfish differed from that of other pelagic animals but because they are larger jellyfish operate at Reynolds numbers approximately 10× greater than those of other pelagic animals of comparable carbon content. We conclude that low carbon and high water contents alone do not explain the differences in the intercepts or slopes of the allometric relationships of jellyfish and other pelagic animals and that the evolutionary longevity of jellyfish and

  12. Jellyfish body plans provide allometric advantages beyond low carbon content.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Kylie A; Duarte, Carlos M; Lucas, Cathy H; Sutherland, Kelly R; Condon, Robert H; Mianzan, Hermes; Purcell, Jennifer E; Robinson, Kelly L; Uye, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish form spectacular blooms throughout the world's oceans. Jellyfish body plans are characterised by high water and low carbon contents which enables them to grow much larger than non-gelatinous animals of equivalent carbon content and to deviate from non-gelatinous pelagic animals when incorporated into allometric relationships. Jellyfish have, however, been argued to conform to allometric relationships when carbon content is used as the metric for comparison. Here we test the hypothesis that differences in allometric relationships for several key functional parameters remain for jellyfish even after their body sizes are scaled to their carbon content. Data on carbon and nitrogen contents, rates of respiration, excretion, growth, longevity and swimming velocity of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were assembled. Allometric relationships between each variable and the equivalent spherical diameters of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were compared before and after sizes of jellyfish were standardised for their carbon content. Before standardisation, the slopes of the allometric relationships for respiration, excretion and growth were the same for jellyfish and other pelagic taxa but the intercepts differed. After standardisation, slopes and intercepts for respiration were similar but excretion rates of jellyfish were 10× slower, and growth rates 2× faster than those of other pelagic animals. Longevity of jellyfish was independent of size. The slope of the allometric relationship of swimming velocity of jellyfish differed from that of other pelagic animals but because they are larger jellyfish operate at Reynolds numbers approximately 10× greater than those of other pelagic animals of comparable carbon content. We conclude that low carbon and high water contents alone do not explain the differences in the intercepts or slopes of the allometric relationships of jellyfish and other pelagic animals and that the evolutionary longevity of jellyfish and

  13. Shape-memory NiTi with two-dimensional networks of micro-channels.

    PubMed

    Neurohr, Anselm J; Dunand, David C

    2011-04-01

    A process was developed for fabricating arrays of micro-channels in shape-memory NiTi for bone implant applications, with a tailorable internal architecture expected to improve biomechanical compatibility and osseointegration. Ni-51.4 at.% Ti with 24-34 vol.% porosity was fabricated by electrochemical dissolution of parallel layers of steel wire meshes embedded within a NiTi matrix during hot pressing of NiTi powders. The resulting NiTi structures exhibit parallel layers of orthogonally interconnected micro-channels with 350-400 μm diameters that exactly replicate the steel meshes. When low-carbon steel wires are used, iron diffuses into the surrounding NiTi during the densification step, creating a Fe-enriched zone near the wires. For high-carbon steel wires, TiC forms at the steel/NiTi interface and inhibits iron diffusion but also depletes some titanium from the adjacent NiTi. In both cases, the NiTi regions near the micro-channels exhibit altered phase transformation characteristics. These NiTi structures with replicated networks of micro-channels have excellent potential as bone implants and scaffolds given: (i) the versatility in channel size, shape, fraction and spatial arrangement; (ii) their low stiffness (15-26 GPa), close to 12-17 GPa for cortical bone; (iii) their high compressive strength (420-600 MPa at 8-9% strain); and (iv) their excellent compressive strain recovery (91-94% of an applied strain of 6%) by a combination of elasticity, superelasticity and the shape-memory effect.

  14. Carbon content and degassing history of the lunar volcanic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Diane T.; Hauri, Erik H.; Saal, Alberto E.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanic glasses observed on the lunar surface have been interpreted as the products of volatile-rich, fire-fountain eruptions. Revised estimates of the water content of primitive lunar magmas have overturned the notion of a volatile-poor Moon, but degassing of water-rich vapour during volcanic eruptions is inconsistent with geochemical and petrological observations. Although degassing of carbon is compatible with observations, the amount of indigenous carbon in lunar volcanic materials is not well constrained. Here we present high-precision measurements of indigenous carbon contents in primitive lunar volcanic glasses and melt inclusions. From our measurements, in combination with solubility and degassing model calculations, we suggest that carbon degassed before water in lunar magmas, and that the amount of carbon in the lunar lavas was sufficient to trigger fire-fountain eruptions at the lunar surface. We estimate--after correcting for bubble formation in the melt inclusions--that the primitive carbon contents and hydrogen/carbon ratios of lunar magmas fall within the range found in melts from Earth’s depleted upper mantle. Our findings are also consistent with measurements of hydrogen, fluorine, sulphur and chlorine contents, as well as carbon and hydrogen isotopes, in primitive lunar magmas, suggesting a common origin for the volatile elements in the interiors of the Earth and Moon.

  15. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite reinforcement in mechanically alloyed NiTi composites for biomedical implant.

    PubMed

    Akmal, Muhammad; Raza, Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Mudasser; Khan, M Imran; Hussain, Muhammad Asif

    2016-11-01

    Equi-atomic NiTi alloy composites reinforced with 0, 2, 4 and 6vol.% nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully synthesized using pressureless sintering. Pure Ni and Ti elements were ball milled for 10h in order to produce a mechanically alloyed equi-atomic NiTi alloy (MA-NiTi). Mechanically alloyed NiTi and HA powders were blended, compacted and then sintered for 3h at 1325K. The sintered density varied inversely with volume percent of HA reinforcement. The X-Ray diffraction spectra and SEM images showed the formation of multiple phases like NiTi, NiTi2, Ni3Ti, and Ni4Ti3. The back scattered-SEM image analysis confirmed the presence of Ni-rich and Ti-rich phases with increasing HA content. The 6vol.% HA reinforced composite showed Ni3Ti as the major phase having the highest hardness value which can be attributed to the presence of relatively harder phases along with higher HA content as a reinforcement. The composite of MA-NiTi with 2vol.% HA manifested the most desirable results in the form of better sintering density mainly due to the minute decomposition of NiTi into other phases. Therefore, the 2vol.% reinforced MA-NiTi composite can be exploited as a novel material for manufacturing biomedical implants.

  16. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong <111> fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  17. Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance

    SciTech Connect

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; David Harvey; M. Dutta; V. Colbow; S. Wessel

    2011-07-01

    The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150 C and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metallic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

  18. Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Harvey, David; Dutta, Monica; Colbow, Vesna

    2011-07-01

    The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150oC and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metalic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

  19. Caffeine content of energy drinks, carbonated sodas, and other beverages.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Rachel R; Goldberger, Bruce A; Cone, Edward J

    2006-03-01

    The caffeine content of 10 energy drinks, 19 carbonated sodas, and 7 other beverages was determined. In addition, the variability of the caffeine content of Coca-Cola fountain soda was evaluated. Caffeine was isolated from the samples by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The caffeine concentration of the caffeinated energy drinks ranged from none detected to 141.1 mg/serving. The caffeine content of the carbonated sodas ranged from none detected to 48.2 mg/serving, and the content of the other beverages ranged from < 2.7 to 105.7 mg/serving. The intra-assay mean, standard deviation, and % coefficient of variation for the Coca-Cola fountain samples were 44.5, 2.95, and 6.64 mg/serving, respectively.

  20. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface.

  1. Heterogeneity in mantle carbon content from CO2-undersaturated basalts

    PubMed Central

    Le Voyer, M.; Kelley, K.A.; Cottrell, E.; Hauri, E.H.

    2017-01-01

    The amount of carbon present in Earth's mantle affects the dynamics of melting, volcanic eruption style and the evolution of Earth's atmosphere via planetary outgassing. Mantle carbon concentrations are difficult to quantify because most magmas are strongly degassed upon eruption. Here we report undegassed carbon concentrations from a new set of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use the correlations of CO2 with trace elements to define an average carbon abundance for the upper mantle. Our results indicate that the upper mantle carbon content is highly heterogeneous, varying by almost two orders of magnitude globally, with the potential to produce large geographic variations in melt fraction below the volatile-free solidus. Such heterogeneity will manifest as variations in the depths at which melt becomes interconnected and detectable, the CO2 fluxes at mid-ocean ridges, the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and mantle conductivity. PMID:28082738

  2. Heterogeneity in mantle carbon content from CO2-undersaturated basalts.

    PubMed

    Le Voyer, M; Kelley, K A; Cottrell, E; Hauri, E H

    2017-01-13

    The amount of carbon present in Earth's mantle affects the dynamics of melting, volcanic eruption style and the evolution of Earth's atmosphere via planetary outgassing. Mantle carbon concentrations are difficult to quantify because most magmas are strongly degassed upon eruption. Here we report undegassed carbon concentrations from a new set of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use the correlations of CO2 with trace elements to define an average carbon abundance for the upper mantle. Our results indicate that the upper mantle carbon content is highly heterogeneous, varying by almost two orders of magnitude globally, with the potential to produce large geographic variations in melt fraction below the volatile-free solidus. Such heterogeneity will manifest as variations in the depths at which melt becomes interconnected and detectable, the CO2 fluxes at mid-ocean ridges, the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and mantle conductivity.

  3. Heterogeneity in mantle carbon content from CO2-undersaturated basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Voyer, M.; Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    The amount of carbon present in Earth's mantle affects the dynamics of melting, volcanic eruption style and the evolution of Earth's atmosphere via planetary outgassing. Mantle carbon concentrations are difficult to quantify because most magmas are strongly degassed upon eruption. Here we report undegassed carbon concentrations from a new set of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use the correlations of CO2 with trace elements to define an average carbon abundance for the upper mantle. Our results indicate that the upper mantle carbon content is highly heterogeneous, varying by almost two orders of magnitude globally, with the potential to produce large geographic variations in melt fraction below the volatile-free solidus. Such heterogeneity will manifest as variations in the depths at which melt becomes interconnected and detectable, the CO2 fluxes at mid-ocean ridges, the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and mantle conductivity.

  4. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  5. Carbon and Nitrogen Content of Natural Planktonic Bacteria †

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Toshi

    1986-01-01

    A method of estimating carbon and nitrogen content per unit of natural bacterial cell volume was developed. This method is based on the difference in the retentiveness of bacteria between two kinds of glass fiber filter, GF/C and GF/F (Whatman, Inc., Clifton, N.J.). Biovolume and biomass (carbon and nitrogen content) of bacteria which passed through the GF/C but not the GF/F filter were estimated with an epifluorescence microscopy and a CHN analyzer, respectively. From seasonal determinations of natural planktonic bacteria in epilimnetic waters of a mesotrophic lake, the conversion factors of 106 fg of C/μm3 and 25 fg of N/μm3 were derived as average values. By using these values, the contribution of bacteria to the biomass of lake plankton is discussed. PMID:16347114

  6. A Reassessment of Carbon Content in Tropical Trees

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam R.; Thomas, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of carbon (C) content in live wood is essential for quantifying tropical forest C stocks, yet generic assumptions (such as biomass consisting of 50% carbon on a weight/weight basis) remain widely used despite being supported by little chemical analysis. Empirical data from stem cores of 59 Panamanian rainforest tree species demonstrate that wood C content is highly variable among co-occurring species, with an average (47.4±2.51% S.D.) significantly lower than widely assumed values. Prior published values have neglected to account for volatile C content of tropical woods. By comparing freeze- and oven-dried wood samples, we show that volatile C is non-negligible, and excluding the volatile fraction underestimates wood C content by 2.48±1.28% (S.D.) on average. Wood C content varied substantially among species (from 41.9–51.6%), but was neither strongly phylogenetically conserved, nor correlated to ecological (i.e. wood density, maximum tree height) or demographic traits (i.e. relative growth rate, mortality rate). Overall, assuming generic C fractions in tropical wood overestimates forest C stocks by ∼3.3–5.3%, a non-trivial margin of error leading to overestimates of 4.1–6.8 Mg C ha−1 in a 50-ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. In addition to addressing other sources of error in tropical forest C accounting, such as uncertainties in allometric models and belowground biomass, compilation and use of species-specific C fractions for tropical tree species would substantially improve both local and global estimates of terrestrial C stocks and fluxes. PMID:21858157

  7. Size and Carbon Content of Sub-seafloor Microbial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S.; Morono, Y.; Littmann, S.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Lomstein, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Into the seafloor, a radical decline in nutrient and energy availability poses strong metabolic demands to any residing life. However, a sedimentary microbial ecosystem seems to maintain itself close to what we understand to be the energetic limit of life. Since a complex sediment matrix is interfering with the analysis of whole cells and sub-cellular compounds such as cell wall and membrane molecules, little is known about the physiological properties of cells in the deep biosphere. Here we focus on the size and carbon content of cells from a 90-m sediment drill core retrieved in October 2013 at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea, in 437 meters water depth. To determine their shape and volume, cells were separated from the sediment matrix by multi-layer density centrifugation and visualized via fluorescence microscopy (FM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED). Total cell-carbon was calculated from amino acid-carbon, which was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after cells had additionally been purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Cell-carbon turnover times were estimated using an amino acid racemization model that is based on the built-in molecular clock of aspartic acid, which due to racemization alternates between the D- and L-isomeric configurations over timescales of thousands of years at low in-situ temperatures (≈4˚C). We find that the majority of microbial cells in the sediment have coccoid or rod-shaped morphology, and that absolute values for cell volume are strongly dependent on the method used, spanning three orders of magnitude from approximately 0.001 to 1 µm3 for both coccoid and rod-shaped cells. From the surface to the deepest sample measured (≈60 mbsf), cell volume decreases by an order of magnitude, and carbon content is in the lower range (<20 fg C cell-1) of what has been reported in the literature as conversion factors. Cell-carbon is turned over approximately

  8. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  9. Measurement of carbon storage in landfills from the biogenic carbon content of excavated waste samples.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-10-01

    Landfills are an anaerobic ecosystem and represent the major disposal alternative for municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. While some fraction of the biogenic carbon, primarily cellulose (Cel) and hemicellulose (H), is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, lignin (L) is essentially recalcitrant. The biogenic carbon that is not mineralized is stored within the landfill. This carbon storage represents a significant component of a landfill carbon balance. The fraction of biogenic carbon that is not reactive in the landfill environment and therefore stored was derived for samples of excavated waste by measurement of the total organic carbon, its biogenic fraction, and the remaining methane potential. The average biogenic carbon content of the excavated samples was 64.6±18.0% (average±standard deviation), while the average carbon storage factor was 0.09±0.06g biogenic-C stored per g dry sample or 0.66±0.16g biogenic-C stored per g biogenic C.

  10. The underlying biological mechanisms of biocompatibility differences between bare and TiN-coated NiTi alloys.

    PubMed

    Lifeng, Zhao; Yan, Hong; Dayun, Yang; Xiaoying, Lü; Tingfei, Xi; Deyuan, Zhang; Ying, Hong; Jinfeng, Yuan

    2011-04-01

    TiN coating has been demonstrated to improve the biocompatibility of bare NiTi alloys; however, essential biocompatibility differences between NiTi alloys before and after TiN coating are not known so far. In this study, to explore the underlying biological mechanisms of biocompatibility differences between them, the changes of bare and TiN-coated NiTi alloys in surface chemical composition, morphology, hydrophilicity, Ni ions release, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and gene expression profiles were compared using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, surface energy, Ni ions release analysis, the methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) method, flow cytometry and microarray methods, respectively. Pathways binding to networks and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed to analyze and validate the microarray data, respectively. It was found that, compared with the bare NiTi alloys, TiN coating significantly decreased Ni ions content on the surfaces of the NiTi alloys and reduced the release of Ni ions from the alloys, attenuated the inhibition of Ni ions to the expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory, and also suppressed the promotion of Ni ions to the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Moreover, TiN coating distinctly improved the hydrophilicity and uniformity of the surfaces of the NiTi alloys, and contributed to the expression of genes participating in cell adhesion and other physiological activities. These results indicate that the TiN-coated NiTi alloys will help overcome the shortcomings of NiTi alloys used in clinical application currently, and can be expected to be a replacement of biomaterials for a medical device field.

  11. Age, carbon content and climatic stability of West Siberian peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G.; Frey, K. E.; Sheng, Y.; Peugh, S.; Velichko, A.; Kremenetski, K.; Borisova, O.; Forster, R. R.

    2001-12-01

    The West Siberian Lowland (WSL) is the world's largest high-latitude wetland, with a 1.8 X 106 km2 forest-palustrine zone covering nearly 2/3 of western Siberia. Over half of this area consists of peatlands, which since the early Holocene have sequestered atmospheric carbon in the form of undecomposed plant matter. The total carbon pool of the WSL has been roughly estimated at ~215 Pg C, suggesting that nearly one-tenth of the world's soil carbon pool lies stored in these peatlands. The region has recently attracted attention from the global change community, owing to recent studies elsewhere that suggest CO2 and methane exchange from peatlands may change dramatically under a warming climate. Since 1999 an international team of scientists from UCLA, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk State University and the University of Utah, has conducted a major field and satellite remote sensing study of the role of WSL peatlands in the global carbon cycle. Central to the study is the extraction of peat cores throughout the region, from which peatland age and carbon content are determined from thermal analysis and radiocarbon dating. After successful summer field campaigns in 1999, 2000 and 2001 we have collected nearly 100 cores, as well as thousands of other measurements and samples of peat depth, surface moisture, botany, water geochemistry, river sediment load and land surface cover. The scope and scale of these data are unprecedented in the region. Numerous satellite images of the area have also been compiled, including 150 m MSU-SK visible/near-infrared imagery from the Russian RESURS-01 platform since 1994, ERS synthetic aperture radar and scatterometer products since 1991, DMSP SSM/I passive microwave data since 1987, and 52 Landsat MSS scenes acquired in 1973. These satellite datasets are now being combined with point field observations to determine the Holocene evolution, total carbon content, desiccation susceptibility and contemporary wetness variability of the

  12. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang; Guo, Jun

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  13. The Stable and Radio- Carbon Isotopic Content of Labile and Refractory Carbon in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNichol, A. P.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Gerlach, D. S.; Hayes, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of the isotopic content of atmospheric particulate matter are hampered by difficulties in chemically defining the pools of carbon and analytically isolating the different pools. We are conducting studies on reference materials and atmospheric aerosol samples to develop a method to measure stable and radio- carbon isotopes on the labile and refractory carbon. We are using a flow-through combustion system that allows us to combust, collect and measure the isotopic content of the gases produced at all stages of heating/oxidizing. We compare our results to those measured using a chemothermal oxidation method (CTO) (Gustafsson et al., 2001). In this method, refractory carbon is defined as the material remaining after pre- combusting a sample at 375°C in the presence of oxygen for 24 hours. The reference materials are diesel soot, apple leaves and a hybrid of the two (DiesApple), all from NIST. These provide carbon with two well-defined fractions -- the soot provides refractory carbon that is radiocarbon dead and the apple leaves provide organic carbon that is radiocarbon modern. Radiocarbon results from DiesApple indicate that the "refractory" carbon defined by the CTO method is actually a mixture of old and modern carbon that contains over 25% modern carbon. This suggests that charred material formed from the apples leaves during the pre-combustion step is contributing to the fraction we identify as refractory carbon. We are studying this by analyzing the individual materials and the mixture using our flow-through system. First results with this system indicate that the refractory fraction trapped from the DiesApple contains much less modern carbon than the CTO method, less than 7%. We will present detailed concentration and isotopic results of the generation of carbon dioxide during programmed combustion of each of the reference materials. We studied the radiocarbon content of both the total carbon (TC) and refractory carbon in the fine particulate matter (PM

  14. Modeling, Simulation, Additive Manufacturing, and Experimental Evaluation of Solid and Porous NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Andani, Mohsen

    In recent years, shape memory alloys (SMAs) have entered a wide range of engineering applications in fields such as aerospace and medical applications. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) is the most commonly used SMAs due to its excellent functional characteristics (shape memory effect and superelasticity behavior). These properties are based on a solid-solid phase transformation between martensite and austenite. Beside these two characteristics, low stiffness, biocompatibility and corrosion properties of NiTi make it an attractive candidate for biomedical applications (e.g., bone plates, bone screws, and vascular stents). It is well know that manufacturing and processing of NiTi is very challenging. The functional properties of NiTi are significantly affected by the impurity level and due to the high titanium content, NiTi are highly reactive. Therefore, high temperature processed parts through methods such as melting and casting which result in increased impurity levels have inadequate structural and functional properties. Furthermore, high ductility and elasticity of NiTi, adhesion, work hardening and spring back effects make machining quite challenging. These unfavorable effects for machining cause significant tool wear along with decreasing the quality of work piece. Recently, additive manufacturing (AM) has gained significant attention for manufacturing NiTi. Since AM can create a part directly from CAD data, it is predicted that AM can overcome most of the manufacturing difficulties. This technique provides the possibility of fabricating highly complex parts, which cannot be processed by any other methods. Curved holes, designed porosity, and lattice like structures are some examples of mentioned complex parts. This work investigates manufacturing superelastic NiTi by selective laser melting (SLM) technique (using PXM by Phenix/3D Systems). An extended experimental study is conducted on the effect of subsequent heat treatments with different aging conditions on phase

  15. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-08-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O3 ) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3 . Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r(2) = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m(-2) ) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (∆NPP/∆N) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2 . Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content.

  16. Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Adami, L.H.; Gleason, J.D.; Hardcastle, K.

    1970-01-01

    The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a ??D from -580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a ??D of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO2 is 290 to 418 ppm with S 13C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and ??18O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO2 carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, ??18C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H2O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon (??13C = -17.6 per mil). The 18O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100?? to 1300??C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

  17. Determining water content in activated carbon for double-layer capacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egashira, Minato; Izumi, Takuma; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    Karl-Fisher titration is used to estimate water contents in activated carbon and the distribution of impurity-level water in an activated carbon-solvent system. Normalization of the water content of activated carbon is attempted using vacuum drying after immersion in water was controlled. Although vacuum drying at 473 K and 24 h can remove large amounts of water, a substantial amount of water remains in the activated carbon. The water release to propylene carbonate is less than that to acetonitrile. The degradation of capacitor cell capacitance for activated carbon with some amount of water differs according to the electrolyte solvent type: acetonitrile promotes greater degradation than propylene carbonate does.

  18. Coatings on NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kei, C. C.; Yu, Y. S.; Racek, J.; Vokoun, D.; Šittner, P.

    2014-07-01

    Atomic layer deposition is introduced as a method suitable for preparation of Al2O3 layers on the surface of NiTi medical devices such as stents because of the excellent thickness control and conformal protective coating on complex structures. The corrosion properties of NiTi plates with Al2O3 coatings of various thicknesses in an environment similar to that occurring in the human body were studied using open circuit potential, potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic polarization tests. It shows that the layer thickness plays a key role in the inhibition of corrosion. The thinner layers are more diffuse and make it easier for anodic reaction of passive NiTi with protective TiO2 underneath of Al2O3, while the thicker layers have the barrier effect with local pores initiating pitting corrosion. The results of our electrochemical experiments consistently show that corrosion properties of thick Al2O3 coatings on NiTi plate are inferior compared to the thin layers.

  19. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  20. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3. Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r2 = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m−2) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (ΔNPP/ΔN) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2. Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content. PMID:24604779

  1. Surface characteristics, corrosion and bioactivity of chemically treated biomedical grade NiTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Chembath, Manju; Balaraju, J N; Sujata, M

    2015-11-01

    The surface of NiTi alloy was chemically modified using acidified ferric chloride solution and the characteristics of the alloy surface were studied from the view point of application as a bioimplant. Chemically treated NiTi was also subjected to post treatments by annealing at 400°C and passivation in nitric acid. The surface of NiTi alloy after chemical treatment developed a nanogrid structure with a combination of one dimensional channel and two dimensional network-like patterns. From SEM studies, it was found that the undulations formed after chemical treatment remained unaffected after annealing, while after passivation process the undulated surface was filled with oxides of titanium. XPS analysis revealed that the surface of passivated sample was enriched with oxides of titanium, predominantly TiO2. The influence of post treatment on the corrosion resistance of chemically treated NiTi alloy was monitored using Potentiodynamic Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution. In the chemically treated condition, NiTi alloy exhibited poor corrosion resistance due to the instability of the surface. On the other hand, the breakdown potential (0.8V) obtained was highest for the passivated samples compared to other surface treated samples. During anodic polarization, chemically treated samples displayed dissolution phenomenon which was predominantly activation controlled. But after annealing and passivation processes, the behavior of anodic polarization was typical of a diffusion controlled process which confirmed the enhanced passivity of the post treated surfaces. The total resistance, including the porous and barrier layer, was in the range of mega ohms for passivated surfaces, which could be attributed to the decrease in surface nickel content and formation of compact titanium oxide. The passivated sample displayed good bioactivity in terms of hydroxyapatite growth, noticed after 14days immersion in

  2. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  3. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2016-12-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  4. Relating black carbon content to reduction of snow albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, R. E.; Warren, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    In remote snow of the Northern Hemisphere, the levels of soot pollution are in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range, where the effect on albedo is at the level of a few percent. A reduction of albedo by 1-2% is significant for climate but is difficult to detect experimentally, because snow albedo depends on several other variables. In our work to quantify the climatic effect of black carbon (BC) in snow, we therefore do not directly measure the albedo reduction. Instead, we use a two-step procedure: (1) We collect snow samples, melt and filter them, and analyze the filters spectrophotometrically for BC concentration. (2) We use the BC amount from the filter measurement, together with snow grain size, in a radiative transfer model to compute the albedo reduction. Our radiative transfer model uses the discrete ordinates algorithm DISORT 2.0. We have chosen a representative BC size distribution and optical constants, and have incorporated those of mineral dust as well. While a given mass of BC causes over an order of magnitude more snow albedo reduction compared to dust, a snowpack containing dust mutes the albedo-reducing effect of BC. Because the computed reduction of snow albedo is model-based, it requires experimental verification. We doubt that direct measurement of albedo-reduction will be feasible in nature, because of the vertical variation of both snow grain size and soot content, and because the natural soot content is small. We conclude that what is needed is an artificial snowpack, with uniform grain size and large uniform soot content (ppm not ppb), to produce a large signal on albedo. We have chosen to pursue this experiment outdoors rather than in the laboratory, for the following reasons: (1) The snowpack in the field of view is uniformly illuminated if the source of radiation is the Sun. (2) Visible radiation penetrates into the snow, so photons emerge horizontally distant from where they entered. In the limited width of a laboratory snowpack, radiation

  5. Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; O'neil, J R; Adami, L H; Gleason, J D; Hardcastle, K

    1970-01-30

    The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a deltaD from-580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a deltaD of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO(2) is 290 to 418 ppm with delta (13)C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and delta(18)O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO(2) carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, delta(13)C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H(2)O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon(delta(13)C = -17.6 per mil). The (18)O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100 degrees to 1300 degrees C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

  6. An Investigation into Techniques for the Determination of Moisture Content on Activated Carbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Activated carbon (or charcoal ) is a universal adsorbent for the removal of a variety of organic/inorganic contaminants, in both gaseous and aqueous phase...AD-A245 938 i * *~fl Nadoni Waren AN INVESTIGATION INTO TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMNATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON ACTIVATED CARBON (U) by L.E. Cameron...INVESTIGATION INTO TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON ACTIVATED CARBON (U) by L.E. Cameron and S.H.C. Liang Chemical Protecti

  7. NiTi superelasticity via atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Piyas; Ren, Guowu; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    The NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are promising candidates for the next-generation multifunctional materials. These materials are superelastic i.e. they can fully recover their original shape even after fairly large inelastic deformations once the mechanical forces are removed. The superelasticity reportedly stems from atomic scale crystal transformations. However, very few computer simulations have emerged, elucidating the transformation mechanisms at the discrete lattice level, which underlie the extraordinary strain recoverability. Here, we conduct breakthrough molecular dynamics modelling on the superelastic behaviour of the NiTi single crystals, and unravel the atomistic genesis thereof. The deformation recovery is clearly traced to the reversible transformation between austenite and martensite crystals through simulations. We examine the mechanistic origin of the tension-compression asymmetries and the effects of pressure/temperature/strain rate variation isolatedly. Hence, this work essentially brings a new dimension to probing the NiTi performance based on the mesoscale physics under more complicated thermo-mechanical loading scenarios.

  8. Inferring Absorbing Organic Carbon Content from AERONET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G.; Myhre, G.; Kazadzis, S.; Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called brown carbon) and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated globally the amount of light absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon) levels in biomass burning regions of South-America and Africa are relatively high (about 15-20 magnesium per square meters during biomass burning season), while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30-35 magnesium per square meters during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  9. Investigation on microstructure and martensitic transformation of neodymium-added NiTi shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maashaa, Dovchinvanchig; Dorj, Ulzii-Orshikh; Lee, Malrey; Lee, Min Hi; Zhao, Chunwang; Dashjav, Munguntsetseg; Woo, Seon-Mi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of rare earth element neodymium (Nd) addition on the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior of Ni50Ti50-xNdx (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 at.%) shape memory alloy was investigated by scanning electronic microscope, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that the microstructure of Ni-Ti-Nd ternary alloy consists of NiNd phase, NiTi2 and the NiTi matrix. A one-step martensitic transformation is observed in the alloys. The martensitic transformation temperature Ms increases sharply increasing 0.1-0.7 at.% Nd content is added.

  10. Biocompatilibity-related surface characteristics of oxidized NiTi.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Anatoli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Tuukkanen, Juha; Jämsä, Timo

    2007-09-15

    In the present study, we examined the effect of NiTi oxidation on material surface characteristics related to biocompatibility. Correspondence between electron work function (EWF) and adhesive force predicted by electron theory of adsorption as well as the effect of surface mechanical stress on the adhesive force were studied on the nonoxidized and oxidized at 350, 450, and 600 degrees C NiTi alloy for medical application. The adhesive force generated by the material surface towards the drops of alpha-minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) was used as a characteristic of NiTi adsorption properties. The study showed that variations in EWF and mechanical stress caused by surface treatment were accompanied by variations in adhesive force. NiTi oxidation at all temperatures used gave rise to decrease in adhesive force and surface stress values in comparison to the nonoxidized state. In contrary, the EWF value revealed increase under the same condition. Variations in surface oxide layer thickness and its phase composition were also followed. The important role of oxide crystallite size in EWF values within the range of crystallite dimensions typical for NiTi surface oxide as an instrument for the fine regulation of NiTi adsorption properties was demonstrated. The comparative oxidation of pure titanium and NiTi showed that the effect of Ni on the EWF value of NiTi surface oxide is negligible.

  11. A New Route for Unburned Carbon Concentration Measurements Eliminating Mineral Content and Coal Rank Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zhen; Yu, Hai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    500 million tons of coal fly ash are produced worldwide every year with only 16% of the total amount utilized. Therefore, potential applications using fly ash have both environmental and industrial interests. Unburned carbon concentration measurements are fundamental to effective fly ash applications. Current on-line measurement accuracies are strongly affected by the mineral content and coal rank. This paper describes a char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method for unburned carbon concentration measurements. The char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance is predicted theoretically here for various unburned carbon concentrations to show that the measurements are sensitive to unburned carbon concentration but insensitive to the mineral content and coal rank at short wavelengths. The results show that the char/ash particle cluster spectral emittance method is a novel and promising route for unburned carbon concentration on-line measurements without being influenced by mineral content or coal rank effects. PMID:24691496

  12. Influence of climatic parameters in the carbon content of topsoils in Galicia (NW-Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stock constitutes the largest pool of terrestrial organic carbon, acting as an important long-term sink for carbon released to the atmosphere by human activities. There is a general agreement in that climate highly influences the storage of carbon in soils, being low temperatures and high precipitation rates the environmental variables that mainly increase the carbon storage rates of soils. In this study, we analysed the distribution of SOC content in relation to climatic variability in a climate transition zone (Galicia, NW Spain). Raster maps of climatic variables have been created using spatially non-stationary algorithms. These variables, which include mean annual temperature, annual accumulated precipitation, continentality index, ombrothermic indexes and thermicity index, were then crossed with georeferenced SOC data from topsoil horizons to determine the spatial relationships between SOC content and climate. The model shows that the SOC content is highly related to the hydric balance within each location.

  13. Nonionic Organic Solute Sorption to two Organobentonites as a Function of Organic-Carbon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, S. L.; Burns, S. E.; Smith, J. A.

    2002-05-01

    Sorption of three nonionic organic solutes (benzene, trichloroethene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene) to hexadecyltrimethylammonium-bentonite (HDTMA-bentonite) and benzyltrimethylammonium-bentonite (BTEA-bentonite) was measured as a function of organic-carbon content at quaternary ammonium cation loadings ranging from 30 to 130% of the clay's cation-exchange capacity. Sorption of all three solutes to HDTMA-bentonite was linear and sorptive capacity of the HDTMA-bentonite increased as the organic-carbon content of the clay increased. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene sorbed most strongly to HDTMA-bentonite, followed by benzene and TCE. The stronger sorption of benzene to HDTMA-bentonite compared to TCE was unexpected based on a partition mechanism of sorption and consideration of solute solubility. This result may be caused by interactions between the pi electrons of benzene and the negatively charged surface of the clay. Log Koc values for all three solutes increased with organic-carbon content. This suggests that the increased organic-carbon content alone may not explain the observed increase in sorption capacity. Sorption of the three solutes to BTEA-bentonite was nonlinear and solute sorption decreased with increasing organic-carbon content. Surface area measurements indicate that the surface area of both organobentonites generally decreased with increasing organic-carbon content. Since nonionic organic solute sorption to BTEA-bentonite occurs by adsorption, the reduced sorption is likely caused by the reduction in surface area corresponding to increased organic cation loading.

  14. Corrosion of NiTi Wires with Cracked Oxide Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racek, Jan; Šittner, Petr; Heller, Luděk; Pilch, Jan; Petrenec, Martin; Sedlák, Petr

    2014-07-01

    Corrosion behavior of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy wires with cracked TiO2 surface oxide layers was investigated by electrochemical corrosion tests (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Open Circuit Potential, and Potentiodynamic Polarization) on wires bent into U-shapes of various bending radii. Cracks within the oxide on the surface of the bent wires were observed by FIB-SEM and TEM methods. The density and width of the surface oxide cracks dramatically increase with decreasing bending radius. The results of electrochemical experiments consistently show that corrosion properties of NiTi wires with cracked oxide layers (static load keeps the cracks opened) are inferior compared to the corrosion properties of the straight NiTi wires covered by virgin uncracked oxides. Out of the three methods employed, the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy seems to be the most appropriate test for the electrochemical characterization of the cracked oxide layers, since the impedance curves (Nyquist plot) of differently bent NiTi wires can be associated with increasing state of the surface cracking and since the NiTi wires are exposed to similar conditions as the surfaces of NiTi implants in human body. On the other hand, the potentiodynamic polarization test accelerates the corrosion processes and provides clear evidence that the corrosion resistance of bent superelastic NiTi wires degrades with oxide cracking.

  15. Soil total carbon content, aggregation, bulk density, and penetration resistance of croplands and nearby grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converting native grassland (NGL) to cropland (CL) decreases soil organic matter contents (components of soil total carbon contents, STCCs), which often leads to soil degradation. Reestablishing grass on CL generally increases soil organic matter, which improves soil conditions. This study was condu...

  16. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Wiezman, A.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.

    2011-06-01

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  17. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.; Wiezman, A.

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  18. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 ((14)C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. After cooling of extraction solutions, the resin was recovered as a fine semi-crystalline precipitate, which was easily filtered. Recovery rates were almost identical (99%), even for low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene, which may have lower crystallinity. This procedure could provide a suitable approach for estimation of biobased carbon content by AMS on the basis of the standard ASTM D 6866. The biobased carbon content for resin extracted from polyethylene composites allow for the calculation of biosynthetic polymer content, which is an indicator of mass percentage of the biobased plastic resin in the composite.

  19. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  20. Carbon content of austenite in austempered ductile iron

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.C.

    1998-06-05

    The development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a major achievement in cast iron technology. The austempering heat treatment enables the ductile cast iron containing mainly strong bainitic ferrite and ductile carbon-enriched austenite, with some martensite transforms from austenite during cooling down to room temperature. A key factor controlling the stability of the retained austenite can be evaluated soundly using the thermodynamics principles. It is the purpose here to demonstrate that the data of ADI from numerous sources have a similar trend.

  1. Contemporary carbon content of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in butter.

    PubMed

    Tong, T; Ondov, J M; Buchholz, B A; VanDerveer, M C

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈ 250 μg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5 ± 1.2% (n = 3, 1σ) to 97.1 ± 0.8% (n = 3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16 ± 0.12 (n = 5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S.

  2. Contemporary Carbon Content of Bis (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Butter

    PubMed Central

    Tong, T.; Ondov, J. M.; Buchholz, B. A.; VanDerveer, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈250 µg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5±1.2% (n=3, 1σ) to 97.1±0.8% (n=3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16±0.12 (n=5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S. PMID:26213077

  3. Atomistic Modeling of Pd Site Preference in NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of the site subsitution behavior of Pd in NiTi was performed using the BFS method for alloys. Through a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and detailed atom-by-atom energetic analyses of various computational cells, representing compositions of NiTi with up to 10 at% Pd, a detailed understanding of site occupancy of Pd in NiTi was revealed. Pd subsituted at the expense of Ni in a NiTi alloy will prefer the Ni-sites. Pd subsituted at the expense of Ti shows a very weak preference for Ti-sites that diminishes as the amount of Pd in the alloy increases and as the temperature increases.

  4. Corrosion resistance tests on NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G

    1996-10-01

    The corrosion performances of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) in human body simulating fluids were evaluated in comparison with other implant materials. As for the passivity current in potentiostatic conditions, taken as an index of ion release, the values are about three times higher for NiTi than for Ti6Al4V and austenitic stainless steels. Regarding the localized corrosion, while plain potentiodynamic scans indicated for NiTi alloy good resistance to pitting attack similar to Ti6Al4V, tests in which the passive film is abruptly damaged (i.e. potentiostatic scratch test and modified ASTM F746) pointed out that the characteristics of the passive film formed on NiTi alloy (whose strength can be related to the alloy's biocompatibility) are not as good as those on Ti6Al4V but are comparable or inferior to those on austenitic stainless steels.

  5. Shape memory effect of laser welded NiTi plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Fernandes, F. M. Braz; Schell, N.; Miranda, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Laser welding is a suitable joining technique for shape memory alloys (SMAs). This paper reports the existence of shape memory effect (SME) on laser welded NiTi joints, subjected to bending tests, and correlates this effect with the microstructural analysis performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All welded samples were able to recover their initial shape after bending to 180°, which is a remarkable result for industrial applications of NiTi involving laser welding.

  6. Evaluation of passive oxide layer formation-biocompatibility relationship in NiTi shape memory alloys: geometry and body location dependency.

    PubMed

    Toker, S M; Canadinc, D; Maier, H J; Birer, O

    2014-03-01

    A systematic set of ex-situ experiments were carried out on Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) in order to identify the dependence of its biocompatibility on sample geometry and body location. NiTi samples with three different geometries were immersed into three different fluids simulating different body parts. The changes observed in alloy surface and chemical content of fluids upon immersion experiments designed for four different time periods were analyzed in terms of ion release, oxide layer formation, and chemical composition of the surface layer. The results indicate that both sample geometry and immersion fluid significantly affect the alloy biocompatibility, as evidenced by the passive oxide layer formation on the alloy surface and ion release from the samples. Upon a 30 day immersion period, all three types of NiTi samples exhibited lower ion release than the critical value for clinic applications. However; a significant amount of ion release was detected in the case of gastric fluid, warranting a thorough investigation prior to utility of NiTi in gastrointestinal treatments involving long-time contact with tissue. Furthermore, certain geometries appear to be safer than the others for each fluid, providing a new set of guidelines to follow while designing implants making use of NiTi SMAs to be employed in treatments targeting specific body parts.

  7. Influence of solid content and maximum temperature on the performance of a hydrothermal carbonization reactor.

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, Imanol; Marchetti, Paola; Lohri, Christian Riuji; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2017-01-23

    Hydrothermal carbonization is a thermochemical process that converts wet organic matter into a sterile, high-calorific solid material called hydrochar. This technology is considered an interesting option for low- and middle-income urban settings, often lacking adequate services and high fraction of wet organic waste. The aim of this study was to study the influence of the loading rate (total solid content) and the maximum temperature reached on the resulting energy ratio (ER) of the process and the fuel properties of the obtained hydrochar. Ten experiments were carried out with a standardized biowaste-feedstock. Different solid contents (2.54%, 4.93%, 7.44%, 9.45%, 12.83%, 15.2% by weight) and different targeted maximum temperatures (170°C, 180°C, 190°C, 200°C) were tested. Compared to the feedstock, all resulting hydrochars had an increased higher heating value (HHV) (average of 29.2 MJ/kgdb) and carbon content (average of 66.9%db) than the original biowaste (19.3 MJ/kgdb and 46.2%db, respectively). The HHV obtained were similar to those of charcoal (29.6 MJ/kg). Higher solid contents resulted in higher hydrochar yields and carbon efficiencies, whereas higher temperatures resulted in higher carbon content and HHV of the hydrochar. The experiment with the highest solid content (15.2%wt) achieved an ER > 1.

  8. Porous NiTi surfaces for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the NiTi shape memory alloy was surface modified by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in Na3PO4 with the aim to produce porous NiTi surfaces for biomedical applications. The oxidation was performed potentiostatically and the characteristics of the resultant surfaces were compared with those obtained in NaAlO2/NaPO2H2 under similar conditions. Surfaces with sub-micron sized pores could be produced in Na3PO4 electrolyte at 300 V. The process was accompanied by intense gas evolution and enhanced thermal effects relative to the NaAlO2/NaPO2H2 electrolyte. The EDS analyses revealed the presence of O, Ti, P, Ni, and a Ni/Ti atomic ratio of 0.4 suggesting preferential oxidation of titanium during the process and depletion of Ni from the surface. No crystalline oxide phases were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD). By comparison, the layers formed in NaAlO2/NaPO2H2 consisted of crystalline Al2O3 and the Ni/Ti atomic ratio was 0.74. Following oxidation, the wettability and surface free energy of NiTi increased significantly. The findings of this study indicate that the PEO process shows potential for expanding the biofunctionality of NiTi.

  9. Porous NiTi for bone implants: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bansiddhi, A.; Sargeant, T.D.; Stupp, S.I.; Dunand, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    NiTi foams are unique among biocompatible porous metals because of their high recovery strain (due to the shape-memory or superelastic effects) and their low stiffness facilitating integration with bone structures. To optimize NiTi foams for bone implant applications, two key areas are under active study: synthesis of foams with optimal architectures, microstructure and mechanical properties; and tailoring of biological interactions through modifications of pore surfaces. This article reviews recent research on NiTi foams for bone replacement, focusing on three specific topics: (i) surface modifications designed to create bio-inert porous NiTi surfaces with low Ni release and corrosion, as well as bioactive surfaces to enhance and accelerate biological activity; (ii) In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies to confirm the long-term safety of porous NiTi implants; and (iii) biological evaluations for specific applications, such as in intervertebral fusion devices and bone tissue scaffolds. Possible future directions for bio-performance and processing studies are discussed that could lead to optimized porous NiTi implants. PMID:18348912

  10. Soil Water Cycling Links to Carbon Content between Ecosystems in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. M.; Anderson, D. E.; Stannard, D. I.; Mladinich, C. S.; Thienelt, T. S.; Blanken, P.

    2011-12-01

    Near surface soil-water content is crucial to the sustainability of an ecosystem. Additionally, the feedbacks between soil water and soil carbon improve the ability to predict carbon sequestration rates. Organic-carbon content in surface soils influences soil texture and, subsequently, water holding capacity. Preliminary research for two growing seasons (2010 and 2011) compares soil water, temperature, heat flux, and evapotranspiration (ET) with soil organic carbon content at several sites in the Colorado Front Range. Continuous measurements of precipitation, soil moisture and temperature, and energy fluxes were conducted from eddy covariance flux towers at three sites around metropolitan Denver: one urban site and two adjacent sites, a montane forest (Flying J Ranch Open Space), and a native tallgrass prairie (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge (NWR)). Irrigation data were obtained for the Denver urban site and added to its precipitation to obtain total water inputs. Soil samples (0-5cm) were collected at each tower site and analyzed for bulk density, volumetric water content, and organic carbon content. Soil water inputs and losses (as ET) were analyzed for each site and compared to soil organic carbon content. Rocky Flats NWR soils contained the highest organic carbon content (20-30 percent), while the urban site and Flying J Ranch soils contained between 10-15 percent. Comparing grassland sites, the urban soil received 5 times higher water input (600mm, more than half from irrigation) in 2010 than those of Rocky Flats. Despite less water input, the Rocky Flats site developed more soil organic carbon, possibly due to large amounts of grassland biomass mineralization and moderate soil moisture conditions through the season. The Denver urban site demonstrated less soil moisture variability in response to surface-water inputs from precipitation compared to soils at the native grassland and montane sites, perhaps limiting the conditions under which soil carbon

  11. Factors and processes governing the C-14 content of carbonate in desert soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundson, Ronald; Wang, Yang; Chadwick, Oliver; Trumbore, Susan; Mcfadden, Leslie; Mcdonald, Eric; Wells, Steven; Deniro, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented describing the factors and processes which determine the measured C-14 ages of soil calcium carbonate. Pedogenic carbonate forms in isotopic equilium with soil CO2. Carbon dioxide in soils is a mixture of CO2 derived from two biological sources: respiration by living plant roots and respiration of microorganisms decomposing soil humus. The relative proportion of these two CO2 sources can greatly affect the initial C-14 content of pedogenic carbonate: the greater the contribution of humus-derived CO2, the greater the initial C-14 age of the carbonate mineral. For any given mixture of CO2 sources, the steady-state (14)CO2 distribution vs. soil depth can be described by a production/diffusion model. As a soil ages, the C-14 age of soil humus increases, as does the steady-state C-14 age of soil CO2 and the initial C-14 age of any pedogenic carbonate which forms. The mean C-14 age of a complete pedogenic carbonate coating or nodule will underestimate the true age of the soil carbonate. This discrepancy increases the older a soil becomes. Partial removal of outer (and younger) carbonate coatings greatly improves the relationship between measured C-14 age and true age. Although the production/diffusion model qualitatively explains the C-14 age of pedogenic carbonate vs. soil depth in many soils, other factors, such as climate change, may contribute to the observed trends, particularily in soils older than the Holocene.

  12. Effects of tantalum content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon RAFM steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianguo; Liu, Chenxi; Liu, Yongchang; Yan, Biyu; Li, Huijun

    2016-10-01

    In order to explore the influence of tantalum content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon RAFM (reduced activation ferritic/martensitic) steels, three low carbon RAFM steels with different tantalum contents (0%, 0.027%, 0.073%) were designed. The precipitation behavior and effect of precipitates on the mechanical properties of the Low-C RAFM steel were investigated. The results indicate that increase of tantalum content causes decrease of the prior austenite grain size and the amount of M23C6 carbides precipitated along prior austenite grain boundaries and packet boundaries as well as increase of the amount of MX nano-sized particles within intragranular regions. The impact properties of low carbon RAFM steels are excellent regardless of the tantalum content. The impact properties and hardness are obviously improved by increasing tantalum content, which may be related to increase of the number of MX and decrease of M23C6. Furthermore, the tensile properties at elevated temperature below 600 °C are hardly changed with increase of tantalum content, yet those at 800 °C are improved with increasing tantalum content. This implies that MX carbides would be more important for tensile properties at higher temperature.

  13. [Relationship between organic carbon and water content in four type wetland sediments in Sanjiang Plain].

    PubMed

    Tong, Cheng-li; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Hong-qing; Tang, Guo-yong; Yang, Gai-ren; Wu, Jin-shui

    2005-11-01

    Characteristic and relationship were analyzed between organic carbon and water content in four types of wetlands (one cultivated wetland and three typical natural wetlands including fen, marsh and marshy meadow) in Sanjiang Plain of Northeastern China. Results show that there are distinct differences in the depths of organic carbon deposition, the organic carbon and water content in sediment profiles of these four type wetlands. There are significant positive correlations between organic carbon and water content in sediment profiles of the same type wetland (p < 0.01; R2 = 0.8276, 0.9917, 0.9916 and 0.9782 for cultivated wetland, fen, marsh and marshy meadow, respectively). The trend for evolution of ecological and environmental functions of wetland ecosystems is discussed based on the analysis of the relationship between soil organic carbon and water content. The results further illustrate the viewpoint that the protection and restoration of wetlands could lessen the global climate change caused by the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  14. Snapshot prediction of carbon productivity, carbon and protein content in a Southern Ocean diatom using FTIR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sackett, Olivia; Petrou, Katherina; Reedy, Brian; Hill, Ross; Doblin, Martina; Beardall, John; Ralph, Peter; Heraud, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Diatoms, an important group of phytoplankton, bloom annually in the Southern Ocean, covering thousands of square kilometers and dominating the region's phytoplankton communities. In their role as the major food source to marine grazers, diatoms supply carbon, nutrients and energy to the Southern Ocean food web. Prevailing environmental conditions influence diatom phenotypic traits (for example, photophysiology, macromolecular composition and morphology), which in turn affect the transfer of energy, carbon and nutrients to grazers and higher trophic levels, as well as oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The paucity of phenotypic data on Southern Ocean phytoplankton limits our understanding of the ecosystem and how it may respond to future environmental change. Here we used a novel approach to create a ‘snapshot' of cell phenotype. Using mass spectrometry, we measured nitrogen (a proxy for protein), total carbon and carbon-13 enrichment (carbon productivity), then used this data to build spectroscopy-based predictive models. The models were used to provide phenotypic data for samples from a third sample set. Importantly, this approach enabled the first ever rate determination of carbon productivity from a single time point, circumventing the need for time-series measurements. This study showed that Chaetoceros simplex was less productive and had lower protein and carbon content during short-term periods of high salinity. Applying this new phenomics approach to natural phytoplankton samples could provide valuable insight into understanding phytoplankton productivity and function in the marine system. PMID:26230047

  15. Equilibrated moisture content of several carbon phenolics and their relationship to resin, fiber, and interface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between relative humidity and the equilibrated moisture content of several variants of two distinctly different carbon phenolic composites. One of the materials gives a typical exponential relationship between RH and equilibrated moisture content while the second gives an inverse sigmoidal relationship with the largest increase in moisture between 45-60 percent relative humidity. The possible relationship between the shape of the curves and the nature of the material constituents is discussed.

  16. Carbonated apatites obtained by the hydrolysis of monetite: influence of carbonate content on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Ilse Y; Van den Vreken, Natasja M F; Declercq, Heidi A; Cornelissen, Maria J; Verbeeck, Ronald M H

    2010-04-01

    The influence of the carbonate content in apatites on the adhesion and the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was investigated. B-type carbonated apatites (DCAps) were prepared by the hydrolysis of monetite (CaHPO(4), DCP) in solutions with a carbonate concentration ranging from 0.001 to 0.075 mol l(-1). Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (DCAp0) was synthesized in carbonate-free solution. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the compacted DCAps and cell adhesion and proliferation were analysed after 24h and 7 days, respectively, using a MTS assay and fluorescence microscopy. Cell adhesion tends to increase with increasing carbonate content for carbonate contents between 0 and 6.9 wt.% and levels out to an acceptable value (+ or - 50% compared to the control) for carbonate contents between 6.9 and 16.1 wt.%. Only DCAps with a carbonate content equal to or higher than 11% support high cell proliferation comparable to the control. On the latter DCAps, the cells have a spread morphology and form a near-confluent layer. A decrease in charge density and crystallinity at the apatite surface, as well as the formation of more spheroidal crystals with increasing carbonate content, might attribute to changes in composition and three-dimensional structure of the protein adsorption layer and hence to the observed cell behaviour. Consequently, only DCAps with a high carbonate content, mimicking early in vivo mineralization, are possible candidates for bone regeneration.

  17. [Effects of different fertilization modes on paddy field topsoil organic carbon content and carbon sequestration duration in South China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Qun; Yang, Min-Fang; Xu, Min-Lun; Zhang, Wu-Yi; Bian, Xin-Min

    2012-01-01

    Based on the organic carbon data of 222 topsoil samples taken from 38 paddy field experiment sites in South China, calculations were made on the relative annual change of topsoil organic carbon content (RAC) and carbon sequestration duration in the paddy fields in South China under five fertilization modes (inorganic nitrogen fertilization, N; inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, NP; inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization, NPK; organic fertilization, O; and inorganic plus organic fertilization, OF). The RAC under the fertilizations was 0-0.4 g x kg(-1) x a(-1), with an increment of 0.20 and 0.26 g x kg(-1) x a(-1) in double and triple cropping systems, respectively. The RAC was higher in treatments O and OF than in treatments N, NP, and NPK, being the highest (0.32 g x kg(-1) x a(-1)) in treatment OF. The topsoil organic carbon accumulation rate decreased with increasing time, and the carbon sequestration duration in treatments N, NP, NPK, O, and OF was about 22, 28, 38, 57, and 54 years, respectively. Inorganic plus organic fertilization was the most effective practice for soil carbon sequestration in the paddy fields in South China.

  18. Dynamic powder compaction of rapidly solidified Path A alloy with increased carbon and titanium content

    SciTech Connect

    Megusar, J.; Imeson, D.; Vander Sande, J.B.; Grant, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the potential of the dynamic powder compaction technique to consolidate rapidly solidified Path A alloys and to develop microstructures with improved irradiation performance in the fusion environment. Samples of rapidly solidified and dynamically compacted Path A alloy with increased carbon and titanium content have been included in alloy development irradiation experiments.

  19. Reduction of adsorption capacity of coconut shell activated carbon for organic vapors due to moisture contents.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Hironobu; Furuse, Mitsuya; Takano, Tsuguo

    2010-01-01

    In occupational hygiene, activated carbon produced from coconut shell is a common adsorbent material for harmful substances including organic vapors due to its outstanding adsorption capacity and cost advantage. However, moisture adsorption of the carbon generally decreases the adsorption capacity for organic vapors. In a previous report, we prepared several coconut shell activated carbons which had been preconditioned by equilibration with moisture at different relative humidities and measured the breakthrough times for 6 kinds of organic vapor, in order to clarify the effect of preliminary moisture content in activated carbon on the adsorption capacity in detail. We found that the relative percent weight increase due to moisture adsorption of the carbon specimen had a quantitative effect, reducing the breakthrough time. In this report, we carried out further measurements of the effect of moisture content on the adsorption of 13 kinds of organic vapor, and investigated the relationship between moisture adsorption and the reduction of the breakthrough time of activated carbon specimens. We also applied the data to the Wood's breakthrough time estimation model which is an extension of the Wheeler-Jonas equation.

  20. Caffeine content of prepackaged national-brand and private-label carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Chou, K-H; Bell, L N

    2007-08-01

    Caffeine is a well-known stimulant that is added as an ingredient to various carbonated soft drinks. Due to its stimulatory and other physiological effects, individuals desire to know the exact amount of caffeine consumed from these beverages. This study analyzed the caffeine contents of 56 national-brand and 75 private-label store-brand carbonated beverages using high-performance liquid chromatography. Caffeine contents ranged from 4.9 mg/12 oz (IGA Cola) to 74 mg/12 oz (Vault Zero). Some of the more common national-brand carbonated beverages analyzed in this study with their caffeine contents were Coca-Cola (33.9 mg/12 oz), Diet Coke (46.3 mg/12 oz), Pepsi (38.9 mg/12 oz), Diet Pepsi (36.7 mg/12 oz), Dr Pepper (42.6 mg/12 oz), Diet Dr Pepper (44.1 mg/12 oz), Mountain Dew (54.8 mg/12 oz), and Diet Mountain Dew (55.2 mg/12 oz). The Wal-Mart store-brand beverages with their caffeine contents were Sam's Cola (12.7 mg/12 oz), Sam's Diet Cola (13.3 mg/12 oz), Dr Thunder (30.6 mg/12 oz), Diet Dr Thunder (29.9 mg/12 oz), and Mountain Lightning (46.5 mg/12 oz). Beverages from 14 other stores were also analyzed. Most store-brand carbonated beverages were found to contain less caffeine than their national-brand counterparts. The wide range of caffeine contents in carbonated beverages indicates that consumers would benefit from the placement of caffeine values on food labels.

  1. Estimating the soil organic carbon content for European NUTS2 regions based on LUCAS data collection.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B

    2013-01-01

    Under the European Union Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, the European Commission Directorate-General for the Environment and the European Environmental Agency (EEA) identified a decline in soil organic carbon and soil losses by erosion as priorities for the collection of policy relevant soil data at European scale. Moreover, the estimation of soil organic carbon content is of crucial importance for soil protection and for climate change mitigation strategies. Soil organic carbon is one of the attributes of the recently developed LUCAS soil database. The request for data on soil organic carbon and other soil attributes arose from an on-going debate about efforts to establish harmonized datasets for all EU countries with data on soil threats in order to support modeling activities and display variations in these soil conditions across Europe. In 2009, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre conducted the LUCAS soil survey, sampling ca. 20,000 points across 23 EU member states. This article describes the results obtained from analyzing the soil organic carbon data in the LUCAS soil database. The collected data were compared with the modeled European topsoil organic carbon content data developed at the JRC. The best fitted comparison was performed at NUTS2 level and showed underestimation of modeled data in southern Europe and overestimation in the new central eastern member states. There is a good correlation in certain regions for countries such as the United Kingdom, Slovenia, Italy, Ireland, and France. Here we assess the feasibility of producing comparable estimates of the soil organic carbon content at NUTS2 regional level for the European Union (EU27) and draw a comparison with existing modeled data. In addition to the data analysis, we suggest how the modeled data can be improved in future updates with better calibration of the model.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen contents in Desert Plants and Soil in the Yanqi basin of Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen are two main elements in plant-soil systems. Here, we present a study of carbon and nitrogen contents in several typical desert plants and underlying soil, which was conducted in Yanqi basin, Xinjiang province of China. Our results show that carbon (C) content is around 30% in both aboveground tissues and belowground roots. Nitrogen (N) content in desert plants has a range of 0.5%-3.5%, and the aboveground tissue has higher nitrogen content (~2%) than the belowground root (~1%). As a result, the belowground root has higher C/N ratio (~35) than the aboveground tissue (~25). Especially, the C/N values in belowground roots are twice as much as their aboveground tissues in Acroption repens, Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. and Halostachys caspica. In desert soils, the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) with depth 0-50cm are range of 12.5-4.6 and 3.2-1.4 g/kg, respectively, different . As expected, the SOC and TN contents are declined with the depth increase. Meanwhile, our result indicated the soil TN is followed the SOC dynamic, as both elements are bond into the organic compounds. However, unlike the C/N ratios in aboveground tissue and roots, there is no significant difference of C/N ratios (2.95-3.46) in the soils within the 0-50 cm depth. The results inferred that in the desert plant C mainly storage in roots, but the C, N allocation between desert plant and soil has no significantly related.

