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Sample records for carbon fibre tips

  1. Applications for carbon fibre recovered from composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering; Liu, Z.; Turner, TA; Wong, KH

    2016-07-01

    Commercial operations to recover carbon fibre from waste composites are now developing and as more recovered fibre becomes available new applications for recovered fibre are required. Opportunities to use recovered carbon fibre as a structural reinforcement are considered involving the use of wet lay processes to produce nonwoven mats. Mats with random in-plane fibre orientation can readily be produced using existing commercial processes. However, the fibre volume fraction, and hence the mechanical properties that can be achieved, result in composites with limited mechanical properties. Fibre volume fractions of 40% can be achieved with high moulding pressures of over 100 bar, however, moulding at these pressures results in substantial fibre breakage which reduces the mean fibre length and the properties of the composite manufactured. Nonwoven mats made from aligned, short carbon fibres can achieve higher fibre volume fractions with lower fibre breakage even at high moulding pressure. A process for aligning short fibres is described and a composite of over 60% fibre volume fraction has been manufactured at a pressures up to 100 bar with low fibre breakage. Further developments of the alignment process have been undertaken and a composite of 46% fibre volume fraction has been produced moulded at a pressure of 7 bar in an autoclave, exhibiting good mechanical properties that compete with higher grade materials. This demonstrates the potential for high value applications for recovered carbon fibre by fibre alignment.

  2. Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Rozhin, Aleksey; Fedotov, Yuri; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Kobtsev, Sergey M.; Dianov, Evgeny M.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess both remarkable optical properties and high potential for integration in various photonic devices. We overview, here, recent progress in CNT applications in fibre optics putting particular emphasis on fibre lasers. We discuss fabrication and characterisation of different CNTs, development of CNT-based saturable absorbers (CNT-SA), their integration and operation in fibre laser cavities putting emphasis on state-of-the-art fibre lasers, mode locked using CNT-SA. We discuss new design concepts of high-performance ultrafast operation fibre lasers covering ytterbium (Yb), bismuth (Bi), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm) and holmium (Ho)-doped fibre lasers.

  3. Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Rozhin, Aleksey; Fedotov, Yuri; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Kobtsev, Sergey M.; Dianov, Evgeny M.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess both remarkable optical properties and high potential for integration in various photonic devices. We overview, here, recent progress in CNT applications in fibre optics putting particular emphasis on fibre lasers. We discuss fabrication and characterisation of different CNTs, development of CNT-based saturable absorbers (CNT-SA), their integration and operation in fibre laser cavities putting emphasis on state-of-the-art fibre lasers, mode locked using CNT-SA. We discuss new design concepts of high-performance ultrafast operation fibre lasers covering ytterbium (Yb), bismuth (Bi), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm) and holmium (Ho)-doped fibre lasers.

  4. Super-tough carbon-nanotube fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Alan B.; Collins, Steve; Muñoz, Edgar; Razal, Joselito M.; Ebron, Von Howard; Ferraris, John P.; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Kim, Bog G.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2003-06-01

    The energy needed to rupture a fibre (its toughness) is five times higher for spider silk than for the same mass of steel wire, which has inspired efforts to produce spider silk commercially. Here we spin 100-metre-long carbon-nanotube composite fibres that are tougher than any natural or synthetic organic fibre described so far, and use these to make fibre supercapacitors that are suitable for weaving into textiles.

  5. Multifunctional Carbon Fibre Tapes for Automotive Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koncherry, V.; Potluri, P.; Fernando, A.

    2016-11-01

    Cabon fibre composites are used where mechanical performance such as strength, stiffness and impact properties at low density is a critical parameter for engineering applications. Carbon fibre flat tape is one material which is traditionally used to manufacture three-dimensional composites in this area. Modifying the carbon fibre tape to incorporate other functions such as stealth, electromagnetic interference, shielding, de-icing, self-repair, energy storage, allows us to create multi-functional carbon fibre tape. Researchers have been developing such material and the technology for their manufacture in order to produce multifunctional carbon fibre based components more economically and efficiently. This paper presents the manufacturing process of a metallised carbon fibre material for a chopped fibre preforming process that uses electromagnets for preforming instead of traditional suction airflow fibre deposition. In addition, the paper further presents mechanical and magneto-static modelling that is carried out to investigate the bending properties of the material produced and its suitability for creating 3D preforms.

  6. Multifunctional Carbon Fibre Tapes for Automotive Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koncherry, V.; Potluri, P.; Fernando, A.

    2017-04-01

    Cabon fibre composites are used where mechanical performance such as strength, stiffness and impact properties at low density is a critical parameter for engineering applications. Carbon fibre flat tape is one material which is traditionally used to manufacture three-dimensional composites in this area. Modifying the carbon fibre tape to incorporate other functions such as stealth, electromagnetic interference, shielding, de-icing, self-repair, energy storage, allows us to create multi-functional carbon fibre tape. Researchers have been developing such material and the technology for their manufacture in order to produce multifunctional carbon fibre based components more economically and efficiently. This paper presents the manufacturing process of a metallised carbon fibre material for a chopped fibre preforming process that uses electromagnets for preforming instead of traditional suction airflow fibre deposition. In addition, the paper further presents mechanical and magneto-static modelling that is carried out to investigate the bending properties of the material produced and its suitability for creating 3D preforms.

  7. Low Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications Part 1: Low Cost Carbon Fibre Development

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Charles David; Das, Sujit; Wheatley, Dr. Alan

    2014-01-01

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fibre reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fibre composites in transportation is the high cost of carbon fibre when compared to other candidate materials. However, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fibre. This chapter will highlight ongoing research in this area.

  8. Measurement of sound field in cavitating media by an optical fibre-tip hydrophone.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christian; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold

    2008-04-01

    A fibre-optic technique was applied to measure the sound field in an ultrasonic cleaning vessel under practical conditions. A metal-coated fibre-tip is used as a sensor and a heterodyne interferometer detects the change in the optical path resulting from the movement of the fibre-tip in the sound field. Spectrally resolved sound field parameters such as the fundamental, the subharmonic or cavitation noise are extracted from the measurements and compared with results obtained by a piezo-electric hydrophone. It was found that the fibre sensor provides a signal related to the velocity in the sound field, but the information about cavitation-related parameters is similar to the information for pressure sensing techniques. The fibre-optic sensors have a uniquely high spatial resolution and the sound detection process is strongly influenced by single cavitation events close to the small fibre-tip. This paper shows that fibre-tip sensors are an alternative to common hydrophone techniques. They can open up new possibilities for measurement problems for which so far no solution exists, in particular when a high spatial resolution is required or when the measurement site is small.

  9. Carbon tips for all-carbon single-molecule electronics.

    PubMed

    Dappe, Y J; González, C; Cuevas, J C

    2014-06-21

    We present here an exhaustive ab initio study of the use of carbon-based tips as electrodes in single-molecule junctions. Motivated by recent experiments, we show that carbon tips can be combined with other carbon nanostructures, such as graphene, to form all-carbon molecular junctions with molecules like benzene or C60. Our results show that the use of carbon tips can lead to relatively conductive molecular junctions. However, contrary to junctions formed with standard metals, the conductance traces recorded during the formation of the all-carbon single-molecule junctions do not exhibit clear conductance plateaus, which can be attributed to the inability of the hydrogenated carbon tips to form chemical bonds with the organic molecules. Additionally, we explore here the use of carbon tips for scanning tunneling microscopy and show that they are well suited for obtaining sample images with atomic resolution.

  10. Radiation curing of carbon fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadaro, G.; Alessi, S.; Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M. A.; Pitarresi, G.; Tumino, D.; Przbytniak, G.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy/carbon fibre reinforced composites were produced by means of e-beam irradiation through a pulsed 10 MeV electron beam accelerator. The matrix consisted of a difunctional epoxy monomer (DGEBA) and an initiator of cationic polymerisation, while the reinforcement was a unidirectional high modulus carbon fibre fabric. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was carried out in order to determine the cross-linking degree. The analysis pointed out a nonuniformity in the cross-linking degree of the e-beam cured panels, with the formation of clusters at low Tg (glass transition temperature) and clusters at high Tg. An out-of-mould post irradiation thermal treatment on e-beam cured samples provides a higher uniformity in the network although some slight degradation effects. Mode I delamination fracture toughness and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ISS) were also investigated by means of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Short Beam Shear tests, respectively. Results from this mechanical characterisation allowed to correlate fracture toughness of the bulk matrix resin, cross-linking density and fibre/matrix interaction to the delamination fracture behaviour of the fibre reinforced material.

  11. Impact Damage Tolerance of a Carbon Fibre Composite Laminate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    design of composite structures. 8 CONCLUSIONS These carbon fibre/ epoxy resin laminates are susceptible :: low e ;rt., - .. impact damage, especially...ROYAL AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHMENT0 Technical Report 84049 May 1984 GARTEUR/TP-007 IMPACT DAMAGE TOLERANCE OF A CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITE LAMINATE by DTIC G...007 Received for printing 3 May 1984 IMPACT DAMAGE TOLERANCE OF A CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITE LAMINATE by G. Dorey P. Sigety* K. Stellbrink** W. G. J. ’t

  12. A Dual Sensor for pH and Hydrogen Peroxide Using Polymer-Coated Optical Fibre Tips

    PubMed Central

    Purdey, Malcolm S.; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Monro, Tanya M.; Abell, Andrew D.; Schartner, Erik P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first single optical fibre tip probe for concurrent detection of both hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and pH of a solution. The sensor is constructed by embedding two fluorophores: carboxyperoxyfluor-1 (CPF1) and seminaphtharhodafluor-2 (SNARF2) within a polymer matrix located on the tip of the optical fibre. The functionalised fibre probe reproducibly measures pH, and is able to accurately detect H2O2 over a biologically relevant concentration range. This sensor offers potential for non-invasive detection of pH and H2O2 in biological environments using a single optical fibre. PMID:26694413

  13. A Dual Sensor for pH and Hydrogen Peroxide Using Polymer-Coated Optical Fibre Tips.

    PubMed

    Purdey, Malcolm S; Thompson, Jeremy G; Monro, Tanya M; Abell, Andrew D; Schartner, Erik P

    2015-12-17

    This paper demonstrates the first single optical fibre tip probe for concurrent detection of both hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentration and pH of a solution. The sensor is constructed by embedding two fluorophores: carboxyperoxyfluor-1 (CPF1) and seminaphtharhodafluor-2 (SNARF2) within a polymer matrix located on the tip of the optical fibre. The functionalised fibre probe reproducibly measures pH, and is able to accurately detect H₂O₂ over a biologically relevant concentration range. This sensor offers potential for non-invasive detection of pH and H₂O₂ in biological environments using a single optical fibre.

  14. Fibre Tip Sensors for Localised Temperature Sensing Based on Rare Earth-Doped Glass Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Schartner, Erik P.; Monro, Tanya M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1–0.3 °C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23–39 °C. PMID:25407907

  15. Fibre tip sensors for localised temperature sensing based on rare earth-doped glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Schartner, Erik P; Monro, Tanya M

    2014-11-17

    We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1-0.3 °C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23-39 °C.

  16. Fabrication of integrated optic fibre tip for micron CMMs touch trigger probe application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Hsu, H. Y.; Chua, J.; Kong, L. X.; Wedding, A. B.; She, M.; Lin, G. C. I.; Fan, K. C.

    2005-12-01

    In the last decade the general miniaturisation of complex products has lead to an increased importance of high precision machining and assembly. Together with increasing precision of products, the need for highly accurate dimensional inspection increases. CMMs (Coordinate Measuring Machines), as a versatile and widespread dimensional metrology tool, can efficiently perform complex measurement with a resolution of about 0.1μm and a repeatability of about 0.3μm. The existing probes for CMMs tend to be very bulky and result in high probing forces for geometrical measurements of high accuracy on small parts. In this paper, an economical flexible method, which is based on optical fibre splicer, is proposed to fabricate an integrated micro scale silicon probe with spherical tip for micron CMMs. Based on Taguchi method, a combination of optimised process parameters has been obtained to control the fabrication conditions that will ensure the manufacturing of tips of a high and consistent quality. With proper control of the process parameters, an optic fibre probe tip with the diameter dimension in the range of 200 to 400μm is achieved and there is a great potential to fabricate a smaller tip with a diameter of 50-100μm in the future.

  17. Acoustic fatigue of carbon fibre structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, G.; Gruenewald, M.

    1994-09-01

    Based on the acoustic fatigue endurance curve of CFRP-probes (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic) obtained within the BRITE EURAM PROGRAMME - ACOUFAT further investigations have been carried out with respect to (1) nonlinearities in the measurements for the calibration of the different transducers; (2) effects of residual strength for the coupons; (3) effects of moisture and temperature in the material due to storage and testing in humid environment. For one chosen coupon type, the sum of these effects leads to a reduction of the allowable strain in the range of high cycles by a factor of approximately 4 compared to the value obtained originally for the coupon using the 2 percent failure criterion and tested at room temperature. The modifications are considered step by step and the resulting curve is given in this paper.

  18. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John

    2008-07-07

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating 'smart' electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  19. Multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced biomimetic bundled gel fibres.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jin; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Haruko; Sasaki, Naruo; Matsunaga, Yukiko T

    2016-08-19

    This work describes the fabrication and characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based biomimetic bundled gel fibres. The bundled gel fibres were reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A phase-separated aqueous solution with MWCNT and HPC was transformed into a bundled fibrous structure after being injected into a co-flow microfluidic device and applying the sheath flow. The resulting MWCNT-bundled gel fibres consist of multiple parallel microfibres. The mechanical and electrical properties of MWCNT-bundled gel fibres were improved and their potential for tissue engineering applications as a cell scaffold was demonstrated.

  20. Preparation of hollow-fibre and composite hollow-fibre carbon membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Linkov, V.M.; Sanderson, R.D.; Jacobs, E.P.

    1994-12-31

    Interest in carbon membranes world-wide has increased remarkably since Softer et al. introduced, in 1983, hollow-fibre carbon membranes produced by the pyrolysis of commercial cellulose membranes. The scientific community was attracted by the high permselectivities of these membranes and their stability at high temperatures. Scientific organizations in Japan, France, Germany and other countries have made efforts to prepare mechanically stable carbon hollow fibres by various techniques. Materials other than cellulose, such as phenolic resins and polyacrylonitrile (PAN), were used for this purpose. Although some Positive results have been reported in the literature, mechanically strong and flexible carbon hollow-fibre membranes with high porosity and highly asymmetrical structure have not yet been produced. Here, the production of hollow-fiber carbon membranes, the modification of their porous structure, and the investigation into various techniques for coating them with inorganic and organic materials, are presented.

  1. Carbon fibre and nitinol needles for MRI-guided interventions: first in vitro and in vivo application.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christoph; Wojtczyk, Hanne; Rempp, Hansjörg; Clasen, Stephan; Horger, Marius; von Lassberg, Christoph; Fritz, Jan; Claussen, Claus D; Pereira, Philippe L

    2011-09-01

    To assess the artefact properties of a MR-compatible carbon fibre needle with a nitinol mandrin in vitro and to report first clinical experiences. In vitro, the carbon fibre/nitinol needle was imaged at different angles against the main magnetic field (1.5T open bore magnet). A gradient echo MR fluoroscopy sequence (GRE: TR 9.3 ms, TE 3.12 ms, bandwidth 200 Hz/pixel, flip-angle 12°) and a fast turbo spin echo sequence (FSE: TR 412 ms, TE 9.7 ms, bandwidth 200 Hz/pixel, flip-angle 150°) were used. Artefact width, needle intensity contrast and needle tip location errors were assessed. In vivo, lumbar periradicular corticosteroid injections and one sclerotherapy were performed with carbon fibre needles (10 procedures) and with titanium alloy needles (2 procedures). The artefact sizes and contrasts were measured. In vitro, artefact diameters of the carbon fibre needle ranged from 3.3 to 4.6 mm, contrasts from 0.11 to 0.52, with larger artefact contrasts and widths with the GRE sequence. Needle tip location errors of -2.1 to -2.8 mm were observed. Decreasing angles to the main field lead to smaller artefacts. In vivo, the carbon fibre/nitinol needle produced smaller artefacts (mean width FSE/GRE: 2.8mm/4.6mm) with lower contrast (0.30-0.42) than the titanium alloy needle (mean width FSE/GRE: 4.1 mm/7.5 mm, contrast 0.60-0.73). The carbon fibre/nitinol needle is useful for performing MR-guided interventions at 1.5T, producing more subtle artefacts than a titanium alloy needle, but with an incomplete depiction and thus inaccurate localization of the needle tip. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibre tip pH sensor for tumor detection during surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Matthew R.; Schartner, Erik P.; Callen, David F.; Gill, P. Grantley; Monro, Tanya M.

    2015-05-01

    Surgery on tumours commonly involves a lumpectomy method, where a section of tissue containing the tumour is removed, to improve cosmetic outcomes and quality of life. Following surgery, the margins of the removed section are checked by pathology tests to ensure that the entire tumour has been removed. Unfortunately, approximately 15-20% of margins show incomplete removal and require a subsequent operation to remove the remaining tumour. Tumour detection during surgery could allow the removed section to be enlarged appropriately, reducing the likelihood of requiring subsequent surgery. A change in the extracellular pH in the vicinity of a tumour, when compared to normal tissue, has been shown previously in literature. We have fabricated an optical fibre tip pH sensor by embedding a fluorophore within a photopolymerised acrylamide polymer on the tip of a 200 micron diameter silica fibre. Preliminary measurements of human melanoma samples have shown a significant difference in the measured pH values between tumour and normal tissue. This demonstration paves to way to highly accurate margin detection during surgery.

  3. Can We Avoid the Permafrost Carbon Tipping Point?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Zhang, T.; Bruhwiler, L.; Barrett, A. P.; Li, Z.

    2011-12-01

    If we reduce fossil fuel emissions and slow the Arctic warming rate, can we delay or even avoid the permafrost carbon tipping point? Permafrost currently contains about 1466 Gt of carbon frozen during or since the last ice age. The permafrost carbon tipping point occurs when the release of carbon from thawing permafrost overpowers enhanced uptake due to warmer temperatures. The tipping point indicates when the Arctic irreversibly changes from a carbon sink to a source relative to the atmosphere and marks the start of the Permafrost Carbon Feedback. The tipping point is irreversible because once the carbon thaws and decays into the atmosphere, there is no way to put the carbon back into the permafrost. Projections based on the A1B IPCC scenario indicate that the PCF tipping point will occur between 2020 and 2030, with a total of 190±64 Gt of carbon released into the atmosphere by 2300. We ran a series of model projections out to 2300 based on the A1B scenario, but capped emissions at various levels, each representing a different overall Arctic warming. We present the area of permafrost lost, the permafrost carbon tipping point, and total permafrost carbon flux as a function of Arctic temperature increase. We show the maximum allowed Arctic temperature increase before initiating the permafrost carbon feedback.

  4. Surface characterisation of carbon fibre recycled using fluidised bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, G.; Pickering, S. J.; Walker, G. S.; Wong, K. H.; Rudd, C. D.

    2008-02-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the surface of carbon fibres recycled using a high-temperature fluidised bed. The interfacial shear strength of the recycled carbon fibres with epoxy resin was examined using a micro-droplet test. The corresponding as received carbon fibres were used as control samples. It was shown that the recycling process converted some of the surface hydroxyl groups into carbonyl and carboxylic groups due to the effect of heat in atmosphere of air. The overall O/C ratio was not changed significantly. The interfacial shear strength with epoxy resin was not affected by the change of surface oxygen composition. It was also shown that surface texture may play a dominant role in interfacial bonding performance.

  5. Thermal properties of continuously spun carbon nanotube fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziol, Krzysztof K.; Janas, Dawid; Brown, Elisabetta; Hao, Ling

    2017-04-01

    As indicated by theory and experimental measurements individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have very high values of thermal conductivity. One of the challenges is to achieve high thermal conductivity in macroscopic assemblies of CNTs such as fibres, films and composites, paving the way to a wide range of applications. CNT fibres have tremendous potential in succeeding as the future materials for a variety of applications when properties at the nanoscale are translated to their macroscopic assemblies. In this paper we report the measurements of thermal conductivity of continuously spun CNT fibres and its dependence on temperature. Thermal conductivity measurements were performed using in-house built temperature sensing microscope probe. Specific thermal conductivity of CNT fibres showed an order of magnitude advantage over the traditional materials used for heat dissipation.

  6. Optical fibre-coupled cryogenic radiometer with carbon nanotube absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livigni, David J.; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Cromer, Christopher L.; Lehman, John H.

    2012-04-01

    A cryogenic radiometer was constructed for direct-substitution optical-fibre power measurements. The cavity is intended to operate at the 3 K temperature stage of a dilution refrigerator or 4.2 K stage of a liquid cryostat. The optical fibre is removable for characterization. The cavity features micromachined silicon centring rings to thermally isolate the optical fibre as well as an absorber made from micromachined silicon on which vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were grown. Measurements of electrical substitution, optical absorption and temperature change indicate that the radiometer is capable of measuring a power level of 10 nW with approximate responsivity of 155 nW K-1 and 1/e time constant of 13 min. An inequivalence between optical and electrical power of approximately 10% was found, but the difference was largely attributable to unaccounted losses in the optical fibre.

  7. Carbon fibre composites: integrated electrochemical sensors for wound management.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Duncan; Forsythe, Stephen; Davis, James

    2008-07-01

    The applicability of employing a carbon fibre mesh as an electrochemical sensing substructure for assessing urate transformations within wound exudates is evaluated. Prototype sensor assemblies have been designed and their response characteristics towards uric acid and other common physiological components are detailed. Modification of the carbon fibre sensor through surface anodization and the application of cellulose acetate permselective barriers have been shown to lead to optimized responses and much greater sensitivity (1440% increase) and specificity. These could enable the accurate periodic monitoring of uric acid in wound fluid. The performance characteristics of the composite sensors in whole blood, serum and blister fluid have been investigated.

  8. Transport properties of polymer-vapour grown carbon fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeyev, S. A.; Macedo, F. J.; Ferreira, J. A.; van Hattum, F. W. J.; Bernardo, C. A.

    2000-04-01

    DC electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of polypropylene (PP) filled with vapour grown carbon fibre (VGCF) was studied. This was done for a wide range of fibre content and compared to systems produced under the same conditions in which a conventional carbon fibre was used as filler. The composites studied exhibit characteristic percolating behaviour. Because of the low degree of graphite perfection in the VGCF used in this work, the fraction of VGCF required to achieve percolation was higher than expected. Non-linear I- V characteristics and time dependent electrical resistivity effects are only observed in PP filled with VGCF. Several mechanisms must be called upon to explain the observed electrical behaviour of the PP/VGCF composite. The thermal conductivity of the composites is in agreement with the effective medium theories.

