Science.gov

Sample records for carbon dioxide injection

  1. Microbial Response to Carbon Dioxide Injection in a Shallow Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rook, A.; Faehndrich, D.; O'Mullan, G.; Mailloux, B.; Matter, J.; Stute, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2007-12-01

    Extensive research is underway to investigate the geophysical and geochemical dynamics of subsurface carbon sequestration, but there has been only theoretical consideration of the microbial response. Microbial dynamics are capable of altering the range and rates of geochemical reactions in the subsurface. The goal of this field experiment is to link geochemical changes due to CO2 injection to alterations in the microbial community and to provide an initial characterization of the microbial response. A seven week push-pull experiment was conducted at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Test Well. 200L of groundwater was extracted, bubbled with carbon dioxide, augmented with a bromide tracer, and injected to 230m depth below ground surface. The hydraulically isolated injection zone marked the contact area between dolerite sill and sedimentary rock. Samples were taken on a weekly basis. Geochemically, a drop in pH from 9.4 to 4.5 at injection was coupled with a release of Fe2+ from the formation. As neutralization and mixing caused pH to return toward background levels, Fe2+ concentrations decreased. The aquifer remained anoxic throughout the experiment. DNA was successfully extracted and the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA was amplified from all samples with the exception of the injection fluid. Sequencing from clone libraries and tRFLP analyses were used to characterize microbial dynamics during the seven week study. Whereas the number of microbial groups detected remained relatively constant over the course of the experiment, changes were observed in both the dominant microbes phylogenetic identity and relative abundance. Methane concentrations increased from background levels (below 50 nM) to 4.2 nM after injection, but initial attempts to amplify archaeal and methanogen-specific genes were unsuccessful, bringing into question the presence of a significant methanogenic population. These results confirm that there is a microbial response to carbon dioxide

  2. Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, P.D.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main concerns of storage in saline aquifers is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available for these aquifers. This necessitates a method using available fault data to estimate the probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault. The probability of encounter can be calculated from areal fault density statistics from available data, and carbon dioxide plume dimensions from numerical simulation. Given a number of assumptions, the dimension of the plume perpendicular to a fault times the areal density of faults with offsets greater than some threshold of interest provides probability of the plume encountering such a fault. Application of this result to a previously planned large-scale pilot injection in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin yielded a 3% and 7% chance of the plume encountering a fully and half seal offsetting fault, respectively. Subsequently available data indicated a half seal-offsetting fault at a distance from the injection well that implied a 20% probability of encounter for a plume sufficiently large to reach it.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Extent of Carbon Dioxide Plume Injected in the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    A series of thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulations was performed to evaluate extent of carbon dioxide plume injected in the Gyeongsang Basin, which is one of the prospective onshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. The carbon dioxide plume extent is an important factor in estimating storage efficiency and thus storage capacity of carbon dioxide in a storage formation because it represents an actual volume of the storage formation, which is occupied by injected carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide plume extent is also an essential component in risk analysis of geologic storage of carbon dioxide because most of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical responses to carbon dioxide injection occur within it. To evaluate impacts of injection scenarios (i.e., injection rate and period) of carbon dioxide and geological conditions (i.e., thickness and depth) and hydrogeochemical properties (i.e., porosity, intrinsic permeability, salt concentration in groundwater, and volume fraction of chlorite) of a storage formation on the carbon dioxide plume extent, a series of sensitivity tests was also performed. The numerical simulation results show that the carbon dioxide plume extent is significantly affected by such injection scenarios, geological conditions, and hydrogeochemical properties. The carbon dioxide plume extent increases as the injection rate (with a constant injection period) increases, and this trend does not change with time. The carbon dioxide plume extent decreases as the injection period (with a constant total injection amount) increases until about 50 years, while it is not sensitive to the injection period after about 50 years. The carbon dioxide plume extent also decreases as the thickness increases until about 100 years, while it is not sensitive to the thickness after about 100 years. In contrast, the carbon dioxide plume extent decreases as the depth increases, and this trend is intensified with time. On the other hand, the

  4. Numerically Simulating Carbonate Mineralization of Basalt with Injection of Carbon Dioxide into Deep Saline Formations

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bacon, Diana H.

    2006-07-08

    mineral assemblages on the reaction rates. This study numerically investigates the injection, migration and sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in deep Columbia River basalt formations using the multifluid subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator STOMP-CO2 with its ECKEChem module. Simulations are executed on high resolution multiple stochastic realizations of the layered basalt systems and demonstrate the migration behavior through layered basalt formations and the mineralization of dissolved carbon dioxide. Reported results include images of the migration behavior, distribution of carbonate formation, quantities of injected and sequestered carbon dioxide, and percentages of the carbon dioxide sequestered by different mechanisms over time.

  5. Carbon dioxide fluid-flow modeling and injectivity calculations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    These results were used to classify subsurface formations into three permeability classifications for the probabilistic calculations of storage efficiency and containment risk of the U.S. Geological Survey geologic carbon sequestration assessment methodology. This methodology is currently in use to determine the total carbon dioxide containment capacity of the onshore and State waters areas of the United States.

  6. Injection of liquid carbon dioxide into a reservoir partially saturated with methane hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagapov, V. Sh.; Khasanov, M. K.; Musakaev, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to describe methane-carbon dioxide replacement in gas hydrate by injecting liquid carbon dioxide into a porous medium initially saturated with methane and its hydrate. Self-similar solutions of the axisymmetric problems are constructed that describe the distribution of the main parameters of the reservoir. It is shown that there exist solutions according to which the process can occur both with and without boiling of carbon dioxide. Diagrams of the existence of each type of solution are constructed.

  7. Theoretical research of the carbon dioxide injection process into the rock saturated with ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakaev, N. G.; Khasanov, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the theoretical research of the carbon dioxide injection process into the reservoir initially saturated with methane and ice are presented. In the rectilinear-parallel approach the analytical solutions which describe the distributions of temperature and pressure in the reservoir were built. It is shown, that modes with different quantity of the interphase boundaries of the carbon dioxide hydrate formation are possible.

  8. Selective dermal rejuvenation using intradermal injection of carbon dioxide and hyaluronic acid for facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Chin, Sae Hoon; Burm, Jin Sik; Kim, Youn Wha

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed selective dermal rejuvenation using sequential intradermal injections of carbon dioxide and hyaluronic acid as a treatment of facial wrinkles. An injection device was designed. After topical anesthesia, 0.1-mL carbon dioxide was gently injected intradermally so as to spread diffusely. A volume of 0.01- to 0.02-mL diluted hyaluronic acid was sequentially injected until the skin rose slightly. Overlapping injections were performed at 3 to 5 mm intervals. This process was repeated until the wrinkles were smoothened. This study included 36 cases of facial wrinkles in 34 patients. The follow-up period was 3 to 11 months. Temporary adverse effects were injection-site pain, mild edema, and redness. Most cases showed obvious improvement in skin thickness, elasticity, and smoothening. Complications included irregularities and hyperpigmentation in 3 cases, and 91% were highly satisfied with the antiwrinkle treatment. This method was a safe, economical, and clinically effective antiwrinkle treatment.

  9. Methane Gas Hydrate Decomposition in a Porous Medium Upon Injection of a Warm Carbon Dioxide Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, M. K.; Shagapov, V. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic features of methane gas hydrate decomposition upon injection of a warm carbon dioxide gas into a porous medium saturated with methane and its hydrate are investigated. A mathematical model is presented for heat and mass transfer in a porous medium accompanied by substitution of methane for carbon dioxide gas in the original gas hydrate. Self-similar solutions of a one-dimensional problem that describe the distribution of basic parameters in a stratum have been constructed. It is shown that there are solutions according to which methane gas hydrate may decompose either with the formation of carbon dioxide gas hydrate alone, or with the formation of both carbon dioxide gas hydrate and a mixture of methane with water. Critical diagrams of the existence of each type of solutions have been drawn.

  10. 76 FR 56982 - Announcement of Federal Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Geologic Sequestration (GS) Wells AGENCY... establishment of a Federal Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class VI Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO 2... highlighted in the ``Report of the Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage'' (August 2010), it...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Western Section of the Farnsworth Unit

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McPherson, Brian J.; Grigg, Reid B.; Ampomah, William; Appold, Martin S.

    2014-05-05

    Numerical simulation is an invaluable analytical tool for scientists and engineers in making predictions about of the fate of carbon dioxide injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Current numerical simulators for assessing storage in deep saline formations have capabilities for modeling strongly coupled processes involving multifluid flow, heat transfer, chemistry, and rock mechanics in geologic media. Except for moderate pressure conditions, numerical simulators for deep saline formations only require the tracking of two immiscible phases and a limited number of phase components, beyond those comprising the geochemical reactive system. The requirements for numerically simulating the utilization and storage of carbon dioxide in partially depleted petroleum reservoirs are more numerous than those for deep saline formations. The minimum number of immiscible phases increases to three, the number of phase components may easily increase fourfold, and the coupled processes of heat transfer, geochemistry, and geomechanics remain. Public and scientific confidence in the ability of numerical simulators used for carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline formations has advanced via a natural progression of the simulators being proven against benchmark problems, code comparisons, laboratory-scale experiments, pilot-scale injections, and commercial-scale injections. This paper describes a new numerical simulator for the scientific investigation of carbon dioxide utilization and storage in partially depleted petroleum reservoirs, with an emphasis on its unique features for scientific investigations; and documents the numerical simulation of the utilization of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery in the western section of the Farnsworth Unit and represents an early stage in the progression of numerical simulators for carbon utilization and storage in depleted oil reservoirs.

  12. How Computational Modeling of Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide will be used in the Underground Injection Control program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The greenhouse gas mitigation technique of sequestering large volumes of carbon dioxide underground holds the promise of significantly reducing the amounts of carbon dioxide that the world contributes to the atmosphere. During the past few years, the United States Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the potential risks associated with the injection of large masses of carbon dioxide and determined that those risks would be best addressed through the development of a new well class under the Safe Drinking Water Act's Underground Injection Control (UIC) program. The large quantities of injected carbon dioxide, its mobile and buoyant nature, and its potential to alter the chemistry of formations it might leak into were part of this evaluation. The regulations under this new well class, Class VI, were built upon the existing requirements for Class I wells that dispose of industrial waste fluids. One of the key elements of the new regulations is the role of the computational modeling of the injected carbon dioxide and the associated pressure effects in the injection zone. A series of requirements and possible actions will cascade from the site characterization and computational modeling results. The requirements for ongoing subsurface monitoring and the reevaluation of carbon dioxide plume movement and pressure effects every five years will requite the regulators and the regulated to compare computational modeling results with observations frequently.

  13. Simulation of carbon dioxide injection scenarios in the Illinois Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Person, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration through injection of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface is one option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Widespread industrial-scale deployment, on the order of giga-tonnes of CO2 injected per year, will be necessary for carbon sequestration to make a significant contribution to solving the CO2 problem. Deep saline formations are suitable targets for CO2 sequestration due to their large storage capacity, high injectivity, and favorable pressure and temperature regimes. Due to the large areal extent of saline formations, multiple sequestration operations may inject CO2 into the same formation. The injection-induced migration of both CO2 and resident formation fluids (brine) needs to be studied to predict the feasibility of industrial-scale deployment of carbon sequestration. In this presentation we discuss the impact of different CO2 injection scenarios on the CO2 migration and pressure response. The Illinois Basin in the central US is chosen as the test case, because a large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the basin. A vertically-integrated numerical model is used to simulate two-phase flow in the Mount Simon Sandstone and several overlying formations. Two approaches for injection site selection are compared. For the first approach, CO2 is injected at the site of the emission sources (i.e., on-site), thus eliminating the need for pipelines and reducing issues related to surface and subsurface access rights. However, the northern section of the injection formation is not deep enough to ensure that CO2 is in the super-critical state, while the most southern section has very low injectivity, thus eliminating approximately one third of the possible stationary source sites. Also, some of the largest sources are located in areas where the Mount Simon Sandstone is comparatively thin, leading to low injectivity. Therefore, for the second approach a set of regional injection sites are determined based on

  14. The fate of carbon dioxide injected into a coal-bearing formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P. D.; Vinson, D. S.; Lee Zhi Yi, A.

    2012-12-01

    One proposed approach to mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations from fossil fuel combustion is geologic sequestration, which involves injecting anthropogenic CO2 into subsurface traps. This study seeks to determine the ultimate fate(s) of an injected CO2 plume in the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) "2800 foot sand" (2800' sd) of the Olla oil field of north-central Louisiana, USA, and includes testing a previous hypothesis that this CO2 injection stimulated a microbial "hotspot" in the injected sandstone and adjacent coals. Forty-four samples of formation water, gas, and oil were collected from five main locations along a 90-km northwest to southeast transect: the 2800' sd in the Olla field (CO2 flooded), the 2800' sd outside of the Olla field, formations located stratigraphically above the 2800' sd within the Olla field, formations located stratigraphically below the 2800' sd within the Olla field, and formations located stratigraphically above the 2800' sd outside of the Olla field. Comparable samples from sandstones that would have not been affected by the CO2 flood were collected as a surrogate for pre-injection conditions for the Olla 2800' sd, as well as to look for evidence of CO2 migration and to examine the geochemical trends in the Wilcox Group to help determine other possible causes (besides the CO2 injection) of an Olla microbial "hotspot." Initial results show high alkalinity "hotspot" concentrations (mean 38.0 meq/kg, range 26.8-57.7 meq/kg) for waters in the Olla 2800' sd, compared to 2800' sd samples collected outside the Olla field (mean 9.9 meq/kg, range 4.6-22.7 meq/kg). Carbon dioxide in gas samples from the 2800' sd is consistent with two-component mixing of native and injected CO2, as indicated by its δ13CCO2 signature. A preliminary fractionation model for 2800' sd δ13CCH4 suggests up to 60% of injected CO2 was converted to methane (Olla 2800' sd methane is isotopically enriched compared to non-Olla 2800' sd methane), suggesting

  15. 75 FR 18575 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Dioxide Capture and Geologic Storage: A Key Component of a Global Energy Technology Strategy to Address... capture and geologic sequestration CDM Clean Development Mechanism CFR Code of Federal Regulations CH 4 methane CO 2 carbon dioxide DOE Department of Energy EC European Commission ECBM enhanced coalbed...

  16. Manufacture of modified milk protein concentrate utilizing injection of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Marella, Chenchaiah; Salunke, P; Biswas, A C; Kommineni, A; Metzger, L E

    2015-06-01

    Dried milk protein concentrate is produced from skim milk using a combination of processes such as ultrafiltration (UF), evaporation or nanofiltration, and spray drying. It is well established that dried milk protein concentrate (MPC) that contains 80% (MPC80) and greater protein content (relative to dry matter) can lose solubility during storage as a result of protein-protein interactions and formation of insoluble complexes. Previous studies have shown that partial replacement of calcium with sodium improves MPC80 functionality and prevents the loss in solubility during storage. Those studies have used pH adjustment with the addition of acids, addition of monovalent salts, or ion exchange treatment of UF retentate. The objective of this study was to use carbon dioxide to produce MPC80 with improved functionality. In this study, reduced-calcium MPC80 (RCMPC) was produced from skim milk that was subjected to injection of 2,200 ppm of CO2 before UF, along with additional CO2 injection at a flow rate of 1.5 to 2 L/min during UF. A control MPC80 (CtrlMPC) was also produced from the same lot of skim milk without injection of CO2. The above processes were replicated 3 times, using different lots of skim milk for each replication. All the UF retentates were spray dried using a pilot-scale dryer. Skim milk and UF retentates were tested for ζ-potential (net negative charge), particle size, and viscosity. All the MPC were stored at room (22±1°C) and elevated (40°C) temperatures for 6 mo. Solubility was measured by dissolving the dried MPC in water at 22°C and at 10°C (cold solubility). Injection of CO2 and the resultant solubilization of calcium phosphate had a significant effect on UF performance, resulting in 10 and 20% loss in initial and average flux, respectively. Processing of skim milk with injection of CO2 also resulted in higher irreversible fouling resistances. Compared with control, the reduced-calcium MPC had 28 and 34% less ash and calcium, respectively

  17. Effect of carbon dioxide injection on production of wood cement composites from waste medium density fiberboard (MDF).

    PubMed

    Qi, H; Cooper, P A; Wan, H

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of recycling waste medium density fiberboard (MDF) into wood-cement composites was evaluated. Both new fibers and recycled steam exploded MDF fibers had poor compatibility with cement if no treatment was applied, due to interference of the hydration process by the water soluble components of the fiber. However, this issue was resolved when a rapid hardening process with carbon dioxide injection was adopted. It appears that the rapid carbonation allowed the board to develop considerable strength before the adverse effects of the wood extractives could take effect. After 3-5 min of carbon dioxide injection, the composites reached 22-27% of total carbonation and developed 50-70% of their final (28-day) strength. Composites containing recycled MDF fibers had slightly lower splitting tensile strength and lower tensile toughness properties than those containing new fibers especially at a high fiber/cement ratio. Composites containing recycled MDF fibers also showed lower values of water absorption. Unlike composites cured conventionally, composites cured under CO(2) injection developed higher strength and toughness with increased fiber content. Incorporation of recycled MDF fibers into wood cement composites with CO(2) injection during the production stage presents a viable option for recycling of this difficult to manage waste material.

  18. Using semi-analytic solutions to approximate the area of potential impact for carbon dioxide injection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines using the threshold critical pressure increase and the extent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) plume to delineate the area of potential impact (AoPI) for geologic CO2 storage projects. The combined area covering both the CO2 plume and the region where the pressure ...

  19. Using chemical and isotopic data to quantify ionic trapping of injected carbon dioxide in oil field brines.

    PubMed

    Raistrick, Mark; Mayer, Bernhard; Shevalier, Maurice; Perez, Renee J; Hutcheon, Ian; Perkins, Ernie; Gunter, Bill

    2006-11-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into depleted oil fields or deep saline aquifers represents one of the most promising means of long-term storage of this greenhouse gas. While the ultimate goal of CO2 injection in the subsurface is mineral storage of CO2 as carbonates, short-term (<50 year) storage of injected CO2 is most likely to be accomplished by ionic trapping of CO2 as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and hydrogeological trapping of molecular CO2. Here, we demonstrate a technique for quantifying ionic trapping of injected CO2 as HCO3- using geochemical data collected prior to and during 40 months of CO2 injection into a hydrocarbon reservoir at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada. As a result of injection of CO2 with a low carbon isotope ratio (delta13C value), fluid and gas samples from four selected production wells showed an increase in HCO3- concentration and a decrease in delta13C values of HCO3- and CO2 over the observation period. Isotope and mass balance calculations indicate that, after 40 months of injection, approximately 80% of the HCO3- in the reservoir brines sampled from the four wells formed via dissolution and dissociation of injected CO2. This chemical and isotopic technique should be applicable to CO2 injection and storage in oil fields and in deep saline aquifers, provided there is sufficient carbon isotopic distinction between injected CO2 and baseline aquifer HCO3- and CO2.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Swelling and Elastic Property Changes Resulting from Carbon Dioxide Injection into Prismatic Coal Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Bongani

    The world currently relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its energy needs. The demand from a growing population for energy continues to increase and cannot be met solely by renewable sources of energy. As a result of this high dependence on fossil fuels, various methods of reducing emissions are under investigation. Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified as a potential technique that can be employed to reduce emissions. Unmineable coal seams have been identified as a possible carbon dioxide geologic storage formation. The behavior of coal in response to CO 2 injection is not yet fully understood or well documented. There is a need to understand and quantify the physical changes of coal in response to CO2 injection. These physical changes include properties such as strain (swelling), sonic velocity (compressional and shear velocity), and elastic moduli. Understanding the physical changes undergone by coal during CO2 injection is crucial in evaluating the efficiency and integrity of coal as a potential geologic storage formation. To study and quantify the effect of CO2 injection on adsorption induced strain (swelling) and coal elastic properties, specifically ultrasonic velocity (compressional and shear velocity) and elastic moduli, an experimental approach was followed. Two prismatic coal samples with approximate dimensions of 25cm (9.8 inches) x 17cm (6.7 inches) x 6cm (2.4 inches) were prepared. The coal samples used were from the Lower Sunnyside Coal Seam of the Books Cliffs Coalfields in Utah. A specially designed steel frame was used to contain the samples. Two extreme cases were tested using the samples. For case one, a high (4 MPa) injection pressure and high confining pressure (12 MPa) was used and in case two, both injection pressure and confining pressure were dramatically decreased. The conventional pulse transmission method was used to determine sonic velocities. This method uses transducers to send an ultrasonic wave through the

  1. The self-similar solutions of the problem of carbon dioxide injection into the reservoir saturated with methane and its hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakaev, N. G.; Khasanov, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper the research of carbon dioxide injection into a porous medium initially saturated with methane and its hydrate was performed. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a porous media, accompanied by the formation of carbon dioxide hydrate, is presented. The self-similar solutions, for the axisymmetric problem definition, were built. These solutions describe the distribution of the fluid parameters in a reservoir.

  2. Tunable pulsed carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G. J.; Menzies, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transverse electrically-excited-atmosphere (TEA) laser is continuously tunable over several hundred megahertz about centers of spectral lines of carbon dioxide. It is operated in single longitudinal mode (SLM) by injection of beam from continuous-wave, tunable-waveguide carbon dioxide laser, which serves as master frequency-control oscillator. Device measures absorption line of ozone; with adjustments, it is applicable to monitoring of atmospheric trace species.

  3. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  4. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Ki Jun

    2012-05-01

    Clinically significant carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia administered during laparoscopic surgery. Its most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein, artery or solid organ. This error usually occurs during or shortly after insufflation of carbon dioxide into the body cavity, but may result from direct intravascular insufflation of carbon dioxide during surgery. Clinical presentation of carbon dioxide embolism ranges from asymptomatic to neurologic injury, cardiovascular collapse or even death, which is dependent on the rate and volume of carbon dioxide entrapment and the patient's condition. We reviewed extensive literature regarding carbon dioxide embolism in detail and set out to describe the complication from background to treatment. We hope that the present work will improve our understanding of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery.