  3. The effect of heating rate on the surface chemistry of NiTi.

    PubMed

    Undisz, Andreas; Hanke, Robert; Freiberg, Katharina E; Hoffmann, Volker; Rettenmayr, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The impact of the heating rate on the Ni content at the surface of the oxide layer of biomedical NiTi is explored. Heat treatment emulating common shape-setting procedures was performed by means of conventional and inductive heating for similar annealing time and temperature, applying various heating rates from ~0.25 K s(-1) to 250 K s(-1). A glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy method was established and employed to evaluate concentration profiles of Ni, Ti and O in the near-surface region at high resolution. The Ni content at the surface of the differently treated samples varies significantly, with maximum surface Ni concentrations of ~20 at.% at the lowest and ~1.5 at.% at the highest heating rate, i.e. the total amount of Ni contained in the surface region of the oxide layer decreases by >15 times. Consequently, the heating rate is a determinant for the biomedical characteristics of NiTi, especially since Ni available at the surface of the oxide layer may affect the hemocompatibility and be released promptly after surgical application of a respective implant. Furthermore, apparently contradictory results presented in the literature reporting surface Ni concentrations of ~3 at.% to >20 at.% after heat treatment are consistently explained considering the ascertained effect of the heating rate.

  4. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  5. Determination of fossil carbon content in Swedish waste fuel by four different methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Frida C; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bisaillon, Mattias; Lindberg, Daniel K; Hupa, Mikko

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the content of fossil carbon in waste combusted in Sweden by using four different methods at seven geographically spread combustion plants. In total, the measurement campaign included 42 solid samples, 21 flue gas samples, 3 sorting analyses and 2 investigations using the balance method. The fossil carbon content in the solid samples and in the flue gas samples was determined using (14)C-analysis. From the analyses it was concluded that about a third of the carbon in mixed Swedish waste (municipal solid waste and industrial waste collected at Swedish industry sites) is fossil. The two other methods (the balance method and calculations from sorting analyses), based on assumptions and calculations, gave similar results in the plants in which they were used. Furthermore, the results indicate that the difference between samples containing as much as 80% industrial waste and samples consisting of solely municipal solid waste was not as large as expected. Besides investigating the fossil content of the waste, the project was also established to investigate the usability of various methods. However, it is difficult to directly compare the different methods used in this project because besides the estimation of emitted fossil carbon the methods provide other information, which is valuable to the plant owner. Therefore, the choice of method can also be controlled by factors other than direct determination of the fossil fuel emissions when considering implementation in the combustion plants.

  6. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  7. [Study on the content and carbon isotopic composition of water dissolved inorganic carbon from rivers around Xi'an City].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Li, Xiang-Zhong; Liu, Wei-Guo

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the content and isotopic compositions of water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from four typical rivers (Chanhe, Bahe, Laohe and Heihe) around Xi'an City were studied to trace the possible sources of DIC. The results of this study showed that the content of DIC in the four rivers varied from 0.34 to 5.66 mmol x L(-1) with an average value of 1.23 mmol x L(-1). In general, the content of DIC increased from the headstream to the river mouth. The delta13C(DIC) of four rivers ranged from -13.3 per thousand to -7.2 per thousand, with an average value of -10.1 per thousand. The delta13C(DIC) values of river water were all negative (average value of -12.6 per thousand) at the headstream of four rivers, but the delta13C(DIC) values of downstream water were more positive (with an average value of -9.4 per thousand). In addition, delta13C(DIC) of river water showed relatively negative values (the average value of delta13C(DIC) was -10.5 per thousand) near the estuary of the rivers. The variation of the DIC content and its carbon isotope suggested that the DIC sources of the rivers varied from the headstream to the river mouth. The negative delta13C(DIC) value indicated that the DIC may originate from the soil CO2 at the headstream of the rivers. On the other hand, the delta13C(DIC) values of river water at the middle and lower reaches of rivers were more positive, and it showed that soil CO2 produced by respiration of the C4 plants (like corn) and soil carbonates with positive delta13C values may be imported into river water. Meanwhile, the input of pollutants with low delta13C(DIC) values may result in a decrease of delta13C(DIC) values in the rivers. The study indicated that the DIC content and carbon isotope may be used to trace the sources of DIC in rivers around Xi'an City. Our study may provide some basic information for tracing the sources of DIC of rivers in the small watershed area in the Loess Plateau of China.

  8. [Soluble organic carbon in plant litters on Loess Plateau: content and biodegradability].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-yang; Zhou, Jian-bin; Xia, Zhi-min; Chen, Xing-li

    2010-12-01

    The litters of eight plant species from the Loess Plateau were cut into pieces with 2 mm and 1 cm in size, and extracted with distilled water and 0.01 mol x L(-1) CaCl2 to determine the soluble organic carbon (SOC) content. In the meantime, a 7-day indoor incubation test was conducted at (25 +/- 3) degrees C to investigate their biodegradability. The SOC content and the ratio of SOC to total carbon (SOC/TC) in the litters were 18.20-156.82 g x kg(-1) and 4.21%-32.84%, respectively. Shrub litter had a slightly higher SOC content than tree litter, while grass litter had the lowest SOC content. After 7-day incubation, the biodegradation rate of SOC in the plant litters ranged from 44.5% to 80.6% (62.9% on average), and decreased in the order of shrub > tree > grass. By the end of the incubation, the proportion of soluble organic matter in solution had a significant increasing trend, which was related to the rapid biodegradation of labile composition in the litters. The higher content and higher biodegradation rate of SOC in plant litters might play important roles in nutrient cycling and energy flow during the vegetation restoration on Loess Plateau.

  9. Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.

    PubMed

    Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A

    2006-04-01

    At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology.

  10. Bonding and hardness in nonhydrogenated carbon films with moderate sp{sup 3} content

    SciTech Connect

    Gago, R.; Jimenez, I.; Albella, J. M.; Climent-Font, A.; Caceres, D.; Vergara, I.; Banks, J. C.; Doyle, B. L.; Terminello, L. J.

    2000-06-01

    Amorphous carbon films with an sp{sup 3} content up to 25% and a negligible amount of hydrogen have been grown by evaporation of graphite with concurrent Ar{sup +} ion bombardment. The sp{sup 3} content is maximized for Ar{sup +} energies between 200 and 300 eV following a subplantation mechanism. Higher ion energies deteriorate the film due to sputtering and heating processes. The hardness of the films increases in the optimal assisting range from 8 to 18 GPa, and is explained by crosslinking of graphitic planes through sp{sup 3} connecting sites. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. The method of soft sensor modeling for fly ash carbon content based on ARMA deviation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiu; Yang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The carbon content of fly ash is an important parameter in the process of boiler combustion. Aiming at the existing problems of fly ash detection, the soft measurement model was established based on PSO-SVM, and the method of deviation correction based on ARMA model was put forward on this basis, the soft sensing model was calibrated by the values which were obtained by off-line analysis at intervals. The 600 MW supercritical sliding pressure boiler was taken for research objects, the auxiliary variables were selected and the data which collected by DCS were simulated. The result shows that the prediction model for the carbon content of fly ash based on PSO-SVM is good in effect of fitting, and introducing the correction module is helpful to improve the prediction accuracy.

  12. The Effects of Simulated Wildfire on Particle Size and Carbon Content in Piedmont Soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynes, A.; Werts, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Soils are a known carbon sink, holding twice as much carbon as the atmosphere (Schlesinger, 1995). However, little is known about how much soil organic carbon (SOC) is released from the soil during fire events. Surface fires can heat mineral soils to up to 500°C at depths of several centimeters and maintain that temperature for hours (Werts and Jahren, 2007). This has been known to affect the size of particles in soils, carbon content in the soils, and the clay mineralogy (Hungerford et al, 1993). This study looks at relationships between soil clay content and clay chemistry in relation to carbon emissions during surface fires, to determine temperature effects on several piedmont soil types from South Carolina. Soil samples were taken from three different sites varying in clay content, clay type, parent material, and development. Temperature increases were applied in increments of 50°C, with a range from 100°C to 500°C, to determine fire effects on SOC, particle size, and clay mineralogy of the soils. We found a decrease in SOC (up to 98%) from the original amount in all soil horizons with temperature applications up to 500°C. At a temperature range between 100°C and 300°C, most soil horizons showed an increase in clay of a range between 0.1 and 34%. At temperatures ranging from 300°C to 500°C, there was a decrease in clay ranging from 2.5-42%. While previous research suggests that a positive correlation between the percentage of clay and SOC in soils is common (Feller and Beare, 1997), in this study, a negative correlation was found between the percentage of clay and SOC in all three soil types (R2=0.87, 0.76, and 0.59) at 100°C. There appears to be an increasingly positive relationship between clay and carbon as temperature increases, although a consistent high correlation was not present at all temperatures. This is counter to what was found initially in our soils prior to heating. While research into surface fires is important to the understanding of

  13. The influence of FeTi and NiTi intermetallide additions on high-temperature oxidation of permalloy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Klimenko, V.N.; Lavrenko, V.A.; Panasyuk, O.A.; Blasova, O.V.; Protsenko, T.G.

    1995-11-01

    As a rule powder metallurgy Permalloy alloys are used in production of parts for electronic instruments. For the purpose of controlling the magnetic and electrical properties and also the wear (in the case of production of magnetic heads) and corrosion resistance appropriate additions of metals or such compounds as carbides and oxides are added to the alloy. In this work use of FeTi and NiTi intermetallides produced by reaction sintering of powders of pure metals in a protective atmosphere as alloying additions to Permalloy is recommended. The size of the original powders is less than 100 {mu}m. For reaction sintering at temperature 50{degrees}C above the eutectic temperature in the Ti-TiFe and TiNi-Ni systems was selected. The contents of titanium, iron, and oxygen in the FeTi alloy is 51.9, 45.7, and 2.4 wt.%, respectively, and of titanium, nickel, and oxygen in the NiTi alloy 59.6, 31.9, and 4.6 wt.%. High-temperature oxidation in air up to 1300{degrees}C with a rate of change in temperature of 15{degrees}C of type 78N Permalloy with additions of FeTi and NiTi alloys was investigated with use of methods of differential thermal and differential thermogravimetric analyses on an OD-103 derivatograph under nonisothermal conditions. The reaction products were studied by x-ray diffraction phase analysis on a DRON-3 instrument in CoK{sub {alpha}}-radiation. Pure 78N alloy powder with a composition of 78.1% Ni + 19.3% Fe (specimen 1) and also with additions of 1% FeTi (specimen 2) and 1% NiTi (specimen 3) were subjected to oxidation.

  14. Digital Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon Contents and Stocks in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Minasny, Budiman; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette B.; Greve, Mogens H.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of carbon contents and stocks are important for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and national carbon balance inventories. For Denmark, we modeled the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density, and mapped its spatial distribution at five standard soil depth intervals (0−5, 5−15, 15−30, 30−60 and 60−100 cm) using 18 environmental variables as predictors. SOC distribution was influenced by precipitation, land use, soil type, wetland, elevation, wetness index, and multi-resolution index of valley bottom flatness. The highest average SOC content of 20 g kg−1 was reported for 0−5 cm soil, whereas there was on average 2.2 g SOC kg−1 at 60−100 cm depth. For SOC and bulk density prediction precision decreased with soil depth, and a standard error of 2.8 g kg−1 was found at 60−100 cm soil depth. Average SOC stock for 0−30 cm was 72 t ha−1 and in the top 1 m there was 120 t SOC ha−1. In total, the soils stored approximately 570 Tg C within the top 1 m. The soils under agriculture had the highest amount of carbon (444 Tg) followed by forest and semi-natural vegetation that contributed 11% of the total SOC stock. More than 60% of the total SOC stock was present in Podzols and Luvisols. Compared to previous estimates, our approach is more reliable as we adopted a robust quantification technique and mapped the spatial distribution of SOC stock and prediction uncertainty. The estimation was validated using common statistical indices and the data and high-resolution maps could be used for future soil carbon assessment and inventories. PMID:25137066

  15. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages

    PubMed Central

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. Design: A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), accuracy (94–104% recovery) and precision (RSD<2%). Result: Fructose comprised 55.58% of total sugars (95% confidence interval 55.51–55.65%), based on 160 total measurements by 2 independent laboratories of 80 randomly selected carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval=0.01–0.54%). Conclusions: Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and

  16. Digital mapping of soil organic carbon contents and stocks in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Hartemink, Alfred E; Minasny, Budiman; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette B; Greve, Mogens H

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of carbon contents and stocks are important for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and national carbon balance inventories. For Denmark, we modeled the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density, and mapped its spatial distribution at five standard soil depth intervals (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60 and 60-100 cm) using 18 environmental variables as predictors. SOC distribution was influenced by precipitation, land use, soil type, wetland, elevation, wetness index, and multi-resolution index of valley bottom flatness. The highest average SOC content of 20 g kg(-1) was reported for 0-5 cm soil, whereas there was on average 2.2 g SOC kg(-1) at 60-100 cm depth. For SOC and bulk density prediction precision decreased with soil depth, and a standard error of 2.8 g kg(-1) was found at 60-100 cm soil depth. Average SOC stock for 0-30 cm was 72 t ha(-1) and in the top 1 m there was 120 t SOC ha(-1). In total, the soils stored approximately 570 Tg C within the top 1 m. The soils under agriculture had the highest amount of carbon (444 Tg) followed by forest and semi-natural vegetation that contributed 11% of the total SOC stock. More than 60% of the total SOC stock was present in Podzols and Luvisols. Compared to previous estimates, our approach is more reliable as we adopted a robust quantification technique and mapped the spatial distribution of SOC stock and prediction uncertainty. The estimation was validated using common statistical indices and the data and high-resolution maps could be used for future soil carbon assessment and inventories.

  17. Nonequiatomic NiTi Alloy Produced by Self Propagating High Temperature Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, P.; Bassani, E.; Tuissi, A.; Giuliani, P.; Zanotti, C.

    2014-07-01

    Shape memory alloy NiTi in porous form is of high interest as implantable material, as low apparent elastic modulus, comparable to that of bone, can be achieved. This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Porous NiTi can be produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from mixed powders of pure Ni and Ti. Process parameters, among which powder compaction degree and preheating temperature, strongly influence the reaction temperature and the resulting product: at low reaction temperatures, high quantity of secondary phases are formed, which are generally considered detrimental for biocompatibility. On the contrary, at higher reaction temperatures, the powders melt and crystallize in ingots. The porous structure is lost and huge pores are formed. Mechanical activation of powders through ball milling and addition of TiH x are investigated as means to reduce reaction temperature and overheating, in order to preserve high porosity and limit secondary phases content. Both processes affect SHS reaction, and require adjustment of parameters such as heating rate. Changes in porous shape and size were observed especially for TiH x additions: the latter could be a promising route to obtain shaped porous products of improved quality.

  18. Size and Carbon Content of Sub-seafloor Microbial Cells at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Stefan; Morono, Yuki; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel; Aslan, Hüsnü; Dong, Mingdong; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of a microbial ecosystem in ocean sediments has evoked interest in life under extreme energy limitation and its role in global element cycling. However, fundamental parameters such as the size and the amount of biomass of sub-seafloor microbial cells are poorly constrained. Here we determined the volume and the carbon content of microbial cells from a marine sediment drill core retrieved by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), Expedition 347, at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea. To determine their shape and volume, cells were separated from the sediment matrix by multi-layer density centrifugation and visualized via epifluorescence microscopy (FM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Total cell-carbon was calculated from amino acid-carbon, which was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after cells had been purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The majority of microbial cells in the sediment have coccoid or slightly elongated morphology. From the sediment surface to the deepest investigated sample (~60 m below the seafloor), the cell volume of both coccoid and elongated cells decreased by an order of magnitude from ~0.05 to 0.005 μm3. The cell-specific carbon content was 19–31 fg C cell−1, which is at the lower end of previous estimates that were used for global estimates of microbial biomass. The cell-specific carbon density increased with sediment depth from about 200 to 1000 fg C μm−3, suggesting that cells decrease their water content and grow small cell sizes as adaptation to the long-term subsistence at very low energy availability in the deep biosphere. We present for the first time depth-related data on the cell volume and carbon content of sedimentary microbial cells buried down to 60 m below the seafloor. Our data enable estimates of volume- and biomass-specific cellular rates of energy metabolism in the deep biosphere and will improve global estimates of microbial biomass. PMID:27630628

  19. Total content of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere over Russian regions according to satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnov, S. A.; Mokhov, I. I.; Dzhola, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) total columns over European Russia (ER) and western Siberia (WS) have been analyzed using MOPITT (V5, TIR/NIR, L3) IR-radiometer data obtained in 2000-2014. High CO contents are revealed over large urban and industrial agglomerations and over regions of oil-and-gas production. A stable local CO maximum is observed over the Moscow agglomeration. Statistical characteristics of CO total columns observed in the atmosphere over ER and WS in 2000-2014 are presented. An analysis of long-term changes in CO content reveals nonlinear changes in the CO total column over northern Eurasia in 2000-2014. Results of a comparative analysis of annual variations in atmospheric CO contents over ER and WS are given. Based on Fourier analysis, empirical models of annual variations in total CO contents over ER and WS are proposed. Relations between regional CO contents and fire characteristics and between spatial CO distributions and features of large-scale atmospheric dynamics under conditions of weather and climate anomalies in the summers of 2010 in ER and 2012 in WS are analyzed. Data on total CO contents measured with a MOPITT satellite radiometer and a ground-based spectrometer operating at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station of the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics are compared.

  20. Organic carbon and nitrogen content associated with colloids and suspended particulates from the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; Daniel, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suspended material samples were collected at 16 sites along the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries during July-August 1991, October-November 1991, and April-May 1992, and separated into colloid and particulate fractions to determine the organic carbon content of these two fractions of suspended material. Sample collection involved centrifugation to isolate the suspended particulate fraction and ultrafiltration to isolate the colloid fraction. For the first time, particulate and colloid concentrations and organic carbon and nitrogen content were investigated along the entire reach of the Mississippi River from above Minneapolis, Minnesota, to below New Orleans, Louisiana. Organic carbon content of the colloid (15.2 percent) was much higher than organic carbon content of the particulate material (4.8 percent). Carbon/nitrogen ratios of colloid and particulate phases were more similar to ratios for microorganisms than to ratios for soils, humic materials, or plants.Suspended material samples were collected at 16 sites along the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries during July-August 1991, October-November 1991, and April-May 1992, and separated into colloid and particulate fractions to determine the organic carbon content of these two fractions of suspended material. Sample collection involved centrifugation to isolate the suspended particulate fraction and ultrafiltration to isolate the colloid fraction. For the first time, particulate and colloid concentrations and organic carbon and nitrogen content were investigated along the entire reach of the Mississippi River from above Minneapolis, Minnesota, to below New Orleans, Louisiana. Organic carbon content of the colloid (15.2 percent) was much higher than organic carbon content of the particulate material (4.8 percent). Carbon/nitrogen ratios of colloid and particulate phases were more similar to ratios for microorganisms than to ratios for soils, humic materials, or plants.

  1. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  2. Perspectives on Proterozoic surface ocean redox from iodine contents in ancient and recent carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Lu, Zunli; Bekker, Andrey; Diamond, Charles W.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Jiang, Ganqing; Kah, Linda C.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Loyd, Sean J.; Osburn, Magdalena R.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Wang, Chunjiang; Zhou, Xiaoli; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-04-01

    The Proterozoic Eon hosted the emergence and initial recorded diversification of eukaryotes. Oxygen levels in the shallow marine settings critical to these events were lower than today's, although how much lower is debated. Here, we use concentrations of iodate (the oxidized iodine species) in shallow-marine limestones and dolostones to generate the first comprehensive record of Proterozoic near-surface marine redox conditions. The iodine proxy is sensitive to both local oxygen availability and the relative proximity to anoxic waters. To assess the validity of our approach, Neogene-Quaternary carbonates are used to demonstrate that diagenesis most often decreases and is unlikely to increase carbonate-iodine contents. Despite the potential for diagenetic loss, maximum Proterozoic carbonate iodine levels are elevated relative to those of the Archean, particularly during the Lomagundi and Shuram carbon isotope excursions of the Paleo- and Neoproterozoic, respectively. For the Shuram anomaly, comparisons to Neogene-Quaternary carbonates suggest that diagenesis is not responsible for the observed iodine trends. The baseline low iodine levels in Proterozoic carbonates, relative to the Phanerozoic, are linked to a shallow oxic-anoxic interface. Oxygen concentrations in surface waters would have at least intermittently been above the threshold required to support eukaryotes. However, the diagnostically low iodine data from mid-Proterozoic shallow-water carbonates, relative to those of the bracketing time intervals, are consistent with a dynamic chemocline and anoxic waters that would have episodically mixed upward and laterally into the shallow oceans. This redox instability may have challenged early eukaryotic diversification and expansion, creating an evolutionary landscape unfavorable for the emergence of animals.

  3. Performance of NiTi endodontic instrument under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Yahata, Yoshio; Ebihara, Arata; Atmeh, Amre R; Bakhsh, Turki; Suda, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test nickel titanium (NiTi) instrument performance under different surrounding temperatures. Twenty-four superelastic NiTi instruments with a conical shape comprising a 0.30-mm-diameter tip and 0.06 taper were equally divided into 3 groups according to the temperature employed. Using a specially designed cyclic fatigue testing apparatus, each instrument was deflected to give a curvature 10 mm in radius and a 30° angle. This position was kept as the instrument was immersed in a continuous flow of water under a temperature of 10, 37, or 50 °C for 20 s to calculate the deflecting load (DL). In the same position, the instrument was then allowed to rotate at 300 rpm to fracture, and the working time was converted to the number of cycles to fracture (NCF). The statistical significance was set at p = 0.05. The mean DL (in N) and NCF (in cycles) of the groups at 10, 37, and 50 °C were 10.16 ± 1.36 and 135.50 ± 31.48, 13.50 ± 0.92 and 89.20 ± 16.44, and 14.70 ± 1.21 and 65.50 ± 15.90, respectively. The group at 10 °C had significantly the lowest DL that favorably resulted in the highest NCF. Within the limitations of this study, the surrounding temperature influences the cyclic fatigue resistance and DL of the superelastic NiTi instruments. Lower temperatures are found to favorably decrease the DL and extend the lifetime of the superelastic NiTi instrument. Further NiTi instrument failure studies should be performed under simulated body temperature.

  4. Tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on dryland soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Jabro, Jalal D; Caesar-Tonthat, Thecan

    2010-01-01

    Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO(2) emissions and to increase C sequestration. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combinations and N fertilization on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) and soil surface CO(2) flux and C content (0- to 120-cm depth) in a Williams loam from May to October, 2006 to 2008, in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-tilled continuous malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), no-tilled malt barley-fallow (NTB-F), and conventional-tilled malt barley-fallow (CTB-F), each with 0 and 80 kg N ha(-1). Measurements were made both in Phase I (malt barley in NTCB, pea in NTB-P, and fallow in NTB-F and CTB-F) and Phase II (malt barley in all sequences) of each cropping sequence in every year. Crop biomass varied among years, was greater in the barley than in the pea phase of the NTB-P treatment, and greater in NTCB and NTB-P than in NTB-F and CTB-F in 2 out of 3 yr. Similarly, biomass was greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha(-1) in 1 out of 3 yr. Soil CO(2) flux increased from 8 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in early May to 239 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in mid-June as temperature increased and then declined to 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in September-October. Fluxes peaked immediately following substantial precipitation (>10 mm), especially in NTCB and NTB-P. Cumulative CO(2) flux from May to October was greater in 2006 and 2007 than in 2008, greater in cropping than in fallow phases, and greater in NTCB than in NTB-F. Tillage did not influence crop biomass and CO(2) flux but N fertilization had a variable effect on the flux in 2008. Similarly, soil total C content was not influenced by treatments. Annual cropping increased CO(2) flux compared with crop-fallow probably by increasing crop residue returns to soils and root and rhizosphere respiration. Inclusion of peas in the rotation with malt barley in the no-till system, which have been known to reduce N fertilization rates and

  5. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  6. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Nitrogen Content and Its Role on the Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Capacity of Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Nitride.

    PubMed

    Lakhi, Kripal S; Park, Dae-Hwan; Joseph, Stalin; Talapaneni, Siddulu N; Ravon, Ugo; Al-Bahily, Khalid; Vinu, Ajayan

    2017-03-02

    Mesoporous carbon nitrides (MCNs) with rod-shaped morphology and tunable nitrogen contents have been synthesized through a calcination-free method by using ethanol-washed mesoporous SBA-15 as templates at different carbonization temperatures. Carbon tetrachloride and ethylenediamine were used as the sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The resulting MCN materials were characterized with low- and high-angle powder XRD, nitrogen adsorption, high-resolution (HR) SEM, HR-TEM, elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure techniques. The carbonization temperature plays a critical role in controlling not only the crystallinity, but also the nitrogen content and textural parameters of the samples, including specific surface area and specific pore volume. The nitrogen content of MCN decreases with a concomitant increase in specific surface area and specific pore volume, as well as the crystallinity of the samples, as the carbonization temperature is increased. The results also reveal that the structural order of the materials is retained, even after heat treatment at temperatures up to 900 °C with a significant reduction of the nitrogen content, but the structure is partially damaged at 1000 °C. The carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of these materials is not only dependent on the textural parameters, but also on the nitrogen content. The MCN prepared at 900 °C, which has an optimum BET surface area and nitrogen content, registers a carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of 20.1 mmol g(-1) at 273 K and 30 bar, which is much higher than that of mesoporous silica, MCN-1, activated carbon, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

  8. Bicarbonate content of groundwater in carbonate rock in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainer, F.W.; Heath, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In carbonate-rock terrane the most effective solution occurs where soil and vegetative cover facilitate biogenic production and storage of CO2 in the soil until part of it is carried downward in percolating water. Bicarbonate data for groundwater in eastern North America are examined in the light of these conditions, of the CO2 content of soil gas, and of the timing of groundwater recharge relative to seasonal changes in soil temperature. There appears to be no well-marked relation between latitude and bicarbonate content of groundwater in this region. Interplay of all the factors listed above, and of lithology and soil types, is evidently such that under optimum conditions the amount of solution of carbonate rock is roughly comparable, per unit of groundwater recharge, over the region from Ohio to Florida (and, perhaps, to Puerto Rico and Yucatan). Relatively low HCO3 concentrations observed in much of the southern United States are attributed to low production and storage of CO2 in sandy soil that is poor in organic matter. On the other hand, concentrations observed in Ontario, New York and Michigan are markedly higher than is to be expected from interrelations of the factors considered. These high values, apparently anomalous, are attributed in part to solution of granular glacial drift derived largely from carbonate rock. ?? 1976.

  9. Carbon content of atmospheric aerosols in a residential area during the wood combustion season in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, Patricia; Ström, Johan; Johansson, Christer

    Carbonaceous aerosol particles were observed in a residential area with wood combustion during wintertime in Northern Sweden. Filter samples were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) content by using a thermo-optical transmittance method. The light-absorbing carbon (LAC) content was determined by employing a commercial Aethalometer and a custom-built particle soot absorption photometer. Filter samples were used to convert the optical signals to LAC mass concentrations. Additional total PM 10 mass concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured. The mean and standard deviation mass concentrations were 4.4±3.6 μg m -3 for OC, and 1.4±1.2 μg m -3 for EC. On average, EC accounted for 10.7% of the total PM 10 and the contribution of OC to the total PM 10 was 35.4%. Aethalometer and custom-built PSAP measurements were highly correlated ( R2=0.92). The hourly mean value of LAC mass concentration was 1.76 μg m -3 (median 0.88 μg m -3) for the winter 2005-2006. This study shows that the custom-built PSAP is a reliable alternative for the commercial Aethalometer with the advantage of being a low-cost instrument.

  10. [Effects of water content on redox potential and carbon mineralization of wetland sediments].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gai-ren; Tong, Cheng-li; Xiao, He-ai; Wu, Jin-shui

    2009-08-15

    To better understand the effect of soil water contents on redox potential (Eh), and their impacts on C mineralization in natural wetland, sediment samples from 3 types of wetlands (fen, humus marsh and marshy meadow) in the San-jiang Plate region of North China were incubated (25 degrees C) for 155 d under a range of reducing and oxidizing conditions by controlling water contents (varied from 24% to 232% of water holding capacity) (WHC). CO2-C evolved during incubation was measured at different time intervals. Results showed that Eh of sediments decreased significantly as water content increased from 24% WHC (lighted moisturized) to about 100% WHC, then decreased slightly as water content increased further to a level of submersed (about 2 cm water-depths). The accumulative amount of CO2-C evolved from the sediments indicated that the optimum water contents for mineralization of organic C are 32%, 48% and 76%-100% WHC for sediments of fen, humus marsh, and marshy meadow, respectively. The relationship between mineralization rates and redox potentials (Eh) were well fitted with second order parabola equations (p < 0.05). Mineralization rates and accumulative amount of organic C displayed a positive correlation with Eh up to 300 mV. However, a significant negative correlation was observed when Eh increased above 300 mV. Results demonstrated that low redox potential is the controlling factor of carbon accumulation of wetland in San-jiang Plate region.

  11. Optimization of calcium carbonate content on synthesis of aluminum foam and its compressive strength characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutarno, Nugraha, Bagja; Kusharjanto

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important characteristic of aluminum foam is compressive strength, which is reflected by its impact energy and Young's modulus. In the present research, optimization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) content in the synthesized aluminum foam in order to obtain the highest compressive strength was carried out. The results of this study will be used to determine the CaCO3 content synthesis process parameter in pilot plant scale production of an aluminum foam. The experiment was performed by varying the concentration of calcium carbonate content, which was used as foaming agent, at constant alumina concentration (1.5 wt%), which was added as stabilizer, and temperature (725°C). It was found that 4 wt% CaCO3 gave the lowest relative density, which was 0.15, and the highest porosity, which was 85.29%, and compressive strength of as high as 0.26 Mpa. The pore morphology of the obtained aluminum foam at such condition was as follow: the average pore diameter was 4.42 mm, the wall thickness minimum of the pore was 83.24 µm, roundness of the pore was 0.91. Based on the fractal porosity, the compressive strength was inversely proportional to the porosity and huddled on a power law value of 2.91.

  12. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  13. Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, T.; Deenik, J. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Campbell, S.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil—first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with high VM content (20-35%), with and without fertilizer supplements, whereas low VM charcoal (6-9%) increased plant growth when combined with fertilizer. We conducted two laboratory studies to characterize the VM content of charcoals derived from two feedstocks (corncob and kiawe) and relate observed differences to key aspects of soil fertility. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total phenol content (using a Prussian blue colorimetric assay), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the VM content of charcoal primarily consisted of alkanes, oxygen-substituted alkanes, and phenolic compounds. However, the GC-MS data indicated that charcoals can differ vastly in their extractable fraction, depending upon both VM content and feedstock. In a second set of experiments, we examined the effect of VM content and feedstock on soil microbial activity, available nitrogen (N), and soluble carbon (C). High VM corncob charcoals significantly enhanced microbial activity, coupled with net reduction in available N and soluble C. For a given feedstock, the extent of this effect was dependent upon VM content. However, the overall effect of VM content on microbial dynamics was apparently related to the composition of the acetone-extractable fraction, which was particularly important when comparing two charcoals derived from different feedstocks but with the equivalent VM contents. Removing the acetone-extractable fraction from the 23% VM corncob charcoal significantly reduced the enhancement of

  14. A review of volatile compounds in tektites, and carbon content and isotopic composition of moldavite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žák, Karel; SkáLA, Roman; Šanda, Zdeněk.; Mizera, Jiří.

    2012-06-01

    Tektites, natural silica-rich glasses produced during impact events, commonly contain bubbles. The paper reviews published data on pressure and composition of a gas phase contained in the tektite bubbles and data on other volatile compounds which can be released from tektites by either high-temperature melting or by crushing or milling under vacuum. Gas extraction from tektites using high-temperature melting generally produced higher gas yield and different gas composition than the low-temperature extraction using crushing or milling under vacuum. The high-temperature extraction obviously releases volatiles not only from the bubbles, but also volatile compounds contained directly in the glass. Moreover, the gas composition can be modified by reactions between the released gases and the glass melt. Published data indicate that besides CO2 and/or CO in the bubbles, another carbon reservoir is present directly in the tektite glass. To clarify the problem of carbon content and carbon isotopic composition of the tektite glass, three samples from the Central European tektite strewn field—moldavites—were analyzed. The samples contained only 35-41 ppm C with δ13C values in the range from -28.5 to -29.9‰ VPDB. This indicates that terrestrial organic matter was a dominant carbon source during moldavite formation.

  15. Grain size effect on mechanical performance of nanostructured superelastic NiTi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical performance of superelastic NiTi with various grain sizes (GSs) in nanocrystalline regime (GS  <  30 nm) are investigated. With the help of digital image correlation, both global and local mechanical responses of NiTi during quasi-static test and fatigue cycling are recorded. If GS is below 14 nm, NiTi deforms homogenously; if GS is above 14 nm, NiTi deforms in a heterogeneous manner. The mechanical response, the fatigue life, the dissipation energy and the resistance to the dissipation energy degradation of nanostructured NiTi are addressed and analyzed. The results indicate that the mechanical performance of NiTi can be designed and optimized by controlling GS in a moderate regime.

  16. The carbon isotopes ratio and trace metals content determinations in some Transylvanian fruit juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.

    2012-02-01

    This work presents a preliminary study on the carbon isotope signature and trace metal content investigated on the soil-plant-fruit pulp chain. The samples were collected from two Transylvanian areas namely Alba and Salaj. The average value of the δ13C at the soil surface was around δ13C ≈ -27%° and important differences of the δ13C values between the two studied areas were not observed. Meanwhile, differences between fruit pulp of grape juice and the pulp of pear juice relived a difference of about 1.5%° for δ13C values.

  17. Soil Iron Content as a Predictor of Carbon and Nutrient Mobilization in Rewetted Fens

    PubMed Central

    Emsens, Willem-Jan; Aggenbach, Camiel J. S.; Schoutens, Ken; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Zak, Dominik; van Diggelen, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    Rewetted, previously drained fens often remain sources rather than sinks for carbon and nutrients. To date, it is poorly understood which soil characteristics stimulate carbon and nutrient mobilization upon rewetting. Here, we assess the hypothesis that a large pool of iron in the soil negatively affects fen restoration success, as flooding-induced iron reduction (Fe3+ to Fe2+) causes a disproportionate breakdown of organic matter that is coupled with a release of inorganic compounds. We collected intact soil cores in two iron-poor and two iron-rich drained fens, half of which were subjected to a rewetting treatment while the other half was kept drained. Prolonged drainage led to the mobilization of nitrate (NO3-, > 1 mmol L-1) in all cores, regardless of soil iron content. In the rewetted iron-rich cores, a sharp increase in pore water iron (Fe) concentrations correlated with concentrations of inorganic carbon (TIC, > 13 mmol L-1) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, > 16 mmol L-1). Additionally, ammonium (NH4+) accumulated up to phytotoxic concentrations of 1 mmol L-1 in the pore water of the rewetted iron-rich cores. Disproportionate mobilization of Fe, TIC, DOC and NH4+ was absent in the rewetted iron-poor cores, indicating a strong interaction between waterlogging and iron-mediated breakdown of organic matter. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) rose slightly in all cores upon rewetting, but remained low throughout the experiment. Our results suggest that large pools of iron in the top soil of drained fens can hamper the restoration of the fen’s sink-service for ammonium and carbon upon rewetting. We argue that negative effects of iron should be most apparent in fens with fluctuating water levels, as temporary oxygenation allows frequent regeneration of Fe3+. We conclude that rewetting of iron-poor fens may be more feasible for restoration. PMID:27050837

  18. Mapping soil organic carbon content and composition across Australia to assess vulnerability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viscarra Rossel, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    We can effectively monitor soil condition—and develop sound policies to offset the emissions of greenhouse gases—only with accurate data from which to define baselines. Currently, estimates of soil organic C for countries or continents are either unavailable or largely uncertain because they are derived from sparse data, with large gaps over many areas of the Earth. Here, we derive spatially explicit estimates, and their uncertainty, of the distribution and stock of organic C content and composition in the soil of Australia. The composition of soil organic C may be characterized by chemical separation or physical fractionation based on either particle size or particle density (Skjemstad et al., 2004; Gregorich et al., 2006; Kelleher&Simpson, 2006; Zimmermann et al., 2007). In Australia, for example, Skjemstad et al. (2004) used physical separation of soil samples into 50-2000 and <50-μm particle-size fractions followed by the measurement of char-carbon using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, giving the three OC pools, particulate organic carbon (POC), humic organic carbon (HOC) and resistant organic carbon (ROC; charcoal or char-carbon). We assembled and harmonized data from several sources to produce the most comprehensive set of data on the current stock of organic C in soil of the continent. Using them, we have produced a fine spatial resolution baseline map of organic C, POC, HOC and ROC at the continental scale. In this presentation I will describe how we made the maps and how we use them to assess the vulnerability of soil organic C to for instance climate change.

  19. [Soil labile organic carbon contents and their allocation characteristics under different land uses at dry-hot valley].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guo-yong; Li, Kun; Sun, Yong-yu; Zhang, Chun-hua

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), readily oxidation organic carbon (ROC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC)and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents and their allocation ratios were comparatively investigated under Leucaena leucocephala woodland, Acacia auriculiformis woodland, dry cropland and wasteland in dry-hot valley. Results showed that SOC contents were not significant differences among the four land uses with the range of 4.22-5.19 g x kg(-1). ROC contents under L. leucocephala (2.14 g x kg(-1)) and A. auriculiformis woodland (2.03 g x kg(-1)) were both significantly higher than those under dry cropland (1.38 g x kg(-1)) and wasteland (1.34 g x kg(-1)). The highest MBC and DOC contents both presented under dry cropland among the four land uses, whereas the lowest occurred under wasteland. ROC allocation ratios under woodlands were 1.3 to 1.6 times to those under dry cropland and wasteland. MBC and DOC allocation ratios under cropland were higher than those under other three land uses, and the ratios were closely among woodlands and wasteland. Plant residue amounts and management were primarily determined ROC contents, and soil water content and plant residue quantity were mainly affected the variation of MBC and DOC contents under the four land uses. The change of ROC contents could sensitively indicate SOC dynamics in dry-hot valley, but the change of MBC or DOC could not.

  20. Carbon, sulfur and nitrogen contents in the Pavel and Goumoshnik meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ch. P.; Stoianova, R. Zh.; Veselinova, R.

    Measurements of the carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen contents in two series of samples from the Pavel and Goumoshnik meteorites are presented. The measurements were performed with two different infrared detectors connected to a microprocessor. Each series of samples included samples from the interior of the meteorite and from the surface layer, together with the black crust. The measurements yielded abundances of carbon which were two times higher in samples from the outer layer than in samples from the meteorite interior. It is suggested that these higher concentrations in the outer layers are due to a process of ablation occurring when the temperature drops in the interior layers of the meteorite as it passes through the earth atmosphere. No significant differences were found in the concentrations of sulfur in the two series of samples. The total content of nitrogen in both meteorites was high. The average values in the first series were within the range from 0.493 to 0.590 percent, and 0.586 to 0.673 percent in the second series. It is shown that nitrogen concentrations in carbonaceous meteorites decrease in relation to depth, suggesting that the Pavel and Goumoshnik meteorites represent an anomalous case.

  1. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  2. Ni-Ti SMA-reinforced Al composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, G. A.; Liaw, P. K.; Tiegs, T. N.; Wu, K. H.

    2000-10-01

    A shape-memory alloy, nickel-titanium, has been distributed throughout an aluminum matrix, using powder-metallurgy processing, in the hope of using the shape-memory effect to achieve strengthening and improve the fatigue resistance, as compared to the aluminum matrix. The shape-memory effect was activated by cold rolling the samples at -30°C. Upon reheating to the austenite phase, the Ni-Ti was expected to return to its original shape while embedded in the aluminum matrix. It is thought that this action created residual, internal stresses around each particle, which strengthened the material. The yield and ultimate strengths, and the fatigue lives of the Ni-Ti reinforced aluminum composites, have been improved considerably, as compared to the unreinforced material. The cross-sectional microstructures of the composites, as well as the modes of crack growth, have been examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify fatigue and fracture mechanisms.

  3. The role of clay content during earthquake propagation in carbonate-hosted faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paola, N.; Bullock, R. J.; Holdsworth, R.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate faults often contain small amounts of phyllosilicate in their slip zone. To assess the effect of phyllosilicate content on earthquake propagation in carbonate faults, we performed friction experiments at seismic slip rate (v = 1.3 m/s) on gouges of calcite, phyllosilicate (montmorillonite and illite-smectite) and mixed calcite/phyllosilicate compositions. Experiments were carried out at 9 MPa normal load and under both room-humidity (dry) and water-saturated (wet) conditions. All dry gouges, regardless of clay content, plus the wet calcite, produce a friction evolution curve, comprising an initial slip-hardening phase, during which friction evolves to peak values f = 0.60-0.76, followed by a dramatic slip-weakening phase, during which f decreases to a constant steady-state value of 0.19-0.33 over a distance which ranges from 0.2 m for clay-bearing gouges up to 0.6 m for pure calcite. Conversely, wet gouges with phyllosilicate content ≥ 10 wt.% show negligible slip-hardening, and the attainment of steady-state sliding almost immediately at the onset of slip, with f = 0.05-0.26. Dry gouges show slip localization and grain size reduction within a narrow (<65 microns) principal slip zone, accompanied by microstructural evidence for thermal decomposition of calcite (although only when clay content is ≤ 50 wt.%). Wet gouges are characterized by distributed deformation and grain size reduction, with no microstructural evidence for thermal decomposition of calcite. We interpret that slip initiates within the wet gouges along interconnected networks of weak phyllosilicates, formed during axial loading compaction prior to shear. This can explain the: 1) measured lack of slip-hardening and peak friction; 2) observed distributed nature of deformation and grain size reduction; 3) lack of evidence for thermally activated processes, due to low frictional heating in accord with small values of friction and lack of slip localization. Our findings imply that small

  4. [Soil organic carbon content and its distribution pattern in Hangzhou Bay coastal wetlands].

    PubMed

    Shao, Xue-xin; Yang, Wen-ying; Wu, Ming; Jiang, Ke-yi

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content and its distribution pattern in the natural intertidal zones and reclaimed wetlands of Hangzhou Bay were studied, aimed to explore the effects of vegetation succession, exotic species invasion, and reclamation on the SOC in costal wetlands of the Bay. In intertidal zones, the surface SOC content ranged from 4.41 to 8.58 g x kg(-1), with an average of 6.45 g x kg(-1), and differed significantly under different vegetations, with a tendency of under Phragmites australis (8.56 +/- 0.04 g x kg(-1)) > Spartina alterniflora (7.31 +/- 0.08 g x kg(-1)) > Scirpus mariqueter (5.48 +/- 0.29 g x kg(-1)) > mudflats (4.47 +/- 0.09 g x kg(-1)); in reclaimed wetlands, the surface SOC content was 7.46 +/- 0.25 g x kg(-1) in the 1960s, 1.96 +/- 0.46 g x kg(-1) in the 1980s, and 5.12 +/- 0.16 g x kg(-1) in 2003, showing a trend of increased after an initial decrease with increasing reclamation year. The SOC in the profiles all showed a decreasing trend from the surface to the bottom. The SOC in intertidal zones and reclaimed wetlands was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, and positively correlated with soil total nitrogen (TN), suggesting a large reserve of organic nitrogen in TN. The correlation between SOC and soil C/N ratio was not obvious in intertidal zones, but significantly positive in reclaimed wetlands, indicating that reclamation affected soil C/N ratio to a certain extent. This study showed that in the intertidal zones, soil carbon sequestration capacity increased gradually with plant community succession. However, the invasion of exotic species Spartina alternflora might decrease the capacity of carbon sequestration in intertidal zones. It was also found that the changes of soil moisture content, particle composition, vegetation coverage, and reclamation history were the main factors affecting the SOC distribution in reclaimed wetlands.

  5. Influence of carbon content on cold rolling and recrystallization texture in polycrystalline 3% Si-Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, M.; Shingaki, Y.; Imamura, T.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of carbon content on cold rolling and recrystallization texture in polycrystalline 3%Si-Fe under the relatively high rolling reduction condition has been investigated. The main component of recrystallization texture was {554}<225> orientation in ultra low carbon (ULC) 3%Si-Fe and {411}<148> orientation in low carbon (LC) 3%Si-Fe. The origin of {411}<148> recrystallization texture development in LC 3%Si-Fe is discussed in terms of the rotation of deformation twin from {100}<011> to {411}<148> orientation with the generation of the slip bands inside the neighboring matrix grain {111}<011>. The rotation axis of this crystal rotation was estimated <112> axis. Assuming the single slip system activation in BCC metal, crystal rotation around <112> axis indicates an activation of {110}<111> slip system. In terms of Schmid factor, {112}<111> slip system must be activated in {100}<011> matrix. This is not in agreement with the estimation of {110}<111> slip system activation. Detailed observation on the cold rolled sample revealed that common slip plane passed through the deformation twin and surrounding deformed matrix grains. It is considered that slip plane matching (SPM) with neighboring grains activates the lower Schmid factor slip system in deformation twin. These results suggest that not only Schmid factor but also SPM with neighboring grains should be considered to decide the active slip systems in polycrystalline metals.

  6. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on fatty acid contents and composition in the green microalga, Chlorella sp. 227.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunja; Lee, Dukhaeng; Luong, Thao Thanh; Park, Sora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Taeho

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate and generalize the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth of and lipid production in Chlorella sp. 227, several nutritional combinations consisting of different carbon and nitrogen sources and concentrations were given to the media for cultivation of Chlorella sp. 227, respectively. The growth rate and lipid content were affected largely by concentration rather than by sources. The maximum specific growth was negatively affected by low concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. There is a maximum allowable inorganic carbon concentration (less than 500~1,000 mM bicarbonate) in autotrophic culture, but the maximum lipid content per gram dry cell weight (g DCW) was little affected by the concentration of inorganic carbon within the concentration. The lipid content per g DCW was increased when the microalga was cultured with the addition of glucose and bicarbonate (mixotrophic) at a fixed nitrogen concentration and with the lowest nitrogen concentration (0.2 mM), relatively. Considering that lipid contents per g DCW increased in those conditions, it suggests that a high ratio of carbon to nitrogen in culture media promotes lipid accumulation in the cells. Interestingly, a significant increase of the oleic acid amount to total fatty acids was observed in those conditions. These results showed the possibility to induce lipid production of high quality and content per g DCW by modifying the cultivation conditions.

  7. In Vivo Force Decay of Niti Closed Coil Springs

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Crystal; Nguyen, Tung; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nickel-titanium (NiTi) closed coil springs are purported to deliver constant forces over extended ranges of activation and working times. In vivo studies supporting this claim are limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes in force decay properties of NiTi closed coil springs after clinical use. Methods Pseudoelastic force-deflection curves for 30 NiTi coil springs (used intra-orally) and 15 matched laboratory control springs (simulated intra-oral conditions - artificial saliva, 37°C) were tested pre- and post-retrieval via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and the Instron machine, respectively, to evaluate amount of force loss and hysteresis change following 4, 8, or 12 weeks of working time (n=10 per group). Effect of the oral environment and clinical use on force properties were evaluated by comparing in vivo and in vitro data. Results The springs studied showed a statistically significant decrease in force (~12%) following 4 weeks of clinical use (p<0.01), with a further significant decrease (~7%) from 4–8 weeks (p=0.03) and force levels appearing to remain steady thereafter. Clinical space closure at an average rate of 0.91mm per month was still observed despite this decrease in force. In vivo and in vitro force loss data were not statistically different. Conclusions NiTi closed coil springs do not deliver constant forces when used intra-orally, but they still allow for space closure rates of ~1mm/month. PMID:24703289

  8. Seasonal controls of canopy chlorophyll content on forest carbon uptake: Implications for GPP modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, H.; Chen, J. M.; Froelich, N. J.; Chen, B.; Staebler, R. M.

    2015-08-01

    Forested ecosystems represent an important part of the global carbon cycle, with accurate estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) crucial for understanding ecosystem response to environmental controls and improving global carbon models. This research investigated the relationships between leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content (ChlLeaf) with forest carbon uptake. Ground measurements of LAI and ChlLeaf were taken approximately every 9 days across the 2013 growing season from day of year (DOY) 130 to 290 at Borden Forest, Ontario. These biophysical measurements were supported by on-site eddy covariance flux measurements. Differences in the temporal development of LAI and ChlLeaf were considerable, with LAI reaching maximum values within approximately 10 days of bud burst at DOY 141. In contrast, ChlLeaf accumulation only reached maximum values at DOY 182. This divergence has important implications for GPP models which use LAI to represent the fraction of light absorbed by a canopy (fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (fAPAR)). Daily GPP values showed the strongest relationship with canopy chlorophyll content (ChlCanopy; R2 = 0.69, p < 0.001), with the LAI and GPP relationship displaying nonlinearity at the start and end of the growing season (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001). Modeled GPP derived from LAI × PAR and ChlCanopy × PAR was tested against measured GPP, giving R2 = 0.63, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.82, p < 0.001, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of considering canopy pigment status in deciduous forests, with models that use fAPARLAI rather than fAPARChl neglecting to account for the importance of leaf photosynthetic potential.

  9. Diel changes in the near-surface biomass of zooplankton and the carbon content of vertical migrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Graeme C.; Harris, Roger P.; Head, Robert N.

    Zooplankton biomass and the carbon content of vertical migrants were measured in the NE Atlantic (36.5°N, 19.2°W) between 11 and 18 July 1996 as part of the Plankton Reactivity in the Marine Environment (PRIME) programme. The increase in zooplankton biomass near the surface (0-100 m) at night compared to during the day suggested that diel vertical migration was an important feature at this site. For three species of vertically migrant copepods, Pleuromamma pisekii, P. gracilis and P. abdominalis, the carbon content of individuals collected at dusk was significantly less than for individuals collected at dawn, with this reduction being 6.2, 7.3 and 14.8%, respectively. This dawn-dusk reduction in carbon content is consistent with the diel pattern of feeding and fasting exhibited by vertical migrants and supports the suggestion that migrating zooplankton will cause an active export of carbon from the surface layers.

  10. Pheophytinase Knockdown Impacts Carbon Metabolism and Nutraceutical Content Under Normal Growth Conditions in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Lira, Bruno Silvestre; Rosado, Daniele; Almeida, Juliana; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Purgatto, Eduardo; Guyer, Luzia; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Freschi, Luciano; Rossi, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Although chlorophyll (Chl) degradation is an essential biochemical pathway for plant physiology, our knowledge regarding this process still has unfilled gaps. Pheophytinase (PPH) was shown to be essential for Chl breakdown in dark-induced senescent leaves. However, the catalyzing enzymes involved in pigment turnover and fruit ripening-associated degreening are still controversial. Chl metabolism is closely linked to the biosynthesis of other isoprenoid-derived compounds, such as carotenoids and tocopherols, which are also components of the photosynthetic machinery. Chls, carotenoids and tocopherols share a common precursor, geranylgeranyl diphosphate, produced by the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Additionally, the Chl degradation-derived phytol can be incorporated into tocopherol biosynthesis. In this context, tomato turns out to be an interesting model to address isoprenoid-metabolic cross-talk since fruit ripening combines degreening and an intensely active MEP leading to carotenoid accumulation. Here, we investigate the impact of PPH deficiency beyond senescence by the comprehensive phenotyping of SlPPH-knockdown tomato plants. In leaves, photosynthetic parameters indicate altered energy usage of excited Chl. As a mitigatory effect, photosynthesis-associated carotenoids increased while tocopherol content remained constant. Additionally, starch and soluble sugar profiles revealed a distinct pattern of carbon allocation in leaves that suggests enhanced sucrose exportation. The higher levels of carbohydrates in sink organs down-regulated carotenoid biosynthesis. Additionally, the reduction in Chl-derived phytol recycling resulted in decreased tocopherol content in transgenic ripe fruits. Summing up, tocopherol and carotenoid metabolism, together with the antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions, were differentially affected in leaves and fruits of the transgenic plants. Thus, in tomato, PPH plays a role beyond

  11. Fabrication of Ni-Ti-O nanotube arrays by anodization of NiTi alloy and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Zhao, Lingzhou; Gao, Ang; Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Tang, Bin; Chu, Paul K

    2014-12-18

    Nickel-titanium-oxide (Ni-Ti-O) nanotube arrays (NTAs) prepared on nearly equiatomic NiTi alloy shall have broad application potential such as for energy storage and biomedicine, but their precise structure control is a great challenge because of the high content of alloying element of Ni, a non-valve metal that cannot form a compact electronic insulating passive layer when anodized. In the present work, we systemically investigated the influence of various anodization parameters on the formation and structure of Ni-Ti-O NTAs and their potential applications. Our results show that well controlled NTAs can be fabricated during relatively wide ranges of the anodization voltage (5-90 V), electrolyte temperature (10-50°C) and electrolyte NH4F content (0.025-0.8 wt%) but within a narrow window of the electrolyte H2O content (0.0-1.0 vol%). Through modulating these parameters, the Ni-Ti-O NTAs with different diameter (15-70 nm) and length (45-1320 nm) can be produced in a controlled manner. Regarding potential applications, the Ni-Ti-O NTAs may be used as electrodes for electrochemical energy storage and non-enzymic glucose detection, and may constitute nanoscaled biofunctional coating to improve the biological performance of NiTi based biomedical implants.

  12. Fabrication of Ni-Ti-O nanotube arrays by anodization of NiTi alloy and their potential applications

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Zhao, Lingzhou; Gao, Ang; Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Tang, Bin; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-titanium-oxide (Ni-Ti-O) nanotube arrays (NTAs) prepared on nearly equiatomic NiTi alloy shall have broad application potential such as for energy storage and biomedicine, but their precise structure control is a great challenge because of the high content of alloying element of Ni, a non-valve metal that cannot form a compact electronic insulating passive layer when anodized. In the present work, we systemically investigated the influence of various anodization parameters on the formation and structure of Ni-Ti-O NTAs and their potential applications. Our results show that well controlled NTAs can be fabricated during relatively wide ranges of the anodization voltage (5–90 V), electrolyte temperature (10–50°C) and electrolyte NH4F content (0.025–0.8 wt%) but within a narrow window of the electrolyte H2O content (0.0–1.0 vol%). Through modulating these parameters, the Ni-Ti-O NTAs with different diameter (15–70 nm) and length (45–1320 nm) can be produced in a controlled manner. Regarding potential applications, the Ni-Ti-O NTAs may be used as electrodes for electrochemical energy storage and non-enzymic glucose detection, and may constitute nanoscaled biofunctional coating to improve the biological performance of NiTi based biomedical implants. PMID:25520180

  13. Kinetics of carbon precipitation and re-solution in low Si-content silicon iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walz, F.; Wakisaka, T.; Kronmüller, H.

    2005-11-01

    In low Si-charged silicon iron (Fe + 0.1%Si) the kinetics of carbon diffusion, precipitation and redissolution have been carefully studied by means of the magnetic after-effect (MAE) within the temperature range 200 K < Ta < 1100 K. The activation parameters of respective processes have been determined by means of least squares fitting the experimental data. In the presence of substitutionally alloyed Si, the C-Richter MAE gives rise to two Debye-type relaxation peaks - resulting from elementary steps of carbon diffusion combined with reorientation in the (i) unperturbed and (ii) Si-modified Fe matrix - situated near 265 K and 320 K, with activation enthalpies, Qi, of 0.84 eV and 1.08 eV. Two-stage carbon precipitation, obeying first order kinetics, occurs, intensively, near 390 K with the elementary C diffusion enthalpy of 0.84 eV and, rather weakly, near 540 K with an enthalpy of 1.18 eV. The resulting precipitates are discussed in terms of partly intra-grain deposited iron carbide phases (Fe3C) and, mainly, grain-boundary determined C trapping. Decomposition of these precipitates occurring, again, in two stages - situated near 740 K and 950 K, with activation enthalpies of 1.72 and 2.02 eV - leads to a restitution of the state of maximum interstitially dissolved C in the matrix. Of practical importance for silicon steel fabrication is the observation that, after complete C precipitation (Ta . 580 K), the material can be kept in a state of minimum dissolved carbon content - and hence of minimum ac-losses - by not allowing it to warm up above Ta 650 K.

  14. Soil carbon isotopic composition and soil carbon content in an agroecosystem during six years of Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Giesemann, Anette; Weigel, Hans-Joachim

    2008-12-01

    The Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment conducted at the Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Braunschweig in an arable crop rotation (total duration six years) allowed us to trace carbon (C) input in the soil C pool, as the CO(2), used in the experiment to increase the atmospheric CO(2) concentration, was depleted in (13)C. Accurate assessment of the C input by means of stable C isotope analysis requires detailed knowledge on the spatial distribution of both the C isotopic composition and the C content in the soil C. Assumed changes in these parameters were examined. CO(2) enrichment treatment over a six year period resulted in a clear trend towards an increase of soil C content in the uppermost 10 cm of soil. About 4.9% of the soil C present under ambient air conditions, and 10.7% present under elevated CO(2) conditions were determined as new input. However, the results are not statistically significant yet.

  15. Effect of variation in argon content of calibration gases on determination of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Min, Deullae; Kang, Namgoo; Moon, Dong Min; Lee, Jin Bok; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Jin Seog

    2009-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is a greenhouse gas that makes by far the largest contribution to the global warming of the Earth's atmosphere. For the measurements of atmospheric CO(2) a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR) and gas chromatography are conventionally being used. We explored whether and to what degree argon content can influence the determination of atmospheric CO(2) using the comparison of CO(2) concentrations between the sample gas mixtures with varying Ar amounts at 0 and 18.6 mmol mol(-1) and the calibration gas mixtures with Ar at 8.4, 9.1, and 9.3 mmol mol(-1). We newly discovered that variation of Ar content in calibration gas mixtures could undermine accuracy for precise and accurate determination of atmospheric CO(2) in background air. The differences in CO(2) concentration due to the variation of Ar content in the calibration gas mixtures were negligible (<+/-0.03 micromol mol(-1)) for NDIR systems whereas they noticeably increased (<+/-1.09 micromol mol(-1)) especially for the modified GC systems to enhance instrumental sensitivity. We found that the thermal mass flow controller is the main source of the differences although such differences appeared only in the presence of a flow restrictor in GC systems. For reliable monitoring of real atmospheric CO(2) samples, one should use calibration gas mixtures that contain Ar content close to the level (9.332 mmol mol(-1)) in the ambient air as possible. Practical guidelines were highlighted relating to selection of appropriate analytical approaches for the accurate and precise measurements of atmospheric CO(2). In addition, theoretical implications from the findings were addressed.

  16. The Impact of Buried Horizons and Deep Soil Pedogenesis on Soil Carbon Content and Vertical Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, J. N.; Dietzen, C.; Harrison, R. B.; Gross, C.; Kirpach, A.