  9. Fibre Bragg Gratings in Embedded Microstructured Optical Fibres Allow Distinguishing between Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric Lamb Waves in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ben; Goossens, Sidney; Geernaert, Thomas; Habas, Dimitrios; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2017-08-24

    Conventional contact sensors used for Lamb wave-based ultrasonic inspection, such as piezo-electric transducers, measure omnidirectional strain and do not allow distinguishing between fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetric modes. In this paper, we show that the use of a single fibre Bragg grating created in a dedicated microstructured optical fibre allows one to directly make the distinction between these fundamental Lamb wave modes. This feature stems from the different sensitivities of the microstructured fibre to axial and transverse strain. We fabricated carbon fibre-reinforced polymer panels equipped with embedded microstructured optical fibre sensors and experimentally demonstrated the strain waves associated with the propagating Lamb waves in both the axial and transverse directions of the optical fibre.

  10. Investigation of interfacial interaction between uncoated and coated carbon fibres and the magnesium alloy AZ91.

    PubMed

    Dorner-Reisel, A; Nishida, Y; Klemm, V; Nestler, K; Marx, G; Müller, E

    2002-10-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced metal-matrix composites with a fibre volume content between 63 and 68% were processed by squeeze casting using T800 H carbon fibres and the magnesium alloy AZ91. The surface of the fibres was prepared by thermal desizing of the fibres or by deposition of a pyrolytic carbon (pyC) coating. Different interfacial conditions could be identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the single-fibre push-in test. TEM confirmed the formation of needle-like phases at the fibre surface or, for coated fibres, within the pyrolytic carbon coating. During loading by the Vickers type indenter an intense response was observed for composites of coated fibres and the magnesium alloy. This could by caused by stick-slip effects within the pyrolytic carbon coating.

  11. Penetration of living cell membranes with fortified carbon nanotube tips.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Brown, Scott C; Higashitani, Ko; Moudgil, Brij M

    2007-10-23

    We have fabricated robust nanosurgical needles suitable for single cell operations by modifying multiwalled carbon nanotube (MCNT)-terminated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips. Extra-long MCNT AFM tips were prepared and fortified with molecular layers of carbon to overcome mechanical instabilities and then coated with an outer shell of gold to promote chemical versatility. The terminal diameters of the final fabricated tips were approximately 30-40 nm, and the MCNT probes were several micrometers in length. We illustrate the capability of these modified MCNT tips to carry nanoparticulate payloads and to penetrate the plasma membrane of living pleural mesothelial cells at the smallest indentation depths (100-200 nm) and lowest penetration forces (100-200 pN) currently reported for these procedures.

  12. Carbon fibre composite for ventilation air methane (VAM) capture.

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatachari, Ramesh; Su, Shi; Yu, Xin Xiang

    2009-12-30

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a hazardous greenhouse gas but is also a wasted energy resource, if not utilised. This paper evaluates a novel adsorbent material developed for capturing methane from ventilation air methane (VAM) gas in underground coal mines. The adsorbent material is a honeycomb monolithic carbon fibre composite (HMCFC) consisting of multiple parallel flow-through channels and the material exhibits unique features including low pressure drop, good mechanical properties, ability to handle dust-containing gas streams, good thermal and electrical conductivity and selective adsorption of gases. During this study, a series of HMCFC adsorbents (using different types of carbon fibres) were successfully fabricated. Experimental data demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using the HMCFC adsorbent to capture methane from VAM gas. The adsorption capacity of the HMCFC adsorbent was twice that of commercial activated carbon. Methane concentration of 0.56% in the inlet VAM gas stream is reduced to about 0.011% after it passes through the novel carbon fibre composite adsorbent material at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This amounts to a maximum capture efficiency of 98%. These encouraging laboratory scale studies have prompted further large scale trials and economic assessment.

  13. Multi-Functional Carbon Fibre Composites using Carbon Nanotubes as an Alternative to Polymer Sizing

    PubMed Central

    Pozegic, T. R.; Anguita, J. V.; Hamerton, I.; Jayawardena, K. D. G. I.; Chen, J-S.; Stolojan, V.; Ballocchi, P.; Walsh, R.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality. High quality CNTs are grown at a high density as a result of a 35 nm aluminium interlayer which has previously been shown to minimise diffusion of the catalyst in the carbon fibre substrate. A CNT modified-CFRP show 300%, 450% and 230% improvements in the electrical conductivity on the ‘surface’, ‘through-thickness’ and ‘volume’ directions, respectively. Furthermore, through-thickness thermal conductivity calculations reveal a 107% increase. These improvements suggest the potential of a direct replacement for lightning strike solutions and to enhance the efficiency of current de-icing solutions employed in the aerospace industry. PMID:27876858

  14. Multi-Functional Carbon Fibre Composites using Carbon Nanotubes as an Alternative to Polymer Sizing.

    PubMed

    Pozegic, T R; Anguita, J V; Hamerton, I; Jayawardena, K D G I; Chen, J-S; Stolojan, V; Ballocchi, P; Walsh, R; Silva, S R P

    2016-11-23

    Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality. High quality CNTs are grown at a high density as a result of a 35 nm aluminium interlayer which has previously been shown to minimise diffusion of the catalyst in the carbon fibre substrate. A CNT modified-CFRP show 300%, 450% and 230% improvements in the electrical conductivity on the 'surface', 'through-thickness' and 'volume' directions, respectively. Furthermore, through-thickness thermal conductivity calculations reveal a 107% increase. These improvements suggest the potential of a direct replacement for lightning strike solutions and to enhance the efficiency of current de-icing solutions employed in the aerospace industry.

  15. Multi-Functional Carbon Fibre Composites using Carbon Nanotubes as an Alternative to Polymer Sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozegic, T. R.; Anguita, J. V.; Hamerton, I.; Jayawardena, K. D. G. I.; Chen, J.-S.; Stolojan, V.; Ballocchi, P.; Walsh, R.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality. High quality CNTs are grown at a high density as a result of a 35 nm aluminium interlayer which has previously been shown to minimise diffusion of the catalyst in the carbon fibre substrate. A CNT modified-CFRP show 300%, 450% and 230% improvements in the electrical conductivity on the ‘surface’, ‘through-thickness’ and ‘volume’ directions, respectively. Furthermore, through-thickness thermal conductivity calculations reveal a 107% increase. These improvements suggest the potential of a direct replacement for lightning strike solutions and to enhance the efficiency of current de-icing solutions employed in the aerospace industry.

  16. Carbon fibre prostheses and running in amputees: a review.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Amputee sport performance has greatly improved over the past 20 years along with the development of carbon fibre prostheses. As the margins between winning and losing become smaller, athletes increasingly rely on prosthetic limb technology to give them an edge over other competitors and break existing records. Originally, the aim of improving prostheses was to try to increase performance by reducing the functional disadvantage of the prosthetic foot compared to the human foot. However, claims have been made recently that not only have the functional disadvantages been redressed, but today's sprint prostheses may provide a mechanical advantage over the human limb. This review will present what is currently known about carbon fibre prostheses and their effect on the running technique of transtibial amputees.

  17. Charge effect in point projection images of carbon fibres

    PubMed

    Prigent; Morin

    2000-09-01

    Nanometre-sized carbon fibres across holes have been observed in a lensless point projection field-emission microscope operating between 100 and 300 eV. At sufficiently high magnification fringe patterns appear; with the help of simulations we show that they are strongly dependent on the charge density of the fibres. These patterns are characterized by an odd number of fringes with a central fringe that becomes very bright as the charge increases. Average diameter and linear charge density have been obtained with remarkable precision from analysis of fringes. Charge distribution from the middle to the edge of fibres has been investigated as well as narrowings at localized places on the fringe pattern. From these two examples, the limits of the models used for the simulations and those of the data acquisition system are discussed. Finally, this work emphasizes the fact that the fringe pattern masks the actual form of the fibre and that it is necessary to take account of the charge effect to interpret this diffraction pattern.

  18. Carbonized blood deposited on fibres during 810, 940 and 1,470 nm endovenous laser ablation: thickness and absorption by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Amzayyb, Mustafa; van den Bos, Renate R; Kodach, Vitali M; de Bruin, D Martijn; Nijsten, Tamar; Neumann, H A Martino; van Gemert, Martin J C

    2010-05-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is commonly used to treat saphenous varicosities. Very high temperatures at the laser fibre tip have been reported during EVLA. We hypothesized that the laser irradiation deposits a layer of strongly absorbing carbonized blood of very high temperature on the fibre tip. We sought to prove the existence of these layers and study their properties by optical transmission, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microscopy. We analysed 23 EVLA fibres, 8 used at 810 nm, 7 at 940 nm and 8 at 1,470 nm. We measured the transmission of these fibres in two wavelength bands (450-950 nm; 950-1,650 nm). We used 1,310 nm OCT to assess the thickness of the layers and the attenuation as a function of depth to determine the absorption coefficient. Microscopy was used to view the tip surface. All fibres showed a slightly increasing transmission with wavelength in the 450-950 nm band, and a virtually wavelength-independent transmission in the 950-1,650 nm band. OCT scans showed a thin layer deposited on all 13 fibres investigated, 6 used at 810 nm, 4 at 940 nm and 3 at 1,470 nm, some with inhomogeneities over the tip area. The average absorption coefficient of the 13 layers was 72 +/- 16 mm(-1). The average layer thickness estimated from the transmission and absorption measurements was 8.0 +/- 2.7 microm. From the OCT data, the average maximal thickness was 26 +/- 6 microm. Microscopy of three fibre tips, one for each EVLA wavelength, showed rough, cracked and sometimes seriously damaged tip surfaces. There was no clear correlation between the properties of the layers and the EVLA parameters such as wavelength, except for a positive correlation between layer thickness and total delivered energy. In conclusion, we found strong evidence that all EVLA procedures in blood filled veins deposit a heavily absorbing hot layer of carbonized blood on the fibre tip, with concomitant tip damage. This major EVLA mechanism is unlikely to have much wavelength

  19. Applying a potential difference to minimise damage to carbon fibres during carbon nanotube grafting by chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, David B.; Qian, Hui; Clancy, Adam J.; Greenhalgh, Emile S.; Bismarck, Alexander; Shaffer, Milo S. P.

    2017-07-01

    The application of an in situ potential difference between carbon fibres and a graphite foil counter electrode (300 V, generating an electric field ca 0.3-0.7 V μm-1), during the chemical vapour deposition synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) grafted carbon fibres, significantly improves the uniformity of growth without reducing the tensile properties of the underlying carbon fibres. Grafted CNTs with diameters 55 nm ± 36 nm and lengths around 10 μm were well attached to the carbon fibre surface, and were grown without the requirement for protective barrier coatings. The grafted CNTs increased the surface area to 185 m2 g-1 compared to the as-received sized carbon fibre 0.24 m2 g-1. The approach is not restricted to batch systems and has the potential to improve CNT grafted carbon fibre production for continuous processing.

  20. Modelling the side impact of carbon fibre tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharsan, Ms R.; Rolfe, B. F., Dr; Hodgson, P. D., Prof

    2010-06-01

    Metallic tubes have been extensively studied for their crashworthiness as they closely resemble automotive crash rails. Recently, the demand to improve fuel economy and reduce vehicle emissions has led automobile manufacturers to explore the crash properties of light weight materials such as fibre reinforced polymer composites, metallic foams and sandwich structures in order to use them as crash barriers. This paper discusses the response of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) tubes and their failure mechanisms during side impact. The energy absorption of CFRP tubes is compared to similar Aluminium tubes. The response of the CFRP tubes during impact was modelled using Abaqus finite element software with a composite fabric material model. The material inputs were given based on standard tension and compression test results and the in-plane damage was defined based on cyclic shear tests. The failure modes and energy absorption observed during the tests were well represented by the finite element model.

  1. On the high-rate failure of carbon fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias, C.; Parry, S.; Bourne, N. K.; Townsend, D.; Soutis, C.; Withers, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    The Taylor test is an important means to determine the response of materials to dynamic loading. In this work it is used to determine the dynamic response of heterogeneous orthotropic carbon-fibre-epoxy laminates. Experiments record the fracture of a series of multi-layered composite plates with high-speed photography. The ensuing damage occurs during the shock compression phase but three other tensile and shear loading modes operate during the test. This hierarchy of damage across the scales is key in determining the suite of operating mechanisms; such information cannot be correlated using traditional sectioning and observation using optical or electron beam microscopy or post mortem examination of recovered cylinders. Only dynamic imaging and damage characterisation will advance quantitative damage and thus constitutive model development. It is shown that fibre and ply orientations influence the fracture response, but most important is the impact speed. The 0° Taylor cylinder impacted at 268 m s-1 in addition to extensive interlaminar fracture demonstrates a pseudo-plastic behaviour due to progressive fibre crushing, dissipating larger amounts of energy in comparison to that tested at the lower speed of 148 m s-1.

  2. Gbit/s data transmission on carbon fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, T.; Glitza, K.-W.; Kappen, G. C.; Mättig, P.; Möller, J.; Sanny, B.

    2016-03-01

    Data transmission at the upgraded Large Hadron Collider experiments, foreseen for mid 2020s, will be in the multi Gbit/s range per connection for the innermost detector layers. This paper reports on first tests on the possible use of carbon cables for electrical data transmission close to the interaction point. Carbon cables have the potential advantage of being light, having a low activation and easy integration into the detector components close to the interaction point. In these tests commercially available carbon fibres were used, in which the filaments had a very thin nickel coating. For these cables data rates beyond 1 Gbit/s over more than 1 m with an error rate of less than 10-12 could be reached. The characteristics of the cables have been measured in terms of S-parameters and could be converted to a SPICE model. Some outlook on potential further improvements is presented.

  3. Tribological behaviour of unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Y.; De Baets, P.

    2017-02-01

    Tribological behaviour of unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites containing 42wt.% (CU42) and 52wt.% (CU52) carbon fibres fabricated by moulding technique was investigated on a pin-on-flat plate configuration. It is the first time to measure static and dynamic coefficient of frictions and wear rates of epoxy composites under heavy loading conditions. Microstructures of composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicated the carbon fiber improved the tribological properties of thermoset epoxy by reducing wear rate, but increased the coefficient of friction. At higher load, average wear rates were about 10.8x10-5 mm3/N.m for composites while it was about 38.20x10-5 mm3/N.m for epoxy resin. The wear rate decreased with decreasing load while friction coefficient increased with decreasing load. Moreover, friction coefficient of composites of CU42 tested at 90 N load was measured to be in the range 0.35 and 0.13 for static and dynamic component, respectively.

  4. Flexural Properties of Carbon Fibre Cloth/Wood Veneer Laminates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    AD-A161 921 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBRE CLOTH/MOOD VENEER i/i LANINATES(U) ROYAL AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHMENT FARNBOROUGH ( ENGLAND ) J H SEMELL APR... unit area of panel. This improve- ,i,-nt in flexural properties can be accompanied by a significant decrease in materials costs owing to the...laminates having the same weight per unit suriace 4rca oere :.,lare. ai shown in Appenlix 3 and are given in Table 6. These methods )f -. mpar.son

  5. Nanostructuring carbon fibre probes for use in central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Li, Meixian; Phair, Jolene; Cardosi, Marco F; Davis, James

    2014-02-17

    A carbon fibre probe is described which utilises the oxidation of an endogenous biomarker to provide diagnostic information on the condition of intravascular access lines. The probe surface was modified through anodic oxidation to provide a high selectivity towards urate which was used as a redox probe through which the pH could be determined. A Nernstian response (-60 mV/pH) was obtained which was free from the interference of other redox species common to biofluids. The electroanalytical performance of the probe has been optimised and the applicability of the approach demonstrated through testing the responses in whole blood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of carbon fibre composites as ITER divertor armour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.; Landman, I.

    2004-08-01

    Exposure of the carbon fibre composites (CFC) NB31 and NS31 by multiple plasma pulses has been performed at the plasma guns MK-200UG and QSPA. Numerical simulation for the same CFCs under ITER type I ELM typical heat load has been carried out using the code PEGASUS-3D. Comparative analysis of the numerical and experimental results allowed understanding the erosion mechanism of CFC based on the simulation results. A modification of CFC structure has been proposed in order to decrease the armour erosion rate.

  7. Framed carbon nanostructures: synthesis and applications in functional SPM tips.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, I S; Fadeev, I V; Zhukov, M V; Dubrovskii, V G; Golubok, A O

    2015-01-01

    We present a synthesis method to fabricate framed carbon-based nanostructures having highly anisotropic shapes, in particular, the nanofork and nanoscalpel structures which are obtained systematically under optimized growth conditions. A theoretical model is developed to explain the formation of such nanostructures on Si cantilevers and W etched wires exposed to a focused electron beam. We then demonstrate the potentials of these nanostructures as functional tips for scanning probe microscopy. Owing to their anisotropic shapes, such tips can be very useful for nanolithography, nanosurgery of biological objects, and precise manipulation with surface particles. Overall, our method provides a simple and robust way to produce functional scanning probe microscopy tips with variable shapes and enhanced capabilities for different applications compared to standard cantilevers.

  8. Carbon nanotube based sharp tips and soldering irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Abha; Daraio, Chiara

    2009-03-01

    High energy electron beam machining has been proven a powerful tool to modify desired nanostructures for technological applications and to form molecular junctions and interconnections between carbon nanotubes. The development of the next generation of miniaturized electronic systems demands the integration of nanoelectronic components creating reliable mechanical and electrical contacts. At the same time, the development of scanning probe techniques and magnetic recording media require an ever decreasing tip size of ultrasharp magnetic read-write heads. We report on the nano-electron beam assisted fabrication of atomically sharp iron-based tips and on the creation of a nano-soldering iron for nano-interconnects using Fe-filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Our technique allows also carving a MWCNT into a nanosoldering iron that was demonstrated capable of joining two separated halves of a tube. This approach could easily be extended to the interconnection of two largely dissimilar CNTs, between a CNT and a nanowire or between two nanowires.

  9. Microstructure characterization of erosion resistant coatings on carbon-bonded carbon fibre composites.

    PubMed

    Moskalewicz, T; Smeacetto, F; Salvo, M; Boccaccini, A R; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure of as received and surface treated carbon-bonded carbon fibre composites has been examined by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure of the as received material consists of a bonded together layered carbon fiber network, identified as graphitic carbon (hexagonal close packed). To improve the erosion resistance of the carbon-bonded carbon fibre composites composite, the SiC and silicate glass-ceramic coatings from the system SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-Y(2)O(3) were produced on carbon-bonded carbon fibre composites composites by a low-cost slurry technique. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of cross-section thin foils allowed for detailed analysis of the coatings microstructure. It was found that the SiC coating was consisting mainly of a nanocrystalline SiC (fcc). The multilayered glass-ceramic coating showed a complex microstructure consisting of an external SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-Y(2)O(3) layer and an intermediate nanocrystalline SiC layer. The SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-Y(2)O(3) layer was composed of SiO(2) (fcc), Y(2)Si(2)O(7) (op) and Al(4.644)Si(1.357)O(9.68) (op).

  10. High heat flux erosion of carbon fibre composite materials in the TEXTOR tokamak.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.

    1998-03-10

    During plasma disruptions, ELMs, or vertical displacement events (VDEs) high transient heat loads to the plasma facing materials an cause damage such as thermal erosion, cracking, or melting. Self shielding processes, which take place when a material surface is exposed to a high heat flux from an incident plasma, can lead to a reduction of the deposited energy. Experiments using the fast pneumatic probe of the TEXTOR tokamak were carried out to investigate these effects. The materials tested were carbon fibre reinforced materials with and without Si-addition. The probe with the material specimens was introduced into the edge plasma up to a depth of 9 cm in front of the ALT41 main limiter with a residence time of 80 ms. After the repeated exposure to the TEXTOR-plasma, the material specimens were examined by profilometry and electron microscopy to determine the damage and erosion. It was found that only a very limited zone of the probe tip of about 2.5 mm extension in radial direction showed erosion. The maximum erosion was observed at the very tip of the probe with approx. 30 {micro}m per exposure. The results of the erosion quantification are compared with the results from numerical simulations and from plasma diagnostic measurements during the exposure of the specimens.

  11. Filtration properties of hierarchical carbon nanostructures deposited on carbon fibre fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyp, M.; Mills, C. A.; Rhodes, R.; Pozegic, T. R.; Smith, C. T. G.; Beliatis, M. J.; Rozanski, L. J.; Werbowy, A.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-03-01

    Hierarchical carbon nanostructures have been produced and examined for their use in liquid filtration experiments. The nanostructures are based on carbon nanotube growth and graphite oxide sponge deposition on the surface of commercially available carbon fibre fabrics. The hierarchical nanomaterial construction on the carbon fibre fabric is made possible due to the chemical vapour deposited carbon nanotubes which act as anchoring sites for the solution deposited sponge nanomaterial. The nanomaterials show a high capacity for Rhodamine B filtration, with the carbon fibre—carbon nanotube—graphite oxide sponge fabric showing filtering performance comparable to a commercial activated carbon filter. After 40 successive filtrations of 10 mg ml-1 Rhodamine B solution, the filtrate of dual modified fabrics returned an increase in transparency of 94% when measured at approx. 550 nm compared to 72% for the commercial carbon filter. When normalised with respect to the areal density of the commercial filter, the increase in optical transparency of the filtrate from the dual modified fabrics reduces to 65%. The Rhodamine B is found to deposit in the carbon nanomaterials via a nucleation, growth and saturation mechanism.

  12. Clinical Appraisal of Indigenous Below Knee Endoskeletal Carbon Fibre Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Pithawa, A K; Singh, Gurjit; Ravindranath, G

    2006-04-01

    Amputation is a catastrophe, which results in physical, social, psychological and economic handicap. Provision of suitable prosthesis (artificial limb) is a major step towards rehabilitation of these patients. With an aim to provide comfortable, prosthesis to these patients, Artificial Limb Centre (ALC) Pune, developed Below Knee Carbon Fibre Shaft Endo-Skeletal (BK ES CF) Prosthesis in collaboration with DEBEL, Bangalore, a DRDO establishment. 815 Below Knee Amputee patients have been provided with the newly developed Endo-skeletal prostheses at ALC Pune till 31 Dec 2003. New BK ESCF prosthesis was evaluated for its performance by feedback received from 500 patients. More than 86% patients were satisfied with the performance of new prosthesis and they achieved almost normal gait. The performance of new BK ESCF prostheses was excellent and it achieved good clientele satisfaction.

  13. High-temperature tensile cell for in situ real-time investigation of carbon fibre carbonization and graphitization processes.