  5. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  6. Carbon dioxide concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. F.; Huebscher, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Passed exhaled air through electrochemical cell containing alkali metal carbonate aqueous solution, and utilizes platinized electrodes causing reaction of oxygen at cathode with water in electrolyte, producing hydroxyl ions which react with carbon dioxide to form carbonate ions.

  7. Impact of intentionally injected carbon dioxide hydrate on deep-sea benthic foraminiferal survival.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, Joan M; Barry, James P; Buck, Kurt R; Starczak, Victoria R

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ocean is being considered as a feasible mechanism to mitigate the alarming rate in its atmospheric rise. Little is known, however, about how the resulting hypercapnia and ocean acidification may affect marine fauna. In an effort to understand better the protistan reaction to such an environmental perturbation, the survivorship of benthic foraminifera, which is a prevalent group of protists, was studied in response to deep-sea CO2 release. The survival response of calcareous, agglutinated, and thecate foraminifera was determined in two experiments at ~3.1 and 3.3 km water depth in Monterey Bay (California, USA). Approximately five weeks after initial seafloor CO2 release, in situ incubations of the live-dead indicator CellTracker Green were executed within seafloor-emplaced pushcores. Experimental treatments included direct exposure to CO2 hydrate, two levels of lesser exposure adjacent to CO2 hydrate, and controls, which were far removed from the CO2 hydrate release. Results indicate that survivorship rates of agglutinated and thecate foraminifera were not significantly impacted by direct exposure but the survivorship of calcareous foraminifera was significantly lower in direct exposure treatments compared to controls. Observations suggest that, if large scale CO2 sequestration is enacted on the deep-sea floor, survival of two major groups of this prevalent protistan taxon will likely not be severely impacted, while calcareous foraminifera will face considerable challenges to maintain their benthic populations in areas directly exposed to CO2 hydrate.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Absorbents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-05-17

    carbondioxide content of the solution was then determined. A gas mixture containing 2.6% carbon dioxide and 97.4% nitrogen was prepared in the...which carbon dioxide is removed by heat0 Since this step is usually carried out by "steam stripping ", that is, contacting the solution at its boiling...required to produce the steam required for stripping the carbon dioxide from the s olution. The method ueed in this investigation for determining the

  9. The carbon dioxide cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION SYSTEM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , *SPACE FLIGHT, RESPIRATION, REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), RESPIRATION, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ELECTROLYSIS, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTROLYTES, VOLTAGE, MANNED, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL.

  11. Migration rates and formation injectivity to determine containment time scales of sequestered carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Additionally, this research establishes a methodology to calculate the injectivity of a target formation. Because injectivity describes the pressure increase due to the introduction of fluids into a formation, the relevant application of injectivity is to determine the pressure increase, due to an injection volume and flow rate, that will induce fractures in the reservoir rocks. This quantity is defined mathematically as the maximum pressure differential between the hydrostatic gradient and the fracture gradient of the target formation. Injectivity is mathematically related to the maximum pressure differential of the formation, and can be used to determine the upper limit for the pressure increase that an injection target can withstand before fracturing.

  12. Carbon Dioxide and Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peter G.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

  13. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  14. Coupled Flow and Deformation Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Migration in the Presence of a Caprock Fracture during Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Hema J; Gondle, Raj K; Bromhal, Grant S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the transport of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) during long-term CO{sub 2} injection into a typical geologic reservoir, such as a saline aquifer, could be complicated because of changes in geochemical, hydrogeological, and hydromechanical behavior. While the caprock layer overlying the target aquifer is intended to provide a tight, impermeable seal in securing injected CO{sub 2}, the presence of geologic uncertainties, such as a caprock fracture or fault, may provide a channel for CO{sub 2} leakage. There could also be a possibility of the activation of a new or existing dormant fault or fracture, which could act as a leakage pathway. Such a leakage event during CO{sub 2} injection may lead to a different pressure and ground response over a period of time. In the present study, multiphase fluid flow simulations in porous media coupled with geomechanics were used to investigate the overburden geologic response and plume behavior during CO{sub 2} injection in the presence of a hypothetical permeable fractured zone in a caprock, existing or activated. Both single-phase and multiphase fluid flow simulations were performed. The CO{sub 2} migration through an existing fractured zone leads to changes in the fluid pressure in the overburden geologic layers and could have a significant impact on ground deformation behavior. Results of the study show that pressure signatures and displacement patterns are significantly different in the presence of a fractured zone in the caprock layer. The variation in pressure and displacement signatures because of the presence of a fractured zone in the caprock at different locations may be useful in identifying the presence of a fault/fractured zone in the caprock. The pressure signatures can also serve as a mechanism to identify the activation of leakage pathways through the caprock during CO{sub 2} injection. Pressure response and ground deformation behavior from sequestration modeling could be useful in the development of

  15. Detection of carbon dioxide leakage during injection in deep saline formations by pressure tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Linwei; Bayer, Peter; Brauchler, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    CO2 injected into storage formations may escape to the overlying permeable layers. Mixed-phase diffusivity, namely the ratio of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage of the phase mixture, declines with increasing CO2 saturation. Thus, it can be an indicator of CO2 leakage. In this study, we perform interference brine or CO2 injection tests in a synthetic model, including a storage reservoir, an above aquifer, and a caprock. Pressure transients derived from an observation well are utilized for a travel-time based inversion technique. Variations of diffusivity are resolved by inverting early travel time diagnostics, providing an insight of plume development. Results demonstrate that the evolution of CO2 leakage in the above aquifer can be inferred by interpreting and comparing the pressure observations, travel times, and diffusivity tomograms from different times. The extent of the plume in reservoir and upper aquifer are reconstructed by clustering the time-lapse data sets of the mixed-phase diffusivity, as the diffusivity cannot be exactly reproduced by the inversion. Furthermore, this approach can be used to address different leaky cases, especially for leakage occurring during the injection.

  16. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  17. A semiconductor injection-switched high-pressure sub-10-picosecond carbon dioxide laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Michael Kon Yew

    A multiatmospheric-pressure-broadened CO2 laser amplifier was constructed to amplify sub-10-picosecond pulses generated with semiconductor switching. High-intensity, mid-infrared, amplified pulses have many applications: especially in fields such as non-linear optics, laser-plasma interaction, and laser particle acceleration. The injected pulses are produced by exciting GaAs (or an engineered, fast-recombination time semiconductor) with an ultrafast visible laser pulse to induce transient free carriers with sufficient density to reflect a co-incident hybrid-CO2 laser pulse. The short pulse is injected directly into the regenerative amplifier cavity from an intra-cavity semiconductor switch. The CO2-gas-mix amplifier is operated at 1.24 MPa which is sufficient to collisionally broaden the individual rotational spectral lines so that they merge to produce a gain spectrum wide enough to support pulses less than 10 ps long. After sufficient amplification, the pulse is switched out with another semiconductor switch pumped with a synchronized visible-laser pulse. This system is demonstrated and analysed spectrally and temporally. The pulse-train spectral analysis is done for a GaAs-GaAs double-switch arrangement using a standard spectrometer and two HgCdTe detectors; one of which is used for a reference signal. An infrared autocorrelator was designed and constructed to temporally analyse the pulse trains emerging from the amplifier. Interpretation of the results was aided by the development of a computer model for short-pulse amplification which incorporated saturation effects, rotational- and vibrational-mode energy redistribution between pulse round trips, and the gain enhancement due to one sequence band. The results show that a sub-10-picosecond pulse is injected into the cavity and that it is amplified with some trailing pulses at 18 ps intervals generated by coherent effects. The energy level reached, estimated through modelling, was >100 mJ/cm2.

  18. Environmental carbon dioxide control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.; Gidaspow, D.

    1974-01-01

    A study of environmental carbon dioxide control for NASA EVA missions found solid potassium carbonate to be an effective regenerable absorbent in maintaining low carbon dioxide levels. The supported sorbent was capable of repeated regeneration below 150 C without appreciable degradation. Optimum structures in the form of thin pliable sheets of carbonate, inert support and binder were developed. Interpretation of a new solid-gas pore closing model helped predict the optimum sorbent and analysis of individual sorbent sheet performance in a thin rectangular channel sorber can predict packed bed performance.

  19. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Lee, Inhee [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh A [Hilliard, OH

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  20. Experiments and analysis of drainage displacement processes relevant to carbon dioxide injection.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Saman A; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2012-12-01

    The motivation for this work is a dramatically improved understanding of the fluid mechanics of drainage processes with applications such as CO_{2} storage in saline aquifers and water-alternating-gas injection as an enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper we present in situ distributions of wetting and nonwetting fluids obtained during core-scale two-phase immiscible drainage experiments. The ratio of the viscosity of the resident fluid to that of the invading fluid varies across a range of 0.43 to 150. Saturation distributions observed during dynamic displacement experiments are surprisingly smooth and do not display only one or a few dominant fingers, contrary to the indications of the current literature. The analysis of the saturation distribution using the fractal dimensions of the dynamic three-dimensional saturation distributions suggests that the constitutive relationships for porous media, namely, the relative permeability functions, are history dependent. Accordingly, it is suggested that the nonlinear, unstable flow regime is the regime where efforts to improve physical understanding must be focused.

  1. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  2. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  3. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY SELECTIVE PERMEATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , SEPARATION), (*PERMEABILITY, CARBON DIOXIDE ), POROUS MATERIALS, SILICON COMPOUNDS, RUBBER, SELECTION, ADSORPTION, TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, POLYMERS, FILMS, PLASTICS, MEMBRANES, HUMIDITY.

  5. Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)

  6. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  7. Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas having at least methane, ethane and heavier. It comprises: first, separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane and a second stream, having methane, carbon dioxide and ethane; separating the second stream in a second separator into a stream of carbon dioxide product and a third stream having ethane, methane and carbon dioxide: mixing at least a portion of the third stream with a polar compound; stream after the mixing in an absorber; separating the vapor and liquid of the third stream after the mixing in an absorber; absorbing the remaining unabsorbed carbon dioxide in a lean portion of the polar compound in the absorber, the absorber carbon dioxide and ethane with the polar; separating the first stream in a third separator to separate the propane and heavier hydrocarbons from the carbon dioxide and ethane, which carbon dioxide and ethane forms a fifth stream; and separating the polar compound/carbon dioxide effluent of the absorber in a fourth separator, to separate the carbon dioxide from the polar compound, the polar compound forming a sixth stream.

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 March 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is mostly made of frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that a person can go to see the landforms that would be produced by erosion and sublimation of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide. Thus, the south polar cap of Mars is as alien as alien can get. This image, acquired in February 2004 by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows how the cap appears in summer as carbon dioxide is subliming away, creating a wild pattern of pits, mesas, and buttes. Darker surfaces may be areas where the ice contains impurities, such as dust, or where the surface has been roughened by the removal of ice. This image is located near 86.3oS, 0.8oW. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

  10. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.P.

    1987-06-23

    A process is described for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas, having at least methane, ethane and heavier hydrocarbon, comprising: separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream, having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane, and a second stream, having methane, carbon dioxide and ethane; mixing the second stream with a polar compound to form a third stream; separating the vapor and liquid of the third stream in the bottom portion of an absorber; absorbing carbon dioxide and ethane from the separated vapor of Step C in a lean portion of the polar compound in the absorber, the absorber carbon dioxide and ethane forming a fourth stream; separating the ethane from the polar compound and carbon dioxide in a separator; separating the first stream in a third separator to separate the propane and heavier hydrocarbons from the carbon dioxide and ethane: carbon dioxide and ethane forms a fifth stream; and separating the polar compound/carbon dioxide effluent of the second separator in a fourth separator, to separate the carbon dioxide from the polar compound. The polar compound forming a sixth stream.

  12. Determination of total carbon dioxide in beer and soft drinks by gas diffusion and flow injection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ljunggren, Esbjörn; Karlberg, Bo

    1995-01-01

    A gas diffusion FIA method for determination of total CO2 in beer and in soft drinks is described. The composition of the acceptor stream for diffused carbon dioxide is critical. Bromocresol purple has been selecled among a large number of tested pH indicators and if the detection is made at a wavelength of 430 nm, stable baseline conditions and positive deflections of the resulting FIA peaks are obtained. The selected indicator is combined with a linear pH buffer. A simple and practical graphical method for determining a suitable starting pH of the acceptor stream, as well as the expected dynamic range and the linearity of the calibration graph, is presented. PMID:18925022

  13. Oil shales and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, E T; Miller, G A

    1980-05-16

    During retorting of oil shales in the western United States, carbonate minerals are calcined, releasing significant amounts of carbon dioxide. Residual organic matter in the shales may also be burned, adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon dioxide produced depends on the retort process and the grade and mineralogy of the shale. Preliminary calculations suggest that retorting of oil shales from the Green River Formation and burning of the product oil could release one and one-half to five times more carbon dioxide than burning of conventional oil to obtain the same amount of usable energy. The largest carbon dioxide releases are associated with retorting processes that operate at temperatures greater than about 600 degrees C.

  14. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  15. Carbon dioxide/dewpoint monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczkowski, S.

    1977-01-01

    The portable Carbon Dioxide/Dewpoint Monitor was designed to permit measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure and dewpoint and ambient gas temperature at any place within the Saturn Workshop. It required no vehicle interface other than storage. All components necessary for operation, including battery power source, were incorporated in the instrument.

  16. Coral reefs and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

  17. Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

  18. Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

    The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to

  19. Carbon Dioxide (Reduction)

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Etsuko

    2000-01-12

    The twin problems of global warming, caused by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and limited fossil fuel resources have stimulated research in the utilization of CO2. These problems would be partially alleviated by the development of artificial photochemical systems that could economically fix CO2 into fuels or useful chemicals. During the past one and a half decades, intensive efforts have been directed toward the photochemical production of carbon monoxide (CO) and formic acid (HCOOH) from CO2. These systems have several common elements: they all contain photosensitizers (such as metalloporphyrins, ruthenium or rhenium complexes with bipyridine), electron mediators or catalysts, and sacrificial electron donors (such as tertiary amines or ascorbic acid). Recent progress along these lines has resulted in advances in our understanding of the interaction of CO2 molecules with metal complexes, and the factors controlling the efficient storage of solar energy in the form of reduced carbon compounds.

  20. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  1. Carbon dioxide: atmospheric overload

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and may double within the next century. The result of this phenomenon, climatic alterations, will adversely affect crop production, water supplies, and global temperatures. Sources of CO2 include the combustion of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, and the decay of organic matter in soils. The most serious effect of possible climatic changes could occur along the boundaries of arid and semiarid regions. Shifts is precipitation patterns could accelerate the processes of desertification. An increase of 5..cap alpha..C in the average temperature of the top 1000 m of ocean water would raise sea level by 2 m. CO2 releases to the atmosphere can be reduced by controlling emissions from fossil fuel-fired facilities and by careful harvesting of forest regions. (3 photos, 5 references)

  2. Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol by Direct Injection of Electrons into Immobilized Enzymes on a Modified Electrode.

    PubMed

    Schlager, Stefanie; Dumitru, Liviu Mihai; Haberbauer, Marianne; Fuchsbauer, Anita; Neugebauer, Helmut; Hiemetsberger, Daniela; Wagner, Annika; Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2016-03-21

    We present results for direct bio-electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 products using electrodes with immobilized enzymes. Enzymatic reduction reactions are well known from biological systems where CO2 is selectively reduced to formate, formaldehyde, or methanol at room temperature and ambient pressure. In the past, the use of such enzymatic reductions for CO2 was limited due to the necessity of a sacrificial co-enzyme, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), to supply electrons and the hydrogen equivalent. The method reported here in this paper operates without the co-enzyme NADH by directly injecting electrons from electrodes into immobilized enzymes. We demonstrate the immobilization of formate, formaldehyde, and alcohol dehydrogenases on one-and-the-same electrode for direct CO2 reduction. Carbon felt is used as working electrode material. An alginate-silicate hybrid gel matrix is used for the immobilization of the enzymes on the electrode. Generation of methanol is observed for the six-electron reduction with Faradaic efficiencies of around 10%. This method of immobilization of enzymes on electrodes offers the opportunity for electrochemical application of enzymatic electrodes to many reactions in which a substitution of the expensive sacrificial co-enzyme NADH is desired.

  3. Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol by Direct Injection of Electrons into Immobilized Enzymes on a Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Liviu Mihai; Haberbauer, Marianne; Fuchsbauer, Anita; Neugebauer, Helmut; Hiemetsberger, Daniela; Wagner, Annika; Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present results for direct bio‐electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 products using electrodes with immobilized enzymes. Enzymatic reduction reactions are well known from biological systems where CO2 is selectively reduced to formate, formaldehyde, or methanol at room temperature and ambient pressure. In the past, the use of such enzymatic reductions for CO2 was limited due to the necessity of a sacrificial co‐enzyme, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), to supply electrons and the hydrogen equivalent. The method reported here in this paper operates without the co‐enzyme NADH by directly injecting electrons from electrodes into immobilized enzymes. We demonstrate the immobilization of formate, formaldehyde, and alcohol dehydrogenases on one‐and‐the‐same electrode for direct CO2 reduction. Carbon felt is used as working electrode material. An alginate–silicate hybrid gel matrix is used for the immobilization of the enzymes on the electrode. Generation of methanol is observed for the six‐electron reduction with Faradaic efficiencies of around 10 %. This method of immobilization of enzymes on electrodes offers the opportunity for electrochemical application of enzymatic electrodes to many reactions in which a substitution of the expensive sacrificial co‐enzyme NADH is desired. PMID:26890322

  4. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  5. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  6. Proceedings: carbon dioxide research conference: carbon dioxide, science and consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Papers presented discussed the carbon cycle climate modelling, the West Antarctic ice sheet, and first detection of climate change. An appendix lists the carbon dioxide research programs of the European Community and of the World Meteorological Organization. A list of delegates is also included.

  7. Patient satisfaction and clinical outcome after injecting gonadotropins with use of a needle-free carbon dioxide injection system for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Solnica, Amy; Oh, Cheongeun; Cho, Michael M; Loughlin, Jacquelyn S; McCulloh, David H; McGovern, Peter G

    2009-10-01

    In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that a needle-free CO(2) injection system (Biojector 2000) would be better tolerated by patients when compared with traditional sharp needles used for gonadotropin injections during stimulation for IVF. As measured by our questionnaire, the needle-free CO(2) injection system was not better tolerated by patients, even though it was equally effective clinically.

  8. Effect of oxygen co-injected with carbon dioxide on Gothic shale caprock–CO2–brine interaction during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-01

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2–brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~ 10 MPa and ~ 75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale–CO2–brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale–CO2–brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~ 8–14 μg/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Finally, oxygen in CO2

  9. Modeling the Injection of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen into a Methane Hydrate Reservoir and the Subsequent Production of Methane Gas on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; McGuire, P. C.; Liu, Y.; Anderson, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    HydrateResSim (HRS) is an open-source finite-difference reservoir simulation code capable of simulating the behavior of gas hydrate in porous media. The original version of HRS was developed to simulate pure methane hydrates, and the relationship between equilibrium temperature and pressure is given by a simple, 1-D regression expression. In this work, we have modified HydrateResSim to allow for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates made from gas mixtures. This modification allows one to model the ConocoPhillips Ignik Sikumi #1 field test performed in early 2012 on the Alaska North Slope. The Ignik Sikumi #1 test is the first field-based demonstration of gas production through the injection of a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gases into a methane hydrate reservoir and thereby sequestering the greenhouse gas CO2 into hydrate form. The primary change to the HRS software is the added capability of modeling a ternary mixture consisting of CH4 + CO2 + N2 instead of only one hydrate guest molecule (CH4), therefore the new software is called Mix3HydrateResSim. This Mix3HydrateResSim upgrade to the software was accomplished by adding primary variables (for the concentrations of CO2 and N2), governing equations (for the mass balances of CO2 and N2), and phase equilibrium data. The phase equilibrium data in Mix3HydrateResSim is given as an input table obtained using a statistical mechanical method developed in our research group called the cell potential method. An additional phase state describing a two-phase Gas-Hydrate (GsH) system was added to consider the possibility of converting all available free water to form hydrate with injected gas. Using Mix3HydrateResSim, a methane hydrate reservoir with coexisting pure-CH4-hydrate and aqueous phases at 7.0 MPa and 5.5°C was modeled after the conditions of the Ignik Sikumi #1 test: (i) 14-day injection of CO2 and N2 followed by (ii) 30-day production of CH4 (by depressurization of the well). During the

  10. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  11. A Model To Estimate Carbon Dioxide Injectivity and Storage Capacity for Geological Sequestration in Shale Gas Wells.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ryan W J; Celia, Michael A; Bandilla, Karl W; Doster, Florian; Kanno, Cynthia M

    2015-08-04

    Recent studies suggest the possibility of CO2 sequestration in depleted shale gas formations, motivated by large storage capacity estimates in these formations. Questions remain regarding the dynamic response and practicality of injection of large amounts of CO2 into shale gas wells. A two-component (CO2 and CH4) model of gas flow in a shale gas formation including adsorption effects provides the basis to investigate the dynamics of CO2 injection. History-matching of gas production data allows for formation parameter estimation. Application to three shale gas-producing regions shows that CO2 can only be injected at low rates into individual wells and that individual well capacity is relatively small, despite significant capacity variation between shale plays. The estimated total capacity of an average Marcellus Shale well in Pennsylvania is 0.5 million metric tonnes (Mt) of CO2, compared with 0.15 Mt in an average Barnett Shale well. Applying the individual well estimates to the total number of existing and permitted planned wells (as of March, 2015) in each play yields a current estimated capacity of 7200-9600 Mt in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania and 2100-3100 Mt in the Barnett Shale.