    2015-12-01

    The lower boundary of soil has been a point of contention among soil scientists for decades. Recent evidence suggests that soil is much deeper than is measured by many ecological studies and that arbitrary definitions of maximum soil depth unnecessarily exclude important regions of the soil profile. This paper provides illustrated examples of soil profiles that have important deep soil characteristics or buried horizons. Soil pits were excavated with a backhoe to at least 2.5 m depth at 35 sites throughout the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) ecoregion of the Pacific Northwest. These soils cover four orders - Andisol, Inceptisol, Alfisol, and Ultisol - and highlight the hidden diversity of subsoil characteristics throughout the region. The roots of trees and understory species often extended deep into the C horizons of soil. Despite experiencing less pedogenic development than surface horizons, C horizons are important as the frontier of soil formation, as an important resource for plant growth, and as a repository of diffuse but significant carbon storage. On average, there was 188.1 Mg C ha-1 total across all 35 sites, of which 76.3 Mg ha-1 (40.5%) was found below 0.5 m and 44.4 Mg ha-1 (23.6%) was found below 1 m. There was substantial variability in the vertical distribution of C with as little as 8.0% and as much as 58.0% of total C below 1 m. In some cases, B horizons are far deeper than the 1 or 2 m depth arbitrarily assumed to represent the whole soil. In other cases, subsoil hides buried profiles that can significantly impact total soil carbon stocks as well as aboveground plant growth. These buried horizons are important repositories of nutrients and carbon that are poorly understood and rarely sampled. Ignoring subsoil precludes incorporating soil burial or deep soil processes into biogeochemical and global carbon cycle models, and limits mechanistic understanding of carbon sequestration and mobilization in soil.

  17. NITI Needs Assessment Study. A Study of the Postsecondary Educational Needs of Merged Area I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, James L.

    The study described in this report was conducted to determine whether the present mix of vocational-technical and adult educational programs and services at Northeast Iowa Technical Institute (NITI) was optimal in meeting the needs of the constituents and clients of the college. Particular attention was given to the question of whether NITI would…

  18. Physical Simulation of the Random Failure of Implanted Braided NiTi Stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirmanová, Klára; Pilch, Jan; Racek, Jan; Heller, Luděk; Šittner, Petr; Recman, Lukáš; Petrenec, Martin; Sedlák, Petr

    2014-07-01

    A problem of random clinical failures of the braided esophageal NiTi stents has been addressed by performing physical simulation experiments on helical NiTi springs loaded in cyclic tension in air, water, and simulated biological fluid. Strains and stresses involved in spring deformation were analyzed through simulation by FEM implemented SMA model. It was found that the fatigue life of NiTi springs is significantly lower in fluids than in the air pointing toward the corrosion fatigue mechanism. There is, however, a fatigue limit roughly corresponding to the onset of martensitic transformation in the wire, which is not common for corrosion fatigue. It is proposed that surface TiO2 oxide cracking plays major role in that. Once the oxide layer on the NiTi wire surface fractures, typically during the first mechanical cycle, cracks in the oxide layer periodically open and close during subsequent mechanical cycling. This leads to the localization of mechanical and corrosion attacks under the oxide cracked regions. Microcracks within the surface oxide layer crossing over into the NiTi matrix were indeed revealed by scanning electron microscopy of FIB sections of fatigued wires. A corrosion assisted mechanism for fatigue crack nucleation at the interface between the surface oxide and NiTi matrix is proposed based on the available evidence. The approach opens a space for a better assessment of the corrosion fatigue performance of superelastic NiTi and ultimately for estimation of the lifetime of implanted braided NiTi stents.

  19. The phase state of NiTi implant material affects osteoclastic attachment.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, V; Heikkinen, R; Danilov, A; Jämsä, T; Ilvesaro, J; Tuukkanen, J

    2005-12-01

    In the present work, the responses of mature osteoclasts cultured on austenite and martensite phases of NiTi shape memory implant material were studied. We used the sensitivity of osteoclasts to the underlying substrate and actin ring formation as an indicator of the adequacy of the implant surface. The results showed osteoclasts with actin ring on both NiTi phases. However, significantly more osteoclasts were present on the austenitic NiTi than on the martensitic NiTi. We also analyzed the surface free energy of the samples but found no significant difference between austenite and martensite phases. The results revealed that osteoclasts tolerated well the austenite phase of NiTi. The chemically identical martensitic NiTi was not as well tolerated by osteoclasts (e.g., indicated by diminished actin ring formation). This leads to the conclusion that certain physical properties specific to the martensitic NiTi have an adverse effect to the surviving of osteoclasts on this NiTi phase. These results confirm that mature, authentic osteoclasts can act as cell probes in experiments concerning aspects of biocompatibility of bone implant materials.

  20. 60NiTi Alloy for Tribological and Biomedical Surface Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingole, Sudeep

    2013-06-01

    60NiTi is an alloy with 60 wt% of nickel (Ni) and 40 wt% of titanium (Ti). This alloy was developed in the 1950s at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL) along with 55NiTi (55 wt% of Ni and 45 wt% of Ti). Both of these alloys exhibit the shape memory effect to different extents. The unique properties of 60NiTi, which are suitable for surface engineering (tribological) applications, are enumerated here. With appropriate heat treatment, this alloy can achieve high hardness (between Rc 55 and Rc 63). It has very good corrosion resistance and is resilient. Machinable before its final heat treatment, this alloy can be ground to fine surface finish and to tight dimensions. At one time, due to the popularity and wider applications of 55NiTi, the study of 60NiTi suffered. Recently, 60NiTi alloy gained some technological advantages due to advanced materials synthesis processes and progress in surface engineering. A feasibility study of 60NiTi bearings for space application has shown promise for its further development and suitability for other tribological applications. This report focuses on an overview of the properties and potential tribological and biomedical applications of 60NiTi.

  1. How do changes in bulk soil organic carbon content affect carbon concentrations in individual soil particle fractions?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, X. M.; Drury, C. F.; Reynolds, W. D.; Yang, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We test the common assumption that organic carbon (OC) storage occurs on sand-sized soil particles only after the OC storage capacity on silt- and clay-sized particles is saturated. Soil samples from a Brookston clay loam in Southwestern Ontario were analysed for the OC concentrations in bulk soil, and on the clay (<2 μm), silt (2–53 μm) and sand (53–2000 μm) particle size fractions. The OC concentrations in bulk soil ranged from 4.7 to 70.8 g C kg−1 soil. The OC concentrations on all three particle size fractions were significantly related to the OC concentration of bulk soil. However, OC concentration increased slowly toward an apparent maximum on silt and clay, but this maximum was far greater than the maximum predicted by established C sequestration models. In addition, significant increases in OC associated with sand occurred when the bulk soil OC concentration exceeded 30 g C kg−1, but this increase occurred when the OC concentration on silt + clay was still far below the predicted storage capacity for silt and clay fractions. Since the OC concentrations in all fractions of Brookston clay loam soil continued to increase with increasing C (bulk soil OC content) input, we concluded that the concept of OC storage capacity requires further investigation. PMID:27251365

  2. Carboxylated molecules regulate magnesium content of amorphous calcium carbonates during calcification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongbo; Wallace, Adam F.; De Yoreo, James J.; Dove, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    With the realization that many calcified skeletons form by processes involving a precursor phase of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), a new paradigm for mineralization is emerging. There is evidence the Mg content in biogenic ACC is regulated by carboxylated (acidic) proteins and other macromolecules, but the physical basis for such a process is unknown. We test the hypothesis that ACC compositions express a systematic relationship to the chemistry of carboxyl-rich biomolecules. A series of inorganic control experiments were conducted to establish the dependence of Mg/Ca ratios in ACC on solution composition. We then determined the influence of a suite of simple carboxylated organic acids on Mg content. Molecules with a strong affinity for binding Ca compared with Mg promote the formation of Mg-enriched ACC that is compositionally equivalent to high-magnesium calcites and dolomite. Measurements show Mg/Ca ratios are controlled by a predictable dependence upon the binding properties of the organic molecules. The trend appears rooted in the conformation and electrostatic potential topology of each molecule, but dynamic factors also may be involved. The dependence suggests a physical basis for reports that specific sequences of calcifying proteins are critical to modulating mineralization. Insights from this study may provide a plausible explanation for why some biogenic carbonates and carbonaceous cements often contain higher Mg signatures than those that are possible by classical crystal growth processes. The findings reiterate the controls of microenvironment on mineralization and suggest an origin of compositional offsets, or vital effects, long recognized by the paleoclimate community. PMID:19955417

  3. Electrical properties of multiphase composites based on carbon nanotubes and an optimized clay content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egiziano, Luigi; Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo; Guadagno, Liberata; Vertuccio, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    The experimental results concerning the characterization of a multiphase nanocomposite systems based on epoxy matrix, loaded with different amount of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an optimized Hydrotalcite (HT) clay content (i.e. 0.6 wt%), duly identified by an our previous theoretical study based on Design of Experiment (DoE), are presented. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) reveal that even the introduction of higher HT loading (up to 1%wt) don't affect significantly the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites while morphological investigations show an effective synergy between clay and carbon nanotubes that leads to peculiar micro/nanostructures that favor the creation of the electrical conductive network inside the insulating resin. An electrical characterization is carried out in terms of DC electrical conductivity, percolation threshold (EPT) and frequency response in the range 10Hz-1MHz. In particular, the measurements of the DC conductivity allow to obtain the typical "percolation" curve also found for classical CNT-polymer mixtures and a value of about 2 S/m for the electrical conductivity is achieved at the highest considered CNTs concentration (i.e. 1 wt%). The results suggest that multiphase nanocomposites obtained incorporating dispersive nanofillers, in addition to the conductive one, may be a valid alternative to the polymer blends, to improve the properties of the polymeric materials thus able to meet high demands, particularly concerning their mechanical and thermal stability and electrical features required in the aircraft engineering.

  4. pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin from citrate-apatite nanocrystals with tailored carbonate content.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Delgado-López, José Manuel; Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Colangelo, Donato; Prat, Maria; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-07-02

    In this work, the efficiency of bioinspired citrate-functionalized nanocrystalline apatites as nanocarriers for delivery of doxorubicin (DOXO) has been assessed. The nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomplexing of metastable calcium/citrate/phosphate solutions both in the absence (Ap) and in the presence (cAp) of carbonate ions. The presence of citrate and carbonate ions in the solution allowed us to tailor the size, shape, carbonate content, and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles. The drug-loading efficiency of the two types of apatite was evaluated by means of the adsorption isotherms, which were found to fit a Langmuir-Freundlich behavior. A model describing the interaction between apatite surface and DOXO is proposed from adsorption isotherms and ζ-potential measurements. DOXO is adsorbed as a dimer by means of a positively charged amino group that electrostatically interacts with negatively charged surface groups of nanoparticles. The drug-release profiles were explored at pHs 7.4 and 5.0, mimicking the physiological pH in the blood circulation and the more acidic pH in the endosome-lysosome intracellular compartment, respectively. After 7 days at pH 7.4, cAp-DOXO released around 42% less drug than Ap-DOXO. However, at acidic pH, both nanoassemblies released similar amounts of DOXO. In vitro assays analyzed by confocal microscopy showed that both drug-loaded apatites were internalized within GTL-16 human carcinoma cells and could release DOXO, which accumulated in the nucleus in short times and exerted cytotoxic activity with the same efficiency. cAp are thus expected to be a more promising nanocarrier for experiments in vivo, in situations where intravenous injection of nanoparticles are required to reach the targeted tumor, after circulating in the bloodstream.

  5. Improved endothelialization of NiTi alloy by VEGF functionalized nanocoating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weixing; Cai, Kaiyong; Yang, Zaixiang; Yan, Ying; Yang, Weihu; Liu, Peng

    2012-06-01

    To improve surface endothelialization of NiTi alloy substrate, a nano-structured coating functionalized with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was fabricated via polydopamine (PDOP) as intermediate layer. The successful preparation of VEGF conjugated nanocoating was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) test showed that the formed nanocoating significantly reduced the release of Ni ion from NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The biological behaviors of endothelial cells adhered to modified NiTi alloy substrates, including cell proliferation, cell spreading and production of nitric oxide and prostacyclin were investigated in vitro. The results suggest that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy substrate with VEGF is beneficial for cell growth. The approach presented here affords an alternative for surface modification of NiTi implants applied as heart and vascular implant devices.

  6. Effect of load deflection on corrosion behavior of NiTi wire.

    PubMed

    Liu, I H; Lee, T M; Chang, C Y; Liu, C K

    2007-06-01

    For dental orthodontic applications, NiTi wires are used under bending conditions in the oral environment for a long period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bending stress on the corrosion of NiTi wires using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests in artificial saliva. The results indicated that bending stress induces a higher corrosion rate of NiTi wires in passive regions. It is suggested that the passive oxide film of specimens would be damaged under bending conditions. Auger electron spectroscopic analysis showed a lower thickness of passive films on stressed NiTi wires compared with unstressed specimens in the passive region. By scanning electron microscopy, localized corrosion was observed on stressed Sentalloy specimens after a potentiodynamic test at pH 2. In conclusion, this study indicated that bending stress changed the corrosion properties and surface characteristics of NiTi wires in a simulated intra-oral environment.

  7. Evaluation of microwave acid digestion for determination of fiber-volume contents in carbon-epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.C.; McLaughlin, V.N.; El-Amin, L.; Ilias, S.

    1995-06-01

    The analysis of carbon-epoxy composites for fiber-volume contents is significant in determining the quality and strength of a given composite. The method commonly being used is acid digestion in a hot water bath, which takes about 2.5 hours for digestion alone. A study has been done using a new technique, what is known as Microwave Acid Digestion (MAD) for quick determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites. This technique uses a specially designed teflon bomb for digestion. The bomb allows for temperatures up to 250 C and pressures up to 1,200 psi. Under such operating conditions, the MAD technique reduces digestion time to about 70 seconds. The study demonstrated that the microwave acid digestion (MAD) is an efficient means for determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites.

  8. Can mud (silt and clay) concentration be used to predict soil organic carbon content within seagrass ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Calafat, Antoni; York, Paul H.; Steven, Andy; Macreadie, Peter I.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of blue carbon science is seeking cost-effective ways to estimate the organic carbon content of soils that are bound by coastal vegetated ecosystems. Organic carbon (Corg) content in terrestrial soils and marine sediments has been correlated with mud content (i.e., silt and clay, particle sizes < 63 µm), however, empirical tests of this theory are lacking for coastal vegetated ecosystems. Here, we compiled data (n = 1345) on the relationship between Corg and mud contents in seagrass ecosystems (79 cores) and adjacent bare sediments (21 cores) to address whether mud can be used to predict soil Corg content. We also combined these data with the δ13C signatures of the soil Corg to understand the sources of Corg stores. The results showed that mud is positively correlated with soil Corg content only when the contribution of seagrass-derived Corg to the sedimentary Corg pool is relatively low, such as in small and fast-growing meadows of the genera Zostera, Halodule and Halophila, and in bare sediments adjacent to seagrass ecosystems. In large and long-living seagrass meadows of the genera Posidonia and Amphibolis there was a lack of, or poor relationship between mud and soil Corg content, related to a higher contribution of seagrass-derived Corg to the sedimentary Corg pool in these meadows. The relatively high soil Corg contents with relatively low mud contents (e.g., mud-Corg saturation) in bare sediments and Zostera, Halodule and Halophila meadows was related to significant allochthonous inputs of terrestrial organic matter, while higher contribution of seagrass detritus in Amphibolis and Posidonia meadows disrupted the correlation expected between soil Corg and mud contents. This study shows that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, and therefore should not be applied generally across all seagrass habitats. Mud content can only be used as a proxy to estimate soil Corg content for scaling up purposes when

  9. Adsorption of tetracycline from aqueous solutions onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes with different oxygen contents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Ma, Jie; Han, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different oxygen contents were investigated for the adsorption of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solutions. As the surface oxygen content of the MWCNTs increased, the maximum adsorption capacity and adsorption coefficient of TC increased to the largest values and then decreased. The relation can be attributed to the interplay between the nanotubes' dispersibility and the water cluster formation upon TC adsorption. The overall adsorption kinetics of TC onto CNTs-3.2%O might be dependent on both intra-particle diffusion and boundary layer diffusion. The maximum adsorption capacity of TC on CNTs-3.2%O was achieved in the pH range of 3.3–8.0 due to formation of water clusters or H-bonds. Furthermore, the presence of Cu2+ could significantly enhanced TC adsorption at pH of 5.0. However, the solution ionic strength did not exhibit remarkable effect on TC adsorption. In addition, when pH is beyond the range (3.3–8.0), the electrostatic interactions caused the decrease of TC adsorption capacity. Our results indicate that surface properties and aqueous solution chemistry play important roles in TC adsorption on MWCNTs. PMID:24937315

  10. Simple and Precise Quantification of Iron Catalyst Content in Carbon Nanotubes Using UV/Visible Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Agustina, Elsye; Goak, Jeungchoon; Lee, Suntae; Seo, Youngho; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung

    2015-10-01

    Iron catalysts have been used widely for the mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high yield. In this study, UV/visible spectroscopy was used to determine the Fe catalyst content in CNTs using a colorimetric technique. Fe ions in solution form red-orange complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline, producing an absorption peak at λ=510 nm, the intensity of which is proportional to the solution Fe concentration. A series of standard Fe solutions were formulated to establish the relationship between optical absorbance and Fe concentration. Many Fe catalysts were microscopically observed to be encased by graphitic layers, thus preventing their extraction. Fe catalyst dissolution from CNTs was investigated with various single and mixed acids, and Fe concentration was found to be highest with CNTs being held at reflux in HClO4/HNO3 and H2SO4/HNO3 mixtures. This novel colorimetric method to measure Fe concentrations by UV/Vis spectroscopy was validated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, indicating its reliability and applicability to asses Fe content in CNTs.

  11. Carbon tetrachloride degradation: Effect of microbial growth substrate and vitamin B{sub 12} content

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, S.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.

    2000-05-01

    Microbial degradation kinetics of carbon tetrachloride (CT) under reducing conditions were investigated for different cultures, fed with 1,2-propanediol, dextrose, propionalde-hyde, or acetate and nitrate, in the anaerobic step of an anaerobic/aerobic operation sequence. Methanogenesis was inhibited due to the aerobic step. CT biodegradation rates followed first-order kinetics with respect to CT concentration and biomass and were not affected by the presence of growth substrate. CT degradation rates increased linearly with higher intracellular vitamin B{sub 12} content. The culture fed 1,2-propanediol had the highest vitamin B{sub 12} content, which was 3.8, 4.7, and 16 times that of the propionaldehyde-,dextrose-, and acetate-fed cultures, respectively, and its first-order degradation rate constant was 2.8, 4.5, 6.0 times that for those cultures, respectively. No CT degradation occurred with culture liquid, suggesting that intracellular factors were responsible for CT degradation. The propanediol culture was able to sustain a constant CT degradation rate for a 16-day test period without substrate addition. Compared to a propanediol-fed culture grown only under anaerobic conditions, the propanediol culture grown under the sequential anaerobic/aerobic condition resulted in more biomass growth and a greater CT degradation rate per unit of propanediol fed, although its CT degradation rate per unit of biomass was lower.

  12. Simple and Precise Quantification of Iron Catalyst Content in Carbon Nanotubes Using UV/Visible Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Agustina, Elsye; Goak, Jeungchoon; Lee, Suntae; Seo, Youngho; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung

    2015-01-01

    Iron catalysts have been used widely for the mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high yield. In this study, UV/visible spectroscopy was used to determine the Fe catalyst content in CNTs using a colorimetric technique. Fe ions in solution form red–orange complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline, producing an absorption peak at λ=510 nm, the intensity of which is proportional to the solution Fe concentration. A series of standard Fe solutions were formulated to establish the relationship between optical absorbance and Fe concentration. Many Fe catalysts were microscopically observed to be encased by graphitic layers, thus preventing their extraction. Fe catalyst dissolution from CNTs was investigated with various single and mixed acids, and Fe concentration was found to be highest with CNTs being held at reflux in HClO4/HNO3 and H2SO4/HNO3 mixtures. This novel colorimetric method to measure Fe concentrations by UV/Vis spectroscopy was validated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, indicating its reliability and applicability to asses Fe content in CNTs. PMID:26491641

  13. Enhancing Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potentials of Antidesma thwaitesianum by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Poontawee, Warut; Natakankitkul, Surapol; Wongmekiat, Orawan

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has increasingly gained attention as an alternative technique for extraction of natural products without leaving toxic residues in extracts. Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae), or ma mao, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant health benefits due to its phenolic constituents. To determine whether SFE technique could impact on phenolic contents and associated antioxidant potentials, ripe fruits of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae) were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional solvents (ethanol, water). The results showed that the SC-CO2 extract contained significantly higher yield, total phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents than those obtained from ethanol and water. It also demonstrated the greatest antioxidant activities as assessed by ABTS radical cation decolorization, DPPH radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Further analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD/MSD) revealed the presence of catechin as a major phenolic compound of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae), with the maximum amount detected in the SC-CO2 extract. These data indicate that SFE technology improves both quantity and quality of Antidesma thwaitesianum fruit extract. The findings added more reliability of using this technique to produce high added value products from this medicinal plant. PMID:25977832

  14. Effects of long-term compost application on carbon content and soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Houot, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Biological treatment through composting of organic wastes fulfils multiple purposes: it not only reduces the amount of waste stored in landfills but can also provide agricultural soils with organic amendments, which affect physicochemical soil properties and reduce the use of mineral fertilizers. However, the impacts of different types of amendments are not yet fully understood, as quantity and quality of the exogenous organic matter (EOM) applied vary greatly and numerous other parameters are affected as well, such as pH, heavy metal content, or nutrient availability. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of different organic amendments - via simulations - on water holding capacity (WHC) and particularly plant available water (PAW), in regard to irrigation needs. The long-term field experiment "Qualiagro" (INRA - Veolia Environment collaboration) was established in Feucherolles, France in 1998, where five treatments were designed, each with two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal and optimal. Farmyard manure (FYM) and three types of compost - all applied every other year at a rate of 4 t carbon ha-1 - gave rise to varying organic carbon (OC) contents and were compared to a control treatment. The treatments changed the soil's OC content from initially ~10.5 g kg-1 to a range of 9.35 to 15.58 g kg-1. An increased OC content can enhance WHC by increasing total porosity/ reducing bulk density. The PAW - the difference between field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (WP); predicted with pedotransfer functions related to OC - increases, if the increase at FC is larger than that at WP. With a higher amount of PAW, the need to irrigate fields - to ensure sufficient water availability for plant growth - decreases. At the same time, soil bulk density (ρd) affects root growth; denser soils can lead to reduced rooting depth. Both of these effects were considered when employing a simple soil water balance model (BUDGET; http

  15. Enhanced endothelial cell density on NiTi surfaces with sub-micron to nanometer roughness.

    PubMed

    Samaroo, Harry D; Lu, Jing; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    The shape memory effect and superelastic properties of NiTi (or Nitinol, a nickel-titanium alloy) have already attracted much attention for various biomedical applications (such as vascular stents, orthodontic wires, orthopedic implants, etc). However, for vascular stents, conventional approaches have required coating NiTi with anti-thrombogenic or antiinflammatory drug-eluting polymers which as of late have proven problematic for healing atherosclerotic blood vessels. Instead of focusing on the use of drug-eluting anti-thrombogenic or anti-inflammatory proteins, this study focused on promoting the formation of a natural antithrombogenic and anti-inflammatory surface on metallic stents: the endothelium. In this study, we synthesized various NiTi substrates with different micron to nanometer surface roughness by using dissimilar dimensions of constituent NiTi powder. Endothelial cell adhesion on these compacts was compared with conventional commercially pure (cp) titanium (Ti) samples. The results after 5 hrs showed that endothelial cells adhered much better on fine grain (< 60 microm) compared with coarse grain NiTi compacts (< 100 microm). Coarse grain NiTi compacts and conventional Ti promoted similar levels of endothelial cell adhesion. In addition, cells proliferated more after 5 days on NiTi with greater sub-micron and nanoscale surface roughness compared with coarse grain NiTi. In this manner, this study emphasized the positive pole that NiTi with sub-micron to nanometer surface features can play in promoting a natural anti-thrombogenic and anti-inflammatory surface (the endothelium) on a vascular stent and, thus, suggests that more studies should be conducted on NiTi with sub-micron to nanometer surface features.

  16. Relationship between osseointegration and superelastic biomechanics in porous NiTi scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chan, Y L; Hu, Tao; Xu, Zushun; Liu, Xuanyong; Chung, Jonathan C Y; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Chu, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    The superelastic nature of bones requires matching biomechanical properties from the ideal artificial biomedical implants in order to provide smooth load transfer and foster the growth of new bone tissues. In this work, we determine the biomechanical characteristics of porous NiTi implants and investigate bone ingrowth under actual load-bearing conditions in vivo. In this systematic and comparative study, porous NiTi, porous Ti, dense NiTi, and dense Ti are implanted into 5 mm diameter holes in the distal part of the femur/tibia of rabbits for 15 weeks. The bone ingrowth and interfacial bonding strength are evaluated by histological analysis and push-out test. The porous NiTi materials bond very well to newly formed bone tissues and the highest average strength of 357 N and best ductility are achieved from the porous NiTi materials. The bonding curve obtained from the NiTi scaffold shows similar superelasticity as natural bones with a deflection of 0.30-0.85 mm thus shielding new bone tissues from large load stress. This is believed to be the reason why new bone tissues can penetrate deeply into the porous NiTi scaffold compared to the one made of porous Ti. Histological analysis reveals that new bone tissues adhere and grow well on the external surfaces as well as exposed areas on the inner pores of the NiTi scaffold. The in vitro study indicates that the surface chemical composition and topography of the porous structure leads to good cytocompatibility. Consequently, osteoblasts proliferate smoothly on the entire implant including the flat surface, embossed region, exposed area of the pores, and interconnected channels. In conjunction with the good cytocompatibility, the superelastic biomechanical properties of the porous NiTi scaffold bodes well for fast formation and ingrowth of new bones, and porous NiTi scaffolds are thus suitable for clinical applications under load-bearing conditions.

  17. Enhanced endothelial cell density on NiTi surfaces with sub-micron to nanometer roughness

    PubMed Central

    Samaroo, Harry D; Lu, Jing; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    The shape memory effect and superelastic properties of NiTi (or Nitinol, a nickel-titanium alloy) have already attracted much attention for various biomedical applications (such as vascular stents, orthodontic wires, orthopedic implants, etc). However, for vascular stents, conventional approaches have required coating NiTi with anti-thrombogenic or anti-inflammatory drug-eluting polymers which as of late have proven problematic for healing atherosclerotic blood vessels. Instead of focusing on the use of drug-eluting anti-thrombogenic or anti-inflammatory proteins, this study focused on promoting the formation of a natural anti-thrombogenic and anti-inflammatory surface on metallic stents: the endothelium. In this study, we synthesized various NiTi substrates with different micron to nanometer surface roughness by using dissimilar dimensions of constituent NiTi powder. Endothelial cell adhesion on these compacts was compared with conventional commercially pure (cp) titanium (Ti) samples. The results after 5 hrs showed that endothelial cells adhered much better on fine grain (<60 μm) compared with coarse grain NiTi compacts (<100 μm). Coarse grain NiTi compacts and conventional Ti promoted similar levels of endothelial cell adhesion. In addition, cells proliferated more after 5 days on NiTi with greater sub-micron and nanoscale surface roughness compared with coarse grain NiTi. In this manner, this study emphasized the positive pole that NiTi with sub-micron to nanometer surface features can play in promoting a natural anti-thrombogenic and anti-inflammatory surface (the endothelium) on a vascular stent and, thus, suggests that more studies should be conducted on NiTi with sub-micron to nanometer surface features. PMID:18488418

  18. The Effects of Ni-Ti Hand Files, Ni-Ti Engine Files, and K-Flex Files on Root Canal Morphology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-30

    of pulp tissue, debris, and irritants is necessary for healing and the proper shaping of the canal is an important factor in achieving a dense. leak...2) and Mizrahi (3) have ř shown that no instrumentation technique is totally effective in removing pulp tissue. debris, and canal irregularities...the first ni-ti root canal files that were machined from orthodontic wire. The ni-ti files were found to have two to three times more elastic

  19. Modelling global change impacts on soil carbon contents of agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    total of 38 sampling points were selected under two management practices and six different land uses: (1) MEOW-dehesa (D); (2) MEOW-dehesa + some pine trees (D+P); (3) MEOW-dehesa + some cork oaks (D+C); (4) MEOW-dehesa + some gall oaks (D + G); (5) MEOW-dehesa after a clarified process and transformed to olive grove but maintaining isolated oaks (OG) and (6) MEOW-dehesa after a clarified process and transformed to cereal pasture with isolated oaks (C). Preliminary results showed a high heterogeneity of SOC contents along the soil profile for different climate and land use scenarios. The methods used here can be easily implemented in other Mediterranean areas with available information on climate, site, soil and land use. Keywords: CarboSOIL model, land use change, climate change, soil depth, dehesa References: Abd-Elmabod, S.K., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Jordán, A., Anaya-Romero, M., De la Rosa, D., 2014. Modelling soil organic carbon stocks along topographic transects under climate change scenarios using CarboSOIL. Geophys. Res. Abstr. vol. 16 EGU2014-295-1, EGU General Assembly.) Álvaro-Fuentes, J., Easter, M., Paustian, K., 2012. Climate change effects on organic carbon storage in agricultural soils of northeastern Spain. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 155, 87-94. Corral-Fernández, R., Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B. 2013. Stratification ratio of soil organic C, N and C:N in Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland with conventional and organic tillage. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 164, 252-259. Francaviglia, R., Coleman, K., Whitmore, A.P., Doro, L., Urracci, G., Rubino, M., Ledda, L., 2012. Changes in soil organic carbon and climate change - application of the RothC model in agrosilvo-pastoral Mediterranean systems. Agric. Syst. 112, 48- 54. IPCC, 2007. Technical summary. In: Climate Change 2007. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change http://www.ipcc.ch/. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L

  20. Carbon content in the Earth's inner core from the elasticity of iron carbide at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle-Neumann, G.; Mookherjee, M.

    2009-12-01

    ferromagnetic and non-magnetic phase and infer about the carbon content of the inner core.

  1. Towards the bulk carbon content of Earth; new metal carbide geobarometer in high pressure diamond.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Dobson, D.; Milledge, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    Formation of the metallic core in Earth (and other terrestrial planets) is not thought to have completely removed metallic iron from the lower mantle, where metallic iron might therefore be expected to occur as a widespread minor component [1]. We provide a new interpretation of metallic carbide inclusions in some diamond, which support a very high pressure origin from the lower mantle. Unlike rare carbides reported from diamonds previously without silicon [2], some diamonds from Jagersfontein coexist with iron-rich carbides which do contain significant silicon and oxygen, including in some cases their partial exsolution products. Based on an experimental calibration for liquid iron coexisting with lower mantle perovskite [3], we are able to show that some carbides were likely derived from pressures of approximately 45 GPa, or depths of >1100 km. This potential geobarometer has not been corrected for the behaviour of carbon in the liquid iron system, which might be an important experimental goal. The recognition of this independent carbide geobarometer offers an important new tool to confirm the superdeep origin of some diamond. The carbide-bearing diamonds are from a group whose charcteristics have recently been described [5]. Their distinctive light carbon isotopic signature (13^C ~ 17 ) coupled with evidence for very low contents nitrogen which is nonetheless highly aggregated, might be interpreted as indicative of subducted carbon. However, we are also open to the possibility that the bulk carbon isotopic composition of the Earth might also be different from the normal mantle value (13^C ~ 6 ), in which case the potential 0.4 wt% C in the Earth's core could also be isotopically very light, as suggested by Grady et al [6]. References [1] Frost D et al, Nature 428, 409-412 (2004) [2] Jacob D E et al, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 146, 566-576 (2004) [3] Lin et al, Science, 295, 313-315 (2002) [4] Dubrovinsky L. et al, Nature 422, 58-61 (2003) [5] Jones A P et al, 9

  2. Impact of carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of microscale zerovalent iron particles on its reactivity towards chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Larsson, Per-Olof; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2013-11-01

    Zerovalent iron (ZVI) abiotically degrades several chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via reductive dechlorination, which offers perspectives for in situ groundwater remediation applications. The difference in reactivity between ZVI particles is often linked with their specific surface area. However, other parameters may influence the reactivity as well. Earlier, we reported for a set of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles the disappearance kinetic of different CAHs which were collected under consistent experimental conditions. In the present study, these kinetic data were correlated with the carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of mZVI particles. It was confirmed that not only the specific surface area affects the disappearance kinetic of CAHs, but also the chemical composition of the mZVI particles. The chemical composition, in addition, influences CAHs removal mechanism inducing sorption onto mZVI particles instead of dechlorination. Generally, high disappearance kinetic of CAHs was observed for particles containing less oxygen. A high carbon content, on the other hand, induced nonreactive sorption of the contaminants on the mZVI particles. To obtain efficient remediation of CAHs by mZVI particles, this study suggested that the carbon and oxygen content should not exceed 0.5% and 1% respectively. Finally, the efficiency of the mZVI particles may be improved to some extent by enriching them with sulfur. However, the impact of sulfur content on the reactivity of mZVI particles is less pronounced than that of the carbon and oxygen content.

  3. Stable atomic structure of NiTi austenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-08-01

    Nitinol (NiTi), the most widely used shape-memory alloy, exhibits an austenite phase that has yet to be identified. The usually assumed austenitic structure is cubic B2, which has imaginary phonon modes, hence it is unstable. We suggest a stable austenitic structure that "on average" has B2 symmetry (observed by x-ray and neutron diffraction), but it exhibits finite atomic displacements from the ideal B2 sites. The proposed structure has a phonon spectrum that agrees with that from neutron scattering, has diffraction spectra in agreement with x-ray diffraction, and has an energy relative to the ground state that agrees with calorimetry data.

  4. Impact of organosulfur content on diesel fuel stability and implications for carbon steel corrosion.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Christopher N; Aktas, Deniz F; Duncan, Kathleen E; Callaghan, Amy V; Stevenson, Bradley S; Suflita, Joseph M

    2013-06-04

    Ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel has been integrated into the worldwide fuel infrastructure to help meet a variety of environmental regulations. However, desulfurization alters the properties of diesel fuel in ways that could potentially impact its biological stability. Fuel desulfurization might predispose ULSD to biodeterioration relative to sulfur-rich fuels and in marine systems accelerate rates of sulfate reduction, sulfide production, and carbon steel biocorrosion. To test such prospects, an inoculum from a seawater-compensated ballast tank was amended with fuel from the same ship or with refinery fractions of ULSD, low- (LSD), and high sulfur diesel (HSD) and monitored for sulfate depletion. The rates of sulfate removal in incubations amended with the refinery fuels were elevated relative to the fuel-unamended controls but statistically indistinguishable (∼50 μM SO4/day), but they were found to be roughly twice as fast (∼100 μM SO4/day) when the ship's own diesel was used as a source of carbon and energy. Thus, anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism likely occurred in these incubations regardless of fuel sulfur content. Microbial community structure from each incubation was also largely independent of the fuel amendment type, based on molecular analysis of 16S rRNA sequences. Two other inocula known to catalyze anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism showed no differences in fuel-associated sulfate reduction or methanogenesis rates between ULSD, LSD, and HSD. These findings suggest that the stability of diesel is independent of the fuel organosulfur compound status and reasons for the accelerated biocorrosion associated with the use of ULSD should be sought elsewhere.

  5. Soil organic carbon covariance with soil water content; a geostatistical analysis in cropland fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, H. R.; Berg, A. A.; von Bertoldi, P.

    2013-12-01

    Soil texture has traditionally represented the rate of soil water drainage influencing soil water content (WC) in the soil characteristic curves, hydrological models and remote sensing field studies. Although soil organic carbon (OC) has been shown to significantly increase the water holding capacity of soil in individual field studies, evidence is required to consider soil OC as a significant factor in soil WC variability at the scale of a remote sensing footprint (25 km2). The relationship of soil OC to soil WC was evaluated over 50 fields during the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil WC field sampling campaign over southern Manitoba, Canada. On each field, soil WC was measured at 16 sample points, at 100 m spacing to 5 cm depth with Stevens hydra probe sensors on 16 sampling dates from June 7 to July 19, 2012. Soil cores were also taken at sampling sites on each field, each sampling day, to determine gravimetric moisture, bulk density and particle size distribution. On 4 of the sampling dates, soil OC was also determined by loss on ignition on the dried soil samples from all fields. Semivariograms were created from the field mean soil OC and field mean surface soil WC sampled at midrow, over all cropland fields and averaged over all sampling dates. The semivariogram models explained a distinct relationship of both soil OC and WC within the soil over a range of 5 km with a Gaussian curve. The variance in soil that soil OC and WC have in common was a similar Gaussian curve in the cross variogram. Following spatial interpolation with Kriging, the spatial maps of soil OC and WC were also very similar with high covariance over the majority of the sampling area. The close correlation between soil OC and WC suggests they are structurally related in the soil. Soil carbon could thus assist in improving downscaling methods for remotely sensed soil WC and act as a surrogate for interpolation of soil WC.

  6. [Effects of land use type on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents in Karst region of South China].

    PubMed

    Li, Xinai; Xiao, Heai; Wu, Jinshui; Su, Yirong; Huang, Daoyou; Huang, Min; Liu, Shoulong; Peng, Hongcui

    2006-10-01

    A total of 721 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from the paddy field, upland, and woodland in the Karst region of Dacai, Huanjiang County, Guangxi Province, and the contents of their organic carbon (Oc ), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (Bc) , and microbial biomass nitrogen (BN) were determined. The results showed that the Oc and BN contents and soil pH value showed the trend of paddy field = woodland > upland, while TN and Bc contents had the trend of woodland > paddy field > upland. There was a significant positive correlation between Bc and Oc, and between B5 and TN. Soil microbial biomass C and N had rapid responses to the changes of land use type, which could be used as the sensitive biological indicators in evaluating soil quality and fertility in Karst region.

  7. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-01-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties. PMID:27431281

  8. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-19

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  9. Effect of electrolyte water content on the anodic passivation of lithium in IM LiC104-propylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. D.; Nagao, A. R.

    1982-06-01

    This work deals with the effect of aqueous contamination on the anode passivation of Li in 1M LiC10 4-propylene carbonate. Passivation occurs more readily with increasing electrolyte water content. Preliminary evidence suggests that anodic passivation may be due to anodic enrichment and eventual precipitation of LiC10 4 in the superficial anolyte layer.

  10. Effect of electrolyte water content on the anodic passivation of lithium in 1m lic104-propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.D.; Nagao, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    This work deals with the effect of aqueous contamination on the anode passivation of Li in 1M LiC10/sup 4/-propylene carbonate. Passivation occurs more readily with increasing electrolyte water content. Preliminary evidence suggests that anodic passivation may be due to anodic enrichment and eventual precipitation of LiC10/sup 4/ in the superficial anolyte layer.

  11. Application of standard end-quench test to structural steel with elevated carbon content at low hardenability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliner, R. E.; Vybornov, V. V.

    2013-03-01

    Special features of the test of plain steel with elevated carbon content for hardenability, which is used in the production of gears instead carburizing alloy steel, are considered. It is shown that it is possible and effective to use computer simulation of the hardenability detectable by testing of this class of steel by the method of end quenching with allowance for the chemical composition.

  12. Fabrication of porous NiTi shape memory alloy structures using laser engineered net shaping.

    PubMed

    Krishna, B Vamsi; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2009-05-01

    Porous NiTi alloy samples were fabricated with 12-36% porosity from equiatomic NiTi alloy powder using laser engineered net shaping (LENS). The effects of processing parameters on density and properties of laser-processed NiTi alloy samples were investigated. It was found that the density increased rapidly with increasing the specific energy input up to 50 J/mm(3). Further increase in the energy input had small effect on density. High cooling rates associated with LENS processing resulted in higher amount of cubic B2 phase, and increased the reverse transformation temperatures of porous NiTi samples due to thermally induced stresses and defects. Transformation temperatures were found to be independent of pore volume, though higher pore volume in the samples decreased the maximum recoverable strain from 6% to 4%. Porous NiTi alloy samples with 12-36% porosity exhibited low Young's modulus between 2 and 18 GPa as well as high compressive strength and recoverable strain. Because of high open pore volume between 36% and 62% of total volume fraction porosity, these porous NiTi alloy samples can potentially accelerate the healing process and improve biological fixation when implanted in vivo. Thus porous NiTi is a promising biomaterial for hard tissue replacements.

  13. Microstructural Characterization of Diffusion Bonds Assisted by Ni/Ti Nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Sónia; Viana, Filomena; Sofia Ramos, A.; Teresa Vieira, M.; Vieira, Manuel F.

    2016-08-01

    The microstructure of similar and dissimilar diffusion bonds of metallic materials using reactive Ni/Ti interlayers was studied in this investigation. The base material surfaces were modified by sputter deposition of alternated Ni and Ti nanolayers. These nanolayers increase the diffusivity at the interface, enhancing the bonding process. Bonding experiments were performed at 800 °C under a pressure of 10 MPa with a bonding time of 60 min. The reaction zone was characterized by high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Microstructural characterization reveals that similar (NiTi to NiTi and TiAl to TiAl) and dissimilar (NiTi to Ti6Al4V and TiAl to stainless steel) joints can be obtained successfully with Ni/Ti reactive nanolayers. The interfaces are thin (<10 µm) and their microstructure (thickness and number of zones, size and shape of the grains) depends on the elements diffusing from the base materials. For all joints, the interface is mainly composed of equiaxed grains of NiTi and NiTi2.

  14. Launch Load Resistant Spacecraft Mechanism Bearings Made From NiTi Superelastic Intermetallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis (Chip) E., III

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional bearing materials (tool steel and ceramics), emerging Superelastic Intermetallic Materials (SIMs), such as 60NiTi, have significantly lower elastic modulus and enhanced strain capability. They are also immune to atmospheric corrosion (rusting). This offers the potential for increased resilience and superior ability to withstand static indentation load without damage. In this paper, the static load capacity of hardened 60NiTi 50mm bore ball-bearing races are measured to correlate existing flat-plate indentation load capacity data to an actual bearing geometry through the Hertz stress relations. The results confirmed the validity of using the Hertz stress relations to model 60NiTi contacts; 60NiTi exhibits a static stress capability (3.1GPa) between that of 440C (2.4GPa) and REX20 (3.8GPa) tool steel. When the reduced modulus and extended strain capability are taken into account, 60NiTi is shown to withstand higher loads than other bearing materials. To quantify this effect, a notional space mechanism, a 5kg mass reaction wheel, was modeled with respect to launch load capability when supported on 440C, 60NiTi and REX20 tool steel bearings. For this application, the use of REX20 bearings increased the static load capability of the mechanism by a factor of three while the use of 60NiTi bearings resulted in an order of magnitude improvement compared to the baseline 440C stainless steel bearings.

  15. Pyrogenic Carbon in soils: a literature-based inventory and a global estimation of its content in soil organic carbon and stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisser, Moritz; Purves, Ross; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is considered one of the most stable components in soil and can represent more than 30% of total soil organic carbon (SOC). However, few estimates of global PyC stock or distribution exist and thus PyC is not included in any global carbon cycle models, despite its potential major relevance for the soil pool. To obtain a global picture, we reviewed the literature for published PyC content in SOC data. We generated the first PyC database including more than 560 measurements from 55 studies. Despite limitations due to heterogeneous distribution of the studied locations and gaps in the database, we were able to produce a worldwide PyC inventory. We found that global PyC represent on average 13.7% of the SOC and can be even up to 60%, making it one of the largest groups of identifiable compounds in soil, together with polysaccharides. We observed a consistent range of PyC content in SOC, despite the diverse methods of quantification. We tested the PyC content against different environmental explanatory variables: fire and land use (fire characteristics, land use, net primary productivity), climate (temperature, precipitation, climatic zones, altitude) and pedogenic properties (clay content, pH, SOC content). Surprisingly, soil properties explain PyC content the most. Soils with clay content higher than 50% contain significantly more PyC (> 30% of the SOC) than with clay content lower than 5% (< 6% of the SOC). Alkaline soils contain at least 50% more PyC than acidic soils. Furthermore, climatic conditions, represented by climatic zone or mean temperature or precipitation, correlate significantly with the PyC content. By contrast, fire characteristics could only explain PyC content, if site-specific information was available. Datasets derived from remote sensing did not explain the PyC content. To show the potential of this database, we used it in combination with other global datasets to create a global worldwide PyC content and a stock estimation

  16. Determination by near infrared microscopy of the nitrogen and carbon content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaf powder

    PubMed Central

    Lequeue, Gauthier; Draye, Xavier; Baeten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared microscopy (NIRM) has been developed as a rapid technique to predict the chemical composition of foods, reduce analytical costs and time and ease sample preparation. In this study, NIRM has been evaluated as an alternative to classical chemical analysis to determine the nitrogen and carbon content of small samples of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaf powder. Near infrared spectra were obtained by NIRM for independent leaf samples collected on 216 plants grown under six different levels of nitrogen. From these, 30 calibration and 30 validation samples covering the spectral range of the whole set were selected and their nitrogen and carbon contents were determined by a reference method. The calibration model obtained for nitrogen content proved to be excellent, with a coefficient of determination in calibration (R2c) higher than 0.9 and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPDc) higher than 3. Statistical indicators of prediction using the validation set were also very high (R2p values > 0.90). However, the calibration model obtained for carbon content was much less satisfactory (R2c < 0.50). NIRM appears as a promising and suitable tool for a rapid, non-destructive and reliable determination of nitrogen content of tiny samples of tomato leaf powder. PMID:27634485

  17. High temperature ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water foam stabilized with viscoelastic zwitterionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Alzobaidi, Shehab; Da, Chang; Tran, Vu; Prodanović, Maša; Johnston, Keith P

    2017-02-15

    Ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) foams with gas phase volume fractions (ϕ) above 0.95 (that is <0.05 water) tend to be inherently unstable given that the large capillary pressures that cause the lamellar films to thin. Herein, we demonstrate that these C/W foams may be stabilized with viscoelastic aqueous phases formed with a single zwitterionic surfactant at a concentration of only 1% (w/v) in DI water and over a wide range of salinity. Moreover, they are stable with a foam quality ϕ up to 0.98 even for temperatures up to 120°C. The properties of aqueous viscoelastic solutions and foams containing these solutions are examined for a series of zwitterionic amidopropylcarbobetaines, R-ONHC3H6N(CH3)2CH2CO2, where R is varied from C12-14 (coco) to C18 (oleyl) to C22 (erucyl). For the surfactants with long C18 and C22 tails, the relaxation times from complex rheology indicate the presence of viscoelastic wormlike micelles over a wide range in salinity and pH, given the high surfactant packing fraction. The apparent viscosities of these ultralow water content foams reached more than 120cP with stabilities more than 30-fold over those for foams formed with the non-viscoelastic C12-14 surfactant. At 90°C, the foam morphology was composed of ∼35μm diameter bubbles with a polyhedral texture. The apparent foam viscosity typically increased with ϕ and then dropped at ϕ values higher than 0.95-0.98. The Ostwald ripening rate was slower for foams with viscoelastic versus non-viscoelastic lamellae as shown by optical microscopy, as a consequence of slower lamellar drainage rates. The ability to achieve high stabilities for ultralow water content C/W foams over a wide temperature range is of interest in various technologies including polymer and materials science, CO2 enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration (by greater control of the CO2 flow patterns), and possibly even hydraulic fracturing with minimal use of water to reduce the requirements for

  18. Clay Chemistry's Influence on the Average Carbon Content and Particle Size at the Ninety-Six Historical Site, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, L.; Werts, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Ninety-Six National Historic Site is located in Greenwood County, SC. Recent geologic mapping of this area has revealed differences in soil properties over short distances within the park. We studied the chemistry of the clay minerals found within the soils to see if there was a correlation between the amounts of soil organic carbon contained in the soil and particle size in individual soil horizons. Three different vegetation areas, including an old field, a deciduous forest, and a pine forest were selected to see what influence vegetation type had on the clay chemistry and carbon levels as well. Four samples containing the O, A, and B horizons were taken from each location and we studied the carbon and nitrogen content using an elemental analyzer, particle size using a Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer, and clay mineralogy with powder X-ray diffraction of each soil sample. Samples from the old field and pine forest gave an overall negative correlation between carbon content and clay percentage, which is against the normal trend for Southern Piedmont Ultisols. The deciduous forest samples gave no correlation at all between its carbon content and clay percentage. Together, all three locations show the same negative relationship, while once separated into vegetation type and A and B horizons it shows even more abnormal relationships of negative while several show no correlation (R2= 0.007403- 0.56268). Using powder XRD, we ran clay samples from each A and B horizon for the clay mineralogy. All three vegetation areas had the same results of containing quartz, kaolinite, and Fe oxides, therefore, clay chemistry is not a reason behind the abnormal trend of a negative correlation between average carbon content and clay percentage. Considering that all three locations have the same climate, topography, and parent material of metagranite, it could be reasonable to assume these results are a factor of environmental and biological influences rather than clay type.

  19. Accumulation of soil carbon and phosphorus contents of a rehabilitated forest.

    PubMed

    Haruna Ahmed, Osumanu; Aainaa Hasbullah, Nur; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2010-10-12

    The world's tropical rainforests are decreasing at an alarming rate as they are converted to agricultural land, pasture, and plantations. Decreasing tropical forests affect global warming. As a result, afforestation progams have been suggested to mitigate this problem. The objective of this study was to determine the carbon and phosphorus accumulation of a rehabilitated forest of different ages. The size of the study area was 47.5 ha. Soil samples were collected from the 0-, 6-, 12-, and 17-year-old rehabilitated forest. Twenty samples were taken randomly with a soil auger at depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm. The procedures outlined in the Materials and Methods section were used to analyze the soil samples for pH, total C, organic matter, total P, C/P ratio, yield of humic acid (HA), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The soil pH decreased significantly with increasing age of forest rehabilitation regardless of depth. Age did not affect CEC of the rehabilitated forest. Soil organic matter (SOM), total C, and total P contents increased with age. However, C/P ratio decreased with time at 0-20 cm. Accumulation of HA with time and soil depth was not consistent. The rehabilitated forest has shown signs of being a C and P sink.

  20. Environmental forcing does not lead to variation in carbon isotope content of forest soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, David; Egan, Jocelyn; Hall, Steven; Risk, David

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have highlighted fluctuations in the carbon isotope content (δ13C) of CO2 produced by soil respiration. These have been correlated with diel cycles of environmental forcing (e.g., soil temperature), or with synoptic weather events (e.g., rain events and pressure-induced ventilation). We used an extensive suite of observations to examine these phenomena over two months in a subalpine forest in Colorado, USA (the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site). Measurements included automated soil respiration chambers and automated measurements of the soil gas profile. We found 1) no diel change in the δ13C of the soil surface flux or the CO2 produced in the soil (despite strong diel change in surface flux rate), 2) no change in δ13C following wetting (despite a significant increase in soil flux rate), and 3) no evidence of pressure-induced ventilation of the soil. Measurements of the δ13C of surface CO2 flux agreed closely with the isotopic composition of soil CO2 production calculated using soil profile measurements. Temporal variation in the δ13C of surface flux was relatively minor and unrelated to measured environmental variables. Deep in the soil profile, results conform to established theory regarding diffusive soil gas transport and isotopic fractionation, and suggest that sampling soil gas at a depth of several tens of centimeters is a simple and effective way to assess the mean δ13C of the surface flux.

  1. Soil organic carbon stocks are systematically overestimated by misuse of the parameters bulk density and rock fragment content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Vos, Cora; Don, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks requires estimates of the carbon content, bulk density, rock fragment content and depth of a respective soil layer. However, different application of these parameters could introduce a considerable bias. Here, we explain why three out of four frequently applied methods overestimate SOC stocks. In soils rich in rock fragments (> 30 vol. %), SOC stocks could be overestimated by more than 100 %, as revealed by using German Agricultural Soil Inventory data. Due to relatively low rock fragments content, the mean systematic overestimation for German agricultural soils was 2.1-10.1 % for three different commonly used equations. The equation ensemble as re-formulated here might help to unify SOC stock determination and avoid overestimation in future studies.

  2. Nitride coating enhances endothelialization on biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Ion, Raluca; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Marx, Philippe; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Surface nitriding was demonstrated to be an effective process for improving the biocompatibility of implantable devices. In this study, we investigated the benefits of nitriding the NiTi shape memory alloy for vascular stent applications. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to untreated NiTi, a superficial gas nitriding treatment enhanced the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cell spreading and proliferation. This investigation provides data to demonstrate the possibility of improving the rate of endothelialization on NiTi by means of nitride coating.

  3. A Review of the Various Surface Treatments of NiTi Instruments.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of engine-driven nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments, attempts have been made to minimize or eliminate their inherent defects, increase their surface hardness/flexibility and also improve their resistance to cyclic fatigue and cutting efficiency. The various strategies of enhancing instrument surface include ion implantation, thermal nitridation, cryogenic treatment and electropolishing. The purpose of this paper was to review the metallurgy and crystal characteristics of NiTi alloy and to present a general over review of the published articles on surface treatment of NiTi endodontic instruments.

  4. A Source Manual for Information on NITINOL and NiTi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-13

    NSWC/WOL TR 78-26/ A SOURCE MANUAL FOR INFORMATION ON <z NITINOL AND NiTi BY DAVID GOLDSTEIN RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT 13 FEBRUARY 1978 C...Conthinua owevess, side it necessary and identity by bWeck ammmber) NITINOL Nickel-Titanium Alloys NiTi Shape Memory Effect Heat Engines W0. A WRACT...Conshnue an reverse Wde Ifftoeseat and Identify by Weoek nmmer) This manual is a current listing of most of the published literature on NITINOL and NiTi

  5. Plasma Arc Melting (PAM) and Corrosion Resistance of Pure NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuissi, A.; Rondelli, G.; Bassani, P.

    2015-03-01

    Plasma arc melting (PAM) as a suitable non-contaminating melting route for manufacturing high-quality NiTi alloy was successfully examined. The corrosion resistance of PAM Nitinol was evaluated by both potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests and compared with lower purity NiTi produced by vacuum induction melting (VIM). For the electro-polished surfaces, excellent corrosion resistance of NiTi comparable with the Ti alloys was found with no pitting up to 800 mV versus saturated calomel electrode in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. Potentiostatic results of PAM Nitinol indicate slightly better corrosion resistance than the lower quality VIM alloy.

  6. A Review of the Various Surface Treatments of NiTi Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of engine-driven nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments, attempts have been made to minimize or eliminate their inherent defects, increase their surface hardness/flexibility and also improve their resistance to cyclic fatigue and cutting efficiency. The various strategies of enhancing instrument surface include ion implantation, thermal nitridation, cryogenic treatment and electropolishing. The purpose of this paper was to review the metallurgy and crystal characteristics of NiTi alloy and to present a general over review of the published articles on surface treatment of NiTi endodontic instruments. PMID:25386201

  7. Adsorption of carbon dioxide, methane, and their mixtures in porous carbons: effect of surface chemistry, water content, and pore disorder.

    PubMed

    Billemont, Pierre; Coasne, Benoit; De Weireld, Guy

    2013-03-12

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide, methane, and their mixtures in nanoporous carbons in the presence of water is studied using experiments and molecular simulations. Both the experimental and numerical samples contain polar groups that account for their partially hydrophilicity. For small amounts of adsorbed water, although the shape of the adsorption isotherms remain similar, both the molecular simulations and experiments show a slight decrease in the CO2 and CH4 adsorption amounts. For large amounts of adsorbed water, the experimental data suggest the formation of methane or carbon dioxide clathrates in agreement with previous work. In contrast, the molecular simulations do not account for the formation of such clathrates. Another important difference between the simulated and experimental data concerns the number of water molecules that desorb upon increasing the pressure of carbon dioxide and methane. Although the experimental data indicate that water remains adsorbed upon carbon dioxide and methane adsorption, the molecular simulations suggest that 40 to 75% of the initial amount of adsorbed water desorbs with carbon dioxide or methane pressure. Such discrepancies show that differences between the simulated and experimental samples are crucial to account for the rich phase behavior of confined water-gas systems. Our simulations for carbon dioxide-methane coadsorption in the presence of water suggest that the pore filling is not affected by the presence of water and that adsorbed solution theory can be applied for pressures as high as 15 MPa.

  8. On the Transformation Behavior of NiTi Shape-Memory Alloy Produced by SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speirs, Mathew; Wang, X.; Van Baelen, S.; Ahadi, A.; Dadbakhsh, S.; Kruth, J.-P.; Van Humbeeck, J.

    2016-12-01

    Selective laser melting has been applied as a production technique of nickel titanium (NiTi) parts. In this study, the scanning parameters and atmosphere control used during production were varied to assess the effects on the final component transformation criteria. Two production runs were completed: one in a high ( 1800 ppm O2) and one in a low-oxygen ( 220 ppm O2) environment. Further solution treatment was applied to analyze precipitation effects. It was found that the transformation temperature varies greatly even at identical energy densities highlighting the need for further in-depth investigations. In this respect, it was observed that oxidation was the dominating factor, increased with higher laser power adapted to higher scanning velocity. Once the atmospheric oxygen content was lowered from 1800 to about 220 ppm, a much smaller variation of transformation temperatures was obtained. In addition to oxidation, other contributing factors, such as nickel depletion (via evaporation during processing) as well as thermal stresses and textures, are further discussed and/or postulated. These results demonstrated the importance of processing and material conditions such as O2 content, powder composition, and laser scanning parameters. These parameters should be precisely controlled to reach desired transformation criteria for functional components made by SLM.

  9. Microscale characterisation of stochastically reconstructed carbon fiber-based Gas Diffusion Layers; effects of anisotropy and resin content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiotis, Andreas G.; Kainourgiakis, Michael E.; Charalambopoulou, Georgia C.; Stubos, Athanassios K.

    2016-07-01

    A novel process-based methodology is proposed for the stochastic reconstruction and accurate characterisation of Carbon fiber-based matrices, which are commonly used as Gas Diffusion Layers in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. The modeling approach is efficiently complementing standard methods used for the description of the anisotropic deposition of carbon fibers, with a rigorous model simulating the spatial distribution of the graphitized resin that is typically used to enhance the structural properties and thermal/electrical conductivities of the composite Gas Diffusion Layer materials. The model uses as input typical pore and continuum scale properties (average porosity, fiber diameter, resin content and anisotropy) of such composites, which are obtained from X-ray computed microtomography measurements on commercially available carbon papers. This information is then used for the digital reconstruction of realistic composite fibrous matrices. By solving the corresponding conservation equations at the microscale in the obtained digital domains, their effective transport properties, such as Darcy permeabilities, effective diffusivities, thermal/electrical conductivities and void tortuosity, are determined focusing primarily on the effects of medium anisotropy and resin content. The calculated properties are matching very well with those of Toray carbon papers for reasonable values of the model parameters that control the anisotropy of the fibrous skeleton and the materials resin content.

  10. The Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dust in the Early Solar Nebula and the Carbon Content of Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gail, H.-P.; Trieloff, M.

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation and pyrolysis processes in the chemically active regions of the Solar Nebula are considered that are responsible for the destruction of the pristine carbon inherited from the ISM and its conversion to hydrocarbons and ultimately to CO.

  11. [Effects of conservation tillage and weed control on soil water and organic carbon contents in winter wheat field].