    PubMed

    Behr, Michael; Rix, James; Landes, Brian; Barton, Bryan; Billovits, Gerry; Hukkanen, Eric; Patton, Jasson; Wang, Weijun; Keane, Denis; Weigand, Steven

    2016-11-01

    A new high-temperature fibre tensile cell is described, developed for use at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory to enable the investigation of the carbonization and graphitization processes during carbon fibre production. This cell is used to heat precursor fibre bundles to temperatures up to ∼2300°C in a controlled inert atmosphere, while applying tensile stress to facilitate formation of highly oriented graphitic microstructure; evolution of the microstructure as a function of temperature and time during the carbonization and higher-temperature graphitization processes can then be monitored by collecting real-time wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns. As an example, the carbonization and graphitization behaviour of an oxidized polyacrylonitrile fibre was studied up to a temperature of ∼1750°C. Real-time WAXD revealed the gradual increase in microstructure alignment with the fibre axis with increasing temperature over the temperature range 600-1100°C. Above 1100°C, no further changes in orientation were observed. The overall magnitude of change increased with increasing applied tensile stress during carbonization. As a second example, the high-temperature graphitizability of PAN- and pitch-derived commercial carbon fibres was studied. Here, the magnitude of graphitic microstructure evolution of the pitch-derived fibre far exceeded that of the PAN-derived fibres at temperatures up to ∼2300°C, indicating its facile graphitizability.

  14. Low temperature synthesis of fibres composed of carbon-nickel nanoparticles in super-critical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasumura, Takashi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Whitby, Raymond L. D.; Aschenbrenner, Ortrud; Maekawa, Toru

    2010-06-01

    We show that fibres composed of carbon-nickel nanoparticles are self-assembled by mixing nickelocene and oxygen with super-critical carbon dioxide in a dc electric field. The fibres grow in the direction of the electric field and the growth rate increases with an increase in the strength of the electric field. We also irradiate the fibres with electron beams and find that crystallized nickel particles are captured by carbon particles. The present result suggests that a low temperature method of creating carbon-metal hybrid nanostructures may be developed by mixing metallocene and trigger molecules with super-critical fluids subjected to a dc electric field.

  15. Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöschner, Martin; Kollárová, Věra; Dostál, Zbyněk; Nylk, Jonathan; Barton-Owen, Thomas; Ferrier, David E. K.; Chmelík, Radim; Dholakia, Kishan; Čižmár, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful platform for 3-D volumetric imaging in the life sciences. Here, we introduce an important step towards its use deep inside biological tissue. Our new technique, based on digital holography, enables delivery of the light-sheet through a multimode optical fibre - an optical element with extremely small footprint, yet permitting complex control of light transport processes within. We show that this approach supports some of the most advanced methods in light-sheet microscopy: by taking advantage of the cylindrical symmetry of the fibre, we facilitate the wavefront engineering methods for generation of both Bessel and structured Bessel beam plane illumination. Finally, we assess the quality of imaging on a sample of fluorescent beads fixed in agarose gel and we conclude with a proof-of-principle imaging of a biological sample, namely the regenerating operculum prongs of Spirobranchus lamarcki.

  16. Detection method of a position pierced by a single-tip optical fibre probe in bubble measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Yuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2012-08-01

    An optical fibre probe is a very useful device for practical bubble/droplet measurements of gas-liquid two-phase systems. To measure a sub-millimetre-size or micrometre-size bubble/droplet, one of the authors previously developed a single-tip optical fibre probe (S-TOP) and S-TOP micro-fabricated by a femtosecond pulse laser. The purpose of the present study was to enhance the measurement accuracy of the S-TOP. The most difficult problem to resolve in the S-TOP measurement is the detection of the position at which the S-TOP pierces a bubble/droplet. A pre-signal, which has normally been considered burdensome noise in signal analysis, can be effectively used to realize this important action. We analysed the properties of the pre-signal and discovered its hidden potential. Here we proposed a new method for effectively using the pre-signal for the practical detection of the penetrated position. We also demonstrated the effectiveness of the pre-signal method by using a bubbly flow. Finally, we conducted the uncertainty analyses of the S-TOP bubble measurement with the pre-signal method.

  17. Deformation mechanisms of carbon nanotube fibres under tensile loading by in situ Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu; Kang, Yi-Lan; Qiu, Wei; Li, Ya-Li; Huang, Gan-Yun; Guo, Jian-Gang; Deng, Wei-Lin; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2011-06-03

    Deformation mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres under tensile loading are studied by means of in situ Raman spectroscopy to detect the CNT deformation and stress distributions in the fibres. The G' band in the Raman spectrum responds distinctly to the tensile stress in Raman shift, width and intensity. The G' band changes with the tensile deformation of the fibre at different stages, namely elastic deformation, strengthening and damage-fracture. It is deduced that the individual CNTs only deform elastically without obvious damage or bond breaking. The yield and fracture of fibres can be due to the slippage among the CNTs.

  18. Long-term local effects of carbon fibre in the knee.

    PubMed

    Debnath, U K; Fairclough, J A; Williams, R L

    2004-08-01

    A radiological and histological analysis of five knee joints after a minimum of 15 years following the implanting of carbon fibre, which had been used as a treatment for knee instability, was undertaken. All patients underwent total knee replacement for secondary osteoarthritis. Histological analysis demonstrated a variable amount of macroscopically visible carbon particles in the synovium, hyaline cartilage and menisci. At microscopy these particles were found in association with fibrous tissue adjacent to bone with no acute inflammatory changes. No intact carbon fibre ligament was noted within the joint, small portions of the old ligament were covered with a thin fibrous layer but there was no evidence of any structure resembling neo-ligament. Extra articularly the carbon fibre was covered with a thick fibrous sheath with no active inflammation changes inflammation. In the bone tunnels, the carbon fibre-bone interface showed an apposition of the bone to the carbon fibre without any interposing fibrous sheath. Carbon fibre bonds directly with the bone without fibrous interposition.

  19. High-strength carbon nanotube fibre-like ribbon with high ductility and high electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, J N; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Chen, Y

    2014-06-25

    Macroscopic fibres made up of carbon nanotubes exhibit properties far below theoretical predictions and even much lower than those for conventional carbon fibres. Here we report improvements of mechanical and electrical properties by more than one order of magnitude by pressurized rolling. Our carbon nanotubes self-assemble to a hollow macroscopic cylinder in a tube reactor operated at high temperature and then condense in water or ethanol to form a fibre, which is continually spooled in an open-air environment. This initial fibre is densified by rolling under pressure, leading to a combination of high tensile strength (3.76-5.53 GPa), high tensile ductility (8-13%) and high electrical conductivity ((1.82-2.24) × 10(4) S cm(-1)). Our study therefore demonstrates strategies for future performance maximization and the very considerable potential of carbon nanotube assemblies for high-end uses.

  20. Development of a universal stress sensor for graphene and carbon fibres

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Otakar; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Riaz, Ibtsam; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Parthenios, John; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Galiotis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibres are a significant volume fraction of modern structural airframes. Embedded into polymer matrices, they provide significant strength and stiffness gains by unit weight compared with competing structural materials. Here we use the Raman G peak to assess the response of carbon fibres to the application of strain, with reference to the response of graphene itself. Our data highlight the predominance of the in-plane graphene properties in all graphitic structures examined. A universal master plot relating the G peak strain sensitivity to tensile modulus of all types of carbon fibres, as well as graphene, is presented. We derive a universal value of—average—phonon shift rate with axial stress of around −5ω0−1 (cm−1 MPa−1), where ω0 is the G peak position at zero stress for both graphene and carbon fibre with annular morphology. The use of this for stress measurements in a variety of applications is discussed.

  1. Modelling and simulation of randomly oriented carbon fibre-reinforced composites under thermal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffler, R.; Fröschl, J.; Drechsler, K.; Ladstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced sheet moulding compounds (CF-SMC) already exhibit a complex material behaviour under uniaxial loads due to the random orientation of the fibres in the matrix resin. Mature material models for metallic materials are generally not transferable. This paper proposes an approach for modelling the fatigue behaviour of CF-SMC based on extensive static and cyclic tests using low cost secondary carbon fibres (SCF). The main focus is on describing the stiffness degradation considering the dynamic modulus of the material. Influence factors such as temperature, orientation, rate dependence and specimen thickness were additionally considered.

  2. Recycling of woven carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer composites using supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Knight, Chase C; Zeng, Changchun; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been great deal of interest in recycling carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer composites. One method that has shown promising results involves the use of supercritical fluids to achieve separation between matrix and fibres by effectively degrading the resin into lower molecular weight compounds. In addition, the solvents used are environmentally benign and can also be recovered and reused. In this study, supercritical water with 0.05 M KOH as the catalyst was used for the recycling of an aerospace-grade high-performance epoxy carbon fibre composite (Hexcel 8552/IM7). The morphology of the reclaimed fibres was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the tensile properties of the fibres were measured by single filament testing. The effects of processing time on the resin elimination efficiency and fibre property retention were investigated. With the process developed in this research, as much as 99.2 wt% resin elimination was achieved, resulting in the recovery of clean, undamaged fibres. The reclaimed fibres retained the original tensile strength. The feasibility of recycling multiple layer composites was also explored.

  3. Interaction forces and conduction properties between multi wall carbon nanotube tips and Au(111).

    PubMed

    Luna, M; de Pablo, P J; Colchero, J; Gomez-Herrero, J; Baro, A M; Tokumoto, H; Jarvis, S P

    2003-07-01

    We have studied the interaction forces and electrical conduction properties arising between multiwall carbon nanotube tips and the Au(111) surface in air, by means of amplitude modulation scanning force microscopy, also called intermittent contact. We have centered our work on tips with metallic electronic structure and for the specific parameters used we have found a preliminary interaction range where there is no contact between tip and surface. Stable imaging in this non-contact range is possible with multiwall carbon nanotube tips. These tips have also been used to obtain simultaneous topographic and current maps of the surface. They show excellent properties as tips due to their high aspect ratio and durability, as a result of their elastic and non-reactive properties. Correspondingly, multiwall carbon nanotube tips allow high resolution local analysis of electrical conductivity on a nanometer scale.

  4. N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with electrochemically deposited Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, E. J. X.; Pickering, S. J.; Chan, A.; Wong, K. H.

    2012-06-01

    An N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with bismuth telluride coating has been successfully synthesised through an electrodeposition technique. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical properties of the combined recycled carbon fibre sheet and bismuth telluride films are reported. Classification of the crystal structure, surface morphology and the elemental composition of the resulting deposits are methodically characterised by XRD, SEM and EDX correspondingly. Cyclic voltammetry is also carried out in nitric acid solutions to investigate the right range of deposition potential. An N-type thermoelectric sheet was successfully synthesised with the highest attainable Seebeck coefficient of -54 μV/k with an electrical resistivity of 8.9 × 10-5 ohm m. The results shows slight differences in morphologies and thermoelectric properties for the films deposited at varying deposition potential. The increase in thermoelectrical properties of the recycled carbon fibre is in line with the development of using coated recycled fibre for thermoelectrical applications.

  5. N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with electrochemically deposited Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, E. J. X.; Pickering, S. J.; Chan, A.; Wong, K. H.; Lau, P. L.

    2012-09-01

    An N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with bismuth telluride coating has been successfully synthesised through an electro-deposition technique. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical properties of the combined recycled carbon fibre sheet and bismuth telluride films are reported. Classification of the crystal structure, surface morphology and the elemental composition of the resulting deposits are methodically characterised by XRD, SEM and EDX. Cyclic voltammetry is also carried out in nitric acid solutions to investigate the right range of deposition potential. The synthesis N-type thermoelectric sheet has a highest attainable Seebeck coefficient of -54 μV K-1 and an electrical resistivity of 8.9×10-5 Ω m. The results show slight differences in morphologies and thermoelectric properties for the films deposited at varying deposition potential. The increase in thermoelectrical properties of the recycled carbon fibre is in line with the development of using coated recycled fibre for thermoelectrical applications.

  6. Bond strength of fibre glass and carbon fibre posts to the root canal walls using different resin cements.

    PubMed

    Farina, Ana Paula; Cecchin, Doglas; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Naves, Lucas Zago; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bond strength of fibre glass and carbon fibre posts in the root canal walls cemented with self-adhesive (RelyX-Unicem) and chemical (Cement-Post) resin cements. Forty maxillary canines were divided into four groups according to the cement and post used and submitted to the push-out test (0.5 mm min(-1)). The data were submitted to statistical analysis (2-way ANOVA, Bonferroni--P<0.05) and fracture analysis by Scanning Electronic Microscopy. Fibre glass presented the best results when cemented with RelyX-Unicem and Cement-Post (P<0.05). RelyX-Unicem presented the highest bond strength values for both posts (P<0.05). Fracture analysis showed predominance of cohesive fracture of post for RelyX-Unicem and adhesive fracture between dentin/cement and mixed for Cement-Post. The bond strength values were significantly affected by the type of post and cement used and the highest values were found for fibre glass posts and RelyX-Unicem. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  7. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure.

  8. Microfracture technique versus carbon fibre rod implantation for treatment of knee articular cartilage lesions.

    PubMed

    Dasar, U; Gursoy, S; Akkaya, M; Algin, O; Isik, C; Bozkurt, M

    2016-08-01

    To compare the microfracture technique with carbon fibre rod implantation for treatment of knee articular cartilage lesions. 10 men and 30 women aged 22 to 56 (mean, 37.4) years underwent microfracture (n=20) or carbon fibre rod implantation (n=20) for International Cartilage Repair Society grade 3 to 4 knee articular cartilage lesions after a mean of 12.2 months of viscosupplementation and physiotherapy. Clinical outcome at 6 and 12 months was assessed using the Tegner-Lysholm score and modified Cincinnati score. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome at 12 months was assessed by a radiologist. The modified magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was evaluated. The 2 groups were comparable in terms of age, body mass index, lesion location, lesion size, duration of symptoms, and coexisting pathology. The microfracture group had a higher preoperative Tegner-Lysholm score (39.4±7.3 vs. 34.4±4.9, p=0.015) and modified Cincinnati score (36.4±7.2 vs. 30.4±4.0, p=0.002) than the carbon fibre rod group. At 12 months, change in both scores was significant within each group (p<0.001) and was higher in the microfracture than carbon fibre rod group (p<0.001). MRI showed minimal regenerative tissue. Lobulation, oedema, and hypertrophy were more commonly found in the regeneration tissue after carbon fibre rod implantation than microfracture. At 12 months, the MOCART score was higher in the microfracture than carbon fibre rod group (59 vs. 47, p<0.001). Microfracture is superior to carbon fibre rod implantation in terms of clinical and radiological outcome.

  9. Carbon laminates with RE doped optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miluski, Piotr; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Żmojda, Jacek; Silva, AbíLio P.; Reis, Paulo N. B.; Dorosz, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    A new type of luminescent optical fibre sensor for structural health monitoring of composite laminates (CFRP) is proposed. The Nd3+ doped multi-core doubleclad fibre incorporated in composite structure was used as a distributed temperature sensor. The change of luminescence intensity (Nd3+ ions) at the wavelength of 880 nm (4F3/2 → 4I9/2) and 1060 nm (4F3/2 → 4I11/2) was used for internal temperature monitoring. The special construction of optical fibre was used as it assures an efficient pumping mechanism and, at same time, it increases the measuring sensitivity. The linear response with relative sensitivity 0.015 K-1 was obtained for temperature range from 30 up to 75ºC. The manufacturing process of CFRP with embedded optical fibre sensor is also discussed.

  10. Mineral-Based Coating of Plasma-Treated Carbon Fibre Rovings for Carbon Concrete Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kai; Lieboldt, Matthias; Liebscher, Marco; Fröhlich, Maik; Hempel, Simone; Butler, Marko; Schröfl, Christof; Mechtcherine, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Surfaces of carbon fibre roving were modified by means of a low temperature plasma treatment to improve their bonding with mineral fines; the latter serving as an inorganic fibre coating for the improved mechanical performance of carbon reinforcement in concrete matrices. Variation of the plasma conditions, such as gas composition and treatment time, was accomplished to establish polar groups on the carbon fibres prior to contact with the suspension of mineral particles in water. Subsequently, the rovings were implemented in a fine concrete matrix and their pull-out performance was assessed. Every plasma treatment resulted in increased pull-out forces in comparison to the reference samples without plasma treatment, indicating a better bonding between the mineral coating material and the carbon fibres. Significant differences were found, depending on gas composition and treatment time. Microscopic investigations showed that the samples with the highest pull-out force exhibited carbon fibre surfaces with the largest areas of hydration products grown on them. Additionally, the coating material ingresses into the multifilament roving in these specimens, leading to better force transfer between individual carbon filaments and between the entire roving and surrounding matrix, thus explaining the superior mechanical performance of the specimens containing appropriately plasma-treated carbon roving. PMID:28772719

  11. Mineral-Based Coating of Plasma-Treated Carbon Fibre Rovings for Carbon Concrete Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Performance.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kai; Lieboldt, Matthias; Liebscher, Marco; Fröhlich, Maik; Hempel, Simone; Butler, Marko; Schröfl, Christof; Mechtcherine, Viktor

    2017-03-29

    Surfaces of carbon fibre roving were modified by means of a low temperature plasma treatment to improve their bonding with mineral fines; the latter serving as an inorganic fibre coating for the improved mechanical performance of carbon reinforcement in concrete matrices. Variation of the plasma conditions, such as gas composition and treatment time, was accomplished to establish polar groups on the carbon fibres prior to contact with the suspension of mineral particles in water. Subsequently, the rovings were implemented in a fine concrete matrix and their pull-out performance was assessed. Every plasma treatment resulted in increased pull-out forces in comparison to the reference samples without plasma treatment, indicating a better bonding between the mineral coating material and the carbon fibres. Significant differences were found, depending on gas composition and treatment time. Microscopic investigations showed that the samples with the highest pull-out force exhibited carbon fibre surfaces with the largest areas of hydration products grown on them. Additionally, the coating material ingresses into the multifilament roving in these specimens, leading to better force transfer between individual carbon filaments and between the entire roving and surrounding matrix, thus explaining the superior mechanical performance of the specimens containing appropriately plasma-treated carbon roving.

  12. Radiation processing of carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit

    2001-12-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites are being used for a variety of structural applications, because of their useful mechanical properties, including high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Thermal curing of composite products results in internal stresses, due to the mismatch of the coefficients of expansion of the tools and the composite products. Because radiation curing can be done at ambient temperatures, the possibility that the residual stresses might be absent, or much lower in the radiation-cured products, originally led to the start of work on radiation curing of advanced composites at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Canada, in 1985. Research work during the last two decades has shown that advanced composites can be radiation-cured with electron beams or γ radiation. Many of the advantages of radiation curing, as compared to thermal curing, which include curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing time, improved resin stability and reduced volatile emissions, have now been demonstrated. The initial work focussed on electron curing of acrylated epoxy matrices. Since then, procedures have been developed to radiation cure conventional aerospace epoxies, as well. Electron beam cured advanced composites are now being developed for use in the aircraft and aerospace industry. Repair of advanced composite structures is also possible using radiation curing technology. Radiation curing work is continuing at Pinawa and has also been done by Aerospatiale, who have facilities for electron curing composite rocket motor casings and by Chappas and co-workers who have electron cured part of a boat hull. In this paper, the work done on this emerging new technology by the various groups is briefly reviewed.

  13. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Alaraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-04-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  14. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  15. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-04-11

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  16. Shielding Effectiveness of Non-Woven Carbon Fibre Sheets: Modelling the Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. F.; Flintoft, I. D.; Austin, A. N.; Marvin, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to understand how the structure of a nonwoven carbon fibre material determines its shielding effectiveness, including the effects of fibre orientation, and contact resistance. In order to facilitate understanding of the material behaviour, software has been written to generate Monte Carlo Models (MCMs) of the material structure. The results of our MCMs are compared with measurements and some empirical expressions.

  17. Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Charles David; Wheatley, Dr. Alan; Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

  18. Ibuprofen-loaded poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-ε-caprolactone) electrospun fibres for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pires, Liliana R; Guarino, Vincenzo; Oliveira, Maria J; Ribeiro, Cristina C; Barbosa, Mário A; Ambrosio, Luigi; Pêgo, Ana Paula

    2016-03-01

    The development of scaffolds that combine the delivery of drugs with the physical support provided by electrospun fibres holds great potential in the field of nerve regeneration. Here it is proposed the incorporation of ibuprofen, a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, in electrospun fibres of the statistical copolymer poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-ε-caprolactone) [P(TMC-CL)] to serve as a drug delivery system to enhance axonal regeneration in the context of a spinal cord lesion, by limiting the inflammatory response. P(TMC-CL) fibres were electrospun from mixtures of dichloromethane (DCM) and dimethylformamide (DMF). The solvent mixture applied influenced fibre morphology, as well as mean fibre diameter, which decreased as the DMF content in solution increased. Ibuprofen-loaded fibres were prepared from P(TMC-CL) solutions containing 5% ibuprofen (w/w of polymer). Increasing drug content to 10% led to jet instability, resulting in the formation of a less homogeneous fibrous mesh. Under the optimized conditions, drug-loading efficiency was above 80%. Confocal Raman mapping showed no preferential distribution of ibuprofen in P(TMC-CL) fibres. Under physiological conditions ibuprofen was released in 24 h. The release process being diffusion-dependent for fibres prepared from DCM solutions, in contrast to fibres prepared from DCM-DMF mixtures where burst release occurred. The biological activity of the drug released was demonstrated using human-derived macrophages. The release of prostaglandin E2 to the cell culture medium was reduced when cells were incubated with ibuprofen-loaded P(TMC-CL) fibres, confirming the biological significance of the drug delivery strategy presented. Overall, this study constitutes an important contribution to the design of a P(TMC-CL)-based nerve conduit with anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Biological and physicochemical properties of carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced polymers intended for implant suprastructures.

    PubMed

    Segerström, Susanna; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla; Ruyter, Eystein I

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine water sorption, water solubility, dimensional change caused by water storage, residual monomers, and possible cytotoxic effects of heat-polymerized carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced composites with different fibre loadings based on methyl methacrylate/poly(methyl methacrylate) (MMA/PMMA) and the copolymer poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate). Two different resin systems were used. Resin A contained ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA); the cross-linker in Resin B was diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA). The resin mixtures were reinforced with 24, 36 and 47 wt% surface-treated carbon-graphite fibres. In addition, polymer B was reinforced with 58 wt% fibres. Water sorption was equal to or below 3.34±1.18 wt%, except for the 58 wt% fibre loading of polymer B (5.27±1.22 wt%). Water solubility was below 0.36±0.015 wt%, except for polymer B with 47 and 58 wt% fibres. For all composites, the volumetric increase was below 0.01±0.005 vol%. Residual MMA monomer was equal to or below 0.68±0.05 wt% for the fibre composites. The filter diffusion test and the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay demonstrated no cytotoxicity for the carbon-graphite fibre-reinforced composites, and residual cross-linking agents and vinyl chloride were not detectable by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.