  12. Treatment of vocal fold scar by carbon dioxide laser and collagen injection: retrospective study on 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez Arias, Angels; Remacle, Marc; Lawson, Georges

    2010-09-01

    Vocal fold scars are the result of injury to the vocal fold lamina propria. This condition leads to an impaired vibration and usually to poor voice quality. The purpose of our study was to compare the pre- and posttreatment voice assessment scores in patients treated by CO(2) laser-assisted freeing of the scar followed by collagen injection. A group of 12 patients (10 women and 2 men) with vocal fold scars was studied retrospectively. Voice assessment was based on stroboscopy and on perceptual scores using the Grade (G) of the GRABS scale, subjective evaluation by the use of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), aerodynamic measurements [maximum phonation time (MPT) and phonation quotient (PQ)], and acoustical measurements (frequency range and low intensity). Stroboscopy showed an improvement on the mucosal vocal fold wave and on the glottic competence. The mean VHI was improved from 63.16 to 45.5; G from 2 to 1.41; MPT from 7.05 to 8.62 s; and PQ from 463.02 to 358.54 ml/s. CO(2) laser freeing of vocal fold scars followed by collagen injection, combined with speech therapy, improved significantly the aerodynamic parameters (efficiency of voice), but not the acoustical scores.

  13. Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon

  14. Development of Kinetic Interface Sensitive Tracers (KIS-Tracer) for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Injections into Deep Saline Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M.; Maier, F.; Licha, T.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of captured CO2 into geological formations is recently one of the most promising technologies to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the earth's atmosphere. Deep saline aquifers are considered as the most potential sequestration sites of CO2 due to their huge storage capacities of several thousand Gt. Ongoing research deals mainly with the investigation of relevant physico-chemical processes, the fate of CO2 and the risk assessment during and after supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injections. The occurring processes at the interface between injected scCO2 and formation brine play a major role to evaluate the fate and behavior of scCO2 in the reservoir. This is because the interface represents a reactive zone where numerous physico-chemical processes like dissolution of scCO2 in water as well as dissolution and precipitation of minerals take place. In most cases it is desired to maximize the interface size to increase the storage efficiency. Therefore, knowledge on interface size and dynamics would allow the observation of plume spreading and the detection of mixing or fingering effects. In order to gain this information innovative tracers are necessary which are able to quantify the temporal and spatial development of scCO2/water interfaces. As a result, it may be possible to assess the storage efficiency and to optimize subsequent injections. Up to now, such time-dependent tracers for reservoir studies are not available and limited to equilibrium tracers (known as partitioning and interfacial tracers, respectively). Therefore, novel reactive tracers (KIS-Tracers) are developed to overcome this gap. The idea is to find suitable molecules which allow the implementation of a defined chemical reaction at the interface. Due to the known kinetic constants the change of interface size can be characterized over time. The new tracer is injected together with the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) into a deep saline aquifer. Afterwards, the tracer adsorbs at

  15. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  16. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Zhang, Yinzhi; Kuchta, Matthew E.; Andresen, John M.; Fauth, Dan J.

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  17. Carbon dioxide transport over complex terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Burns, Sean P.; Delany, A.C.; Oncley, S.P.; Turnipseed, A.; Stephens, B.; Guenther, A.; Anderson, D.E.; Monson, R.

    2004-01-01

    The nocturnal transport of carbon dioxide over complex terrain was investigated. The high carbon dioxide under very stable conditions flows to local low-ground. The regional drainage flow dominates the carbon dioxide transport at the 6 m above the ground and carbon dioxide was transported to the regional low ground. The results show that the local drainage flow was sensitive to turbulent mixing associated with local wind shear.

  18. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  19. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  20. Enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Cullick, A.S.

    1986-09-02

    A method is described for increasing the solubility of a polymer in dense-phase carbon dioxide, which comprises dissolving a substantially water-insoluble polymer in dense-phase carbon dioxide in the presence of an entrainer which is soluble in the dense phase carbon dioxide.

  1. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. Carbon dioxide angiography: a simple and safe system of delivery.

    PubMed

    Cronin, P; Patel, J V; Kessel, D O; Robertson, I; McPherson, S J

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an established alternate angiographic contrast agent, which can be delivered by pump or hand injection. We describe a simple, safe and inexpensive hand injection system that delivers a known volume of CO2 at atmospheric pressure and prevents contamination with room air.

  7. Method for carbon dioxide splitting

    DOEpatents

    Miller, James E.; Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Siegel, Nathan P.

    2017-02-28

    A method for splitting carbon dioxide via a two-step metal oxide thermochemical cycle by heating a metal oxide compound selected from an iron oxide material of the general formula A.sub.xFe.sub.3-xO.sub.4, where 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1 and A is a metal selected from Mg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn, or a ceria oxide compound of the general formula M.sub.aCe.sub.bO.sub.c, where 0carbon dioxide, and heating to a temperature less than approximately 1400 C, thereby producing carbon monoxide gas and the original metal oxide compound.

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  9. An injection method for measuring the carbon isotope content of soil carbon dioxide and soil respiration with a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Andrew B; Schauer, Andrew J; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Bowling, David R

    2010-04-15

    We present a novel technique in which the carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of soil CO(2) is measured from small gas samples (<5 mL) injected into a stream of CO(2)-free air flowing into a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDL). This new method extends the dynamic range of the TDL to measure CO(2) mole fractions ranging from ambient to pure CO(2), reduces the volume of sample required to a few mL, and does not require field deployment of the instrument. The measurement precision of samples stored for up to 60 days was 0.23 per thousand. The new TDL method was applied with a simple gas well sampling technique to obtain and measure gas samples from shallow soil depth increments for CO(2) mole fraction and delta(13)C analysis, and subsequent determination of the delta(13)C of soil-respired CO(2). The method was tested using an artificial soil system containing a controlled CO(2) source and compared with an independent method using the TDL and an open soil chamber. The profile and chamber estimates of delta(13)C of an artificially produced CO(2) flux were consistent and converged to the delta(13)C of the CO(2) source at steady state, indicating the accuracy of both methods under controlled conditions. The new TDL method, in which a small pulse of sample is measured on a carrier gas stream, is analogous for the TDL technique to the development of continuous-flow configurations for isotope ratio mass spectrometry. While the applications presented here are focused on soil CO(2), this new TDL method could be applied in a number of situations requiring measurement of delta(13)C of CO(2) in small gas samples with ambient to high CO(2) mole fractions.

  10. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  11. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  12. Summer Ice and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

    1981-10-01

    The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and research ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55 degrees and 80 degrees N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

  13. Summer ice and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

    1981-10-30

    The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and reseach ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55/sup o/ and 80/sup o/N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

  14. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  15. The Impact of Carbon Dioxide on Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gordon J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationship between climatic change and carbon dioxide from the historical perspective; details the contributions of carbon-based fuels to increasing carbon dioxide concentrations; and using global circulation models, discusses the future impact of the heavy reliance of our society on carbon-based fuels on climatic change. (BT)

  16. Viscosity behavior of carbon dioxide treated Cut Bank crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, G.V.; Mosawi, H.

    1995-12-31

    Carbon dioxide injection, either by huff and puff or displacement operations, results in a crude oil viscosity reduction at pressures below the miscibility conditions. Carbon dioxide miscibility occurs in reservoirs at miscible temperature and pressure, but these conditions are not possible in shallow reservoirs. Improved oil recovery in a shallow reservoir depends on the degree of viscosity reduction at the reservoir temperature and pressure. A recovery project`s success depends on the interaction between the carbon dioxide and the reservoir system. A research project carried out at Montana Tech to study the viscosity reduction and carbon dioxide solubility in Cut Bank crude oil at the reservoir`s prevailing temperature and near fracture pressure shows a viscosity reduction ratio (crude-carbon dioxide mixture to original dead oil viscosity) of 0.22 at a pressure of 1,000 psig and 90 F. An original mobility of 20 Md/cp improves to 91 Md/cp under a carbon dioxide recovery process at or near the reservoir`s fracture pressure. Based on the authors` research, improved oil recovery operations in the Cut Bank Field, Montana, is viable when using a commercial on site carbon dioxide recovery or generating system to minimize the cost of CO{sub 2} transportation. The major benefits are oil viscosity reduction, mobility ratio improvement, gas drive, and crude oil swelling.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  18. Carbon dioxide review 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The buildup of CO/sub 2/ is a reality, monitored with increasing precision since 1957 and inferred for much earlier dates. A statistical section gives the monitored values to 1980, as well as a review of a long series of measurements made at Mauna Loa by the pioneers of such monitoring, Charles D. Keeling, Robert B. Bacastow, and Timothy P. Whorf. The book discusses internal transport processes in the ocean, of ocean-atmosphere interaction, of the magnitude of forest and soil carbon wastage, of the future course of fossil-fuel consumption. Yet something else emerges, too: if the CO/sub 2/ buildup continues; if the big general circulation models are right about its impact on climate, and if we have not miscalculated the potential role of the oceans, then we face a climatic change in the next century and a half like nothing the post-glacial world, and hence civilized humanity, has seen.

  19. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-30

    BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

  1. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Pat; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)

  2. Carbon Dioxide Tucked into Basalt Converts to Rock

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, Pete

    2016-11-18

    Carbon Sequestration or storing carbon dioxide underground may be one approach to reducing atmospheric levels of the greenhouse gas. Storing it in basalt formations creates a chemical reaction in which the CO2 is transformed into a mineral similar to limestone enabling permanent storage underground. A field study by researchers at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory shows that chemical happens quickly. Within two years, CO2 injected underground in Washington state had converted to the carbonate mineral ankerite.

  3. Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.

    2011-01-01

    Which emits more carbon dioxide (CO2): Earth's volcanoes or human activities? Research findings indicate unequivocally that the answer to this frequently asked question is human activities. However, most people, including some Earth scientists working in fields outside volcanology, are surprised by this answer. The climate change debate has revived and reinforced the belief, widespread among climate skeptics, that volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities [Gerlach, 2010; Plimer, 2009]. In fact, present-day volcanoes emit relatively modest amounts of CO2, about as much annually as states like Florida, Michigan, and Ohio.

  4. Formation of Quartz-Carbonate Veins: Evidence From Experimental Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Brine-Rock System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecky, D. R.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Quartz-carbonate veins are common in a variety of moderate temperature hydrothermal systems and ore deposits. Associated fluid inclusions have a wide range of compositions, including liquid carbon dioxide fillings. Examination of chemical and physical conditions which result precipitation of quartz and carbonate in veins raises several key questions about multiphase fluid processes and reaction rates. We have been experimentally investigating physical-chemical reaction processes of mixed brine-carbon dioxide fluids for the shallow crust. Synthetic arkose (microcline + oligoclase + quartz + biotite) plus argillaceous shale were reacted with 5.5 molal NaCl brine. The system was held at 200 C and 200 bars for 32 days to approach steady state, then injected with carbon dioxide and allowed to react for an additional 45 days. In a parallel experiment, the system was allowed to react for 77 days without injection of carbon dioxide. Trace ions initially absent from NaCl brine appeared in solution at mM (K, Ca, and silica) to uM (Mg, Al, Fe and Mn) quantities, reflecting reaction of brine with rock. Without carbon dioxide injection, the silica concentration (2.4 mM) was stable below calculated quartz solubility (3.9 mM). Injection of carbon dioxide resulted in decreased pH and increased silica concentration to a level near calculated chalcedony solubility (5.4 mM). Dissolution of silicate minerals is apparently coupled to the acidity, and concomitant inhibition of the precipitation of quartz (and other silicates). A significant increase in concentration of trace metals is consistent with in-situ pH decrease and increased carbon dioxide dissolved in brine. Multi-phase fluid reaction relationships between supercritical carbon dioxide and brine-rock systems allow formation of carbonate vein precipitates in substantial quantities. Brine and continued rock reactions provide a substantial reservoir for Ca, Mg and Fe components. A separate carbon dioxide liquid allows

  5. Sorption of carbon dioxide onto sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Sang-Wook Park; Deok-Ho Sung; Byoung-Sik Choi; Kwang-Joong Oh; Kil-Ho Moon

    2006-07-01

    Sodium carbonate was used as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} from a gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and moisture. The breakthrough data of CO{sub 2} were measured in a fixed bed to observe the reaction kinetics of CO{sub 2}-carbonate reaction. Several models such as the shrinking-core model, the homogeneous model, and the deactivation model in the non-catalytic heterogeneous reaction systems were used to explain the kinetics of reaction among CO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and moisture using analysis of the experimental breakthrough data. Good agreement of the deactivation model was obtained with the experimental breakthrough data. The sorption rate constant and the deactivation rate constant were evaluated by analysis of the experimental breakthrough data using a nonlinear least squares technique and described as Arrhenius form.

  6. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H.; Wendt, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  7. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  8. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to a patent paraumbilical vein.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Peter; Tyler, Donald C

    2007-03-01

    Carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of laparoscopic surgery. The most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein or solid organ during initial peritoneal insufflation. We describe a case of carbon dioxide embolism in a 13-year-old boy during an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, caused by injection of carbon dioxide into a large paraumbilical vein. The clinical manifestations of carbon dioxide embolism were hypotension, bradycardia, and an abrupt drop in end-tidal CO2. He subsequently did well and had no sequelae. Carbon dioxide embolism is a recognized complication of laparoscopic surgery, although the risk to the patient may be minimized by the surgical team's awareness of the problem, continuous intraoperative monitoring of end-tidal CO2, and using an open technique for initial access to the peritoneum.

  9. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfn; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-12-31

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of December 2004, 11.39 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 242 MCFD. Vent losses were excessive during June as ambient temperatures increased. Installation of smaller plungers in the carbon dioxide injection pump reduced the recycle and vent loss substantially. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May and in the second production well in August. No channeling of carbon dioxide was observed. The GOR has remained within the range of 3000-4000 for most the last six months. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.35 B/D for the six month period between July 1 and December 31. Cumulative oil production was 814 bbls. Neither well has experienced increased oil production rates expected from the arrival of the oil bank generated by carbon dioxide injection.

  10. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  12. Intraosseous Venography with Carbon Dioxide in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: Carbon Dioxide Retention in Renal Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Komemushi, Atsushi Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Tokuda, Takanori; Nomura, Motoo; Terada, Jiro; Kamata, Minoru; Sawada, Satoshi

    2008-11-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of gas retention in the renal vein following carbon dioxide intraosseous venography in the prone position and, while citing references, to examine its onset mechanisms. All percutaneous vertebroplasties performed at our hospital from January to December 2005 were registered and retrospectively analyzed. Of 43 registered procedures treating 79 vertebrae, 28 procedures treating 54 vertebrae were analyzed. Vertebral intraosseous venography was performed using carbon dioxide as a contrast agent in all percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures. In preoperative and postoperative vertebral CT, gas retention in the renal vein and other areas was assessed. Preoperative CT did not show gas retention (0/28 procedures; 0%). Postoperative CT confirmed gas retention in the renal vein in 10 of the 28 procedures (35.7%). Gas retention was seen in the right renal vein in 8 procedures (28.6%), in the left renal vein in 5 procedures (17.9%), in the left and right renal veins in 3 procedures (10.7%), in vertebrae in 22 procedures (78.6%), in the soft tissue around vertebrae in 14 procedures (50.0%), in the spinal canal in 12 procedures (42.9%), and in the subcutaneous tissue in 5 procedures (17.9%). In conclusion, in our study, carbon dioxide gas injected into the vertebra frequently reached and remained in the renal vein.

  13. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude

  14. Microfluidic studies of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Milad; Günther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2014-07-28

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, storage and recycling will greatly benefit from comprehensive studies of physical and chemical gas-liquid processes involving CO2. Over the past five years, microfluidics emerged as a valuable tool in CO2-related research, due to superior mass and heat transfer, reduced axial dispersion, well-defined gas-liquid interfacial areas and the ability to vary reagent concentrations in a high-throughput manner. This Minireview highlights recent progress in microfluidic studies of CO2-related processes, including dissolution of CO2 in physical solvents, CO2 reactions, the utilization of CO2 in materials science, and the use of supercritical CO2 as a "green" solvent.

  15. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  16. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-21

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved.

  17. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  18. Experimental study of pattern formation during carbon dioxide mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuszter, Gabor; Brau, Fabian; de Wit, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in deep porous aquifers, where mineral carbonation takes place via chemical reactions, is one of the possible long-term storage of this greenhouse gas. This mineralization process is investigated experimentally under controlled conditions in a confined horizontal Hele-Shaw geometry where an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate is injected radially into a solution of calcium chloride. Precipitation of calcium carbonate in various finger, flower or tube-like patterns is observed in the mixing zone between the two solutions. These precipitation structures and their growth dynamics are studied quantitatively as a function of the parameters of the problem, which are the injection rate and the reactant concentrations. In particular, we show the existence of critical concentrations of reactants above which the amount of the calcium carbonate precipitate produced drops significantly.

  19. A new look at atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, David J.; Butler, James H.; Tans, Pieter P.

    Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere and is of considerable concern in global climate change because of its greenhouse gas warming potential. The rate of increase has accelerated since measurements began at Mauna Loa Observatory in 1958 where carbon dioxide increased from less than 1 part per million per year (ppm yr -1) prior to 1970 to more than 2 ppm yr -1 in recent years. Here we show that the anthropogenic component (atmospheric value reduced by the pre-industrial value of 280 ppm) of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been increasing exponentially with a doubling time of about 30 years since the beginning of the industrial revolution (˜1800). Even during the 1970s, when fossil fuel emissions dropped sharply in response to the "oil crisis" of 1973, the anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide level continued increasing exponentially at Mauna Loa Observatory. Since the growth rate (time derivative) of an exponential has the same characteristic lifetime as the function itself, the carbon dioxide growth rate is also doubling at the same rate. This explains the observation that the linear growth rate of carbon dioxide has more than doubled in the past 40 years. The accelerating growth rate is simply the outcome of exponential growth in carbon dioxide with a nearly constant doubling time of about 30 years (about 2%/yr) and appears to have tracked human population since the pre-industrial era.

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2006-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By June 30, 2006, 41,566 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,726 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. Oil rates increased from about 3.3 B/D for the period from January through March to about 4.7 B/D for the period from April through June. If the oil rate is sustained, this may be the first indication of the arrival of the oil bank mobilized by carbon dioxide injection. A sustained fluid withdrawal rate of about 200 B/D from CO2 No.12 and CO2 No.13 appears to be necessary to obtain higher oil rates. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has

  1. Method of forming carbon dioxide mixtures miscible with formation crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Froning, H. R.; Yellig Jr., W. F.

    1985-07-16

    A method is disclosed for forming a carbon dioxide-containing mixture which is miscible with crude oil. The method comprises maintaining a mixture of crude oil and carbon dioxide in an extraction zone at a temperature and pressure such that multiple phase equilibrium is achieved therebetween. A carbon dioxide-rich phase that includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons is withdrawn and is miscible with the reservoir crude oil when injected into the reservoir from which the crude oil was produced.

  2. Photolytical Generation of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, E. E.; Brown, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon dioxide has been found by Cassini VIMS throughout the Saturnian system in locations such as Iapetus' equator where the temperature is too high for it to remain as free ice for more than a few hundred years. We suggest that the 4.26 micron absorption feature found on Iapetus and Hyperion (that has been attributed to complexed CO2) is the result of either UV photolysis or ion bombardment driving chemistry between the carbon rich layer and the water ice regolith. We conducted experiments to simulate the generation of CO2 by UV radiation under conditions similar to those on the surface of Iapetus. A simulated icy regolith was created in an argon atmosphere using flash-frozen, degassed water crushed into sub-millimeter sized particles. Isotopically labeled amorphous carbon (13C), which was ground into a fine dust, was mixed into the regolith allowing for extensive grain contact. This sample was placed in a vacuum chamber and cooled to temperatures as low at 60K. The sample was irradiated with UV light, and the products were measured using both a mass spectrometer to identify free molecules and an IR spectrometer for molecules that remained trapped on and in the simulated regolith. We report on the production and reaction rates of CO2 and CO, as well as the generation of free hydrogen and oxygen as detected by a SRS-100 mass spectrometer. We also identify residual products that either freeze on the surface or become entrained by or adsorbed onto the ice grains. We attempt to match the CO2 absorption feature found on Iapetus with that seen in our simulation, perhaps identifying a possible source of CO2 in the Saturnian system. Finally, we estimate the time required for these reactions to occur on Iapetus to see if UV photolysis would be effective.

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  4. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  5. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located...

  6. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture...

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  9. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  10. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  11. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  12. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  13. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located...

  14. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  15. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture...

  16. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  17. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  20. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  1. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture...

  2. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  4. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  5. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space...

  7. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  10. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located...

  11. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture...

  12. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  13. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  14. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  16. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  17. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  20. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  1. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  2. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  3. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the...

  4. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  5. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  6. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture...

  7. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas at normal temperatures and pressures. The solid form, dry ice, sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon dioxide is prepared as a...

  9. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  10. Carbon dioxide separation using adsorption with steam regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Jeannine Elizabeth; Copeland, Robert James; Leta, Daniel P.; McCall, Patrick P.; Bai, Chuansheng; DeRites, Bruce A.

    2016-11-29

    A process for separating a carbon dioxide from a gas stream is disclosed. The process can include passing the gas stream over a sorbent that adsorbs the carbon dioxide by concentration swing adsorption and adsorptive displacement. The sorbent can be regenerated and the carbon dioxide recaptured by desorbing the carbon dioxide from the sorbent using concentration swing adsorption and desorptive displacement. A carbon dioxide separation system is also disclosed. Neither the system nor the process rely on temperature swing or pressure swing adsorption.