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Fang; Ning, Tang-Yuan; Li, Zeng-Jia; Tian, Shen-Zhong; Wang, Yu; Zhong, Wei-Lei; Tian, Xin-Xin

    2011-05-01

    Taking a long-term (since 2004) straw-returning winter wheat field as the object, an investigation was made in the wheat growth seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to study the effects of different tillage methods (rotary tillage, harrow tillage, no-tillage, subsoil tillage, and conventional tillage) and weed management on the soil water and organic carbon contents. No matter retaining or removing weeds, the weed density under subsoil tillage and no-tillage was much higher than that under rotary tillage, harrow tillage, and conventional tillage. From the jointing to the milking stage of winter wheat, retaining definite amounts of weeds, no matter which tillage method was adopted, could significantly increase the 0-20 cm soil water content, suggesting the soil water conservation effect of retaining weeds. Retaining weeds only increased the soil organic carbon content in 0-20 cm layer at jointing stage. At heading and milking stages, the soil organic carbon contents in 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm layers were lower under weed retaining than under weed removal. Under the conditions of weed removal, the grain yield under subsoil tillage increased significantly, compared with that under the other four tillage methods. Under the conditions of weed retaining, the grain yield was the highest under rotary tillage, and the lowest under conventional tillage.

  12. [Effects of wheat-straw returning into paddy soil on dissolved organic carbon contents and rice grain yield].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jing-du; Gu, Hai-yan; Dai, Qi-gen; Ma, Ke-qiang; Jiang, Feng; He, Li

    2015-02-01

    A tank experiment using conventional rice cultivar Nanjing 44 as experimental material was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Yangzhou University to investigate the dynamics of wheat straw decomposition rate and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils, as well as its effects on the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and rice yield. The two rates of wheat straw returning were 0 and 6000 kg · hm(-2), and three N application levels were 0, 225, 300 kg · hm(-2). The results showed that, the rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils were highest during the initial 30 days after wheat straw returning, and then slowed down after, which could be promoted by a higher level of nitrogen application. The rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay soil were higher than that in sandy soil. The DOC content in soil increased gradually with wheat straw returning into paddy soil and at the twenty-fifth day, and then decreased gradually to a stable value. The DOC content at the soil depth of 15 cm was significantly increased by wheat straw returning, but not at the soil depth of 30 cm and 45 cm. It was concluded that wheat straw returning increased the DOC content in the soil depth of 0-15 cm mainly. N application decreased the DOC content and there was no difference between the two N application levels. Straw returning decreased the number of tillers in the early growth period, resulted in significantly reduced panicles per unit area, but increased spikelets per panicle, filled-grain percentages, 1000-grain mass, and then enhanced grain yield.

  13. Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on contents and dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, E.; Marschner, B.; Chen, Y.; Tarchitzky, J.

    2009-04-01

    In many arid and semi-arid regions, the demand for freshwater as drinking water and other domestic uses is constantly growing due to demographic growth and increasing standard of living. Therefore, less freshwater is available for agricultural irrigation and new water sources are needed. Treated wastewater (TWW) already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Related to its high loads with nutrients, salts and organic materials within its use as irrigation water major effects on the soil physical and chemical properties can occur, in the worst case leading to soil degradation. In an ongoing study we are investigated in the effects of TWW irrigation on agricultural soils in the region. Here we present results from analyses of total soil carbon contents and qualities in soils irrigated with freshwater and TWW. Furthermore microbiological parameters were investigated as microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. Apparently, this higher microbial activity is causing an increased depletion of soil organic matter, which may have negative long-term effects on soil quality.

  14. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  15. Relative Content of Black Carbon in Submicron Aerosol as a Sign of the Effect of Forest Fire Smokes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Yauscheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    Biomass burning occurs often in regions containing vast forest tracts and peat-bogs. These processes are accompanied by the emission of a large amount of aerosol particles and crystal carbon (black carbon [BC], soot). BC is the predominant source of solar absorption in atmospheric aerosol, which impacts climate. (Jacobson 2001; Rozenberg 1982). In this paper, we analyze the results of laboratory and field investigations that focused on the relative content of BC in aerosol particles. Main attention is given to the study of possibility using this parameter as an informative sign for estimating the effect of remote forest fire smokes on the near-ground aerosol composition.

  16. Characterization of Polylactide Layer Deposited on Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryczka, Tomasz; Szaraniec, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Polylactide (PLA) thin layer was deposited on the surface of the as-quenched NiTi shape memory alloy. First, NiTi alloy was quenched from the 850°C, then its surface was covered with PLA. Deposited PLA is in an amorphous state, whereas the as-quenched NiTi alloy stays in the B2 structure. PLA deposition caused smoothing of the surface and changed its hydrophilic character to hydrophobic one. In general, procedure of PLA deposition does not influence the course of the reversible martensitic transformation. After deformation of NiTi sample covered with PLA up to 4%, its surface does not reveal any cracks and still remains continuous.

  17. Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite film on laser gas nitriding NiTi substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Xing, W.; Man, H. C.

    2009-09-01

    A hydroxyapatite (HA) film was deposited on laser gas nitriding (LGN) NiTi alloy substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. TiN dendrite prepared by LGN provided a higher number of nucleation sites for HA film deposition, which resulted in that a lot number of HA particles were deposited on TiN dendrites. Moreover, the rough LGN surface could make the interface adhesive strength between HA film and substrate increase as compared with that on bare NiTi substrate.

  18. Processing and Characterization of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Particle Reinforced Sn-In Solders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    behavior of different phases of NiTi at constant temperature............................ 16 Figure 8. DSC curves of NiTi wire . Note that upon...cooling the wire transforms to R-phase prior to the martensitic transformation. Upon heating, the As and Af temperatures are similar, as the monoclinic...Copper Rod Interface .......................................... 40 Figure 19. Typical Micro-structure of the monolithic solder

  19. Anodic stripping voltammetry at in situ bismuth-plated carbon and gold microdisc electrodes in variable electrolyte content unstirred solutions.

    PubMed

    Baldrianova, L; Svancara, I; Economou, A; Sotiropoulos, S

    2006-10-27

    Carbon and gold microdisc electrodes (30 and 10 microm, respectively) have been tested as substrates for in situ bismuth film plating from unstirred solutions of variable acetate buffer content and were subsequently used in the anodic stripping voltammetry determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions. The effects of Bi(III) concentration, analyte accumulation time, stirring as well as supporting electrolyte content have been studied. Under optimal conditions good voltammetric responses were obtained by means of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry in unstirred analyte solutions of 5 x 10(-8) to 10(-6)M, even in the absence of added buffer. In an indicative application, Pb(II) ion levels were determined in tap water using bismuth-plated carbon microdisc electrodes.

  20. Energetics of Single Substitutional Impurities in NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian S.; Noebe, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Shape-memory alloys are of considerable current interest, with applications ranging from stents to Mars rover components. In this work, we present results on the energetics of single substitutional impurities in B2 NiTi. Specifically, energies of Pd, Pt, Zr and Hf impurities at both Ni and Ti sites are computed. All energies are computed using the CASTEP ab initio code, and, for comparison, using the quantum approximate energy method of Bozzolo, Ferrante and Smith. Atomistic relaxation in the vicinity of the impurities is investigated via quantum approximate Monte Carlo simulation, and in cases where the relaxation is found to be important, the resulting relaxations are applied to the ab initio calculations. We compare our results with available experimental work.

  1. Boriding of Binary Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucar, Nazim; Dogan, Sule; Karakas, Mustafa Serdar; Calik, Adnan

    2016-11-01

    Boriding of binary Ni-Ti shape memory alloys was carried out in a solid medium at 1273 K for 2, 4, 6, and 8 h using the powder pack method with proprietary Ekabor-Ni powders. Characterization of the boride layer formed on the surface of alloys was done by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of boride, silicide, and borosilicide phases in the boride layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The thickness and microhardness of the boride layers increased with increasing boriding time. Hardness profiles showed a rapid decrease in hardness moving from the boride layer to the main structure. The high hardness of the boride layer was attributed mainly to the formation of TiB2. A parabolic relationship was observed between layer thickness and boriding time, and the growth rate constant for the boriding treatment was calculated as 0.62×10-8 cm2 s-1.

  2. Corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires in acid artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2003-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires using cyclic potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests in acid artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the 3-D surface topography of as-received wires. Scanning electron microscope observations were carried out before and after the cyclic potentiodynamic tests. The surface chemical analysis was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy after the potentiostatic tests. The cyclic potentiodynamic test results showed that the pH had a significant influence on the corrosion parameters of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires (p < 0.05). The pitting potential, protection potential, and passive range of stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires decreased on decreasing pH, whereas the passive current density increased on decreasing pH. The load had no significant influence on the above corrosion parameters (p > 0.05). For all pH and load conditions, stainless steel wire showed higher pitting potential and wider passive range than NiTi wire (p < 0.001), whereas NiTi wire had lower passive current density than stainless steel wire (p < 0.001). The corrosion resistance of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires was related to the surface characterizations, including surface defect and passive film.

  3. Behavior of NiTi in the presence of oral bacteria: corrosion by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Bahije, Loubna; Benyahia, Hicham; El Hamzaoui, Sakina; Ebn Touhami, Mohamed; Bengueddour, Rachid; Rerhrhaye, Wiam; Abdallaoui, Faïza; Zaoui, Fatima

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the electrochemical behavior of nickel titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires in a solution containing Streptococcus mutans oral bacteria. In this article, we explain our choice of bacterial species before describing the culture process in artificial saliva and the precautions needed to prevent contamination by other bacteria. The electrochemical behavior of the alloy (NiTi) was analyzed electrochemically in Ringer sterile artificial saliva and in artificial saliva enriched with a sterile broth and modified by addition of bacteria. The electrochemical procedures chosen for this study were: free corrosion potential, potentiodynamic curves and impedance spectroscopy. In this way, we were able to show that the free corrosion potential of the NiTi in the Ringer solution increases with time and then stabilizes, thus passivating the alloy. We also demonstrated that colonization of the metal surface by bacteria triggered a drop in the free corrosion potential. The electrochemical impedance findings revealed no significant difference in NiTi behavior between the two media. Finally, we observed a slight difference between the two corrosion currents in favor of the bacteria-enriched solution, in which the NiTi underwent greater corrosion. These findings demonstrate the impact of acidogenic bacteria on corrosion behavior of the NiTi wires investigated. However, further research is required, notably incorporating longer immersion times in the two media.

  4. The effect of electrical treatment on cyclic fatigue of NiTi instruments.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Gutmann, James L; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Sheibani, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Dentists desire to use NiTi rotary instruments, which do not break inside the root canals of teeth, since the pieces from broken files are difficult to remove. The NiTi rotary instrument breakage is because of cyclic and torsional fatigue. Here the low-voltage (12 V) and high voltage (24 V) electrical treatments were used to enhance the cyclic fatigue of NiTi rotary instruments and increase their durability. In excremental groups, following electrical treatment samples of the NiTi instruments were rotated inside artificial root canals until they broke. Our results showed that electrical treatment with 12-V DC was effective in restoring NiTi instrument's resistance to cyclic fatigue. The scanning electron microscopy images and fractograph of samples exposed to 12-V electrical treatment showed a more regular texture over the surface with less dimpling on fractured site. These patterns can improve the super elasticity of tested devices during rotational movement, and delay the NiTi instruments separation in root canal preparations.

  5. Predicting in vivo failure of pseudoelastic NiTi devices under low cycle, high amplitude fatigue.

    PubMed

    Young, Jeremy M; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2005-01-15

    Due to the large reversible strains achievable through the stress-induced austenite-martensite phase transformation in NiTi alloys, NiTi has replaced stainless steel in the majority of large-strain biomedical applications such as root canal enlargement. However, the pseudoelasticity of NiTi is currently overshadowed by the short fatigue life of NiTi wires used in this low cycle (200-2000 rpm), high amplitude (epsilon(a) > 2.5%) application, resulting in in vivo fracture or premature retirement of otherwise reusable NiTi-based wire devices. In this study, the failure of pseudoelastic 55.8 wt % Ni-Ti wire is investigated experimentally, as a function of experimental parameters that include the clinically relevant regime. The effects of radius of curvature, angle of curvature, wire diameter, strain amplitude, cyclic frequency, volume under strain, and specific heat of the surrounding environmental fluid are considered systematically. These data indicate that the lifetime or cycles to failure N(f) of a rotating NiTi wire can be predicted via a modified Coffin-Manson relation that is a strong function of both strain amplitude and volume under strain, and a weaker function of frequency and fluid specific heat. The resulting quantitative relation can be used to predict useful device lifetime under clinically relevant conditions and thereby reduce incidences of in vivo failure.

  6. Method for Fabricating Miniaturized NiTi Self-Expandable Thin Film Devices with Increased Radiopacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, Christoph; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Chluba, Christoph; Zamponi, Christiane; Quandt, Eckhard

    2016-12-01

    Nitinol is the material of choice for many medical applications, in particular for minimally invasive implants due to its superelasticity and biocompatibility. However, NiTi has limited radiopacity which complicates positioning in the body. A common strategy to increase the radiopacity of NiTi devices is the addition of radiopaque markers by micro-riveting or micro-welding. The recent trend of miniaturizing medical devices, however, reduces their radiopacity further, and makes the addition of radiopaque markers to these miniaturized devices difficult. NiTi thin film technology has great potential to overcome such limitations and to fabricate new generations of miniaturized, self-expandable NiTi medical devices with additional functionalities, such as structured multilayer devices with increased radiopacity. For this purpose, we have produced superelastic thin film NiTi samples covered locally with Tantalum structures of different thickness and different shape. These multilayer devices were characterized regarding their mechanical and corrosion properties as well as their X-ray visibility. The superelastic behavior of the underlying NiTi layer is impeded by the Ta layer, and shows therefore a dependence on the Tantalum patterning geometry and thickness. No delamination was observed after mechanical and corrosion tests. The multilayers reveal excellent corrosion resistance, as well as a significant increase in radiopacity.

  7. Characterization of PEG-Like Macromolecular Coatings on Plasma Modified NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Gao, Jiacheng; Chang, Peng; Wang, Jianhua

    2008-04-01

    A poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG-like) coating was developed to improve the biocompatibility of Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloy implants. The PEG-like macromolecular coatings were deposited on NiTi substrates at a room temperature of 298 K through a ECR (electron-cyclotron resonance) cold-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method using tetraglyme (CH3-O-(CH2-CH2-O)4-CH3) as a precursor. A power supply with a frequency of 2.45 GHz was applied to ignite the plasma with Ar(argon) used as the carrier gas. Based on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies, a thin smooth coating on NiTi substrates with highly amorphous functional groups on the modified NiTi surfaces were mainly the same accumulated stoichiometric ratio of C and O with PEG. The vitro studies showed that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) adsorption on the modified NiTi alloy surface was significantly reduced. This study indicated that plasma surface modification changes the surface components of NiTi alloy and subsequently improves its biocompatibility.

  8. Vibration characteristics of Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wire inter-weaved fabric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Yang, Qiuhong; Dong, Li

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the vibration characteristics of Ni-Ti wire inter-weaved glass fabric/epoxy composites. The Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wires were used as warp yarns and embedded in the fabric preforms with various weaving methods. Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and vibration test technique were used to reveal the dynamical behaviors of specimens in different frequencies of vibration. The storage modulus E', the loss tanδ, the natural frequency f and damping ratio η were examined. The energy dissipation behaviors of the Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wire, the geometry of textile fabric was also studied. The effect of weaving method on the vibration behavior in Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based textile composites was considered. The results showed that: (I) the energy dissipation capacity of the wire could be significantly improved by increasing the tensile strain and speed, but slightly affected by loading frequency; (II) the woven of few Ni-Ti warps caused the increase of the storage modulus and the change of the loss tanδ. In the buckling vibration, the damping effects of Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wires vary with the woven structures. The compact woven structure with proper Ni-Ti warp architectures would receive a small amplitude and good damping.

  9. Variability in magnesium, carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, and trace element contents of brachiopod shells: implications for paleoceanographic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, Claire; Saulnier, Ségolène; Vigier, Nathalie; Schumacher, Aimryc; Chaussidon, Marc; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium content in the ocean is ≈ 1290 ppm and is one of the most abundant elements. It is involved in the carbon cycle via the dissolution and precipitation of carbonates, especially Mg-rich carbonates as dolomites. The Mg/Ca ratio of the ocean is believed to have changed through time. The causes of these variations, i.e. hydrothermal activity change or enhanced precipitation of dolomite, could be constrained using the magnesium isotope composition (δ26Mg) of carbonates. Brachiopods, as marine environmental proxies, have the advantage to occur worldwide in a depth range from intertidal to abyssal, and have been found in the geological record since the Cambrian. Moreover, as their shell is in low-Mg calcite, they are quite resistant to diagenetic processes. Here we report δ26Mg, δ18O, δ13C values along with trace element contents of one modern brachiopod specimen (Terebratalia transversa) and one fossil specimen (Terebratula scillae, 2.3 Ma). We combined δ26Mg values with oxygen and carbon isotope compositions and trace element contents to look for possible shell geochemical heterogeneities in order to investigate the processes that control the Mg isotope composition of brachiopod shells. We also evaluate the potential of brachiopods as a proxy of past seawater δ26Mg values. The two investigated brachiopod shells present the same range of δ26Mg variation (up to 2 ‰)). This variation cannot be ascribed to changes in environmental parameters, i.e. temperature or pH. As previously observed, the primary layer of calcite shows the largest degree of oxygen and carbon isotope disequilibrium relative to seawater. In contrast, the δ26Mg value of this layer is comparable to that of the secondary calcite layer value. In both T. scillae and T. transversa, negative trends are observable between magnesium isotopic compositions and oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions. These trends, combined to linear relationships between δ26Mg values and REE contents, are best

  10. Radiological image-guided placement of covered Niti-S stent for palliation of dysphagia in patients with cervical esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takeshi; Tanabe, Masahiro; Shimizu, Kensaku; Iida, Etsushi; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of covered Niti-S stent placement under multidetector CT and fluoroscopy guidance for the palliation of dysphagia in patients with cervical esophageal cancer. Under radiological imaging guidance using axial and sagittal CT scans, and fluoroscopy, Niti-S esophageal stents were placed in ten consecutive patients with complete obstruction caused by cervical esophageal cancer (9 men and 1 woman; age range = 54-79 years; mean age = 68.1 years) between February 2010 and December 2011. The procedure time and technical success rate were evaluated. Swallowing improvement was assessed by the following items: ability to eat and/or swallow (graded as follows: 3 = ability to eat normal diet, 2 = ability to eat semisolids, 1 = ability to swallow liquids, 0 = complete obstruction). Procedural and post-procedural complications were also evaluated. Survival (mean ± SD) was examined. The mean (±SD) procedure time was 40 ± 19 min (range = 21-69 min). Stent placement was technically successful in all patients; inadequate stent deployment did not occur in any case. Ability to eat and/or swallow was improved and scored 2.4 (score 3 in 5 cases, score 2 in 4 cases, score 1 in 1 case, and score 0 in no case) after stent placement. No major or post-procedural complications were encountered. The mean survival time was 131 ± 77 days (range = 31-259 days). Niti-S stents appeared to be a safe and effective device for the palliation of dysphagia caused by advanced cervical esophageal cancer. Multidetector CT and fluoroscopy image guidance helped the operators accurately place the stents in the cervical esophagus.

  11. Sodium flux-assisted low-temperature high-pressure synthesis of carbon nitride with high nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreyev, Alexey; Akaishi, Minoru; Golberg, Dmitri

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nitride powders with high nitrogen content have been synthesized via a new, high-pressure (7.7 GPa) and relatively low-temperature (400-500 °C) procedure that involves a chemical reaction of hexachlorobenzene (C 6Cl 6) and sodium azide (NaN 3) in an enclosed system for 50-70 h in the presence of a sodium flux. The obtained powder product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The nitrogen-carbon atomic ratio of the material was 1.24 ± 0.15, which is consistent with C 3N 4 stoichiometry and represents the most nitrogen-rich carbon nitride yet prepared under high-pressure. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the material obtained was predominantly amorphous with some fraction of nanocrystallites with the reticular distance between the lattice planes approximately 0.326 nm.

  12. Revision of Fontes & Garnier's model for the initial 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon used in groundwater dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, Liang-Feng; Plummer, L. Niel

    2013-01-01

    The widely applied model for groundwater dating using 14C proposed by Fontes and Garnier (F&G) (Fontes and Garnier, 1979) estimates the initial 14C content in waters from carbonate-rock aquifers affected by isotopic exchange. Usually, the model of F&G is applied in one of two ways: (1) using a single 13C fractionation factor of gaseous CO2 with respect to a solid carbonate mineral, εg/s, regardless of whether the carbon isotopic exchange is controlled by soil CO2 in the unsaturated zone, or by solid carbonate mineral in the saturated zone; or (2) using different fractionation factors if the exchange process is dominated by soil CO2 gas as opposed to solid carbonate mineral (typically calcite). An analysis of the F&G model shows an inadequate conceptualization, resulting in underestimation of the initial 14C values (14C0) for groundwater systems that have undergone isotopic exchange. The degree to which the 14C0 is underestimated increases with the extent of isotopic exchange. Examples show that in extreme cases, the error in calculated adjusted initial 14C values can be more than 20% modern carbon (pmc). A model is derived that revises the mass balance method of F&G by using a modified model conceptualization. The derivation yields a “global” model both for carbon isotopic exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 in the unsaturated zone, and for carbon isotopic exchange dominated by solid carbonate mineral in the saturated zone. However, the revised model requires different parameters for exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 as opposed to exchange dominated by solid carbonate minerals. The revised model for exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 is shown to be identical to the model of Mook (Mook, 1976). For groundwater systems where exchange occurs both in the unsaturated zone and saturated zone, the revised model can still be used; however, 14C0 will be slightly underestimated. Finally, in carbonate systems undergoing complex geochemical reactions, such as oxidation of

  13. Effects of Retained Austenite Volume Fraction, Morphology, and Carbon Content on Strength and Ductility of Nanostructured TRIP-assisted Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yongfeng; Qiu, LN; Sun, Xin; Zuo, Liang; Liaw, Peter K.; Raabe, Dierk

    2015-06-01

    With a suite of multi-modal and multi-scale characterization techniques, the present study unambiguously proves that a substantially-improved combination of ultrahigh strength and good ductility can be achieved by tailoring the volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content of the retained austenite (RA) in a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel with the nominal chemical composition of 0.19C-0.30Si-1.76Mn-1.52Al (weight percent, wt.%). After intercritical annealing and bainitic holding, a combination ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1,100 MPa and true strain of 50% has been obtained, as a result of the ultrafine RA lamellae, which are alternately arranged in the bainitic ferrite around junction regions of ferrite grains. For reference, specimens with a blocky RA, prepared without the bainitic holding, yield a low ductility (35%) and a low UTS (800 MPa). The volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content of RA have been characterized using various techniques, including magnetic probing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-backscatter-diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interrupted tensile tests, mapped using EBSD in conjunction with the kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis, reveal that the lamellar RA is the governingmicrostructure component responsible for the higher mechanical stability, compared to the blocky one. By coupling these various techniques, we quantitatively demonstrate that in addition to the RA volume fraction, its morphology and carbon content are equally important in optimizing the strength and ductility of TRIP-assisted steels.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Content in Bituminous Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Using UV Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiongwei; Mao, Xianglei; Wang, Zhe; Richard, E. Russo

    2015-11-01

    The carbon content of bituminous coal samples was analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The 266 nm laser radiation was utilized for laser ablation and plasma generation in air. The partial least square method and the dominant factor based PLS method were used to improve the measurement accuracy of the carbon content of coal. The results showed that the PLS model could achieve good measurement accuracy, and the dominant factor based PLS model could further improve the measurement accuracy. The coefficient of determination and the root-mean-square error of prediction of the PLS model were 0.97 and 2.19%, respectively; and those values for the dominant factor based PLS model were 0.99 and 1.51%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the 266 nm wavelength could accurately measure the carbon content of bituminous coal. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51276100) and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013CB228501). The authors also thank the financial funding from the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Science Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (No. 2013CB228501)

  15. Application of Identification Techniques to Determine Effect of Carbon Content in Steels on Rheological Parameters During Hot Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madej, L.; Hodgson, P. D.; Pietrzyk, M.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of the present work is searching for the correlation between the carbon content in steels and the parameters of the rheological models, which are used to describe the materials behavior during hot plastic deformation. This correlation can be expected in the internal variable models, which are based on physical phenomena occurring in the material. Such a model, based on the dislocation density as the internal variable, is investigated in this work. The experiments including hot torsion tests are used for the analysis. The procedure is composed of three parts. Plastometric tests were performed for steels with various carbon content. Optimization techniques were applied next to determine the coefficients in the internal variable rheological model for these steels. Two versions of the model are considered. One is based on the average dislocation density and the second accounts for the distribution of dislocation densities. Evaluation of correlation between carbon content and such coefficients in the models as activation energy for self diffusion, activation energy for recrystallization, grain boundary mobility, recovery coefficient etc. was the main objective of the work. In consequence, the model which may be used for simulation of hot forming processes for steels with various chemical compositions, is proposed.

  16. Sulfur contents of peats at the confluence of carbonate and peat-forming depositional systems, southeastern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D. ); Davies, T.D. ); Spackman, W. )

    1993-08-01

    Complex stratigraphic and compositional relationships have been reported by others at sites where coal beds are laterally in contact with marine carbonates (such as in the southern portion of the Illinois basin). These basin edges are important in that they may (1) represent sites of active coal mining, (2) contain important clues as to the development of the basin, and (3) be sources of the dispersed terrestrial organics encountered in nearby marine rocks. This study was undertaken to investigate peat/carbonate relationships in a modern setting, with initial research on sulfur contents relative to stratigraphic/petrographic conditions. Thirty-eight cores were taken along northwest-southeast transects from the mainland to Florida Bay. The most inland cores consist entirely of peat, representing transgression of marine types (mangrove) over freshwater types. Toward the carbonate-rich bay, a more complex stratigraphy exists. Marine carbonates and peats interfinger, with erosional contacts indicating that parts of the peat sequence are missing. At the coastline, most of the peat is replaced by marine carbonate except for thin (1-10 cm) basal (usually overlain by marine carbonates), with the best preserved ranges from 0.6 to 5.0% (dry) at the most inland sites, 2.4 to 7.8% near the coastline, and 1.5 to 5.9% in bay sediments. Total sulfur is higher in marine than freshwater peats, but freshwater peats overlain by marine peats are enriched in sulfur. Freshwater peats beneath marine carbonates are relatively low in sulfur, but are higher if the peat is overlain by a marine peat before being overlain by the carbonate.

  17. Effects of Carbon Content on the Electrochemical Performances of MoS2-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiyi; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Caiyun; Tao, Zhanliang; Chou, Shu-Lei; Kang, Yong-Mook; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2016-08-31

    Molybdenum disulfide is popular for rechargeable batteries, especially in Li-ion batteries, because of its layered structure and relatively high specific capacity. In this paper, we report MoS2-C nanocomposites that are synthesized by a hydrothermal process, and their use as anode material for Li-ion batteries. Ascorbic acid is used as the carbon source, and the carbon contents can be tuned from 2.5 wt % to 16.2 wt %. With increasing of carbon content, the morphology of MoS2-C nanocomposites changes from nanoflowers to nanospheres, and the particle size is decreased from 200 to 60 nm. This change is caused by the chemical complex interaction of ascorbic acid. The MoS2-C nanocomposite with 8.4 wt % C features a high capacity of 970 mAh g(-1) and sustains a capacity retention ratio of nearly 100% after 100 cycles. When the current increases to 1000 mA g(-1), the capacity still reaches 730 mAh g(-1). The above manifests that the carbon coating layer does not only accelerate the charge transfer kinetics to supply quick discharging and charging, but also hold the integrity of the electrode materials as evidenced by the long cycling stability. Therefore, MoS2-based nanocomposites could be used as commercial anode materials in Li-ion batteries.

  18. An estimate of anthropogenic CO2 inventory from decadal changes in oceanic carbon content.

    PubMed

    Tanhua, Toste; Körtzinger, Arne; Friis, Karsten; Waugh, Darryn W; Wallace, Douglas W R

    2007-02-27

    Increased knowledge of the present global carbon cycle is important for our ability to understand and to predict the future carbon cycle and global climate. Approximately half of the anthropogenic carbon released to the atmosphere from fossil fuel burning is stored in the ocean, although distribution and regional fluxes of the ocean sink are debated. Estimates of anthropogenic carbon (C(ant)) in the oceans remain prone to error arising from (i) a need to estimate preindustrial reference concentrations of carbon for different oceanic regions, and (ii) differing behavior of transient ocean tracers used to infer C(ant). We introduce an empirical approach to estimate C(ant) that circumvents both problems by using measurement of the decadal change of ocean carbon concentrations and the exponential nature of the atmospheric C(ant) increase. In contrast to prior approaches, the results are independent of tracer data but are shown to be qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with tracer-derived estimates. The approach reveals more C(ant) in the deep ocean than prior studies; with possible implications for future carbon uptake and deep ocean carbonate dissolution. Our results suggest that this approachs applied on the unprecedented global data archive provides a means of estimating the C(ant) for large parts of the world's ocean.

  19. Advanced in-situ measurement of soil carbon content using inelastic neutron scattering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement and mapping of natural and anthropogenic variations in soil carbon stores is a critical component of any soil resource evaluation process. Emerging modalities for soil carbon analysis in the field is the registration of gamma rays from soil under neutron irradiation. The inelastic neutro...

  20. Effect of Pore Size and Porosity on the Biomechanical Properties and Cytocompatibility of Porous NiTi Alloys.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yu-Tao; Yang, Yue; Tian, Tian; Stanford, Clark; Zhang, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Five types of porous Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloy samples of different porosities and pore sizes were fabricated. According to compressive and fracture strengths, three groups of porous NiTi alloy samples underwent further cytocompatibility experiments. Porous NiTi alloys exhibited a lower Young's modulus (2.0 GPa ~ 0.8 GPa). Both compressive strength (108.8 MPa ~ 56.2 MPa) and fracture strength (64.6 MPa ~ 41.6 MPa) decreased gradually with increasing mean pore size (MPS). Cells grew and spread well on all porous NiTi alloy samples. Cells attached more strongly on control group and blank group than on all porous NiTi alloy samples (p < 0.05). Cell adhesion on porous NiTi alloys was correlated negatively to MPS (277.2 μm ~ 566.5 μm; p < 0.05). More cells proliferated on control group and blank group than on all porous NiTi alloy samples (p < 0.05). Cellular ALP activity on all porous NiTi alloy samples was higher than on control group and blank group (p < 0.05). The porous NiTi alloys with optimized pore size could be a potential orthopedic material.

  1. Strongly Nonlinear Dependence of Energy Transfer Rate on sp(2) Carbon Content in Reduced Graphene Oxide-Quantum Dot Hybrid Structures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yitong; Son, Dong Hee

    2015-01-02

    The dependence of the energy transfer rate on the content of sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms in the hybrid structures of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Mn-doped quantum dot (QD(Mn)) was investigated. Taking advantage of the sensitivity of QD(Mn)'s dopant luminescence lifetime only to the energy transfer process without interference from the charge transfer process, the correlation between the sp(2) carbon content in RGO and the rate of energy transfer from QD(Mn) to RGO was obtained. The rate of energy transfer showed a strongly superlinear increase with increasing sp(2) carbon content in RGO, suggesting the possible cooperative behavior of sp(2) carbon domains in the energy transfer process as the sp(2) carbon content increases.

  2. Cavitation erosion resistance of two steels with the same percentage of Chromium and Nickel but different Carbon content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeasu, I.; Popoviciu, M. O.; Mitelea, I.; Ghiban, B.; Ghiban, N.

    2014-03-01

    Hydraulic machinery repair works necessitate new materials with improved cavitation erosion resistance and simultaneously good welding properties. The present paper is concerned with the behavior at cavitation of two steels with close contents of chromium (approximately 12%) and nickel (approximate 6%) but with different carbon content (for the first 0.1% C and the second 0.036% C). The reduced carbon content is necessary for an easy welding repair work. As a result of the different chemical content, as is shown by the Schäffler diagram, the steel containing 0.1% C has a structure formed by 60% austenite and 40% martensite while those with 0.036% C has completely martensitic structure. The laboratory tests were done in two vibratory devices one with piezoelectric crystals, respecting the ASME G32-2010 Standard and the other a magnetostrictive vibratory device with nickel tube. The evaluation of the cavitation resistance was obtained with the help of cavitation erosion characteristic curves MDE (t) and MDER (t). For analyzing the steel degradation, the eroded areas were also subjected to microscopic investigations. The results show that the steel with 0.1% C has better cavitation erosion behavior than that of the steel with 0.036% C.

  3. Structural equation modelling reveals factors regulating surface sediment organic carbon content and CO2 efflux in a subtropical mangrove.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Shing Yip; Connolly, Rod M

    2017-02-01

    Mangroves are blue carbon ecosystems that sequester significant carbon but release CO2, and to a lesser extent CH4, from the sediment through oxidation of organic carbon or from overlying water when flooded. Previous studies, e.g. Leopold et al. (2015), have investigated sediment organic carbon (SOC) content and CO2 flux separately, but could not provide a holistic perspective for both components of blue carbon. Based on field data from a mangrove in southeast Queensland, Australia, we used a structural equation model to elucidate (1) the biotic and abiotic drivers of surface SOC (10cm) and sediment CO2 flux; (2) the effect of SOC on sediment CO2 flux; and (3) the covariation among the environmental drivers assessed. Sediment water content, the percentage of fine-grained sediment (<63μm), surface sediment chlorophyll and light condition collectively drive sediment CO2 flux, explaining 41% of their variation. Sediment water content, the percentage of fine sediment, season, landform setting, mangrove species, sediment salinity and chlorophyll collectively drive surface SOC, explaining 93% of its variance. Sediment water content and the percentage of fine sediment have a negative impact on sediment CO2 flux but a positive effect on surface SOC content, while sediment chlorophyll is a positive driver of both. Surface SOC was significantly higher in Avicennia marina (2994±186gm(-2), mean±SD) than in Rhizophora stylosa (2383±209gm(-2)). SOC was significantly higher in winter (2771±192gm(-2)) than in summer (2599±211gm(-2)). SOC significantly increased from creek-side (865±89gm(-2)) through mid (3298±137gm(-2)) to landward (3933±138gm(-2)) locations. Sediment salinity was a positive driver of SOC. Sediment CO2 flux without the influence of biogenic structures (crab burrows, aerial roots) averaged 15.4mmolm(-2)d(-1) in A. marina stands under dark conditions, lower than the global average dark flux (61mmolm(-2)d(-1)) for mangroves.

  4. Influence of Carbon Content and Rolling Temperature on Rolling Texture in 3 Pct Si Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingaki, Y.; Takashima, M.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Effects of carbon and rolling temperature up to 453 K (180 °C) on rolling texture of 3 pct Si steel at a reduction of 66 pct were investigated using a single crystal with an initial orientation of {110}<001>. With residual-level carbon, uniform slip deformation was observed in the specimen cold rolled at room temperature and most of initial orientation {110}<001> rotated to {111}<112> during the rolling. With carbon addition, the formation of the deformation twins and the shear bands were promoted in the specimen cold rolled at room temperature. Regions with {110}<001> were observed inside the shear bands. Warm-rolled specimen with residual-level carbon had microbands containing tiny {110}<001> regions. Warm-rolled specimen with carbon addition had both the shear bands and the microbands but no deformation twin. Additionally, there were unique band structures with rotated crystal orientation around the rolling direction from initial orientation {110}<001>. These experimental results suggest that the carbon addition inhibits dislocation migration by the increase of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) and that the high deformation temperature activates multiple slip systems by the reduction of CRSS and further that the carbon addition and high deformation temperature superimposed bring about the activation of symmetrical {110} slip systems additionally.

  5. Recent transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait: estimation of anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; von Appen, W.-J.

    2015-09-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced which allows for an application of the Inverse Gaussian - Transit Time Distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Current velocity measurements along the same section were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996 rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 μmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 μmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10-35 μmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net DIC and anthropogenic carbon fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a balanced exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, although with high uncertainties.

  6. Social Network and Content Analysis of the North American Carbon Program as a Scientific Community of Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Ihli, Monica; Hendrick, Oscar; Delgado-Arias, Sabrina; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Griffith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was formed to further the scientific understanding of sources, sinks, and stocks of carbon in Earth's environment. Carbon cycle science integrates multidisciplinary research, providing decision-support information for managing climate and carbon-related change across multiple sectors of society. This investigation uses the conceptual framework of com-munities of practice (CoP) to explore the role that the NACP has played in connecting researchers into a carbon cycle knowledge network, and in enabling them to conduct physical science that includes ideas from social science. A CoP describes the communities formed when people consistently engage in shared communication and activities toward a common passion or learning goal. We apply the CoP model by using keyword analysis of abstracts from scientific publications to analyze the research outputs of the NACP in terms of its knowledge domain. We also construct a co-authorship network from the publications of core NACP members, describe the structure and social pathways within the community. Results of the content analysis indicate that the NACP community of practice has substantially expanded its research on human and social impacts on the carbon cycle, contributing to a better understanding of how human and physical processes interact with one another. Results of the co-authorship social network analysis demonstrate that the NACP has formed a tightly connected community with many social pathways through which knowledge may flow, and that it has also expanded its network of institutions involved in carbon cycle research over the past seven years.

  7. Influence of the carbon content on the phase composition and mechanical properties of P92-type steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudko, V. A.; Fedoseeva, A. E.; Belyakov, A. N.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2015-11-01

    The deformation behavior and the microstructure evolution under the creep of 10Kh9V2MFBR steel (Russian analog of the P92 steel) (in wt %, Fe-8.9% Cr-0.05% Si-0.2% Mn-1.9% W-0.5% Mo-0.25% V-0.07Nb-0.08% N-0.01% B) with the standard (0.1%) and lowered (0.018%) carbon contents have been investigated. After the heat treatment, which included normalizing at 1050°C and tempering at 720-750°C, carbides M 23 C 6 and carbonitrides M(C,N) are formed in the 10Kh9V2MFBR steel, while in the 02Kh9V2MFBR steel (modified P92 steel), carbides M 23 C 6, nitrides M 2N, and carbonitrides M(C,N) as well as δ-ferrite (23%) were found. The measurements of hardness and tensile tests at room and elevated temper-atures did not reveal substantial distinctions in the short-term mechanical properties of both steels. The hardness of steels after tempering was 220 HB. At the same time, the creep characteristics of the steels were found to be different. A decrease in the carbon content leads to an increase in the long-term creep strength and creep limit at 650°C for short-term tests with time-to-fracture shorter than 103 h. The time to fracture of steels with various carbon contents is almost the same in long-term creep tests. Factor responsible for such effect of carbon on the creep strength are discussed.

  8. A Raman Study of Carbonates and Organic Contents in Five CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Farley, C.; Cheung, J. C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonates comprise the second most abundant class of carbon-bearing phases in carbonaceous chondrites after organic matter (approximately 2 wt.%), followed by other C-bearing phases such as diamond, silicon carbide, and graphite. Therefore, understanding the abundances of carbonates and the associated organic matter provide critical insight into the genesis of major carbonaceous components in chondritic materials. Carbonates in CM chondrites mostly occur as calcite (of varying composition) and dolomite. Properly performed, Raman spectroscopy provides a non-destructive technique for characterizing meteorite mineralogy and organic chemistry. It is sensitive to many carbonaceous phases, allows the differentiation of organic from inorganic materials, and the interpretation of their spatial distribution. Here, with the use of Raman spectroscopy, we determine the structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in the matrix and carbonate phases in five CM chondrites: Jbilet Winselwan, Murchison, Nogoya, Santa Cruz, and Wisconsin Range (WIS) 91600, and interpret the relative timing of carbonate precipitation and the extent of the associated alteration events.

  9. Flux Of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL): Synergy of airborne and surface measures of carbon emission and isotopologue content from tundra landscape in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E.; Sayres, D. S.; Kochendorfer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic tundra, recognized as a potential major source of new atmospheric carbon, is characterized by low topographic relief and small-scale heterogeneity consisting of small lakes and intervening tundra vegetation. This fits well the flux-fragment method (FFM) of analysis of data from low-flying aircraft. The FFM draws on 1)airborne eddy-covariance flux measurements, 2)a classified surface-characteristics map (e.g. open water vs tundra), 3)a footprint model, and 4)companion surface-based eddy-covariance flux measurements. The FOCAL, a collaboration among Harvard University's Anderson Group, NOAA's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD), and Aurora Flight Sciences, Inc., made coordinated flights in 2013 August with a collaborating surface site. The FOCAL gathers not only flux data for CH4 and CO2 but also the corresponding carbon-isotopologue content of these gases. The surface site provides a continuous sample of carbon flux from interstitial tundra over time throughout the period of the campaign. The FFM draws samples from the aircraft data over many instances of tundra and also open water. From this we will determine how representative the surface site is of the larger area (100 km linear scale), and how much the open water differs from the tundra as a source of carbon.

  10. High Strain Rate Compression of Martensitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ying; Young, Marcus L.; Nie, Xu

    2017-02-01

    The compressive response of martensitic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) rods has been investigated using a modified Kolsky compression bar at various strain rates (400, 800, and 1200 s-1) and temperatures [room temperature and 373 K (100 °C)], i.e., in the martensitic state and in the austenitic state. SEM, DSC, and XRD were performed on NiTi SMA rod samples after high strain rate compression in order to reveal the influence of strain rate and temperature on the microstructural evolution, phase transformation, and crystal structure. It is found that at room temperature, the critical stress increases slightly as strain rate increases, whereas the strain-hardening rate decreases. However, the critical stress under high strain rate compression at 373 K (100 °C) increase first and then decrease due to competing strain hardening and thermal softening effects. After high rate compression, the microstructure of both martensitic and austenitic NiTi SMAs changes as a function of increasing strain rate, while the phase transformation after deformation is independent of the strain rate at room temperature and 373 K (100 °C). The preferred crystal plane of the martensitic NiTi SMA changes from ( 1bar{1}1 )M before compression to (111)M after compression, while the preferred plane remains the same for austenitic NiTi SMA before and after compression. Additionally, dynamic recovery and recrystallization are also observed to occur after deformation of the austenitic NiTi SMA at 373 K (100 °C). The findings presented here extend the basic understanding of the deformation behavior of NiTi SMAs and its relation to microstructure, phase transformation, and crystal structure, especially at high strain rates.

  11. Launch Load Resistant Spacecraft Mechanism Bearings Made From NiTi Superelastic Intermetallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional bearing materials (tool steel and ceramics), emerging Superelastic Intermetallic Materials (SIMs), such as 60NiTi, have significantly lower elastic modulus and enhanced strain capability. They are also immune to atmospheric corrosion (rusting). This offers the potential for increased resilience and superior ability to withstand static indentation load without damage. In this paper, the static load capacity of hardened 60NiTi 50-mm-bore ball bearing races are measured to correlate existing flat-plate indentation load capacity data to an actual bearing geometry through the Hertz stress relations. The results confirmed the validity of using the Hertz stress relations to model 60NiTi contacts; 60NiTi exhibits a static stress capability (approximately 3.1 GPa) between that of 440C (2.4 GPa) and REX20 (3.8 GPa) tool steel. When the reduced modulus and extended strain capability are taken into account, 60NiTi is shown to withstand higher loads than other bearing materials. To quantify this effect, a notional space mechanism, a 5-kg mass reaction wheel, was modeled with respect to launch load capability when supported on standard (catalogue geometry) design 440C; 60NiTi and REX20 tool steel bearings. For this application, the use of REX20 bearings increased the static load capability of the mechanism by a factor of three while the use of 60NiTi bearings resulted in an order of magnitude improvement compared to the baseline 440C stainless steel bearings

  12. Effects of oxygen and carbon content on nitrogen removal capacities in landfill bioreactors and response of microbial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiqing; Wu, Dong; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xinghua; Xie, Bing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, landfill bioreactors were tested to treat the recalcitrant leachate-nitrogen and the impacts of relevant operational parameters on its conversion were comprehensively investigated. We found that the highly diverse microbial community in landfill bioreactors could be substantially affected by increasing biodegradable carbon and oxygen content, which led to the whole system's intrinsic nitrogen removal capacity increasing from 50 to 70 %, and meanwhile, the contribution of anammox was detected less than 20 %. The sequencing and q-PCR results showed that microbial community in bioreactor was dominated by Proteobacteria (∼35 %) and Acidobacteria (~20 %) during the whole experiment. The abundance of anammox functioning bacteria (Amx) kept at a stable level (-2.5 to -2.2 log (copies/16S rRNA)) and was not statistically correlated to the abundance of anammox bacteria. However, significant linear correlation (p < 0.05) was determined between the abundance of nirS and Proteobacteria; amoA and AOB. Redundancy analysis (RDA) suggested that although oxygen and biodegradable carbon can both impose effects on microbial community structure, only biodegradable carbon content is the determinant in the total nitrogen removal.

  13. Transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait in 2012 and inferred anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, Tim; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2016-02-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced, which allows for an application of the inverse-Gaussian-transit-time distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Mean current velocity measurements along the same section from 2002-2010 were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon by the boundary currents above 840 m through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD-based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data, by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996, rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 µmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 µmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10 and 35 µmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a net outflow of ˜ 0.4 DIC and ˜ 0.01 PgC yr-1 anthropogenic carbon from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic, albeit with high uncertainties.

  14. Concentration and 14C Content of Total Organic Carbon and Black Carbon in Small (<100 ug C) Samples from Low-Latitude Alpine Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Czimczik, C. I.; Santos, G. M.; Thompson, L. G.; Ziolkowski, L.

    2008-12-01

    Many low latitude glaciers are receding with consequences for the regional energy budget and hydrology. Ice loss has been linked to climate change and the deposition of organic aerosols such as black carbon (BC) which is formed during incomplete combustion. Little is known about how the contents of BC and total organic carbon (TOC) in aerosols change over time and how anthropogenic activities (e.g. land-use change) impact this variability. Low-latitude ice cores are located closer to population centers than polar ice caps and can provide a regional synthesis of TOC and BC variability. Radiocarbon (14C) may be used to partition BC aerosols into fossil (>50 kyrs) and modern sources (e.g. fossil-fuels vs. wildfires). We quantified TOC, BC, and their 14C content in three low-latitude ice cores: Naimona'nyi (30°27'N, 81°91'E) and Dasuopu (28°23'N, 85°43'E), Tibet, and Quelccaya (13°56'S; 70°50'W), Peru. Aerosols (52-256 g ice on filters) were separated into TOC and BC using thermal oxidation (CTO- 375). 14C was measured by AMS. TOC contents were 0.11-0.87, 0.05-0.43, and 0.06-0.19 μg C (g ice) -1 for Naimona'nyi, Dasuopu, and Quelccaya, respectively. BC contents were 18±8, 27±4, and 29±12 %TOC. Procedural blanks were 0.8 ± 0.4 μg C (TOC) and 1.2 ± 0.6 μg C (BC). In ice cores well dated through annual layer counting and/or independent ages (e.g. volcanic horizons) such as Quelccaya, the ability to separate BC from TOC, as well as partition BC into fossil and modern contributions has potential for reconstructing pre- and post-industrial changes in aerosol composition and their impact on the energy budget.

  15. Quantification of activated carbon contents in soils and sediments using chemothermal and wet oxidation methods.

    PubMed

    Brändli, Rahel C; Bergsli, Anders; Ghosh, Upal; Hartnik, Thomas; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2009-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) strongly sorbs organic pollutants and can be used for remediation of soils and sediments. A method for AC quantification is essential to monitor AC (re)distribution. Since AC is black carbon (BC), two methods for BC quantification were tested for AC mixed in different soils and sediments: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet-chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. For three soils, the amount of AC was accurately determined by CTO at 375 degrees C. For two sediments, however, much of the AC disappeared during combustion at 375 degrees C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects by sediment constituents. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350 degrees C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation effectively functioned for AC quantification in sediments, with almost complete AC recovery (81-92%) and low remaining amounts of native organic carbon (5-16%).

  16. Organic Matter Stabilization in Soil Microaggregates: Implications from Spatial Heterogeneity of Organic Carbon Contents and Carbon Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann,J.; Kinyangi, J.; Solomon, D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the spatial distribution of organic carbon (C) in free stable microaggregates (20-250 {mu}m; not encapsulated within macroaggregates) from one Inceptisol and two Oxisols in relation to current theories of the mechanisms of their formation. Two-dimensional micro- and nano-scale observations using synchrotron-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy yielded maps of the distribution of C amounts and chemical forms. Carbon deposits were unevenly distributed within microaggregates and did not show any discernable gradients between interior and exterior of aggregates. Rather, C deposits appeared to be patchy within the microaggregates. In contrast to the random location of C, there were micron-scale patterns in the spatial distribution of aliphatic C-H (2922 cm-1), aromatic C=C and N-H (1589 cm-1) and polysaccharide C-O (1035 cm-1). Aliphatic C forms and the ratio of aliphatic C/aromatic C were positively correlated (r 2 of 0.66-0.75 and 0.27-0.59, respectively) to the amount of O-H on kaolinite surfaces (3695 cm-1), pointing at a strong role for organo-mineral interactions in C stabilization within microaggregates and at a possible role for molecules containing aliphatic C-H groups in such interactions. This empirical relationship was supported by nanometer-scale observations using NEXAFS which showed that the organic matter in coatings on mineral surfaces had more aliphatic and carboxylic C with spectral characteristics resembling microbial metabolites than the organic matter of the entire microaggregate. Our observations thus support models of C stabilization in which the initially dominant process is adsorption of organics on mineral surfaces rather than occlusion of organic debris by adhering clay particles.

  17. Effect of carbonate content on the mechanical behaviour of clay fault-gouges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Elisenda; Niemeijer, André; Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is considered to be the most promising technology to achieve large-scale reduction in anthropogenic emissions. In order to retain the stored CO2 from the atmosphere for the very long-term, i.e. on timescales of the order of 103-104 years, it is essential to maintain the integrity of the caprock, and more specifically of any faults penetrating the seal. When selecting suitable CO2-storage reservoirs, pre-exisiting faults within the caprock require close attention, as changes in the stress state resulting from CO2-injection may induce fault slip motion which might cause leakage. Little is known about the effect of fluid-rock interactions on the mineral composition, mechanical properties and the integrity and sealing capacity of the caprock. Previous studies on the effect of mineral composition on the frictional properties of fault gouges have shown that friction is controlled by the dominant phase unless there is a frictionally weak, through-going fabric. However, the effect on stability is less clear. Since long-term CO2-exposure might cause chemical reactions, potentially resulting in the dissolution or precipitation of carbonate minerals, a change in mineralogy could affect the mechanical stability of a caprock significantly. Calcite, for example, is known to be prone to micro-seismicity and shows a transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour around 100-150°C. Therefore, we investigated the effect of varying clay:carbonate ratios on fault friction behaviour, fault reactivation potential and slip stability, i.e. seismic vs. aseismic behaviour. Three types of simulated fault gouges were used: i) carbonate-free, natural clay-rich caprock samples, consisting of predominantly phyllosilicates (~80%) and quartz ~20%), ii) pure calcite, and iii) mixtures of carbonate-free clay-rich caprock and pure calcite, with predetermined clay:carbonate ratios. For the natural clay

  18. Compatible Models of Carbon Content of Individual Trees on a Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Fujian Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Lin; Tao, Hong; Wei, Hong; Chengzhen, Wu

    2016-01-01

    We tried to establish compatible carbon content models of individual trees for a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantation from Fujian province in southeast China. In general, compatibility requires that the sum of components equal the whole tree, meaning that the sum of percentages calculated from component equations should equal 100%. Thus, we used multiple approaches to simulate carbon content in boles, branches, foliage leaves, roots and the whole individual trees. The approaches included (i) single optimal fitting (SOF), (ii) nonlinear adjustment in proportion (NAP) and (iii) nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR). These approaches were used in combination with variables relating diameter at breast height (D) and tree height (H), such as D, D2H, DH and D&H (where D&H means two separate variables in bivariate model). Power, exponential and polynomial functions were tested as well as a new general function model was proposed by this study. Weighted least squares regression models were employed to eliminate heteroscedasticity. Model performances were evaluated by using mean residuals, residual variance, mean square error and the determination coefficient. The results indicated that models with two dimensional variables (DH, D2H and D&H) were always superior to those with a single variable (D). The D&H variable combination was found to be the most useful predictor. Of all the approaches, SOF could establish a single optimal model separately, but there were deviations in estimating results due to existing incompatibilities, while NAP and NSUR could ensure predictions compatibility. Simultaneously, we found that the new general model had better accuracy than others. In conclusion, we recommend that the new general model be used to estimate carbon content for Chinese fir and considered for other vegetation types as well. PMID:26982054

  19. Carbide Formation and Dissolution in Biomedical Co-Cr-Mo Alloys with Different Carbon Contents during Solution Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineta, Shingo; Namba, Shigenobu; Yoneda, Takashi; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki

    2010-08-01

    The microstructures of as-cast and heat-treated biomedical Co-Cr-Mo (ASTM F75) alloys with four different carbon contents were investigated. The as-cast alloys were solution treated at 1473 to 1548 K for 0 to 43.2 ks. The precipitates in the matrix were electrolytically extracted from the as-cast and heat-treated alloys. An M23C6 type carbide and an intermetallic σ phase (Co(Cr,Mo)) were detected as precipitates in the as-cast Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.12C alloy; an M23C6 type carbide, a σ phase, an η phase (M6C-M12C type carbide), and a π phase (M2T3X type carbide with a β-manganese structure) were detected in the as-cast Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.15C alloy; and an M23C6 type carbide and an η phase were detected in the as-cast Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.25C and Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.35C alloys. After solution treatment, complete precipitate dissolution occurred in all four alloys. Under incomplete precipitate dissolution conditions, the phase and shape of precipitates depended on the heat-treatment conditions and the carbon content in the alloys. The π phase was detected in the alloys with carbon contents of 0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 mass pct after heat treatment at high temperature such as 1548 K for a short holding time of less than 1.8 ks. The presence of the π phase in the Co-Cr-Mo alloys has been revealed in this study for the first time.

  20. Soil temperature and water content drive microbial carbon fixation in grassland of permafrost area on the Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Guo, G.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil microbial communities underpin terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and are greatly influenced by global warming and global-warming-induced dryness. However, the response of soil microbial community function to global change remains largely uncertain, particularly in the ecologically vulnerable Tibetan plateau permafrost area with large carbon storage. With the concept of space for time substitution, we investigated the responses of soil CO2-fixing microbial community and its enzyme activity to climate change along an elevation gradient (4400-5100 m) of alpine grassland on the central Tibetan plateau. The elevation gradient in a south-facing hill slope leads to variation in climate and soil physicochemical parameters. The autotrophic microbial communities were characterized by quantitative PCR (qPCR), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) and cloning/sequencing targeting the CO2-fixing gene (RubisCO). The results demonstrated that the autotrophic microbial community abundance, structure and its enzyme activity were mainly driven by soil temperature and water content. Soil temperature increase and water decrease dramatically reduced the abundance of the outnumbered form IC RubisCO-containing microbes, and significantly changed the structure of form IC, IAB and ID RubisCO-containing microbial community. Structural equation model revealed that the RubisCO enzyme was directly derived from RubisCO-containing microbes and its activity was significantly reduced by soil temperature increase and water content decrease. Thus our results provide a novel positive feedback loop of climate warming and warming-induced dryness by that soil microbial carbon fixing potential will reduce by 3.77%-8.86% with the soil temperature increase of 1.94oC and water content decrease of 60%-70%. This positive feedback could be capable of amplifying the climate change given the significant contribution of soil microbial CO2-fixing up to 4.9% of total soil organic

  1. Numerical Study on the Influence of Material Characteristics on Ni-Ti Endodontic Instrument Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrini, Lorenza; Necchi, Silvia; Taschieri, Silvio; Migliavacca, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    Ni-Ti rotary endodontic instruments ( files) are used in dentistry during the endodontic treatment to shape the root canal of the tooth while removing the pulp when infected. Up to now, the studies for evaluating their performances and drawbacks were mainly limited to experimental tests on product flexural and torsional resistance. This work exploits computational analyses for investigating the effects of materials with different mechanical properties on the behavior of rotary endodontic instruments. The aim is to understand the appropriate material choice to reduce the criticality of the treatment in particular clinical conditions. In particular, the interaction between an accurately modeled rotating file and differently shaped root canals during the clinical procedure was studied performing finite element analyses. Strains induced by the treatment on a file made of a “standard” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by average properties of the pseudoelastic behavior), a “long” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by wide transformation region), a “super” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by an extended Hookian behavior without transformation region), and stainless steel were compared. The results accurately show the advantages of the use of Ni-Ti alloy with respect to stainless steel and the better performance of the “long” alloy in all the tested case.

  2. Electrophoretic deposition of double-layer HA/Al composite coating on NiTi.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Esmaeil; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Khalili, Vida

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity of NiTi alloys, which are being known as the suitable materials for biomedical applications, numerous NiTi disks were electrophoretically coated by hetero-coagulated hydroxyapatite/aluminum composite coatings in three main voltages from suspensions with different Al concentrations. In this paper, the amount of Ni ions release and bioactivity of prepared samples as well as bonding strength of the coating to substrate were investigated. The surface characterization of the coating by XRD, EDX, SEM, and FTIR showed that HA particles bonded by Al particles. It caused the formation of a free crack coating on NiTi disks. Moreover, the bonding strength of HA/Al coatings to NiTi substrate were improved by two times as compared to that of the pure HA coatings. Immersing of coated samples in SBF for 1 week showed that apatite formation ability was improved on HA/Al composite coating and Ni ions release from the surface of composite coating decreased. These results induce the appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility of the deposited HA/Al composite coatings on NiTi disks.

  3. Fiber laser micromachining of thin NiTi tubes for shape memory vascular stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Dong Bo; Tong, Yi Fei; Zhu, Yu Fu

    2016-07-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy has widely been used in the vascular stent manufacturing due to its excellent properties. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser is commonly used for the preparation of metal vascular stents. Recently, fiber lasers have been used for stent profiling for better cutting quality. To investigate the cutting-kerf characters of NiTi vascular stents fabricated by fiber laser cutting, laser cutting experiments with thin NiTi tubes were conducted in this study, while NiTi sheets were used in other fiber laser cutting studies. Different with striation topography, new topographies such as layer topography and topography mixed with layers and striations were observed, and the underlying reason for new topographies was also discussed. Comparative research on different topographies was conducted through analyzing the surface roughness, kerf width, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and dross formation. Laser cutting process parameters have a comprehensive influence on the cutting quality; in this study, the process parameters' influences on the cutting quality were studied from the view of power density along the cutting direction. The present research provides a guideline for improving the cutting quality of NiTi vascular stents.