  20. Development of flax/carbon fibre hybrid composites for enhanced properties.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, H N; Zhang, Z Y; Guthrie, R; Macmullen, J; Bennett, N

    2013-07-01

    Uni-directional (UD) and cross-ply (CP) cellulosic flax fibre epoxy composites were produced by hybridising UD carbon fibre prepreg onto flax system. A compression moulding technique was used to produce both flax and carbon/flax hybridised laminates. The effect of carbon fibre hybridisation on the water absorption behaviour, thermal and mechanical properties of both UD and CP flax specimens were investigated by means of water absorption, tensile, thermogravemetric analysis and flexural testing. The results showed that water absorption behaviour of hybrid samples are markedly improved compared to those without hybridisation. Similarly, the thermal stability, tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites are significantly improved in comparison with UD and CP flax composites without hybridisation. The experimental results suggest that cellulosic flax fibre reinforcement contributed to improve the toughness properties by promoting crack propagation whereas the carbon fibre contributed in improving thermal stability, water absorption behaviour and the overall strength and the stiffness of the hybrid composites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Spray Pyrolysis Method to Grow Carbon Nanotubes on Carbon Fibres, Steel and Ceramic Bricks.

    PubMed

    Vilatela, Juan J; Rabanal, M E; Cervantes-Sodi, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Máximo; Jiménez-Rodríguez, José A; Reiband, Gerd; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a spray pyrolysis method to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high degree of crystallinity, aspect ratio and degree of alignment on a variety of different substrates, such as conventional steel, carbon fibres (CF) and ceramics. The process consists in the chemical vapour deposition of both a thin SiO2 layer and CNTs that subsequently grow on this thin layer. After CNT growth, increases in specific surface by factors of 1000 and 30 for the steel and CF samples, respectively, are observed. CNTs growth on ceramic surfaces results in a surface resistance of 37.5 Ohm/sq. When using conventional steel as a rector tube, we observed CNTs growth rates of 0.6 g/min. Details of nanotube morphology and the growth mechanism are discussed. Since the method discussed here is highly versatile, it opens up a wide variety of applications in which specific substrates could be used in combination with CNTs.

  2. Catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes on tips of cantilevers and nanowires

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Eres, Gyula; Wei, Yayi; Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida

    2004-06-29

    A method is described for catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructures on the tips of nanowires, cantilevers, conductive micro/nanometer structures, wafers and the like. The method can be used for production of carbon nanotube-anchored cantilevers that can significantly improve the performance of scaning probe microscopy (AFM, EFM etc). The invention can also be used in many other processes of micro and/or nanofabrication with carbon nanotubes/fibers. Key elements of this invention include: (1) Proper selection of a metal catalyst and programmable pulsed electrolytic deposition of the desired specific catalyst precisely at the tip of a substrate, (2) Catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes/fibers at the catalyst-deposited tips, (3) Control of carbon nanotube/fiber growth pattern by manipulation of tip shape and growth conditions, and (4) Automation for mass production.

  3. The Dependance of Damage Accumulation in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites on Matrix Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Diguuibutiofl Unlimited 0- Contract U.S. AIR FORCE/ARMINES- Centre des Matdriaux No A.F.O.S.R. 84-0397 - Final Report December 1985 THE DEPENDANCE OF DAMAGE...61102F 2301 D1 185 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) THE DEPENDANCE OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES ON...ATN OF: LTS/Autovon 235-4299 26 March 1986 SUBJECT: EOARD-TR-86-04, Final Scientific Report, "The Dependance of Damage Accumu- lation in Carbon Fibre

  4. The use of lateral gauges in the assessment of shear strength in a carbon fibre composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Goff, Michael; Barnes, Nicholas; Hazell, Paul; Wilgeroth, James

    2013-06-01

    Laterally orientated manganin stress gauges have been used in obtaining the strength measurements in multiple materials, most commonly polymers and metals. Composites such as carbon fibre provide an interesting challenge for lateral gauges as any long range order within the composite will be broken up by the inclusion of the gauge. This study has investigated the shear strength of multiple orientation of a carbon fibre composite (TWCP) also compared with the matrix material of the composite investigated alone. From this data it can be ascertained whether the lateral gauge technique of measuring lateral strength is appropriate for composites with long range order.

  5. The oxidative stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Batt, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites is assessed. Loss of composite strength due to oxidative exposure at elevated temperatures under no load, static load and cyclic fatigue as well as due to thermal cycling are all examined. It is determined that strength loss is gradual and predictable based on the oxidation of carbon fibres. The glass matrix was not found to prevent this degradation but simply to limit it to a gradual process progressing from the composite surfaces inward.

  6. The oxidative stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Batt, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites is assessed. Loss of composite strength due to oxidative exposure at elevated temperatures under no load, static load and cyclic fatigue as well as due to thermal cycling are all examined. It is determined that strength loss is gradual and predictable based on the oxidation of carbon fibres. The glass matrix was not found to prevent this degradation but simply to limit it to a gradual process progressing from the composite surfaces inward.

  7. Standard Operating Procedure - Manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Waveguides and Slotted Waveguide Antennas, Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    aerospace grade carbon fibre reinforced plastic ( CFRP ) prepreg. RELEASE LIMITATION Approved for public release UNCLASSIFIED Report...arrays manufactured from aerospace grade carbon fibre reinforced plastic ( CFRP ) prepreg. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION... CFRP ) prepreg tape and fabric. This report details Version 1.0 of a Standard Operating Procedure for this manufacture. UNCLASSIFIED

  8. Synergistic toughening of composite fibres by self-alignment of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Min Kyoon; Lee, Bommy; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Lee, Jae Ah; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Wallace, Gordon G.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes motivate the development of methods for their use in producing continuous, strong, tough fibres. Previous work has shown that the toughness of the carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer fibres exceeds that of previously known materials. Here we show that further increased toughness results from combining carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide flakes in solution-spun polymer fibres. The gravimetric toughness approaches 1,000 J g-1, far exceeding spider dragline silk (165 J g-1) and Kevlar (78 J g-1). This toughness enhancement is consistent with the observed formation of an interconnected network of partially aligned reduced graphene oxide flakes and carbon nanotubes during solution spinning, which act to deflect cracks and allow energy-consuming polymer deformation. Toughness is sensitive to the volume ratio of the reduced graphene oxide flakes to the carbon nanotubes in the spinning solution and the degree of graphene oxidation. The hybrid fibres were sewable and weavable, and could be shaped into high-modulus helical springs.

  9. Synergistic toughening of composite fibres by self-alignment of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Kyoon; Lee, Bommy; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Lee, Jae Ah; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Wallace, Gordon G; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2012-01-31

    The extraordinary properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes motivate the development of methods for their use in producing continuous, strong, tough fibres. Previous work has shown that the toughness of the carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer fibres exceeds that of previously known materials. Here we show that further increased toughness results from combining carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide flakes in solution-spun polymer fibres. The gravimetric toughness approaches 1,000 J g(-1), far exceeding spider dragline silk (165 J g(-1)) and Kevlar (78 J g(-1)). This toughness enhancement is consistent with the observed formation of an interconnected network of partially aligned reduced graphene oxide flakes and carbon nanotubes during solution spinning, which act to deflect cracks and allow energy-consuming polymer deformation. Toughness is sensitive to the volume ratio of the reduced graphene oxide flakes to the carbon nanotubes in the spinning solution and the degree of graphene oxidation. The hybrid fibres were sewable and weavable, and could be shaped into high-modulus helical springs.

  10. Synergistic toughening of composite fibres by self-alignment of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Min Kyoon; Lee, Bommy; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Lee, Jae Ah; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Wallace, Gordon G.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes motivate the development of methods for their use in producing continuous, strong, tough fibres. Previous work has shown that the toughness of the carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer fibres exceeds that of previously known materials. Here we show that further increased toughness results from combining carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide flakes in solution-spun polymer fibres. The gravimetric toughness approaches 1,000 J g−1, far exceeding spider dragline silk (165 J g−1) and Kevlar (78 J g−1). This toughness enhancement is consistent with the observed formation of an interconnected network of partially aligned reduced graphene oxide flakes and carbon nanotubes during solution spinning, which act to deflect cracks and allow energy-consuming polymer deformation. Toughness is sensitive to the volume ratio of the reduced graphene oxide flakes to the carbon nanotubes in the spinning solution and the degree of graphene oxidation. The hybrid fibres were sewable and weavable, and could be shaped into high-modulus helical springs. PMID:22337128

  11. Textile carbon reinforcement structures with integrated optical fibre sensors designed for SHM applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwis, L. S. M.; Bremer, K.; Weigand, F.; Kuhne, M.; Helbig, R.; Roth, B.

    2017-04-01

    An optical fibre-based strain sensor embroidered to a functionalised carbon structure (FCS) that can be used for structural health monitoring (SHM) is introduced. The aim of the design is not only to monitor strain, but also to act as a structural strengthening mechanism in the target application. The integration of optical fibres on the FCS is achieved by "interweaving" the two elements on a polymer textile substrate in a grid formation using a specialised fabrication process. The thus obtained sensor was then characterised using a fibre optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometric setup where a variation in the fibre length, i.e. resulting from strain, would induce a variation in the interference pattern. To do so, two different functionalised skein samples (incorporating optical fibres) were subjected to varying elongation using a tensile testing machine by carefully incrementing the applied force. A good correlation between the applied force and measured length change was observed, showing the value of the dual-achievement of the proposed optical fibre-based mechanism in obtaining strain measurement while being utilised as a strengthening agent.

  12. Theoretical study of carbon-based tips for scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    PubMed

    González, C; Abad, E; Dappe, Y J; Cuevas, J C

    2016-03-11

    Motivated by recent experiments, we present here a detailed theoretical analysis of the use of carbon-based conductive tips in scanning tunnelling microscopy. In particular, we employ ab initio methods based on density functional theory to explore a graphitic, an amorphous carbon and two diamond-like tips for imaging with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), and we compare them with standard metallic tips made of gold and tungsten. We investigate the performance of these tips in terms of the corrugation of the STM images acquired when scanning a single graphene sheet. Moreover, we analyse the impact of the tip-sample distance and show that it plays a fundamental role in the resolution and symmetry of the STM images. We also explore in depth how the adsorption of single atoms and molecules in the tip apexes modifies the STM images and demonstrate that, in general, it leads to an improved image resolution. The ensemble of our results provides strong evidence that carbon-based tips can significantly improve the resolution of STM images, as compared to more standard metallic tips, which may open a new line of research in scanning tunnelling microscopy.

  13. Evaluating the influence of the Siemens IGRT carbon fibre tabletop in head and neck IMRT.

    PubMed

    Spezi, Emiliano; Angelini, Anna Lisa; Romani, Fabrizio; Guido, Alessandra; Bunkheila, Feisal; Ntreta, Maria; Ferri, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the impact of a commercial IMRT/IGRT carbon-fibre tabletop in radiotherapy planning optimization and clinical dose distribution. In this investigation the Siemens IGRT carbon fibre tabletop, routinely used for IMRT treatments in our Centre, has been incorporated into the CT volume of 6 IMRT patients. This was done by CT scanning the tabletop and by adding the obtained volume to the clinical dataset, acquired using the standard couch available in our CT scanner. This procedure was tested and validated for the purpose of this study. The radiotherapy plans have been optimized using both the original CT volume and the modified CT volume. IMRT optimization with the tabletop included in the clinical volume produced significantly different deliverable plans compared to standard optimized plans which did not include the treatment couch. Differences up to 6%/7% in terms of total number of MU were found in half of the clinical cases. Differences up to 37% in the number of MU per beam were also found. The number of iterations needed to reach an optimal solution also varied between -18% and +25%. Although the DVH analysis produced similar results, due to the fulfilment of the optimization objectives, differences higher than 10% were found in the dose calculated to superficial regions of the body. The results of this investigation show that the presence of the carbon fibre tabletop significantly affects the outcome of the beam parameters optimization. We suggest including carbon fibre tabletops into patient treatment planning dose calculation and optimization.

  14. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H.; Elliott, James A.

    2014-10-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures.

  15. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H; Elliott, James A

    2014-01-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures. PMID:27877720

  16. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids.

    PubMed

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H; Elliott, James A

    2014-10-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures.

  17. The use of lateral gauges in the assessment of shear strength in a carbon fibre composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D. C.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Leighs, J. A.; Goff, M.; Barnes, N. R.; Hughes, A.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    Laterally orientated manganin stress gauges have been used to obtain strength measurements in multiple materials, most commonly polymers and metals. Composites such as carbon fibre provide an interesting challenge for lateral gauges, as any long range order within the composite will be broken up by the inclusion of the gauge. This study has investigated the shear strength of multiple orientations of a carbon fibre composite (TWCP) which has then been compared with the matrix material. The Hugoniot elastic limit of the 90° fibre weave TWCP composite was 2.27±0.25 GPa, compared to 1.53±0.20 GPa found for the fibre weave orientated at 0° with respect to the shock front. The lateral stress in both orientations however, was found to be the same, at a given particle velocity. This implies that either the matrix material dominates the lateral stress behaviour of this composite, or laterally orientated gauges are too intrusive and break up any long range order of the fibre weave. Further work utilising other strength assessment techniques will be employed to fully validate these experimental results.

  18. Carbon-fiber tips for scanning probe microscopes and molecular electronics experiments.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Bilan, Stefan; Zotti, Linda A; Arroyo, Carlos R; Agraït, Nicolás; Cuevas, Juan Carlos

    2012-05-15

    We fabricate and characterize carbon-fiber tips for their use in combined scanning tunneling and force microscopy based on piezoelectric quartz tuning fork force sensors. An electrochemical fabrication procedure to etch the tips is used to yield reproducible sub-100-nm apex. We also study electron transport through single-molecule junctions formed by a single octanethiol molecule bonded by the thiol anchoring group to a gold electrode and linked to a carbon tip by the methyl group. We observe the presence of conductance plateaus during the stretching of the molecular bridge, which is the signature of the formation of a molecular junction.

  19. Carbon-fiber tips for scanning probe microscopes and molecular electronics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We fabricate and characterize carbon-fiber tips for their use in combined scanning tunneling and force microscopy based on piezoelectric quartz tuning fork force sensors. An electrochemical fabrication procedure to etch the tips is used to yield reproducible sub-100-nm apex. We also study electron transport through single-molecule junctions formed by a single octanethiol molecule bonded by the thiol anchoring group to a gold electrode and linked to a carbon tip by the methyl group. We observe the presence of conductance plateaus during the stretching of the molecular bridge, which is the signature of the formation of a molecular junction. PMID:22587692

  20. Impact Damage Tolerance of Carbon Fibre and Hybrid Laminates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    o’ rc’ltSI ilicIit e itcit tile static propertiui of fibr hr& i-c in U r,- s it icinti’y Zit1’tecd by localised stress concentriti,’as lik Otiile r...T300/5214 [-5 2Q 4 l Fig 20 Utaoi .cn o (4 ),0 1scrbnfir amin u s da aedh 3*’ wigi im ato3aiu eege O E A Fig 21 IJ 0. 5 J 0.75 J 1 j i. i T300!914

  1. Strength and toughness of structural fibres for composite material reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Herráez, M; Fernández, A; Lopes, C S; González, C

    2016-07-13

    The characterization of the strength and fracture toughness of three common structural fibres, E-glass, AS4 carbon and Kevlar KM2, is presented in this work. The notched specimens were prepared by means of selective carving of individual fibres by means of the focused ion beam. A straight-fronted edge notch was introduced in a plane perpendicular to the fibre axis, with the relative notch depth being a0/D≈0.1 and the notch radius at the tip approximately 50 nm. The selection of the appropriate beam current during milling operations was performed to avoid to as much as possible any microstructural changes owing to ion impingement. Both notched and un-notched fibres were submitted to uniaxial tensile tests up to failure. The strength of the un-notched fibres was characterized in terms of the Weibull statistics, whereas the residual strength of the notched fibres was used to determine their apparent toughness. To this end, the stress intensity factor of a fronted edge crack was computed by means of the finite-element method for different crack lengths. The experimental results agreed with those reported in the literature for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres obtained by using similar techniques. After mechanical testing, the fracture surface of the fibres was analysed to ascertain the failure mechanisms. It was found that AS4 carbon and E-glass fibres presented the lower toughness with fracture surfaces perpendicular to the fibre axis, emanating from the notch tip. The fractured region of Kevlar KM2 fibres extended along the fibre and showed large permanent deformation, which explains their higher degree of toughness when compared with carbon and glass fibres. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  2. Strength and toughness of structural fibres for composite material reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Herráez, M.; Fernández, A.; Lopes, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of the strength and fracture toughness of three common structural fibres, E-glass, AS4 carbon and Kevlar KM2, is presented in this work. The notched specimens were prepared by means of selective carving of individual fibres by means of the focused ion beam. A straight-fronted edge notch was introduced in a plane perpendicular to the fibre axis, with the relative notch depth being a0/D≈0.1 and the notch radius at the tip approximately 50 nm. The selection of the appropriate beam current during milling operations was performed to avoid to as much as possible any microstructural changes owing to ion impingement. Both notched and un-notched fibres were submitted to uniaxial tensile tests up to failure. The strength of the un-notched fibres was characterized in terms of the Weibull statistics, whereas the residual strength of the notched fibres was used to determine their apparent toughness. To this end, the stress intensity factor of a fronted edge crack was computed by means of the finite-element method for different crack lengths. The experimental results agreed with those reported in the literature for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres obtained by using similar techniques. After mechanical testing, the fracture surface of the fibres was analysed to ascertain the failure mechanisms. It was found that AS4 carbon and E-glass fibres presented the lower toughness with fracture surfaces perpendicular to the fibre axis, emanating from the notch tip. The fractured region of Kevlar KM2 fibres extended along the fibre and showed large permanent deformation, which explains their higher degree of toughness when compared with carbon and glass fibres. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials’. PMID:27242306

  3. Electrochemical characteristics of a carbon fibre composite and the associated galvanic effects with aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Curioni, M.; Jamshidi, P.; Walker, A.; Prengnell, P.; Thompson, G. E.; Skeldon, P.

    2014-09-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy matrix composite in 3.5% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl + 0.5 M CuSO4 electrolytes was examined by potentiodynamic polarisation, potentiostatic polarisation and scanning electron microscopy. Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation. The large size of the exposed carbon fibres on the side region is responsible for a higher cathodic current density than the front region in the NaCl electrolyte. The deposition of copper on the front surface of composite confirmed that the significantly higher cathodic current resulted from the exposure of the fibres to the NaCl electrolyte. Galvanic coupling between the composite and individual aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was used to measure galvanic potentials and galvanic current densities. The highly alloyed AA7075-T6 alloy and its high population density of cathodic sites compared to the AA1050 acted to reduce the galvanic effect when coupled to the composite front or side regions.

  4. Ultrafast all-fibre laser mode-locked by polymer-free carbon nanotube film.

    PubMed

    Kobtsev, Sergey; Ivanenko, Aleksey; Gladush, Yury G; Nyushkov, Boris; Kokhanovskiy, Alexey; Anisimov, Anton S; Nasibulin, Albert G

    2016-12-12

    This work for the first time reports the results on study of a polymer-free carbon nanotube (CNT) films used as a saturable absorber in an all-fibre laser. It is demonstrated that free-standing single-walled CNT films fabricated by an aerosol method are able to ensure generation of transform-limited pulses in an Er all-fibre ring laser with duration of several picoseconds and high quality of mode locking. The optimal average output power levels are identified, amounting to 0.4-0.5 mW depending on the linear transmission of the studied samples (60% or 80%). Application of polymer-free CNT films solves problems related to degradation of conventional polymer matrices of CNT-based saturable absorbers and paves the way to longer-lasting and more reliable saturable absorbers compatible with all-fibre laser configurations.

  5. Fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes: The health impact of ‘asbestos-like’ fibres

    PubMed Central

    MIOZZI, EDOARDO; RAPISARDA, VENERANDO; MARCONI, ANDREA; COSTA, CHIARA; POLITO, IRENE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; LIBRA, MASSIMO; FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Several decades have passed since Wagner et al demonstrated a causal link between asbestos fibre inhalation and the development of pleural mesothelioma in 1960. It was later suggested that pleural plaques are a benign consequence of exposure to these fibres. Most recently, a significant association between exposure to asbestos and cancer diagnosed at various sites, such as the peritoneum, stomach, pharynx, colon and ovaries has been demonstrated. The great concerns about public health that arose from the scientific evidence presented above have led to the banning of asbestos in several countries. Over the years, the suspicion that particles with a high aspect ratio may have asbestos-like pathogenicity has been supported by increasing evidence. Natural occurring minerals, as well as man-made fibres, have proven capable of inducing either chronic inflammation of serous membranes, or, in some cases, the development of peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma. The pathogenic role of both fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes, two ‘asbestos-like’ fibres is summarized and discussed in this review. The data presented herein support the notion that occupational exposure to these two types of fibre contributes to the development of different types of cancer. PMID:26889212

  6. Fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes: The health impact of 'asbestos-like' fibres.

    PubMed

    Miozzi, Edoardo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Marconi, Andrea; Costa, Chiara; Polito, Irene; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Several decades have passed since Wagner et al demonstrated a causal link between asbestos fibre inhalation and the development of pleural mesothelioma in 1960. It was later suggested that pleural plaques are a benign consequence of exposure to these fibres. Most recently, a significant association between exposure to asbestos and cancer diagnosed at various sites, such as the peritoneum, stomach, pharynx, colon and ovaries has been demonstrated. The great concerns about public health that arose from the scientific evidence presented above have led to the banning of asbestos in several countries. Over the years, the suspicion that particles with a high aspect ratio may have asbestos-like pathogenicity has been supported by increasing evidence. Natural occurring minerals, as well as man-made fibres, have proven capable of inducing either chronic inflammation of serous membranes, or, in some cases, the development of peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma. The pathogenic role of both fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes, two 'asbestos-like' fibres is summarized and discussed in this review. The data presented herein support the notion that occupational exposure to these two types of fibre contributes to the development of different types of cancer.

  7. Ultrasound detection of damage in complex carbon fibre/metal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thursby, G. J.; MacLean, A.; Hogg, H.; Culshaw, B.