  11. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2007-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By December 31, 2006, 79,072 bbls of water were injected into CO2 I-1 and 3,923 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Water injection rates into CO2 I-1, CO2 No.10 and CO2 No.18 were stabilized during this period. Oil production rates increased from 4.7 B/D to 5.5 to 6 B/D confirming the arrival of an oil bank at CO2 No.12. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver No.7, Colliver No.3 and possibly Graham A4 located on an adjacent property. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Our management plan is to continue water injection maintaining oil displacement by displacing the carbon dioxide remaining in the C zone,. If the decline rate of production from the Colliver Lease remains as estimated and the oil rate from the pilot region remains constant, we estimate that the oil production attributed to carbon dioxide injection will be about 12,000 bbl by December 31, 2007. Oil recovery would be equivalent to 12 MCF/bbl, which is consistent with field experience in

  12. Carbon Dioxide Tucked into Basalt Converts to Rock

    ScienceCinema

    McGrail, Pete

    2016-12-02

    Carbon Sequestration or storing carbon dioxide underground may be one approach to reducing atmospheric levels of the greenhouse gas. Storing it in basalt formations creates a chemical reaction in which the CO2 is transformed into a mineral similar to limestone enabling permanent storage underground. A field study by researchers at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory shows that chemical happens quickly. Within two years, CO2 injected underground in Washington state had converted to the carbonate mineral ankerite.

  13. Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

    2010-07-28

    Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances

  14. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2005-12-31

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By the end of December 2005, 14,115 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,091 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Continued injection of water is planned to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  15. Beam-injection flame furnace AAS: comparison of different nozzle types for beam generation and application of sub-critical liquid carbon dioxide as carrier and gas pressure pump.

    PubMed

    Ratka, Annelen; Berndt, Harald

    2004-01-01

    In beam injection flame furnace AAS (BIFF-AAS) the sample is introduced as a free-flying high-speed liquid beam into an AAS flame-heated nickel tube, resulting in a considerable improvement in the power of detection. For optimization of beam generation different nozzle types (smooth jet nozzles, turbulent working nozzles) have been compared at different pressures. It was found that the type of the nozzle hardly influences the analytical signal. However, the flow rates resulting from the different inner diameters of the nozzles and the applied pressures led to drastic changes in the analytical signal. For these investigations a recently developed 0.6 MPa (84 psig) diaphragm pump system was used. Furthermore, for the first time ever sub-critical liquid carbon dioxide has been used simultaneously as a liquid gas-pressure pump, as carrier in a flow-injection system (FIA), and for the beam generation. Transport of the carrier takes place as a result of the head pressure (6 MPa) of the liquid CO2 in the gas cylinder. For volatile elements (e.g. Cd, Hg, Pb, and Tl) detection limits between 0.2 microg L(-1) (Cd) and 28 microg L(-1) (Hg) were found, the standard deviation was from 0.6% to 3.2% depending on the element, concentration, and sample volume used. The use of liquid CO2 as a carrier in FIA systems opens up new possibilities for online sample pretreatment and trace preconcentration.

  16. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  17. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  18. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  19. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  20. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also

  1. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-07

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  2. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1... Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid... anchorage of tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  3. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1... Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid... anchorage of tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon...

  8. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1... Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid... anchorage of tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon...

  10. Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Sam

    2007-04-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a technology that could be used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from large industrial installations such as fossil fuel-fired power stations by 80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial plant, its transport to a geological storage site and its long-term isolation in a geological storage reservoir. The technology has aroused considerable interest because it can help reduce emissions from fossil fuels which are likely to remain the dominant source of primary energy for decades to come. The main issues for the technology are cost and its implications for financing new or retrofitted plants, and the security of underground storage.

  11. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  12. Carbon dioxide hydrate and floods on Mars.

    PubMed

    Milton, D J

    1974-02-15

    Ground ice on Mars probably consists largely of carbon dioxide hydrate, CO(2) . 6H(2)O. This hydrate dissociates upon release of pressure at temperatures between 0 degrees and 10 degrees C. The heat capacity of the ground would be sufficient to produce up to 4 percent (by volume) of water at a rate equal to that at which it can be drained away. Catastrophic dissociation of carbon dioxide hydrate during some past epoch when the near surface temperature was in this range would have produced chaotic terrain and flood channels.

  13. Carbon dioxide hydrate and floods on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Ground ice on Mars probably consists largely of carbon dioxide hydrate. This hydrate dissociates upon release of pressure at temperatures between 0 and 10 C. The heat capacity of the ground would be sufficient to produce up to 4% (by volume) of water at a rate equal to that at which it can be drained away. Catastrophic dissociation of carbon dioxide hydrate during some past epoch when the near-surface temperature was in this range would have produced chaotic terrain and flood channels.

  14. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  15. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  16. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

  17. Somewhere beyond the sea? The oceanic - carbon dioxide - reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In correlation to climate change and CO2 emission different campaigns highlight the importance of forests and trees to regulate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earths' atmosphere. Seeing millions of square miles of rainforest cut down every day, this is truly a valid point. Nevertheless, we often tend to forget what scientists like Spokes try to raise awareness for: The oceans - and foremost deep sea sections - resemble the second biggest deposit of carbon dioxide. Here carbon is mainly found in form of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate. The carbonates are needed by corals and other sea organisms to maintain their skeletal structure and thereby to remain vital. To raise awareness for the protection of this fragile ecosystem in schools is part of our approach. Awareness is achieved best through understanding. Therefore, our approach is a hands-on activity that aims at showing students how the carbon dioxide absorption changes in relation to the water temperature - in times of global warming a truly sensitive topic. The students use standard syringes filled with water (25 ml) at different temperatures (i.e. 10°C, 20°C, 40°C). Through a connector students inject carbon dioxide (25ml) into the different samples. After a fixed period of time, students can read of the remaining amount of carbon dioxide in relation to the given water temperature. Just as with every scientific project, students need to closely monitor their experiments and alter their setups (e.g. water temperature or acidity) according to their initial planning. A digital template (Excel-based) supports the analysis of students' experiments. Overview: What: hands-on, minds -on activity using standard syringes to exemplify carbon dioxide absorption in relation to the water temperature (Le Chatelier's principle) For whom: adjustable from German form 11-13 (age: 16-19 years) Time: depending on the prior knowledge 45-60 min. Sources (extract): Spokes, L.: Wie Ozeane CO2 aufnehmen. Environmental

  18. Discussion of Refrigeration Cycle Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Amin; Sun, Miming; Li, Jie; Yin, Gang; Cheng, Keyong; Zhen, Bing; Sun, Ying

    Nowadays, the problem of the environment goes worse, it urges people to research and study new energy-saving and environment-friendly refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide, at present, people do research on carbon dioxide at home and abroad. This paper introduces the property of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, sums up and analyses carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles, and points out the development and research direction in the future.

  19. Tuning Organic Carbon Dioxide Absorbents for Carbonation and Decarbonation

    PubMed Central

    Rajamanickam, Ramachandran; Kim, Hyungsoo; Park, Ji-Woong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of carbon dioxide with a mixture of a superbase and alcohol affords a superbase alkylcarbonate salt via a process that can be reversed at elevated temperatures. To utilize the unique chemistry of superbases for carbon capture technology, it is essential to facilitate carbonation and decarbonation at desired temperatures in an easily controllable manner. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal stabilities of the alkylcarbonate salts of superbases in organic solutions can be tuned by adjusting the compositions of hydroxylic solvent and polar aprotic solvent mixtures, thereby enabling the best possible performances to be obtained from the various carbon dioxide capture agents based on these materials. The findings provides valuable insights into the design and optimization of organic carbon dioxide absorbents. PMID:26033537

  20. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

    2014-07-22

    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  1. Magnesian calcite sorbent for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Mabry, James C; Mondal, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Magnesian calcite with controlled properties was synthesized for the removal of carbon dioxide. The results from characterization, reactivity and CO2 capture capacity for different synthesis conditions are reported. The magnesian calcite samples (CaCO3:MgCO3) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of specific amounts of commercially available CaO and MgO by carbon dioxide. Characterization was done with BET, SEM/EDS, particle size analysis and XRD. The capacity was measured using TGA cycles at 800 degrees C and compared for different preparation conditions. The effects of CaO, MgO and surfactant loading on the physical properties and carbonation activity were studied to determine the optimal synthesis condition. A long-term carbonation-calcination cycling test was conducted on the optimal sample. It was observed that the sample maintained its capacity to 86% of its original uptake even after 50 cycles.

  2. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  3. Recovery of carbon dioxide from fuel cell exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, H.C.; Kolodney, M.; Levy, A.H.; Trocciola, P.

    1988-06-14

    An acid fuel cell power plant system operable to produce carbon dioxide as a by-product is described comprising: (a) fuel cell stack means having anode means, cathode means, and fuel cell cooling means, the cooling means using a water coolant; (b) means for delivering a hydrogen-rich fuel gas which contains carbon dioxide to the anode means for consumption of hydrogen by the anode means in an electrochemical reaction in the stack; (c) carbon dioxide absorber means including an absorbent for stripping carbon dioxide from gaseous mixtures thereof; (d) means for delivering hydrogen-depleted exhaust gas containing carbon dioxide from the anode means to the carbon dioxide absorber means for absorption of carbon dioxide from the exhaust gas; (e) an absorbent regenerator; (f) means for delivering carbon dioxide-enriched absorbent from the absorber means to the regenerator for separation of carbon dioxide from the absorbent; (g) means for exhausting carbon dioxide from the regenerator, the means for exhausting further including means for cooling and compressing carbon dioxide exhausted from the regenerator; and (h) means for removing the compressed carbon dioxide from the power plant.

  4. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  6. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  7. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  9. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  11. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  12. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  13. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

  14. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted...

  15. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  16. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated as follows:...

  18. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  20. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  1. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  2. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  3. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  4. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

  5. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  6. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  7. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted...

  8. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  9. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

  10. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...

  11. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...

  12. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New...

  13. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  14. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted...

  15. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91....320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  17. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...

  18. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted...

  19. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  1. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine;...

  2. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial use and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  3. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  5. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated as follows:...

  7. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  11. Catalyst cartridge for carbon dioxide reduction unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a base plate closing one end of the cartridge, and a cover plate closing the other end of the cartridge. The cover plate has a central aperture through which a supply line with a heater feeds a gaseous reaction mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a temperature from about 1000 to about 1400 F. The outer surfaces of the internal wall and the inner surfaces of the outer wall are lined with a ceramic fiber batting material of sufficient thickness to prevent carbon formed in the reaction from passing through it. The portion of the surfaces of the base and cover plates defined within the inner and outer walls are also lined with ceramic batting. The heated reaction mixture passes outwardly through the inner perforated wall and ceramic batting and over the catalyst. The solid carbon product formes is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The solid carbon product formed is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The water vapor and unreacted carbon dioxide and any intermediate products pass through the perforations of the outer wall.

  12. Carbon dioxide embolism in a 3-week-old neonate during laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kudsi, Omar Yusef; Jones, Sarah A; Brenn, B Randall

    2009-04-01

    Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy has gained popularity in the treatment of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. This is the first case report of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. We describe a case of carbon dioxide embolism in a 3-week-old neonate during laparoscopic pyloromyotomy by injection of carbon dioxide into a patent umbilical vein. The diagnosis of carbon dioxide embolism was made on the basis of the abrupt decrease in end-tidal CO(2), sudden decreased Spo(2), hypotension, and cyanosis. Portable x-ray with the clinical presentation was sufficient for a diagnosis of carbon dioxide embolism. Treatment included termination of CO(2) insufflation, placing the patient in Durant's position, and adequate resuscitation as necessary. Despite the fact that the insufflation pressure was in the recommended range, a carbon dioxide embolism was thought to be caused by injection of carbon dioxide into a patent umbilical vein. Although laparoscopic pyloromyotomy has demonstrated to be a safe and effective procedure, this is a serious and rare complication causing prolonged length of stay and skewed hospital charges.

  13. Calculations of Gas-liquid Equilibrium in Wellbore with High Carbon dioxide Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaming; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Gao, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide injection not only enhances the oil recovery dramatically, but also it will reduce the greenhouse effect, therefore, Carbon dioxide injection technique is applied extensively. During the process of carbon dioxide displacement, when carbon dioxide breaks though into oil production wells, carbon dioxide content will impacts the phase state and physical properties of the mixed liquor in the wellbore, as a result, it will affect the calculation of temperature and pressure in oil production wells. Applying the conventional black-oil model to calculate the phase state of the miscible fluids is unacceptable. To tackle the problem, this paper uses the gas-liquid flash theory and component model to program software, so that the phase state (gas, liquid or gas-liquid) and physical properties of the mixed liquor (including hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon) under initial conditions is calculated, moreover, the impact of carbon dioxide content on the physical properties(mainly including density, viscosity, specific heat at const pressure, surface tension, etc) of mixed liquor in oil production wells is analyzed in this paper. The comparison of the results shows that this model can meet the engineering needs with high accuracy.

  14. RESEARCH ON ELECTRIC ARC REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), ELECTRIC ARCS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, HEAT OF REACTION, GAS FLOW, OXYGEN, CARBON COMPOUNDS, MONOXIDES, ELECTRODES, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, HIGH TEMPERATURE, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), ENERGY.

  15. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-06-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0{sup 2} include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO{sup 2} and total concentration of dissolved C0{sup 2}, sea-air pCO{sup 2} difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0{sup 2} uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0{sup 2} from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0{sup 2} fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

  16. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tsung-Hung ); Takahashi, Taro . Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0[sup 2] include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO[sup 2] and total concentration of dissolved C0[sup 2], sea-air pCO[sup 2] difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0[sup 2] uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0[sup 2] from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0[sup 2] fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

  17. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  18. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  19. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  20. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  1. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Julio Enrique

    2003-01-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO2 will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO2 and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO2-H2O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO2. The basic problem of CO2 injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO2 injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO2 injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO2. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO2 into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO2) the viscosity of carbon

  2. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  3. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  4. The synthesis of organic carbonates from carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sakakura, Toshiyasu; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2009-03-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is an easily available, renewable carbon resource, which has the advantages of being non-toxic, abundant and economical. CO(2) is also attractive as an environmentally friendly chemical reagent, and is especially useful as a phosgene substitute. CO(2) is an "anhydrous carbonic acid" that rapidly reacts with basic compounds. Nucleophilic attack at CO(2) conveniently produces carboxyl and carbamoyl groups. Further reactions of these species with electrophiles lead to the formation of organic carbonates and carbamates. The present article deals with the synthetic technologies leading to organic carbonates using CO(2) as a raw material.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency.

  6. Aerobiology of irradiation with the carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J; Newsom, S W; Walker, N P

    1985-06-01

    The ability of a carbon dioxide laser to scatter debris and aerosolize bacteria from human skin was tested by collecting the aerosols liberated with glass impingers together with a slit sampler. Two sets of tests were done--one to detect dispersal of cells from treatment of rodent ulcers or warts, and the other on pieces of skin obtained from autopsy material, which had been injected with spores. With low power levels a few bacterial particles were collected, together with some whole cells, however, at levels greater than 750 W cm-2 all the cultures were sterile.

  7. Recycling technology of emitted carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Hironori

    1993-12-31

    Ways to halt global warming are being discussed worldwide. Global warming is an energy problem which is mainly attributed to the large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere from the rapid increase in energy consumption since the Industrial Revolution. The basic solution to the problem, therefore, is to cut consumption of fossil fuels. To this end, it is important to promote energy conservation by improving the fuel efficiency of machines, as well as shift to energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide and develop related technologies. If current trends in economic growth continue in the devloping world as well as the developed countries, there can be no doubt that energy consumption will increase. Therefore, alongside energy conservation and the development of alternative energies, the importance of technologies to recover and fix CO{sub 2} will increase in the fight against global warming.

  8. Sequestering ADM ethanol plant carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, R.J.; Riddle, D.

    2008-01-01

    Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) are collaborating on a project in confirming that a rock formation can store carbon dioxide from the plant in its pores. The project aimed to sequester the gas underground permanently to minimize release of the greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. It is also designed to store one million tons of carbon dioxide over a three-year period. The project is worth $84.3M, funded by $66.7M from the US Department Energy, supplemented by co-funding from ADM and other corporate and state resources. The project will start drilling of wells to an expected depth over 6500 feet into the Mount Simon Sandstone formation.

  9. Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J; Johnson, D; Lacis, A; Lebedeff, S; Lee, P; Rind, D; Russell, G

    1981-08-28

    The global temperature rose by 0.2 degrees C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4 degrees C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980's. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.

  10. Regulation of cerebral autoregulation by carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzhong; Gelb, Adrian W

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation describes a mechanism that maintains cerebral blood flow stable despite fluctuating perfusion pressure. Multiple nonperfusion pressure processes also regulate cerebral perfusion. These mechanisms are integrated. The effect of the interplay between carbon dioxide and perfusion pressure on cerebral circulation has not been specifically reviewed. On the basis of the published data and speculation on the aspects that are without supportive data, the authors offer a conceptualization delineating the regulation of cerebral autoregulation by carbon dioxide. The authors conclude that hypercapnia causes the plateau to progressively ascend, a rightward shift of the lower limit, and a leftward shift of the upper limit. Conversely, hypocapnia results in the plateau shifting to lower cerebral blood flows, unremarkable change of the lower limit, and unclear change of the upper limit. It is emphasized that a sound understanding of both the limitations and the dynamic and integrated nature of cerebral autoregulation fosters a safer clinical practice.

  11. There is more to climate than carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Walker, J C

    1995-07-01

    Discussion of climate change on a range of time scales has tended to focus on carbon dioxide and a changing greenhouse effect. Because carbon dioxide couples climate to ocean, land, and biota, it has appealed to scientists with an interest in the whole Earth system. Carbon dioxide has left a geological record in fossils, isotopes, and sediments, so we can reasonably expect to reconstruct its history. While important questions of detail remain to be resolved, many published applications of carbon cycle modelling suggest that we understand the biogeochemical cycles of carbon well enough to estimate carbon dioxide concentrations in the past and the future. Furthermore, we have an excellent instrumental record of recent changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide. While these considerations make carbon dioxide attractive to paleoclimatologists, they do not necessarily make it a major component of climate change. I shall argue in this paper that clouds deserve much more attention than they have been getting.

  12. The direct viscosity enhancement of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Iezzi, A.; Enick, R.; Brady, J. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure viscometer has been constructed for use over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, including near-critical and supercritical conditions. An aluminum cylinder falls through a tube containing a stationary column of fluid, enabling viscosities to be determined from terminal velocity measurements. Preliminary results are presented on the search for an additive which can enhance the viscosity of carbon dioxide when present in low (less than 1%) concentrations.

  13. Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Carlson, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    A steady state computer simulation model of an Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC) has been developed. The mathematical model combines EDC heat and mass balance equations with empirical correlations derived from experimental data to describe EDC performance as a function of the operating parameters involved. The model is capable of accurately predicting performance over EDC operating ranges. Model simulation results agree with the experimental data obtained over the prediction range.

  14. Carbon dioxide makes heat therapy work

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, H.

    1987-01-01

    Scientists can now propagate healthy blueberry and raspberry plants from virus-infected stock by treating it with heat and carbon dioxide. Plants are grown at 100/sup 0/F, which makes them develop faster than the virus can spread. Then cuttings are taken of the new growth - less than an inch long - and grown into full-sized, virus-free plants. But in this race to outdistance the virus, some plant species are not able to take the heat. Some even die. Chemical reactions double for every 14/sup 0/F rise in temperature. So, if you try to grow a plant at 100/sup 0/F that was originally growing at 86/sup 0/F, it will double its respiration rate. Adding carbon dioxide increases the rate of photosynthesis in plants, which increases the plant's food reserves. What carbon dioxide does to allow some plants to grow at temperatures at which they would otherwise not survive and it allows other plants to grow for longer periods at 100/sup 0/F. One problem with the process, says Converse, is that the longer plants are exposed to heat the greater the mutation rate. So, resulting clones should be closely examined for trueness to horticultural type.

  15. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  16. Limiting future atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Le QuéRé, Corinne; Pacala, Stephen W.

    1995-03-01

    We estimate anthropogenic carbon emissions required to stabilize future atmospheric CO2 at various levels ranging from 350 ppm to 750 ppm. Over the next three centuries, uptake by the ocean and terrestrial biosphere would permit emissions to be 3 to 6 times greater than the total atmospheric increase, with each of them contributing approximately equal amounts. Owing to the nonlinear dependence of oceanic and terrestrial biospheric uptake on CO2 concentration, the uptake by these two sinks decreases substantially at higher atmospheric CO2 levels. The uptake also decreases with increased atmospheric CO2 growth rate. All the stabilization scenarios require a substantial future reduction in emissions.

  17. Carbon dioxide reduction by the Bosch process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, M. P.; Reid, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype units for carrying out the reduction of carbon dioxide to elementary carbon have been built and operated successfully. In some cases, however, startup difficulties have been reported. Moreover, the recycle reactor product has been reported to contain only small amounts of water and undesirably high yields of methane. This paper presents the results of the first phase of an experimental study that was carried out to define the mechanisms occurring in the reduction process. Conclusions are drawn and possible modifications to the present recycle process are suggested.

  18. A miniature chemiresistor sensor for carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Srinives, Sira; Sarkar, Tapan; Hernandez, Raul; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-05-18

    A carpet-like nanostructure of polyaniline (PANI) nanothin film functionalized with poly(ethyleneimine), PEI, was used as a miniature chemiresistor sensor for detection of CO2 at room temperature. Good sensing performance was observed upon exposing the PEI-PANI device to 50-5000 ppm CO2 in presence of humidity with negligible interference from ammonia, carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen dioxide. The sensing mechanism relied on acid-base reaction, CO2 dissolution and amine-catalyzed hydration that yielded carbamates and carbonic acid for a subsequent pH detection. The sensing device showed reliable results in detecting an unknown concentration of CO2 in air.

  19. Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, David W.; Haag, Gary L.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to barium carbonate. The method has several important advantages: it can be conducted effectively at ambient temperature; it provides a very rapid reaction rate over a wide range of carbon dioxide concentrations; it provides high decontamination factors; and it has a high capacity for carbon dioxide. The invention is especially well suited for the removal of radioactive carbon dioxide from off-gases generated by nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear power plants.