  4. The effects of plasma electrolytically oxidized NiTi on in vitro endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Huan, Z; Yu, H; Li, H; Ruiter, M S; Chang, J; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J; de Vries, C J M; Fratila-Apachitei, L E

    2016-05-01

    The role of biomaterials surface in controlling the interfacial biological events leading to implant integration is of key importance. In this study, the effects of NiTi surfaces treated by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) have been investigated. The changes in NiTi surface morphology and chemistry were assessed by SEM, XPS and cross-section TEM/EDX analyzes whereas the effects of the resultant surfaces on in vitro endothelialization and cell junction proteins have been evaluated by life/dead staining, SEM, cells counting, qPCR and immunofluorescence. The findings indicated that the PEO-treated NiTi, with a microporous morphology and oxide dominated surface chemistry, supports viability and proliferation of HUVECs. Numerous thin filopodia probing the microporous surface assisted cells attachment. In addition, claudin-5 and occludin have been upregulated and expression of vascular endothelial-cadherin was not suppressed on PEO-treated NiTi relative to the reference electropolished surfaces. The results of this study suggest that novel NiTi surfaces may be developed using the PEO process, which can be of benefit to atherosclerosis treatment.

  5. Challenges During Microstructural Analysis and Mechanical Testing of Small-Scale Pseudoelastic NiTi Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2016-06-01

    Most investigations on NiTi-based shape memory alloys involve large-scale bulk material; knowledge about the martensitic transformation in small-scale NiTi structures is still limited. In this paper, we study the microstructures of thin NiTi layers and their mechanical properties, and we discuss typical challenges that arise when experiments are performed on small samples. A physical vapor deposition (PVD) process was used to deposit thin NiTi wires with a cross section of 15 × 15 μm2 and dogbone-shaped samples 5 × 500 μm2. Microstructural properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, tensile tests were performed using optical strain measurements in order to observe martensite band formation during cyclic loading. The surfaces of the crystalline wires reflect the columnar growth of NiTi during deposition. The wires exhibit pseudoelastic material behavior during tensile testing. Fracture typically occurs along the columns because the column growth direction is perpendicular to the straining direction. Electropolishing removes these local stress raisers and hence increases fracture strains. Our results demonstrate that the pseudoelastic properties of the PVD-processed materials agree well with those of conventional NiTi, and that they provide new opportunities to study the fundamentals of martensitic transformation in small-scale model systems.

  6. Effect of temperature on the orthodontic clinical applications of niti closed-coil springs

    PubMed Central

    Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Llamas-Carreras, José M.; Barrera-Mora, José M.; Abalos-Lasbrucci, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    NiTi spring coils were used to obtain large deformation under a constant force. The device consists on a NiTi coil spring, superelastic at body temperature, in order to have a stress plateau during the austenitic retransformation during the unloading. The temperature variations induced changes in the spring force. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the temperature variations in the spring forces and corrosion behaviour simulating the ingestion hot/cold drinks and food. Study Design: The springs were subjected to a tensile force using universal testing machine MTS-Adamel (100 N load cell). All tests were performed in artificial saliva maintained at different temperatures. The corrosion tests were performed according to the ISO-standard 10993-15:2000. Results: The increase in temperature of 18oC induced an increase in the spring force of 30%. However, when the temperature returns to 37oC the distraction force recovers near the initial level. After cooling down the spring to 15oC, the force decreased by 46%. This investigation show as the temperature increase, the corrosion potential shifts towards negative values and the corrosion density is rising. Conclusions: The changes of the temperatures do not modify the superelastic behaviour of the NiTi closed-coil springs. The corrosion potential of NiTi in artificial saliva is decreasing by the rise of the temperatures. Key words:Superelasticity, NiTi, springs, orthodontic, coils, recovery, temperature. PMID:23722142

  7. Micromachining NiTi tubes for use in medical devices by using a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chia-Hung; Chang, Fuh-Yu; Chang, Tien-Li; Chang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Kai-Wen; Liang, Po-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Recent growth in medical device technology has been substantially driven by developments in laser micromachining, which is a powerful fabrication technique in which nickel-titanium (Nitinol, NiTi) alloy materials that exhibit superelastic and shape memory properties are formed (e.g., self-expanding stents). In this study a NiTi tube curve surface process is proposed, involving a femtosecond laser process and a galvano-mirror scanner. The diameter of the NiTi tube was 5.116 mm, its thickness was 0.234 mm, and its length was 100 mm. The results indicated that during the machine process the ablation mechanism of the NiTi tubes was changed by altering the machining path. The path alteration enhanced the laser ablation rate from 12.3 to 26.7 μm/J. Thus the path alteration contributed to a wide kerf line, enabling the assisted air to efficiently remove the debris deposited at the bottom of the kerf during the laser ablation process. The results indicated that the NiTi tube curve process enhanced the laser ablation rate by two times and reduced the amount of energy accumulated within the materials by 50% or more. By altering the machining path using the scanning system, this process can decrease the production of heat affected zones (the accumulation of thermal energy) in medical device applications.

  8. Monitoring Tensile Fatigue of Superelastic NiTi Wire in Liquids by Electrochemical Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racek, Jan; Stora, Marc; Šittner, Petr; Heller, Luděk; Kopeček, Jaromir; Petrenec, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue of superelastic NiTi wires was investigated by cyclic tension in simulated biofluid. The state of the surface of the fatigued NiTi wire was monitored by following the evolution of the electrochemical open circuit potential (OCP) together with macroscopic stresses and strains. The ceramic TiO2 oxide layer on the NiTi wire surface cannot withstand the large transformation strain and fractures in the first cycle. Based on the analysis of the results of in situ OCP experiments and SEM observation of cracks, it is claimed that the cycled wire surface develops mechanochemical reactions at the NiTi/liquid interface leading to cumulative generation of hydrogen, uptake of the hydrogen by the NiTi matrix, local loss of the matrix strength, crack transfer into the NiTi matrix, accelerated crack growth, and ultimately to the brittle fracture of the wire. Fatigue degradation is thus claimed to originate from the mechanochemical processes occurring at the excessively deforming surface not from the accumulation of defects due to energy dissipative bulk deformation processes. Ironically, combination of the two exciting properties of NiTi—superelasticity due to martensitic transformation and biocompatibility due to the protective TiO2 surface oxide layer—leads to excessive fatigue damage during cyclic mechanical loading in biofluids.

  9. Structure characterization and wear performance of NiTi thermal sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinca, N.; Isalgué, A.; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) has been studied for many years for its shape memory and pseudoelastic properties, as well as its biocompatibility, which make it suitable for many biomedical applications. However, SMA NiTi is also interesting for relevant wear resistance near the transition temperature which, along with its high oxidation and corrosion resistance, suggests its use as a coating to increase the lifetime of some components. Also, whereas bulk material properties have been characterized in respect of the nominal composition, manufacturing methods and thermo-mechanical treatments, NiTi overlays have been investigated much less. Most existent works in this field specifically deal with magnetron sputtering technology for thin films and its use in micro-devices (micro-electro-mechanical systems, MEMS), just some works refer to vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) for thicker coatings. The present paper explores and compares the microstructure and wear-related properties of coatings obtained from atomized NiTi powders, by VPS as well as by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) techniques. In the present case, the wear behaviour of the NiTi deposits has been studied by rubber-wheel equipment and ball-on-disk tests. The results obtained at room temperature show that the APS-quenched coatings exhibit a preferential dry sliding wear mechanism, while the VPS and HVOF coatings show an abrasive mechanism.

  10. NITI Needs Assessment Study. A Study of the Postsecondary Educational Needs of Merged Area I. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, James L.

    The purpose of the Northeast Iowa Technical Institute (NITI) Needs Assessment Study was to examine the constituents and clients of NITI to determine whether the present mix of vocational-technical and adult education programs and services was optimal to meet the needs of the residents of Merged Area I. Particular attention was given to the…

  11. A Comparative Study on the Mechanical Behavior of Porous Titanium and NiTi Produced by a Space Holder Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S. A.; Yazdani-Rad, R.; Kazemzadeh, A.; Alizadeh, M.

    2014-03-01

    NiTi and Ti porous specimens with appropriate pore characteristics for biomedical applications are produced by space holder method. Porosities of the specimens linearly increase from 14 to 65 and 42 to 70% for the Ti and NiTi specimens, respectively, with the urea space holder. Mechanical properties such as stiffness, fracture strain, and strength of the porous NiTi and Ti are adjustable with pore characteristics. The apparent elasticity modulus of NiTi specimens decrease from 3.5 to 0.73 GPa as porosity increases. Since the initial linear part of the stress-strain curve consists of elastic behavior, formation of stress-induced martensite, deformation and/or detwinning of martensite variants, and plastic deformation, the unloading slope of stress-strain curves is a better approximation for the elasticity modulus of the NiTi porous specimens as it is proved by an isotropic cubic cell model. The unloading slope of the NiTi specimen with 61% porosity is 3.1 GPa, while the apparent elasticity or loading slope is 0.85 GPa. In comparison to Ti, the high, recoverable strain of NiTi improves capability of it as a good candidate for bone replacement. Moreover, in contrast to Ti specimens, hysteresis loops are clearly observed in the stress-strain curves of NiTi specimens.

  12. Linking organic carbon, water content and nitrous oxide emission in a reclaimed coal mine soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure-based organic amendments can restore soil quality and allow for intensive sustained biomass production on degraded lands. However the large quantities of nitrogen and organic carbon added with such amendments could create soil conditions favorable for nitrous oxide production and emissions. T...

  13. Leaf Mass Area, Leaf Carbon and Nitrogen Content, Barrow, Alaska, Beginning 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Alistair Rogers; Kim Ely; Shawn Serbin; Stefanie Lasota; Wil Lieberman-Cribbin

    2016-12-20

    Carbon, Nitrogen and Leaf Mass Area of leaves sampled from the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska. Species measured; Arctophila fulva, Arctagrostis latifolia, Carex aquatilis, Dupontia fisheri, Eriophorum angustifolium, Petasites frigidus, Salix pulchra, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Salix rotundifolia, Luzula arctica, Saxifraga punctata and Potentilla hyparctica

  14. Discrepancy between Measured Serum Total Carbon Dioxide Content and Bicarbonate Concentration Calculated from Arterial Blood Gases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngho; Massie, Larry; Murata, Glen H

    2015-01-01

    Large differences between the concentrations of serum total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and blood gas bicarbonate (HCO3-) were observed in two consecutive simultaneously drawn sets of samples of serum and arterial blood gases in a patient who presented with severe carbon dioxide retention and profound acidemia. These differences could not be explained by the effect of the high partial pressure of carbon dioxide on TCO2, by variations in the dissociation constant of the carbonic acid/bicarbonate system or by faults caused by the algorithms of the blood gas apparatus that calculate HCO3-. A recalculation using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation revealed arterial blood gas HCO3- values close to the corresponding serum TCO2 values and clarified the diagnosis of the acid-base disorder, which had been placed in doubt by the large differences between the reported TCO2 and HCO3- values. Human error in the calculation of HCO3- was identified as the source of these differences. Recalculation of blood gas HCO3- should be the first step in identifying the source of large differences between serum TCO2 and blood gas HCO3-. PMID:26824002

  15. Influence of Addition of Nb on Phase Transformation, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Equiatomic NiTi SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shuyong; Liang, Yulong; Zhang, Yanqiu; Zhao, Yanan; Zhao, Chengzhi

    2016-10-01

    Three novel NiTiNb shape memory alloys, which possess a nominal chemical composition of Ni50- x/2-Ti50- x/2-Nb x (at.%) where x stands for 2, 4 and 6, respectively, were designed in order to investigate the influence of the addition of Nb on phase transformation, microstructure and mechanical properties of equiatomic NiTi shape memory alloy. All the three NiTiNb shape memory alloys contain B2 austenite phase, B19' martensite phase and β-Nb precipitate phase. Martensite type II twin can be observed in the case of Ni49Ti49Nb2 alloy. In the case of Ni48Ti48Nb4 alloy, there exists a boundary between Ti2Ni precipitate phase and β-Nb precipitate phase. As for Ni47Ti47Nb6 alloy, it can be observed that there exists an orientation relationship of [01bar{1}]_{{β{{ - Nb}}}} //[01bar{1}]_{{B2}} between β-Nb precipitate phase and B2 austenite matrix. The increase in Nb content contributes to enhancing the yield stress of NiTiNb shape memory alloy, but it leads to the decrease in compression fracture stress. The addition of Nb to equiatomic NiTi shape memory alloy does not have a significant influence on the transformation hysteresis of the alloy, which is attributed to the fact that NiTiNb shape memory alloy is not subjected to plastic deformation and hence β-Nb precipitate phase is unable to relax the elastic strain in the martensite interface.

  16. A key parameter on the adsorption of diluted aniline solutions with activated carbons: The surface oxygen content.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Beatrice; Ferrer, Nabí; Sempere, Julià; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    A total of 11 different commercial activated carbons (AC) with well characterized textural properties and oxygen surface content were tested as adsorbents for the removal of aniline as a target water pollutant. The maximum adsorption capacity of aniline for the studied AC was from 138.9 to 257.9 mg g(-1) at 296.15 K and it was observed to be strongly related to the textural properties of the AC, mainly with the BET surface area and the micropore volume. It was not observed any influence of the oxygen surface content of the AC on the maximum adsorption capacity. However, it was found that at low aniline aqueous concentration, the presence of oxygen surface groups plays a dominant role during the adsorption. A high concentration of oxygen surface groups, mainly carboxylic and phenolic groups, decreases the aniline adsorption regardless of the surface area of the AC.

  17. Reduction in the earthworm metabolomic response after phenanthrene exposure in soils with high soil organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Celejewski, Magda A; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the correlation between soil organic carbon (OC) content and metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to phenanthrene (58 ± 3 mg/kg) spiked into seven artificial soils with OC contents ranging from 1 to 27% OC. Principal component analysis of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of aqueous extracts identified statistically significant differences in the metabolic profiles of control and phenanthrene-exposed E. fetida in the 1% OC soil only. Partial least squares analysis identified a metabolic response in the four soils with OC values ≤11% which was well correlated to estimated phenanthrene porewater concentrations. The results suggest that the higher sorption capability of high OC soils decreased the bioavailability of phenanthrene and the subsequent metabolic response of E. fetida.

  18. Pore water chemistry in a disturbed and an undisturbed peat forests in Brunei Darussalam: Nutrient and carbon contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandois, L.; Cobb, A.; Abu Salim, K.; Chieng Hei, I.; Lim Biaw Leng, L.; Corlett, R.; Harvey, C.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests in their natural state are important reservoir of biodiversity, carbon and water. However, they are rapidly vanishing due to agricultural conversion (mainly to oil palms), logging, drainage and fire. Peat swamp forests constitute an important contribution to global and regional biodiversity, providing an habitat to rare and threatened species. They encompass a sequence of forest types from the perimeter to the center of mildely elevated domes, and at our site in Brunei, are host to Shorea Albida trees (Anderson, 1983). They constitute a large terrestrial carbon reservoir (tropical peat soils contain up to 70 Pg C, which accounts for 20% of global peat soil carbon and 2% of the global soil carbon (Hirano et al., 2007)). In tropical peat swamp forests, the most important factors controling organic matter accumulation, as well as the biodiversity and structure of the forest, are hydrology and nutrients availability (Page et al., 1999). Study of pore water in peat swamp forest can provide key information on carbon cycle, including biomass production, organic matter decomposition and leaching of carbon in draining water. However, data on pore water chemistry and nutrient concentrations in pristine tropical peatlands, as well as the effect of forest exploitation are scarce. The study area is located in the Belait district in Brunei Darussalam in Borneo Island. Brunei is perhaps the best of the regional guardians of peat forest systems; potentially irreversible damage to peat forest ecosystems has been widespread elsewhere. Two sites, one pristine dome and a logging concession, are being investigated. In order to assess the chemical status of the peat soil, pore water is sampled at different depth along the dome radius. The chemistry of pore water, including pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, concentration of major elements, as well as organic carbon content and properties are analyzed. References: Anderson, 1983. The tropical peat swamp of

  19. Influence of Hydrogen Content on Optical and Mechanical Performances of Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Glass Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Huang, Xing-Ye; Wang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The protective layer for cover glass of touch panel screen for electronic mobile devices is required to have good mechanical properties and decent optical transparency simultaneously. The hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited on glass substrate by RF-PECVD in the negative stage potential mode (NP mode), as well as the ground stage potential mode (GP mode). The impact of hydrogen content, affected by stage potential and RF power, on optical and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that hydrogen content decreases with increasing RF power, due to the dehydrogenation effect. Higher hydrogen content in films results in lower refractive index, lower extinction coefficient, lower optical absorptions, larger optical band gap and higher transmittance, but lower hardness and wearing resistance. Therefore, although the GP mode DLC is optically favorable because of higher hydrogen content, the NP mode one is far more superior from mechanical standpoint. A compromise can be reached to deposit an ultrathin layer of DLC in NP mode, which offers a good combination of properties to meet the requirement for the protective layer of cover glass.

  20. Investigation of WC-Co Electrospark Coatings with Various Carbon Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, A. A.; Pyachin, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Electrospark deposition was employed to clad WC-10%Co, W/C1.6 -10%Co, and W/C0.5 -10%Co hard alloys on steel 1035, and the tribological properties of the coatings obtained were examined. The influence of the W/C ratio in the electrode materials on the decarburization of tungsten carbide was studied. It is shown that the degree of tungsten carbide degradation can be reduced by increasing the concentration of carbon in the WC-Co electrode materials, and also that the WC decarburization reaction is reversible on annealing. Coatings deposited using new electrode materials with an excess of carbon (W/C0.5) and/or tungsten (W/C1.6) have increased microhardness and improved frictional characteristics compared with the conventional coating.

  1. Spectroscopic characteristics and organic carbon contents in the aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, H. J.; Kasaba, T.

    2015-12-01

    Organics in the atmospheric aerosols occupy 20 to 70% of the total mass. Since the proportion of organics is so large that it's important to understand their detailed characteristics. Polymeric compounds called HUmic-Like Substance (HULIS) are known to be present in the atmospheric aerosols. Biomass burning can be a source of HULIS. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at Cape Hedo, a northern tip of Okinawa Island, and we characterized overall features of the organics collected in different seasons. In Okinawa, continental air mass prevails in spring, fall and winter, while maritime air mass from Pacific Ocean prevails in summer. Thus, it is relatively straightforward to identify sources of organics in different seasons. We measured total organic carbon (TOC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations, and absorbance and fluorescence intensity for the aerosol samples collected during Nov 2012 and July 2014 (n=90). As a result, TOC and WSOC showed almost the same trend, higher concentrations when continental air mass prevailed in fall and winter, while lower concentrations in summer. Percentages of WSOC in TOC accounted for 33-44%. Absorption efficiency, absorbance per 1 ppm organic carbon concentration, of the samples showed higher values in winter and fall, and lower values in summer. Fluorescence efficiency, normalized fluorescence with quinine sulfate per 1 ppm organic carbon concentration, were also different, it is likely that different types of organics were present in the aerosols from different seasons. We are also planning to measure HULIS in the aerosols and will be discussed a link between their contribution and trans-boundary air pollution in Asia.

  2. Temporal trends in organic carbon content in the main Swiss rivers, 1974-2010.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Murillo, J C; Zobrist, J; Filella, M

    2015-01-01

    Increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have often been reported in rivers and lakes of the Northern Hemisphere over the last few decades. High-quality organic carbon (OC) concentration data have been used to study the change in DOC and total (TOC) organic carbon concentrations in the main rivers of Switzerland (Rhône, Rhine, Thur and Aar) between 1974 and 2010. These rivers are characterized by high discharge regimes (due to their Alpine origin) and by running in populated areas. Small long term trends (a general statistically significant decrease in TOC and a less clear increase in DOC concentrations), on the order of 1% of mean OC concentration per year, have been observed. An upward trend before 1999 reversed direction to a more marked downward trend from 1999 to 2010. Of the potential causes of OC temporal variation analysed (water temperature, dissolved reactive phosphorus and river discharge), only discharge explains a significant, albeit still small, part of TOC variability (8-31%), while accounting for barely 2.5% of DOC variability. Estimated anthropogenic TOC and DOC loads (treated sewage) to the rivers could account for a maximum of 4-20% of the temporal trends. Such low predictability is a good example of the limitations faced when studying causality and drivers behind small variations in complex systems. River export of OC from Switzerland has decreased significantly over the period. Since about 5.5% of estimated NEP of Switzerland is exported by the rivers, riverine OC fluxes should be taken into account in a detailed carbon budget of the country.

  3. Anomalous expansion of Nb nanowires in a NiTi matrix under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cun; Ren, Yang; Cui, Lishan; Ma, Zhiyuan; Yang, Wenge

    2016-10-01

    Under high pressure, materials usually shrink during compression as described by an equation of state. Here, we present the anomalous volume expansion behavior of a one-dimensional Nb nano-wire embedded in a NiTi transforming matrix, while the matrix undergoes a pressure-induced martensitic transformation. The Nb volume expansion depends on the NiTi transition pressure range from the matrix, which is controlled by the shear strain induced by different pressure transmitting media. The transformation-induced interfacial stresses between Nb and NiTi may play a major role in this anomaly. Our discovery sheds new light on the nano-interfacial effect on mechanical anomalies in heterogeneous systems during a pressure-induced phase transition.

  4. Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Instability of Superelastic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, primary attention is paid to the mechanical instability of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) during localized forward transformation at different temperatures. By inhibiting the localized phase transformation, we can obtain the up-down-up mechanical response of NiTi SMA, which is closely related to the intrinsic material softening during localized martensitic transformation. Furthermore, the material parameters of the up-down-up stress-strain curve are extracted, in such a way that this database can be utilized for simulation and validation of the theoretical analysis. It is found that during forward transformation, the upper yield stress, lower yield stress, Maxwell stress, and nucleation stress of NiTi SMA exhibit linear dependence on temperature. The relation between nucleation stress and temperature can be explained by the famous Clausius-Clapeyron equation, while the relation between upper/lower yield stress and temperature lacks theoretical study, which needs further investigation.

  5. Multi-stage martensitic transformation in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiebin; Verlinden, Bert; Kustov, Sergey

    Precipitation hardening is an effective way to improve the functional stability of NiTi shape memory alloys. The precipitates, mainly Ni4Ti3, could be introduced by aging treatment in Ni-rich NiTi alloys. However, the presence of Ni4Ti3 precipitates could disturb the transformation behavior, resulting in the multi-stage martensitic transformation (MMT). With the presence of MMT, it is difficult to control the transformation behavior, and thus limits the applicability of NiTi alloys. In this work, previous efforts on explaining the observed MMT are summarized. The difficulties in developing a unified explanation are discussed, and a possible way to avoid the MMT is proposed.

  6. Free-standing NiTi alloy nanowires fabricated by nanoskiving.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huilong; Hamilton, Reginald F

    2015-08-28

    We report on free-standing NiTi alloy nanowires (120 nm × 75 nm) fabricated using a technique referred to as "nanoskiving", which complements conventional thin film sputter deposition with ultramicrotomy for thin sectioning. To date, the technique has been limited to pure metals without exploring metallic alloys. Leveraging the technique for the fabrication of shape memory alloy (SMA) nanostructures meets two critical requirements: compositional control (via film deposition) and controlled dimensions (via film deposition and programmable sectioning). Microstructure and composition analysis confirm continuity of the produced nanowires and Ni and Ti elemental uniformity. Free-standing NiTi nanowires are robust and remain intact throughout physical manipulation. The fabrication of NiTi alloy nanowires by nanoskiving will advance fundamental characterization of small scale SMA behavior.

  7. Influence of electrolytic treatment time on the corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti orthodontic wire.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, Maki; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takahiko; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Hanawa, Takao; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of electrolytic treatment, which can improve the corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti orthodontic wires, to minimize adverse effects. Electrolytic treatment of Ni-Ti wires was performed in a solution composed of glycerol and lactic acid for 5, 15, or 30 min. The anodic polarization test, three-point bending test, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of the wire surface were performed to explore an optimal treatment condition. Breakdown potentials of treated wires increased with increasing treatment time and higher corrosion resistance was obtained by performing the electrolytic treatment for more than 5 min. The relative concentration of nickel in the layer was decreased in inverse proportion to the treatment time. The results suggest that the commercial Ni-Ti wire with low corrosion resistance can be improved by the electrolytic treatment for more than 5 min.

  8. Tailoring Selective Laser Melting Process Parameters for NiTi Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Therese; Schumacher, Ralf; Müller, Bert; Mertmann, Matthias; de Wild, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Complex-shaped NiTi constructions become more and more essential for biomedical applications especially for dental or cranio-maxillofacial implants. The additive manufacturing method of selective laser melting allows realizing complex-shaped elements with predefined porosity and three-dimensional micro-architecture directly out of the design data. We demonstrate that the intentional modification of the applied energy during the SLM-process allows tailoring the transformation temperatures of NiTi entities within the entire construction. Differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, and metallographic analysis were employed for the thermal and structural characterizations. In particular, the phase transformation temperatures, the related crystallographic phases, and the formed microstructures of SLM constructions were determined for a series of SLM-processing parameters. The SLM-NiTi exhibits pseudoelastic behavior. In this manner, the properties of NiTi implants can be tailored to build smart implants with pre-defined micro-architecture and advanced performance.

  9. Molecular dynamics study of the melting curve of NiTi alloy under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhao-Yi; Hu, Cui-E.; Cai, Ling-Cang; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Jing, Fu-Qian

    2011-02-01

    The melting curve of NiTi alloy was predicted by using molecular dynamics simulations combining with the embedded atom model potential. The calculated thermal equation of state consists well with our previous results obtained from quasiharmonic Debye approximation. Fitting the well-known Simon form to our Tm data yields the melting curves for NiTi: 1850(1 + P/21.938)0.328 (for one-phase method) and 1575(1 + P/7.476)0.305 (for two-phase method). The two-phase simulations can effectively eliminate the superheating in one-phase simulations. At 1 bar, the melting temperature of NiTi is 1575 ± 25 K and the corresponding melting slope is 64 K/GPa.

  10. Radiation Hardening of Ni-Ti Alloy Under Implantation of Inert Gases Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtseva, V.; Larionov, A.; Satpaev, D.; Gyngazova, M.

    2016-02-01

    The consistent patterns of changes in nano- and micro-hardness of Ni-Ti alloy with the shape memory effect after implantation of 40Ar8+ and 84Kr15+ ions depending on phase composition and implantation parameters have been experimentally studied. It has been shown that softening by 4 and 14% near the surface of the two-phase Ni-Ti alloy after implantation of 40Ar8+ and 84Kr15+ ions is connected with the differences in the nanostructure. Hardening of the near-surface layer of this alloy maximum by 118% at h = ∼3 pm and single-phase alloy in the entire region of the 40Ar8+ and 84Kr15+ ions range and in the out-range (h > Rp) area have been detected. The role of the current intensity of the ions beam in the change of nanohardness for the two-phase Ni-Ti alloy has been established.

  11. Surface corrosion enhancement of passive films on NiTi shape memory alloy in different solutions.

    PubMed

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of NiTi shape memory alloy in NaCl solution, H2SO4 solution and borate buffer solution were investigated. It was found that TiO2 in passive film improved the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory. However, low corrosion resistance of passive film was observed in low pH value acidic solution due to TiO2 dissolution. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory alloy decreased with the increasing of passivated potential in the three solutions. The donor density in passive film increased with the increasing of passivated potential. Different solutions affect the semiconductor characteristics of the passive film. The reducing in the corrosion resistance was attributed to the more donor concentrations in passive film and thinner thickness of the passive film.

  12. A fitting empirical potential for NiTi alloy and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guowu; Tang, Tiegang; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    Due to its superelastic behavior, NiTi shape memory alloy receives considerable attentions over a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. Limited to its complex structural transformation and multiple variants, semiempirical potentials for performing large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the atomistic mechanical process, are very few. In this work, we construct a new interatomic potential for the NiTi alloy by fitting to experimental or ab initio data. The fitting potential correctly predicts the lattice parameter, structural stability, equation of state for cubic B2(austenite) and monoclinic B19'(martensite) phases. In particular the elastic properties(three elastic constants for B2 and thirteen ones for B19') are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments or ab initio calculations. Furthermore, we apply this potential to conduct the molecular dynamics simulations of the mechanical behavior for NiTi alloy and the results capture its reversible transformation.

  13. In vitro biocompatibility of the surface ion modified NiTi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudimova, Ekaterina Yu.; Meisner, Ludmila L.; Lotkov, Aleksander I.; Matveeva, Vera A.; Meisner, Stanislav N.; Matveev, Andrey L.; Shabalina, Olga I.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of the chemical, topographic and structural properties of the NiTi alloy surface and their changes after surface treatments by ion implantation techniques with use of ions Ta+ and Si+. The influence of physicochemical properties of the surface ion modified NiTi alloy was studied on in vitro cultured mesenchymal stem cells of the rats' bone marrow. It is shown that the ion surface modification improves histocompatibility of the NiTi alloy and leads to increase of proliferative activity of mesenchymal stem cells on its surface. It was experimentally found that a major contribution to viability improvement mesenchymal stem cells of rat marrow has the chemical composition and the microstructure of the surface area.

  14. Voltammetric determination of polyphenolic content in pomegranate juice using a poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrode

    PubMed Central

    Newair, Emad F

    2016-01-01

    Summary A simple and sensitive poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/MWCNT/GCE) electrochemical sensor was prepared for direct determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) as gallic acid equivalent. The GCE working electrode was electrochemically modified and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. It was found that gallic acid (GA) exhibits a superior electrochemical response on the PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor in comparison with bare GCE. The results reveal that a PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor can remarkably enhance the electro-oxidation signal of GA as well as shift the peak potentials towards less positive potential values. The dependence of peak current on accumulation potential, accumulation time and pH were investigated by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of GA. Using the optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly to a GA concentration throughout the range of 4.97 × 10−6 to 3.38 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 3.22 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3). The fabricated sensor shows good selectivity, stability, repeatability and (101%) recovery. The sensor was successfully utilized for the determination of total phenolic content in fresh pomegranate juice without interference of ascorbic acid, fructose, potassium nitrate and barbituric acid. The obtained data were compared with the standard Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometric results. PMID:27547628

  15. Moisture content and particle size of dehydrated egg yolk affect lipid and cholesterol extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Froning, G W; Wehling, R L; Cuppett, S; Niemann, L

    1998-11-01

    Egg yolk was spray-dried under conditions to produce a small particle size powder and a large particle size powder. Particle size was determined using a Nikon Optiophot microscope. Spray-dried egg yolk was also adjusted to various moisture levels as follows: control (2 to 4% moisture), 7% moisture, and 12% moisture. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) of each of these moisture treatments at 45 C/306 atm using 30 g CO2/g of sample was completed. For the particle size study, 45 g CO2/g of sample at 45 C/306 atm was utilized. Particle size exhibited a significant effect on cholesterol and lipids extracted using SCE. As moisture content of dried egg yolk increased to 7%, there was a significant increase in lipids extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. Moisture content had no significant effect on cholesterol extraction. After extracting SCE higher moisture spray-dried egg yolk, sponge cake volume was significantly reduced compared to that of the control. The reduced sponge cake volume may be due to protein denaturation.

  16. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  17. Measurement of contemporary and fossil carbon contents of PM 2.5 aerosols: results from Turtleback Dome, Yosemite National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G

    2003-10-17

    The impact of aerosol particulate matter of mean mass aerodynamic diameter {le} 2.5 {proportional_to}m (PM 2.5 aerosols), on health, visibility, and compliance with EPA's regional haze regulations is a growing concern. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of PM 2.5 aerosols. Measurement of the {sup 14}C/C ratio of the PM 2.5 aerosols, the absence of {sup 14}C in fossil carbon materials and the known {sup 14}C/C levels in contemporary carbon materials allows use of a two-component model to derive contemporary and fossil carbon contents of the particulate matter. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading. Here, the methodology for performing such an assessment using total suspended particulate Hi-vol aerosol samplers to collect PM 2.5 aerosols on quartz fiber filters and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to measure {sup 14}C/C ratios is presented and illustrated using PM 2.5 aerosols collected at Yosemite National Park.

  18. Anaerobic microbial Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction in coastal marine sediments controlled by organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Katja; Byrne, James M; Glombitza, Clemens; Schmidt, Caroline; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Coastal marine sediments contain varying concentrations of iron, oxygen, nitrate and organic carbon. It is unknown how organic carbon content influences the activity of nitrate-reducing and phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizers and microbial Fe-redox cycling in such sediments. Therefore, microcosms were prepared with two coastal marine sediments (Kalø Vig and Norsminde Fjord at Aarhus Bay, Denmark) varying in TOC from 0.4 to 3.0 wt%. The microcosms were incubated under light/dark conditions with/without addition of nitrate and/or Fe(II). Although most probable number (MPN) counts of phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizers were five times lower in the low-TOC sediment, phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation rates were higher compared with the high-TOC sediment. Fe(III)-amended microcosms showed that this lower net Fe(II) oxidation in the high-TOC sediment is caused by concurrent bacterial Fe(III) reduction. In contrast, MPN counts of nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizers and net rates of nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidation were comparable in low- and high-TOC sediments. However, the ratio of nitratereduced :iron(II)oxidized was higher in the high-TOC sediment, suggesting that a part of the nitrate was reduced by mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizers and chemoorganoheterotrophic nitrate-reducers. Our results demonstrate that dynamic microbial Fe cycling occurs in these sediments and that the extent of Fe cycling is dependent on organic carbon content.

  19. Epidermal carbonic anhydrase activity and exoskeletal metal content during the molting cycle of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Stacy; Zou, Enmin

    2016-03-01

    During the crustacean molting cycle, the exoskeleton is first mineralized in postmolt and intermolt and then presumably demineralized in premolt in order for epidermal retraction to occur. The mineralization process calls for divalent metal ions, such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) , and bicarbonate ions whereas protons are necessary for dissolution of carbonate salts. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been suggested to be involved in exoskeletal mineralization by providing bicarbonate ions through catalyzing the reaction of carbon dioxide hydration. However, results of earlier studies on the role of epidermal CA in metal incorporation in crustacean exoskeleton are not consistent. This study was aimed to provide further evidence to support the notion that epidermal CA is involved in exoskeletal mineralization using the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896), as the model crustacean. Significant increases first in calcium and magnesium then in manganese post-ecdysis indicate significant metal deposition during postmolt and intermolt. Significant positive correlation between calcium or magnesium content and epidermal CA activity in postmolt and intermolt constitutes evidence that CA is involved in the mineralization of the crustacean exoskeleton. Additionally, we proposed a hypothetical model to describe the role of epidermal CA in both mineralization and demineralization of the exoskeleton based on the results of epidermal CA activity and exoskeletal metal content during the molting cycle. Furthermore, we found that the pattern of epidermal CA activity during the molting cycle of C. sapidus is similar to that of ecdysteroids reported for the same species, suggesting that epidermal CA activity may be under control of the molting hormones.

  20. Machining and Phase Transformation Response of Room-Temperature Austenitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    This experimental work reports the results of a study addressing tool wear, surface topography, and x-ray diffraction analysis for the finish cutting process of room-temperature austenitic NiTi alloy. Turning operation of NiTi alloy was conducted under dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and cryogenic cooling conditions at various cutting speeds. Findings revealed that cryogenic machining substantially reduced tool wear and improved surface topography and quality of the finished parts in comparison with the other two approaches. Phase transformation on the surface of work material was not observed after dry and MQL machining, but B19' martensite phase was found on the surface of cryogenically machined samples.

  1. Constitutive model for the dynamic response of a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xiangguo; Chen, Huayan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, based on irreversible thermodynamic theory, the Helmholtz free energy function, was selected to deduce both the master equations and evolution equations of the constitutive model of a NiTi alloy under high strain. The Helmholtz free energy function contains the parameters of the reflecting phase transition and plastic property. The constitutive model for a NiTi alloy was implemented using a semi-implicit stress integration algorithm. Four successive stages can be differentiated and simulated: parent phase elasticity, martensitic phase transition, martensitic elasticity, and dislocation yield. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Nanostructure of NiTi surface layers after Ta ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girsova, S. L.; Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Schmidt, E. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The elemental and phase composition and structure of the surface and near-surface layers of NiTi specimens after the Ta ion implantation with the fluency D = 3 × 1017 and 6 × 1017 cm-2 are examined. The methods of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron dispersion analysis (EDS) are used. It is found that a nonuniform distribution of elements along the depth of the surface layer after the ion implantation of NiTi specimens, regardless of the regime, is accompanied by the formation of a number of sublayer structures.

  3. Corrosion resistance of porous NiTi biomedical alloy in simulated body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergioudi, F.; Vogiatzis, C. A.; Pavlidou, E.; Skolianos, S.; Michailidis, N.

    2016-09-01

    The corrosion performance of two porous NiTi in physiological and Hank’s solutions was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, cyclic polarization and impedance spectroscopy. Electric models simulating the corrosion mechanism at early stages of immersion were proposed, accounting for both microstructural observations and electrochemical results. Results indicate that both porous samples were susceptible to localized corrosion. The porosity increase (from 7% to 18%) resulted in larger and wider pore openings, thus favoring the corrosion resistance of 18% porous NiTi. Strengthening of corrosion resistance was observed in Hank’s solution. The pore morphology and micro-galvanic corrosion phenomena were determining factors affecting the corrosion resistance.

  4. Enhancement of NiTi superelastic endodontic instruments by TiO2 coating.

    PubMed

    Aun, Diego Pinheiro; Peixoto, Isabella Faria da Cunha; Houmard, Manuel; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes

    2016-11-01

    Rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments were coated with a nanometric flexible TiO2 layer through dip-coating sol-gel. Control groups and coated samples of superelastic NiTi instruments model RaCe 25/0.06 (0.25mm tip-diameter, 6% conicity) were comparatively investigated with respect to the cutting efficiency, fatigue life, and corrosion resistance. Results showed an improvement in cutting efficiency for the coated samples and a high resistance to corrosion in NaClO. The coated instruments showed a better performance in fatigue life after corrosion.

  5. Effect of sulfur content in a sulfur-activated carbon composite on the electrochemical properties of a lithium/sulfur battery

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Changhyeon; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Wang, Guoxiu; Ahn, Jae-Pyeung; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The content of sulfur in activated carbon was controlled by solution process. • The sulfur electrode with low sulfur content shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacity of 1360 mAh/g at 1 C and 702 mAh/g at 10 C. - Abstract: The content of sulfur in sulfur/activated carbon composite is controlled from 32.37 wt.% to 55.33 wt.% by a one-step solution-based process. When the sulfur content is limited to 41.21 wt.%, it can be loaded into the pores of an activated carbon matrix in a highly dispersed state. On the contrary, when the sulfur content is 55.33 wt.%, crystalline sulfur can be detected on the surface of the activated carbon matrix. The best electrochemical performance can be obtained for a sulfur electrode with the lowest sulfur content. The sulfur/activated carbon composite with 32.37 wt.% sulfur afforded the highest first discharge capacity of 1360 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C rate and a large reversible capacity of 702 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C (16.75 A/g)

  6. Carbon and other light element contents in the Earth's core based on first-principles molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yigang; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-11-27

    Carbon (C) is one of the candidate light elements proposed to account for the density deficit of the Earth's core. In addition, C significantly affects siderophile and chalcophile element partitioning between metal and silicate and thus the distribution of these elements in the Earth's core and mantle. Derivation of the accretion and core-mantle segregation history of the Earth requires, therefore, an accurate knowledge of the C abundance in the Earth's core. Previous estimates of the C content of the core differ by a factor of ∼20 due to differences in assumptions and methods, and because the metal-silicate partition coefficient of C was previously unknown. Here we use two-phase first-principles molecular dynamics to derive this partition coefficient of C between liquid iron and silicate melt. We calculate a value of 9 ± 3 at 3,200 K and 40 GPa. Using this partition coefficient and the most recent estimates of bulk Earth or mantle C contents, we infer that the Earth's core contains 0.1-0.7 wt% of C. Carbon thus plays a moderate role in the density deficit of the core and in the distribution of siderophile and chalcophile elements during core-mantle segregation processes. The partition coefficients of nitrogen (N), hydrogen, helium, phosphorus, magnesium, oxygen, and silicon are also inferred and found to be in close agreement with experiments and other geochemical constraints. Contents of these elements in the core derived from applying these partition coefficients match those derived by using the cosmochemical volatility curve and geochemical mass balance arguments. N is an exception, indicating its retention in a mantle phase instead of in the core.

  7. Sulfur content of carbon steel plate material for dished end manufacture by cold spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, T.; Chandawale, R.G.; Vanchinath, S.A.

    1999-07-01

    Over many years SA 516 Gr.70 plate material is being used for the construction of boilers and pressure vessels and has become a standard of the industry. However a typical failure of this material during dished end manufacture has troubled the manufacturer on and off. Many times lamellar separation takes place along the central line of the thickness visible at the edges of the dished ends after cold spinning. In this present study the authors have carried out a customized shear test to ascertain the effect of sulfur content on the susceptibility of the SA 516 Gr. 70 plate material to fail by shear along the plane of segregation. This study indicated that the presence of central segregation is a critical factor to induce reduction in the shear strength. As the sulfur content goes down the segregation line disappears and the shear strength also increases. At 0.01% maximum sulfur best results are obtained. It was supported by the field observation of failed dished ends, where failures are observed with plates with typical sulfur content of 0.02% and above.

  8. Surface and corrosion characteristics of carbon plasma implanted and deposited nickel-titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, R.W.Y.; Liu, X.Y.; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, P.K.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2005-05-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are potentially useful in orthopedic implants on account of their super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the materials are prone to surface corrosion and the most common problem is out-diffusion of harmful Ni ions from the substrate into body tissues and fluids. In order to improve the corrosion resistance and related surface properties, we used the technique of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition to deposit an amorphous hydrogenated carbon coating onto NiTi and implant carbon into NiTi. Both the deposited amorphous carbon film and carbon plasma implanted samples exhibit much improved corrosion resistances and surface mechanical properties and possible mechanisms are suggested.

  9. Indirect voltammetric determination of caffeine content in coffee using 1,4-benzoquinone modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Aklilu, Muluken; Tessema, Merid; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin

    2008-08-15

    In this paper a simple and highly sensitive electroanalytical method for the determination of caffeine content using 1,4-benzoquinone modified carbon paste electrode is presented. The method is based on suppression of 1,4-benzoquinone peak current on addition of caffeine. Square-wave and cyclic voltammetric techniques were utilised for the investigation. The 1,4-benzoquinone modified electrode exhibited a well-defined peak with reproducible peak current values for repetitive measurements; and showed a decrease in peak current value with an increase in caffeine content. The result revealed two linear range regions between 0 mmol L(-1) and 0.5 mmol L(-1) and 0.5 mmol L(-1) and 8.0 mmol L(-1), with detection limits of 0.3 micromol L(-1) and 5.1 micromol L(-1), respectively. The method was then successfully applied to the determination of caffeine content in coffee samples. The effects of pH, electrode composition, step potential, pulse amplitude and square-wave frequency on the voltammetric responses were also investigated.

  10. Continuous-flow analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon content in seawater.

    PubMed

    Stoll, M H; Bakker, K; Nobbe, G H; Haese, R R

    2001-09-01

    A rapid, continuous-flow determination of total inorganic carbon (TIC) in seawater samples is presented. The method runs on an autoanalyzer Traacs 800 spectrophotometric system and is calibrated versus certified reference materials readily available. A typical analysis speed of 45 samples/h can be reached with an accuracy of 2-3 microM and a precision of approximately 2.5 microM. The analysis requires only a small amount of sample and is thus ideally suited for pore water samples and samples taken from cultures where sample volume is at a premium. The speed of the analysis makes mapping of oceanic surface water characteristics possible. Potential interference of sulfide in anoxic (e.g., pore water) samples can be masked by the addition of a hydrogen peroxide step. Although the latter is a strong oxidative reagent, no significant effect on TIC concentration due to oxidation of (labile) organic matter could be found.

  11. The effect of HWVP feed nitrate and carbonate content on glass redox adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize pretreated radioactive high-level waste (HLW) as glass for geological disposal. In the HWVP formic acid will be added to the pretreated HLW prior to vitrification. The formic acid is added to adjust the feed rheology and to provide a reductant which maintains the feed in the melter within an acceptable redox range. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrate and carbonate concentrations in the pretreated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed on the amount of formic acid required to obtain an acceptable glass redox state in the melter. The glass redox state was measured by the Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sup +3} ratio in the vitrified product.

  12. Negative-ion production on carbon materials in hydrogen plasma: influence of the carbon hybridization state and the hydrogen content on H- yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Pardanaud, Cédric; Carrère, Marcel; Layet, Jean-Marc; Gicquel, Alix; Kumar, Pravin; Eon, David; Jaoul, Cédric; Engeln, Richard; Cartry, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    Highly oriented polycrystalline graphite (HOPG), boron-doped diamond (BDD), nanocrystalline diamond, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon surfaces are exposed to low-pressure hydrogen plasma in a 13.56 MHz plasma reactor. Relative yields of surface-produced H- ions due to bombardment of positive ions from the plasma are measured by an energy analyser cum quadrupole mass spectrometer. Irrespective of plasma conditions (0.2 and 2 Pa), HOPG surfaces show the highest yield at room temperature (RT), while at high temperature (HT), the highest yield (˜3-5 times compared to HOPG surface at RT) is observed on BDD surfaces. The shapes of ion distribution functions are compared at RT and HT to demonstrate the mechanism of ion generation at the surface. Raman spectroscopy analyses of the plasma-exposed samples reveal surface modifications influencing H- production yields, while further analyses strongly suggest that the hydrogen content of the material and the sp3/sp2 ratio are the key parameters in driving the surface ionization efficiency of carbon materials under the chosen plasma conditions.

  13. Effects of Solution and Aging Treatments on Corrosion Resistance of As-cast 60NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qiuhui; Wen, Yuhua; Wang, Gaixia; Zhang, Lanhui

    2016-12-01

    60NiTi alloy has become a competitive candidate for bearing applications due to its shape memory effect, superelasticity, high strength, hardness, excellent abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance, etc. However, the relationship between its corrosion resistance and heat treatment is not clearly understood. Therefore, we used OM, XRD, SEM and EDS to study the evolution of microstructure in as-cast, solution-treated and aged 60NiTi alloy. Besides, the potentiodynamic polarization and salt spray test were used to compare corrosion resistance of 60NiTi alloy and 316 stainless steel and to study the effect of microstructures on corrosion resistance of 60NiTi alloy. The results show that the corrosion resistance of as-cast 60NiTi alloy is comparable to that of 316 stainless steel, but the corrosion resistance of solution-treated and aged 60NiTi alloys is much superior. The significantly reduced Ni3Ti phase after the solution and aging treatments is responsible for the remarkable improvement in the corrosion resistance of as-cast 60NiTi alloy.

  14. Characterization of Sputtered Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) by Merric D Srour, Cory R Knick, and Christopher J Morris Sensors and...applications7 so a natural focus was to achieve large recovery stresses in films as thin as possible. By varying the sputtering parameters of NiTi...alloys. Sensors and Actuators A. 2002;99:55–58. 2. Ohta A, Bhansali S, Kishimoto I, Umeda A. Novel fabrication techique of TiNi shape memory alloy

  15. Carbon exchange in biological soil crust communities under differential temperatures and soil water contents: implications for global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grote, Edmund E.; Belnap, Jayne; Housman, David C.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2010-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are an integral part of the soil system in arid regions worldwide, stabilizing soil surfaces, aiding vascular plant establishment, and are significant sources of ecosystem nitrogen and carbon. Hydration and temperature primarily control ecosystem CO2 flux in these systems. Using constructed mesocosms for incubations under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature (5-35 1C) and water content (WC, 20-100%) on CO2 exchange in light cyanobacterially dominated) and dark cyanobacteria/lichen and moss dominated) biocrusts of the cool Colorado Plateau Desert in Utah and the hot Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico. In light crusts from both Utah and New Mexico, net photosynthesis was highest at temperatures 430 1C. Net photosynthesis in light crusts from Utah was relatively insensitive to changes in soil moisture. In contrast, light crusts from New Mexico tended to exhibit higher rates of net photosynthesis at higher soil moisture. Dark crusts originating from both sites exhibited the greatest net photosynthesis at intermediate soil water content (40-60%). Declines in net photosynthesis were observed in dark crusts with crusts from Utah showing declines at temperatures 425 1C and those originating from New Mexico showing declines at temperatures 435 1C. Maximum net photosynthesis in all crust types from all locations were strongly influenced by offsets in the optimal temperature and water content for gross photosynthesis compared with dark respiration. Gross photosynthesis tended to be maximized at some intermediate value of temperature and water content and dark respiration tended to increase linearly. The results of this study suggest biocrusts are capable of CO2 exchange under a wide range of conditions. However, significant changes in the magnitude of this exchange should be expected for the temperature and precipitation changes suggested by current climate models.

  16. Soil organic carbon content estimation with laboratory-based visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy: feature selection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tiezhu; Chen, Yiyun; Liu, Huizeng; Wang, Junjie; Wu, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    This study, with Yixing (Jiangsu Province, China) and Honghu (Hubei Province, China) as study areas, aimed to compare the successive projection algorithm (SPA) and the genetic algorithm (GA) in spectral feature selection for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) contents with visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy and further to assess whether the spectral features selected from one site could be applied to another site. The SOC content and Vis-NIR reflectance spectra of soil samples were measured in the laboratory. Savitzky-Golay smoothing and log10(1/R) (R is reflectance) were used for spectral preprocessing. The reflectance spectra were resampled using different spacing intervals ranging from 2 to 10 nm. Then, SPA and GA were conducted for selecting the spectral features of SOC. Partial least square regression (PLSR) with full-spectrum PLSR and the spectral features selected by SPA (SPA-PLSR) and GA (GA-PLSR) were calibrated and validated using independent datasets, respectively. Moreover, the spectral features selected from one study area were applied to another area. Study results showed that, for the two study areas, the SPA-PLSR and GA-PLSR improved estimation accuracies and reduced spectral variables compared with the full spectrum PLSR in estimating SOC contents; GA-PLSR obtained better estimation results than SPA-PLSR, whereas SPA was simpler than GA, and the spectral features selected from Yixing could be well applied to Honghu, but not the reverse. These results indicated that the SPA and GA could reduce the spectral variables and improve the performance of PLSR model and that GA performed better than SPA in estimating SOC contents. However, SPA is simpler and time-saving compared with GA in selecting the spectral features of SOC. The spectral features selected from one dataset could be applied to a target dataset when the dataset contains sufficient information adequately describing the variability of samples of the target dataset.

  17. Wavelength Dependence in the Analysis of Carbon Content in Coal by Nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiongwei; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou

    2015-08-01

    The wavelength dependence of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in the analysis of the carbon contents of coal was studied using 266 nm and 1064 nm laser radiations. Compared with the 1064 nm wavelength laser ablation, the 266 nm wavelength laser ablation has less thermal effects, resulting in a better crater morphology on the coal pellets. Besides, the 266 nm wavelength laser ablation also provides better laser-sample coupling and less plasma shielding, resulting in a higher carbon line intensity and better signal reproducibility. The carbon contents in the bituminous coal samples have better linearity with the line intensities of atomic carbon measured by the 266 nm wavelength than those measured by the 1064 nm wavelength. The partial least square (PLS) model was established for the quantitative analysis of the carbon content in coal samples by LIBS. The results show that both of the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of achieving good performance for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal using the PLS method. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51276100) and National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013CB228501)

  18. Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Particle Morphology and Iron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madl, Amy Kathleen

    Nanotechnology provides promise for significant advancements in a number of different fields including imaging, electronics, and therapeutics. With worldwide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exceeding over 500 metric tons annually and industry growth expecting to double over the next 5 yr, there are concerns our understanding of the hazards of these nanomaterials may not be keeping pace with market demand. The physicochemical properties of CNTs may delineate the key features that determine either toxicity or biocompatibility and assist in evaluating the potential health risks posed in industrial and consumer product settings. We hypothesized that the iron content and morphology of inhaled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) influences the extent of cellular injury and alters homeostasis in the lung. To address this hypothesis, (1) an aerosol system was developed to deliver carbon-based nanomaterials in a manner of exposure that is physiologically and environmentally relevant (e.g., inhalation), (2) acute (1 d) and subacute (10 d) nose-only inhalation studies to a well-characterized aerosol of iron-containing (FeSWCNT) versus cleaned (iron removed, cSWCNTs) SWCNTs were conducted to evaluate the time-course patterns of possible injury through measurement of markers of cytotoxicity, inflammation, and cellular remodeling/homeostasis, and (3) the effects of SWCNTs were compared to other well-studied materials (e.g. non-fibrous, low-iron content ultrafine carbon black and fibrous, high-iron content, highly persistent, durable and potent carcinogen crocidolite) to offer insights into the relative toxicity of these nanomaterials as well as the possible mechanisms by which the effects occur. Rats (SD) were exposed to either aerosolized SWCNTs (raw FeSWCNT or purified cSWCNT), carbon black (CB), crocidolite, or fresh air via nose-only inhalation. Markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity in lung lavage, mucin in different airway generations, and collagen in the

  19. Investigation on the heavy metal content of zinc-carbon and alkaline manganese dry cells

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagel, Sebastian Richter, Andrea; Richter, Silke

    2009-03-15

    The objective of this work was to test the compliance of commercially available batteries with the German Battery Ordinance, a project of the German government that was initiated by the Federal Environment Agency. Different types of commercially available dry cells were analysed for their cadmium, lead and mercury contents. The dry cells underwent mechanical pre-treatment, separation of the different components and microwave-assisted digestion before determination of the heavy metals. Mercury is sometimes added to prevent the generation of gaseous hydrogen from the electrochemical process. Lead could be present since it is sometimes used as an alloying element of zinc. Cadmium has no technical importance and is an undesirable impurity. None of the batteries contained higher heavy metal mass fractions than the permissible limits.

  20. Inferring brown carbon content from UV aerosol absorption measurements during biomass burning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Arola, A. T.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Andrade, M.; Labow, G. J.; Eck, T. F.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring spectral dependence of light absorption by colored organic or "brown" carbon (BrC) is important, because of its effects on photolysis rates of ozone and surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Enhanced UV spectral absorption by BrC can in turn be exploited for simultaneous retrievals of BrC and black carbon (BC) column amounts in field campaigns. We present an innovative ground-based retrieval of BC and BrC volume fractions and their mass absorption efficiencies during the biomass burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia in September-October 2007. Our method combines retrieval of BC volume fraction using AERONET inversion in visible wavelengths with the inversion of total BC+BrC absorption (i.e., column effective imaginary refractive index, kmeas) using Diffuse/Direct irradiance measurements in UV wavelengths. First, we retrieve BrC volume fraction by fitting kmeas at 368nm using Maxwell-Garnett (MG) mixing rules assuming: (1) flat spectral dependence of kBC, (2) known value of kBrC at 368nm from laboratory absorption measurements or smoke chamber experiments, and (3) known BC volume fraction from AERONET inversion. Next, we derive kBrC in short UVB wavelengths by fitting kmeas at 305nm, 311nm, 317nm, 325nm, and 332nm using MG mixing rules and fixed volume fractions of BC and BrC. Our retrievals show larger than expected spectral dependence of kBrC in UVB wavelengths, implying reduced surface UVB irradiance and inhibited photolysis rates of surface ozone destruction. We use a one-dimensional chemical box model to show that the observed strong wavelength dependence of BrC absorption leads to inhibited photolysis of ozone to O(1D), a loss mechanism, while having little impact or even accelerating photolysis of NO2, an ozone production mechanism. Although BC only absorption in biomass burning aerosols is important for climate radiative forcing in the visible wavelengths, additional absorption by BrC is important because of its impact on surface UVB radiation

  1. The soil organic carbon content of anthropogenically altered organic soils effects the dissolved organic matter quality, but not the dissolved organic carbon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Lücke, Andreas; Bol, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This is especially true for peatlands which usually show high concentrations of DOC due to the high stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC). Most previous studies found that DOC concentrations in the soil solution depend on the SOC content. Thus, one would expect low DOC concentrations in peatlands which have anthropogenically been altered by mixing with sand. Here, we want to show the effect of SOC and groundwater level on the quantity and quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). Three sampling sites were installed in a strongly disturbed bog. Two sites differ in SOC (Site A: 48%, Site B: 9%) but show the same mean annual groundwater level of 15 and 18 cm below ground, respectively. The SOC content of site C (11%) is similar to Site B, but the groundwater level is much lower (-31 cm) than at the other two sites. All sites have a similar depth of the organic horizon (30 cm) and the same land-use (low-intensity sheep grazing). Over two years, the soil solution was sampled bi-weekly in three depths (15, 30 and 60 cm) and three replicates. All samples were analyzed for DOC and selected samples for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and delta-13C and delta-15N. Despite differences in SOC and groundwater level, DOC concentrations did not differ significantly (A: 192 ± 62 mg/L, B: 163 ± 55 mg/L and C: 191 ± 97 mg/L). At all sites, DOC concentrations exceed typical values for peatlands by far and emphasize the relevance even of strongly disturbed organic soils for DOC losses. Individual DOC concentrations were controlled by the temperature and the groundwater level over the preceding weeks. Differences in DOM quality were clearer. At site B with a low SOC content, the DOC:DON ratio of the soil solution equals the soil's C:N ratio, but the DOC:DON ratio is much higher than the C:N ratio at site A. In all cases, the DOC:DON ratio strongly correlates with delta-13C. There is no

  2. Static Indentation Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi for Rolling Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2012-01-01

    The nickel-rich, binary nickel-titanium alloys, such as 60NiTi (60Ni-40Ti by wt%), are emerging as viable materials for use in mechanical components like rolling element bearings and gears. 60NiTi is a superelastic material that simultaneously exhibits high hardness and a relatively low elastic modulus (approx.100 GPa). These properties result in the potential to endure extremely high indentation loads such as those encountered in bearings, gears and other mechanical components. In such applications, quantifying the load that results in permanent deformation that can affect component performance and life is important. In this paper, the static load capacity is measured by conducting indentation experiments in which 12.7 mm diameter balls made from the ceramic Si3N4 are pressed into highly polished, hardened 60NiTi flat plates. Hertz stress calculations are used to estimate contact stress. The results show that the 60NiTi surface can withstand an approximately 3400 kN load before significant denting (>0.6 microns deep) occurs. This load capacity is approximately twice that of high performance bearing steels suggesting that the potential exists to make highly resilient bearings and components from such materials.

  3. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of Ni-rich NiTi plates: functional behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Barbosa, D.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Miranda, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    It is often reported that, to successfully join NiTi shape memory alloys, fusion-based processes with reduced thermal affected regions (as in laser welding) are required. This paper describes an experimental study performed on the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 1.5 mm thick plates of Ni-rich NiTi. The functional behavior of the joints was assessed. The superelasticity was analyzed by cycling tests at maximum imposed strains of 4, 8 and 12% and for a total of 600 cycles, without rupture. The superelastic plateau was observed, in the stress-strain curves, 30 MPa below that of the base material. Shape-memory effect was evidenced by bending tests with full recovery of the initial shape of the welded joints. In parallel, uniaxial tensile tests of the joints showed a tensile strength of 700 MPa and an elongation to rupture of 20%. The elongation is the highest reported for fusion-welding of NiTi, including laser welding. These results can be of great interest for the wide-spread inclusion of NiTi in complex shaped components requiring welding, since TIG is not an expensive process and is simple to operate and implement in industrial environments.