    2006-03-01

    We describe work carried out to monitor the structural health of a complex structure comprising both carbon fibre and metal components using ultrasound techniques. The work is designed to be used in a high performance car, but could find applications in other areas such as the aerospace industry. There are two different types of potential problem that need to be examined; the first is damage (e.g. holes, delaminations) to carbon fibre structure, and the second is damage to joints either between two carbon fibre components or between a carbon fibre component and a metallic one. The techniques used are based around the use of PZT transducers for both the generation and detection of ultrasonic Lamb waves. To date we have been carrying out experiments on mock-up samples, but are due to conduct tests on an actual vehicle. Lamb waves propagate in modes whose order is determined by the frequency thickness product. Their properties, such as phase and amplitude can be modified by the presence of damage, such as holes and delaminations. If we record the response of a healthy structure, we can then compare it with signals obtained on subsequent occasions to determine if any significant change has taken place. It is essential, however, to be able to differentiate between the effects of damage and those of environmental changes such as temperature. For this reason we have monitored the response of a sample at different temperatures both before and after drilling a hole in it to simulate damage. Depending on the positions of the transducers with respect to the damaged area, it is possible to detect either attenuation of the entire signal or changes in a specific portion of the signal produced by reflections. Results from these experiments will be presented at the conference. Signal processing techniques for separating damage from the effects of temperature will also be discussed. We also look at the deterioration of joints, which can either be epoxy bonded (carbon fibre to

  8. High-temperature tensile cell for in situ real-time investigation of carbon fibre carbonization and graphitization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, Michael; Rix, James; Landes, Brian; Barton, Bryan; Billovits, Gerry; Hukkanen, Eric; Patton, Jasson; Wang, Weijun; Keane, Denis; Weigand, Steven

    2016-10-17

    A new high-temperature fibre tensile cell is described, developed for use at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory to enable the investigation of the carbonization and graphitization processes during carbon fibre production. This cell is used to heat precursor fibre bundles to temperatures up to ~2300°C in a controlled inert atmosphere, while applying tensile stress to facilitate formation of highly oriented graphitic microstructure; evolution of the microstructure as a function of temperature and time during the carbonization and higher-temperature graphitization processes can then be monitored by collecting real-time wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns. As an example, the carbonization and graphitization behaviour of an oxidized polyacrylonitrile fibre was studied up to a temperature of ~1750°C. Real-time WAXD revealed the gradual increase in microstructure alignment with the fibre axis with increasing temperature over the temperature range 600–1100°C. Above 1100°C, no further changes in orientation were observed. The overall magnitude of change increased with increasing applied tensile stress during carbonization. As a second example, the high-temperature graphitizability of PAN- and pitch-derived commercial carbon fibres was studied. Here, the magnitude of graphitic microstructure evolution of the pitch-derived fibre far exceeded that of the PAN-derived fibres at temperatures up to ~2300°C, indicating its facile graphitizability.

  9. Imaging of soft material with carbon nanotube tip using near-field scanning microwave microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe; Sun, Wei-qiang; Feng, Tao; Tang, Shawn Wenjie; Li, Gang; Jiang, Kai-li; Xu, Sheng-yong; Ong, Chong Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a near-field scanning microwave microscope (NSMM) of our own design is introduced while using a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundle as the tip (referred to as 'CNT tip'). Clear images of gold-patterned numbers, photoresist stripes and corneal endothelial cells (cell line B4G12) were obtained by mapping the resonant frequency fr and S11 amplitude of a given area while the NSMM is operating in tapping mode. The CNT tip helps to improve image quality and reveals more information about the sample as compared to a traditional metallic tip. The CNT tip is flexible and does not scratch the surface of the sample during the scan, which is useful for imaging soft material in biological science. In the imaging of the B4G12 endothelial cells, the nuclei and cytoplasm can be clearly distinguished from the rest of the cell and its surrounding medium.

  10. Performance of the carbon nano-tube assembled tip for surface shape characterization.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, M; Shirakawabe, Y; Okawa, T; Mizooka, S; Nakayama, Y

    2002-05-01

    The carbon nano-tube (CNT) has ideal properties for atomic force microscope (AFM) tips. We assembled a CNT using 2 three-axial manipulators in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. In this process, the length and angle of the CNT were adjusted by observing the SEM image, after which the CNT was glued by amorphouscarbon. The results of performance are as follows. The lifetime of the CNT tip proved to be 5 times better than that of the silicon tip when continuously measuring the micro-roughness of a Czochralski (Cz) P-type (100) silicon wafer. The CNT tip is able to trace a narrow space (width less than 1 microm) better than the conventional silicon tip because of its high aspect ratio. The relationship between the observed image and CNT geometry is discussed herein.

  11. Nanoscale Etching and Indentation of Silicon(001) Surface with Carbon Nanotube Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzegilenko, Fendor N.; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of nanoscale etching and indentation of Si(001)(2x1) surface by (8,0) and (10,10) carbon nanotube tips is demonstrated, for the first time, by classical molecular dynamics simulations employing Tersoff's many-body potential for a mixed C/Si/Ge system. In the nanotube tip barely touching the surface scenario atomistic etching is observed, where as in the nanoindentation scenario nanotube tip penetrates the surface without much hindrance. The results are explained in terms of the relative strength of C-C, C-Si, and Si-Si bonds.

  12. Behavior of Catalyst Particle at Tip of Carbon Nanotube during Field Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujieda, Tadashi; Okai, Makoto; Hidaka, Kishio; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Tokumoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    A catalyst particle at the tip of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) during field emission inside a transmission electron microscope was observed in-situ. The particle streamed from the tip like a liquid as the emission current abruptly increased from 20 to 40 µA. This was due to the temperature rise at the tip of the MWNT, resulting from the increased emission current and dipole moment in the particle caused by the electric field. Maintenance of this high emission current led to an electrical discharge, which severely damaged the MWNT electron emitter. Under high emission currents, in particular, the catalyst particle caused an unstable emission.

  13. Dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Escudero Alvarez, E; González Sánchez, P

    2006-05-01

    Currently and after 30 years of research, dietary fibre is part of what is considered a healthy diet. There is no single definition yet comprising the different components of dietary fibre and its functions. The main factors of fibre are complex carbohydrates and lignin, although new products may be included in the future within the concept of fibre. Dietary fibres reach the large bowel and are attacked by colonic microflora, yielding short chain fatty acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane as fermentation products. Short chain fatty acids represent a way of recovering energy and they are also implicated in other beneficial functions for the human organism. Although there are no yet conclusive data on recommendations of different types of fibre, it is still appropriate to indicate a diet providing 20-35 g/day of fibre from different sources. There is a consensus to recommend a mixture of fibres or fibre like soybean polysaccharide for constipation. There are few conclusive data, still, on the benefit of fibre on prevention of colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, a fibre-rich diet is recommended from early years of life since it is often associated to a lifestyle that in the long term helps controlling other risk factors.

  14. Ultra-pure single wall carbon nanotube fibres continuously spun without promoter.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Catharina; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-02-04

    We report a new strategy towards the control of carbon nanotube (CNT) structure and continuous fibre formation using a floating catalyst direct spinning CVD process. In the procedures used to date, a sulphur promoter precursor is added to significantly enhance the rate of CNT formation in the floating catalyst synthesis. Within the reaction zone, the rapidly grown nanotubes self-assemble into bundles, followed by their continuous spinning into fibres, yarns, films or tapes. In this paper we demonstrate a catalyst control strategy in the floating catalyst system, where the CNT formation process is independent of the presence of a promoter but leads to successful spinning of the macroscopic carbon nanotube assemblies with specific morphology, high purity (Raman D/G 0.03) and very narrow diameter range (0.8-2.5 nm). This can be achieved by the control of catalyst precursor decomposition and subsequent formation of homogeneous nano-sized catalyst particles.

  15. Ultra-pure single wall carbon nanotube fibres continuously spun without promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukner, Catharina; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2014-02-01

    We report a new strategy towards the control of carbon nanotube (CNT) structure and continuous fibre formation using a floating catalyst direct spinning CVD process. In the procedures used to date, a sulphur promoter precursor is added to significantly enhance the rate of CNT formation in the floating catalyst synthesis. Within the reaction zone, the rapidly grown nanotubes self-assemble into bundles, followed by their continuous spinning into fibres, yarns, films or tapes. In this paper we demonstrate a catalyst control strategy in the floating catalyst system, where the CNT formation process is independent of the presence of a promoter but leads to successful spinning of the macroscopic carbon nanotube assemblies with specific morphology, high purity (Raman D/G 0.03) and very narrow diameter range (0.8-2.5 nm). This can be achieved by the control of catalyst precursor decomposition and subsequent formation of homogeneous nano-sized catalyst particles.

  16. Ultra-pure single wall carbon nanotube fibres continuously spun without promoter

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Catharina; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2014-01-01

    We report a new strategy towards the control of carbon nanotube (CNT) structure and continuous fibre formation using a floating catalyst direct spinning CVD process. In the procedures used to date, a sulphur promoter precursor is added to significantly enhance the rate of CNT formation in the floating catalyst synthesis. Within the reaction zone, the rapidly grown nanotubes self-assemble into bundles, followed by their continuous spinning into fibres, yarns, films or tapes. In this paper we demonstrate a catalyst control strategy in the floating catalyst system, where the CNT formation process is independent of the presence of a promoter but leads to successful spinning of the macroscopic carbon nanotube assemblies with specific morphology, high purity (Raman D/G 0.03) and very narrow diameter range (0.8–2.5 nm). This can be achieved by the control of catalyst precursor decomposition and subsequent formation of homogeneous nano-sized catalyst particles. PMID:24492677

  17. Development of a 2 ns duration high current electron beam source using CsI coated carbon fibre cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Romesh; Kumar, Ranjeet; Mitra, S.; Sharma, D.K.; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K.C.; Patil, D.S.

    2014-07-01

    A 50 ampere beam current having a rise time lesser than 500 pico-seconds with its energy 50 keV is generated using field emission mechanism. Beam duration was 2 ns. CsI coating on carbon fibre cathode was done using plasma spray coating. The results obtained from this cathode were compared to the carbon fibre cathode and the reason behind higher current density in the case of CsI coating has been explained. (author)

  18. Growth and morphology control of carbon nanotubes at the apexes of pyramidal silicon tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgeworth, J. P.; Burt, D. P.; Dobson, P. S.; Weaver, J. M. R.; Macpherson, J. V.

    2010-03-01

    We describe the development of catalysed chemical vapour deposition (cCVD) growth schemes suitable for the production of carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy (CNT-AFM) probes. Growth and sample processing conditions are utilized that both incorporate safety in the process, e.g. the use of ethanol (EtOH) vapour as a carbon feedstock and hydrogen at only 4% (flow proportion), and simplicity, e.g. no catalyst patterning is required. Cobalt is employed as the growth catalyst and thin films of aluminium on silicon as the substrate material. Purpose-fabricated silicon substrates containing large numbers of tip structures are used as models of AFM probes. This enables growth to be carried out on many tips at once, facilitating a thorough investigation of the effect of different growth schemes on yields. cCVD growth schemes are chosen which produce stabilizing high density networks of carbon nanotubes on the sidewalls of the pyramidal tips to aid in anchoring the apex protruding carbon nanotube(s) in place. This results in long-lasting AFM imaging tips. We demonstrate that through rational tailoring of cCVD conditions it is possible to tune the growth conditions such that CNTs which protrude straight from tip apexes can be obtained at yields of greater than or equal to 78%. Application of suitable growth schemes to CNT growth on commercially available AFM probes resulted in CNT-AFM probes which were found to be extremely useful for extended lifetime metrological profiling of complex structures.

  19. Assessment of a carbon fibre MRI flatbed insert for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Jafar, Maysam M; Reeves, Jonathan; Ruthven, Matthieu A; Dean, Christopher J; MacDougall, Niall D; Tucker, Arthur T; Miquel, Marc E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess heating and radiofrequency (RF) deposition and image quality effects of a prototype three-section carbon fibre flatbed insert for use in MRI. RF deposition was assessed using two different thermometry techniques, infrared thermometry and Bragg-grating thermometry. Image quality effects were assessed with and without the flatbed insert in place by using mineral oil phantoms and a human subject. Neither technique detected heating of the insert in typical MRI examinations. We found that the insert was less suitable for MRI applications owing to severe RF shielding artefact. For spin-echo (SE), turbo spin-echo (TSE) and gradient-echo sequences, the reduction in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was as much as 89% when the insert was in place compared with the standard couch, making it less suitable as a patient-support material. Turning on the MultiTransmit switch together with using the scanner's quadrature body coil improved the reduction in SNR from 89% to 39% for the SE sequence and from 82% to 12% for the TSE sequence. No evidence was found to support reports in the literature that carbon fibre is an unsuitable material for use in MRI because of heating. This study suggests that carbon fibre is less suitable for large-scale MRI applications owing to it causing severe RF shading. Further research is needed to establish the suitability of the flatbed for treatment planning using alternative sequences or whether an alternative carbon fibre composite for large-scale MRI applications or a design that can minimize shielding can be found.

  20. Assessment of a carbon fibre MRI flatbed insert for radiotherapy treatment planning

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Jonathan; Ruthven, Matthieu A; Dean, Christopher J; MacDougall, Niall D; Tucker, Arthur T; Miquel, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to assess heating and radiofrequency (RF) deposition and image quality effects of a prototype three-section carbon fibre flatbed insert for use in MRI. Methods: RF deposition was assessed using two different thermometry techniques, infrared thermometry and Bragg-grating thermometry. Image quality effects were assessed with and without the flatbed insert in place by using mineral oil phantoms and a human subject. Results: Neither technique detected heating of the insert in typical MRI examinations. We found that the insert was less suitable for MRI applications owing to severe RF shielding artefact. For spin-echo (SE), turbo spin-echo (TSE) and gradient-echo sequences, the reduction in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was as much as 89% when the insert was in place compared with the standard couch, making it less suitable as a patient-support material. Turning on the MultiTransmit switch together with using the scanner's quadrature body coil improved the reduction in SNR from 89% to 39% for the SE sequence and from 82% to 12% for the TSE sequence. Conclusion: No evidence was found to support reports in the literature that carbon fibre is an unsuitable material for use in MRI because of heating. Advances in knowledge: This study suggests that carbon fibre is less suitable for large-scale MRI applications owing to it causing severe RF shading. Further research is needed to establish the suitability of the flatbed for treatment planning using alternative sequences or whether an alternative carbon fibre composite for large-scale MRI applications or a design that can minimize shielding can be found. PMID:27033180

  1. Mechanical assessment of a hip joint stem model made of a PEEK/carbon fibre composite under compression loading.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Michał; Błażewicz, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work was to manufacture a composite stem model consisting of carbon fibres (CF) and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and to perform the surface strain and stress distributions in the stem-femoral bone model under compression loading. Composite stems differing in elasticity were prepared. Three types of composite stems having different arrangements of carbon fibre reinforcements (carbon fibre roving, carbon fibre sleeves and their combinations) in the polymer matrix were made. The stems were cementless fixed in the femoral bone model channel or with the use of the polymer bone cement (PMMA). Mechanical behaviour of composite stems under compression loading was compared with a metallic stem by strain gauge measurements at different parts of stem/bone model systems. The values of stresses in the proximal part of the bone model for cemented and cementless fixations of the composite stem in the femoral bone channel were higher than those noted for the metallic stem. The increase in proximal bone stress was almost similar for both types of fixation of composite stems, i.e., cemented and cementless fixed stems. The optimal range of mechanical stiffness, strengths and work up to fracture was obtained for composite stem made of carbon fibre sleeves and carbon fibres in the form of roving. Depending on the elasticity of the composite stem model, an increase in the stress in the proximal part of femoral bone model of up to 40% was achieved in comparison with the metallic stem.

  2. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Hybrid Graphene Oxide / Epoxy Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G.; Starost, K.; Bari, P.; Faisal, N.; Mishra, S.; Njuguna, J.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, nano-sized graphene oxide sheets were homogenously dispersed via sonication methods in epoxy followed by vacuum resin infusion for the fabrication of the epoxy, graphene oxide (GO) and micro-sized carbon fibre reinforced nanocomposites (EP/CF/GO). Graphene oxide concentrations ranging from 0.1 - 0.5 wt. % were studied to investigate the effect on tensile and flexural strength. It was observed that the tensile strength of the EP/CF decreased with the addition of GO but increased with GO weight concentration in the nanocomposites studied from 498MPa to 519 MPa for the inclusion of 0.1 to 0.5 wt.% GO respectively. The 0.5 wt. % EP/CF/GO recorded a 10% increase in Young’s modulus compared to the classical epoxy / carbon fibre composites, and similar trend was observed for the flexural properties. However flexural strength of the GO samples did not surpass the control sample (epoxy /carbon fibre composites) with the 0.3 wt.% GO samples (EP/CF/GO) providing the greatest flexural strength of >580 MPa compared to the 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% GO samples.

  3. X-ray backscatter sensing of defects in carbon fibre composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flynn, Daniel; Crews, Chiaki; Fox, Nicholas; Allen, Brian P.; Sammons, Mark; Speller, Robert D.

    2017-05-01

    X-ray backscatter (XBS) provides a novel approach to the field of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) in the aerospace industry. XBS is conducted by collecting the radiation which is scattered from a sample illuminated by a well-defined Xray beam, and the technique enables objects to be scanned at a sub-surface level using single-sided access, and without the requirement for coupling with the sample. Single-sided access is of particular importance when the objects of interest are very large, such as aircraft components. Carbon fibre composite materials are being increasingly used as a structural material in aircraft, and there is an increasing demand for techniques which are sensitive to the delaminations which occur in these composites as a result of both large impacts and barely visible impact damage (BVID). The XBS signal is greatly enhanced for plastics and lightweight materials, making it an ideal candidate for probing sub-surface damage and defects in carbon fibre composites. Here we present both computer modelling and experimental data which demonstrate the capability of the XBS technique for identifying hidden defects in carbon fibre.

  4. Development of diamond powder filled carbon fibre pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glitza, K. W.; Mättig, P.; Sanny, B.; Schmitt, U.; Siegfanz, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    2017-08-01

    For the High Luminosity (HL) phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) pixel detectors have to meet new and unprecedented challenges for electronics, read-out band widths and also mechanical support and cooling. Traditionally the mechanical support structures (staves) are built from carbon based materials, embedding a metallic cooling pipe through which the cooling liquid, typically CO2, is circulated. In this paper the development and use of a carbon pipe is discussed. Compared to the metallic pipes carbon pipes have potentially advantages like lightness, low radio activation and no CTE mismatch. Their disadvantage of lower transversal thermal conductivity can be mitigated by filling the fabric with diamond powder (DP). The paper reports about the production process of carbon pipes with DP filled epoxy and cyanate ester resin. It discusses that this process leads with reasonable efficiency to pipes that meet the requirements of pressure stability up to 200 bars and leak tightness of 10-6mbarLs-1 for use in HL-LHC staves. The remaining problems and an outlook on potential improvements and further work are presented.

  5. Analysis of mechanical properties anisotropy of nanomodified carbon fibre-reinforced woven composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruslantsev, A. N.; Portnova, Ya M.; Tairova, L. P.; Dumansky, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    The polymer binder cracking problem arises while designing and maintaining polymer composite-based aircraft load-bearing members. Some technological methods are used to solve this problem. In particular the injection of nanoagents can block the initiation and growth of microscopic cracks. Crack propagation can also be blocked if the strain energy release is not related with fracturing. One of the possible ways for such energy release is creep. Testing of the anisotropy of the woven carbon fibre reinforced plastic elastic characteristics and creep have been conducted. The samples with different layouts have been made of woven carbon fibre laminate BMI-3/3692 with nanomodified bismaleimide matrix. This matrix has a higher glass transition temperature and improved mechanical properties. The deformation regularities have been analyzed, layer elastic characteristics have been determined. The constitutive equations describing composite material creep have been obtained and its parameters have been defined. Experimental and calculated creep curves have been plotted. It was found that the effects of rheology arise as the direction of load does not match the direction of reinforcing fibres of the material.

  6. Recycling carbon fibre reinforced polymers for structural applications: technology review and market outlook.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Soraia; Pinho, Silvestre T

    2011-02-01

    Both environmental and economic factors have driven the development of recycling routes for the increasing amount of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) waste generated. This paper presents a review of the current status and outlook of CFRP recycling operations, focusing on state-of-the-art fibre reclamation and re-manufacturing processes, and on the commercialisation and potential applications of recycled products. It is shown that several recycling and re-manufacturing processes are reaching a mature stage, with implementations at commercial scales in operation, production of recycled CFRPs having competitive structural performances, and demonstrator components having been manufactured. The major challenges for the sound establishment of a CFRP recycling industry and the development of markets for the recyclates are summarised; the potential for introducing recycled CFRPs in structural components is discussed, and likely promising applications are investigated.

  7. The use of rivets for electrical resistance measurement on carbon fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBaere, I.; Van Paepegem, W.; Degrieck, J.

    2007-10-01

    The use of fibre-reinforced thermoplastics, for example in the aeronautical industry, is increasing rapidly. Therefore, there is an increasing need for in situ monitoring tools, which preferably have limited influence on the behaviour of the material and which are easy to use. Furthermore, in the aeronautical industry composites are very often attached with rivets. In this study, the possibility of the use of rivets as contact electrodes for electrical resistance measurement is explored. The material used is a carbon fibre-reinforced polyphenylene sulphide. First, the set-up used is discussed. Then, static tensile tests on the laminate are performed. The possible influence of an extensometer on the measurements is examined. Furthermore, failure predictability is assessed. It may be concluded that the proposed set-up with the rivets can be used for electrical resistance measurement, with the ability to predict failure, and that the extensometer has a negative influence on the resistance measurement.

  8. A nickel-carbon-fibre composite for large adaptive mirrors: fabrication methods and properties.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S J; Brooks, D; Doel, A P

    2008-01-21

    We present results from our recent research into carbon-fibre composite (CFC) mirror fabrication for optical and infra-red applications. In particular this research is aimed towards the next generation of extremely large telescopes to offer an alternative to thin glass shell adaptive secondary mirrors. We address the issues involved with CFC mirror production, in particular the accuracy of the form replication process, a suitable surface for polishing to optical quality, no fibre print-through, environmental stability (shape change due to thermal and moisture variations), material uniformity and lifetime. We have performed experiments into the effectiveness of cold electroplating thick nickel coatings to totally encapsulate the CFC base substrate; the manufacturing procedure and properties of the Ni-CFC mirror are described here.

  9. Computational local stiffness analysis of biological cell: High aspect ratio single wall carbon nanotube tip.

    PubMed

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shahnazar, Sheida; Rahman, Md Habibur; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib

    2016-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potentially ideal tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) due to the robust mechanical properties, nanoscale diameter and also their ability to be functionalized by chemical and biological components at the tip ends. This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cells. The proposed software was ABAQUS 6.13 CAE/CEL provided by Dassault Systems, which is a powerful finite element (FE) tool to perform the numerical analysis and visualize the interactions between proposed tip and membrane of the cell. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model of the cell allows the simulation to obtain a new method for estimating the stiffness and spring constant of the cell. Stress and strain curve indicates the yield stress point which defines as a vertical stress and plan stress. Spring constant of the cell and the local stiffness was measured as well as the applied force of CNT-AFM tip on the contact area of the cell. This reliable integration of CNT-AFM tip process provides a new class of high performance nanoprobes for single biological cell analysis.