  20. Dermal Titanium Dioxide Deposition Associated With Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Cole, Christine; Abraham, Jerrold L; Ragsdale, Bruce; Ngo, Binh

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous discoloration secondary to dermal deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles is recognized but seldom reported in the literature. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 61-year-old gentleman, with a long history of alopecia areata, who presented with numerous, discrete dark blue macules on the scalp. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis ultimately identified the macules as deposits of TiO2. The patient had a history of intralesional triamcinolone injections for management of alopecia areata. A sample of generic 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide paste was analyzed and found to contain many TiO2 particles analogous to those seen in the patient's biopsy sample. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of TiO2 deposition in the dermis likely resulting from topical combined with intralesional triamcinolone injection.

  1. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  2. Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Maio, Giovanni; Del Franco, Mario; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Volcanic gases give information on magmatic processes. In particular, anomalous releases of carbon dioxide precede volcanic eruptions. Up to now, this gas has been measured in volcanic plumes with conventional measurements that imply the severe risks of local sampling and can last many hours. For these reasons and for the great advantages of laser sensing, the thorough development of volcanic lidar has been undertaken at the Diagnostics and Metrology Laboratory (UTAPRAD-DIM) of the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). In fact, lidar profiling allows one to scan remotely volcanic plumes in a fast and continuous way, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. Two differential absorption lidar instruments will be presented in this paper: BILLI (BrIdge voLcanic LIdar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser, double grating dye laser, difference frequency mixing (DFM) and optical parametric amplifier (OPA), and VULLI (VULcamed Lidar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The first one is funded by the ERC (European Research Council) project BRIDGE and the second one by the ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) project VULCAMED. While VULLI has not yet been tested in a volcanic site, BILLI scanned the gas emitted by Pozzuoli Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area, Naples, Italy) during a field campaign carried out from 13 to 17 October 2014. Carbon dioxide concentration maps were retrieved remotely in few minutes in the crater area. Lidar measurements were in good agreement with well-established techniques, based on different operating principles. To our knowledge, it is the first time that carbon dioxide in a volcanic plume is retrieved by lidar, representing the first direct measurement of this kind ever performed on an active volcano and showing the high potential of laser remote sensing in geophysical research.

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  4. Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E.

    1997-03-01

    One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

  5. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent.

  6. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-06-20

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur.

  7. The nature of carbon dioxide waters in Snaefellsnes, western Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnorsson, S.; Barnes, I.

    1983-01-01

    Over 20 occurrences of thermal and non-thermal waters rich in carbon dioxide are known in the Snaefellsnes Peninsula of western Iceland. On the basis of the thermal, chemical and isotopic characteristics of these waters, and hydrological considerations, it is concluded that they represent meteoric waters which have seeped to variable depths into the bedrock. Ascending carbon dioxide gas originating from intrusions or the mantle mixes with the meteoric waters to produce carbon dioxide waters: at considerable depth in the case of the thermal carbon dioxide waters but close to the surface in the case of cold carbon dioxide waters. The occurrence of carbon dioxide waters cannot be regarded as evidence for underground geothermal reservoirs. ?? 1983.

  8. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

  9. Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and butadiene via a lactone intermediate.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-04-01

    Although carbon dioxide has attracted broad interest as a renewable carbon feedstock, its use as a monomer in copolymerization with olefins has long been an elusive endeavour. A major obstacle for this process is that the propagation step involving carbon dioxide is endothermic; typically, attempted reactions between carbon dioxide and an olefin preferentially yield olefin homopolymerization. Here we report a strategy to circumvent the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for copolymerizations of carbon dioxide and olefins by using a metastable lactone intermediate, 3-ethylidene-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, which is formed by the palladium-catalysed condensation of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene. Subsequent free-radical polymerization of the lactone intermediate afforded polymers of high molecular weight with a carbon dioxide content of 33 mol% (29 wt%). Furthermore, the protocol was applied successfully to a one-pot copolymerization of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene, and one-pot terpolymerizations of carbon dioxide, butadiene and another 1,3-diene. This copolymerization technique provides access to a new class of polymeric materials made from carbon dioxide.

  10. Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and butadiene via a lactone intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-04-01

    Although carbon dioxide has attracted broad interest as a renewable carbon feedstock, its use as a monomer in copolymerization with olefins has long been an elusive endeavour. A major obstacle for this process is that the propagation step involving carbon dioxide is endothermic; typically, attempted reactions between carbon dioxide and an olefin preferentially yield olefin homopolymerization. Here we report a strategy to circumvent the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for copolymerizations of carbon dioxide and olefins by using a metastable lactone intermediate, 3-ethylidene-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, which is formed by the palladium-catalysed condensation of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene. Subsequent free-radical polymerization of the lactone intermediate afforded polymers of high molecular weight with a carbon dioxide content of 33 mol% (29 wt%). Furthermore, the protocol was applied successfully to a one-pot copolymerization of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene, and one-pot terpolymerizations of carbon dioxide, butadiene and another 1,3-diene. This copolymerization technique provides access to a new class of polymeric materials made from carbon dioxide.

  11. Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

  12. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon...

  13. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon...

  14. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon...

  15. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon...

  17. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon...

  18. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon...

  19. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  20. Upgrading carbon dioxide by incorporation into heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; He, Liang-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is commonly regarded as the primary greenhouse gas, but from a synthetic standpoint can be utilized as an alternative and sustainable C1 synthon in organic synthesis rather than a waste. This results in the production of organic carbonates, carboxylic acids, and derivatives. Recently, CO2 has emerged as an appealing tool for heterocycle synthesis under mild conditions without using stoichiometric amounts of organometallic reducing reagents. This Minireview summarizes recent advances on methodologies for CO2 incorporation into N-, O-, and C-nucleophiles to provide various heterocycles, including cyclic carbamates, benzoxazine-2-one, 4-hydroxyquinolin-2-one, quinazoline-2,4(1 H,3 H)-diones, benzimidazolones, α-alkylidene cyclic carbonate.

  1. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor); England, Christopher (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Mixing of carbon in the form of high sulfur coal with sulfuric acid reduces the temperature of sulfuric acid decomposition from 830.degree. C. to between 300.degree. C. and 400.degree. C. The low temperature sulfuric acid decomposition is particularly useful in thermal chemical cycles for splitting water to produce hydrogen. Carbon dioxide is produced as a commercially desirable byproduct. Lowering of the temperature for the sulfuric acid decomposition or oxygen release step simplifies equipment requirements, lowers thermal energy input and reduces corrosion problems presented by sulfuric acid at conventional cracking temperatures. Use of high sulfur coal as the source of carbon for the sulfuric acid decomposition provides an environmentally safe and energy efficient utilization of this normally polluting fuel.

  2. Supercritical carbon dioxide: a solvent like no other

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Summary Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) could be one aspect of a significant and necessary movement towards green chemistry, being a potential replacement for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Unfortunately, carbon dioxide has a notoriously poor solubilising power and is famously difficult to handle. This review examines attempts and breakthroughs in enhancing the physicochemical properties of carbon dioxide, focusing primarily on factors that impact solubility of polar and ionic species and attempts to enhance scCO2 viscosity. PMID:25246947

  3. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CARBON DIOXIDE AT ONE ATMOSPHERE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, VISCOSITY, HIGH TEMPERATURE, GASES, NITROGEN COMPOUNDS, OXYGEN, LAMINAR FLOW, TEST EQUIPMENT, DIFFUSION, PRESSURE, DENSITY, MEASUREMENT, WATER, CYLINDRICAL BODIES, THEORY.

  4. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  5. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  6. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  7. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W

    1999-02-05

    An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  8. Amorphous silica-like carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mario; Gorelli, Federico A.; Bini, Roberto; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Scandolo, Sandro; Crichton, Wilson A.

    2006-06-01

    Among the group IV elements, only carbon forms stable double bonds with oxygen at ambient conditions. At variance with silica and germania, the non-molecular single-bonded crystalline form of carbon dioxide, phase V, only exists at high pressure. The amorphous forms of silica (a-SiO2) and germania (a-GeO2) are well known at ambient conditions; however, the amorphous, non-molecular form of CO2 has so far been described only as a result of first-principles simulations. Here we report the synthesis of an amorphous, silica-like form of carbon dioxide, a-CO2, which we call `a-carbonia'. The compression of the molecular phase III of CO2 between 40 and 48GPa at room temperature initiated the transformation to the non-molecular amorphous phase. Infrared spectra measured at temperatures up to 680K show the progressive formation of C-O single bonds and the simultaneous disappearance of all molecular signatures. Furthermore, state-of-the-art Raman and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on temperature-quenched samples confirm the amorphous character of the material. Comparison with vibrational and diffraction data for a-SiO2 and a-GeO2, as well as with the structure factor calculated for the a-CO2 sample obtained by first-principles molecular dynamics, shows that a-CO2 is structurally homologous to the other group IV dioxide glasses. We therefore conclude that the class of archetypal network-forming disordered systems, including a-SiO2, a-GeO2 and water, must be extended to include a-CO2.

  9. Six-fold Coordinated Carbon Dioxide VI

    SciTech Connect

    Iota, V; Yoo, C; Klepeis, J; Jenei, Z

    2006-03-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent while silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and represents one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of a new extended-solid phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}): a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this new extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2}--a prototypical molecular solid, and SiO{sub 2}--one of Earth's fundamental building blocks. The phase diagram suggests a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and proposes that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III, and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the caxis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  10. Carbon dioxide inhalation causes pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Abolhassani, Mohammad; Guais, Adeline; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Sasco, Annie J; Schwartz, Laurent

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether one of the most common poisons of cellular respiration, i.e., carbon dioxide, is proinflammatory. CO(2) is naturally present in the atmosphere at the level of 0.038% and involved in numerous cellular biochemical reactions. We analyzed in vitro the inflammation response induced by exposure to CO(2) for 48 h (0-20% with a constant O(2) concentration of 21%). In vivo mice were submitted to increasing concentrations of CO(2) (0, 5, 10, and 15% with a constant O(2) concentration of 21%) for 1 h. The exposure to concentrations above 5% of CO(2) resulted in the increased transcription (RNase protection assay) and secretion (ELISA) of proinflammatory cytokines [macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, MIP-2, IL-8, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed, and, presumably, secreted (RANTES)] by epithelial cell lines HT-29 or A549 and primary pulmonary cells retrieved from the exposed mice. Lung inflammation was also demonstrated in vivo by mucin 5AC-enhanced production and airway hyperreactivity induction. This response was mostly mediated by the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kappaB, itself a consequence of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation. Short inhibiting RNAs (siRNAs) targeted toward PP2Ac reversed the effect of carbon dioxide, i.e., disrupted the NF-kappaB activation and the proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In conclusion, this study strongly suggests that exposure to carbon dioxide may be more toxic than previously thought. This may be relevant for carcinogenic effects of combustion products.

  11. Product selectivity in plasmonic photocatalysis for carbon dioxide hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xueqian; Zhang, Du; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao; Everitt, Henry O; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-23

    Photocatalysis has not found widespread industrial adoption, in spite of decades of active research, because the challenges associated with catalyst illumination and turnover outweigh the touted advantages of replacing heat with light. A demonstration that light can control product selectivity in complex chemical reactions could prove to be transformative. Here, we show how the recently demonstrated plasmonic behaviour of rhodium nanoparticles profoundly improves their already excellent catalytic properties by simultaneously reducing the activation energy and selectively producing a desired but kinetically unfavourable product for the important carbon dioxide hydrogenation reaction. Methane is almost exclusively produced when rhodium nanoparticles are mildly illuminated as hot electrons are injected into the anti-bonding orbital of a critical intermediate, while carbon monoxide and methane are equally produced without illumination. The reduced activation energy and super-linear dependence on light intensity cause the unheated photocatalytic methane production rate to exceed the thermocatalytic rate at 350 °C.

  12. Product selectivity in plasmonic photocatalysis for carbon dioxide hydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xueqian; Zhang, Du; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao; Everitt, Henry O.; Liu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Photocatalysis has not found widespread industrial adoption, in spite of decades of active research, because the challenges associated with catalyst illumination and turnover outweigh the touted advantages of replacing heat with light. A demonstration that light can control product selectivity in complex chemical reactions could prove to be transformative. Here, we show how the recently demonstrated plasmonic behaviour of rhodium nanoparticles profoundly improves their already excellent catalytic properties by simultaneously reducing the activation energy and selectively producing a desired but kinetically unfavourable product for the important carbon dioxide hydrogenation reaction. Methane is almost exclusively produced when rhodium nanoparticles are mildly illuminated as hot electrons are injected into the anti-bonding orbital of a critical intermediate, while carbon monoxide and methane are equally produced without illumination. The reduced activation energy and super-linear dependence on light intensity cause the unheated photocatalytic methane production rate to exceed the thermocatalytic rate at 350 °C. PMID:28230100

  13. Product selectivity in plasmonic photocatalysis for carbon dioxide hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xueqian; Zhang, Du; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao; Everitt, Henry O.; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Photocatalysis has not found widespread industrial adoption, in spite of decades of active research, because the challenges associated with catalyst illumination and turnover outweigh the touted advantages of replacing heat with light. A demonstration that light can control product selectivity in complex chemical reactions could prove to be transformative. Here, we show how the recently demonstrated plasmonic behaviour of rhodium nanoparticles profoundly improves their already excellent catalytic properties by simultaneously reducing the activation energy and selectively producing a desired but kinetically unfavourable product for the important carbon dioxide hydrogenation reaction. Methane is almost exclusively produced when rhodium nanoparticles are mildly illuminated as hot electrons are injected into the anti-bonding orbital of a critical intermediate, while carbon monoxide and methane are equally produced without illumination. The reduced activation energy and super-linear dependence on light intensity cause the unheated photocatalytic methane production rate to exceed the thermocatalytic rate at 350 °C.

  14. Using a Natural Analogue to Investigate Chemical Reactions Associated with Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Kaszuba, J.; Thyne, G.

    2008-12-01

    Capture and storage of carbon dioxide in deep underground geologic formations (geologic carbon sequestration) is currently the most advanced technology for reducing or mitigating anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. There are a number of scientific challenges associated with injection and storage of large amounts of CO2 in geologic formations. Understanding the chemical reactions that can occur among reservoir rocks, aqueous fluids, and supercritical carbon dioxide ± other gasses is one of these challenges. Natural analogues to CO2 sequestration are systems where carbon dioxide has been stored over geologic time scales. By studying these analogues we can determine important chemical reactions between the host rock and stored gases. The Moxa Arch is a structural feature located in the southern end of the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Carbon dioxide and methane were emplaced in Paleozoic rocks, including the 1000 feet thick Mississippian age Madison Limestone, of the Moxa Arch through natural processes. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the emplaced gas in these formations vary in the region of the Moxa Arch from 70-95% and are as low as ~ 15% in gas producing areas outside of the Moxa Arch. Methane, hydrogen sulfide and helium comprise the balance of the gas compositons. Geochemical reaction path and reactive transport models based upon the mineralogy of 12 core samples collected from three wells completed in the Madison Limestone near the Moxa Arch will be presented. These models help identify potential geochemical reactions between reservoir minerals and stored gasses.

  15. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.

    1976-01-01

    Design information was obtained for a new, regenerable carbon dioxide control system for extravehicular activity life support systems. Solid potassium carbonate was supported in a thin porous sheet form and fabricated into carbon dioxide absorber units. Carbon dioxide and water in the life support system atmosphere react with the potassium carbonate and form potassium bicarbonate. The bicarbonate easily reverts to the carbonate by heating to 150 deg C. The methods of effectively packing the sorbent material into EVA-sized units and the effects of inlet concentrations, flowrate, and temperature upon performance were investigated. The cycle life of the sorbent upon the repeated thermal regenerations was demonstrated through 90 cycles.

  16. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft Ecological Risk... ecological risk assessment for the registration review of inorganic nitrates - nitrites, carbon and carbon... inorganic nitrates- nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide uses, as well as gas cartridge uses of sulfur....

  17. Carbon dioxide detection in adult Odonata.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Silvana; Frati, Francesca; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper shows, by means of single-cell recordings, responses of antennal sensory neurons of the damselfly Ischnura elegans when stimulated by air streams at different CO2 concentrations. Unlike most insects, but similarly to termites, centipedes and ticks, Odonata possess sensory neurons strongly inhibited by CO2, with the magnitude of the off-response depending upon the CO2 concentration. The Odonata antennal sensory neurons responding to CO2 are also sensitive to airborne odors; in particular, the impulse frequency is increased by isoamylamine and decreased by heptanoic and pentanoic acid. Further behavioral investigations are necessary to assign a biological role to carbon dioxide detection in Odonata.

  18. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  19. Searching for clues to ancient carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Appenzeller, T.

    1993-02-12

    Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up temperatures in coming decades. Catching this suspect in the act has been difficult, however; the atmospheres of millions of years ago are gone with the wind.

  20. Cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology is developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware and is used to predict the costs of three carbon dioxide concentration systems. The cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other programs are utilized as a basis for establishing the cost estimating relationships. The concentration systems analyzed are the molecular sieves C02 concentrator, the hydrogen-depolarized concentrator, and the regenerable solid desiccant concentrator. Besides the cost estimates for each system, their comparative criteria including relative characteristics, operational differences, and development status are considered.

  1. Synthesis of carbonates and related compounds from carbon dioxide via methanesulfonyl carbonates.

    PubMed

    Bratt, Mark O; Taylor, Paul C

    2003-07-11

    Carbonate anions resulting from reaction of primary or secondary alcohols with carbon dioxide, when added to methanesulfonic anhydride in cooled acetonitrile solution, yield methanesulfonyl carbonates, a new class of synthetic intermediate. Base-mediated reaction of the methanesulfonyl carbonates with alcohols, thiols, and amines yields carbonates, thiocarbonates, and carbamates, respectively. Overall yields for the three steps vary from 19% to 42%.

  2. A micro spot injection system for studing the effects of carbonation on fumigant dispersion in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumigant transport to deep soils is needed to control plant parasitic nematodes and soil borne pathogens for perennial crops. Using carbonated fumigants and carbon dioxide (CO2)-pressurized fumigant injection systems may achieve this target when compared to conventional fumigation systems pressurize...

  3. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yossi; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing within the porous medium is lacking. We investigate theoretically reactive transport in the long-time evolution of carbon in the brine–rock environment. As CO2 is injected into a brine–rock environment, a carbonate-rich region is created amid brine. Within the carbonate-rich region minerals dissolve and migrate from regions of high-to-low concentration, along with other dissolved carbonate species. This causes mineral precipitation at the interface between the two regions. We argue that precipitation in a small layer reduces diffusivity, and eventually causes mechanical trapping of the CO2. Consequently, only a small fraction of the CO2 is converted to solid mineral; the remainder either dissolves in water or is trapped in its original form. We also study the case of a pure CO2 bubble surrounded by brine and suggest a mechanism that may lead to a carbonate-encrusted bubble owing to structural diffusion. PMID:25792961

  4. The kinetics of binding carbon dioxide in magnesium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.; Vaidya, R.; Pile, D.L.; Park, Y.; Holesinger, T.; Harradine, D.M.; Nomura, Koji |

    1998-08-01

    Humans currently consume about 6 Gigatons of carbon annually as fossil fuel. In some sense, the coal industry has a unique advantage over many other anthropogenic and natural emitters of CO{sub 2} in that it owns large point sources of CO{sub 2} from which this gas could be isolated and disposed of. If the increased energy demands of a growing world population are to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of sequestration technologies will likely be unavoidable. The authors` method of sequestration involves binding carbon dioxide as magnesium carbonate, a thermodynamically stable solid, for safe and permanent disposal, with minimal environmental impact. The technology is based on extracting magnesium hydroxide from common ultramafic rock for thermal carbonation and subsequent disposition. The economics of the method appear to be promising, however, many details of the proposed process have yet to be optimized. Realization of a cost effective method requires development of optimal technologies for efficient extraction and thermal carbonation.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2016-12-21

    Excess carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics.

  6. Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Koomanoff, F. A.; Suomi, Verner E.

    1983-11-01

    The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

  7. Cooperative redox activation for carbon dioxide conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zhong; Nielsen, Dennis U.; Lindhardt, Anders T.; Daasbjerg, Kim; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-12-01

    A longstanding challenge in production chemistry is the development of catalytic methods for the transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals. Silane and borane promoted reductions can be fined-tuned to provide a number of C1-building blocks under mild conditions, but these approaches are limited because of the production of stoichiometric waste compounds. Here we report on the conversion of CO2 with diaryldisilanes, which through cooperative redox activation generate carbon monoxide and a diaryldisiloxane that actively participate in a palladium-catalysed carbonylative Hiyama-Denmark coupling for the synthesis of an array of pharmaceutically relevant diarylketones. Thus the disilane reagent not only serves as the oxygen abstracting agent from CO2, but the silicon-containing `waste', produced through oxygen insertion into the Si-Si bond, participates as a reagent for the transmetalation step in the carbonylative coupling. Hence this concept of cooperative redox activation opens up for new avenues in the conversion of CO2.

  8. Modeling flow of mineralized carbon dioxide slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Saha, K.K.

    2005-04-01

    Direct mineral carbonation was investigated at Albany Research Center (US DOE) as a means to sequester carbon dioxide into stable mineral matrices. Although previous work focused on treating Mg-containing minerals in conventional autoclaves, recent work has been done using pipeline-reactor technology for the high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) reaction of the minerals in aqueous/CO2 media. Sequestration of CO2 using above-ground reactors may be uneconomical, but the technology may also be applicable in geological sequestration of CO2. Progress is described in using a prototype HTHP flow-loop reactor to model flow in the dynamic three-phase system to help determine the pumping-energy requirements to optimize reactivity.

  9. Carbon injection proves effective in removing dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, D.R.; Sigg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The last several years concerns have grown about the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, both byproducts of the combustion effluent-gas stream. In Europe carbon injection is widley used to effectively control dioxin emissions from hazardous-waste incinerators. Waste Technologies Industries, a hazardous waste incinerator in Ohio, recently completed extensive testing of the effectiveness of carbon injection technology. This article discusses the testing. 1 tab.