  4. Revealing ultralarge and localized elastic lattice strains in Nb nanowires embedded in NiTi matrix.

    PubMed

    Zang, Ketao; Mao, Shengcheng; Cai, Jixiang; Liu, Yinong; Li, Haixin; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan

    2015-12-02

    Freestanding nanowires have been found to exhibit ultra-large elastic strains (4 to 7%) and ultra-high strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic superior mechanical properties in bulk forms has proven to be difficult. A recent study has demonstrated that ultra-large elastic strains of ~6% can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix, on the principle of lattice strain matching. To verify this hypothesis, this study investigated the elastic deformation behavior of a Nb nanowire embedded in NiTi matrix by means of in situ transmission electron microscopic measurement during tensile deformation. The experimental work revealed that ultra-large local elastic lattice strains of up to 8% are induced in the Nb nanowire in regions adjacent to stress-induced martensite domains in the NiTi matrix, whilst other parts of the nanowires exhibit much reduced lattice strains when adjacent to the untransformed austenite in the NiTi matrix. These observations provide a direct evidence of the proposed mechanism of lattice strain matching, thus a novel approach to designing nanocomposites of superior mechanical properties.

  5. Nano-hardness, wear resistance and pseudoelasticity of hafnium implanted NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingting; Li, Yan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xinqing

    2012-09-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy was modified by Hf ion implantation to improve its wear resistance and surface integrity against deformation. The Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the oxide thickness of NiTi alloy was increased by the formation of TiO₂/HfO₂ nanofilm on the surface. The nano-hardness measured by nano-indentation was decreased even at the depth larger than the maximum reach of the implanted Hf ion. The lower coefficient of friction with much longer fretting time indicated the remarkable improvement of wear resistance of Hf implanted NiTi, especially for the sample with a moderate incident dose. The formation of TiO₂/HfO₂ nanofilm with larger thickness and decrease of the nano-hardness played important roles in the improvement of wear resistance. Moreover, Hf implanted NiTi exhibited larger pseudoelastic recovery strain and retained better surface integrity even after being strained to 10% as demonstrated by in situ scanning electron microscope observation.

  6. Wear mechanism and tribological characteristics of porous NiTi shape memory alloy for bone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Guosong; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Zheng, Dong; Chung, C Y; Xu, Z S; Chu, Paul K

    2013-09-01

    The abraded debris might cause osteocytic osteolysis on the interface between implants and bone tissues, thus inducing the subsequent mobilization of implants gradually and finally resulting in the failure of bone implants, which imposes restrictions on the applications of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this work, the effects of the annealing temperature, applied load, and porosity on the tribological behavior and wear resistance of three-dimensional porous NiTi SMA are investigated systematically. The porous structure and phase transformation during the exothermic process affect the tribological properties and wear mechanism significantly. In general, a larger porosity leads to better tribological resistance but sometimes, SMAs with small porosity possess better wear resistance than ones with higher porosity during the initial sliding stage. It can be ascribed to the better superelasticity of the former at the test temperature. The porous NiTi phase during the exothermic reaction also plays an important role in the wear resistance. Generally, porous NiTi has smaller friction coefficients under high loads due to stress-induced superelasticity. The wear mechanism is discussed based on plastic deformation and microcrack propagation.

  7. Effect of Deformation Mode on the Wear Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lina; Liu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Owing to good biocompatibility, good fatigue resistance, and excellent superelasticity, various types of bio-medical devices based on NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) have been developed. Due to the complexity in deformation mode in service, for example NiTi implants, accurate assessment/prediction of the surface wear process is difficult. This study aims at providing a further insight into the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA. In the present study, two types of wear testing modes were used, namely sliding wear mode and reciprocating wear mode, to investigate the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA in both martensitic and austenitic states. It was found that, when in martensitic state and under high applied loads, sliding wear mode resulted in more surface damage as compared to that under reciprocating wear mode. When in austenitic state, although similar trends in the coefficient of friction were observed, the coefficient of friction and surface damage in general is less under reciprocating mode than under sliding mode. These observations were further discussed in terms of different deformation mechanisms involved in the wear tests, in particular, the reversibility of martensite variant reorientation and stress-induced phase transformation, respectively.

  8. Do Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Orthodontic NiTi Wires Remain Stable In Vivo?

    PubMed

    Sarul, Michał; Rutkowska-Gorczyca, Małgorzata; Detyna, Jerzy; Zięty, Anna; Kawala, Maciej; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Exceptional properties of the NiTi archwires may be jeopardized by the oral cavity; thus its long-term effect on the mechanical and physiochemical properties of NiTi archwires was the aim of work. Material and Methods. Study group comprised sixty 0.016 × 0.022 NiTi archwires from the same manufacturer evaluated (group A) after the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. 30 mm long pieces cut off from each wire prior to insertion formed the control group B. Obeying the strict rules of randomization, all samples were subjected to microscopic evaluation and nanoindentation test. Results. Both groups displayed substantial presence of nonmetallic inclusions. Heterogeneity of the structure and its alteration after usage were found in groups B and A, respectively. Conclusions. Long-term, reliable prediction of biomechanics of NiTi wires in vivo is impossible, especially new archwires from the same vendor display different physiochemical properties. Moreover, manufacturers have to decrease contamination in the production process in order to minimize risk of mutual negative influence of nickel-titanium archwires and oral environment.

  9. Polymer (PTFE) and shape memory alloy (NiTi) intercalated nano-biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, S. S.; Rao, J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    Engineering on a nano-scale has been undertaken to mimic a biomaterial by forming an intercalated nano-composite structure by PVD sputtering of a polymer with a nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA). A PTFE polymer has been selected due to its elastic properties, low interactions with water, optimum surface energies, stability and chemical resistance. NiTi SMAs allow the coatings to be energy absorbent and thus suitable in load bearing situations. The coatings are aimed to constantly withstand variable adverse biological environments whilst maintaining their characteristics. The nano-intercalated structures have been characterised for their wettability, friction coefficients, chemical composition, and morphology. Intercalation of a polymer with energy-absorbing alloys uncovers a set of material systems that will offer characteristics such as self-healing of hierarchal tissue in the body. The reformation of PTFE following sputter deposition was confirmed by FTIR spectra. According to SEM analysis PTFE shows a promising surface interaction with NiTi, forming stable coatings. Surface interactions are evident by the hydrophobic behaviour of films as the composite's water contact angle is around 86° which lies in-between that of PTFE and NiTi. The nano composite films are lubricious and have a measured CoF below 0.2 which does not vary with layer thickness.

  10. Blast Coating of Superelastic NiTi Wire with PTFE to Enhance Wear Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Conor F.; Roche, Kevin; Twomey, Barry; Hodgson, Darel; Stanton, Kenneth T.

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) onto a superelastic NiTi wire using an ambient temperature-coating technique known as CoBlast. The process utilises a stream of abrasive (Al2O3) and a coating medium (PTFE) sprayed simultaneously at the surface of the substrate. Superelastic NiTi wire is used in guidewire applications, and PTFE coatings are commonly applied to reduce damage to vessel walls during insertion and removal, and to aid in accurate positioning by minimising the force required to advance, retract or rotate the wire. The CoBlast coated wires were compared to wire treated with PTFE only. The coated samples were examined using variety of techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), microscopy, surface roughness, wear testing and flexural tests. The CoBlast coated samples had an adherent coating with a significant resistance to wear compared to the samples coated with PTFE only. The XRD revealed that the process gave rise to a stress-induced martensite phase in the NiTi which may enhance mechanical properties. The study indicates that the CoBlast process can be used to deposit thin adherent coatings of PTFE onto the surface of superelastic NiTi.

  11. Do Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Orthodontic NiTi Wires Remain Stable In Vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowska-Gorczyca, Małgorzata; Detyna, Jerzy; Zięty, Anna; Kawala, Maciej; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Exceptional properties of the NiTi archwires may be jeopardized by the oral cavity; thus its long-term effect on the mechanical and physiochemical properties of NiTi archwires was the aim of work. Material and Methods. Study group comprised sixty 0.016 × 0.022 NiTi archwires from the same manufacturer evaluated (group A) after the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. 30 mm long pieces cut off from each wire prior to insertion formed the control group B. Obeying the strict rules of randomization, all samples were subjected to microscopic evaluation and nanoindentation test. Results. Both groups displayed substantial presence of nonmetallic inclusions. Heterogeneity of the structure and its alteration after usage were found in groups B and A, respectively. Conclusions. Long-term, reliable prediction of biomechanics of NiTi wires in vivo is impossible, especially new archwires from the same vendor display different physiochemical properties. Moreover, manufacturers have to decrease contamination in the production process in order to minimize risk of mutual negative influence of nickel-titanium archwires and oral environment. PMID:28097137

  12. Revealing ultralarge and localized elastic lattice strains in Nb nanowires embedded in NiTi matrix

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Ketao; Mao, Shengcheng; Cai, Jixiang; Liu, Yinong; Li, Haixin; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding nanowires have been found to exhibit ultra-large elastic strains (4 to 7%) and ultra-high strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic superior mechanical properties in bulk forms has proven to be difficult. A recent study has demonstrated that ultra-large elastic strains of ~6% can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix, on the principle of lattice strain matching. To verify this hypothesis, this study investigated the elastic deformation behavior of a Nb nanowire embedded in NiTi matrix by means of in situ transmission electron microscopic measurement during tensile deformation. The experimental work revealed that ultra-large local elastic lattice strains of up to 8% are induced in the Nb nanowire in regions adjacent to stress-induced martensite domains in the NiTi matrix, whilst other parts of the nanowires exhibit much reduced lattice strains when adjacent to the untransformed austenite in the NiTi matrix. These observations provide a direct evidence of the proposed mechanism of lattice strain matching, thus a novel approach to designing nanocomposites of superior mechanical properties. PMID:26625854

  13. Surface modification of AISI H13 tool steel by laser cladding with NiTi powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Chikarakara, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents laser cladding of NiTi powder on AISI H13 tool steel surface for surface properties enhancement. The cladding process was conducted using Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 laser system with wavelength of 10.6 µm. NiTi powder was pre-placed on H13 tool steel surface. The laser beam was focused with a spot size of 90 µm on the sample surface. Laser parameters were set to 1515 and 1138 W peak power, 18 and 24 % duty cycle and 2300-3500 Hz laser pulse repetition frequency. Hardness properties of the modified layer were characterized by Wilson Hardness tester. Metallographic study and chemical composition were conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDXS) analysis. Results showed that hardness of NiTi clad layer increased three times that of the substrate material. The EDXS analysis detected NiTi phase presence in the modified layer up to 9.8 wt%. The metallographic study shows high metallurgical bonding between substrate and modified layer. These findings are significant to both increased hardness and erosion resistance of high-wear-resistant components and elongating their lifetime.

  14. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of laser processed NiTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Marattukalam, Jithin J; Singh, Amit Kumar; Datta, Susmit; Das, Mitun; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bontha, Srikanth; Kalpathy, Sreeram K

    2015-12-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), a commercially available additive manufacturing technology, has been used to fabricate dense equiatomic NiTi alloy components. The primary aim of this work is to study the effect of laser power and scan speed on microstructure, phase constituents, hardness and corrosion behavior of laser processed NiTi alloy. The results showed retention of large amount of high-temperature austenite phase at room temperature due to high cooling rates associated with laser processing. The high amount of austenite in these samples increased the hardness. The grain size and corrosion resistance were found to increase with laser power. The surface energy of NiTi alloy, calculated using contact angles, decreased from 61 mN/m to 56 mN/m with increase in laser energy density from 20 J/mm(2) to 80 J/mm(2). The decrease in surface energy shifted the corrosion potentials to nobler direction and decreased the corrosion current. Under present experimental conditions the laser power found to have strong influence on microstructure, phase constituents and corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy.

  15. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S.; Bysakh, S.; Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V.

    2013-11-15

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ∼250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  16. An H-infinity approach to optimal control of oxygen and carbon dioxide contents in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Selisteanu, Dan; Precup, Radu

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear H-infinity control is proposed for the regulation of the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood of patients undergoing heart surgery and extracorporeal blood circulation. The levels of blood gases are administered through a membrane oxygenator and the control inputs are the externally supplied oxygen, the aggregate gas supply (oxygen plus nitrogen), and the blood flow which is regulated by a blood pump. The proposed control method is based on linearization of the oxygenator's dynamical model through Taylor series expansion and the computation of Jacobian matrices. The local linearization points are defined by the present value of the oxygenator's state vector and the last value of the control input that was exerted on this system. The modelling errors due to linearization are considered as disturbances which are compensated by the robustness of the control loop. Next, for the linearized model of the oxygenator an H-infinity control input is computed at each iteration of the control algorithm through the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. With the use of Lyapunov stability analysis it is demonstrated that the control scheme satisfies the H-infinity tracking performance criterion, which signifies improved robustness against modelling uncertainty and external disturbances. Moreover, under moderate conditions the asymptotic stability of the control loop is also proven.

  17. [Effects of temperature on organic carbon mineralization in paddy soils with different clay content].

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiu-E; Tong, Cheng-Li; Sun, Zhong-Lin; Tang, Guo-Yong; Xiao, He-Ai; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2007-10-01

    An incubation test with three kinds of paddy soil (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils) in subtropical region was conducted at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C to examine the response of the mineralization of soil organic carbon (SOC) to temperature change. The results showed that during the period of 160 d incubation, the accumulative mineralized amount of SOC in sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils at 30 degrees C was 3.5, 5.2 and 4.7 times as much as that at 10 degrees C, respectively. The mineralization rate was lower and relatively stable at lower temperatures (< or = 20 C), but was higher at the beginning of incubation and decreased and became stable as the time prolonged at higher temperatures (> or = 25 degrees C). During incubation, the temperature coefficient (Q10) of SOC mineralization in test soils fluctuated, with an average Q10 in sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils being 1.92, 2.37 and 2.32, respectively. There was a positive exponential correlation between SOC mineralization constant k and temperature (P < 0.01), and the response of SOC mineralization to temperature change was in the order of clay loam soil > silty clay soil > sandy loam soil.

  18. Processing of low carbon content interstellar ice analogues by cosmic rays: implications for the chemistry around oxygen-rich stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, A. L. F.; da Silveira, E. F.; Pilling, S.; Domaracka, A.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P.

    2014-03-01

    Radiolysis of a homogeneous H2O:H2CO:CH3OH (100:2:0.8) ice mixture by fast heavy ions is performed in the laboratory in an attempt to simulate the interaction of cosmic rays with frozen surfaces at 15 K. Bombarded by 220-MeV 16O7 + ions, the ice layer is thin enough to be traversed by projectiles at approximately constant velocity and with charge states close to the equilibrium one. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveals that the molecular species formed are CH4, CO2, CO, HCO, HCOO- and CH3OCHO. The formation and dissociation cross-sections of all observed daughter molecules are determined. As a control procedure, a carbon budget is performed as the beam fluence increases. The observed radiation effects lead to a general observation that the destruction cross-sections of condensed gases by heavy ions are ruled by a power law that is a function of the electronic stopping power: σd ˜ Sn_e, where n is approximately 3/2. This relation is observed for the destruction of precursor H2CO molecules and for the formation of daughter species. The present results help our understanding of the chemical and physicochemical interactions induced by heavy cosmic rays in cold astrophysical environments with low carbon contents, such as those around oxygen-rich stars.

  19. Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change and Land Management Change on Soil Organic Carbon Content, Leached Carbon Rates and Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiadi, Maria; de Nijs, Ton; van der Perk, Marcel; Bonten, Luc

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is projected to significantly affect the concentrations and mobility of contaminants, such as metals and pathogens, in soil, groundwater and surface water. Climate- and land management-induced changes in soil organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon levels may promote the transport of toxic substances, such as copper and cadmium, and pathogenic microorganisms, ultimately affecting the exposure of humans and ecosystems to these contaminants. In this study, we adopted the Century model to simulate past (1900 - 2010), present, and future (2010 - 2100) SOC and DOC levels for a sandy and a loamy soil typical for Central and Western European conditions under three land use types (forest, grassland and arable land) and several future scenarios addressing climate change and land management change. The climate scenarios were based on the KNMI'06 G+ and W+ scenarios from the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute. The simulated current SOC levels were compared to observed SOC values derived from various Dutch soil databases, taking into account the different soil depths the simulated and observed values refer to. The simulated SOC levels were generally in line with the observed values for the different kinds of soil and land use types. Climate change scenarios resulted in a decrease in both SOC and DOC for the grassland systems, whereas in the arable land (on sandy soil) and in the forest systems, SOC was found to increase and DOC to decrease. A sensitivity analysis of the individual effects of changes in temperature and precipitation showed that the effect of temperature predominates over the effect of precipitation. A reduction in the application rates of artificial fertilizers leads to a decrease in the SOC stocks and the leached carbon rates in the arable land systems, but has a negligible effect on SOC and DOC levels of the grassland systems. This study demonstrated the ability of the Century model to simulate climate change and agricultural management

  20. Use of phosphoranimines to reduce organic carbonate content in Li-ion battery electrolytes

    DOE PAGES

    Dufek, Eric J.; Klaehn, John R.; McNally, Joshua S.; ...

    2016-05-09

    In this study, the use of phosphoranimines (PAs), a class of linear, monomeric phosphazenes, as electrolytes for Li-ion battery applications has been investigated as a route to improve safety and stability for Li-ion batteries. Of the potential PAs for use in battery applications, this work focuses on the initial synthetic preparation and analysis of N-trimethylsilyl-P,P-bis((2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)-P-ethylphosphoranimine (PA-5). PA-5 has high LiPF6 solubility in excess of 2 M, high thermal stability with a melting point below -80°C and high thermal stability as a neat compound to at least 250°C. As part of electrolyte blends, the inclusion of PA-5 shifts the onset ofmore » thermal degradation by close to 40°C at 35% loading and by 20°C at a 10% loading, improves the low temperature performance of the electrolyte, and when used as a primary solvent leads to increases in the flash point (by 20°C) when compared to more traditional EC:EMC blends. Cycling capabilities of full-coin cells with graphite negative electrodes and Li1+w[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]1-wO2 positive electrodes using PA-5:EC:EMC electrolyte blends are comparable with the performance seen for traditional EC:EMC blends. Analysis of the impact of the use of additives such as vinylene carbonate in PA-5:EC:EMC blended electrolyte results in enhanced capacity retention and improved coulombic efficiency.« less

  1. Use of phosphoranimines to reduce organic carbonate content in Li-ion battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dufek, Eric J.; Klaehn, John R.; McNally, Joshua S.; Rollins, Harry W.; Jamison, David K.

    2016-05-09

    In this study, the use of phosphoranimines (PAs), a class of linear, monomeric phosphazenes, as electrolytes for Li-ion battery applications has been investigated as a route to improve safety and stability for Li-ion batteries. Of the potential PAs for use in battery applications, this work focuses on the initial synthetic preparation and analysis of N-trimethylsilyl-P,P-bis((2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)-P-ethylphosphoranimine (PA-5). PA-5 has high LiPF6 solubility in excess of 2 M, high thermal stability with a melting point below -80°C and high thermal stability as a neat compound to at least 250°C. As part of electrolyte blends, the inclusion of PA-5 shifts the onset of thermal degradation by close to 40°C at 35% loading and by 20°C at a 10% loading, improves the low temperature performance of the electrolyte, and when used as a primary solvent leads to increases in the flash point (by 20°C) when compared to more traditional EC:EMC blends. Cycling capabilities of full-coin cells with graphite negative electrodes and Li1+w[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]1-wO2 positive electrodes using PA-5:EC:EMC electrolyte blends are comparable with the performance seen for traditional EC:EMC blends. Analysis of the impact of the use of additives such as vinylene carbonate in PA-5:EC:EMC blended electrolyte results in enhanced capacity retention and improved coulombic efficiency.

  2. Effect of quartz content on the physical and structural properties of carbonate rocks from Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, T. N. A. S. Tengku; Munusamy, S. R. R.; Lan, D. N. Uy; Yunos, N. F. M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents on the structural changes associated with mechanical activation of limestone (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) from Perlis, Malaysia via Planetary ball milling. Operational variables include 3 level of revolution speed (250, 350 and 450 rpm), grinding durations (30, 60 and 90 min) and ball to powder ratios BPR (3:1. 6:1 and 9:1) respectively. The chemical compositions of both mineral samples were determined with XRF technique while the structural properties and morphological characteristics identified using XRD and SEM methods. The structural changes such as amorphization, decline in crystallite size (CS), degree of crystallinity (DOC) and morphological alterations are closely related to the operational parameter and the mineral constituents such as quartz content. Overall, the crystallite size of limestone and dolomite ranges from 60.74 to 25.15 nm and 45.65 to 22.07 nm respectively. Accordingly the DOC was reduced from 100 to 31.69% in CaCO3 and 36.55% in (CaMg(CO3)2).

  3. Chromium Extraction via Chemical Processing of Fe-Cr Alloys Fine Powder with High Carbon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. M.; Navarro, R. C. S.; Souza, R. F. M.; Brocchi, E. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ferrous alloys are important raw materials for special steel production. In this context, alloys from the Fe-Cr system, with typical Cr weight fraction ranging from 0.45 to 0.95, are prominent, particularly for the stainless steel industry. During the process in which these alloys are obtained, there is considerable production of fine powder, which could be reused after suitable chemical treatment, for example, through coupling pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. In the present study, the extraction of chromium from fine powder generated during the production of a Fe-Cr alloy with high C content was investigated. Roasting reactions were performed at 1073 K, 1173 K, and 1273 K (800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) with 300 pct (w/w) excess NaOH in an oxidizing atmosphere (air), followed by solubilization in deionized water, selective precipitation, and subsequent calcination at 1173 K (900 °C) in order to convert the obtained chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3. The maximum achieved Cr recovery was around 86 pct, suggesting that the proposed chemical route was satisfactory regarding the extraction of the chromium initially present. Moreover, after X-ray diffraction analysis, the final produced oxide has proven to be pure Cr2O3 with a mean crystallite size of 200 nm.

  4. Mechanical properties of low-alloy-steels with bainitic microstructures and varying carbon content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, A.; Klarner, J.; Vogl, T.; Schöngrundner, R.; Sam, G.; Buchmayr, B.

    2016-03-01

    Materials used in the oilfield industry are subjected to special conditions. These requirements for seamless steel tubes are between the priorities of strength, toughness and sour gas resistance. Steels with bainitic microstructure provide a great opportunity for those harsh environmental conditions. With different morphologies of bainite, like carbide free, upper or lower bainite, the interaction of high tensile strength and elongation is assumed to be better than with tempered martensite. To form carbide free bainite two ways of processing are proposed, isothermal holding with accurate time control or controlled continuous cooling. Both require knowledge of time-temperature transformation behaviour, which can be reached through a detailed alloying concept, focused on the influence of silicon to supress the carbide nucleation and chromium to stabilize the austenite fraction. The present work is based on three alloys with varying silicon and chromium contents. The carbide free microstructure is obtained by a continuous cooling path. Additionally different heat treatments were done to compare the inherent performance of the bainitic morphologies. The bainitic structures were characterized metallographically for their microstructure and the primary phase by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of carbide-free structures were analysed with quasi-static tensile tests and Charpy impact tests. Moreover, investigations about hydrogen embrittlement were done with focus on the effect of retained austenite. The results were ranked and compared qualitatively.

  5. Gel spinning of PVA composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yizhe; Lai, Dengpan; Zou, Liming; Ling, Xinlong; Lu, Hongwei; Xu, Yongjing

    2015-07-01

    In this report, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide (MWCNTs-GO) hybrids were prepared by gel spinning, and were characterized by TGA, DSC, SEM, XL-2 yarn strength tester and electrical conductivity measurement. The total content of MWCNTs-GO hybrids in the PVA composite fibers, which is up to 25 wt%, was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DSC measurement shows that the melting and crystallization peaks decreased after the addition of nano-fillers. This is due to the reason that the motion of PVA chains is completely confined by strong hydrogen bonding interaction between PVA and nano-fillers. After the addtion of GO, the dispersibility of MWCNTs in composite fibers improved slightly. And the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 38% and 67%, respectively. This is caused by the increased hydrogen bonding interaction and synergistic effect through hybridization of MWCNTs and GO. More significantly, the electrical conductivity of PVA/MWCNTs/GO composite fibers enhanced by three orders of magnitude with the addition of GO.

  6. Three-dimensional porous carbon composites containing high sulfur nanoparticle content for high-performance lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoxing; Sun, Jinhua; Hou, Wenpeng; Jiang, Shidong; Huang, Yong; Geng, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is a promising cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (1,675 mA h g−1); however, its low electrical conductivity and the instability of sulfur-based electrodes limit its practical application. Here we report a facile in situ method for preparing three-dimensional porous graphitic carbon composites containing sulfur nanoparticles (3D S@PGC). With this strategy, the sulfur content of the composites can be tuned to a high level (up to 90 wt%). Because of the high sulfur content, the nanoscale distribution of the sulfur particles, and the covalent bonding between the sulfur and the PGC, the developed 3D S@PGC cathodes exhibit excellent performance, with a high sulfur utilization, high specific capacity (1,382, 1,242 and 1,115 mA h g−1 at 0.5, 1 and 2 C, respectively), long cycling life (small capacity decay of 0.039% per cycle over 1,000 cycles at 2 C) and excellent rate capability at a high charge/discharge current. PMID:26830732

  7. Surface Modification of NiTi Alloy via Cathodic Plasma Electrolytic Deposition and its Effect on Ni Ion Release and Osteoblast Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ying; Cai, Kaiyong; Yang, Weihu; Liu, Peng

    2013-07-01

    To reduce Ni ion release and improve biocompatibility of NiTi alloy, the cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) technique was used to fabricate ceramic coating onto a NiTi alloy surface. The formation of a coating with a rough and micro-textured surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry test showed that the formed coating significantly reduced the release of Ni ions from the NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The influence of CPED treated NiTi substrates on the biological behaviors of osteoblasts, including cell adhesion, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation function (alkaline phosphatase), was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of nuclei revealed that the CPED treated NiTi alloy was favorable for cell growth. Osteoblasts on CPED modified NiTi alloy showed greater cell viability than those for the native NiTi substrate after 4 and 7 days cultures. More importantly, osteoblasts cultured onto a modified NiTi sample displayed significantly higher differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results suggested that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy with ceramic coating via the CPED technique was beneficial for cell proliferation and differentiation. The approach presented here is useful for NiTi implants to enhance bone osseointegration and reduce Ni ion release in vitro.

  8. Cleaning Effectiveness of Three NiTi Rotary Instruments: A Focus on Biomaterial Properties.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Bianchi, Stefano

    2015-02-16

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments are commonly used for shaping the root canal system in endodontic practice. They are more flexible and have better cutting efficiency than conventional stainless steel files. The superelasticity of NiTi rotary files allows the clinicians to produce the desirable tapered root canal form with a reduced tendency to canal transportation and instrument fracture. HyFlex CM instruments are new NiTi rotary instruments with shape memory produced by an innovative methodology (patent pending) that uses a complex heating and cooling treatment that controls the material's memory. The aim of the present study was to compare the cleaning efficacy of two conventional (Mtwo, Revo-S) Ni-Ti rotary instruments with HyFlex CM. 30 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were divided into three groups. Root canals were shaped with three NiTi instruments (Mtwo, Revo-S and HyFlex CM) using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions. Specimens were fractured longitudinally and prepared for SEM analysis at standard magnification of 1000×. The presence/absence of debris smear layer and the presence/absence of smear layer at coronal, middle, and apical third of each canal were evaluated using a 5-step scale for scores. Numeric data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests and significance was predetermined at P < 0.05. This study revealed significant differences among the various groups. Despite some minor differences, all instruments removed smear layer and debris produced during instrumentation. HyFlex CM seem to be not so effective in promoting cleanliness of root canal walls and in removing smear layer from dentine if compared to Mtwo and Revo-S.

  9. [Effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in Eucalyptus plantations with different soil organic carbon content].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Da; Zhang, Kai; Su, Dan; Lu, Fei; Wan, Wu-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Zheng, Hua

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization or nitrogen deposition on soil greenhouse gases fluxes has been well studied, while little has been piloted about the effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes and its discrepancy with different soil organic carbon content. In our study, we conducted field control experiment in a young Eucalyptus plantation in Southeast China. We compared the effects of 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (Control: 0 kg · hm(-2); Low N: 84.2 kg · hm(-2); Medium N: 166.8 kg · hm(-2); High N: 333.7 kg · hm(-2)) on soil GHGs fluxes from 2 sites (LC and HC) with significantly different soil organic carbon (SOC) content (P < 0.05). The results showed: (1) Fertilization had significant priming effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes. One month after fertilization, both CO2 and N2O had the flux peak and decreased gradually, and the difference among the treatments disappeared at the end of the growing season. However, fertilization had no significant effect on CH4 oxidation between the 2 sites. (2) Fertilization and SOC were two crucial factors that had significant effects on CO2 and N2O emission. Fertilization had a significant positive effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes (P < 0.001). CH4 oxidation rates decreased with the increasing N addition, but there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The CO2 and N2O emission fluxes were significantly higher in HC than those in LC (P < 0.01). (3) Fertilization and SOC had great interactive effect on CO2 and N2O emission (P < 0.05). Compared with fluxes in LC, the fluxes in HC were much more sensitive to N input: low N could remarkably stimulate the CO2 and N2O emission. In conclusion, the effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil GHGs fluxes were not only in connection with the intensify of nitrogen, but also closely tied to the SOC content. When we assess the effects of nitrogen on soil GHGs fluxes, the difference induced by SOC should not be ignored.

  10. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    SciTech Connect

    Devulder, Wouter De Schutter, Bob; Detavernier, Christophe; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Muller, Robert; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Belmonte, Attilio

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 0.4} based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 0.4}-C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.

  11. Dissolved organic carbon content and characteristics in relation to carbon dioxide partial pressure across Poyang Lake wetlands and adjacent aquatic systems in the Changjiang basin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaxin; Jiao, Ruyuan; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Lu; Yan, Weijin

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays diverse roles in carbon biogeochemical cycles. Here, we explored the link between DOC and pCO2 using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with UV254 detection and excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy to determine the molecular weight distribution (MW) and the spectral characteristics of DOC, respectively. The relationship between DOC and pCO2 was investigated in the Poyang Lake wetlands and their adjacent aquatic systems. The results indicated significant spatial variation in the DOC concentrations, MW distributions, and pCO2. The DOC concentration was higher in the wetlands than in the rivers and lakes. pCO2 was high in wetlands in which the dominant vegetation was Phragmites australis, whereas it was low in wetlands in which Carex tristachya was the dominant species. DOC was divided into five fractions according to MW, as follows: super-low MW (SLMW, <1 kDa); low MW (LMW, 1-2.5 kDa); intermediate MW (IMW, 2.5-3.5 kDa); high MW (HMW, 3.5-6 kDa); and super-high MW (SMW, > 40 kDa). Rivers contained high proportions of HMW and extremely low amounts of SLMW, whereas wetlands had relatively high proportions of SLMW. The proportion of SMW (SMWp) was particularly high in wetlands. We found that pCO2 significantly positively correlated with the proportion of IMW, and significantly negatively correlated with SMWp. These data improve our understanding of the MW of bioavailable DOC and its conversion to CO2. The present results demonstrate that both the content and characteristics of DOC significantly affect pCO2. pCO2 and DOC must be studied further to help understanding the role of the wetland on the regional CO2 budget.

  12. The influence of climate change on the soil organic carbon content in Italy from 1961 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantappiè, M.; L'Abate, G.; Costantini, E. A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Soils are the biggest carbon store in the world (1500 Gt, e.g. 1.5 × 10 21 g). The European Commission indicates the accounting of soil organic carbon (SOC) variations in space and time as the first step in the strategy for soil protection. It is indeed necessary in evaluating the risk of soil organic matter decline and soil biodiversity decline, and when evaluating the role played by soils in global CO 2 accounting. Previous maps of SOC variations in Italy did not consider the direct effect of climate. There is a marked inter-dependence between SOC and climate. SOC increases with the increase in precipitations and decreases with a rise in temperatures. It is also known that land use and management have a bigger impact on SOC than climate. The aim of this work is to understand to what extent the SOC variations occurring in Italy from 1961 to 2008 could be explained by climate change. The soil database of Italy was the source of information for SOC content: 17,817 observations (3082 before and 14,735 after 31 Dec 1990). SOC content was referred to the first 50 cm of soil depth, one single data obtained by weighted horizon thickness. SOC content was expressed as percentage by weight (dag kg - 1 ) analyzed by the Walkley-Black procedure and converted to ISO standard. The CRA-CMA (Research Unit for Climatology and Meteorology Applied to Agriculture) database was the source of information for climatic data. We considered the mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean value of total annual precipitation (MAP) of the two periods 1961-1990 and 1991-2006, and we mapped them by regression kriging with elevation and latitude as predictors. The climate change between the two periods was characterized by a general MAT increase, which was greater at lower altitudes and higher latitudes. The precipitation generally decreased, with some local exceptions. Some linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between SOC content and climate/land use. Temperatures

  13. Improvement of corrosion resistance and antibacterial effect of NiTi orthopedic materials by chitosan and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rasha A.; Fadl-allah, Sahar A.; El-Bagoury, Nader; El-Rab, Sanaa M. F. Gad

    2014-02-01

    Biocomposite consists of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a natural polymer as Chitosan (CS) was electrodeposited over NiTi alloy to improve biocompatibility, biostability, surface corrosion resistance and antibacterial effect for orthopedic implantation. The forming process and surface morphology of this biocomposite coats over NiTi alloy were studied. The results showed that the nm-scale gold particles were embedded in the composite forming compact, thick and smooth coat. Elemental analysis revealed significant less Ni ion release from the coated NiTi alloy compared with the uncoated one by 20 fold. Furthermore, the electrochemical corrosion measurements indicated that AuNPs/CS composite coat was effective for improving corrosion resistance in different immersion times and at all pH values, which suggests that the coated NiTi alloys have potential for orthopedic applications. Additionally, the efficiencies of the biocomposite coats for inhibiting bacterial growth indicate high antibacterial effect.

  14. The Effect of Active Phase of the Work Material on Machining Performance of a NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Yusuf; Karaca, Haluk E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Jawahir, I. S.

    2015-06-01

    Poor machinability with conventional machining processes is a major shortcoming that limits the manufacture of NiTi components. To better understand the effects of phase state on the machining performance of NiTi alloys, cutting temperature, tool-wear behavior, cutting force components, tool-chip contact length, chip thickness, and machined surface quality data were generated from a NiTi alloy using precooled cryogenic, dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and preheated machining conditions. Findings reveal that machining NiTi in the martensite phase, which was achieved through precooled cryogenic machining, profoundly improved the machining performance by reducing cutting force components, notch wear, and surface roughness. Machining in the austenite state, achieved through preheating, did not provide any benefit over dry and MQL machining, and these processes were, in general, inferior to cryogenic machining in terms of machining performance, particularly at higher cutting speeds.

  15. Nature of hardness evolution in nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys during solid-state phase transition.

    PubMed

    Amini, Abbas; Cheng, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Due to a distinct nature of thermomechanical smart materials' reaction to applied loads, a revolutionary approach is needed to measure the hardness and to understand its size effect for pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) during the solid-state phase transition. Spherical hardness is increased with depths during the phase transition in NiTi SMAs. This behaviour is contrary to the decrease in the hardness of NiTi SMAs with depths using sharp tips and the depth-insensitive hardness of traditional metallic alloys using spherical tips. In contrast with the common dislocation theory for the hardness measurement, the nature of NiTi SMAs' hardness is explained by the balance between the interface and the bulk energy of phase transformed SMAs. Contrary to the energy balance in the indentation zone using sharp tips, the interface energy was numerically shown to be less dominant than the bulk energy of the phase transition zone using spherical tips.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of the effect of moisture contents of coconut shell activated carbon used for respirators on adsorption capacity for organic vapors.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Hironobu; Furuse, Mitsuya; Takano, Tsuguo

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon is an elemental material used for hygienic applications, particularly as an adsorbent for harmful gases and vapors. In Japanese industrial and occupational hygiene, activated carbon produced from coconut shell is a traditional and popular adsorbent material due to its excellent adsorption ability and cost advantage. In this research, in order to clarify the effect of the preliminary content of moisture on the adsorption capacity in detail, we prepared several coconut shell activated carbons which were preconditioned by equilibration with moisture at different relative humidities. We measured their adsorption capacities as breakthrough times for 6 kinds of organic vapor, and attempted to determine the relationships between the relative weight increase of water adsorption and the decrease of adsorption capacities of the activated carbon specimens for the organic vapors. The procedure of the quantitative evaluation of the effect of moisture and the results are useful for practical applications of activated carbon, particularly those used as adsorbents in workplaces.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen contents in particle-size fractions of topsoil along a 3000 km aridity gradient in grasslands of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Guang; Sistla, Seeta A.; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Han, Xing-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Climate factors such as aridity significantly influence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. Further, soil texture plays an important role in driving changes of soil C and N contents at regional scale. However, it remains uncertain whether such changes resulted from the variation of different soil particle-size factions and/or the C and N concentrations in those fractions. We examined the distribution of total C and N in both bulk soil and different soil particle-size fractions, including sand (53-2000 µm), silt (2-53 µm), and clay (< 2 µm), along a 3000 km transect in arid and semi-arid grasslands of northern China. Across the whole transect, sand content was positively and silt content was negatively correlated with increasing aridity. Carbon content in bulk soils (0-10 cm) ranged from 4.36 to 46.16 Mg C ha-1, while N content ranged from 0.22 to 4.28 Mg N ha-1 across different sampling sites on the transect. The total C and N concentrations and contents in bulk soils as well as in the three particle-size fractions tended to be negatively correlated with aridity. The concentrations and contents of total C and N in bulk soils were positively correlated with silt and clay contents and negatively correlated with sand content. Positive correlations were observed between the concentrations and contents of C or N in bulk soils and the C or N concentrations in the three soil particle-size fractions. By characterizing such a large scale aridity gradient, our results highlight that aridity would decrease soil C and N contents both by favoring increased sand content and by decreasing C and N concentrations in all the three soil fractions. These patterns thus have significant implications for understanding soil C and N sequestration under scenarios of increasing aridity in global drylands that are predicted to occur this century.

  18. Mapping within-field variations of soil organic carbon content using UAV multispectral visible near-infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Michelin, Joël

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO project of the French Space Agency (CNES) and the SOERE PRO network working on environmental impacts of Organic Waste Products recycling on field crops at long time scale. The organic matter is an important soil fertility parameter and previous studies have shown the potential of spectral information measured in the laboratory or directly in the field using field spectro-radiometer or satellite imagery to predict the soil organic carbon (SOC) content. This work proposes a method for a spatial prediction of bare cultivated topsoil SOC content, from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) multispectral imagery. An agricultural plot of 13 ha, located in the western region of Paris France, was analysed in April 2013, shortly before sowing while it was still bare soil. Soils comprised haplic luvisols, rendzic cambisols and calcaric or colluvic cambisols. The UAV platform used was a fixed wing provided by Airinov® flying at an altitude of 150m and was equipped with a four channels multispectral visible near-infrared camera MultiSPEC 4C® (550nm, 660nm, 735 nm and 790 nm). Twenty three ground control points (GCP) were sampled within the plot according to soils descriptions. GCP positions were determined with a centimetric DGPS. Different observations and measurements were made synchronously with the drone flight: soil surface description, spectral measurements (with ASD FieldSpec 3® spectroradiometer), roughness measurements by a photogrammetric method. Each of these locations was sampled for both soil standard physico-chemical analysis and soil water content. A Structure From Motion (SFM) processing was done from the UAV imagery to produce a 15 cm resolution multispectral mosaic using the Agisoft Photoscan® software. The SOC content was modelled by partial least squares regression (PLSR) between the

  19. Study of the structure and interface of NiTi SMA/FC composite films prepared by the sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q.S. Liu, Y.F.; Ma, X.; Han, X.

    2008-02-15

    Ferroelectric ceramic (FC) films were prepared on a NiTi shape memory alloy (NiTi SMA) substrate by the sol-gel method. The effect of the heat treatment temperature on the crystallization of both the NiTi SMA and ferroelectric ceramic is discussed. The heterostructure of the interface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that aging reactions in the NiTi SMA substrate were restricted by the presence of the ceramic film. Also, the transitional TiO{sub 2} layer produced in-situ by the oxidation of the surface of the NiTi SMA substrate improves the adhesion between the ceramic film and NiTi SMA.

  20. A bridge column with superelastic NiTi SMA and replaceable rubber hinge for earthquake damage mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Sebastian; ‘Saiid' Saiidi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a unique concept for resilient bridge columns that can undergo intense earthquake loading and remain functional with minimal damage and residual drift. In this concept, the column is designed so that its components can be easily disassembled and reassembled to facilitate material recycling and component reuse. This is meant to foster sustainability of bridge systems while minimizing monetary losses from earthquakes. Self-centering and energy dissipation in the column were provided by unbonded superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy bars placed inside a plastic hinge element made of rubber. This replaceable plastic hinge was in turn attached to a concrete-filled carbon fiber-reinforced polymer tube and a precast concrete footing that were designed to behave elastically. The proposed concept was evaluated experimentally by testing a ¼-scale column model under simulated near-fault earthquake motions on a shake table. After testing, the model was disassembled, reassembled and tested again. The seismic performance of the reassembled model was found to be comparable to that of the ‘virgin’ model. A relatively simple computational model of the column tested that was developed in OpenSees was able to match some of the key experimental response parameters.

  1. Ni ion release, osteoblast-material interactions, and hemocompatibility of hafnium-implanted NiTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingting; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xinqing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tao

    2012-04-01

    Hafnium ion implantation was applied to NiTi alloy to suppress Ni ion release and enhance osteoblast-material interactions and hemocompatibility. The auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope results showed that a composite TiO(2)/HfO(2) nanofilm with increased surface roughness was formed on the surface of NiTi, and Ni concentration was reduced in the superficial surface layer. Potentiodynamic polarization tests displayed that 4 mA NiTi sample possessed the highest E(br) - E(corr), 470 mV higher than that of untreated NiTi, suggesting a significant improvement on pitting corrosion resistance. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry tests during 60 days immersion demonstrated that Ni ion release rate was remarkably decreased, for example, a reduction of 67% in the first day. The water contact angle increased and surface energy decreased after Hf implantation. Cell culture and methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium indicated that Hf-implanted NiTi expressed enhanced osteoblasts adhesion and proliferation, especially after 7 days culture. Hf implantation decreased fibrinogen adsorption, but had almost no effect on albumin adsorption. Platelets adhesion and activation were suppressed significantly (97% for 4 mA NiTi) and hemolysis rate was decreased by at least 57% after Hf implantation. Modified surface composition and morphology and decreased surface energy should be responsible for the improvement of cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility.

  2. [Study of blood compatibility on TiO2 coated biomedical Ni-Ti shape memory alloy].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuchun; Zhai, Yuchun; Hu, Jinling

    2011-10-01

    We coated a thin TiO2 film on the surface of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy by activated sputter method in the present work. The blood platelet adherence and antithrombogenicity of the TiO2-coated Ni-Ti alloy were evaluated. The results showed that the platelets on the TiO2-coated Ni-Ti alloy were fewer than those on 316L stainless steel, and no agglomeration or distortion for the platelets on the coated alloy was found, which means less probability of blood coagulation for the alloy. The coagulation time on the coated Ni-Ti shape memory alloy was longer than that on the 316L. Compared with that on the 316L stainless steel, the TiO2 coated Ni-Ti shape memory alloy showed better blood compatibility, indicating that the Ni-Ti alloy with TiO2 coating is a kind of ideal biomedical materials with high clinical value.

  3. Soil organic carbon as a factor in passive microwave retrievals of soil water content over agricultural croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, Hida R.; Berg, Aaron A.; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Remote sensing has the potential to deliver global soil water content (SWC) on vast scales with frequent revisit times for progress in the fields of climate, weather forecasting, agriculture and hydrology. Although surface roughness, vegetation and soil texture have been established as sources of variability in passive microwave interpretation, soil organic carbon (SOC) has not typically been considered as a factor that affects SWC estimation during field sampling campaigns. SOC was observed along with soil texture and bulk density during the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment in 2012 (SMAPVEX12), the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite algorithm development field sampling campaign held June 6 to July 19 in Southern Manitoba, Canada. Aerial measurements from the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument were recorded over agricultural fields and forest areas from aircraft while SWC was measured simultaneously on the ground with resistance probes on 17 sampling dates. Additionally, fields were sampled for surface roughness, vegetation growth and water content, soil and vegetation temperature and soil physical characteristics. A soil core was collected on each field each sampling time to assess bulk density, soil particle size and SOC. SOC accounted for more variability in the anomalies between PALS and ground sampled SWC than sand, clay or bulk density, although all soil variables explained significant variability. With analysis by partial least squares multiple regression over 11 sampling dates and 39 fields where both ground and PALS data were well represented, only SOC contributed significantly to the regression of SWC beyond the variance all soil variables had in common. The significance of SOC in the relative SWC anomalies was highest in very wet and very dry conditions and in loam soil over all sampling dates, while bulk density was more significant in sand soils. This analysis suggests SOC is a simple variable that incorporates

  4. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticle-Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes for the Evaluation of Hydrogen Peroxide Content in Teeth Whitening Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Adriana; Abenojar, Eric C.; Vianna, Adam; Buenviaje, Czarina Y. A.; Yang, Jiahua; Pascual, Cherrie B.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment in which students synthesize Ag, Au, and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and use them to modify screen printed carbon electrodes for the electroanalysis of the hydrogen peroxide content in commercially available teeth whitening strips is described. This experiment is designed for two 3-h laboratory periods and can be adapted for…

  5. Roles of bulk carbon content on grain size, carbide reactions and intergranular rupture life in 2.25cr martensitic heat resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyun Je; Heo, Nam Hoe; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2016-11-01

    The steel of a higher bulk carbon content shows the denser precipitation distribution of carbides after the solution treatment followed by tempering. Such a carbide distribution produces the smaller prior austenite grain size after the welding simulation at a high temperature. Because the equilibrium segregation concentration of phosphorus decreases with decreasing prior austenite grain size, the specimen of the higher bulk carbon content shows therefore the longer intergranular rupture life. The rupture life is also increased by the partitioning of phosphorus pre-segregated at prior austenite grain boundary/carbide interfaces onto the fresh surface of precipitates formed on the surface of pre-formed carbides. The intergranular rupture life is additionally increased by the repulsive segregation between carbon and phosphorus which decreases the overall phosphorus segregation concentration at the prior austenite grain boundaries.

  6. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    PubMed

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg(-1) VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions.

  7. Environmental forcing does not lead to diel or synoptic variability in carbon isotope content of forest soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, D. R.; Egan, J. E.; Hall, S. J.; Risk, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have highlighted fluctuations in the carbon isotope content (d13C) of CO2 produced by soil respiration. These fluctuations have been correlated with diel cycles of environmental forcing (e.g., soil temperature), or with synoptic weather events (e.g., rain events and pressure-induced ventilation). We used an extensive suite of observations to examine these phenomena over two months in a subalpine forest in Colorado, USA (the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site). Measurements included automated soil respiration chambers and automated measurements of the soil gas profile. We found 1) no diel change in the d13C of the soil surface flux or the CO2 produced in the soil (despite strong diel change in surface flux rate), 2) no change in d13C following wetting (despite a significant increase in soil flux rate), and 3) no evidence of pressure-induced ventilation of the soil. Measurements of the d13C of surface CO2 flux agreed closely with the isotopic composition of soil CO2 production calculated using soil profile measurements. Temporal variation in the d13C of surface flux was relatively minor and unrelated to measured environmental variables. Deep in the soil profile, results conform to established theory regarding diffusive soil gas transport and isotopic fractionation, and suggest that sampling soil gas at a depth of several tens of centimeters is a simple and effective way to assess the mean d13C of the surface flux.

  8. Estimating total lipid content of Camelina sativa via pyrolysis assisted in-situ transesterification with dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-02-01

    Direct derivatization of C. sativa seed into FAMEs without lipid extraction was conducted for the quantification of lipid analysis via in-situ thermal methylation with dimethyl carbonate as an acyl acceptor on silica (SiO2). The introduced method had an extraordinarily high tolerance against impurities such as pyrolytic products and moisture. To ensure the technical completeness of in-situ methylation, thermal cracking of FAMEs transformed from C. sativa seed was also explored. Thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs such as C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:1 occurred at temperatures higher than 365°C due to their thermal instability. Thus, experimental findings in this study suggests not only that qualitative analysis of fatty acid profile in C. sativa seed via in-situ methylation using SiO2 could be achieve, but also that the total lipid content (42.65wt.%) in C. sativa seed could be accurately estimated.

  9. Femtosecond laser treatment of 316L improves its surface nanoroughness and carbon content and promotes osseointegration: An in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Halime; Akman, Erhan; Kacar, Elif; Demir, Arif; Park, Haiwoong; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Aktas, Cenk; Karaoz, Erdal

    2013-08-01

    Cell-material surface interaction plays a critical role in osseointegration of prosthetic implants used in orthopedic surgeries and dentistry. Different technical approaches exist to improve surface properties of such implants either by coating or by modification of their topography. Femtosecond laser treatment was used in this study to generate microspotted lines separated by 75, 125, or 175μm wide nanostructured interlines on stainless steel (316L) plates. The hydrophobicity and carbon content of the metallic surface were improved simultaneously through this method. In vitro testing of the laser treated plates revealed a significant improvement in adhesion of human endothelial cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM MSCs), the cells involved in microvessel and bone formation, respectively, and a significant decrease in fibroblast adhesion, which is implicated in osteolysis and aseptic loosening of prostheses. The hBM MSCs showed an increased bone formation rate on the laser treated plates under osteogenic conditions; the highest mineral deposition was obtained on the surface with 125μm interline distance (292±18mg/cm(2) vs. 228±43mg/cm(2) on untreated surface). Further in vivo testing of these laser treated surfaces in the native prosthetic implant niche would give a real insight into their effectiveness in improving osseointegration and their potential use in clinical applications.

  10. Prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi SMA fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the prestressing effect of cold-drawn short NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) fibres in steel reinforced mortar beams. The SMA fibres were mixed with 1.5% volume content in a mortar matrix with the compressive strength of 50 MPa. The SMA fibres had an average length of 34 mm, and they were manufactured with a dog-bone shape: the diameters of the end- and middle-parts were 1.024 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Twenty mortar beams with the dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm (B × H × L) were prepared. Two types of tests were conducted. One was to investigate the prestressing effect of the SMA fibres, and the beams with the SMA fibres were heated at the bottom. The other was to assess the bending behaviour of the beams prestressed by the SMA fibres. The SMA fibres induced upward deflection and cracking at the top surface by heating at the bottom; thus, they achieved an obvious prestressing effect. The beams that were prestressed by the SMA fibres did not show a significant difference in bending behaviour from that of the SMA fibre reinforced beams that were not subjected to heating. Stress analysis of the beams indicated that the prestressing effect decreased in relation to the cooling temperature.

  11. Effect of surface modification on deformation localization in NiTi at cycling tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletika, T. M.; Girsova, S. L.; Lunev, A. G.; Meisner, L. L.

    2016-11-01

    The paper examines the regular features exhibited by transformation strain localization on macro- and mesoscale levels during cyclic loading for NiTi samples with two different surface states: the initial polished sample and the one subjected to ion implantation. The speckle photography method with speckle flicker rate measurement for image processing was used. It was shown that the initiation and the propagation of martensite, and hence the mechanical response are determined by the surface condition of the NiTi sample. Two scenarios of martensitic transformation were revealed: the heterogeneous diagonal transformation bands emerge across the sample with polished surface; a single front of the localized transformation in a Luders-like manner propagates through the sample with a modified surface.

  12. Design and Fabrication of Ni/Ti Multilayer for Neutron Supermirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhan-Shan; Zhu, Jing-Tao; Wang, Feng-Li; Wu, Yong-Rong; Qin, Shu-Ji; Chen, Ling-Yan

    2006-10-01

    In the applications of neutron guides and focusing devices, by using the Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors (SM), the neutron flux is significantly enhanced, because the critical reflective angle of supermirrors increases m times compared to the one of natural bulk Ni. We design and fabricate the Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors by considering the effect of the interfacial imperfection, such as interface roughness and diffusion, and by using the direct current magnetron sputtering technology. The reflective performances of these supermirrors are measured on a V14 neutron beam line at the Berlin Neutron Scattering Centre (BENSC), Germany. The measurement data suggest that the critical angles of the supermirrors are 1.5 and 2.2 times that of bulk Ni, respectively.

  13. Effect of rotational speed on root canal preparation with Hero 642 rotary Ni-Ti instruments.

    PubMed

    Karagöz-Küçükay, Işil; Ersev, Handan; Engin-Akkoca, Ece; Küçükay, Sedat; Gürsoy, Tankut

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of Hero 642 rotary Ni-Ti instruments driven at 300, 400, or 600 rpm on root canal straightening, loss of working length, and instrument breakage. Sixty mesial root canals from extracted human mandibular molars were divided into 3 groups of 20 each and were instrumented at the aforementioned rotational speeds with a crown-down technique. Using a digital intraoral radiography system directly on the images of pre- and postoperative radiographs, degrees of canal curvatures were measured and recorded. Statistical analysis showed that final canal curvatures and working lengths were significantly reduced compared with those of original values in each group (p < 0.001). However, using Hero 642 rotary Ni-Ti system at different rotational speeds had no effect on canal curvature and working length alterations (p > 0.05). No file breakage was observed in any of the groups.

  14. Construction of extracellular microenvironment to improve surface endothelialization of NiTi alloy substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhao, Yongchun; Yan, Ying; Hu, Yan; Yang, Weihu; Cai, Kaiyong

    2015-10-01

    To mimic extracellular microenvironment of endothelial cell, a bioactive multilayered structure of gelatin/chitosan pair, embedding with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), was constructed onto NiTi alloy substrate surface via a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The successful fabrication of the multilayered structure was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The growth behaviors of endothelial cells on various NiTi alloy substrates were investigated in vitro. Cytoskeleton observation, MTT assay, and wound healing assay proved that the VEGF-embedded multilayer structure positively stimulated adhesion, proliferation and motogenic responses of endothelial cells. More importantly, the present system promoted the nitric oxide production of endothelial cells. The approach affords an alternative to construct extracellular microenvironment for improving surface endothelialization of a cardiovascular implant.

  15. Surface ultrastructure and mechanical properties of three different white-coated NiTi archwires.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seong-Hee; Lim, Byung-Suh; Kwak, Eun Joo; Lee, Gi-Ja; Choi, Samjin; Park, Ki-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend in orthodontic treatment is to apply esthetic materials to orthodontic appliances with adequate clinical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure (surface roughness) and mechanical properties (load-deflection curve) of three as-received, white-coated superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and modified three-point bending test assessments, respectively. Three representative esthetic NiTi archwires were used, silver-platinum- and polymer-coated NiTi Natural Dany (Dany group), epoxy resin-coated Orthoforce Ultraesthetic™ (Ultra group), and Teflon®-coated Perfect (Perfect group). Uncoated metallic areas of each wire were used as controls. The diameter of the Perfect archwire was significantly larger than that of other archwires. The Dany and Ultra groups showed more deflection than the Perfect group. The hysteresis area of the Dany and Ultra groups showed approximately two- and fourfold increases compared to the control and the Perfect group. The Dany group (2037.5 ± 527.3 nm) had the highest peak-to-peak surface roughness in the coated areas, followed by the Ultra group (811.1 ± 407.5 nm) and the Perfect group (362.7 ± 195.8 nm). However, reverse nanostructural changes in the surface roughness were observed in the uncoated metallic areas. The results suggested that the load-deflection properties and the surface roughness of superelastic NiTi archwires were affected directly by the coating materials. Although the efficiency of orthodontic treatment was affected by various factors, when only considering the frictional force and mechanostructural properties, the epoxy resin-coated Orthoforce Ultraesthetic™ archwires were the most effective for orthodontic treatment.

  16. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19′ martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19′ martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  17. Ab Initio Simulations of Temperature Dependent Phase Stability and Martensitic Transitions in NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Thompson, Alexander E.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    For NiTi based alloys, the shape memory effect is governed by a transition from a low-temperature martensite phase to a high-temperature austenite phase. Despite considerable experimental and computational work, basic questions regarding the stability of the phases and the martensitic phase transition remain unclear even for the simple case of binary, equiatomic NiTi. We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to describe the temperature-dependent behavior of NiTi and resolve several of these outstanding issues. Structural correlation functions and finite temperature phonon spectra are evaluated to determine phase stability. In particular, we show that finite temperature, entropic effects stabilize the experimentally observed martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) phases while destabilizing the theoretically predicted (B33) phase. Free energy computations based on ab initio thermodynamic integration confirm these results and permit estimates of the transition temperature between the phases. In addition to the martensitic phase transition, we predict a new transition between the B33 and B19' phases. The role of defects in suppressing these phase transformations is discussed.

  18. Laser-induced surface alloying in nanosized Ni/Ti multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Suzana; Radak, B.; Peruško, D.; Pelicon, P.; Kovač, J.; Mitrić, M.; Gaković, B.; Trtica, M.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced alloying effects on the composition and structure of different Ni/Ti multilayer structures were studied. Thin films composed of one, five, and ten (Ni/Ti) bilayers were deposited by DC ion sputtering on (1 0 0) Si wafers. Laser irradiations were performed by 150 ps pulses of a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The samples were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At a laser fluence of 0.9 J cm-2, interaction between Ni and Ti layers was initiated, and NiTi alloy formed in 5- and 10-bilayered samples. Progressed alloying was achieved at a laser fluence of 1.2 J cm-2. The alloy was formed mostly within the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the sample. Surface segregation of titanium was followed by formation of a 25 nm thin TiO2 film on the surface of the multilayered structures. In addition, parallel periodic surface structures on the surfaces of the 5- and 10-bilayered samples were clearly recorded. Their period in the case of the 5-bilayered system (0.77 μm) agrees very well with the predictions of the common theory, whereas, in the case of the 10-bilayered system, two periods of such structures are observed (1.43 μm and 0.4 μm), and none of them coincides with the prediction.

  19. Computational Modeling to Predict Fatigue Behavior of NiTi Stents: What Do We Need?

    PubMed

    Dordoni, Elena; Petrini, Lorenza; Wu, Wei; Migliavacca, Francesco; Dubini, Gabriele; Pennati, Giancarlo

    2015-05-20

    NiTi (nickel-titanium) stents are nowadays commonly used for the percutaneous treatment of peripheral arterial disease. However, their effectiveness is still debated in the clinical field. In fact a peculiar cyclic biomechanical environment is created before and after stent implantation, with the risk of device fatigue failure. An accurate study of the device fatigue behavior is of primary importance to ensure a successful stenting procedure. Regulatory authorities recognize the possibility of performing computational analyses instead of experimental tests for the assessment of medical devices. However, confidence in numerical methods is only possible after verification and validation of the models used. For the case of NiTi stents, mechanical properties are strongly dependent on the device dimensions and the whole treatments undergone during manufacturing process. Hence, special attention should be paid to the accuracy of the description of the device geometry and the material properties implementation into the numerical code, as well as to the definition of the fatigue limit. In this paper, a path for setting up an effective numerical model for NiTi stent fatigue assessment is proposed and the results of its application in a specific case study are illustrated.