  10. In-situ monitoring of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elfed; Clifford, John; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Dooly, Gerard; Zhao, Weizhong; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken; Lucas, James; Degner, Martin; Ewald, Hartmut; Lochmann, Steffan; Bramann, Gero; Merlone-Borla, Edoardo; Gili, Flavio

    2011-05-01

    A robust optical fibre based CO2 exhaust gas sensor operating in the mid infrared spectral range is described. It is capable of detecting on board carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from both diesel and petrol engines. The optical fibre sensor is not cross sensitive to other gaseous species in the exhaust such as water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) or oxides of sulphur (SOx).The response of the sensor to carbon dioxide present in the exhaust of Fiat Croma diesel engine are presented.

  11. Large-Scale Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Probe Tips For Atomic Force Microscopy Critical Dimension Imaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, Qi Laura; Cassell, Alan M.; Stevens, Ramsey M.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Liu, Hongbing; Chao, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) probe tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) offer several advantages over Si/Si3N4 probe tips, including improved resolution, shape, and mechanical properties. This viewgraph presentation discusses these advantages, and the drawbacks of existing methods for fabricating CNT probe tips for AFM. The presentation introduces a bottom up wafer scale fabrication method for CNT probe tips which integrates catalyst nanopatterning and nanomaterials synthesis with traditional silicon cantilever microfabrication technology. This method makes mass production of CNT AFM probe tips feasible, and can be applied to the fabrication of other nanodevices with CNT elements.

  12. Large-Scale Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Probe Tips For Atomic Force Microscopy Critical Dimension Imaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, Qi Laura; Cassell, Alan M.; Stevens, Ramsey M.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Liu, Hongbing; Chao, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) probe tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) offer several advantages over Si/Si3N4 probe tips, including improved resolution, shape, and mechanical properties. This viewgraph presentation discusses these advantages, and the drawbacks of existing methods for fabricating CNT probe tips for AFM. The presentation introduces a bottom up wafer scale fabrication method for CNT probe tips which integrates catalyst nanopatterning and nanomaterials synthesis with traditional silicon cantilever microfabrication technology. This method makes mass production of CNT AFM probe tips feasible, and can be applied to the fabrication of other nanodevices with CNT elements.

  13. Prediction of failure in notched carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading.

    PubMed

    Tan, J L Y; Deshpande, V S; Fleck, N A

    2016-07-13

    A damage-based finite-element model is used to predict the fracture behaviour of centre-notched quasi-isotropic carbon-fibre-reinforced-polymer laminates under multi-axial loading. Damage within each ply is associated with fibre tension, fibre compression, matrix tension and matrix compression. Inter-ply delamination is modelled by cohesive interfaces using a traction-separation law. Failure envelopes for a notch and a circular hole are predicted for in-plane multi-axial loading and are in good agreement with the observed failure envelopes from a parallel experimental study. The ply-by-ply (and inter-ply) damage evolution and the critical mechanisms of ultimate failure also agree with the observed damage evolution. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of notched compressive strength are obtained upon employing the band broadening stress for microbuckling, highlighting the importance of this damage mode in compression. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Mapping local microstructure and mechanical performance around carbon nanotube grafted silica fibres: methodologies for hierarchical composites.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hui; Kalinka, Gerhard; Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G; Greenhalgh, Emile S; Bismarck, Alexander; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modifies bulk polymer properties, depending on intrinsic quality, dispersion, alignment, interfacial chemistry and mechanical properties of the nanofiller. These effects can be exploited to enhance the matrices of conventional microscale fibre-reinforced polymer composites, by using primary reinforcing fibres grafted with CNTs. This paper presents a methodology that combines atomic force microscopy, polarised Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques, to study the distribution, alignment and orientation of CNTs in the vicinity of epoxy-embedded micrometre-scale silica fibres, as well as, the resulting local mechanical properties of the matrix. Raman maps of key features in the CNT spectra clearly show the CNT distribution and orientation, including a 'parted' morphology associated with long grafted CNTs. The hardness and indentation modulus of the epoxy matrix were improved locally by 28% and 24%, respectively, due to the reinforcing effects of CNTs. Moreover, a slower stress relaxation was observed in the epoxy region containing CNTs, which may be due to restricted molecular mobility of the matrix. The proposed methodology is likely to be relevant to further studies of nanocomposites and hierarchical composites.

  15. Megavoltage x-ray skin dose variation with an angle using grid carbon fibre couch tops.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N

    2007-10-21

    It is well known that a skin dose from high-energy x-ray radiation varies with the angle of beam incidence or the presence of a radiotherapy linear accelerator couch top material. This note investigates changes produced to the skin dose from a Varian carbon fibre grid couch top at differing angles of incidence for 6 MV x-rays as is often the case clinically. Results have shown that the skin dose can easily be measured using an EBT Gafchromic film whereby the delivered skin dose can be quantified to a high level of spatial resolution, not easily achieved with other skin dose detectors. Results have shown a significant increase in the skin dose specifically at the point of a cross-sectional carbon fibre grid. Values in % of the skin dose increased from approximately 27% (an open area within a 10 cm x 10 cm field) up to 55% (same field size) at the centre of the carbon fibre mesh strip (0 degrees incidence). This is compared to 19% of the skin dose for an open field of a 10 cm x 10 cm beam without the couch material present. At larger angles similar effects occur with values changing from 52% to 75% (60 degrees , 10 cm x 10 cm) in the open area and under the grid, respectively. This produces a wave effect for the skin dose. The average skin dose magnitude increases with the angle of incidence of the beam, ranging from 37.5% to 66% from 0 degrees to 60 degrees (10 x 10 cm), respectively. The symmetric wave nature of the skin dose profile skews to deliver an increased dose on the posterior side of the carbon fibre grid as the angle of incidence increases. Simulated fractional dose delivery on a phantom has shown that over 30 fractions the wave nature of the delivered skin dose is minimized due to the random nature of most patient positioning on the treatment couch. However, some variations are still present as the ratio of the open to grid area is approximately 4:1 and the dose spread is not necessarily completely averaged during a typical fractionated radiotherapy

  16. CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITE MATERIALS PRODUCED BY GAMMA RADIATION INDUCED CURING OF EPOXY RESINS

    SciTech Connect

    Dispenza, C.; Spadaro, G.; Alessi, S.

    2008-08-28

    It is well known that ionizing radiation can initiate polymerization of suitable monomers for many applications. In this work an epoxy difunctional monomer has been used as matrix of a carbon fibre composite in order to produce materials through gamma radiation, for aerospace and advanced automotive applications. Radiation curing has been performed at different absorbed doses and, as comparison, also thermal curing of the same monomer formulations has been done. Furthermore some irradiated samples have been also subjected to a post irradiation thermal curing in order to complete the polymerization reactions. The properties of the cured materials have been studied by moisture absorption isotherms, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and mechanical flexural tests.

  17. Influence of surface activated carbon nano fibres on mechanical properties of poly ether ketone (PEK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajeesh, G.; Bhowmik, S.; Sivakumar, V.; Varshney, L.

    2017-05-01

    This investigation highlights different surface functionalization processes of Carbon Nano Fibres (CNF’s) and their effects on mechanical properties of Polyetherketone (PEK) nano composite. Surfaces of CNF’s were modified by low pressure plasma process. There is a significant change in physico-chemical characteristics of CNF’s after low plasma treatment as evident from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Significant modification in surface morphology and oxygen functionalities are observed as a result of surface modification. There is a significant increase in mechanical properties of high performance polymeric nano composites when surface functionalized CNF’s are dispersed in polymeric matrix.

  18. The use of short carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic plates for fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Gillett, N; Brown, S A; Dumbleton, J H; Pool, R P

    1985-03-01

    Thermoplastic plates of Nylon 6-10 and Polybutylene terephthalate reinforced with 30% short randomly oriented carbon fibres were tested for internal fixation of canine femoral transverse midshaft fractures. The elastic modulus of the plates was one-half that of bone: however, ultimate strength and strain in bending were comparable to bone. The fractures healed with moderate callus formation which was completely remodelled by 8 to 12 wk post surgery. Although a moderate inflammatory reaction to occasional particulate debris was noted, the materials appeared to possess the proper elastic moduli to allow sufficient support for the healing fracture without protecting the remodelling process.

  19. Optimal ferromagnetically-coated carbon nanotube tips for ultra-high resolution magnetic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lisunova, Y; Heidler, J; Levkivskyi, I; Gaponenko, I; Weber, A; Caillier, Ch; Heyderman, L J; Kläui, M; Paruch, P

    2013-03-15

    Using single-walled carbon nanotubes homogeneously coated with ferromagnetic metal as ultra-high resolution magnetic force microscopy probes, we investigate the key image formation parameters and their dependence on coating thickness. The crucial step of introducing molecular beam epitaxy for deposition of the magnetic coating allows highly controlled fabrication of tips with small magnetic volume, while retaining high magnetic anisotropy and prolonged lifetime characteristics. Calculating the interaction between the tips and a magnetic sample, including hitherto neglected thermal noise effects, we show that optimal imaging is achieved for a finite, intermediate-thickness magnetic coating, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. With such optimal tips, we demonstrate outstanding resolution, revealing sub-10 nm domains in hard magnetic samples, and non-perturbative imaging of nanoscale spin structures in soft magnetic materials, all at ambient conditions with no special vacuum, temperature or humidity controls.

  20. Low Velocity Impacts of Variable Tip Radius on Carbon/Epoxy Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Mac P.

    With a growing use of composite materials in aircraft structures, there is a greater need to understand the response of these materials to low velocity impacts. Low velocity impacts from tool drops or ground equipment collisions can be of varying bluntness and can leave little or no visible evidence of damage. Therefore, a need exists to investigate the initiation of internal damage and the relationship between this internal damage and the external visible damage with respect to the bluntness of the impactor. A pendulum impactor was used to impact 76.2 x 127 mm carbon/epoxy panels that were 8, 16, and 24 plies thick. The panels were impacted by hardened steel tips with radii of 12.7 to 76.2 mm. The experimental results show that the failure threshold energies for each panel thickness and tip radius combination occur at a distinct and consistent energy. This threshold increases with impactor bluntness, and this effect is greater for the 8 ply panel than it is for the 16 or 24 ply panels. To describe the visibility of impact damage, the area of delamination was compared to the depth of the dents resulting from the impacts. For the sharper impact tips, there is a clear relationship between the delamination area and the depth of the dents. However, these relationships are dependent on the radius of the impact tip, and for the blunter impact tips no strong correlation could be determined between the delamination area and the depth of the dents.

  1. Combining electrospinning and sputtering to improve rechargeable lithium battery cathodes: coating carbon fibre felt with nickel sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ryu, Ho Suk; Ahn, Chi Won; Jeon, Hwan-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Various nickel sulfide nanostructures have been developed for the fabrication of high surface area electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. In this study, we fabricated a nickel sulfide covered carbon fibre felt with high uniformity, high density, and large area for cathode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries, by using a combined electrospinning and sputtering deposition technique. In particular, the nickel sulfide/carbon fibre felt is a multi-functional material that can act as a conducting electrode itself without the use of binders and conductive materials owing to the high conductivity of the interlinked carbon fibre structures. A Li/nickel sulfide cell with current density of 100 mA g-1 exhibits good cycle performance and high first discharge capacity (970.46 mAh g-1) and good coulombic efficiency of 99% at 20 cycles. This electrode has good structural and electrochemical properties and has a potential to be commercialized when the properties are matured.

  2. Scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube-graphene fibres for capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Wang, Hong; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Qiang; Dai, Liming; Chen, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices that can complement or even replace batteries in miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. Their main limitation, however, is the low volumetric energy density when compared with batteries. Here, we describe a hierarchically structured carbon microfibre made of an interconnected network of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with interposed nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide sheets. The nanomaterials form mesoporous structures of large specific surface area (396 m(2) g(-1)) and high electrical conductivity (102 S cm(-1)). We develop a scalable method to continuously produce the fibres using a silica capillary column functioning as a hydrothermal microreactor. The resultant fibres show a specific volumetric capacity as high as 305 F cm(-3) in sulphuric acid (measured at 73.5 mA cm(-3) in a three-electrode cell) or 300 F cm(-3) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H(3)PO(4) electrolyte (measured at 26.7 mA cm(-3) in a two-electrode cell). A full micro-supercapacitor with PVA/H(3)PO(4) gel electrolyte, free from binder, current collector and separator, has a volumetric energy density of ∼6.3 mWh cm(-3) (a value comparable to that of 4 V-500 µAh thin-film lithium batteries) while maintaining a power density more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of batteries, as well as a long cycle life. To demonstrate that our fibre-based, all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors can be easily integrated into miniaturized flexible devices, we use them to power an ultraviolet photodetector and a light-emitting diode.

  3. Scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube-graphene fibres for capacitive energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Wang, Hong; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Qiang; Dai, Liming; Chen, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices that can complement or even replace batteries in miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. Their main limitation, however, is the low volumetric energy density when compared with batteries. Here, we describe a hierarchically structured carbon microfibre made of an interconnected network of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with interposed nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide sheets. The nanomaterials form mesoporous structures of large specific surface area (396 m2 g-1) and high electrical conductivity (102 S cm-1). We develop a scalable method to continuously produce the fibres using a silica capillary column functioning as a hydrothermal microreactor. The resultant fibres show a specific volumetric capacity as high as 305 F cm-3 in sulphuric acid (measured at 73.5 mA cm-3 in a three-electrode cell) or 300 F cm-3 in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H3PO4 electrolyte (measured at 26.7 mA cm-3 in a two-electrode cell). A full micro-supercapacitor with PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte, free from binder, current collector and separator, has a volumetric energy density of ~6.3 mWh cm-3 (a value comparable to that of 4 V-500 µAh thin-film lithium batteries) while maintaining a power density more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of batteries, as well as a long cycle life. To demonstrate that our fibre-based, all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors can be easily integrated into miniaturized flexible devices, we use them to power an ultraviolet photodetector and a light-emitting diode.

  4. Microstructural Characterization of Nanocrystalline Sn-Coated Carbon Fibre Electrodes Cycled in Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sandeep; Shafiei, Mehdi; Alpas, Ahmet T.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of electrochemical capacity retention and eventual degradation in composite anodes prepared by electrodepositing nanocrystalline Sn coating on carbon fibres (CF), Sn-CF, were studied using in situ optical microscopy, high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Specific capacity changes of Sn-CF anodes ( vs Li/Li+) were observed to take place in three stages: during the first two galvanostatic cycles, a rapid capacity decrease (from 1045 to 930 mAh g-1) occurred, which was followed by a steady-state stage where the capacity remained constant at 922 ± 22 mAh g-1. The fast capacity drop of Sn-CF in the first cycle was attributed to the partial decohesion of Sn from CFs although the carbon substrate remained unaffected due to formation of a layer from the solid electrolyte reduction products. The pure Sn electrode with a higher initial specific capacity than the Sn-CF displayed a rapid decrease in the same range, whereas the specific capacity of the uncoated CF was already much lower as the fibres were severely damaged in the first cycle.

  5. ZnO thin films on single carbon fibres fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, André; Engel, Sebastian; Sangiorgi, Nicola; Sanson, Alessandra; Bartolomé, Jose F.; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A.

    2017-03-01

    Single carbon fibres were 360° coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films by pulsed laser deposition using a Q-switched CO2 laser with a pulse duration τ ≈ 300 ns, a wavelength λ = 10.59 μm, a repetition frequency frep = 800 Hz and a peak power Ppeak = 15 kW in combination with a 3-step-deposition technique. In a first set of experiments, the deposition process was optimised by investigating the crystallinity of ZnO films on silicon and polished stainless steel substrates. Here, the influence of the substrate temperature and of the oxygen partial pressure of the background gas were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. ZnO coated carbon fibres and conductive glass sheets were used to prepare photo anodes for dye-sensitised solar cells in order to investigate their suitability for energy conversion devices. To obtain a deeper insight of the electronic behaviour at the interface between ZnO and substrate I-V measurements were performed.

  6. Approaching intelligent infection diagnostics: Carbon fibre sensor for electrochemical pyocyanin detection.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Duncan; Gladstone, Patience; Smith, Robert B; Forsythe, Stephen; Davis, James

    2010-02-01

    Pyocyanin is produced by Ps. aeruginosa as a result of quorum sensing during wound colonisation increasing bacterial virulence and damaging host physiology, both of which contribute to an increased risk of infection. The use of carbon fibre tow as an electrochemical sensing matrix for assessing pyocyanin production is evaluated. Prototype sensor assemblies have been developed and response characteristics towards pyocyanin are detailed. The sensitive and linear quantification of pyocyanin is presented (r(2)=0.998) across the biomedically relevant concentration range (1-100 microM). Precise electrochemical measurements of pyocyanin by square wave voltammetry are established using carbon fibre assemblies (coefficient of variance=1.2 and 1.4% for 10 and 50 microM pyocyanin, respectively). Further testing of the sensors in bacterial cultures shows the ability to monitor pyocyanin production by Ps. aeruginosa in agreement with the chloroform-acid/photometric method and in the presence of other bacterially derived pigments and metabolites. The proposed small and inexpensive sensor assembly is suggested for use in monitoring Ps. aeruginosa growth. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling The Bending Test Behaviour Of Carbon Fibre Reinforced SiC By Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.; Koch, D.; Voggenreiter, H.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid silicon infiltrated carbon fibre reinforced SiC, has shown to be a high-potential material for thermal protection systems. The tensile and bending behaviour of the ceramic-matrix composite, C/C-SiC, were investigated in varying orientations relative to the 0/90° woven carbon fibres. The ratio of bending to tensile strength was about 1.7 to 2 depending on the loading direction. With the goal to understand this large difference finite element analyses (FEA) of the bending tests were performed. The different stress-strain behaviour of C/C-SiC under tensile and compression load were included in the FEA. Additionally the bending failure of the CMC-material was modelled by Cohesive Zone Elements (CZE) accounting for the directional tensile strength and Work of Fracture (WOF). The WOF was determined by Single Edge Notched Bending (SENB) tests. Comparable results from FEA and bending test were achieved. The presented approach could also be adapted for the design of C/C-SiC-components and structures.

  8. Focus Ion Beam Fabrication of Individual Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Guangyu; Byahut, Sitaram; Chow, Lee

    2003-11-01

    Individual CNTs are excellent candidates as electron sources for electron microscopes. Comparing to conventional electron sources, CNTs have the following advantages: (1) unique geometry, (2) highly coherent electron beams, and (3) stability. In our laboratory, carbon fibers with a nanotube core have been synthesized with a conventional chemical vapor deposition method. The whole assembly of nanotube/fiber is similar to a coaxial cable with CNT sticking out from one end of the carbon fiber. In order to pick up individual CNT field emitters, focus ion beam (FIB) technique is applied for cutting and adhering the samples. The carbon fiber with nanotube tip was first welded onto a micro-manipulator. Afterwards, by applying the FIB milling function, the fiber was cut from the base. This enables us to handle the individual CNT tips conveniently. By the same method, we can attach the nanotube tip on a sharpened clean tungsten wire for field emission experiment. FIB is proven to be appropriate and powerful for the nano-fabrication.

  9. Effect of TiN nano-coating on the interface microstructure of carbon fibres-AZ91 alloy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszówka-Myalska, A.; Botor-Probierz, A.

    2012-03-01

    Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibres, Cf, without surface modification and coated with TiN nanolayer, (Cf)TiN, were investigated. AZ91 magnesium alloy and carbon fibres of T300B (Toray) PAN type were chosen as components. In the experiment infiltration in vacuum as a method of component consolidation and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) for carbon fibres surface modification were applied. Structural investigations were performed in the Hitachi 3200S field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and on a FEI Tecnai G2 FEG high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) detectors. SEM observations revealed that at the interface of AZ91-Cf composite destructive phases were formed. An application of TiN nano-coating as a surface modification ensured proper wettability of carbon fibres by liquid metal and protection against the destructive products formation. The microstructure of AZ91-(Cf)TiN composite interface was multilayered. TEM investigation revealed a continuous layer of mixed alumina and magnesia just at the carbon surface, followed by a layer with a dominant concentration of titanium, enriched with Al, O, Mg and C and subsequently a layer of nano-sized Al12Mg17 crystals in the magnesium matrix. Therefore, an applied TiN nano-coating can be classified as an active barrier in AZ91-Cf system.

  10. Sugar-Starvation-Induced Changes of Carbon Metabolism in Excised Maize Root Tips.

    PubMed Central

    Dieuaide-Noubhani, M.; Canioni, P.; Raymond, P.

    1997-01-01

    Excised maize (Zea mays L.) root tips were used to study the early metabolic effects of glucose (Glc) starvation. Root tips were prelabeled with [1-13C]Glc so that carbohydrates and metabolic intermediates were close to steady-state labeling, but lipids and proteins were scarcely labeled. They were then incubated in a sugar-deprived medium for carbon starvation. Changes in the level of soluble sugars, the respiratory quotient, and the 13C enrichment of intermediates, as measured by 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, were studied to detect changes in carbon fluxes through glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Labeling of glutamate carbons revealed two major changes in carbon input into the tricarboxylic acid cycle: (a) the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase flux stopped early after the start of Glc starvation, and (b) the contribution of glycolysis as the source of acetyl-coenzyme A for respiration decreased progressively, indicating an increasing contribution of the catabolism of protein amino acids, fatty acids, or both. The enrichment of glutamate carbons gave no evidence for proteolysis in the early steps of starvation, indicating that the catabolism of proteins was delayed compared with that of fatty acids. Labeling of carbohydrates showed that sucrose turnover continues during sugar starvation, but gave no indication for any significant flux through gluconeogenesis. PMID:12223877

  11. Analytical solutions to the free vibration of a double-walled carbon nanotube carrying a bacterium at its tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Joel A.; Elishakoff, Isaac

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a cantilevered double-walled carbon nanotube carrying a rigid body—representative of a bacterium or virus—at the tip of the outer nanotube. By idealizing the nanotubes as Bernoulli-Euler beams, we are able to obtain exact expressions for both the mode shapes and characteristic frequency equation. Separate analyses are performed for the special case of a concentrated tip mass and the more complicated situation where the tip body also exhibits inertia and mass center offset from the beam tip.

  12. Analytical solutions to the free vibration of a double-walled carbon nanotube carrying a bacterium at its tip

    SciTech Connect

    Storch, Joel A.; Elishakoff, Isaac

    2013-11-07

    We calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a cantilevered double-walled carbon nanotube carrying a rigid body—representative of a bacterium or virus—at the tip of the outer nanotube. By idealizing the nanotubes as Bernoulli-Euler beams, we are able to obtain exact expressions for both the mode shapes and characteristic frequency equation. Separate analyses are performed for the special case of a concentrated tip mass and the more complicated situation where the tip body also exhibits inertia and mass center offset from the beam tip.

  13. In-vitro MRI detectability of interbody test spacers made of carbon fibre-reinforced polymers, titanium and titanium-coated carbon fibre-reinforced polymers.