  10. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  11. Carbon dioxide extraction from air: Is it an option?

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Grimes, P.; Ziock, H.J.

    1999-07-01

    Controlling the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere without limiting access to fossil energy resources is only possible if carbon dioxide is collected and disposed of away from the atmosphere. While it may be cost-advantageous to collect the carbon dioxide at concentrated sources without ever letting it enter the atmosphere, this approach is not available for the many diffuse sources of carbon dioxide. Similarly, for many older plants, a retrofit to collect the carbon dioxide is either impossible or prohibitively expensive. For these cases the authors investigate the possibility of collecting the carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. The authors conclude that there are no fundamental obstacles to this approach and that it deserves further investigation. Carbon dioxide extraction directly from the atmosphere would allow carbon management without the need for a completely changed infrastructure. In addition it eliminates the need for a completely changed infrastructure. In addition it eliminates the need for a complex carbon dioxide transportation infrastructure, thus at least in part offsetting the higher cost of extraction from air.

  12. Carbon dioxide enrichment inhibits nitrate assimilation in wheat and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arnold J; Burger, Martin; Rubio Asensio, Jose Salvador; Cousins, Asaph B

    2010-05-14

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere may double by the end of the 21st century. The response of higher plants to a carbon dioxide doubling often includes a decline in their nitrogen status, but the reasons for this decline have been uncertain. We used five independent methods with wheat and Arabidopsis to show that atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment inhibited the assimilation of nitrate into organic nitrogen compounds. This inhibition may be largely responsible for carbon dioxide acclimation, the decrease in photosynthesis and growth of plants conducting C(3) carbon fixation after long exposures (days to years) to carbon dioxide enrichment. These results suggest that the relative availability of soil ammonium and nitrate to most plants will become increasingly important in determining their productivity as well as their quality as food.

  13. Electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2017-01-31

    An electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion includes combining a Catalytically Active Element and Helper Catalyst in the presence of carbon dioxide, allowing a reaction to proceed to produce a reaction product, and applying electrical energy to said reaction to achieve electrochemical conversion of said reactant to said reaction product. The Catalytically Active Element can be a metal in the form of supported or unsupported particles or flakes with an average size between 0.6 nm and 100 nm. the reaction products comprise at least one of CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and CF.sub.3COOH.

  14. Response of sugarcane to carbon dioxide enrichment and elevated air temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four sugarcane cultivars (CP 72-2086, CP 73-1547, CP 88-1508, and CP 80-1827) were grown in elongated temperature-gradient greenhouses (TGG) at ambient or elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) of 360 or 720 µmol CO2 mol-1 air (ppm, mole fraction basis), respectively. Elevated CO2 was maintained by injection...

  15. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyoung S; Uhm, Han S; Hong, Yong C; Choi, Eun H

    2015-12-17

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10(-3), nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10(-7), nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10(-5), where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch.

  16. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2015-01-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10−3, nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10−7, nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10−5, where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. PMID:26674957

  17. Promising flame retardant textile in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since carbon dioxide is non-toxic, non-flammable and cost-effective, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is widely used in textile dyeing applications. Due to its environmentally benign character, scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. O...

  18. Solid amine compounds as sorbents for carbon dioxide: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Solid amine compounds were examined as possible absorbents for removal of carbon dioxide in life support systems of type which may be employed in high altitude aircraft, spacecraft, or submarines. Many solid amine compounds release absorbed carbon dioxide when heated in vacuum, therefore, when properly packaged spent amine compounds can be readily regenerated and put back into service.

  19. Carbon dioxide and climate: Summaries of research in FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    Detailed worldwide measurements indicate that the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere has increased about 25 percent during the past 188 years, primarily because of fossil-fuel combustion and deforestation. Carbon dioxide is one of several trace gases that can modify the earth's heat balance by absorbing outgoing radiation from the earth's surface, thereby increasing the amount of heat retained by the atmosphere--the so-called greenhouse effect. Scientific analyses suggest that this increase could substantially affect climate, agriculture, and other human endeavors. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program is aimed at improving the scientific knowledge base to enable researchers to project future atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, to estimate carbon dioxide-induced global and regional climate changes, and to assess the responses of vegetation to higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and changing climate. The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of directed research and to coordinate this research with relevant activities of other federal agencies, private concerns, and international institutions. This Program Summary documents the activities and products of the Carbon Dioxide Research (CDR) Program in Fiscal Year 1988. The Summary provides descriptions of all projects funded during the year and a brief overview of the CDR Program's goals, objectives, and organization. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than…

  1. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  2. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, after any maintenance which could alter calibration, and bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR...

  3. Cationic Polymerization of Vegetable Oils in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers derived from vegetable oils have been prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H2)2 are used as initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, initiator amount, and carbon dioxide pressure on the m...

  4. Multiphase flow of carbon dioxide and brine in dual porosity carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentland, Christopher; Oedai, Sjaam; Ott, Holger

    2014-05-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations presents a challenge in terms of multiphase flow characterisation. Project planning requires an understanding of multiphase flow characteristics such as the relationship between relative permeability and saturation. At present there are only a limited number of relative permeability relations for carbon dioxide-brine fluid systems, most of which are measured on sandstone rocks. In this study coreflood experiments are performed to investigate the relative permeability of carbon dioxide and brine in two dual porosity carbonate systems. Carbon dioxide is injected into the brine saturated rocks in a primary drainage process. The rock fluid system is pre-equilibrated to avoid chemical reactions and physical mass transfer between phases. The pressure drop across the samples, the amount of brine displaced and the saturation distribution within the rocks are measured. The experiments are repeated on the same rocks for the decane-brine fluid system. The experimental data is interpreted by simulating the experiments with a continuum scale Darcy solver. Selected functional representations of relative permeability are investigated, the parameters of which are chosen such that a least squares objective function is minimised (i.e. the difference between experimental observations and simulated response). The match between simulation and measurement is dependent upon the form of the functional representations. The best agreement is achieved with the Corey [Brooks and Corey, 1964] or modified Corey [Masalmeh et al., 2007] functions which best represent the relative permeability of brine at low brine saturations. The relative permeability of carbon dioxide is shown to be lower than the relative permeability of decane over the saturation ranges investigated. The relative permeability of the brine phase is comparable for the two fluid systems. These observations are consistent with the rocks being water-wet. During the experiment

  5. Carbon Dioxide Detection and Indoor Air Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Bonino, Steve

    2016-04-01

    When building ventilation is reduced, energy is saved because it is not necessary to heat or cool as much outside air. Reduced ventilation can result in higher levels of carbon dioxide, which may cause building occupants to experience symptoms. Heating or cooling for ventilation air can be enhanced by a DCV system, which can save energy while providing a comfortable environment. Carbon dioxide concentrations within a building are often used to indicate whether adequate fresh air is being supplied to the building. These DCV systems use carbon dioxide sensors in each space or in the return air and adjust the ventilation based on carbon dioxide concentration; the higher the concentration, the more people occupy the space relative to the ventilation rate. With a carbon dioxide sensor DCV system, the fresh air ventilation rate varies based on the number ofpeople in the space, saving energy while maintaining a safe and comfortable environment.

  6. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

  7. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Robert James; Lewis, Larry Neil; O'Brien, Michael Joseph; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Kniajanski, Sergei; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Lee, Julia Lam; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  8. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  9. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, Peter A.; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory P.; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert G.; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Durr, Hans H.; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8   petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32  Pg C yr−1 from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr−1 is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  10. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Peter A; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Dürr, Hans; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-11-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8(+0.25)(-0.25)  petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32(+0.52)(-0.26)  Pg C yr(-1) from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr(-1) is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  11. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  12. Oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring during sleep.

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, Alessandro; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2) is of crucial importance during sleep-disordered breathing in order to assess the consequences of respiratory events on gas exchange. Pulse oximetry (SpO2) is a simple and cheap method that is used routinely for the recording of oxygen levels and the diagnosis of hypoxemia. CO2 recording is necessary for the diagnosis of alveolar hypoventilation and can be performed by means of the end-tidal (PetCO2) or transcutaneous CO2 (PtcCO2). However, the monitoring of CO2 is not performed on a routine basis due to the lack of simple, cheap and reliable CO2 monitors. This short review summarizes some technical aspects of gas exchange recording during sleep in children before discussing the different definitions of alveolar hypoventilation and the importance of CO2 recording.

  13. Biochemical Capture and Removal of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    We devised an enzyme-based facilitated transport membrane bioreactor system to selectively remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space station environment. We developed and expressed site-directed enzyme mutants for CO2 capture. Enzyme kinetics showed the mutants to be almost identical to the wild type save at higher pH. Both native enzyme and mutant enzymes were immobilized to different supports including nylons, glasses, sepharose, methacrylate, titanium and nickel. Mutant enzyme could be attached and removed from metal ligand supports and the supports reused at least five times. Membrane systems were constructed to test CO2 selectivity. These included proteic membranes, thin liquid films and enzyme-immobilized teflon membranes. Selectivity ratios of more than 200:1 were obtained for CO2 versus oxygen with CO2 at 0.1%. The data indicate that a membrane based bioreactor can be constructed which could bring CO2 levels close to Earth.

  14. A weekly cycle in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, Randall S.; Coakley, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a new statistic called the ``Mean Symmetrized Residual'' (MSR) for detection and quantification of a weekly cycle in measured daily atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). At the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, we conclude that CO2 concentrations, on average, are significantly lower (0.022 parts per million by volume, ppmv) on weekends (Saturday-Sunday) than during the rest of the week. Over the past twenty-five years, the variation of the mean values of MSR (as a function of day of the week) has been relatively stable. We speculate that the observed weekday/weekend variation in CO2 at Mauna Loa is the result of anthropogenic emissions on Hawaii and nearby sources. We do not detect a weekly cycle in daily CO2 concentration measured at South Pole, Antarctica. This methodology has applicability to a variety of datasets.

  15. Carbon dioxide laser management cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Bellina, J.H.; Wright, V.C.; Voros, J.I.; Riopelle, M.A.; Hohenschutz, V.

    1981-12-01

    In this report we describe the use of the carbon dioxide laser for the outpatient management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A comparison of treatment effectiveness for different grades of CIN is also included. Two hundred fifty-six cases were evaluated by colposcopy, cytology, and histopathology, treated by at least 5 to 6 mm of laser vaporization, and followed up for an average of 10.7 months. Follow-up examinations included cytology, colposcopy, and directed biopsy if a suspicious lesion was discovered. During the follow-up, 18 cases of persistent CIN were identified (7.0%). Most of these were successfully managed with repeat laser treatment. Overall success of laser surgery for CIN, one or two applications, was 97.6%. Few complications were encountered. Laser surgery appears to offer acceptable treatment effectiveness, early identification of persistent disease, and easy retreatment when required. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 141:828, 1981.)

  16. Thermodynamical effects during carbon dioxide release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Böttcher, N.; Görke, U.-J.; Kolditz, O.

    2012-04-01

    Pruess [1] investigated the risk of carbon dioxide leakage from shallow storage sites by modeling scenarios. Such a fluid release is associated with mechanical work performed by formation fluid against expansion without taking heat from ambient environment. Understanding of heat related to mechanical work is essential to predict the temperature at the leak. According to the first law of thermodynamics, internal energy of working fluid decreases with an amount which is equivalent to this work hence, working fluid lost its own heat. Such kind of heat loss depends strongly on whether the expansion process is adiabatic or isothermal. Isothermal expansion allows the working fluid to interact thermally with the solid matrix. Adiabatic expansion is an isenthalpic process that takes heat from the working fluid and the ambient environment remains unchanged. This work is part of the CLEAN research project [6]. In this study, thermodynamic effects of mechanical work during eventual carbon dioxide leakage are investigated numerically. In particular, we are interested to detect the temperature at leakage scenarios and its deviation with different thermodynamic processes. Finite element simulation is conducted with a two-dimensional rectangular geometry representing a shallow storage site which bottom was located at -300m below the land surface. A fully saturated porous medium is assumed where the pore space is filled completely with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide accumulated in the secondary trap at 30 Bar and 24 °C is allowed to leak from top right point of rectangle with atmospheric pressure. With (i) adiabatic and (ii) isothermal compressibility factors, temperature around leakage area has been calculated which show a significant difference. With some simplification, this study detects leak temperature which is very close with [1]. Temporal evaluation at the leaky area shows that the working fluid temperature can be reduced to -20 °C when the leakage scenario is performed

  17. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  18. Carbon dioxide: Global warning for nephrologists

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Marco; D’Amato, Anna; Cantone, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The large prevalence of respiratory acid-base disorders overlapping metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis population should prompt nephrologists to deal with the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) complying with the reduced bicarbonate concentration. What the most suitable formula to compute pCO2 is reviewed. Then, the neglected issue of CO2 content in the dialysis fluid is under the spotlight. In fact, a considerable amount of CO2 comes to patients’ bloodstream every hemodialysis treatment and “acidosis by dialysate” may occur if lungs do not properly clear away this burden of CO2. Moreover, vascular access recirculation may be easy diagnosed by detecting CO2 in the arterial line of extracorporeal circuit if CO2-enriched blood from the filter reenters arterial needle. PMID:27648406

  19. Pulsed-discharge carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willetts, David V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to attempt a general introduction to pulsed carbon dioxide lasers of the kind used or proposed for laser radar applications. Laser physics is an excellent example of a cross-disciplinary topic, and the molecular spectroscopy, energy transfer, and plasma kinetics of the devices are explored. The concept of stimulated emission and population inversions is introduced, leading on to the molecular spectroscopy of the CO2 molecule. This is followed by a consideration of electron-impact pumping, and the pertinent energy transfer and relaxation processes which go on. Since the devices are plasma pumped, it is necessary to introduce a complex subject, but this is restricted to appropriate physics of glow discharges. Examples of representative devices are shown. The implications of the foregoing to plasma chemistry and gas life are discussed.

  20. Carbon dioxide effects on fuel alcohol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, D.W.

    1996-10-01

    Carbon dioxide is known to be inhibitory to yeastgrowth, with inhibition becoming appreciable between 1.5 and 2 atm absolute under of the brewing industry. First, the conditions prevailing in an industrial corn to ethanol plant employing relatively small were determined. Second, lab glucose fed batch fermentations under similar conditions and CO{sub 2} pressures of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 atm absolute were run. High CO{sub 2} decreased the maximum number of viable cells and increased the death rate. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels also decreased the early growth associated production of glycerol. Translation of these results back to fermentor design and operation issues will be discussed.

  1. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2013-02-25

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  2. Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

    2012-07-14

    Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits.

  3. Comparing (Semi-) Analytic Solutions Used to Model the Impact of Deep Carbon Injection on the Displacement and Pressurization of the Resident Brine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injection of carbon dioxide into deep saline formations is seen as one possible technology for mitigating carbon emissions from utilities. The safety of the sequestered carbon dioxide is the focus of many studies with leakage through faults or abandoned wells as some of the main...

  4. Carbon dioxide absorbents for rebreather diving.

    PubMed

    Pennefather, John

    2016-09-01

    Firstly I would like to thank SPUMS members for making me a Life Member of SPUMS; I was surprised and greatly honoured by the award. I also want to confirm and expand on the findings on carbon dioxide absorbents reported by David Harvey et al. For about 35 years, I was the main player in deciding which absorbent went into Australian Navy and Army diving sets. On several occasions, suppliers of absorbents to the anaesthesia market tried to supply the Australian military market. On no occasion did they provide absorbent that came close to the minimum absorbent capacity required, generally being 30-40% less efficient than diving-grade absorbents. Because I regard lives as being more important than any likely dollar saving, the best absorbent was always selected unless two suppliers provided samples with the same absorbent capacity. On almost every occasion, there was a clear winner and cost was never considered. I suggest the same argument for the best absorbent should be used by members and their friends who dive using rebreather sets. I make this point because of my findings on a set that was brought to me after the death of its owner. The absorbent was not the type or grain size recommended by the manufacturer of the set and did not resemble any of the diving grade absorbents I knew of. I suspected by its appearance that it was anaesthetic grade absorbent. When I tested the set, the absorbent system failed very quickly so it is likely that carbon dioxide toxicity contributed to his death. The death was not the subject of an inquest and I have no knowledge of how the man obtained the absorbent. Possibly there was someone from an operating theatre staff who unintentionally caused their friend's death by supplying him with 'borrowed absorbent'. I make this point as I would like to discourage members from making a similar error.

  5. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Kolle , Jack J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  7. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L

    2008-07-22

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+))CO(3) infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future.

  9. Carbon Dioxide in the Gulf of Trieste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, D.; Malacic, V.; Degrandpre, M. D.; McGillis, W. R.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine regions such as the Gulf of Trieste (GOT) in the Northern Adriatic Sea serve as the link between carbon cycling on land and the ocean interior and potentially contribute large uncertainties in the estimate of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. This system may be either a sink or a source for atmospheric CO2. Understanding the sources and sinks as a result of biological and physical controls for air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes in coastal waters may substantially alter the current view of the global carbon budget for unique terrestrial and ocean regions such as the GOT. GOT is a semi-enclosed Mediterranean basin situated in the northern part of Adriatic Sea. It is one of the most productive regions in the Mediterranean and is affected by extreme fresh river input, phytoplankton blooms, and large changes of air-sea exchange during Bora high wind events. The unique combination of these environmental processes and relatively small size of the area makes the region an excellent study site for investigations of air-sea interaction, and changes in biology and carbon chemistry. Here we investigate biological (phytoplankton blooms) and physical (freshwater input and winds) controls on the temporal variability of pCO2 in the GOT. The aqueous CO2 was measured at the Coastal Oceanographic buoy VIDA, Slovenia using the SAMI CO2 sensor. Our results indicate that: 1) The GOT was a sink for atmospheric CO2 in late spring of 2007; 2) Aqueous pCO2 was influenced by fresh water input from rivers entering the GOT and biological production associated with high nutrient input; 3) Surface water pCO2 showed a strong correlation with SST when river plumes where not present at the buoy location, and reasonable correlation with SSS during the presence of the plume.

  10. Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1990-05-01

    Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient and carbon dioxide regimes and grasshopper feeding responses. The study of a specialist feeding caterpillar, the cabbage butterfly, and a mustard hostplant has recently been completed. We were able to identify the principal allelochemicals of the mustard plants, butenyl and pentenyl isothiocyanates, by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Measurement of these chemicals has been a critical component of this study since these compounds contain nitrogen and sulphur and act as a feeding stimulant to the caterpillar. This insect responds to elevated carbon dioxide by consuming more leaves and we can now say that this is not due to a change in the feeding stimulants. Reduced leaf protein content is a critical factor for even specialist feeding insect herbivores under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. The study on Grasshopper Population Responses to Enriched Carbon Dioxide Concentration is currently in progress at the Duke University Phytotron. We have changed hostplant species in order to complement the investigations of carbon dioxide effects on tallgrass prairie. Specifically, we are using big bluestem, Andropogon geradii, as the host plant to feed to the grasshoppers. This experiment will be completed in July 1990.

  11. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H.

    1993-05-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  12. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H.

    1991-09-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant, carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant, and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is therefore especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  13. Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, Norman H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold is a preferred catalyst for reducing the carbon dioxide at the cathode. The fuel cell of the invention produces electrochemical energy through the use of an anodic reactant which is extremely energetic and light, and a cathodic reactant which can be extracted from its environment and therefore exacts no transportation penalty. The invention is, therefore, especially useful in extraterrestrial environments.

  14. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  15. Forest management techniques for carbon dioxide storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, Takao

    1993-12-31

    In the global ecosystem concerning carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of carbon stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.

  16. Cooperative redox activation for carbon dioxide conversion

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Zhong; Nielsen, Dennis U.; Lindhardt, Anders T.; Daasbjerg, Kim; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-01-01

    A longstanding challenge in production chemistry is the development of catalytic methods for the transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals. Silane and borane promoted reductions can be fined-tuned to provide a number of C1-building blocks under mild conditions, but these approaches are limited because of the production of stoichiometric waste compounds. Here we report on the conversion of CO2 with diaryldisilanes, which through cooperative redox activation generate carbon monoxide and a diaryldisiloxane that actively participate in a palladium-catalysed carbonylative Hiyama-Denmark coupling for the synthesis of an array of pharmaceutically relevant diarylketones. Thus the disilane reagent not only serves as the oxygen abstracting agent from CO2, but the silicon-containing ‘waste', produced through oxygen insertion into the Si–Si bond, participates as a reagent for the transmetalation step in the carbonylative coupling. Hence this concept of cooperative redox activation opens up for new avenues in the conversion of CO2. PMID:27981967

  17. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Arrhenius, G

    1997-02-01

    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  18. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1997-01-01

    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  19. Can the carbon dioxide problem be resolved

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, J.

    1984-01-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/). This may cause a long-term warming of the atmosphere. Solutions to the CO/sub 2/ problem are particularly difficult because adverse effects will be felt by future generations, but remedial action and sacrifices must be made by present generations. Decisions regarding the problem which affect both the immediate and long-range future must be made deliberately or by default in perhaps only 15 to 20 years, before we are reasonably confident of our knowledge of the problem and before we know whether atmospheric warming will, in fact, occur. Empirical and evaluative data do not seem compelling to decision makers. First, remedial actions require present generations to conserve fossil fuels for the benefit of posterity, and there is no consensus that an ethical obligation to posterity exists. Second, actions must be based upon uncertain projections of future energy use and uncertain scientific knowledge of the carbon cycle and the environment. Third, economic and social factors may preclude resolution of the problem. Fourth, speculation from moral psychology suggests that mankind may be psychologically incapable of caring enough for posterity to make serious sacrifices. Therefore, public policy regarding sacrifice by present generations for the benefit of posterity is not likely to be forthcoming from policy makers or suported by the public. 120 references.