  20. An original architectured NiTi silicone rubber structure for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rey, T; Le Cam, J-B; Chagnon, G; Favier, D; Rebouah, M; Razan, F; Robin, E; Didier, P; Heller, L; Faure, S; Janouchova, K

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with composite structures for biomedical applications. For this purpose, an architectured tubular structure composed of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) and silicone rubber was fabricated. One of the main interests of such structures is to ensure a good adhesion between its two constitutive materials. A previous study of the authors (Rey et al., 2014) has shown that the adhesion between NiTi and silicone rubber can be improved by an adhesion promoter or plasma treatment. However, adhesion promoters are often not biocompatible. Hence, plasma treatment is favored to be used in the present study. Three different gases were tested; air, argon and oxygen. The effects of these treatments on the maximum force required to pull-out a NiTi wire from the silicone rubber matrix were investigated by means of pull-out tests carried out with a self-developed device. Among the three gases, a higher maximum force was obtained for argon gas in the plasma treatment. A tube shaped architectured NiTi/silicone rubber structure was then produced using this treatment. The composite was tested by means of a bulge test. Results open a new way of investigations for architectured NiTi-silicone structures for biomechanical applications.

  1. Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition and Nanoskiving for Fabricating NiTi Alloy Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huilong; Horn, Mark W.; Hamilton, Reginald F.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoskiving is a novel nanofabrication technique to produce shape memory alloy nanowires. Our previous work was the first to successfully fabricate NiTi alloy nanowires using the top-down approach, which leverages thin film technology and ultramicrotomy for ultra-thin sectioning. For this work, we utilized biased target ion beam deposition technology to fabricate nanoscale (i.e., sub-micrometer) NiTi alloy thin films. In contrast to our previous work, rapid thermal annealing was employed for heat treatment, and the B2 austenite to R-phase martensitic transformation was confirmed using stress-temperature and diffraction measurements. The ultramicrotome was programmable and facilitated sectioning the films to produce nanowires with thickness-to-width ratios ranging from 4:1 to 16:1. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the elemental Ni and Ti make-up of the wires. The findings exposed the nanowires exhibited a natural ribbon-like curvature, which depended on the thickness-to-width ratio. The results demonstrate nanoskiving is a potential nanofabrication technique for producing NiTi alloy nanowires that are continuous with an unprecedented length on the order of hundreds of micrometers.

  2. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-04-06

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen.

  3. Computational Modeling to Predict Fatigue Behavior of NiTi Stents: What Do We Need?

    PubMed Central

    Dordoni, Elena; Petrini, Lorenza; Wu, Wei; Migliavacca, Francesco; Dubini, Gabriele; Pennati, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    NiTi (nickel-titanium) stents are nowadays commonly used for the percutaneous treatment of peripheral arterial disease. However, their effectiveness is still debated in the clinical field. In fact a peculiar cyclic biomechanical environment is created before and after stent implantation, with the risk of device fatigue failure. An accurate study of the device fatigue behavior is of primary importance to ensure a successful stenting procedure. Regulatory authorities recognize the possibility of performing computational analyses instead of experimental tests for the assessment of medical devices. However, confidence in numerical methods is only possible after verification and validation of the models used. For the case of NiTi stents, mechanical properties are strongly dependent on the device dimensions and the whole treatments undergone during manufacturing process. Hence, special attention should be paid to the accuracy of the description of the device geometry and the material properties implementation into the numerical code, as well as to the definition of the fatigue limit. In this paper, a path for setting up an effective numerical model for NiTi stent fatigue assessment is proposed and the results of its application in a specific case study are illustrated. PMID:26011245

  4. Modeling of hydrogen effect on the superelastic behavior of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachiguer, Amani; Bouby, Céline; Gamaoun, Fehmi; Bouraoui, Tarak; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2016-11-01

    Superelastic NiTi wires are widely used in orthodontic treatments, but sometimes fracture can be observed after few months of use in buccal cavity and attributed to the degradation of NiTi mechanical properties due to hydrogen absorption. In this paper, a modeling approach is proposed in order to describe the effect of hydrogen diffusion on the transformation properties of NiTi SMAs. In order to experimentally predict such effects, cathodic hydrogen charging was performed at a current density of 10 A/{m}2 for 6h, 24h, 48h and 72h in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution at room temperature. Tensile tests were carried out shortly after hydrogen charging. The obtained stress-strain curves showed an increase of yield transformation stresses for forward and reverse martensitic transformations and a decrease of maximum transformation strain. Using Fick’s second law, the transformation temperatures variation can be expressed as a function of the mean concentration of absorbed hydrogen and then taked into account in the SMA constitutive model developed by Chemisky et al (2011). The numerical results are compared to the experimental ones to calibrate the proposed method. Simulations showed that hydrogen diffusion induces a shifting of transfomation temperatures, a decreasing of maximum transformation strain and an increasing of yield transfomation stresses.

  5. Calculation of defect properties of NiTi and FeTi

    SciTech Connect

    Lutton, R.T.; Sabochick, M.J. . Dept. of Engineering Physics); Lam, N.Q. )

    1990-12-01

    The energies and configurations of interstitials and vacancies in the B2 ordered compounds NiTi and FeTi were calculated using atomistic simulation. The stable configuration of a vacancy after the removal of an Ni atom was a vacant Ni site; similarly, the removal of an Fe atom in FeTi resulted in a vacant Fe site. Removal of a Ti atom in both compounds, however, resulted in a vacant Ni or Fe site and an adjacent antisite defect. The effective vacancy formation energies in NiTi and FeTi were calculated to be 1.48 and 1.07 eV, respectively. Interstitials in NiTi formed split {l angle}111{r angle} configurations consisting of a Ni-Ni dumbbell oriented in the {l angle}111{r angle} direction with one or two adjacent antisite defects. The Fe interstitial in FeTi had a similar configuration, except the dumbbell contained Fe atoms. The Ti interstitial in FeTi formed an {l angle}110{r angle} Fe-Fe dumbbell. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Assessing the biocompatibility of NiTi shape memory alloys used for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Es-Souni, Mohammed; Es-Souni, Martha; Fischer-Brandies, Helge

    2005-02-01

    The present paper reviews aspects related to the biocompatibility of NiTi shape memory alloys used for medical applications. These smart metallic materials, which are characterised by outstanding mechanical properties, have been gaining increasing importance over the last two decades in many minimal invasive surgery and diagnostic applications, as well as for other uses, such as in orthodontic appliances. Due to the presence of high amounts of Ni, the cytotoxicity of such alloys is under scrutiny. In this review paper we analyse work published on the biocompatibility of NiTi alloys, considering aspects related to: (1) corrosion properties and the different methods used to test them, as well as specimen surface states; (2) biocompatibility tests in vitro and in vivo; (3) the release of Ni ions. It is shown that NiTi shape memory alloys are generally characterised by good corrosion properties, in most cases superior to those of conventional stainless steel or Co-Cr-Mo-based biomedical materials. The majority of biocompatibility studies suggest that these alloys have low cytotoxicity (both in vitro and in vivo) as well as low genotoxicity. The release of Ni ions depends on the surface state and the surface chemistry. Smooth surfaces with well-controlled structures and chemistries of the outermost protective TiO2 layer lead to negligible release of Ni ions, with concentrations below the normal human daily intake.

  7. Dissimilar laser welding of NiTi shape memory alloy and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z.; Panton, B.; Oliveira, J. P.; Han, A.; Zhou, Y. N.

    2015-12-01

    This work is the first investigation of joining NiTi and copper. The successful Nd:YAG laser welding of NiTi to copper achieved in this work enables new methods of connecting shape memory alloys to electro-mechanical systems. Joints made with an optimum peak power of 2.2 kW accommodated pseudoelastic deformation of NiTi, proving their use with high strength actuators. Fracture occurred through the cross section of these defect-free joints. A lower peak power of 1.8 kW created weak joints with limited weld penetration of the copper sheet. This lack of bonding resulted in fracture occurring across the small disconnected joint areas. Joints made with a higher peak power of 2.6 kW had significant cracking in the fusion zone. Two regions of distinct Cu composition were found in the fusion zone, and cracking occurred at the interface between these regions because of their different physical properties. Failure initiated at this cracking and propagated through the fusion zone that had been embrittled by mixing with over 20 at.% Cu.

  8. Zinc oxide nanorod assisted rapid single-step process for the conversion of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers to carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nain, Ratyakshi; Singh, Dhirendra; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for immobilization of polymer chains and assisted in uniform heat distribution. This facilitated rapid and efficient conversion of the polymer structure to the ladder, and subsequently, the graphitized structure. At the end of the process, the ZnO nanorods were found to completely separate from the carbonized fibers yielding pure carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content and surface area. The approach could be used to eliminate the slow, energy intensive stabilization step and achieve fast conversion of randomly laid carbon nanofiber webs in a single step to carbon nanofibers without the application of external tension or internal templates usually employed to achieve a high graphitic content in such systems.The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RRALC3 Enhances the Biomass, Nutrient and Carbon Contents of Pongamia pinnata Seedlings in Degraded Forest Soil

    PubMed Central

    Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Anandham, Rangasamy; Mahalingam, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the effects of indigenous Plant Growth Promoting Bacterium (PGPB) on the legume Pongamia pinnata in the degraded soil of the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest (NRF) under nursery conditions. In total, 160 diazotrophs were isolated from three different nitrogen-free semi-solid media (LGI, Nfb, and JMV). Amongst these isolates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa RRALC3 exhibited the maximum ammonia production and hence was selected for further studies. RRALC3 was found to possess multiple plant growth promoting traits such as nitrogen accumulation (120.6ppm); it yielded a positive amplicon with nifH specific primers, tested positive for Indole Acetic Acid (IAA; 18.3μg/ml) and siderophore production, tested negative for HCN production and was observed to promote solubilization of phosphate, silicate and zinc in the plate assay. The 16S rDNA sequence of RRALC3 exhibited 99% sequence similarity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa JCM5962. Absence of virulence genes and non-hemolytic activity indicated that RRALC3 is unlikely to be a human pathogen. When the effects of RRALC3 on promotion of plant growth was tested in Pongamia pinnata, it was observed that in Pongamia seedlings treated with a combination of RRALC3 and chemical fertilizer, the dry matter increased by 30.75%. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake increased by 34.1%, 27.08%, and 31.84%, respectively, when compared to control. Significant enhancement of total sugar, amino acids and organic acids content, by 23.4%, 29.39%, and 26.53% respectively, was seen in the root exudates of P. pinnata. The carbon content appreciated by 4-fold, when fertilized seedlings were treated with RRALC3. From the logistic equation, the rapid C accumulation time of Pongamia was computed as 43 days longer than the control when a combination of native PGPB and inorganic fertilizer was applied. The rapid accumulation time of N, P and K in Pongamia when treated with the same combination as above was 15, 40 and 33 days longer

  10. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-01-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications. PMID:27488268

  11. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-04

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  12. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  13. Environmental forcing does not induce diel or synoptic variation in carbon isotope content of forest soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, D. R.; Egan, J. E.; Hall, S. J.; Risk, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have examined temporal fluctuations in the amount and carbon isotope content (δ13C) of CO2 produced by respiration of roots and soil organisms. These changes have been correlated with diel cycles of environmental forcing (e.g., sunlight and soil temperature) and with synoptic-scale atmospheric motion (e.g., rain events and pressure-induced ventilation). We used an extensive suite of measurements to examine soil respiration over two months in a subalpine forest in Colorado, USA (the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux forest). Observations included automated measurements of CO2 and δ13C of CO2 in the soil efflux, the soil gas profile, and forest air. There was strong diel variability in soil efflux, but no diel change in the δ13C of the soil efflux (δR) or the CO2 produced by biological activity in the soil (δJ). Following rain, soil efflux increased significantly, but δR and δJ did not change. Temporal variation in the δ13C of the soil efflux was unrelated to measured environmental variables. Measurements of the δ13C of the soil efflux with chambers agreed closely with independent observations of the isotopic composition of soil CO2 production derived from soil gas well measurements. Deeper in the soil profile and at the soil surface, results confirmed established theory regarding diffusive soil gas transport and isotopic fractionation. Deviation from best-fit diffusion model results at the shallower depths illuminated a pump-induced ventilation artifact that should be anticipated and avoided in future studies. There was no evidence of natural pressure-induced ventilation of the deep soil. However, higher variability of δ13C of the soil efflux relative to δ13C of production derived from soil profile measurements was likely caused by transient pressure-induced transport with small horizontal length scales.

  14. Environmental forcing does not induce diel or synoptic variation in the carbon isotope content of forest soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, D. R.; Egan, J. E.; Hall, S. J.; Risk, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have examined temporal fluctuations in the amount and carbon isotope content (δ13C) of CO2 produced by the respiration of roots and soil organisms. These changes have been correlated with diel cycles of environmental forcing (e.g., sunlight and soil temperature) and with synoptic-scale atmospheric motion (e.g., rain events and pressure-induced ventilation). We used an extensive suite of measurements to examine soil respiration over 2 months in a subalpine forest in Colorado, USA (the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux forest). Observations included automated measurements of CO2 and δ13C of CO2 in the soil efflux, the soil gas profile, and forest air. There was strong diel variability in soil efflux but no diel change in the δ13C of the soil efflux (δR) or the CO2 produced by biological activity in the soil (δJ). Following rain, soil efflux increased significantly, but δR and δJ did not change. Temporal variation in the δ13C of the soil efflux was unrelated to measured environmental variables, and we failed to find an explanation for this unexpected result. Measurements of the δ13C of the soil efflux with chambers agreed closely with independent observations of the isotopic composition of soil CO2 production derived from soil gas well measurements. Deeper in the soil profile and at the soil surface, results confirmed established theory regarding diffusive soil gas transport and isotopic fractionation. Deviation from best-fit diffusion model results at the shallower depths illuminated a pump-induced ventilation artifact that should be anticipated and avoided in future studies. There was no evidence of natural pressure-induced ventilation of the deep soil. However, higher variability in δ13C of the soil efflux relative to δ13C of production derived from soil profile measurements was likely caused by transient pressure-induced transport with small horizontal length scales.

  15. Strong linkage of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) to sea ice algae-produced carbon: Evidence from stomach content, fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlbach, Doreen; Schaafsma, Fokje L.; Graeve, Martin; Lebreton, Benoit; Lange, Benjamin Allen; David, Carmen; Vortkamp, Martina; Flores, Hauke

    2017-03-01

    The polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered an ecological key species, because it reaches high stock biomasses and constitutes an important carbon source for seabirds and marine mammals in high-Arctic ecosystems. Young polar cod (1-2 years) are often associated with the underside of sea ice. To evaluate the impact of changing Arctic sea ice habitats on polar cod, we examined the diet composition and quantified the contribution of ice algae-produced carbon (αIce) to the carbon budget of polar cod. Young polar cod were sampled in the ice-water interface layer in the central Arctic Ocean during late summer 2012. Diets and carbon sources of these fish were examined using 4 approaches: (1) stomach content analysis, (2) fatty acid (FA) analysis, (3) bulk nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis (BSIA) and (4) compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of FAs. The ice-associated (sympagic) amphipod Apherusa glacialis dominated the stomach contents by mass, indicating a high importance of sympagic fauna in young polar cod diets. The biomass of food measured in stomachs implied constant feeding at daily rates of ∼1.2% body mass per fish, indicating the potential for positive growth. FA profiles of polar cod indicated that diatoms were the primary carbon source, indirectly obtained via amphipods and copepods. The αIce using bulk isotope data from muscle was estimated to be >90%. In comparison, αIce based on CSIA ranged from 34 to 65%, with the highest estimates from muscle and the lowest from liver tissue. Overall, our results indicate a strong dependency of polar cod on ice-algae produced carbon. This suggests that young polar cod may be particularly vulnerable to changes in the distribution and structure of sea ice habitats. Due to the ecological key role of polar cod, changes at the base of the sea ice-associated food web are likely to affect the higher trophic levels of high-Arctic ecosystems.

  16. Interaction of hydration, aging, and carbon content of soil on the evaporation and skin bioavailability of munition contaminants.

    PubMed

    Reifenrath, William G; Kammen, Harold O; Reddy, Gunda; Major, Michael A; Leach, Glenn J

    2008-01-01

    Water plays a key role in enhancing the permeability of human skin to many substances. To further understand its ability to potentially increase the bioavailability of soil contaminants, artificial sweat was applied to excised pig skin prior to dosing with munition-contaminated soils. Skin was mounted in chambers to allow simultaneous measurement of evaporation and penetration and to control air flow, which changed the dwell time of skin surface water within a l-h period post application of test materials. Additional variables included type of compound, aging of spiked soil samples, and carbon content of soil. To this end, the evaporation and skin penetration of C-14 labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (26DNT), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were determined from two soil types, Yolo, having 1.2% carbon, and Tinker, having 9.5% carbon. RDX soil samples aged 27 mo and 62 mo were compared to freshly spiked soils samples. Similarly, 26DNT samples aged 35-36 mo and TNT samples aged 18 mo were compared to freshly spiked samples. Approximately 10 microg/cm(2) of radiolabeled compound was applied in 10 mg/cm(2) of soil. Radiolabel recovered from the dermis and tissue culture media (receptor fluid) was summed to determine percent absorption from the soils. Radiolabel recovered from vapor traps determined evaporation. Mean skin absorption of all compounds was higher for low-carbon soil, regardless of soil age and skin surface water as affected by air flow conditions. For 26DNT, a simultaneous increase in evaporation and penetration with conditions that favored enhanced soil hydration of freshly prepared samples was consistent with a mechanism that involved water displacement of 26DNT from its binding sites. A mean penetration of 17.5 +/- 3.6% was observed for 26DNT in low-carbon soil, which approached the value previously reported for acetone vehicle (24 +/- 6%). 26DNT penetration was reduced to 0.35% under dryer conditions and to 0

  17. Determination of the carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents of alanine and their uncertainties using the certified reference material L-alanine (NMIJ CRM 6011-a).

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Sato, Ayako; Yamazaki, Taichi; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) contents of alanine and their uncertainties were estimated using a CHN analyzer and the certified reference material (CRM) L-alanine. The CHN contents and their uncertainties, as measured using the single-point calibration method, were 40.36 ± 0.20% for C, 7.86 ± 0.13% for H, and 15.66 ± 0.09% for N; the results obtained using the bracket calibration method were also comparable. The method described in this study is reasonable, convenient, and meets the general requirement of having uncertainties ≤ 0.4%.

  18. Heats of immersion of active carbon and carbon black in water and benzene as a function of the moisture content of the adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinin, M.M.; Isirikyan, A.A.; Nikolaev, K.M.; Polyakov, N.S.; Tatarinova, L.I.

    1987-07-10

    Rehydration of the active sites of carbon and carbon black formed after vacuum heat treatment of the samples at high temperatures is reflected in the heats of their immersion in benzene and water: for carbon, the heat of immersion in benzene does not change, but the heat of immersion in water increases markedly, while the heat of immersion of carbon black in benzene decreases markedly and the heat of immersion in water almost does not change. All four basic stages of adsorption of water vapors on active carbon: (1) the formation of water clusters, (2) formation of a random monolayer, (3) volume filling of micropores, and (4) saturation with capillary condensation phenomena in the mesopores, are reflected in the curve of the dependence of the heats of immersion of carbon in benzene on the relative vapor pressure of the preadsorbed water. Based on the study of the heats of immersion of AC-47 active carbon in benzene as a function of the amount of preadsorbed water, the reality of the existence of a statistical monolayer or similarity of the monolayer of water in the micropores of nongraphitized active carbon not made chemically hydrophobic, formed in the narrow region of relative water vapor pressures from 0.45 to 0.6, was demonstrated.

  19. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Structural-phase Changes in the Ni-Ti Alloy Implanted with Krypton Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtseva, V. P.; Kislitsin, S. B.; Ghyngazov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of thermal annealing within the temperature range 100-300°C on the structural-phase state of a Ni-Ti alloy with shape memory effect (SME) implanted with 84Kr ions at the energies E = 280 keV and 1.75 MeV/nucl and the fluences within 5·1012-1·1020 ion/m2 is investigated. For the samples modified by 84Kr ions at E = 1.75 MeV/nucl up to the fluences 1·1020 and 5·1012 ion/m2, the formation of a martensitic NiTi phase with the B19 ' structure, responsible for the SME, is revealed at the annealing temperatures 100 and 300°C, respectively, in the near-surface region corresponding to the outrange area. This is accompanied by the formation of nanosized NiTi particles in the R-phase. As the implantation fluence increases, the probability of their formation decreases. It is shown that annealing of the implanted structures can increase the strength of the Ni-Ti alloy. The degree of hardening is determined by the value of annealing temperature, and an increase in strength is primarily due to ordering of the radiation-induced defect structures (phases). A correlation between the onset temperature of a forward martensitic transition and the structural-phase state of the thermally annealed Ni-Ti alloy is established.

  20. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2017-01-01

    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  1. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  2. An In Situ Study of Sintering Behavior and Phase Transformation Kinetics in NiTi Using Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Liss, Klaus-Dieter; Cao, Peng

    2015-12-01

    The powder sintering behavior of NiTi from an elemental powder mixture of Ni/Ti has been investigated, using an in situ neutron diffraction technique. In the sintered alloys, the overall porosity ranges from 9.2 to 15.6 pct, while the open-to-overall porosity ratio is between 8.3 and 63.7 pct and largely depends on the sintering temperature. In comparison to powder compacts sintered at 1223 K and 1373 K (950 °C and 1100 °C), the powder compact sintered at 1153 K (880 °C) shows a much smaller pore size, a higher open-to-overall porosity ratio but smaller shrinkage and a lower density. Direct evidence of eutectoid transformation in the binary Ni-Ti system during furnace cooling to ca. 890 K (617 °C) is provided by in situ neutron diffraction. The intensities of the B2-NiTi reflections decrease during the holding stage at 1373 K (1100 °C), which has been elaborated as an extinction effect according to the dynamical theory of neutron diffraction, when distorted crystallites gradually recover to perfect crystals. The analysis on the first five reflections clarifies the non-existence of any order-disorder transition in the NiTi phase from B2-to-BCC structure.

  3. Effect of micro-arc oxidation surface modification on the properties of the NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Xu, J L; Zhong, Z C; Yu, D Z; Liu, F; Luo, J M

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) surface modification (alumina coatings) on the phase transformation behavior, shape memory characteristics, in vitro haemocopatibility and cytocompatibility of the biomedical NiTi alloy were investigated respectively by differential scanning calorimetry, bending test, hemolysis ratio test, dynamic blood clotting test, platelet adhesion test and cytotoxicity testing by human osteoblasts (Hobs). The results showed that there were no obvious changes of the phase transformation temperatures and shape memory characteristics of the NiTi alloy after the MAO surface modification and the coating could withstand the thermal shock and volume change caused by martensite-austenite phase transformation. Compared to the uncoated NiTi alloys, the MAO surface modification could effectively improve the haemocopatibility of the coated NiTi alloys by the reduced hemolysis ratio, the prolonged dynamic clotting time and the decreased number of platelet adhesion; and the rough and porous alumina coatings could obviously promote the adherence, spread and proliferation of the Hobs with the significant increase of proliferation number of Hobs adhered on the surface of the coated NiTi alloys (P < 0.05).

  4. A novel active fire protection approach for structural steel members using NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, H.; Wong, M. B.; Al-Mahaidi, R.; Zhao, X. L.

    2013-02-01

    A novel active fire protection approach, based on integrating a shape memory alloy, NiTi, with a steel structure, was proposed to satisfy the fire resistance requirements in structural design. To demonstrate the principles of this approach, a simple structure in the form of a simply supported steel beam was used. The internal action of the beam due to a transverse applied load was reduced by utilizing the shape memory effect in the NiTi alloy at rising temperatures. As a result, the net internal action from the load design was kept below the deteriorated load capacity of the beam during the fire scenario for period of time that was longer than that of the original beam without the NiTi alloy. By integrating the NiTi alloy into the beam system, the structure remained stable even though the steel temperature exceeded the critical temperature which may have caused the original beam structure to collapse. Prior to testing the composite NiTi-steel beam under simulated fire conditions, the NiTi alloy specimens were characterized at high temperatures. At 300 °C, the stiffness of the specimens increased by three times and its strength by four times over that at room temperature. The results obtained from the high-temperature characterization highlighted the great potential of the alloy being used in fire engineering applications.

  5. Correlations of carbon isotope discrimination with element and ash contents in two Sabina evergreen trees in northwest China: patterns and implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youfu; Chen, Tuo; Liu, Guangxiu; Zhang, Manxiao; An, Lizhe; Chen, Yingwu

    2011-06-30

    Foliar carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) is widely used as an integrator of physiological plant responses to environmental change. However, the relationship between foliar Δ and mineral nutrient accumulation is still not well-known. The foliar Δ, K, Ca, Mg, Si and ash contents of S. przewalskii Kom. (SP) and S. chinensis (Lin.) Ant. (SC), two over-winter trees distributed on high altitude plateaux and lower altitude plains, respectively, were measured at monthly intervals over two years under the same growing conditions to examine the genetic and seasonal variation in foliar nutrient concentrations in relation to foliar Δ. The foliar Δ, Mg, K and ash contents were markedly lower in SP than in SC, and the foliar Si content was significantly higher in SP than SC, while the differences in Ca contents between the two Sabina trees were not significant. There was higher foliar Δ in winter than in summer for both Sabina trees. Close negative correlations of foliar Δ with K and Mg content, and significant positive correlations between foliar Δ and Si contents, were observed in SP but not in SC. Thus, higher water-use efficiency of SP than of SC is related to higher Si and lower Mg and K contents that have positive effects on the reduction of transpiration rates or stomatal conductances. The results obtained by the present study will advance the understanding of the adaptive strategies of mineral nutrition and water use in harsh environments.

  6. Differential Effects of Legume Species on the Recovery of Soil Microbial Communities, and Carbon and Nitrogen Contents, in Abandoned Fields of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin Hua; Jiao, Shu Mei; Gao, Rong Qing; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-12-01

    Plant-soil interactions are known to influence a wide range of ecosystem-level functions. Moreover, the recovery of these functions is of importance for the successful restoration of soils that have been degraded through intensive and/or inappropriate land use. Here, we assessed the effect of planting treatments commonly used to accelerate rates of grassland restoration, namely introduction of different legume species Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Melilotus suaveolens, on the recovery of soil microbial communities and carbon and nitrogen contents in abandoned fields of the Loess Plateau, China. The results showed effects were species-specific, and either positive, neutral or negative depending on the measure and time-scale. All legumes increased basal respiration and metabolic quotient and had a positive effect on activity and functional diversity of the soil microbial community, measured using Biolog EcoPlate. However, soil under Astragalus adsurgens had the highest activity and functional diversity relative to the other treatments. Soil carbon and nitrogen content and microbial biomass were effectively restored in 3-5 years by introducing Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens into early abandoned fields. Soil carbon and nitrogen content were retarded in 3-5 years and microbial biomass was retarded in the fifth year by introducing Melilotus suaveolens. Overall, the restoration practices of planting legumes can significantly affect soil carbon and nitrogen contents, and the biomass, activity, and functional diversity of soil microbial community. Therefore, we propose certain legume species could be used to accelerate ecological restoration of degraded soils, hence assist in the protection and preservation of the environment.

  7. The effects of land abandonment and long-term afforestation practices on the organic carbon and lignin content of a Mediteranean soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stijsiger, Romy; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Campo, Julian; Cammeraat, Erik

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation is an important strategy that can decrease atmospheric carbon in sequestering it in biomass and soils (Pérez-Crusado et al., 2014). In Spain an active afforestation program was adopted in the 1950s, when after wide spread land abandonment the soils were severely eroded (FAO, 2015). In this research the organic carbon and lignin content of the soils in the Araguás catchment area in the Spanish Pyrenees were examined. This research is part of a larger research examining the effect of afforestation over time (Med Afforest Project, PIEF-GA-2013-624974). The research area was afforested with both the P. sylvestris (Scotts Pine) and the P.nigra (Black Pine). Both sites were compared to bare soil (representing severely eroded soil), natural secondary succession (re-vegetation) and meadows. The method used to assess the lignin content is Curie-point pyrolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The results showed a reducing trend for the soil organic carbon (SOC) content with depth. The highest SOC and lignin contents in the topsoil were found under P.nigra and secondary succession. This decline in lignin content corresponds with a high degradation rate (Ad/Al) in the top soil and lower degradation rates in depths of >20 cm. Meadows showed an increased SOC content in deeper horizons, which corresponds to high lignin content as well. In which the meadows showed an increase in lignin content for the soil depths of >20 cm that was unusual and could not be explained by the S/G and P/G ratios and the degradation ratio (Ad/Al). According to the results, P. nigra was the best afforestation practice for increasing the SOC and lignin contents in the soil. The P. sylvestris was considered but proved to be less successful than natural secondary succession. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974). JC also acknowledges the VALi+d postdoctoral contract (APOSTD/2014

  8. The overexpression of the pine transcription factor PpDof5 in Arabidopsis leads to increased lignin content and affects carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rueda-López, Marina; Cañas, Rafael A; Canales, Javier; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2015-12-01

    PpDof 5 is a regulator of the expression of glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) genes in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues of maritime pine. We have used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system to study PpDof 5 function in planta, generating transgenic lines overexpressing the pine transcription factor. The overexpression of PpDof 5 resulted in a substantial increase of lignin content with a simultaneous regulation of carbon and nitrogen key genes. In addition, partitioning in carbon and nitrogen compounds was spread via various secondary metabolic pathways. These results suggest pleiotropic effects of PpDof 5 expression on various metabolic pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Plants overexpressing PpDof 5 exhibited upregulation of genes encoding enzymes for sucrose and starch biosynthesis, with a parallel increase in the content of soluble sugars. When the plants were grown under nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, they exhibited a significant regulation of the expression of genes involved mainly in signaling, but similar growth rates to wild-type plants. However, plants grown under ammonium exhibited major induction of the expression of photosynthetic genes and differential expression of ammonium and nitrate transporters. All these data suggest that in addition to controlling ammonium assimilation, PpDof 5 could be also involved in the regulation of other pathways in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in pine trees.

  9. Minor-element composition and organic carbon content of marine and nonmarine shales of Late Cretaceous age in the western interior of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tourtelot, H.A.

    1964-01-01

    The composition of nonmarine shales of Cretaceous age that contain less than 1 per cent organic carbon is assumed to represent the inherited minor-element composition of clayey sediments delivered to the Cretaceous sea that occupied the western interior region of North America. Differences in minor-element content between these samples and samples of 1. (a) nonmarine carbonaceous shales (1 to 17 per cent organic carbon), 2. (b) nearshore marine shales (less than 1 per cent organic carbon), and 3. (c) offshore marine shales (as much as 8 per cent organic carbon), all of the same age, reveal certain aspects of the role played by clay minerals and organic materials in affecting the minor-element composition of the rocks. The organic carbon in the nonmarine rocks occurs in disseminated coaly plant remains. The organic carbon in the marine rocks occurs predominantly in humic material derived from terrestrial plants. The close similarity in composition between the organic isolates from the marine samples and low-rank coal suggests that the amount of marine organic material in these rocks is small. The minor-element content of the two kinds of nonmarine shales is the same despite the relatively large amount of organic carbon in the carbonaceous shales. The nearshore marine shales, however, contain larger median amounts of arsenic, boron, chromium, vanadium and zinc than do the nonmarine rocks; and the offshore marine shales contain even larger amounts of these elements. Cobalt, molybdenum, lead and zirconium show insignificant differences in median content between the nonmarine and marine rocks, although as much as 25 ppm molybdenum is present in some offshore marine samples. The gallium content is lower in the marine than in the nonmarine samples. Copper and selenium contents of the two kinds of nonmarine rocks and the nearshore marine samples are the same, but those of the offshore samples are larger. In general, arsenic, chromium, copper, molybdenum, selenium, vanadium

  10. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2014-12-24

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite (“glassy” B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, butmore » unstable B2. Furthermore, these high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.« less

  11. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2014-12-24

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite (“glassy” B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. Furthermore, these high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  12. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states.

    PubMed

    Zarkevich, N A; Johnson, D D

    2014-12-31

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy; nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudged elastic band method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between a body-centered orthorhombic (bco) ground state and a newly identified stable austenite ("glassy" B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R phase), and between martensite variants (bco orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. These high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  13. Achieving Small Structures in Thin NiTi Sheets for Medical Applications with Water Jet and Micro Machining: A Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frotscher, M.; Kahleyss, F.; Simon, T.; Biermann, D.; Eggeler, G.

    2011-07-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) are used for a variety of applications including medical implants and tools as well as actuators, making use of their unique properties. However, due to the hardness and strength, in combination with the high elasticity of the material, the machining of components can be challenging. The most common machining techniques used today are laser cutting and electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this study, we report on the machining of small structures into binary NiTi sheets, applying alternative processing methods being well-established for other metallic materials. Our results indicate that water jet machining and micro milling can be used to machine delicate structures, even in very thin NiTi sheets. Further work is required to optimize the cut quality and the machining speed in order to increase the cost-effectiveness and to make both methods more competitive.

  14. Undegassed Carbon Content from a Highly Depleted Segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (1-5°S): Evidence from Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Voyer, M.; Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Hauri, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    As carbon solubility is low in basalts, MORB contain little dissolved CO2 (189±61 ppm, 1σ, n=600 [1]). A global negative correlation between CO2/Nb (proxy for amount of CO2 lost by degassing) and Ba/La (proxy for source enrichment) indicates that depleted MORB are less affected by degassing than enriched MORB: CO2/Nb ratios range from 0-100 for samples with Ba/La>4, while CO2/Nb range from 50 to 400 for samples with Ba/La<4 [1]. To assess the CO2 content of undegassed MORB, we analyzed the volatile content of 70 olivine-hosted, glassy melt inclusions (MIs) from four basalts dredged along MAR 1-5°S, a ridge segment that produces highly depleted MORB in terms of trace element enrichment and radiogenic isotopes [2, 3]. MIs contain CO2 contents (180-1420 ppm) that are higher than their respective matrix glasses (130-220 ppm, typical for vapor-saturated melts erupted at 3-5 km b.s.l.). One of the four dredges (EN061 5D-3Ag) contains MIs that do not exhibit shrinkage bubbles. For this sample only, we find a positive correlation between the CO2 content (240-770 ppm) and the Cl content (6-20 ppm) of the MIs that is not found in the matrix glasses (see Fig.). We infer that the correlation between CO2 and Cl, both highly incompatible in silicate minerals during fractional crystallization, is strong evidence for vapor-undersaturation, as any CO2 degassing would have erased the correlation. Together with MIs from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone [4] and from northern Iceland [5], the MIs from EN061 5D-3Ag may represent another occurrence of carbon-undersaturated MORB. Our results will be used to model the primary carbon content of MORB and of the depleted upper mantle. Note that the average Cl content of the matrix glasses (20±1 ppm) is higher than those of the MIs (12±3 ppm, see Fig.). This indicates either that the matrix glasses assimilated a small amount of seawater Cl, or that the MIs are all more depleted than the matrix glass. We will acquire major and trace element

  15. Spatial and temporal changes of soil organic carbon content since time of reclamation of mine soils in a semi-arid environment of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartl, Thomas; Glenn, Vanessa; Erskine, Peter; Chan, Jaclyn

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying carbon fluxes in reclaimed mining environments informs about the success of rehabilitation. Increasing soil organic matter (SOM) improves crucial functional properties of soil; thus, it is highly desirable to promote SOM accumulation in rehabilitated mine soils. The carbon content is often used as a surrogate to describe the status of soil health. Organic carbon in soils contributes to nutrient storage and exchange for plant growth, but also improves water storage capacity and microbial activity. Particularly for poor quality soil substrates with low clay contents, like many spoils from open-cut mining, elevating the carbon concentration is an ideal means to improve the soil quality. The objective of the study was to investigate the change of SOC of re-established soils in mining dependent on the length of time since reclamation under different types of vegetation communities in a semi-arid environment of Central Queensland, Australia. Deviating from standard sampling programs, the SOC of the soil profile was determined in small depth sampling increments from the surface following the assumption, that fresh (green) organic matter will be highest close to the surface and that in semi-arid environments, the dislocation of organic matter to depth by precipitation and microbial activity will be limited. The investigations showed that the most recently rehabilitated sites (>3 years post rehabilitation) show a high organic carbon (OC) gradient decreasing from the surface downwards into the soil. The highest concentration of OC was generally found in the first cm from the surface. Below a depth of 5cm no increase of OC with time since reclamation (max. 25 years) could be determined. An increase of OC with time could be determined, although it appears that even after more than 20 years since reclamation the concentration and depth distribution of OC of an unmined soil could not be rebuilt. Thus, it may be inferred that introducing support practices of

  16. Experimental carbon dioxide laser brain lesions and intracranial dynamics. Part 2. Effect on brain water content and its response to acute therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tiznado, E.G.; James, H.E.; Moore, S.

    1985-04-01

    Experimental brain lesions were created over the left parietooccipital cortex of the albino rabbit through the intact dura mater with high radiating carbon dioxide laser energy. The brain water content was studied 2, 6, and 24 hours after the insult. Another two groups of animals received acute therapy with either dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or furosemide (1 mg/kg). In all groups, Evans blue extravasation uniformly extended from the impact crater into the surrounding white matter. The brain water content in the gray matter was elevated from the control value by 2 hours after impact and remained elevated at 6 and 24 hours. The white matter brain water content did not increase until 6 hours after impact and remained elevated in the 24-hour group. After dexamethasone treatment, there was a significant decrease of water in the gray matter, but not in the white matter. With furosemide therapy, there was no reduction of gray or white matter brain water.

  17. A partial least squares and wavelet-transform hybrid model to analyze carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tingbi; Wang, Zhe; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou; Liu, Jianmin

    2014-01-07

    A partial least squares (PLS) and wavelet transform hybrid model are proposed to analyze the carbon content of coal by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The hybrid model is composed of two steps of wavelet analysis procedures, which include environmental denoising and background noise reduction, to pretreat the LIBS spectrum. The processed wavelet coefficients, which contain the discrete line information of the spectra, were taken as inputs for the PLS model for calibration and prediction of carbon element. A higher signal-to-noise ratio of carbon line was obtained after environmental denoising, and the best decomposition level was determined after background noise reduction. The hybrid model resulted in a significant improvement over the conventional PLS method under different ambient environments, which include air, argon, and helium. The average relative error of carbon decreased from 2.74 to 1.67% under an ambient helium environment, which indicated a significantly improved accuracy in the measurement of carbon in coal. The best results obtained under an ambient helium environment could be partly attributed to the smallest interference by noise after wavelet denoising. A similar improvement was observed in ambient air and argon environments, thereby proving the applicability of the hybrid model under different experimental conditions.

  18. Combined effects of different heat treatments and Cu element on transformation behavior of NiTi orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Seyyed Aghamiri, S M; Ahmadabadi, M Nili; Raygan, Sh

    2011-04-01

    The shape memory nickel-titanium alloy has been applied in many fields due to its unique thermal and mechanical performance. One of the successful applications of NiTi wires is in orthodontics because of its good characteristics such as low stiffness, high spring back, high stored energy, biocompatibility, superelasticity and shape memory effect. The mechanical properties of wires are paid special attention which results in achieving continuous optimal forces and eventually causing rapid tooth movement without any damage. The behavior of the alloy can be controlled by chemical composition and thermo-mechanical treatment during the manufacturing process. In this study two kinds of commercial superelastic NiTi archwires of 0.41 mm diameter were investigated: Copper NiTi and Highland Metal. The chemical analysis of both wires was estimated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was showed that Copper NiTi wire contained copper and chromium. The two types of wires were exposed to different heat treatment conditions at 400 and 500 °C for 10 and 60 min to compare the behavior of the wires at aged and as-received conditions. Phase transformation temperatures clarified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed B2 <--> R <--> B19 transformation in Highland Metal wire and B2 <--> B19(') transformation in Copper NiTi wire. Three point bending (TPB) tests in the certain designed fixture were performed at 37 °C to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the wires. The experimental results revealed the superelastic behavior of the Highland Metal wire after 60 min ageing at 400 and 500 °C and the plastic deformation of the Copper NiTi wire after annealing due to the effect of copper in the alloy composition.

  19. Testing of an automated online EA-IRMS method for fast and simultaneous carbon content and stable isotope measurement of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, István; Gyökös, Brigitta; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Filep, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive atmospheric studies have demonstrated that carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter over Europe. Various methods, considering optical or thermal properties, have been developed for quantification of the accurate amount of both organic and elemental carbon constituents of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative fast and easy method for determination of the total carbon content of individual aerosol samples collected on prebaked quartz filters whereby the mass and surface concentration becomes simply computable. We applied the conventional "elemental analyzer (EA) coupled online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)" technique which is ubiquitously used in mass spectrometry. Using this technique we are able to measure simultaneously the carbon stable isotope ratio of the samples, as well. During the developing process, we compared the EA-IRMS technique with an off-line catalytic combustion method worked out previously at Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL). We tested the combined online total carbon content and stable isotope ratio measurement both on standard materials and real aerosol samples. Regarding the test results the novel method assures, on the one hand, at least 95% of carbon recovery yield in a broad total carbon mass range (between 100 and 3000 ug) and, on the other hand, a good reproducibility of stable isotope measurements with an uncertainty of ± 0.2 per mill. Comparing the total carbon results obtained by the EA-IRMS and the off-line catalytic combustion method we found a very good correlation (R2=0.94) that proves the applicability of both preparation method. Advantages of the novel method are the fast and simplified sample preparation steps and the fully automated, simultaneous carbon stable isotope ratio measurement processes. Furthermore stable isotope ratio results can effectively be applied in the source apportionment

  20. Characterization of NiTi Shape Memory Damping Elements designed for Automotive Safety Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, Joachim; Clipa, Victor; Gheorghita, Viorel; Gümpel, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Actuator elements made of NiTi shape memory material are more and more known in industry because of their unique properties. Due to the martensitic phase change, they can revert to their original shape by heating when subjected to an appropriate treatment. This thermal shape memory effect (SME) can show a significant shape change combined with a considerable force. Therefore such elements can be used to solve many technical tasks in the field of actuating elements and mechatronics and will play an increasing role in the next years, especially within the automotive technology, energy management, power, and mechanical engineering as well as medical technology. Beside this thermal SME, these materials also show a mechanical SME, characterized by a superelastic plateau with reversible elongations in the range of 8%. This behavior is based on the building of stress-induced martensite of loaded austenite material at constant temperature and facilitates a lot of applications especially in the medical field. Both SMEs are attended by energy dissipation during the martensitic phase change. This paper describes the first results obtained on different actuator and superelastic NiTi wires concerning their use as damping elements in automotive safety systems. In a first step, the damping behavior of small NiTi wires up to 0.5 mm diameter was examined at testing speeds varying between 0.1 and 50 mm/s upon an adapted tensile testing machine. In order to realize higher testing speeds, a drop impact testing machine was designed, which allows testing speeds up to 4000 mm/s. After introducing this new type of testing machine, the first results of vertical-shock tests of superelastic and electrically activated actuator wires are presented. The characterization of these high dynamic phase change parameters represents the basis for new applications for shape memory damping elements, especially in automotive safety systems.

  1. Covalent Functionalization of NiTi Surfaces with Bioactive Peptide Amphiphile Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, Timothy D.; Rao, Mukti S.; Koh, Chung-Yan

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification enables the creation of bioactive implants using traditional material substrates without altering the mechanical properties of the bulk material. For applications such as bone plates and stents, it is desirable to modify the surface of metal alloy substrates to facilitate cellular attachment, proliferation, and possibly differentiation. In this work we present a general strategy for altering the surface chemistry of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) in order to covalently attach self-assembled peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers with bioactive functions. Bioactivity in the systems studied here includes biological adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast and endothelial cell types. The optimized surface treatment creates a uniform TiO2 layer with low levels of Ni on the NiTi surface, which is subsequently covered with an aminopropylsilane coating using a novel, lower temperature vapor deposition method. This method produces an aminated surface suitable for covalent attachment of PA molecules containing terminal carboxylic acid groups. The functionalized NiTi surfaces have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques offer evidence that the treated metal surfaces consist primarily of TiO2 with very little Ni, and also confirm the presence of the aminopropylsilane overlayer. Self-assembled PA nanofibers presenting the biological peptide adhesion sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser are capable of covalently anchoring to the treated substrate, as demonstrated by spectrofluorimetry and AFM. Cell culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate cellular adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on these functionalized metal surfaces. Furthermore, these experiments demonstrate that covalent attachment is crucial for creating robust PA nanofiber coatings, leading to confluent cell monolayers. PMID:18083225

  2. Aluminum-matrix composites with embedded Ni-Ti wires by ultrasonic consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnlen, Ryan; Dapino, Marcelo J.; Short, Matt; Graff, Karl

    2009-03-01

    [Smart Vehicle Workshop] This paper presents the development of active aluminum-matrix composites manufactured by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), an emerging rapid prototyping process based on ultrasonic metal welding. Composites created through UAM experience process temperatures as low as 20°C, in contrast to current metal-matrix fabrication processes which require fusion of materials and hence reach temperatures of 500°C and above. UAM thus creates unprecedented opportunities to develop adaptive structures with seamlessly embedded smart materials and electronic components without degrading the properties that make embedding these materials and components attractive. This research focuses on three aspects of developing UAM Ni-Ti/Al composites which have not been accomplished before: (i) Characterization of the mechanical properties of the composite matrix; (ii) Investigation of Ni-Ti/Al composites as tunable stiffness materials and as strain sensors based on the shape memory effect; and (iii) Development of constitutive models for UAM Ni-Ti/Al composites. The mechanical characterization shows an increase in tensile strength of aluminum UAM builds over the parent material (Al 3003-H18), likely due to grain refinement caused by the UAM process. We demonstrate the ability to embed Ni-Ti wires up to 203 μm in diameter in an aluminum matrix, compared with only 100 μm in previous studies. The resulting Ni-Ti/Al UAM composites have cross sectional area ratios of up to 13.4% Ni-Ti. These composites exhibit a change in stiffness of 6% and a resistivity change of -3% when the Ni- Ti wires undergo martensite to austenite transformation. The Ni-Ti area ratios and associated strength of the shape memory effect are expected to increase as the UAM process becomes better understood and is perfected. The Brinson constitutive model for shape memory transformations is used to describe the stiffness and the strain sensing of Ni-Ti/Al composites in response to

  3. Spatial prediction of Soil Organic Carbon contents in croplands, grasslands and forests using environmental covariates and Generalized Additive Models (Southern Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Stevens, Antoine; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Providing spatially continuous Soil Organic Carbon data (SOC) is needed to support decisions regarding soil management, and inform the political debate with quantified estimates of the status and change of the soil resource. Digital Soil Mapping techniques are based on relations existing between a soil parameter (measured at different locations in space at a defined period) and relevant covariates (spatially continuous data) that are factors controlling soil formation and explaining the spatial variability of the target variable. This study aimed at apply DSM techniques to recent SOC content measurements (2005-2013) in three different landuses, i.e. cropland, grassland, and forest, in the Walloon region (Southern Belgium). For this purpose, SOC databases of two regional Soil Monitoring Networks (CARBOSOL for croplands and grasslands, and IPRFW for forests) were first harmonized, totalising about 1,220 observations. Median values of SOC content for croplands, grasslands, and forests, are respectively of 12.8, 29.0, and 43.1 g C kg-1. Then, a set of spatial layers were prepared with a resolution of 40 meters and with the same grid topology, containing environmental covariates such as, landuses, Digital Elevation Model and its derivatives, soil texture, C factor, carbon inputs by manure, and climate. Here, in addition to the three classical texture classes (clays, silt, and sand), we tested the use of clays + fine silt content (particles < 20 µm and related to stable carbon fraction) as soil covariate explaining SOC variations. For each of the three land uses (cropland, grassland and forest), a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was calibrated on two thirds of respective dataset. The remaining samples were assigned to a test set to assess model performance. A backward stepwise procedure was followed to select the relevant environmental covariates using their approximate p-values (the level of significance was set at p < 0.05). Standard errors were estimated for each of

  4. Significance of rises in urinary bicarbonate contents and pH related with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Kazuka, M; Yashima, K; Niiyama, K; Muro, D

    1997-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was measured at several locations in Tokyo, for two weeks, in December, 1995 and 1996, and was found to be increased up to 550 ppm, while it was shown by us to be 450 ppm in December, 1994. These results demonstrate that atmospheric carbon dioxide is steadily increasing at faster rates in Tokyo than we expect, though it has been considered that the atmospheric carbon dioxide is still as much as 350 ppm. Bicarbonate concentration and pH of urine of 13 medical students in Tokyo were also measured for the same period in December of 1995 and 1996, and were found to be significantly increased compared with the values that were reported in the past. Furthermore, urinary bicarbonate and pH were extensively increased, when 4 and 5 students made 3-hour car trip in two different cars with all windows closed, where carbon dioxide was increased up to about 5000 ppm within 1 hour. These results support our previous hypothesis that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide may be reflected by the increase of urinary bicarbonate and pH. Our results also suggest that the environmental situation is being seriously aggravated in Tokyo, year by year, in terms of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  5. Surface structure and properties of biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy after Fenton's oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, C L; Hu, T; Wu, S L; Dong, Y S; Yin, L H; Pu, Y P; Lin, P H; Chung, C Y; Yeung, K W K; Chu, Paul K

    2007-09-01

    Fenton's oxidation is traditionally used to remove inorganic and organic pollutants from water in waster water treatment. It is an advanced oxidation process in which H2O2 is catalytically decomposed by ferrous irons into hydroxyl radicals (*OH) which have a higher oxidation potential (2.8V) than H2O2. In the work reported here, we for the first time use Fenton's oxidation to modify the surface of biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA). The influences of Fenton's oxidation on the surface microstructure, blood compatibility, leaching of harmful Ni ions and corrosion resistance in simulated body fluids is assessed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, electrochemical tests, hemolysis analysis and the blood platelet adhesion test. The mechanical stability of the surface titania film produced by Fenton's oxidation as well as their effects on the shape memory behavior of the SMA are studied by bending tests. Our results show that Fenton's oxidation produces a novel nanostructured titania gel film with a graded structure on the NiTi substrate without an intermediate Ni-rich layer that is typical of high-temperature oxidation. Moreover, there is a clear Ni-free zone near the top surface of the titania film. The surface structural changes introduced by Fenton's oxidation improve the electrochemical corrosion resistance and mitigate Ni release. The latter effects are comparable to those observed after oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation reported previously and better than those of high-temperature oxidation. Aging in boiling water improves the crystallinity of the titania film and further reduces Ni leaching. Blood platelet adhesion is remarkably reduced after Fenton's oxidation, suggesting that the treated SMA has improved thrombo resistance. Enhancement of blood compatibility is believed to stem from the improved hemolysis resistance, the surface wettability and the

  6. Functionally grading the shape memory response in NiTi films: Laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, A. J.; Satoh, G.; Yao, Y. L.

    2009-08-15

    A new process and mechanism are presented for controlling the shape memory response spatially within monolithic NiTi thin film structures. This technique is shown to effectively control the martensitic phase transformation temperature and exhibits control over aspects of the mechanical and shape memory responses as well. Specifically, the martensitic phase transformation temperature decreases with incident laser energy density. Concomitant modifications are observed in both the mechanical and shape memory responses in laser processed films. Analysis and characterization are performed via temperature controlled optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and nanoindentation.

  7. Complex transformation field created by geometrical gradient design of NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtiari, Reza; Shariat, Bashir S.; Motazedian, Fakhrodin; Wu, Zhigang; Zhang, Junsong; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yinong

    Owing to geometrical non-uniformity, geometrically graded shape memory alloy (SMA) structures by design have the ability to exhibit different and novel thermal and mechanical behaviors compared to geometrically uniform conventional SMAs. This paper reports a study of the pseudoelastic behavior of geometrically graded NiTi plates. This geometrical gradient creates partial stress gradient over stress-induced martensitic transformation, providing enlarged stress controlling interval for shape memory actuation. Finite element modeling framework has been established to predict the deformation behavior of such structures in tensile loading cycles, which was validated by experiments. The modeling results show that the transformation mostly propagates along the gradient direction as the loading level increases.

  8. Shape-memory properties in Ni-Ti sputter-deposited film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, J. D.; Johnson, A. D.; Lee, C. H.; Stevenson, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    A Ni-Ti alloy, generically called nitinol, was prepared from sputtering targets of two different compositions on glass substrates using a dc magnetron source. The as-deposited films were amorphous in structure and did not exhibit a shape memory. The amorphous films were crystallized with a suitable annealing process, and the transformation properties were measured using differential scanning calorimetry. The annealed films demonstrated a strong shape-memory effect. Stress/strain measurements and physical manipulation were used to evaluate the shape recovery. These tests demonstrated sustained tensile stresses of up to 480 MPa in the high-temperature phase, and a characteristic plastic deformation in the low-temperature phase.

  9. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Bartonová, Lucie; Cech, Bohumír; Ruppenthalová, Lucie; Majvelderová, Vendula; Juchelková, Dagmar; Klika, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S, Cl, Br, As, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Rb, and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone. The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements. Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959), Cl (0.957), Cu (0.916), Se (0.898), Ni (0.866), As (0.861), Zn (0.742), Ge (0.717), and Ga (0.588) content. The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  10. Detailed consideration of physicochemical properties of CO3apatites as biomaterials in relation to carbonate content using ICP, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, SEM, and HR-TEM.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Rie; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Hirata, Isao; Miake, Yasuo; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2006-09-01

    CO3apatites with different carbonate contents were synthesized at 60 +/- 1 degrees C and pH 7.4 +/- 0.2 under different carbonate concentrations (0-0.3 mol/L) in the supplied solutions. Their physicochemical properties were analyzed using various methods. Inductively coupled plasma gave accurate chemical analysis data for calcium and phosphate contents. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a clear chemical shift at high carbonate content. A CO3(2-) absorption peak area approximately proportional to carbonate content was observed through Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a dramatic change of the crystal shape. Osteoblast proliferation at the surface of each CO3apatite-collagen sponge indicated that osteoblasts deformed to expand and cover the surface of the sponge, and appeared to adhere well to the sponge.

  11. A facile approach towards increasing the nitrogen-content in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via halogenated catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ombaka, L. M.; Ndungu, P. G.; Omondi, B.; McGettrick, J. D.; Davies, M. L.; Nyamori, V. O.

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been synthesized at 850 °C via a CVD deposition technique by use of three ferrocenyl derivative catalysts, i.e. para-CN, -CF3 and -Cl substituted-phenyl rings. The synthesized catalysts have been characterized by NMR, IR, HR-MS and XRD. The XRD analysis of the para-CF3 catalyst indicates that steric factors influence the X-ray structure of 1,1‧-ferrocenylphenyldiacrylonitriles. Acetonitrile or pyridine was used as carbon and nitrogen sources to yield mixtures of N-CNTs and carbon spheres (CS). The N-CNTs obtained from the para-CF3 catalysts, in pyridine, have the highest nitrogen-doping level, show a helical morphology and are less thermally stable compared with those synthesized by use of the para-CN and -Cl as catalyst. This suggests that fluorine heteroatoms enhance nitrogen-doping in N-CNTs and formation of helical-N-CNTs (H-N-CNTs). The para-CF3 and para-Cl catalysts in acetonitrile yielded iron-filled N-CNTs, indicating that halogens promote encapsulation of iron into the cavity of N-CNT. The use of acetonitrile, as carbon and nitrogen source, with the para-CN and -Cl as catalysts also yielded a mixture of N-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (CNFs), with less abundance of CNFs in the products obtained using para-Cl catalysts. However, para-CF3 catalyst in acetonitrile gave N-CNTs as the only shaped carbon nanomaterials.

  12. Feasibility studies of a carbon/oxygen logging tool for evaluating the CO/sub 2/ content of the medium in nuclear device containment

    SciTech Connect

    West, H.I. Jr.; Glasgow, J.E.

    1983-12-01

    The feasibility of using oil-well bore-hole logging techniques for assaying the carbonate content of a potential shot site has been investigated. The procedure makes use of the detection of the 4439-keV ..gamma.. ray of carbon and the 6130-keV ..gamma.. ray of oxygen produced by the inelastic scattering of 14-MeV neutrons in the bore-hole medium. For the needs of the containment program, a sensitivity of detection of CO/sub 2/ to less than or equal to 0.02 weight fraction must be achieved. Laboratory measurements indicate that only with considerable development effort could a tool be made that would come close to achieving this goal.

  13. Strain rate response of a Ni-Ti shape memory alloy after hydrogen charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaoun, Fehmi; Hassine, Tarak; Bouraoui, Tarak

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the susceptibility of Ni-Ti superelastic wires to the strain rates during tensile testing after hydrogen charging. Cathodic hydrogen charging is performed at a current density of 10 A/m² during 2-12 h in 0.9% NaCl solution and aged for 24 h at room temperature. Specimens underwent one cycle of loading-unloading reaching a stress value of 700 MPa. During loading, strain rates from 10-6 to 5 × 10-2 s-1 have been achieved. After 8 h of hydrogen charging, an embrittlement has been detected in the tensile strain rate range of 10-6 to 10-4 s-1. In contrast, no embrittlement has been detected for strain rates of 10-3 s-1 and higher. However, after 12 h of hydrogen charging and 24 h of annealing at room temperature, the embrittlement occurs in the beginning of the austenite-martensite transformation for all the studied strain rate values. These results show that for a range of critical amounts of diffused hydrogen, the embrittlement of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy strongly depends on the strain rate during the tensile test. Moreover, it has been shown that this embrittlement occurs for low values of strain rates rather than the higher ones. This behaviour is attributed to the interaction between the diffused hydrogen and growth of the martensitic domain.

  14. Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of Porous NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzo, O.; Turenne, S.; Gauthier, M.; Brailovski, V.

    2009-09-01

    This article presents the mechanical behavior of porous NiTi in the context of biomedical applications related to bone prostheses. To produce the porous metallic material, a novel technique consisting of mixing prealloyed NiTi powder with a polymer powder and a foaming agent has been used. This method permits control of the size of pores and the porosity level. For the present study, pores similar to those found in bones (400 to 500 μm) were obtained with a total porosity of the specimens varying from 50 to 70 pct. The compression mechanical testing carried out on small cylindrical specimens revealed shape memory deformation recovery up to 6.4 pct, while the superelastic behavior resulted in a reversible deformation up to 7.7 pct. By varying the amount of porosity, it was possible to obtain Young’s moduli in the range of 2.6 to 4.6 GPa, which is similar to the modulus of cancellous (spongy) human bone.

  15. Ab initio simulations of phase stability and martensitic transitions in NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Thompson, Alexander E.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-12-01

    For NiTi-based alloys, the shape memory effect is governed by a transition from a low-temperature martensite phase to a high-temperature austenite phase. Despite considerable experimental and computational work, basic questions regarding the stability of the phases and the martensitic phase transition remain unclear even for the simple case of binary, equiatomic NiTi. We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to describe the temperature-dependent behavior of NiTi and resolve several of these outstanding issues. Structural correlation functions and finite temperature phonon spectra are evaluated to determine phase stability. We show that finite temperature, entropic effects stabilize the experimentally observed martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) phases while destabilizing the theoretically predicted (B33) phase. Free energy computations based on ab initio thermodynamic integration confirm these results and permit estimates of the transition temperature between the phases. In addition to the martensitic phase transition, we predict a new transition between the B33 and B19' phases. The role of defects in suppressing phase transformation temperatures is discussed.