    PubMed

    Ernstberger, Thorsten; Buchhorn, Gottfried; Baums, Mike Herbert; Heidrich, Gabert

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different materials affect the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detectability of interbody test spacers (ITS). We evaluated the post-implantation MRI scans with T1 TSE sequences for three different ITS made of titanium, carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (CFRP) and titanium-coated CFRP, respectively. The main target variables were total artefact volume (TAV) and median artefact area (MAA). Additionally, implant volume (IV)/TAV and cross section (CS)/MAA ratio were determined. The t test and Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons were used for statistical analysis. TAV and MAA did not differ significantly between CFRP and titanium-coated CFRP, but were approximately twice as high for the titanium ITS (p < 0.001). MRI detectability was optimum for CFRP and titanium-coated CFRP, but was limited at the implant-bone interface of the titanium ITS. The material's susceptibility and the implant's dimensions affected MRI artefacting. Based on TAV, the volume of titanium surface coating in the ITS studied has no influence on susceptibility in MRI scans with T1 TSE sequences.

  14. Modeling of Electronic Transport in Scanning Tunneling Microscope Tip-Carbon Nanotube Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A model is proposed for two observed current-voltage (I-V) patterns in a recent experiment with a scanning tunneling microscope tip and a carbon nanotube. We claim that there are two mechanical contact modes for a tip (metal) -nanotube (semiconductor) junction (1) with or (2) without a tiny vacuum gap (0.1 - 0.2 nm). With the tip grounded, the tunneling case in (1) would produce large dI/dV with V > 0, small dI/dV with V < 0, and I = 0 near V = 0 for an either n- or p-nanotube; the Schottky mechanism in (2) would result in I does not equal 0 only with V < 0 for an n-nanotube, and the bias polarities would be reversed for a p-nanotube. The two observed I-V patterns are thus entirely explained by a tip-nanotube contact of the two types, where the nanotube must be n-type.

  15. Spinning of carbon nanotube fibres using the floating catalyst high temperature route: purity issues and the critical role of sulphur.

    PubMed

    Gspann, T S; Smail, F R; Windle, A H

    2014-01-01

    The CVD process for the spinning of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres combines the nucleation, growth and aggregation of CNTs in the form of an aerogel with fibre spinning into a single process step. The optimisation of the process requires agility in multi-dimensional parameter space, so one tends to find parameter 'islands' where spinning is possible, while exploration tends to follow 'routes' through this space. Here, we follow two such routes, one of which drastically improves fibre purity, the other changes the nature of the nanotubes comprising the fibres from multiwall to single wall. In the first case there is only a modest enhancement of the mechanical properties, but in the second a very considerable improvement is seen. In terms of the conditions required to make fibres comprising predominately single wall CNTs, the key factor appears to be the rigorous control of the sulphur addition, in trace quantities, coupled with the availability of carbon atoms at the earliest stage after injection, typically in the range 400-500 °C. A model is presented for the role of sulphur in floating catalysts CNT synthesis.

  16. CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT AND ANGLE FOR A GROWING CRACK IN CARBON STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    LAM, POH-SANG

    2005-01-18

    The crack tip opening displacements and angles (CTOD/CTOA) are calculated with finite element method based on the test data of a set of constraint-dependent J-R curves for A285 carbon steel. The values of the CTOD/CTOA are initially high at initiation, but rapidly decrease to a nearly constant value. When the common practice is adopted by using only the constant part of CTOD/CTOA as the fracture criterion, the crack growth behavior is shown to be severely underestimated. However, with a bilinear form of CTOD/CTOA fracture criterion which approximates the initial non-constant portion, the experimental load vs. crack extension curves can be closely predicted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The values of CTOD/CTOA for specimens with various ratios of crack length to specimen width (a/W) are reflected by the J-R curves and their slopes.

  17. Multiply fully recyclable carbon fibre reinforced heat-resistant covalent thermosetting advanced composites.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanchao; Sun, Yanxiao; Yan, Shijing; Zhao, Jianqing; Liu, Shumei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Zheng, Xiaoxing; Jia, Lei

    2017-03-02

    Nondestructive retrieval of expensive carbon fibres (CFs) from CF-reinforced thermosetting advanced composites widely applied in high-tech fields has remained inaccessible as the harsh conditions required to recycle high-performance resin matrices unavoidably damage the structure and properties of CFs. Degradable thermosetting resins with stable covalent structures offer a potential solution to this conflict. Here we design a new synthesis scheme and prepare a recyclable CF-reinforced poly(hexahydrotriazine) resin matrix advanced composite. The multiple recycling experiments and characterization data establish that this composite demonstrates performance comparable to those of its commercial counterparts, and more importantly, it realizes multiple intact recoveries of CFs and near-total recycling of the principal raw materials through gentle depolymerization in certain dilute acid solution. To our best knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time a feasible and environment-friendly preparation-recycle-regeneration strategy for multiple CF-recycling from CF-reinforced advanced composites.

  18. Multiply fully recyclable carbon fibre reinforced heat-resistant covalent thermosetting advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yanchao; Sun, Yanxiao; Yan, Shijing; Zhao, Jianqing; Liu, Shumei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Zheng, Xiaoxing; Jia, Lei

    2017-03-01

    Nondestructive retrieval of expensive carbon fibres (CFs) from CF-reinforced thermosetting advanced composites widely applied in high-tech fields has remained inaccessible as the harsh conditions required to recycle high-performance resin matrices unavoidably damage the structure and properties of CFs. Degradable thermosetting resins with stable covalent structures offer a potential solution to this conflict. Here we design a new synthesis scheme and prepare a recyclable CF-reinforced poly(hexahydrotriazine) resin matrix advanced composite. The multiple recycling experiments and characterization data establish that this composite demonstrates performance comparable to those of its commercial counterparts, and more importantly, it realizes multiple intact recoveries of CFs and near-total recycling of the principal raw materials through gentle depolymerization in certain dilute acid solution. To our best knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time a feasible and environment-friendly preparation-recycle-regeneration strategy for multiple CF-recycling from CF-reinforced advanced composites.

  19. Multiply fully recyclable carbon fibre reinforced heat-resistant covalent thermosetting advanced composites

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanchao; Sun, Yanxiao; Yan, Shijing; Zhao, Jianqing; Liu, Shumei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Zheng, Xiaoxing; Jia, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Nondestructive retrieval of expensive carbon fibres (CFs) from CF-reinforced thermosetting advanced composites widely applied in high-tech fields has remained inaccessible as the harsh conditions required to recycle high-performance resin matrices unavoidably damage the structure and properties of CFs. Degradable thermosetting resins with stable covalent structures offer a potential solution to this conflict. Here we design a new synthesis scheme and prepare a recyclable CF-reinforced poly(hexahydrotriazine) resin matrix advanced composite. The multiple recycling experiments and characterization data establish that this composite demonstrates performance comparable to those of its commercial counterparts, and more importantly, it realizes multiple intact recoveries of CFs and near-total recycling of the principal raw materials through gentle depolymerization in certain dilute acid solution. To our best knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time a feasible and environment-friendly preparation-recycle-regeneration strategy for multiple CF-recycling from CF-reinforced advanced composites. PMID:28251985

  20. A Lamb waves based statistical approach to structural health monitoring of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Michele; Gianneo, Andrea; Giglio, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This research investigates a Lamb-wave based structural health monitoring approach matching an out-of-phase actuation of a pair of piezoceramic transducers at low frequency. The target is a typical quasi-isotropic carbon fibre reinforced polymer aeronautical laminate subjected to artificial, via Teflon patches, and natural, via suitable low velocity drop weight impact tests, delaminations. The performance and main influencing factors of such an approach are studied through a Design of Experiment statistical method, considering both Pulse Echo and Pitch Catch configurations of PZT sensors. Results show that some factors and their interactions can effectively influence the detection of a delamination-like damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-power picosecond laser drilling/machining of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Sabli, A.

    2016-02-01

    The large differences in physical and thermal properties of the carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite constituents make laser machining of this material challenging. An extended heat-affected zone (HAZ) often occurs. The availability of ultrashort laser pulse sources such as picosecond lasers makes it possible to improve the laser machining quality of these materials. This paper reports an investigation on the drilling and machining of CFRP composites using a state-of-the-art 400 W picosecond laser system. Small HAZs (<25 µm) were obtained on the entry side of 6-mm-diameter hole drilled on sample of 6 mm thickness, whereas no HAZ was seen below the top surface on the cut surfaces. Multiple ring material removal strategy was used. Furthermore, the effect of laser processing parameters such as laser power, scanning speed and repetition rate on HAZ sizes and ablation depth was investigated.

  2. Effect of High Velocity Ballistic Impact on Pretensioned Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar KAMARUDIN, Kamarul; HAMID, Iskandar ABDUL

    2017-01-01

    This work describes an experimental investigation of the pretensioned thin plates made of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) struck by hemispherical and blunt projectiles at various impact velocities. The experiments were done using a gas gun with combination of pretension equipment positioned at the end of gun barrel near the nozzle. Measurements of the initial and residual velocities were taken, and the ballistic limit velocity were calculated for each procedures. The pretension target results in reduction of ballistic limit compared to non-pretension target for both flat and hemispherical projectiles. Target impacted by hemispherical projectile experience split at earlier impact velocity compared to target by flat projectile. C-Scan images analysis technique was used to show target impact damaged by hemispherical and flat projectiles. The damage area was shown biggest at ballistic limit velocity and target splitting occurred most for pretention plate.

  3. Repeated self-healing of microvascular carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coope, T. S.; Wass, D. F.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2014-11-01

    A self-healing, high performance, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is demonstrated by embedding a Lewis-acid catalytic curing agent within a laminate, manufactured using out of autoclave (OOA) composite manufacturing methods. Two configurations of healing agent delivery, pre-mixed and autonomous mixing, are investigated via injection of a healing agent through bio-inspired microvascular channels exposed on Mode I fractured crack planes. Healing is effected when an epoxy resin-solvent healing agent mixture reaches the boundary of embedded solid-state scandium(III) triflate (Sc(OTf)3) catalyst, located on the crack plane, to initiate the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of epoxides. Tailored self-healing agents confer high healing efficiency values after multiple healing cycles (69-108%) to successfully mitigate against crack propagation within the composite microstructure.

  4. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Izman, Sudin; Rahman Kassim, Abdullah Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established.

  5. Advanced Grounding Methods in the Presence of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, M.; Thurecht, F.; Pfeiffer, E.; Ruddle, A.

    2012-05-01

    Lightweight satellite structures are usually of sandwich type where the core is formed of a honeycomb-like structure made of aluminium foil. The outer facesheets are made of aluminium and serve as a ground reference plane. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP), however, is a composite material having an electrical conductivity that is about 2000 times lower than the conductivity of aluminium. Since such a material is not suitable to carry electrical current of high value a network of metal sheets (grounding rails) connects all equipment mounted on the satellite structure. This paper describes an evaluation whether the classical grounding rail system can be replaced by a network of round wires while the high-frequency portion of the current is flowing along the CFRP sheet.

  6. Flexural testing on carbon fibre laminates taking into account their different behaviour under tension and compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna Moreno, M. C.; Romero Gutierrez, A.; Martínez Vicente, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    An analytical model has been derived for describing the results of three-point-bending tests in materials with different behaviour under tension and compression. The shift of the neutral plane and the damage initiation mode and its location have been defined. The validity of the equations has been reviewed by testing carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (CFRP), typically employed in different weight-critical applications. Both unidirectional and cross-ply laminates have been studied. The initial failure mode produced depends directly on the beam span- thickness relation. Therefore, specimens with different thicknesses have been analysed for examining the damage initiation due to either the bending moment or the out-of-plane shear load. The experimental description of the damage initiation and evolution has been shown by means of optical microscopy. The good agreement between the analytical estimations and the experimental results shows the validity of the analytical model exposed.

  7. The Topology of Non-Linear Global Carbon Dynamics: From Tipping Points to Planetary Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S.; Steffen, W.; Rockstrom, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper develops a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and explores the relationship between nonlinear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover, terrestrial carbon stocks and atmospheric carbon stocks are considered. The goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual earth system, but rather, to construct a conceptually reasonable representation of a feedback system between different carbon stores like that of the actual earth system and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ``safe operating space'' for humans. We explore the topology of our Earth System model using stability analysis and numerical bifurcation techniques. The analysis of the model illustrates the potential complexity of planetary boundaries and highlights some challenges associated with navigating them. More specifically, recent work has focused on planetary boundaries in atmospheric carbon, phosphorous, etc. This paper analyzes how such boundaries interact in an earth system model. We present a simple heuristic model that helps organize questions and explore interactions regarding carbon dynamics and land-use change. The main points that emerge from the analysis are: 1) planetary boundaries can be topologically complex and difficult to measure in practice, 2) Non-linear feedbacks can cause planetary boundaries to move rapidly, 3) Climate change policy should move beyond the simple notion of tipping points and move toward the conceptually richer notion of basin boundaries of attractors consistent with a safe operating space for humans.

  8. Electrodeposition of Polypyrrole and Reduced Graphene Oxide onto Carbon Bundle Fibre as Electrode for Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Abdul Bashid, Hamra Assyaima; Lim, Hong Ngee; Kamaruzaman, Sazlinda; Abdul Rashid, Suraya; Yunus, Robiah; Huang, Nay Ming; Yin, Chun Yang; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Jiang, Zhong Tao; Alagarsamy, Pandikumar

    2017-12-01

    A nanocomposite comprising of polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide was electrodeposited onto a carbon bundle fibre (CBF) through a two-step approach (CBF/PPy-rGO-2). The CBF/PPy-rGO-2 had a highly porous structure compared to a nanocomposite of polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide that was electrodeposited onto a CBF in a one-step approach (CBF/PPy-rGO), as observed through a field emission scanning electron microscope. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of hydrogen bond between the oxide functional groups of rGO and the amine groups of PPy in PPy-rGO-2 nanocomposite. The fabricated CBF/PPy-rGO-2 nanocomposite material was used as an electrode material in a symmetrical solid-state supercapacitor, and the device yielded a specific capacitance, energy density and power density of 96.16 F g(- 1), 13.35 Wh kg(- 1) and of 322.85 W kg(- 1), respectively. Moreover, the CBF/PPy-rGO-2 showed the capacitance retention of 71% after 500 consecutive charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g(- 1). The existence of a high degree of porosity in CBF/PPy-rGO-2 significantly improved the conductivity and facilitated the ionic penetration. The CBF/PPy-rGO-2-based symmetrical solid-state supercapacitor device demonstrated outstanding pliability because the cyclic voltammetric curves remained the same upon bending at various angles. Carbon bundle fibre modified with porous polypyrrole/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for flexible miniature solid-state supercapacitor.

  9. The use of carbon fibre material in radiographic cassettes: estimation of the dose and contrast advantages.

    PubMed

    Dance, D R; Lester, S A; Carlsson, G A; Sandborg, M; Persliden, J

    1997-04-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to estimate the dose and contrast advantages of replacing radiographic cassette fronts fabricated from aluminium with cassette fronts fabricated from low atomic number material (carbon fibre). The simulation used a realistic imaging geometry and calculations were made both with and without an anti-scatter grid. Account was taken of the scatter generated in the cassette front and the effect of beam hardening on primary contrast. Dose and contrast were evaluated for a range of cassette front thicknesses and tube potentials (60-150 kV) as well as for four examinations representative of situations with varying amounts of scatter. The results with an anti-scatter grid show a clear dose and contrast advantage in all cases when an aluminium cassette front is replaced with a low attenuation cassette front. The contrast advantage is dependent upon the examination and is generally greater for imaging bony structures than for imaging soft tissue. If a 1.74 mm aluminium cassette front is compared with a 1.1 mm carbon fibre cassette front, then the dose advantages are 16%, 9%, 8% and 6% and the contrast advantages are 10%, 7%, 4% and 5% for the AP paediatric pelvis examination at 60 kV, the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine examination at 80 kV, the lateral lumbar spine examination at 100 kV and the posteroanterior (PA) chest examination at 150 kV, respectively. The results without an anti-scatter grid show an increased dose advantage when a low attenuation cassette front is used, but the contrast advantage is small and in some situations negative.

  10. An estimation of fatigue life for a carbon fibre/poly ether ether ketone hip joint prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Akay, M; Aslan, N

    1995-01-01

    A fracture mechanics approach was applied to estimate the life of a prosthesis injection moulded from short carbon fibre reinforced poly ether ether ketone. Flexural modulus and strength, fracture toughness, fatigue endurance limit, fatigue crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity factor were determined. The dimensions of the test pieces were selected to yield fibre orientation and fibre length distributions similar to those obtained in the prosthesis. Stress levels generated in the prosthesis under different activities were estimated by conducting three-dimensional finite element analysis. It was shown by a fracture mechanics approach that a fatigue failure due to the propagation of an embedded elliptical slit, under these stresses, would be unlikely for a crack length smaller than 1.85 mm. However, the cement would fail under the same conditions, irrespective of the type of the prosthesis employed.

  11. Tip cooling effect and failure mechanism of field-emitting carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Yang; Wei, Yang; Jiang, Kaili; Peng, Lian-Mao; Fan, Shoushan

    2007-01-01

    The cooling effect accompanying field electron emission has been considered for a single carbon nanotube (CNT) used as a field emission (FE) electron source. An improved model for the failure mechanism of field emitting CNTs has been proposed and validated. Our model predicts a maximum temperature (T-max) located at an interior point rather than the tip of the CNTs, and the failure of the CNT emitters tends to take place at the T-max point, inducing a segment by segment breakdown process. A combination of Joule heating and electrostatic force effect is proposed responsible for initiating the failure of the field emitting CNT and validated by in situ FE observation.

  12. Mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of carbon fibre reinforced nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 ternary biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuesong; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhang, Xuelian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jiaqi; Lu, Ming; Li, Hong

    2015-02-01

    Fibre-reinforced composites with good strength and ductility as bone repair biomaterials have been attracting increasing attention in biomedical applications. In the present study, a novel ternary composite was prepared using carbon fibre (CF) to reinforce a nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 composite (HA/PA). The interface and mechanical strength of the ternary composite (CF/HA/PA) were characterised. In addition, to assess the cytocompatibility, the composite was co-cultured with MG-63 cells, and the cell morphology, MTT, and ALP were tested. The results indicated that CFs were uniformly distributed in the HA/PA matrix with random orientation and that the CFs bonded well to the HA/PA matrix. The reinforced ternary composite exhibited a compressive strength of 116-212 MPa, a bending strength of 89-138 MPa, a tensile strength of 109-181 MPa, with the breaking elongation ratio of 6.2-9.1%, and a tensile modulus of 2.9-5.8 GPa, with the values varying with increasing CF content from 5 to 20 (mass fraction). The MG-63 cells of normal phenotype were well extended and spread onto the ternary composite surface. In addition, its proliferation and differentiation on the composite surface were significantly increased with time, indicating that the incorporation of CFs into HA/PA had little negative effects on MG-63 cells. The incorporation of CFs into a HA/PA66 composite improved the strength and ductility and introduced no negative effects on the cytocompatibility. Hence, the CF/HA/PA ternary composite has potential to be used as a bone repair materials and in fixation devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bolted Joints in Three Axially Braided Carbon Fibre/Epoxy Textile Composites with Moulded-in and Drilled Fastener Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataş, Akın; Gautam, Mayank; Soutis, Constantinos; Potluri, Prasad

    2016-10-01

    Experimental behaviour of bolted joints in triaxial braided (0°/±45°) carbon fibre/epoxy composite laminates with drilled and moulded-in fastener holes has been investigated in this paper. Braided laminates were manufactured by vacuum infusion process using 12 K T700S carbon fibres (for bias and axial tows) and Araldite LY-564 epoxy resin. Moulded-in fastener holes were formed using guide pins which were inserted in the braided structure prior to the vacuum infusion process. The damage mechanism of the specimens was investigated using ultrasonic C-Scan technique. The specimens were dimensioned to obtain a bearing mode of failure. The bearing strength of the specimens with moulded-in hole was reduced in comparison to the specimens with drilled hole, due to the increased fibre misalignment angle following the pin insertion procedure. An improvement on the bearing strength of moulded-in hole specimens might be developed if the specimen dimensions would be prepared for a net-tension mode of failure where the fibre misalignment would not have an effect as significant as in the case of bearing failure mode, but this mode should be avoided since it leads to sudden catastrophic failures.

  14. Bolted Joints in Three Axially Braided Carbon Fibre/Epoxy Textile Composites with Moulded-in and Drilled Fastener Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataş, Akın; Gautam, Mayank; Soutis, Constantinos; Potluri, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Experimental behaviour of bolted joints in triaxial braided (0°/±45°) carbon fibre/epoxy composite laminates with drilled and moulded-in fastener holes has been investigated in this paper. Braided laminates were manufactured by vacuum infusion process using 12 K T700S carbon fibres (for bias and axial tows) and Araldite LY-564 epoxy resin. Moulded-in fastener holes were formed using guide pins which were inserted in the braided structure prior to the vacuum infusion process. The damage mechanism of the specimens was investigated using ultrasonic C-Scan technique. The specimens were dimensioned to obtain a bearing mode of failure. The bearing strength of the specimens with moulded-in hole was reduced in comparison to the specimens with drilled hole, due to the increased fibre misalignment angle following the pin insertion procedure. An improvement on the bearing strength of moulded-in hole specimens might be developed if the specimen dimensions would be prepared for a net-tension mode of failure where the fibre misalignment would not have an effect as significant as in the case of bearing failure mode, but this mode should be avoided since it leads to sudden catastrophic failures.

  15. Minimizing fouling at hydrogenated conical-tip carbon electrodes during dopamine detection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Shaneel; Miller, Anthony D; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Philip J; Wong, Danny K Y

    2014-03-04

    In this paper, physically small conical-tip carbon electrodes (∼2-5 μm diameter and ∼4 μm axial length) were hydrogenated to develop a probe capable of withstanding fouling during dopamine detection in vivo. Upon hydrogenation, the resultant hydrophobic sp(3) carbon surface deters adsorption of amphiphilic lipids, proteins, and peptides present in extracellular fluid and hence minimizes electrode fouling. These hydrogenated carbon electrodes showed a 35% decrease in sensitivity but little change in the limit of detection for dopamine over a 7-day incubation in a synthetic laboratory solution containing 1.0% (v/v) caproic acid (a lipid), 0.1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin and 0.01% (w/v) cytochrome C (both are proteins), and 0.002% (w/v) human fibrinopeptide B (a peptide). Subsequently, during dopamine detection in vivo, over 70% of the dopamine oxidation current remained after the first 30 min of a 60-min experiment, and at least 50% remained over the next half-period at the hydrogenated carbon electrodes. On the basis of these results, an initial average electrode surface fouling rate of 1.2% min(-1) was estimated, which gradually declined to 0.7% min(-1). These results support minimal fouling at hydrogenated carbon electrodes applied to dopamine detection in vivo.