  20. Moisture swing sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lackner, Klaus S; Wright, Allen

    2011-08-01

    An amine-based anion exchange resin dispersed in a flat sheet of polypropylene was prepared in alkaline forms so that it would capture carbon dioxide from air. The resin, with quaternary ammonium cations attached to the polymer structure and hydroxide or carbonate groups as mobile counterions, absorbs carbon dioxide when dry and releases it when wet. In ambient air, the moist resin dries spontaneously and subsequently absorbs carbon dioxide. This constitutes a moisture induced cycle, which stands in contrast to thermal pressure swing based cycles. This paper aims to determine the isothermal performance of the sorbent during such a moisture swing. Equilibrium experiments show that the absorption and desorption process can be described well by a Langmuir isothermal model. The equilibrium partial pressure of carbon dioxide over the resin at a given loading state can be increased by 2 orders of magnitude by wetting the resin.

  1. Fractional carbon dioxide laser in recalcitrant vulval lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew; Lim, Adrian; Fischer, Gayle

    2016-02-01

    Vulval lichen sclerosus is an uncommon skin condition that can usually be managed with topical corticosteroids to maintain remission. However, there is a subset of patients in whom it remains recalcitrant despite treatment with super-potent topical corticosteroids. We report a case series of four patients undergoing fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing and one with ablative carbon dioxide laser for severe, hyperkeratotic vulval lichen sclerosus not responding to super-potent topical corticosteroids. In these patients, carbon dioxide laser was successful in achieving remission. Their vulval lichen sclerosus was subsequently able to be maintained with topical corticosteroid treatment.

  2. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, Chandrasekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-12-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  3. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J A; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-12-13

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  4. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts. PMID:27958290

  5. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  6. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  7. Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars has many resources that can be processed to produce things such as oxygen, fuel, buffer gas, and water for support of human exploration missions. Successful manipulation of these resources is crucial for safe, cost-effective, and self-sufficient long-term human exploration of Mars. In our research, we are developing enabling technologies that require fundamental knowledge of adsorptive gas storage and separation processes. In particular, we are designing and constructing an innovative, low mass, low power separation device to recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU (in-situ resource utilization). The technology has broad implications for gas storage and separations for gas-solid systems that are ideally suited for reduced gravitational environments. This paper describes our separation process design and experimental procedures and reports results for the separation of CO2 and CO by a four-step adsorption cycle.

  8. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with...

  9. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with...

  10. 21 CFR 179.43 - Carbon dioxide laser for etching food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. 179.43... § 179.43 Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. Carbon dioxide laser light may be safely used for... consists of a carbon dioxide laser designed to emit pulsed infrared radiation with a wavelength of...

  11. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with...

  12. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with...

  13. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with...

  14. 21 CFR 179.43 - Carbon dioxide laser for etching food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. 179.43... FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.43 Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. Carbon dioxide... conditions: (a) The radiation source consists of a carbon dioxide laser designed to emit pulsed...

  15. 46 CFR 35.40-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL. 35.40-8 Section 35... Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs—T/ALL. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into which...

  16. 27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of carbon dioxide in... Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. The addition of carbon dioxide to (and retention in) still wine... than 0.392 grams of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine. However, a tolerance of not more than...

  17. 27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of carbon dioxide in... Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. The addition of carbon dioxide to (and retention in) still wine... than 0.392 grams of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine. However, a tolerance of not more than...

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  19. 27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of carbon dioxide in... Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. The addition of carbon dioxide to (and retention in) still wine... than 0.392 grams of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine. However, a tolerance of not more than...

  20. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  1. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7... Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire extinguishing... AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  2. 46 CFR 35.40-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL. 35.40-8 Section 35... Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs—T/ALL. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into which...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  4. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements... Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2) smothering system is fitted in the boiler room, the quantity of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to give...

  5. 46 CFR 35.40-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs-T/ALL. 35.40-8 Section 35... Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs—T/ALL. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into which...

  6. 27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of carbon dioxide in... Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. The addition of carbon dioxide to (and retention in) still wine... than 0.392 grams of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine. However, a tolerance of not more than...

  7. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7... Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire extinguishing... AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  8. 27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of carbon dioxide in... Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. The addition of carbon dioxide to (and retention in) still wine... than 0.392 grams of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine. However, a tolerance of not more than...

  9. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung [Rexford, NY; Ruud, James Anthony [Delmar, NY; Ramaswamy, Vidya [Niskayuna, NY; Willson, Patrick Daniel [Latham, NY; Gao, Yan [Niskayuna, NY

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  10. Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

  11. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  12. The oxygen and carbon dioxide balance in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    The oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle is described in detail, and steps which are sensitive to perturbation or instability are identified. About half of the carbon dioxide consumption each year in photosynthesis occurs in the oceans. Phytoplankton, which are the primary producers, have been shown to assimilate insecticides and herbicides. The impact of such materials on phytoplankton photosynthesis, both direct and as the indirect result of detrimental effects higher up in the food chain, cannot be assessed. Net oxygen production is very small in comparison with the total production and occurs almost exclusively in a few ocean areas with anoxic bottom conditions and in peat-forming marshes which are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances. The carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere is increasing at a relatively rapid rate as the result of fossil fuel combustion. Increases in photosynthesis as the result of the hothouse effect may in turn reduce the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, leading to global cooling.

  13. Use of the electrosurgical unit in a carbon dioxide atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J; Eidson, Jack L; Paolino, David V

    2016-01-01

    The electrosurgical unit (ESU) utilizes an electrical discharge to cut and coagulate tissue and is often held above the surgical site, causing a spark to form. The voltage at which the spark is created, termed the breakdown voltage, is governed by the surrounding gaseous environment. Surgeons are now utilizing the ESU laparoscopically with carbon dioxide insufflation, potentially altering ESU operating characteristics. This study examines the clinical implications of altering gas composition by measuring the spark gap distance as a marker of breakdown voltage and use of the ESU on a biologic model, both in room air and carbon dioxide. Paschen's Law predicted a 35% decrease in gap distance in carbon dioxide, while testing revealed an average drop of 37-47% as compared to air. However, surgical model testing revealed no perceivable clinical difference. Electrosurgery can be performed in carbon dioxide environments, although surgeons should be aware of potentially altered ESU performance.

  14. Infrared energy levels and intensities of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Rothman, L S; Benedict, W S

    1978-08-15

    Updated tables of vibrational energy levels, molecular constants, band origins, and intensities for carbon dioxide in the infrared region of the spectrum are presented. These tables are references for the AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation.

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF COLUMN TOPS. CARBON DIOXIDE BUBBLED THROUGH AMMONIONATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF COLUMN TOPS. CARBON DIOXIDE BUBBLED THROUGH AMMONIONATED SALT BRINE TO MAKE BICARBONATE OF SODA. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cylinder storage area must be properly ventilated and the temperature inside must not exceed 130 °F. (g... alarm sounds for at least twenty seconds before the carbon dioxide is released into the space....

  17. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cylinder storage area must be properly ventilated and the temperature inside must not exceed 130 °F. (g... alarm sounds for at least twenty seconds before the carbon dioxide is released into the space....

  18. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cylinder storage area must be properly ventilated and the temperature inside must not exceed 130 °F. (g... alarm sounds for at least twenty seconds before the carbon dioxide is released into the space....

  19. Plants Can't Do without Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an experiment to induce carbon dioxide deficiency to demonstrate its effects on plant growth. Suggests further studies to examine respiration by soil microbes and the effects of relative humidity, other gases, and air pollution on plant growth. (MDH)

  20. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... performance. (b) Zero the carbon dioxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen....

  1. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  2. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... performance. (b) Zero the carbon dioxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen....

  4. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  5. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  6. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle... nitrogen. (c) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration...

  7. Inner ear insult suppresses the respiratory response to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Allen, T; Juric-Sekhar, G; Campbell, S; Mussar, K E; Seidel, K; Tan, J; Zyphur, M; Villagracia, L; Stephanian, D; Koch, H; Ramirez, J M; Rubens, D D

    2011-02-23

    Compensated respiratory acidosis has been observed in a significant number of patients with active vestibular disease. We therefore hypothesized that the inner ear may play an unrecognized integral role in respiratory control. To test this premise, we investigated whether mice with induced inner ear injury demonstrated any alteration in their respiratory response to inhaled carbon dioxide (CO(2)). Experimental mice and control mice were included in two separate experiments. Intra-tympanic gentamycin injections were administered to induce inner ear damage in experimental animals. Hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction were tested 1-week after injections to confirm presence of inner ear insult, following which the animal's respiratory response to inhalation of 8% CO(2) was examined. Mice with inner ear injury (n=60) displayed a significantly diminished hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). This contrasted with the normal HCVR seen in control mice that had not undergone tympanic injections (n=30), controls that received tympanic injections with saline (n=5), and controls that had gentamicin administered systemically (n=5). In response to inspired CO(2), the mean respiratory frequency of control mice increased by an average of 50% over their baseline values for both parts of the experiment. In contrast, the ear-damaged experimental group mean values increased by only three breaths per minute (bpm) (2%) in the first experiment and by 28 bpm (11%) in the second experiment. Inner ear damage significantly reduces the respiratory response to CO(2) inhalation. In addition to the established role of the inner ear organ in hearing and balance, this alludes to an unidentified function of the inner ear and its interconnecting neuronal pathways in respiratory regulation. This finding may offer valuable new clues for disease states with abnormal respiratory control where inner ear dysfunction may be present.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Effects under Conditions of Raised Environmental Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-26

    the inspiratory muscles might have contributed to the elevated carbon dioxide tensions in the trained underwater swimmer because it was shown that...alveolar carbon dioxide tensions increase linearly with the work- load on the inspiratory muscles (Milic- Emili & Tyler 1962). Lanphier (1963...Submarine Escape Training Tank, U.S. Naval Submarine Base New London, in dives to 90 ft (3.7 ATA) (Sehaefer 1955; Schaefer & Carey 1962). During

  9. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  10. Chalcocite Oxidation and Coupled Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A M; Beck, J V

    1972-03-10

    The reaction of cell suspensions of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans with pulverized chalcocite (Cu(2)S) in a Warburg manometric apparatus resulted in oxygen uptake accompanied by increased solubilization of copper and fixation of carbon dioxide. Since the only detectable oxidized products were cupric ions and the more oxidized form of the sulfide mineral, that is, digenite or covellite, the apparent source of energy for the carbon dioxide fixation was provided by the oxidation of the cuprous copper of the chalcocite.

  11. Carbon dioxide in the ocean surface: The homogeneous buffer factor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, E.T.; Plummer, L.N.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in surface seawater depends at least partially on the homogeneous buffer factor, which is a mathematical function of the chemical equilibrium conditions among the various dissolved inorganic species. Because these equilibria are well known, the homogeneous buffer factor is well known. Natural spatial variations depend very systematically on sea surface temperatures, and do not contribute significantly to uncertainties in the present or future carbon dioxide budget. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  12. Mycorrhizal mediation of soil organic carbon decomposition under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant effort in global change research has recently been directed towards assessing the potential of soil as a carbon sink under future atmospheric carbon dioxide scenarios. Attention has focused on the impact of elevated carbon dioxide on plant interactions with mycorrhizae, a symbiotic soil...

  13. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydra...

  14. Selective determination of chlorine dioxide using gas diffusion flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, D.A.; Pacey, G.E.; Gordon, G.

    1985-12-01

    An automated absorbance technique for the determination of aqueous chlorine dioxide has been developed by utilizing gas diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas diffusion membrane is used to separate the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream. The absorbance of chlorine dioxide is monitored at 359 nm. The first method uses distilled water as the acceptor stream and gives a detection limit of 0.25 mg/L chlorine dioxide. This system is over 550 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than chlorine. To further minimize chlorine interference, oxalic acid is used in the acceptor stream. The detection limit for this system is 0.45 mg/L chlorine dioxide. This second system is over 5400 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than chlorine. Both methods show excellent selectivity for chlorine dioxide over iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite and perchlorate ions. 18 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Laser surgery: using the carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V. C.

    1982-01-01

    In 1917 Einstein theorized tha through an atomic process a unique kind of electromagnetic radiation could be produced by stimulated emission. When such radiation is in the optical or infrared spectrum it is termed laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) light. A laser, a high-intensity light source, emits a nearly parallel electromagnetic beam of energy at a given wavelength that can be captured by a lens and concentrated in the focal spot. The wavelength determines how the laser will be used. The carbon dioxide laser is now successfully employed for some surgical procedures in gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, neurosurgery, and plastic and general surgery. The CO2 laser beam is directed through the viewing system of an operating microscope or through a hand-held laser component. Its basic action in tissue is thermal vaporization; it causes minimal damage to adjacent tissues. Surgeons require special training in the basic methods and techniques of laser surgery, as well as in the safety standards that must be observed. Images FIG. 5 PMID:7074503

  16. Carbon dioxide dynamics in an artificial ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

    An experimental artificial ecosystem was established as a tool to understand the behavior of closed ecosystem and to develop the technology for a future bioregenerative life support system for lunar or planetary exploration. Total effective volume of the system is 0.7 m3 . It consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a photo-bioreactor which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella), respectively. For uniform and sustained observations, lettuce and silkworms was cultivated using sequential cultivation method, and microalgae using continuous culture. Four researchers took turns breathing the system air through a tube for brief periods every few hours. A mathematic model, simulating the carbon dioxide dynamics was developed. The main biological parameters concerning photosynthesis of lettuce and microalgae, respiration of silkworms and human were validated by the experimental data. The model described the respiratory relationship between autotrophic and heterotrophic compartments. A control strategy was proposed as a tool for the atmosphere management of the artificial ecosystem.

  17. Effects of carbon dioxide on laryngeal receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Sant'Ambrogio, F.B.; Orani, G.P.; Sant'Ambrogio, G.; Mathew, O.P. )

    1990-02-26

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) either stimulates or inhibits laryngeal receptors in the cat. The aim of this study was to correlate the CO{sub 2} response of laryngeal receptors with their response to other known stimuli (i.e. pressure, movement, cold, water and smoke). Single unit action potentials were recorded from fibers in the superior laryngeal nerve of 5 anesthetized, spontaneously breathing dogs together with CO{sub 2} concentration, esophageal and subglottic pressure. Constant streams of warm, humidified air or 10% CO{sub 2} in O{sub 2} were passed through the functionally isolated upper airway for 60 s. Eight of 13 randomly firing or silent receptors were stimulated by CO{sub 2} (from 0.4{plus minus}0.1 to 1.8{plus minus}0.4 imp.s). These non-respiratory-modulated receptors were more strongly stimulated by solutions lacking Cl{sup {minus}} and/or cigarette smoke. Six of 21 respiratory modulated receptors (responding to pressure and/or laryngeal motion) were either inhibited or stimulated by CO{sub 2}. Our results show that no laryngeal receptor responds only to CO{sub 2}. Silent or randomly active receptors were stimulated most often by CO{sub 2} consistent with the reflex effect of CO{sub 2} in the larynx.

  18. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  19. Miniaturized Amperometric Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; Hammond, J. W.; Ward, B.; Lukco, D.; Lampard, P.; Artale, M.; Androjna, D.

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor using Na3Z r2Si2PO12 (NASICON) as a solid electrolyte has been fabricated and de monstrated. Microfabrication techniques were used for sensor fabricat ion to yield a sensing area around 1.0 mm x 1.1 mm. The NASICON solid electrolyte and the Na2CO3/BaCO3 (1:1.7 molar ratio) auxiliary elect rolyte were deposited by sputtering in between and on top of the inte rdigitated finger-shaped platinum electrodes. This structure maximize s the length of the three-phase boundary (electrode, solid electrolyt e, and auxiliary electrolyte), which is critical for gas sensing. The robust CO2 sensor operated up to 600 C in an amperometric mode and a ttempts were made to optimize sensor operating parameters. Concentrat ions of CO2 between 0.02% and 4% were detected and the overall sensor performance was evaluated. Linear response of sensor current output to ln[CO2 concentration] ranging from 0.02% to 1% was achieved.

  20. On the psychotropic effects of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Colasanti, Alessandro; Esquivel, Gabriel; Schruers, Koen J; Griez, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    It has been well established that the inhalation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can induce in humans an emotion closely replicating spontaneous panic attacks, as defined by current psychiatry nosology. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical summary of the data regarding CO2's psychopharmacological properties and underlying mechanisms. The authors review the literature on the human and animal response for the exposure of exogenous CO2 focusing on five points of interest: 1) the early history of the use of CO2 as an anesthetic and therapeutic agent, 2) the subjective effects of breathing CO2 at different concentrations in humans, 3) the use of CO2 in experimental psychiatric research as an experimental model of panic, 4) the pharmacological modulation of CO2-induced responses, and 5) the putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying the affective state induced by CO2. The authors conclude with an evolutionary-inspired notion that CO2 might act as an agent of a primal emotion serving a homeostatic function, in the control of respiration and acid-base balance.

  1. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Chemistry on Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Cable, M. L.; Malaska, M. J.; Vu, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The surfaces of the moons of the outer Solar System are usually considered too cold (30-100 K) for significant chemistry to occur without the input of energy from exogenic sources (such as charged particles or VUV irradiation). In particular, Titan's thick atmosphere prevents significant amounts of high energy radiation from reaching the surface, limiting opportunities for surface chemical reactivity. Recently, we have identified carbamation, the reaction of carbon dioxide with primary amines to form carbamic acids, as a reaction that could occur thermally on Titan's surface. Amines should be present on Titan's surface, formed by photochemical reactions of N2 and CH4 in the upper atmosphere, and amine-containing molecules have been detected as a component of laboratory tholins made in terrestrial laboratories. There is some spectral evidence that CO2 is present on the surface, and CO2 has been definitively identified in the atmosphere. We use a combination of micro-Raman spectroscopy and UHV FTIR spectroscopy to examine the reaction products and kinetics of the carbamation reaction for a variety of primary amines. The reaction occurs readily at Titan surface temperatures (94 K), and leads to both carbamic acids and ammonium carbamate salts. Our kinetic data can be used to estimate the lifetime of CO2 on Titan's surface, and thus constrain the age of possible CO2-bearing cryovolcanic deposits.

  3. Carbon dioxide removal and the futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffman, D.’Maris; Lockley, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Futures contracts are exchange-traded financial instruments that enable parties to fix a price in advance, for later performance on a contract. Forward contracts also entail future settlement, but they are traded directly between two parties. Futures and forwards are used in commodities trading, as producers seek financial security when planning production. We discuss the potential use of futures contracts in Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) markets; concluding that they have one principal advantage (near-term price security to current polluters), and one principal disadvantage (a combination of high price volatility and high trade volume means contracts issued by the private sector may cause systemic economic risk). Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of futures markets in CDR, but urge caution about the prospects for market failure. In particular, we consider the use of regulated markets: to ensure contracts are more reliable, and that moral hazard is minimised. While regulation offers increased assurances, we identify major insufficiencies with this approach—finding it generally inadequate. In conclusion, we suggest that only governments can realistically support long-term CDR futures markets. We note existing long-term CDR plans by governments, and suggest the use of state-backed futures for supporting these assurances.

  4. Vibrations of the carbon dioxide dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Light, J. C.

    2000-03-01

    Fully coupled four-dimensional quantum-mechanical calculations are presented for intermolecular vibrational states of rigid carbon dioxide dimer for J=0. The Hamiltonian operator is given in collision coordinates. The Hamiltonian matrix elements are evaluated using symmetrized products of spherical harmonics for angles and a potential optimized discrete variable representation (PO-DVR) for the intermolecular distance. The lowest ten or so states of each symmetry are reported for the potential energy surface (PES) given by Bukowski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 3785 (1999)]. Due to symmetries, there is no interconversion tunneling splitting for the ground state. Our calculations show that there is no tunneling shift of the ground state within our computation precision (0.01 cm-1). Analysis of the wave functions shows that only the ground states of each symmetry are nearly harmonic. The van der Waals frequencies and symmetry adapted force constants are found and compared to available experimental values. Strong coupling between the stretching coordinates and the bending coordinates are found for vibrationally excited states. The interconversion tunneling shifts are discussed for the vibrationally excited states.

  5. Development of Carbon Dioxide Hermitic Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Satoshi; Oda, Atsushi; Ebara, Toshiyuki

    Because of global environmental problems, the existing refrigerants are to be replaced with natural refrigerants. CO2 is one of the natural refrigerants and environmentally safe, inflammable and non-toxic refrigerant. Therefore high efficiency compressor that can operate with natural refrigerants, especially CO2, needs to be developed. We developed a prototype CO2 hermetic compressor, which is able to use in carbon dioxide refrigerating systems for practical use. The compressor has two rolling pistons, and it leads to low vibrations, low noise. In additions, two-stage compression with two cylinders is adopted, because pressure difference is too large to compress in one stage. And inner pressure of the shell case is intermediate pressure to minimize gas leakage between compressing rooms and inner space of shell case. Intermediate pressure design enabled to make the compressor smaller in size and lighter in weight. As a result, the compressor achieved high efficiency and high reliability by these technology. We plan to study heat pump water heater, cup vending machine and various applications with CO2 compressor.