  16. Movement kinematics and cyclic fatigue of NiTi rotary instruments: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F; Adeodato, C; Barbosa, I; Aboud, L; Scelza, P; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a detailed analysis of the literature concerning the correlation between different movement kinematics and the cyclic fatigue resistance of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments. From June 2014 to August 2015, four independent reviewers comprehensively and systematically searched the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases for works published since January 2005, using the following search terms: endodontics; nickel-titanium rotary files; continuous rotation; reciprocating motion; cyclic fatigue. In addition to the electronic searches, manual searches were performed to include articles listed in the reference sections of high-impact published articles that were not indexed in the databases. Laboratory studies in English language were considered for this review. The electronic and manual searches resulted in identification of 75 articles. Based on the inclusion criteria, 32 articles were selected for analysis of full-text copies. Specific analysis was then made of 20 articles that described the effects of reciprocating and continuous movements on cyclic fatigue of the instruments. A wide range of testing conditions and methodologies have been used to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of rotary endodontic instruments. Most studies report that reciprocating motion improves the fatigue resistance of endodontic instruments, compared to continuous rotation, independent of other variables such as the speed of rotation, the angle or radius of curvature of simulated canals, geometry and taper, or the surface characteristics of the NiTi instruments.

  17. Characterisation of melt spun Ni-Ti shape memory Ribbons' microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, Kambiz; Brunčko, Mihael; Kneissl, Albert C.; Čolič, Miodrag; Stamenković, Dragoslav; Ferčec, Janko; Anžel, Ivan; Rudolf, Rebeka

    2012-06-01

    NiTi alloys are the most technologically important medical Shape Memory Alloys in a wide range of applications used in Orthopaedics, Neurology, Cardiology and interventional Radiology as guide-wires, self-expandable stents, stent grafts, inferior vena cava filters and clinical instruments. This paper discusses the use of rapid solidification by the melt spinning method for the preparation of thin NiTi ribbons for medical uses. Generally, the application of rapid solidification via melt-spinning can change the microstructure drastically, which improves ductility and shape memory characteristics and leads to samples with small dimensions. As the increase in the wheel speed led to a reduced ribbon thickness, the cooling rate increased and, therefore, the martensitic substructure became finer. Furthermore, no transition from the crystalline phase to the amorphous phase was obtained by increasing the cooling rate, even at a wheel speed of 30 m/s. Specimens for our metallographic investigation were cut from the longitudinal cross sections of melt-spun ribbons. Conventional TEM studies were carried out with an acceleration voltage of 120 kV. Additionally, the chemical composition of the samples was examined with a TEM equipped with an EDX analyser. The crystallographic structure was determined using Bragg-Brentano x-ray diffraction with Cu-Kα radiation at room temperature.

  18. Effect of EDTA solution on corrosion fatigue of Ni-Ti files with different shapes.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Goto, Shin-ichi; Ogura, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of EDTA solutions (3% and 10% EDTA•2Na) on corrosion fatigue of three Ni-Ti files with different shapes, in comparison with other solutions (6% NaClO, 3% H2O2, 0.9% NaCl and distilled water). Ni-Ti files were subjected to rotational bending in a bent glass tube (30° and 60° angles) filled with the solutions, and the number of rotations to failure was counted. At 30° bent angle, files in the two EDTA solutions showed significantly lower resistance than those in distilled water, but no significant difference was found between the two EDTA solutions. Fatigue resistance of two tested files in the two EDTA solutions was not significantly different from those in the other three solutions, whereas one file in EDTA solutions showed significantly lower resistance than that in 3% H2O2. At 60° bent angle, early failure within 1-2.5 min was observed for all tested files, and no significant difference was found among the six solutions. At both angles, significant differences in fatigue resistance were observed among the three tested files, which could be related to the difference in the cross-sectional shapes of the files.

  19. In vitro corrosion resistance of porous NiTi intervertebral fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrooten, Jan; Assad, Michel; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Leroux, Michel A.

    2007-02-01

    Porous titanium-nickel (PTN) intervertebral fusion devices, produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, represent an alternative to traditional long-term implants in the orthopaedic field. PTN promotes tissue ingrowth and has succeeded short-term and long-term biocompatibility in vivo testing. In this in vitro study, the PTN morphology was characterized using microfocus computer tomography (μCT) in order to calculate the active PTN surface. Potentiodynamic polarization testing was then performed to evaluate the in vitro corrosion resistance of PTN devices in Hanks' based salt solution. Direct coupling experiments of PTN with Ti6Al4V were also performed in order to establish the galvanic corrosion resistance of PTN intervertebral implants in the presence of potential Ti6Al4V supplemental fixation devices. Compared to the behaviour of other orthopaedic biomaterials and solid NiTi devices, PTN devices showed a level of corrosion resistance that is comparable to other NiTi devices and acceptable for the intended orthopaedic application. Further improvement of the corrosion resistance is still possible by specific electrochemical surface treatments.

  20. Cell adhesion on NiTi thin film sputter-deposited meshes.

    PubMed

    Loger, K; Engel, A; Haupt, J; Li, Q; Lima de Miranda, R; Quandt, E; Lutter, G; Selhuber-Unkel, C

    2016-02-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering enable the possibility to fabricate and form biomedical implants in vitro, which fulfill special functionality in vivo. In this study, free-standing Nickel–Titanium(NiTi) thin film mesheswere produced by means of magnetron sputter deposition.Meshes contained precisely defined rhombic holes in the size of 440 to 1309 μm2 and a strut width ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 μm. The effective mechanical properties of the microstructured superelastic NiTi thin film were examined by tensile testing. These results will be adapted for the design of the holes in the film. The influence of hole and strut dimensions on the adhesion of sheep autologous cells (CD133+) was studied after 24 h and after seven days of incubation. Optical analysis using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that cell adhesion depends on the structural parameters of the mesh. After 7 days in cell culture a large part of the mesh was covered with aligned fibrous material. Cell adhesion is particularly facilitated on meshes with small rhombic holes of 440 μm2 and a strut width of 5.3 μm. Our results demonstrate that free-standing NiTi thin film meshes have a promising potential for applicationsin cardiovascular tissue engineering, particularly for the fabrication of heart valves.

  1. Laser and Surface Processes of NiTi Shape Memory Elements for Micro-actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Previtali, Barbara; Villa, Elena; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-04-01

    In the current microtechnology for actuation field, shape memory alloys (SMA) are considered one of the best candidates for the production of mini/micro devices thanks to their high power-to-weight ratio as function of the actuator weight and hence for their capability of generating high mechanical performance in very limited spaces. In the microscale the most suitable conformation of a SMA actuator is given by a planar wavy formed arrangement, i.e., the snake-like shape, which allows high strokes, considerable forces, and devices with very low sizes. This uncommon and complex geometry becomes more difficult to be realized when the actuator dimensions are scaled down to micrometric values. In this work, micro-snake-like actuators are laser machined using a nanosecond pulsed fiber laser, starting from a 120- μm-thick NiTi sheet. Chemical and electrochemical surface polishes are also investigated for the removal of the thermal damages of the laser process. Calorimetric and thermo-mechanical tests are accomplished to assess the NiTi microdevice performance after each step of the working process. It is shown that laser machining has to be followed by some post-processes in order to obtain a micro-actuator with good thermo-mechanical properties.

  2. Organic / inorganic carbon content and isotope analysis of 3.1Ga Cleaverville Formation in Pilbara, Australia: Result of DXCL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Ikehara, M.

    2014-12-01

    DXCL project was targeted for 3.2-3.1 Ga hydrothermal chert-black shale (Dixon Island Formation) and black shale-banded iron formation (Cleaverville Formation). CL3 core (200m long) was drilled from 1) upper part of Black Shale Member (35m thick) to 2) lower part of BIF Member (165m thick) of the Cleaverville Formation. Here, the BIF Member can be divided into three submembers; Greenish shale-siderite (50m thick), Magnetite-siderite (55m thick) and Black shale-siderite (60m) submembers. In this study, we used bulk samples and samples treated by hot hydrochloric acid in order to extract organic carbon.  The Black shale Member consists of black carbonaceous matter and fine grain quartz (< 100μm). Organic carbon content (Corg) of black shale is 1.2% in average and organic carbon isotope ratio (δ13Corg) is -31.4 to -28.7‰. On the other hand, inorganic carbon isotope ratio of siderite (δ13Ccarb) was -5.2 to +12.6‰.  In the BIF Member, the Greenish shale-siderite submember is composed of well laminated greenish sideritic shale and white chert (<7mm thick), which is gradually increase from black shale of the Black shale Member through about 10m. Magnetite-siderite submember contains very fine magnetite lamination with inter-bedded greenish sideritic shale and siderite lamination. Hematite is identified near fractured part. The Black shale-siderite submember is composed of black shale, siderite and chert bands.  1) Siderite layers of these three submembers showedδ13Ccarb value of -14.6 to -3.8‰. Corg and δ13Corg content are 0.2% and -18.3 to -0.3‰. 2) Siderite grains within greenish sideritic shales showedδ13Ccarb value of -12.9 to +15.0‰. 3) Black shale of Corg and δ13Corg content in the BIF Member are 0.1% and -36.3 to -17.1‰ respectively.  We found great difference in values of δ13Ccarb of siderite. One is Corg-rich shale (up to +15.0‰) and the other is Corg-poor siderite layers (up to -3.8‰). The lighter value of siderite layers may be

  3. Texture, Carbonate Content, and Preliminary Maps of Surficial Sediments of the Flower Garden Banks Area, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Outer Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Rozycki, Jill E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release texture and carbonate content analyses of 107 seafloor sediments collected within and near the East and West Flower Garden Banks areas of the Sanctuary and to show relationships between these data and existing bathymetric data. The sediment data, in conjunction with previously collected geological, geophysical and biological data were used to construct a reconnaissance-scale map of the distribution of seafloor sediment types. This map will be useful for resource managers and can be used, with additional data, as a basis for future habitat mapping.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    PubMed

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  5. Failure Analysis and Recovery of a 50-mm Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearing for an ISS Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Moore, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Ball bearings used inside the ISS Distillation Assembly centrifuge require superior corrosion and shock resistance to withstand acidic wastewater exposure and heavy spacecraft launch related loads. These requirements challenge conventional steel bearings and provide an ideal pathfinder application for 50-mm bore, deep-groove ball bearings made from the corrosion immune and highly elastic intermetallic material 60NiTi. During early ground testing in 2014 one 60NiTi bearing unexpectedly and catastrophically failed after operating for only 200 hr. A second bearing running on the same shaft was completely unaffected. An investigation into the root cause of the failure determined that an excessively tight press fit of the bearing outer race coupled with NiTi's relatively low elastic modulus were key contributing factors. The proposed failure mode was successfully replicated by experiment. To further corroborate the root cause theory, a successful bearing life test using improved installation practices (selective fitting) was conducted. The results show that NiTi bearings are suitable for space applications provided that care is taken to accommodate their unique material characteristics.

  6. Fretting behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy against long bone in the imitated human physiological solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.; Xu, Y. T.; Xia, T. D.; Da, G. Z.

    2007-07-01

    The environment of orthopaedic implants sometimes induces vibrations at the contact of the modular prostheses components. In this paper the fretting behavior of NiTi SMAs against human bones in the imitated human physiological solution was studied at various displacement amplitudes and Ph value. Surface micrograph after fretting was observed by MEF3 microscope. Appearance of fretting scar was measured by 2206 roughness tester. The result shows that the friction coefficient between the bone and NiTi SMAs pairs declined due to the lubrication effect of Hank's solution, and which increased when Ph value of fluid was not 7.2 due to the corrosion. So the friction coefficient at acid and alkali Hank's solution is higher than those at the neutral solution and ambient air condition. Generally speaking, the friction coefficient between the bone and NiTi SMAs tend to be stable with the increasing amplitude at all test conditions. It is because that the surface was oxidized to restrain the forming of wear debris and the further development of fretting scars. Although the length and width of the wear scars in simulation body fluid are smaller than that at ambient air condition, the surface of NiTi SMAs damaged is characterized by deep scratches with debris particles within the contact area. Fretting regime of NiTi/bones pairs exhibits the mixed regime at ambient air condition and the slip regime in the Hank's solution.

  7. Experimental observations on mechanical response of three-phase NiTi shape memory alloy under uniaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the mechanical behavior of three-phase NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) is examined in a wide temperature range using in situ digital image correlation. By varying the temperature and the cooling/heating history, we get the specimens with initial austenite (A), initial R-phase (R), initial martensite (M), initial mixture of A and R, initial mixture of R and M and initial mixture of A and M. It is observed in the experiments that NiTi SMA exhibits localized A → M transformation and R → M transformation while homogenous R-reorientation and martensitic reorientation. Moreover, the influence of the initial mixed states, i.e. mixture of A and M, mixture of R and M and mixture of A and R, on the mechanical response of NiTi SMA is discussed. Interestingly, we find that the specimens with initial mixture of R and M demonstrate homogenous deformation manner and the emergence of R in M facilitates the transformation of NiTi SMA greatly. The three-phase phase diagram is also established. The thermal dependences of the critical transformation stresses associated with various transformation processes are calculated for further theoretical investigation and simulation.

  8. Development and Verification of Sputtered Thin-Film Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    the films were sputtered onto a sacrificial 2 photoresist layer, released in acetone , and then rinsed with deionized water (DI) and dried...prepared by sputtering onto photoresist and lifting off the NiTi in acetone . Fig. 2 shows a DSC scan for the equiatomic Ni50Ti50. Of the compositions

  9. A facile approach towards increasing the nitrogen-content in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via halogenated catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ombaka, L.M.; Ndungu, P.G.; Omondi, B.; McGettrick, J.D.; Davies, M.L.; Nyamori, V.O.

    2016-03-15

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been synthesized at 850 °C via a CVD deposition technique by use of three ferrocenyl derivative catalysts, i.e. para-CN, -CF{sub 3} and -Cl substituted-phenyl rings. The synthesized catalysts have been characterized by NMR, IR, HR-MS and XRD. The XRD analysis of the para-CF{sub 3} catalyst indicates that steric factors influence the X-ray structure of 1,1′-ferrocenylphenyldiacrylonitriles. Acetonitrile or pyridine was used as carbon and nitrogen sources to yield mixtures of N-CNTs and carbon spheres (CS). The N-CNTs obtained from the para-CF{sub 3} catalysts, in pyridine, have the highest nitrogen-doping level, show a helical morphology and are less thermally stable compared with those synthesized by use of the para-CN and -Cl as catalyst. This suggests that fluorine heteroatoms enhance nitrogen-doping in N-CNTs and formation of helical-N-CNTs (H-N-CNTs). The para-CF{sub 3} and para-Cl catalysts in acetonitrile yielded iron-filled N-CNTs, indicating that halogens promote encapsulation of iron into the cavity of N-CNT. The use of acetonitrile, as carbon and nitrogen source, with the para-CN and -Cl as catalysts also yielded a mixture of N-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (CNFs), with less abundance of CNFs in the products obtained using para-Cl catalysts. However, para-CF{sub 3} catalyst in acetonitrile gave N-CNTs as the only shaped carbon nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract showing the synthesis of N-CNTs using halogenated-ferrocenyl derivatives as catalyst with pyridine or acetonitrile as nitrogen and carbon sources via the chemical vapour deposition technique. - Highlights: • N-CNTs were synthesized from halogenated ferrocenyl catalysts. • Halogenated catalysts promote nitrogen-doping and pyridinic nitrogen in N-CNTs. • Halogenated catalysts facilitate iron filling of N-CNTs.

  10. Peculiarities of structure and hardening of Ni-Ti alloy surface layers formed by 84Kr15+ ions irradiation at 147 MeV energy at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtseva, V.; Larionov, A.; Zheltova, G.

    2017-01-01

    The consistent patterns of changes in nanostructure and nanohardness of Ni-Ti alloy after irradiation with 84Kr15+ ions with 147 MeV energy to the fluence of 1·1019 m-2 at 250 and 3000C temperatures depending on phase composition have been experimentally studied. It was shown that significant (44 – 94%) softening of surface layers for the single-phase and two-phase Ni-Ti alloys is connected with the formation of bubble nanostructured defects and complete sputtering of the process layers. The role of nanostructure in roughness of the irradiated Ni-Ti alloy surface of various phase composition has been established.

  11. Comparison of sample digestion techniques for the determination of trace and residual catalyst metal content in single-wall carbon nanotubes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Patricia; Sturgeon, Ralph E.; Diehl, Liange de O.; Bizzi, Cezar A.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2015-03-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube material produced by laser ablation of renewable biochar in the presence of Ni and Co catalyst was characterized for residual catalyst (Co and Ni) as well as trace metal impurity content (Fe, Mo, Cr, Pb and Hg) by isotope dilution ICP-MS following sample digestion. Several matrix destruction procedures were evaluated, including a multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion, dry ashing at 450 °C and microwave-induced combustion with oxygen. Results were benchmarked against those derived from neutron activation analysis and also supported by solid sampling continuum source GF-AAS for several of the elements. Although laborious to execute, the multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion proved to be most reliable for recovery of the majority of the analytes, although content of Cr remained biased low for each approach, likely due to its presence as refractory carbide.

  12. The molecular mechanism for effects of TiN coating on NiTi alloy on endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dayun; Lü, Xiaoying; Hong, Ying; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Deyuan

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically investigate the molecular mechanism of different effects of nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy surface and titanium nitride (TiN) coating on endothelial cell function. Release of nickel (Ni) ion from bare and TiN-coated NiTi alloys and proliferation of endothelial cells on the two materials were evaluated, and then influence of the two materials on cellular protein expression profiles was investigated by proteomic technology. Subsequently, proteomic data were analyzed with bioinformatics analyses and further validated using a series of biological experiments. Results showed that although the two materials did not affect cell proliferation, the Ni ions released from bare NiTi alloy generated inhibition on pathways associated with actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, energy metabolism, inflammation, and amino acid metabolism. In comparison, TiN coating not only effectively prevented release of Ni ions from NiTi alloy, but also promoted actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion formation, increased energy metabolism, enhanced regulation of inflammation, and promoted amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the two processes, "the initial mediation of adsorbed serum protein layer to endothelial cell adhesion and growth on the two materials" from our previous study, and "the following action of the two materials on cellular protein expression profile", were linked up and comprehensively analyzed. It was found that in stage of cell adhesion (within 4 h), release of Ni ions from bare NiTi alloy was very low, and the activation of adsorbed proteins to cell adhesion and growth related biological pathways (such as regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and focal adhesion pathways) was almost as same as TiN-coated NiTi alloy. This indicated that the released Ni ions did not affect the mediation of adsorbed proteins to endothelial cell adhesion. However, in stage of cell growth and proliferation, the release of Ni ions from bare NiTi alloy increased with

  13. The Effect of Pre-Stressing on the Static Indentation Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Superelastic nickel-titanium alloys, such as 60NiTi (60Ni-40Ti by wt.%), are under development for use in mechanical components like rolling element bearings and gears. Compared to traditional bearing steels, these intermetallic alloys, when properly heat-treated, are hard but exhibit much lower elastic modulus (approx.100 GPa) and a much broader elastic deformation range (approx.3 percent or more). These material characteristics lead to high indentation static load capacity, which is important for certain applications especially space mechanisms. To ensure the maximum degree of elastic behavior, superelastic materials must be pre-stressed, a process referred to as "training" in shape memory effect (SME) terminology, at loads and stresses beyond expected use conditions. In this paper, static indentation load capacity tests are employed to assess the effects of pre-stressing on elastic response behavior of 60NiTi. The static load capacity is measured by pressing 12.7 mm diameter ceramic Si3N4 balls into highly polished, hardened 60NiTi flat plates that have previously been exposed to varying levels of pre-stress (up to 2.7 GPa) to determine the load that results in shallow but measurable (0.6 m, 25 in. deep) permanent dents. Hertz stress calculations are used to estimate contact stress. Without exposure to pre-stress, the 60NiTi surface can withstand an approximately 3400 kN load before significant denting (>0.4 m deep) occurs. When pre-stressed to 2.7 GPa, a static load of 4900 kN is required to achieve a comparable dent, a 30 percent increase. These results suggest that stressing contact surfaces prior to use enhances the static indentation load capacity of the superelastic 60NiTi. This approach may be adaptable to the engineering and manufacture of highly resilient mechanical components such as rolling element bearings.

  14. Effect of Surface Alloying by Silicon on the Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of the Binary NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psakhie, S. G.; Meisner, S. N.; Lotkov, A. I.; Meisner, L. L.; Tverdokhlebova, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the study on changes in element and phase compositions in the near-surface layer and on surface topography of the NiTi specimens after the silicon ion-beam treatment. The effect of these parameters of the near-surface layer on corrosion properties in biochemical solutions and biocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells of rat marrow is studied. Ion-beam surface modification of the specimens was performed by a DIANA-3 implanter (Tomsk, Russia), using single-ion-beam pulses under oil-free pumping and high vacuum (10-4 Pa) conditions in a high-dose ion implantation regime. The fluence made 2 × 1017 cm-2, at an average accelerating voltage of 60 kV, and pulse repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The silicon ion-beam treatment of specimen surfaces is shown to bring about a nearly twofold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the material to attack by aqueous solutions of NaCl (artificial body fluid) and human plasma and a drastic decrease in the nickel concentration after immersion of the specimens into the solutions for ~3400 and ~6000 h, respectively (for the artificial plasma solution, a nearly 20-fold decrease in the Ni concentration is observed). It is shown that improvement of NiTi corrosion resistance after treatment by Si ions occurs mainly due to the formation of two-layer composite coating based on Ti oxides (outer layer) on the NiTi surface and adjacent inner layer of oxides, carbides, and silicides of the NiTi alloy components. Inner layer with high silicon concentration serves as a barrier layer preventing nickel penetration into biomedium. This, in our opinion, is the main reason why the NiTi alloy exhibits no cytotoxic properties after ion modification of its surface and leads to the biocompatibility improvement at the cellular level, respectively.

  15. Multiple-Input Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) for Measuring the Carbon Content in Soil Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, William K.

    2014-01-24

    This report describes work funder under STTR grants Phase I and II and carried out jointly by XIA LLC and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project goal was to develop a mobile nuclear activation analysis instrument that could be towed behind a tractor to document soil carbon levels in agricultural lands for carbon credit certification. XIA developed large NaI(Tl) detectors with integrated digital pulse processors controlled over USB 2.0 and delivered 16 of these units to BNL for integration into the prototype instrument, together with the necessary software to calibrate them and collect data. For reasons that are unknown to XIA, the BNL participants never completed the prototype vehicle, performed system integration, or carried out the proposed qualification and field tests, leaving the project incomplete.

  16. [Effects of soil texture and water content on the mineralization of soil organic carbon in paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-lin; Wu, Jin-shui; Ge, Ti-da; Tang, Guo-yong; Tong, Cheng-li

    2009-01-01

    To understand how soil texture and water content affect the mineralization of organic C in paddy soil, 3 selected soils (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay) were incubated (25 degrees C) with 14 C-labelled rice straw (1.0 g x kg(-1)) at water content varied from 45% to 105% of water holding capacity (WHC). Data indicated that, in the sandy loam and clay loam, the mineralization rate of 14 C-labelled rice straw reached the maximum at 75% WHC, as 53% and 58% of the straw C mineralized in the incubation period of 160 d, whereas in the silty clay, it increased gradually (from 41.8% to 49.0%) as water content increased up to 105% WHC. For all of the three soils, the mineralization rate of soil native organic C reached the maximum at 75% WHC, with 5.8% of the organic C mineralized in the same period for the sandy loam, and 8.0% and 4.8% for the clay loam and silty clay, respectively. As water content increased further, the mineralization rate of native organic C in the three soils significantly declined. The mineralization rate of added rice straw and native organic C in all the three soils, was well fitted with a conic curve. These results suggest that water-logging can decrease the mineralization of organic C in paddy soils.

  17. Characterization and (10)Be content of iron carbonate concretions for genetic aspects - Weathering, desert varnish or burning: Rim effects in iron carbonate concretions.

    PubMed

    Polgári, Márta; Bérczi, Szaniszló; Horiuchi, Kazuho; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Kovács, Tibor; Józsa, Sándor; Bendő, Zsolt; Fintor, Krisztián; Fekete, József; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő; Gucsik, Arnold; Gyollai, Ildikó; Kovács, János; Dódony, István

    2016-12-20

    The research investigated three iron carbonate (siderite) sedimentary concretions from Nagykovácsi, Úri and Délegyháza, Hungary. To identify possible source rocks and effects of the glaze-like exposed surface of the concretions, we carried on comparative petrological, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic studies. The samples were microbially mediated siderite concretions with embedded metamorphous and igneous mineral clasts, and had specific rim belts characterized by semi-concentric outer Fe-oxide layers, fluffy pyrite-rich outer belts and siderite inner parts. We investigated the cross section of the Fe-carbonate concretions by independent methodologies in order to identify their rim effects. Their surficial oxide layers showed evidence of degassing of the exposed surface caused most probably by elevated temperatures. The inner rim pyrite belt in the concretions excluded the possibility of a prolonged wet surface environment. Microtextural and mineralogical features did not support desert varnish formation. (10)Be nuclide values of the Nagykovácsi and Uri concretions were far above the level of terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic nuclides, but they were consistent with the lowest levels for meteorites. Though the data were not conclusive to confirm any kind of known origin, they are contradictary, and open possibilities for a scenario of terrestrial meteorite origin.

  18. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R.; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc = 0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen + black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for > 60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that > 80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration < 1000 μg L- 1. These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM.

  19. Acid neutralizing capacity and leachate results for igneous rocks, with associated carbon contents of derived soils, Animas River AML site, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Stanton, Mark R.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Burchell,

    2009-01-01

    Mine planning efforts have historically overlooked the possible acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) that local igneous rocks can provide to help neutralize acidmine drainage. As a result, limestone has been traditionally hauled to mine sites for use in neutralizing acid drainage. Local igneous rocks, when used as part of mine life-cycle planning and acid mitigation strategy, may reduce the need to transport limestone to mine sites because these rocks can contain acid neutralizing minerals. Igneous hydrothermal events often introduce moderately altered mineral assemblages peripheral to more intensely altered rocks that host metal-bearing veins and ore bodies. These less altered rocks can contain ANC minerals (calcite-chlorite-epidote) and are referred to as a propylitic assemblage. In addition, the carbon contents of soils in areas of new mining or those areas undergoing restoration have been historically unknown. Soil organic carbon is an important constituent to characterize as a soil recovery benchmark that can be referred to during mine cycle planning and restoration.
    This study addresses the mineralogy, ANC, and leachate chemistry of propylitic volcanic rocks that host polymetallic mineralization in the Animas River watershed near the historical Silverton, Colorado, mining area. Acid titration tests on volcanic rocks containing calcite (2 – 20 wt %) and chlorite (6 – 25 wt %), have ANC ranging from 4 – 146 kg/ton CaCO3 equivalence. Results from a 6-month duration, kinetic reaction vessel test containing layered pyritic mine waste and underlying ANC volcanic rock (saturated with deionized water) indicate that acid generating mine waste (pH 2.4) has not overwhelmed the ANC of propylitic volcanic rocks (pH 5.8). Sequential leachate laboratory experiments evaluated the concentration of metals liberated during leaching. Leachate concentrations of Cu-Zn-As-Pb for ANC volcanic rock are one-to-three orders of magnitude lower when compared to leached

  20. B content and Si/C ratios from cultured diatoms (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Thalassiosira weissflogii): Relationship to seawater pH and diatom carbon acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, Luz María; Isensee, Kirsten; Méndez-Vicente, Ana; Pisonero, Jorge; Shimizu, Nobumichi; González, Cristina; Monteleone, Brian; Stoll, Heather

    2013-12-01

    Despite the importance of diatoms in regulating climate and the existence of large opal-containing sediments in key air-ocean exchange areas, most geochemical proxy records are based on carbonates. Among them, Boron (B) content and isotopic composition have been widely used to reconstruct pH from foraminifera and coral fossils. We assessed the possibility of a pH/CO2 seawater concentration control on B content in diatom opal to determine whether or not frustule B concentrations could be used as a pH proxy or to clarify algae physiological responses to acidifying pH. We cultured two well-studied diatom species, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Thalassiosira weissflogii at varying pH conditions and determined Si and C quotas. Frustule B content was measured by both laser-ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS/ion probe). For both species, frustules grown at higher pH have higher B contents and higher Si requirements per fixed C. If this trend is representative of diatom silicification in a future more acidic ocean, it could contribute to changes in the efficiency of diatom ballasting and C export, as well as changes in the contribution of diatoms relative to other phytoplankton groups in Si-limited regions. If B enters the cell through the same transporter employed for HCO3- uptake, an increased HCO3- requirement with decreasing CO2 concentrations (higher pH), and higher B(OH)4/HCO3- ratios would explain the observed increase in frustule B content with increasing pH. The mechanism of B transport from the site of uptake to the site of silica deposition is unknown, but may occur via silicon transport vesicles, in which B(OH)4- may be imported for B detoxification and/or as part of a pH regulation strategy either though Na-dependent B(OH)4-/Cl- antiport or B(OH)4-/H+ antiport. B deposition in the silica matrix may occur via substitution of a B(OH)4- for a negatively charged SiO- formed during silicification. With

  1. The influence of dissolved H2O content in supercritical carbon dioxide to the inclusion complexes formation of ketoprofen/β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenawan, Joshua; Trisanti, P. N.; Sumarno

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the relation between dissolved H2O content in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) with the formation of ketoprofen (KP)/β-cyclodextrin(CD) inclusion complexes. The process involves a physical mixture of these two compounds into contact with the supercritical carbon dioxide which had been previously saturated with H2O over a certain duration. The pressure used for saturation process is 130 bar and saturation temperature was ranged between 30 °C to 50 °C. The inclusion process was achieved by keeping it for 2 hours at 160 bar and 200 bar with inclusion temperature of 50 °C. The results enable us to suggest explanations for the inclusion formation. The inclusion complexes can be formed by contacting the dissolved H2O in SC-CO2 to the physical mixture of KP and CD. An increase in the temperature of saturation process resulted in an increase of dissolved H2O content in the supercritical carbon dioxide. The increasing levels of this water soluble resulted an increase in the inclusion complexes that has been formed. The formation of inclusion complexes includes the water molecules enhancing the emptying of the CD cavities and being replaced by KP, towards a more stable energy state. The drug release used for analyzing the dissolution rate of the KP/CD complexes. The results vary from 79,85% to 99,98% after 45 minutes which is above the rate that has been assigned by Farmakope Indonesia at 70% dissolution rate for KP. The use of SC-CO2 offers a new methods for increasing the rate of dissolution of drugs that are hydrophobic such as KP. CO2 used as a supercritical fluid because of its relatively low cost, easily obtainable supercritical conditions, and lack of toxicity. The material samples were characterized by DSC and Spectrophotometer UV-vis technique.

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 photorespiratory mutants maintain leaf carbon/nitrogen balance by reducing RuBisCO content and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Dellero, Younès; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Jossier, Mathieu; Hodges, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic and physiological analyses of glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (GGT1) mutants were performed at the global leaf scale to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their photorespiratory growth phenotype. Air-grown ggt1 mutants showed retarded growth and development, that was not observed at high CO2 (3000 μL L(-1) ). When compared to wild-type (WT) plants, air-grown ggt1 plants exhibited glyoxylate accumulation, global changes in amino acid amounts including a decrease in serine content, lower organic acid levels, and modified ATP/ADP and NADP(+) /NADPH ratios. When compared to WT plants, their net CO2 assimilation rates (An ) were 50% lower and this mirrored decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) contents. High CO2 -grown ggt1 plants transferred to air revealed a rapid decrease of An and photosynthetic electron transfer rate while maintaining a high energetic state. Short-term (a night period and 4 h of light) transferred ggt1 leaves accumulated glyoxylate and exhibited low serine contents, while other amino acid levels were not modified. RuBisCO content, activity and activation state were not altered after a short-term transfer while the ATP/ADP ratio was lowered in ggt1 rosettes. However, plant growth and RuBisCO levels were both reduced in ggt1 leaves after a long-term (12 days) acclimation to air from high CO2 when compared to WT plants. The data are discussed with respect to a reduced photorespiratory carbon recycling in the mutants. It is proposed that the low An limits nitrogen-assimilation, this decreases leaf RuBisCO content until plants attain a new homeostatic state that maintains a constant C/N balance and leads to smaller, slower growing plants.

  3. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF6-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa; Engelhard, Mark H.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-10

    Cesium salt has been demonstrated as an efficient electrolyte additive in suppressing the lithium (Li) dendrite formation and directing the formation of an ultrathin and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) even in propylene carbonate (PC)-ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes. Here, we further investigate the effect of PC content in the presence of CsPF6 additive (0.05 M) on the performances of graphite electrode in Li||graphite half cells and in graphite||LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is also affected by PC content even though CsPF6 additive is present in the electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of the Cs+ additive and the PC solvent. The formation of a robust, ultrathin and compact SEI layer containing lithium-enriched species on the graphite electrode, directed by Cs+, effectively suppresses the PC co-intercalation and thus prevents the graphite exfoliation. This SEI layer is only permeable for de-solvated Li+ ions and allows fast Li+ ion transport through it, which therefore largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent also enables the sustainable operation of the graphite||NCA full cells under a wide spectrum of temperatures. The fundamental findings of this work shed light on the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in a variety of energy storage devices.

  4. A searching of past large Solar Proton Event by measuring carbon-14 content in tree-rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, F.; Masuda, K.; Hakozaki, M.; Nakamura, T.; Kimura, K.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) is produced by incoming cosmic rays to the Earth. The produced 14C becomes 14CO2 and is absorbed by trees by photosynthesis. If a large Solar Proton Event (SPE) had occurred in the past, tree-rings would record such an event as a sudden 14C increase within 1-year. Recently we found two signatures of large SPEs in AD 774-775 and AD 993-994 by the measurement of the 14C content in tree-rings. Some studies have estimated a scale of the AD 775 event as ten to dozens of times larger than the largest SPE on record. There is the possibility that a lot of such events are hidden in the periods when the 14C content has not been measured with a 1-year resolution. If we detect such events, we are able to discuss a detailed occurrence rate of the large SPE which is very important factor to prepare for future large SPEs. We are planning to search for the past large SPEs by the measurements of 14C content in Japanese trees for this 5000 years. In this thesis, we are going to explain the plan and problems.

  5. Carbon dioxide adsorption on micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type: The role of the contents of zeolite and functionalized amine

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, S.C.G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of the micro-mesoporous composite materials of ZSM-12/MCM-48 type. • Application of these adsorbents in the carbon dioxide adsorption. • Effects of the contents of zeolite and amino group in the material surface on the CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. - Abstract: In this study ZSM-12/MCM-48 adsorbents have been synthesized at three ZSM-12 content, and also were functionalizated with amine groups by grafting. All the adsorbents synthesized were evaluated for CO{sub 2} capture. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the ZSM-12/MCM-48 composite showed the main characteristic peaks of ZSM-12 and MCM-48, and after the functionalization, the structure of MCM-48 on the composite impregnated was affected due amine presence. For the composites without amine, the ZSM-12 content was the factor determining in the adsorption capacity of CO{sub 2} and for the composites with amine the amount of amine was that influenced in the adsorption capacity.

  6. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  7. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF₆-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa; Engelhard, Mark H; Polzin, Bryant J; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-03-02

    The effects of propylene carbonate (PC) content in CsPF6-containing electrolytes on the performances of graphite electrode in lithium half cells and in graphite∥LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells are investigated. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is significantly affected by PC content in the CsPF6-containing electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the PC solvent and the Cs(+) additive. The synergistic effects of Cs(+) additive and appropriate amount of PC enable the formation of a robust, ultrathin, and compact solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the surface of graphite electrode, which is only permeable for desolvated Li(+) ions and allows fast Li(+) ion transport through it. Therefore, this SEI layer effectively suppresses the PC cointercalation and largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at relatively high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent improves the sustainable operation of graphite∥NCA full cells under a wide temperature range. The fundamental findings also shed light on the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in various energy-storage devices.

  8. Influence of Cr contents and nanograin sizes on microstructure, mechanical and sliding tribological behaviors of hard Cr-diamond-like carbon films.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Chengbiao; Hua, Meng; Liu, Yang; Yu, Deyang

    2010-08-01

    The influence of Cr content and nanograin size on the microstructure, the mechanical and sliding tribological behaviors of Cr-containing diamond-like carbon (Cr-DLC) films, deposited on (100) Si substrate by a mid-frequency dual-magnetron system, was explored. The Cr-containing nanoparticles (combining Cr with C) were dispersed in the amorphous DLC matrix while some nanoparticles were transformed into compounds of C/Cr. The incorporation of Cr into Cr-DLC films improved the crystallinity of the Cr-rich nanoparticles and partially converted the nanoparticles to Cr/C phase. The films with Cr content ranging between 5-10 at% and with Cr-containing nanograin sizes in range of 15-27 nm were found to possess higher hardness, lower intrinsic stress, lower coefficient of friction (COF) and wear rate than those of 16-28 at% Cr content and 46-74 nm nanograin sizes. The superhard Cr-DLC film with 8.3 at% Cr and 18.4 nm Cr-containing grain gave the favorable micro-tribological characteristics with COF at micro approximately 0.1 and wear rate at 3.6 x 10(-8) mm3/Nm.

  9. The oxygen content of ocean bottom waters, the burial efficiency of organic carbon, and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, J. N.; Holland, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Data for the burial efficiency of organic carbon with marine sediments have been compiled for 69 locations. The burial efficiency as here defined is the ratio of the quantity of organic carbon which is ultimately buried to that which reaches the sediment-water interface. As noted previously, the sedimentation rate exerts a dominant influence on the burial efficiency. The logarithm of the burial efficiency is linearly related to the logarithm of the sedimentation rate at low sedimentation rates. At high sedimentation rates the burial efficiency can exceed 50% and becomes nearly independent of the sedimentation rate. The residual of the burial efficiency after the effect of the sedimentation rate has been subtracted is a weak function of the O2 concentration in bottom waters. The scatter is sufficiently large, so that the effect of the O2 concentration in bottom waters on the burial efficiency of organic matter could be either negligible or a minor but significant part of the mechanism that controls the level of O2 in the atmosphere.

  10. The influence of Si as reactive bonding agent in the electrophoretic coatings of HA-Si-MWCNTs on NiTi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Maleki-Ghaleh, Hossein; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther

    2016-02-01

    In this study, different composite coatings with 20 wt.% silicon and 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes of hydroxyapatite were developed on NiTi substrate using a combination of electrophoretic deposition and reactive bonding during the sintering. Silicon was used as reactive bonding agent. During electrophoretic deposition, the constant voltage of 30 V was applied for 60 s. After deposition, samples were dried and then sintered at 850 °C for 1 h in a vacuum furnace. SEM, XRD and EDX were used to characterize the microstructure, phase and elemental identification of coatings, respectively. The SEM images of the coatings reveal a uniform and compact structure for HA-Si and HA-Si-MWCNTs. The presence of silicon as a reactive bonding agent as well as formation of new phases such as SiO2, CaSiO3 and Ca3SiO5 during the sintering process results in compact coatings and consumes produced phases from HA decomposition. Formation of the mentioned phases was confirmed using XRD analysis. The EDX elemental maps show a homogeneous distribution of silicon all over the composite coatings. Also, the bonding strength of HA-Si-MWCNTs coating is found to be 27.47 ± 1 MPa.

  11. Predictive Modeling of the Constitutive Response of Precipitation Hardened Ni-Rich NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A.; Franco, B.; Wang, S.; Baxevanis, T.; Karaman, I.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2017-03-01

    The effective thermomechanical response of precipitation hardened near-equiatomic Ni-rich NiTi alloys is predicted on the basis of composition and heat treatment using a microscale-informed model. The model takes into account the structural effects of the precipitates (precipitate volume fraction, elastic properties, elastic mismatch between the precipitates and the matrix, and coherency stresses due to the lattice mismatch between the precipitates and the matrix) on the reversible martensitic transformation under load as well as the chemical effects resulting from the Ni-depletion of the matrix during precipitate growth. The post-aging thermomechanical response is predicted based on finite element simulations on representative microstructures, using the response of the solutionized material and time-temperature-martensitic transformation temperature maps. The predictions are compared with experiments for materials of different initial compositions and heat treatments and reasonably good agreement is demonstrated for relatively low precipitate volume fractions.

  12. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  13. Predictive Modeling of the Constitutive Response of Precipitation Hardened Ni-Rich NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A.; Franco, B.; Wang, S.; Baxevanis, T.; Karaman, I.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    The effective thermomechanical response of precipitation hardened near-equiatomic Ni-rich NiTi alloys is predicted on the basis of composition and heat treatment using a microscale-informed model. The model takes into account the structural effects of the precipitates (precipitate volume fraction, elastic properties, elastic mismatch between the precipitates and the matrix, and coherency stresses due to the lattice mismatch between the precipitates and the matrix) on the reversible martensitic transformation under load as well as the chemical effects resulting from the Ni-depletion of the matrix during precipitate growth. The post-aging thermomechanical response is predicted based on finite element simulations on representative microstructures, using the response of the solutionized material and time-temperature-martensitic transformation temperature maps. The predictions are compared with experiments for materials of different initial compositions and heat treatments and reasonably good agreement is demonstrated for relatively low precipitate volume fractions.

  14. Initial oxidation of pure and K doped NiTi shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollefsen, H.; Raaen, S.

    2009-06-01

    Initial oxidation of pure and K doped nitinol has been studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. The composition of the TiOx layer that forms on the surface is found to depend on the temperature during oxidation. The oxidation at high temperatures results in enhanced formation of lower oxides, whereas TiO2 predominates for oxidation at lower temperatures, e.g., 70 °C. Submonolayer coverage of K on NiTi enhances the formation of TiO2 on the expense of lower oxides, which is of consequence for formation of a protective oxide layer and biocompatibility. Oxidation in the martensitic phase was found to be independent of temperature for temperatures between -40 and 10 °C, whereas in the austenitic phase the oxide growth is thermally activated.

  15. Shape memory and transformation behavior of high strength 60NiTi in compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, I.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the transformation behavior of highly Ni-rich 60NiTi alloys after aging at 600 °C for 3 h. After 600 °C-3h aging, R-phase disappeared and alloy transformed in one step. The latent heats of austenite to martensite and martensite to austenite transformations were 13 Jg-1 and 16.4 Jg-1, respectively, for 600 °C-3h aged alloy. The elastic strain energy of 0.75 Jg-1 was obtained in aged alloy. The maximum recoverable transformation strain of 1.7% is obtained under 500 MPa in compression. The superelastic behavior was observed accompanied with a recoverable strain of 1.4%, even high stress level of 1000 MPa is applied.

  16. Microscale Repeatability of the Shape-Memory Effect in Fine NiTi Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Joyce Yue; Daly, Samantha H.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental investigation into microscale transformation characteristics of polycrystalline NiTi wires of 500 µm diameter during shape memory cycling is discussed, with emphasis on the characterization of a pronounced heterogeneity in the strain distribution evident during detwinning of the martensite phase upon application of load and its persistence throughout the actuation cycle. Using scanning electron microscopy-digital image correlation, full-field strain maps at the microscale were obtained during shape memory cycling. It was found that the strains induced by detwinning were quite heterogeneous at the microscale, and could display a large degree of similarity with thermo-mechanical cycling that tended to increase as cycling progressed. Residual strain concentrated at locations where strain accumulation from detwinning and plasticity were significant, indicating that martensitic detwinning and the associated plasticity that occurs with it is spatially correlated to the subsequent accumulation of residual strain at the microscale.

  17. Effects of surface finish and mechanical training on Ni-Ti sheets for elastocaloric cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tušek, Jaka; Sanna, Simone; Eriksen, Dan; Mishin, Oleg V.; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Pryds, Nini

    2016-06-01

    Elastocaloric cooling has emerged as a promising alternative to vapor compression in recent years. Although the technology has the potential to be more efficient than current technologies, there are many technical challenges that must be overcome to realize devices with high performance and acceptable durability. We study the effects of surface finish and training techniques on dog bone shaped polycrystalline samples of NiTi. The fatigue life of several samples with four different surface finishes was measured and it was shown that a smooth surface, especially at the edges, greatly improved fatigue life. The effects of training both on the structure of the materials and the thermal response to an applied strain was studied. The load profile for the first few cycles was shown to change the thermal response to strain, the structure of the material at failure while the final structure of the material was weakly influenced by the surface finish.

  18. Effect of ceramic conversion treatments on the surface damage and nickel ion release of NiTi alloys under fretting corrosion conditions.

    PubMed

    Dong, H; Ju, X; Yang, H; Qian, L; Zhou, Z

    2008-02-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated that surface modification can improve the fretting wear resistance of NiTi alloys in air or enhance their aqueous corrosion resistance without fretting. However, little is known about the behaviour of surface engineered NiTi under fretting corrosion conditions. This is important for such body implants as orthodontic arch wires and orthopedic bone fixation devices because they need to withstand the combined attack of corrosion from body fluid and mechanical fretting. In this study, a NiTi alloy was ceramic conversion (CC) treated at 400 and 650 degrees C. The effect of the surface treatment on the fretting corrosion behaviour of NiTi alloy was investigated using fretting corrosion tests in the Ringer's solution. The experimental results have shown that the CC treatment can convert the surface of NiTi into a TiO2 layer, which can effectively improve the fretting corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy and significantly reduce Ni ion release into the Ringer's solution. Detailed SEM observations revealed that the untreated samples were severely damaged by adhesion and delamination; the high temperature (HT) (650 degrees C/1 h) treated samples were damaged mainly by spallation and adhesion; and the low temperature (LT) (400 degrees C/50 h) treated samples were characterised by mild abrasion. Mild oxidation and corrosion were also observed for all three types of samples tested under fretting corrosion conditions.

  19. Large scale simulation of NiTi helical spring actuators under repeated thermomechanical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Dhakal, B.; Hosseini, M. S.; Padula, S. A., II

    2013-09-01

    As typically utilized in applications, a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator operates under a large number of thermomechanical cycles, hence the importance of accounting for the cyclic behavior characteristics in modeling and numerical simulation of these actuators. To this end, the present work is focused on the characterization of the cyclic, evolutionary behavior of binary 55NiTi using a newly developed, multi-axial, material-modeling framework and its finite element analysis (FEA) implementation for use in the simulations of SMA actuators. In particular, two different geometric configurations of four- and two-coil helical springs subjected to axial end-forces are investigated under the effect of a large number of thermal cycles leading to the saturated deformation state of the coils. In addition, two different boundary conditions were examined, corresponding to: (a) the loading end cross section assumed to be free-to-twist, and (b) the loading end cross section assumed to be restrained against twist rotation. The study has led to the following five important conclusions: (i) the states of stresses and strains in the coils exhibited marked spatial non-homogeneities, both along the length as well as the cross section of the wires; (ii) the cyclic deformation response of the coils exhibits a similar evolutionary character to that of the 55NiTi material when tested under simple isobaric tensile stress conditions; (iii) the end boundary conditions affect the evolution of the deformation response; (iv) the magnitudes of the evolving nonlinear deformation states (i.e., axial displacements on the martensite and austenite sides, as well as the actuation displacement) were found to be proportional to the number of coils in an essentially linear manner, and (v) the change in coil diameter, while maintaining the pitch height, wire diameter and the number of coils fixed, has a significant effect on the response of the helical spring, both with regard to the resulting stress

  20. PCB congeners and hexachlorobenzene biota sediment accumulation factors for Macoma nasuta exposed to sediments with different total organic carbon contents

    SciTech Connect

    Boese, B.L.; Lee, H. II; Randall, R. . Pacific Ecosystems Branch); Winsor, M.; Echols, S.; Pelletier, J. . Hatfield Marine Science Center)

    1995-02-01

    Deposit-feeding marine clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 119 d to three sediment types that varied in total organic carbon (TOC) from 0.8 to 2.5%. Sediments were spiked with equal concentrations of 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and hexachlorobenzene. Tissue residues were measured, and steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs), the corresponding lipid, and TOC-normalized biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined. The BSAFs were less variable than were the BAFs with the exception of compounds with log K[sub ow] > 7. Many of the BSAFs exceeded 1.7, which is a calculated maximum value based on partitioning alone. Although BSAFs varied with sediment type and compound, the use of a BSAF of 4 as a screening level for neutral organic compounds in assessing dredge materials is supported by the present study.

  1. Carbon dioxide partial pressure and 13C content of north temperate and boreal lakes at spring ice melt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Chanton, J.P.; Wickland, K.P.; Bugna, G.C.; Rantakari, M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulates under lake ice in winter and degasses to the atmosphere after ice melt. This large springtime CO2 pulse is not typically considered in surface-atmosphere flux estimates, because most field studies have not sampled through ice during late winter. Measured CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) of lake surface water ranged from 8.6 to 4,290 Pa (85-4,230 ??atm) in 234 north temperate and boreal lakes prior to ice melt during 1998 and 1999. Only four lakes had surface pCO2 less than or equal to atmospheric pCO2, whereas 75% had pCO2 >5 times atmospheric. The ??13CDIC (DIC = ??CO2) of 142 of the lakes ranged from -26.28??? to +0.95.???. Lakes with the greatest pCO2 also had the lightest ??13CDIC, which indicates respiration as their primary CO2 source. Finnish lakes that received large amounts of dissolved organic carbon from surrounding peatlands had the greatest pCO2. Lakes set in noncarbonate till and bedrock in Minnesota and Wisconsin had the smallest pCO2 and the heaviest ??13CDIC, which indicates atmospheric and/or mineral sources of C for those lakes. Potential emissions for the period after ice melt were 2.36 ?? 1.44 mol CO2 m-2 for lakes with average pCO2 values and were as large as 13.7 ?? 8.4 mol CO2 m-2 for lakes with high pCO2 values.

  2. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  3. An injection method for measuring the carbon isotope content of soil carbon dioxide and soil respiration with a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Andrew B; Schauer, Andrew J; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Bowling, David R

    2010-04-15

    We present a novel technique in which the carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of soil CO(2) is measured from small gas samples (<5 mL) injected into a stream of CO(2)-free air flowing into a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDL). This new method extends the dynamic range of the TDL to measure CO(2) mole fractions ranging from ambient to pure CO(2), reduces the volume of sample required to a few mL, and does not require field deployment of the instrument. The measurement precision of samples stored for up to 60 days was 0.23 per thousand. The new TDL method was applied with a simple gas well sampling technique to obtain and measure gas samples from shallow soil depth increments for CO(2) mole fraction and delta(13)C analysis, and subsequent determination of the delta(13)C of soil-respired CO(2). The method was tested using an artificial soil system containing a controlled CO(2) source and compared with an independent method using the TDL and an open soil chamber. The profile and chamber estimates of delta(13)C of an artificially produced CO(2) flux were consistent and converged to the delta(13)C of the CO(2) source at steady state, indicating the accuracy of both methods under controlled conditions. The new TDL method, in which a small pulse of sample is measured on a carrier gas stream, is analogous for the TDL technique to the development of continuous-flow configurations for isotope ratio mass spectrometry. While the applications presented here are focused on soil CO(2), this new TDL method could be applied in a number of situations requiring measurement of delta(13)C of CO(2) in small gas samples with ambient to high CO(2) mole fractions.

  4. Can human mesenchymal stem cells survive on a NiTi implant material subjected to cyclic loading?

    PubMed

    Habijan, T; Glogowski, T; Kühn, S; Pohl, M; Wittsiepe, J; Greulich, C; Eggeler, G; Schildhauer, T A; Köller, M

    2011-06-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMAs) exhibit mechanical and chemical properties which make them attractive candidate materials for various types of biomedical applications. However, the high nickel content of NiTi-SMAs may result in adverse tissue reactions, especially when they are considered for load-bearing implants. It is generally assumed that a protective titanium oxide layer separates the metallic alloy from its environment and that this explains the good biocompatibility of NiTi. Cyclic loading may result in failure of the protective oxide layer. The scientific objective of this work was to find out whether cyclic dynamic strain, in a range relevant for orthopedic implants, diminishes the biocompatibility of NiTi-SMAs. In order to analyze the biocompatibility of NiTi-SMA surfaces subjected to cyclic loading, NiTi-SMA tensile specimens were preloaded with mesenchymal stem cells, transferred to a sterile cell culture system and fixed to the pull rods of a tensile testing machine. Eighty-six thousand and four hundred strain cycles at 2% pseudoelastic strain were performed for a period of 24 h or 7 days. Cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF) and nickel ion release were determined within the cell culture medium. Adherent cells on the tensile specimens were stained with calcein-AM and propidium iodide to determine cell viability. Dynamic loading of the tensile specimens did not influence the viability of adherent human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) after 24 h or 7 days compared with the non-strained control. Dynamic cycles of loading and unloading did not affect nickel ion release from the tensile specimens. The release of IL-6 from hMSCs cultured under dynamic conditions was significantly higher after mechanical load (873 pg ml(-1)) compared with static conditions (323 pg ml(-1)). The present work demonstrates that a new type of mechanical in vitro cell culture experiment can provide information which previously could only be obtained in large animal

  5. Transmission electron microscopy studying of structural features of NiTi B2 phase formed under pulsed electron-beam impact

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, Ludmila L.; Semin, Viktor O.; Gudimova, Ekaterina Y.; Neiman, Alexey A. Lotkov, Alexander I.; Ostapenko, Marina G.; Koval, Nikolai N.; Teresov, Anton D.

    2015-10-27

    By transmission electron microscopy method the evolution of structural-phase states on a depth of close to equiatomic NiTi modified layer has been studied. Modification performed by pulse impact on its surface low-energy high-current electron beam (beam energy density 10 J/sm{sup 2}, 10 pulses, pulse duration 50mks). It is established that during the treatment in the layer thickness of 8–10 μm, the melting of primary B2 phase and contained therein as Ti2Ni phase particles occurs. The result is change in the concentration ratio of titanium and nickel in the direction of increasing titanium content, which was confirmed by X-ray analysis in the form of increased unit cell parameter B2 phase. Analysis of the electron diffraction pattern showed that the modified layer is characterized as a highly distorted structure on the basis of bcc lattice. Lattice distortions are maximal near the surface and extends to a depth of melt. In subjacent layer there is gradual decline lattice distortions is observed.

  6. On the additional information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data for estimating ecosystem carbon dioxde and energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Tomelleri, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Radiation reflected back from an ecosystem carries a spectral signature resulting from the interaction of radiation with the vegetation canopy and the underlying soil and thus allows drawing conclusions about the structure and functioning of an ecosystem. When this information is linked to a model of the leaf CO2 exchange, the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange can be simulated. A well-known and very simplistic example for this approach is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model proposed by Monteith which links the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation times a LUE parameter, both of which may be estimated based on remote sensing data, to predict the ecosystem gross photosynthesis. Here we explore the ability of a more elaborate approach by using near-surface remote sensing of hyperspectral reflected radiation, eddy covariance CO2 and energy flux measurements and a coupled radiative transfer and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model. Our main objective is to understand to what degree the joint assimilation of hyperspectral reflected radiation and eddy covariance flux measurements into the model helps to better constrain model parameters. To this end we use the SCOPE model, a combination of the well-known PROSAIL model and a SVAT model, and the Bayesian inversion algorithm DREAM. In order to explicitly link reflectance in the visible light and the leaf CO2 exchange, a novel parameterisation of the maximum carboxylation capacity parameter (Vcmax) on the leaf a+b chlorophyll content parameter of PROSAIL is introduced. Results are discussed with respect to the additional information content the hyperspectral data yield for simulating canopy photosynthesis.

  7. Study of electric properties of amorphous AgGe1+xAs1-xS3 with content of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, Nina; Kurochka, Kirill; Volkova, Yana

    2013-06-01

    Multicomponent copper and silver chalcogenides have been known as promising materials for scientific and applied purposes. These materials are also under intense investigation for application in a phase-change random access memory. In order to obtain materials with a high ionic conductivity component, glassy silver chalcogenides AgGe1+xAs1-xS3 with the addition of nanotubes were synthesized. In this work the study of electrical properties of the amorphous chalcogenide AgGe1.4As0.6S3 (x = 0.4) with carbon nanotube content at a frequency of the alternating-current electric field varying from 1 Hz to 5 MHz and on direct current at ambient pressure and at pressure up to 30 GPa are presented. The ion transport was confirmed by means DC measurements in cells with blocking ion component of conductivity electrodes. An evaluation of the proportion of ionic conductivity can make a preliminary conclusion that the ionic component of the conductivity of at least 98%. Analyze of the baric dependences of AC properties have shown that the dielectric loss tangent and the real part of an admittance of the AgGe1.4As0.6S3 with carbon nanotube content compound exponentially increase with a pressure increase from 1 up to 30 GPa. The study was supported in part by the Ural Federal University development program with the financial support of young scientists; and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 12-02-31607.

  8. Deep Ocean Circulation and Nutrient Contents from Atlantic-Pacific Gradients of Neodymium and Carbon Isotopes During the Last 1 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, A. M.; Elderfield, H.; Howe, J. N. W.

    2014-12-01

    The last few million years saw changing boundary conditions to the Earth system which set the stage for bi-polar glaciation and Milankovich-forced glacial-interglacial cycles which dominate Quaternary climate variability. Recent studies have highlighted the relative importance of temperature, ice volume and ocean circulation changes during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition at ~900 ka (Elderfield et al., 2012, Pena and Goldstein, 2014). Reconstructing the history of global deep water mass propagation and its carbon content is important for fully understanding the ocean's role in amplifying Milankovich changes to cause glacial-interglacial transitions. A new foraminiferal-coating Nd isotope record from ODP Site 1123 on the deep Chatham Rise is interpreted as showing glacial-interglacial changes in the bottom water propagation of Atlantic-sourced waters into the Pacific via the Southern Ocean during the last 1 million years. This is compared to globally-distributed bottom water Nd isotope records; including a new deep western equatorial Atlantic Ocean record from ODP Site 929, as well as published records from ODP 1088 and Site 1090 in the South Atlantic (Pena and Goldstein, 2014), and ODP 758 in the deep Indian Ocean (Gourlan et al., 2010). Atlantic-to-Pacific gradients in deep ocean neodymium isotopes are constructed for key time intervals to elucidate changes in deep water sourcing and circulation pathways through the global ocean. Benthic carbon isotopes are used to estimate deep water nutrient contents of deep water masses and constrain locations and modes of deep water formation. References: Elderfield et al. Science 337, 704 (2012) Pena and Goldstein, Science 345, 318 (2014) Gourlan et al., Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 2484-2498 (2010)

  9. High H2S contents and other effects of thermochemical sulfate reduction in deeply buried carbonate reservoirs: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöth, S.

    The accumulation of high H2S concentrations in oil and gas fields is usually associated with deeply buried high-temperature carbonate reservoirs and is attributed to the abiological oxidation of hydrocarbons by sulfate - thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This review aims at providing