  6. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hallem, Elissa A.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFβ signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm. PMID:18524955

  7. Using conservative and reactive tracers to monitor and verify permanent carbon dioxide storage in basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. L.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Bausch, A.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage methods can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming. Long term, thermodynamically stable storage of carbon dioxide through mineral carbonation is one such method, in which divalent cations released from rocks such as basalt react with CO2 to form carbonates. [1] Currently used monitoring techniques for geologic CO2 storage fail to detect dissolved or chemically transformed CO2. We use conservative and reactive tracers in an ongoing pilot CO2 injection project in Iceland to characterize subsurface CO2 transport and in situ CO2-water-rock reactions. The Carbfix project in Iceland is a field scale pilot project where CO2 and H2S emissions from the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant are dissolved in groundwater and injected into a permeable basalt formation at ~500 m depth below surface. Trifluormethylsulphur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) and sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) are added as conservative tracers to the injected CO2 for the purpose of characterizing the migration of the injected CO2 in the basaltic storage reservoir. Furthermore, the injected CO2 is labeled with radiocarbon (14C) to monitor the extent of CO2-water-rock reactions and mineral carbonation. Initial results from the monitoring wells show a fast dispersion and reaction of the injected CO2. Breakthrough curves of SF6, SF5CF3 and 14C can be observed in nearby monitoring wells from samples collected and analyzed by gas chromatography or accelerator mass spectrometry, respectively. Changes in the ratios between reactive and conservative tracers demonstrate that mixing and CO2-water-rock reactions are occurring. The use of conservative and reactive tracers contributes to the monitoring, verification and accounting information needed to establish the extent and security of carbon storage and be helpful in furthering the public acceptance of geological CO2 storage via mineral carbonation as a contribution to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. [1] Oelkers, et

  8. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yixin

    2014-06-26

    The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during the production. They are concrete blocks and fiber-cement panels. The two products are currently mass produced and cured by steam. Carbon dioxide can be used to replace steam in curing process to accelerate early strength, improve the long-term durability and reduce energy and emission. For a reaction within a 24-hour process window, the theoretical maximum possible carbon uptake in concrete is found to be 29% based on cement mass in the product. To reach the maximum uptake, a special process is developed to promote the reaction efficiency to 60-80% in 4-hour carbon dioxide curing and improve the resistance to freeze-thaw cycling and sulfate ion attack. The process is also optimized to meet the project target of $10/tCO2 in carbon utilization. By the use of self-concentrating absorption technology, high purity CO2 can be produced at a price below $40/t. With low cost CO2 capture and utilization technologies, it is feasible to establish a network for carbon capture and utilization at the vicinity of carbon sources. If all block produces and panel producers in United States could adopt carbon dioxide process in their production in place of steam, carbon utilization in these two markets alone could consume more than 2 Mt CO2/year. This capture and utilization process can be extended to more precast products and will continue for years to come.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanpeng; Nie, Yong; Wu, Angshan; Ji, Dengxiang; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2012-03-01

    Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

  10. Ganglion dynamics and its implications to geologic carbon dioxide storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E; Jove-Colon, Carlos

    2013-01-02

    Capillary trapping of a nonwetting fluid phase in the subsurface has been considered as an important mechanism for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). This mechanism can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks for CO(2) storage and therefore can significantly enhance storage capacity and security. We here apply ganglion dynamics to understand the capillary trapping of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) under relevant reservoir conditions. We show that, by breaking the injected scCO(2) into small disconnected ganglia, the efficiency of capillary trapping can be greatly enhanced, because the mobility of a ganglion is inversely dependent on its size. Supercritical CO(2) ganglia can be engineered by promoting CO(2)-water interface instability during immiscible displacement, and their size distribution can be controlled by injection mode (e.g., water-alternating-gas) and rate. We also show that a large mobile ganglion can potentially break into smaller ganglia due to CO(2)-brine interface instability during buoyant rise, thus becoming less mobile. The mobility of scCO(2) in the subsurface is therefore self-limited. Vertical structural heterogeneity within a reservoir can inhibit the buoyant rise of scCO(2) ganglia. The dynamics of scCO(2) ganglia described here provides a new perspective for the security and monitoring of subsurface CO(2) storage.

  11. [Study on Reduction of Radiation Exposure by Using Carbon Dioxide Angiography Catheter in Vascular Access Intervention Therapy(VAIVT)].

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Yasunori; Kakuchi, Yasushi

    2015-09-01

    In vascular access intervention therapy (VAIVT), carbon dioxide is used as negative contrast medium for patients with iodine allergy or for those who have vascular access but not started with dialysis yet and have not endangered their remaining kidney function. To capture the movement of jet-injected carbon dioxide during the carbon dioxide angiography, we performed imaging at a rate of 15 frames per second. This method has a higher level of radiation exposure than angiography using an iodine contrast medium. Therefore we developed a catheter with 20 helical side holes in the tip (carbon dioxide angiography catheter), which allows large numbers of tiny bubbles to be generated simultaneously. In our study, we evaluate whether the use of this catheter can reduce the number of frames taken per second thus reducing the radiation exposure. A comparative experiment with existing angiography catheters with no side holes suggested that the use of this carbon dioxide angiography catheter to be useful for reducing the radiation exposure to patients and operators. Moreover, angiography using this catheter is highly useful from viewpoint of improving the stenotic vesselvisibility and reducing the side effects of using carbon dioxide, and we expect that the carbon dioxide angiography method is effective for patients and operators.

  12. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  13. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  14. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct aqueous mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration by an ex-situ, direct aqueous mineral carbonation process has been investigated over the past two years. This process was conceived to minimize the steps in the conversion of gaseous CO2 to a stable solid. This meant combining two separate reactions, mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation, into a single unit operation. It was recognized that the conditions favorable for one of these reactions could be detrimental to the other. However, the benefits for a combined aqueous process, in process efficiency and ultimately economics, justified the investigation. The process utilizes a slurry of water, dissolved CO2, and a magnesium silicate mineral, such as olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. These minerals were selected as the reactants of choice for two reasons: (1) significant abundance in nature; and (2) high molar ratio of the alkaline earth oxides (CaO, MgO) within the minerals. Because it is the alkaline earth oxide that combines with CO2 to form the solid carbonate, those minerals with the highest ratio of these oxides are most favored. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride additions to the solution, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Future studies are intended to investigate various mineral pretreatment options, the carbonation solution characteristics, alternative reactants, scale-up to a continuous process, geochemical modeling, and process economics.

  15. Using carbon dioxide as a building block in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Wu, Lipeng; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2015-01-20

    Carbon dioxide exits in the atmosphere and is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, the fermentation of sugars and the respiration of all living organisms. An active goal in organic synthesis is to take this carbon--trapped in a waste product--and re-use it to build useful chemicals. Recent advances in organometallic chemistry and catalysis provide effective means for the chemical transformation of CO₂ and its incorporation into synthetic organic molecules under mild conditions. Such a use of carbon dioxide as a renewable one-carbon (C1) building block in organic synthesis could contribute to a more sustainable use of resources.

  16. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  17. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  18. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Depleted Oil/Gas Fields: Evaluation of Gas Microseepage and Carbon Dioxide Fate at Rangely, Colorado USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klusman, R. W.

    2002-12-01

    Large-scale CO2 dioxide injection for purposes of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has been operational at Rangely, Colorado since 1986. The Rangely field serves as an onshore prototype for CO2 sequestration in depleted fields by production of a valuable commodity which partially offsets infrastructure costs. The injection is at pressures considerably above hydrostatic pressure, enhancing the possibility for migration of buoyant gases toward the surface. Methane and CO2 were measured in shallow soil gas, deep soil gas, and as fluxes into the atmosphere in both winter and summer seasons. There were large seasonal variations in surface biological noise. The direct measurement of CH4 flux to the atmosphere gave an estimate of 400 metric tonnes per year over the 78 km2 area, and carbon dioxide flux was between 170 and 3800 metric tonnes per year. Both stable carbon isotopes and carbon-14 were used in constructing these estimates. Computer modeling of the unsaturated zone migration, and of methanotrophic oxidation rates suggests a large portion of the CH4 is oxidized in the summer, and at a much lower rate in the winter. However, deep-sourced CH4 makes a larger contribution to the atmosphere than CO2, in terms of GWP. The 23+ million tonnes of carbon dioxide that have been injected at Rangely are largely stored as dissolved CO2 and a lesser amount as bicarbonate. Scaling problems, as a result of acid gas dissolution of carbonate cement, and subsequent precipitation of CaSO4 will be an increasing problem as the system matures. Evidence for mineral sequestration was not found in the scales. Ultimate injector and field capacities will be determined by mineral precipitation in the formation as it affects porosity and permeability.

  19. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

    2009-10-15

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  20. Atmospheric input of carbon dioxide from burning wood.

    PubMed

    Wong, C S

    1978-04-14

    The atmospheric input of carbon dioxide from burning wood, in particular from forest fires in boreal and temperate regions resulting from both natural and man-made causes and predominantly from forest fires in tropical regions caused by shifting cultivation, is estimated to be 5.7 x 10(15) grams of carbon per year as gross input and 1.5 x 10(15) grams of carbon per year as net input. This is a significant amount as compared to the fossil fuel carbon dioxide produced from the utilization of oil, gas, coal, and limestone, and bears on the hypothesis of the enhanced sedimentation of marine detritus as a removal mechanism of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  2. Biological carbon dioxide utilisation in food waste anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Y Bajón; Green, K; Schuler, K; Soares, A; Vale, P; Alibardi, L; Cartmell, E

    2015-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment of anaerobic digesters (AD) was previously identified as a potential on-site carbon revalorisation strategy. This study addresses the lack of studies investigating this concept in up-scaled units and the need to understand the mechanisms of exogenous CO2 utilisation. Two pilot-scale ADs treating food waste were monitored for 225 days, with the test unit being periodically injected with CO2 using a bubble column. The test AD maintained a CH4 production rate of 0.56 ± 0.13 m(3) CH4·(kg VS(fed) d)(-1) and a CH4 concentration in biogas of 68% even when dissolved CO2 levels were increased by a 3 fold over the control unit. An additional uptake of 0.55 kg of exogenous CO2 was achieved in the test AD during the trial period. A 2.5 fold increase in hydrogen (H2) concentration was observed and attributed to CO2 dissolution and to an alteration of the acidogenesis and acetogenesis pathways. A hypothesis for conversion of exogenous CO2 has been proposed, which requires validation by microbial community analysis.

  3. It is time to put carbon dioxide to work

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.

    1993-12-31

    The need to control emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is the subject of vigorous debate at this time. There is growing evidence that rising levels of carbon dioxide increase global warming, with perhaps highly adverse impacts for the human economy. There are calls for carbon taxes and other harsh measures. Japan has established a national goal of holding carbon dioxide emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 levels. I hope that this conference will be a turning point in the United States position on this issue. The current major end uses for CO{sub 2} include refrigeration, beverage carbonation, soda ash production, fire fighting, and urea fertilizer production. They are all based on chemistry that would not surprise a good chemist of the 19th century. Consumption of carbon dioxide in synthesis of industrial chemicals is limited. Usually one explains low production of chemicals from a candidate feedstock in terms of poor availability, price, purity, or reactivity. We can eliminate the first three as the causes of the underutilization of carbon dioxide.

  4. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-07-09

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  5. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2003-04-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  6. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2005-04-29

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  7. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2005-01-24

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids ? single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate ? to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  8. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2003-10-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  9. Calcium Carbonate Produced by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2007-06-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO2 through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids - single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate - to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  10. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-09-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  11. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2004-04-26

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  12. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-04-05

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  13. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2001-07-01

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  14. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2001-12-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  15. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2001-09-10

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  16. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHAPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J.Fabry

    2004-01-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  17. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-12-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  18. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2004-10-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  19. Interaction of Surface Modified Carbon Nanotubes with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysal, Nihat; Unsal, Banu; Ozisik, Rahmi

    2006-03-01

    The properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer nanocomposites are far below than those calculated, mainly due to poor dispersion or interface quality. This is particularly difficult for single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as they tend to form bundles or ropes that are difficult to exfoliate. Supercritical fluid (SCF) assisted processing is one of the methods that can be used to exfoliate/disperse CNTs along with modifiying the interface of the CNTs. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to understand how the surface modifiers behave near SWNT surface with and without the presence of SCF molecules. It is also important to understand the diffusivity of SCF molecules between SWNT bundles and the effect of surface modifiers on diffusion. Octane and n-perflourooctane molecules were used as surface modifiers with varying tethering density and carbon dioxide (CO2) was chosen as the SCF. Results showed that the system with highest number of n-perfluorooctanes presented the highest degree of success in separating the SWNTs in the presence of CO2.

  20. Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-07-12

    Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on

  1. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  2. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-07-30

    July 21, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  3. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  4. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  5. The Headache of Carbon Dioxide Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), a natural product of human metabolism, accumulates quickly in sealed environments when humans are present, and can induce headaches, among other symptoms. Major resources are expended to control CO2 levels to concentrations that are tolerable to the crews of spacecraft and submersible craft. It is not practical to control CO2 levels to those found in the ambient environment on earth. As NASA looks ahead to long-duration missions conducted far from earth, difficult issues arise related to the management and effects of human exposure to CO2. One is the problem of pockets of CO2 in the habitat caused by excess generation of the gas in one location without a mechanism to purge the area with fresh air. This results in the crew rebreathing CO2 from their exhaled breath, exposing them to a much higher concentration of CO2 than whole-module measurements would suggest. Another issue is the potential increased sensitivity to CO2 in microgravity. For example, based on anecdotal information, it appears that space crews may be more susceptible than submarine crews to some of the subtle, yet adverse effects of CO2 exposure. Another issue, not unique to spaceflight, is the possibility of inter-individual differences in the susceptibility of crewmembers to CO2 exposure. Again, anecdotal reports from the International Space Station (ISS) crews suggest that certain individuals may experience a greater susceptibility. The implications associated with these issues are extremely important as NASA sets CO2 exposure limits that protect the crew from this compound s subtle adverse effects, without causing an unwarranted expenditure of resources to scrub CO2 from the habitat atmosphere.

  6. Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

    1994-05-01

    The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

  7. Carbon dioxide catastrophes: Past and future menace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baur, Mario E.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is important in its role as coupler of the terrestrial biosphere to inorganic chemical processes and as the principal greenhouse gas controlling Earth's surface temperature. The hypothesis that atmospheric CO2 levels have diminished with time, with the resulting cooling effect offsetting an increase in the solar constant, seems firmly established, and it is shown that feedback mechanisms exist which can maintain the terrestrial surface in a relatively narrow temperature range over geological time. Of the factors involved in such CO2 variation, the oceanic reservoir appears the most important. Surface waters are probably in approximate equilibrium with regard to CO2 exchange with the ambient atmosphere in most regions, but data from deep-ocean water sampling indicates that such waters are somewhat undersaturated in the sense that they would tend to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere if brought to the surface without change in composition or temperature. If major impacts into the ocean can result in loss of a substantial portion of the atmospheric CO2 reservoir, then any such future event could imperil the continuation of most higher forms of life on Earth. The most likely candidate for an inverse Nyos global event in previous Earth history is the Cretaceous-Tertiary terminal extinction event. The Cretaceous was characterized by warm, equable temperatures presumably indicative of relatively high CO2 levels and an intense greenhouse heating. Cooling of the oceans in absence of massive transfer of CO2 to the oceanic reservoir in itself would promote a condition of CO2 undersaturation in abyssal waters, and this is made even more extreme by the pattern of ocean water circulation. It is possible to envision a situation in which deep ocean waters were at least occasionally profoundly undersaturated with regard to CO2. Turnover of a major fraction of such an ocean would then remove, on a very short time scale, as much as 90 percent of the atmospheric CO2

  8. Assessing the Thermodynamic Feasibility of the Conversion of Methane Hydrate into Carbon Dioxide Hydrate in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Duane H.; Seshadri, Kal; Wilder, Joseph W.

    2001-05-31

    Concerns about the potential effects of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have stimulated interest in a number of carbon dioxide sequestration studies. One suggestion is the sequestration of carbon dioxide as clathrate hydrates by injection of carbon dioxide into methane hydrate. Energy-supply research estimates indicate that natural gas hydrates in arctic and sub-seafloor formations contain more energy than all other fossil fuel deposits combined. The simultaneous sequestration of carbon dioxide and the production of methane by injection of carbon dioxide into deposits of natural gas hydrates, if possible, represents a potentially efficient and cost effective option for the sequestration of carbon dioxide. Data in the literature show that the conversion of bulk methane hydrate into carbon dioxide hydrate is thermodynamically favored. These results are not directly applicable to naturally occurring hydrates, because the hydrates in these locations are embedded in sediments. The thermodynamics of any potential conversion of CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate will therefore be affected by the size of the pores in which the conversion of CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate would take place. We have developed a model that is able to explain and predict equilibria in porous media for any pore size distribution. This model can be used to calculate the heats of dissociation for these hydrates in porous media as a function of pore size and temperature. These results allow for an assessment of the thermodynamic feasibility of converting CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate in porous media involving various size pores. We have used this model to derive a simple, explicit relation for the hydrate formation conditions in porous media, as well as the enthalpy of dissociation for these hydrates.

  9. Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Carbonates in the Earth;s Mantle: Implications to the Deep Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Choong-Shik; Sengupta, Amartya; Kim, Minseob

    2012-05-22

    An increase in the ionic character in C-O bonds at high pressures and temperatures is shown by the chemical/phase transformation diagram of CO{sub 2}. The presence of carbonate carbon dioxide (i-CO{sub 2}) near the Earth's core-mantle boundary condition provides insights into both the deep carbon cycle and the transport of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to anhydrous silicates in the mantle and iron core.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Carbon Dioxide Research Progress Report, fiscal year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlman, R. C.; Gross, T.; Machta, L.; Elliott, W.; MacCracken, M.

    1980-04-01

    Research on the global carbon cycle and the effects of increased carbon dioxide on the global climate system is reported. Environmental and societal effects related to CO/sub 2/ and environmental control technology for CO/sub 2/ are also discussed. Lists of research projects and reports and publications of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program are included. An expanded CO/sub 2/ monitoring network is providing increased coverage for interpretation of patterns of sources and sinks seasonal variability, and documentation of the global growth of CO/sub 2/. Modeling studies emphasized that knowledge of the transport and mixing of surface ocean waters is important in understanding deep oceanic circulation. Initial studies in the equatorial Pacific are helping quantify estimates of the amount of outgassing CO/sub 2/ from tropical waters. During fiscal year 1979, there was a substantial increase in appreciation of the role of the ocean in controlling not only atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations but also the climatic response to changes in concentration. Model simulations of the effect of doubled CO/sub 2/ concentration carried out with fixed ocean temperatures a situation that is possible during perhaps the next 20 years, showed relatively small summer heating over land areas. On the other hand, simulations in which the oceanic temperatures could come into instantaneous equilibrium with atmospheric conditions continued to show global temperature increases of 3 +- 1.5/sup 0/C, accentuated at high latitudes. To improve understanding of possible regional climate changes, there were increased efforts to reconstruct regional climatic patterns prevailing during past warm periods that might serve as analogs of future climatic conditions. Particular attention was directed to the climates of the United States and other countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean during the warm period 5000 to 7000 years ago.

  12. Vegetation Response to Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to vegetation response to carbon dioxide and climate includes: • Area and Carbon Content of Sphagnum Since Last Glacial Maximum (2002) (Trends Online) • TDE Model Intercomparison Project Data Archive • Presentations and abstracts from the recent DOE Terrestrial Science Team Meeting (Argonne National Laboratory, October 29-31, 2001) • FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) • Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth (2001) • Bibliography on CO2 Effects on Vegetation and Ecosystems: 1990-1999 Literature (2000) • Direct effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on plants and ecosystems: An updated bibliographic data base (1994) • A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (1999) • A Database of Woody Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (1999) • Forest Responses to Anthropogenic Stress (FORAST) Database (1995) • Effects of CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Nutrient Content of Juvenile Ponderosa Pine (1998) • Carbon Dioxide Enrichment: Data on the Response of Cotton to Varying CO2Irrigation, and Nitrogen (1992) • Growth and Chemical Responses to CO2 Enrichment Virginia Pine Pinus Virginiana Mill.(1985)

  13. Relative permeability experiments of carbon dioxide displacing brine and their implications for carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jonathan S; Goldberg, David S; Lackner, Klaus S; Matter, Juerg M; Supp, Michael G; Ramakrishnan, T S

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate anthropogenically induced climate change and ocean acidification, net carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere must be reduced. One proposed option is underground CO2 disposal. Large-scale injection of CO2 into the Earth's crust requires an understanding of the multiphase flow properties of high-pressure CO2 displacing brine. We present laboratory-scale core flooding experiments designed to measure CO2 endpoint relative permeability for CO2 displacing brine at in situ pressures, salinities, and temperatures. Endpoint drainage CO2 relative permeabilities for liquid and supercritical CO2 were found to be clustered around 0.4 for both the synthetic and natural media studied. These values indicate that relative to CO2, water may not be strongly wetting the solid surface. Based on these results, CO2 injectivity will be reduced and pressure-limited reservoirs will have reduced disposal capacity, though area-limited reservoirs may have increased capacity. Future reservoir-scale modeling efforts should incorporate sensitivity to relative permeability. Assuming applicability of the experimental results to other lithologies and that the majority of reservoirs are pressure limited, geologic carbon sequestration would require approximately twice the number of wells for the same injectivity.

  14. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  15. Electroreduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions at metal electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Augustynski, J.; Jermann, B.; Kedzierzawski, P.

    1996-12-31

    The quantities of carbon stored in the form of atmospheric carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2} in the hydrosphere and carbonates in the terrestrial environment substantially exceed those of fossil fuels. In spite of this the industrial use of carbon dioxide as a source of chemical carbon is presently limited to preparation of urea and certain carboxylic acids as well as organic carbonates and polycarbonates. However, the situation is expected to change in the future, if effective catalytic systems allowing to activate carbon dioxide will become available. In this connection, the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2}, requiring only an additional input of water and electrical energy, appears as an attractive possibility. For more than 100 years formic acid and formates of alkali metals were considered as the only significant products of the electroreduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions. The highest current efficiencies, exceeding 90 %, were obtained either with mercury or with amalgam electrodes. The only comprehensive study regarding kinetics of CO{sub 2} reduction in aqueous solution has been performed by Eyring et al. using a mercury cathode. This paper describes electrolysis studies.

  16. Uptake and Loss of Carbon Dioxide in Volumetric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macca, Carlo

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of ratio diagrams, which plot the calculations of equilibrium concentrations of the species of the carbonate system. Provides examples to describe how these diagrams can be used to illustrate the behavior systems of interest in volumetric analysis, where absorption or loss of carbon dioxide takes place. (TW)

  17. Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J.; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Tour, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20 mol% carbon dioxide (20-40 wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

  18. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon...

  19. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon...

  20. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…