  16. Optimization of basic dye removal by oil palm fibre-based activated carbon using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L

    2008-10-30

    Oil palm fibre was used to prepare activated carbon using physiochemical activation method which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gasification. The effects of three preparation variables: the activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation (KOH:char) ratio on methylene blue (MB) uptake from aqueous solutions and activated carbon yield were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), a quadratic model and a two factor interaction (2FI) model were respectively developed to correlate the preparation variables to the MB uptake and carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the significant factors on each experimental design response were identified. The optimum activated carbon prepared from oil palm fibre was obtained by using activation temperature of 862 degrees C, activation time of 1h and chemical impregnation ratio of 3.1. The optimum activated carbon showed MB uptake of 203.83 mg/g and activated carbon yield of 16.50%. The equilibrium data for adsorption of MB on the optimum activated carbon were well represented by the Langmuir isotherm, giving maximum monolayer adsorption capacity as high as 400mg/g at 30 degrees C.

  17. Investigating of the Field Emission Performance on Nano-Apex Carbon Fiber and Tungsten Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Marwan S.; Alnawasreh, Shadi; Madanat, Mazen A.; Al-Rabadi, Anas N.

    2015-10-01

    Field electron emission measurements have been performed on carbon-based and tungsten microemitters. Several samples of both types of emitters with different apex radii have been obtained employing electrolytic etching techniques using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with different molarities depending on the material used. A suitable, home-built, field electron microscope (FEM) with 10 mm tip to screen separation distance was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. Measurements were carried out under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions with base pressure of 10-9 mbar. The current-voltage characteristics (I-V) presented as Fowler-Nordheim (FN) type plots, and field electron emission images have been recorded. In this work, initial comparison of the field electron emission performance of these micro and nanoemitters has been carried out, with the aim of obtaining a reliable, stable and long life powerful electron source. We compare the apex radii measured from the micrographs obtained from the SEM images to those extracted from the FN-type _I-V_plots for carbon fibers and tungsten tips.

  18. Contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibre bundles from mice deficient in carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed

    Beekley, Matthew D; Wetzel, Petra; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Gros, Gerolf

    2006-07-01

    The function of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozyme II is largely unknown in skeletal muscle. Because of this, we compared the in vitro contractile properties of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) fibre bundles from mice deficient in CA II (CAD) to litter mate controls (LM). Twitch rise, 1/2 relaxation time and peak twitch force at 22 degrees C of fibre bundles from CAD EDL [28.4+/-1.4 ms, 31.2+/-2.3 ms, 6.2+/-1.0 Newton/cm(2) (N/cm(2)), respectively] and CAD SOL (54.2+/-7.5 ms, 75.7+/-13.8 ms, 2.9+/-0.5 N/cm(2), respectively) were significantly higher compared to LM EDL (20.5+/-2.2 ms, 21.9+/-3.7 ms, 4.5+/-0.2 N/cm(2)) and LM SOL (42.8+/-3.5 ms, 51.4+/-2.4 ms, 2.1+/-0.4 N/cm(2)). However, in acidic Krebs-Henseleit solution, mimicking the pH, PCO(2), and HCO(3) (-) of arterial blood from CAD mice, twitch rise, 1/2 relaxation time, and peak twitch force of fibre bundles from CAD EDL (19.3+/-0.7 ms, 19.7+/-2.3 ms, 4.8+/-0.8 N/cm(2)) and CAD SOL (41.4+/-3.6 ms, 51.9+/-5.5 ms, 2.2+/-0.7 N/cm(2)) were not significantly different from LM fibre bundles in normal Krebs-Henseleit solution (EDL: 19.7+/-1.1 ms, 21.6+/-0.6 ms, 4.7+/-0.2 N/cm(2); SOL: 42.5+/-3.1 ms, 51.8+/-2.6 ms, 1.8+/-0.3 N/cm(2)). A higher pH(i) during exposure to acidic bathing solution was maintained by CAD EDL (7.37+/-0.02) and CAD SOL (7.33+/-0.05) compared to LM EDL (7.28+/-0.04) and LM SOL (7.22+/-0.02). This suggests that the skeletal muscle of CAD mice possesses an improved defense of pH(i) against elevated pCO(2). In support of this, apparent non-bicarbonate buffer capacity (in mequiv H(+) (pH unit)(-1) (kg cell H(2)O)(-1)) as determined by pH microelectrode was markedly increased in CAD EDL (75.7+/-4.1) and CAD SOL (85.9+/-3.3) compared to LM EDL (39.3+/-4.7) and LM SOL (37.5+/-3.8). Both latter phenomena may be related to the slowed rate of intracellular acidification seen in CAD SOL in comparison with LM SOL upon an increase in PCO(2) of the bath. In conclusion, skeletal

  19. The influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics: an historical overview and the potential future impact of carbon fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Kelvin; Thomas, Richard; Williams, Owen

    2012-07-01

    This paper details the influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics. Initially, research which has previously been carried out in terms of motorcycle dynamics and in particular the impact of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics is discussed. This paper then considers the consequences of these findings with regard to the use of modern materials such as carbon fibre reinforced plastics and the impact they will potentially have on motorcycle dynamics and its simulation.

  20. Carbon fibre versus metal framework in full-arch immediate loading rehabilitations of the maxilla - a cohort clinical study.

    PubMed

    Pera, F; Pesce, P; Solimano, F; Tealdo, T; Pera, P; Menini, M

    2017-05-01

    Frameworks made of carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFRC) seem to be a viable alternative to traditional metal frameworks in implant prosthodontics. CFRC provide stiffness, rigidity and optimal biocompatibility. The aim of the present prospective study was to compare carbon fibre frameworks versus metal frameworks used to rigidly splint implants in full-arch immediate loading rehabilitations. Forty-two patients (test group) were rehabilitated with full-arch immediate loading rehabilitations of the upper jaw (total: 170 implants) following the Columbus Bridge Protocol with four to six implants with distal tilted implants. All patients were treated with resin screw-retained full-arch prostheses endowed with carbon fibre frameworks. The mean follow-up was 22 months (range: 18-24). Differences in the absolute change of bone resorption over time between the two implant sides (mesial and distal) were assessed performing a Mann-Whitney U-test. The outcomes were statistically compared with those of patients rehabilitated following the same protocol but using metal frameworks (control group: 34 patients with 163 implants - data reported in Tealdo, Menini, Bevilacqua, Pera, Pesce, Signori, Pera, Int J Prosthodont, 27, 2014, 207). Ten implants failed in the control group (6·1%); none failed in the test group (P = 0·002). A statistically significant difference in the absolute change of bone resorption around the implants was found between the two groups (P = 0·004), with greater mean peri-implant bone resorption in the control group (1 mm) compared to the test group (0·8 mm). Carbon fibre frameworks may be considered as a viable alternative to the metal ones and showed less marginal bone loss around implants and a greater implant survival rate during the observation period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clinical application of carbon fibre reinforced plastic leg orthosis for polio survivors and its advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, K; Makino, K; Wada, F; Saeki, S; Yoshimoto, N; Arai, M

    2006-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out on the clinical application and features of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic leg orthosis (carbon orthosis) for polio survivors. The subjects comprised 9 polio survivors, and 11 carbon knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) were prescribed, fabricated, and checked out at the authors' post-polio clinic. Walking was classified based on the functional ambulatory category, and the features of walking with a carbon orthosis were self-evaluated by using a visual analogue scale. The period from modelling a cast to completion was 55 +/- 25 days; the weight of a carbon KAFO was 27.8% lighter than that of the ordinary KAFO; the standard carbon KAFO was 50% more expensive than the ordinary KAFO. The carbon KAFO remained undamaged for at least 2 years. It improved the scores in the functional ambulation categories, but there was no difference between walking with an ordinary and with a carbon KAFO. The self-evaluation of walking with a carbon KAFO revealed that the subjects using a carbon KAFO were satisfied with their carbon KAFO. The carbon KAFO is lightweight, durable, slim and smart, and is positively indicated for polio survivors.

  2. Evaluation of the nanotube intrinsic resistance across the tip-carbon nanotube-metal substrate junction by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Using an atomic force microscope (AFM) at a controlled contact force, we report the electrical signal response of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) disposed on a golden thin film. In this investigation, we highlight first the theoretical calculation of the contact resistance between two types of conductive tips (metal-coated and doped diamond-coated), individual MWCNTs and golden substrate. We also propose a circuit analysis model to schematize the «tip-CNT-substrate» junction by means of a series-parallel resistance network. We estimate the contact resistance R of each contribution of the junction such as Rtip-CNT, RCNT-substrate and Rtip-substrate by using the Sharvin resistance model. Our final objective is thus to deduce the CNT intrinsic radial resistance taking into account the calculated electrical resistance values with the global resistance measured experimentally. An unwished electrochemical phenomenon at the tip apex has also been evidenced by performing measurements at different bias voltages with diamond tips. For negative tip-substrate bias, a systematic degradation in color and contrast of the electrical cartography occurs, consisting of an important and non-reversible increase of the measured resistance. This effect is attributed to the oxidation of some amorphous carbon areas scattered over the diamond layer covering the tip. For a direct polarization, the CNT and substrate surface can in turn be modified by an oxidation mechanism. PMID:21711904

  3. Evaluation of the nanotube intrinsic resistance across the tip-carbon nanotube-metal substrate junction by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dominiczak, Maguy; Otubo, Larissa; Alamarguy, David; Houzé, Frédéric; Volz, Sebastian; Noël, Sophie; Bai, Jinbo

    2011-04-14

    Using an atomic force microscope (AFM) at a controlled contact force, we report the electrical signal response of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) disposed on a golden thin film. In this investigation, we highlight first the theoretical calculation of the contact resistance between two types of conductive tips (metal-coated and doped diamond-coated), individual MWCNTs and golden substrate. We also propose a circuit analysis model to schematize the «tip-CNT-substrate» junction by means of a series-parallel resistance network. We estimate the contact resistance R of each contribution of the junction such as Rtip-CNT, RCNT-substrate and Rtip-substrate by using the Sharvin resistance model. Our final objective is thus to deduce the CNT intrinsic radial resistance taking into account the calculated electrical resistance values with the global resistance measured experimentally. An unwished electrochemical phenomenon at the tip apex has also been evidenced by performing measurements at different bias voltages with diamond tips. For negative tip-substrate bias, a systematic degradation in color and contrast of the electrical cartography occurs, consisting of an important and non-reversible increase of the measured resistance. This effect is attributed to the oxidation of some amorphous carbon areas scattered over the diamond layer covering the tip. For a direct polarization, the CNT and substrate surface can in turn be modified by an oxidation mechanism.

  4. Non-destructive testing of satellite nozzles made of carbon fibre ceramic matrix composite, C/SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Rebelo Kornmeier, J. Hofmann, M.; Schmidt, S.

    2007-10-15

    Carbon fibre ceramic matrix composite materials, C/SiC, are excellent candidates as lightweight structural materials for high performance hot structures such as in aerospace applications. Satellite nozzles are manufactured from C/SiC, using, for instance, the Liquid Polymer Infiltration (LPI) process. In this article the applicability of different non-destructive analysis methods for the characterisation of C/SiC components will be discussed. By using synchrotron and neutron tomography it is possible to characterise the C/SiC material in each desired location or orientation. Synchrotron radiation using tomography on small samples with a resolution of 1.4 {mu}m, i.e. the fibre scale, was used to characterise three dimensionally fibre orientation and integrity, matrix homogeneity and dimensions and distributions of micro pores. Neutron radiation tomography with a resolution of about 300 {mu}m was used to analyse the over-all C/SiC satellite nozzle component with respect to the fibre content. The special solder connection of a C/SiC satellite nozzle to a metallic ring was also successfully analysed by neutron tomography. In addition, the residual stress state of a temperature tested satellite nozzle was analysed non-destructively in depth by neutron diffraction. The results revealed almost zero stress for the principal directions, radial, axial and tangential, which can be considered to be the principal directions.

  5. Assessment of carbon fibre composite fracture fixation plate using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Saidpour, Seyed H

    2006-07-01

    In the internal fixation of fractured bone by means of bone-plates fastened to the bone on its tensile surface, an on-going concern has been the excessive stress shielding of the bone by the excessively-stiff stainless-steel plate. The compressive stress shielding at the fracture-interface immediately after fracture-fixation delays callus formation and bone healing. Likewise, the tensile stress shielding in the layer of bone underneath the plate can cause osteoporosis and decrease in tensile strength of this layer. In this study a novel forearm internal fracture fixation plate made from short carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) was used in an attempt to address the problem. Accordingly, it has been possible to analyse the stress distribution in the composite plates using finite-element modelling. A three-dimensional, quarter-symmetric finite element model was generated for the plate system. The stress state in the underlying bone was examined for several loading conditions. Based on the analytical results the composite plate system is likely to reduce stress-shielding effects at the fracture site when subjected to bending and torsional loads. The design of the plate was further optimised by reducing the width around the innermost holes.

  6. Cryogenic performances of T700 and T800 carbon fibre- epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wang; Rongjin, Huang; Chuanjun, Huang; Zhao, Yuqiang; Li, Shaopeng; Laifeng, Li

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of T700 carbon fibre (T700 CFs) /epoxy composite and T800 CF/epoxy composite were investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties of the unidirectional composite material laminates (0°/90°) at low temperature were studied. The results show that comparing the composite material T700 CFs with T800 CFs, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity performances of T800 CFs (0°/90°) are all smaller than those of T700 CFs. Typically, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of T800 CFs in 0° is very low in the temperature range of 120-300K, which reaches as low as -0.4×10-6 K-1. The value of thermal conductivity of this material at 0° is about 3.2 W.(m.K)-1 at room temperature. Tensile and compression tests indicate that the tensile strength of T800 CFs in 0° direction at 77K reaches 2310 MPa, while the compressive strength is about 852 MPa. This composite material may possibly be exploited to design the critical components for practical applications such as hydrogen storage tanks.

  7. Effects of activated carbon fibre-supported metal oxide characteristics on toluene removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Peng, Yu-Hui; Li, Wen-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the use of activated carbon fibres (ACFs) impregnated with metal oxides for the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, the effects of the ACF-supported metal oxides on toluene removal are determined in this study. Three catalysts, namely, Ce, Mn, and Cu, two pretreatment solutions NaOH and H2O2, and three reaction temperatures of 250 degrees C, 300 degrees C, and 350 degrees C, were employed to determine toluene removal. The composition and morphology of the catalysts were analysed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), and thermo-gravimetric analyser (TGA) to study the effects of the catalyst's characteristics on toluene removal. The results demonstrated that the metal catalysts supported on the ACFs could significantly increase toluene removal. The Mn/ACFs and Cu/ACFs were observed to be most active in toluene removal at a reaction temperature of 250 degrees C with 10% oxygen content. Moreover, the data also indicated that toluene removal was slightly improved after pretreating the ACFs with NaOH and H2O2. The results suggested that surface-metal loading and the surface characteristics of the ACFs were the determinant parameters for toluene removal. Furthermore, the removal of toluene over Mn/ACFs-H202 decreased when the reaction temperature considered was > 300 degrees C.

  8. Effect of cooling rate on mechanical properties of carbon fibre fabric and polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Seok; Kim, Jong Won

    2017-09-01

    In this study, thermoplastic composites were fabricated using carbon fibre fabric and polypropylene. The effects of the cooling rate, which is a process parameter, on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The degree of crystallinity, tensile properties, flexural properties, drop-weight impact, interlaminar fracture toughness, and fracture surface of the fabricated composites were investigated for composites prepared at cooling rates of 0.6, 1.1, 3.2, and 7.1 °C min‑1. The increase in the cooling rate during composite fabrication was found to decrease the stiffness of the composite because the degree of crystallinity of the matrix decreased. In addition, the tensile and flexural properties were somewhat reduced, but the energy absorption and fracture toughness were significantly increased owing to the increased ductility. Therefore, the results of this study can be applied to material-design scenarios in which the tensile and flexural properties are somewhat reduced, but high damage tolerance is required in composite material.

  9. Flame Retardancy of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Sorbitol Based Bioepoxy Composites with Phosphorus-Containing Additives.

    PubMed

    Toldy, Andrea; Niedermann, Péter; Pomázi, Ákos; Marosi, György; Szolnoki, Beáta

    2017-04-27

    Carbon fibre reinforced flame-retarded bioepoxy composites were prepared from commercially available sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE) cured with cycloaliphatic amine hardener. Samples containing 1, 2, and 3% phosphorus (P) were prepared using additive type flame retardants (FRs) resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and their combinations. The fire performance of the composites was investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 tests, and mass loss calorimetry. The effect of FRs on the glass transition temperature, and storage modulus was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), while the mechanical performance was investigated by tensile, bending, and interlaminar shear measurements, as well as by Charpy impact test. In formulations containing both FRs, the presence of RDP, acting mainly in gas phase, ensured balanced gas and solid-phase mechanism leading to best overall fire performance. APP advantageously compensated the plasticizing (storage modulus and glass transition temperature decreasing) effect of RDP in combined formulations; furthermore, it led to increased tensile strength and Charpy impact energy.

  10. Electrodeposition of Polypyrrole and Reduced Graphene Oxide onto Carbon Bundle Fibre as Electrode for Supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Bashid, Hamra Assyaima; Lim, Hong Ngee; Kamaruzaman, Sazlinda; Abdul Rashid, Suraya; Yunus, Robiah; Huang, Nay Ming; Yin, Chun Yang; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Jiang, Zhong Tao; Alagarsamy, Pandikumar

    2017-04-01

    A nanocomposite comprising of polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide was electrodeposited onto a carbon bundle fibre (CBF) through a two-step approach (CBF/PPy-rGO-2). The CBF/PPy-rGO-2 had a highly porous structure compared to a nanocomposite of polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide that was electrodeposited onto a CBF in a one-step approach (CBF/PPy-rGO), as observed through a field emission scanning electron microscope. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of hydrogen bond between the oxide functional groups of rGO and the amine groups of PPy in PPy-rGO-2 nanocomposite. The fabricated CBF/PPy-rGO-2 nanocomposite material was used as an electrode material in a symmetrical solid-state supercapacitor, and the device yielded a specific capacitance, energy density and power density of 96.16 F g- 1, 13.35 Wh kg- 1 and of 322.85 W kg- 1, respectively. Moreover, the CBF/PPy-rGO-2 showed the capacitance retention of 71% after 500 consecutive charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g- 1. The existence of a high degree of porosity in CBF/PPy-rGO-2 significantly improved the conductivity and facilitated the ionic penetration. The CBF/PPy-rGO-2-based symmetrical solid-state supercapacitor device demonstrated outstanding pliability because the cyclic voltammetric curves remained the same upon bending at various angles.

  11. Highly stable carbon nanotube field emitters on small metal tips against electrical arcing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters that exhibit extremely high stability against high-voltage arcing have been demonstrated. The CNT emitters were fabricated on a sharp copper tip substrate that produces a high electric field. A metal mixture composed of silver, copper, and indium micro- and nanoparticles was used as a binder to attach CNTs to the substrate. Due to the strong adhesion of the metal mixture, CNTs were not detached from the substrate even after many intense arcing events. Through electrical conditioning of the as-prepared CNT emitters, vertically standing CNTs with almost the same heights were formed on the substrate surface and most of loosely bound impurities were removed from the substrate. Consequently, no arcing was observed during the normal operation of the CNT emitters and the emission current remained constant even after intentionally inducing arcing at current densities up to 70 mA/cm2. PMID:23953847

  12. Pulsed ytterbium-doped fibre laser with a combined modulator based on single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudyakov, D. V.; Borodkin, A. A.; Lobach, A. S.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes an all-normal-dispersion pulsed ytterbium-doped fibre ring laser mode-locked by a nonlinear combined modulator based on single-wall carbon nanotubes. We have demonstrated 1.7-ps pulse generation at 1.04 μm with a repetition rate of 35.6 MHz. At the laser output, the pulses were compressed to 180 fs. We have examined an intracavity nonlinear modulator which utilises nonlinear polarisation ellipse rotation in conjunction with a saturable absorber in the form of a polymer-matrix composite film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  13. Pulsed ytterbium-doped fibre laser with a combined modulator based on single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Khudyakov, D V; Borodkin, A A; Vartapetov, S K; Lobach, A S

    2015-09-30

    This paper describes an all-normal-dispersion pulsed ytterbium-doped fibre ring laser mode-locked by a nonlinear combined modulator based on single-wall carbon nanotubes. We have demonstrated 1.7-ps pulse generation at 1.04 μm with a repetition rate of 35.6 MHz. At the laser output, the pulses were compressed to 180 fs. We have examined an intracavity nonlinear modulator which utilises nonlinear polarisation ellipse rotation in conjunction with a saturable absorber in the form of a polymer-matrix composite film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes. (lasers)

  14. Nanoscale Analysis of Interwall Interaction in a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube by Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaunchaiyakul, Songpol; Yano, Takeshi; Khoklang, Kamonchanok; Krukowski, Pawel; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Saito, Akira; Kuwahara, Yuji

    Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool for the study of carbon materials, but its spatial resolution is limited by the optical diffraction limit. Recently, we constructed a scanning tunneling microscope-based tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (STM-TERS) system in ultrahigh vacuum, which overcomes the optical diffraction limit, and enables the investigation of single-molecular Raman spectra simultaneously with topographic imaging. We have investigated position-sensitive Raman spectra along the tube axis of an isolated multiwalled carbon nanotube, which is a result of the different number of nanotube walls at each location. We found that the intensity ratio between the 2D to the G band increases with the number of walls. This indicates that the quantum interference between Raman scattering pathways affects each Raman mode differently. The interaction between nanotube walls induces splitting of the π and π* bands which increases the number of the 2D band scattering pathways owing to double resonance, eventually increasing the probability of scattering for the 2D band relative to the G band. These results provide a deeper understanding of the single-molecule interaction of carbon materials in the nanoscale.

  15. The nanoindentation of a copper substrate by single-walled carbon nanocone tips: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Chuan; Chen, Jun-Liang; Chen, Chien-I; Hwang, Chi-Chuan

    2009-03-04

    This study dealt with deep nanoindentation of a copper substrate with single-walled carbon nanocones (SWCNCs) as the proximal probe tip, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As an important feature, during the indentation the end part of the SWCNC tip will suffer a narrowing effect due to the radial component of resistant compression from the substrate and then forms into a somewhat flat arrowhead-like shape. The effective cross-sectional area of the SWCNC tip inside the substrate that the resistant force is acting on therefore is reduced to lower the normal resistant force on the tip. The narrowing effect is more significant for longer SWCNC tips. Two categories of SWCNCs are therefore classified according to whether the SWCNC tip buckles at its part inside or outside the substrate. SWCNCs of the first category defined in this paper are found able to indent into the substrate up to a desired depth. Further analyses demonstrate that a longer SWCNC tip of the first category will encounter smaller repulsive force during the indentation and thus require less net work to accomplish the indentation process. Raising temperatures will weaken the narrowing effect, so an SWCNC tip of the first category also encounters greater repulsive force and larger net work in the indentation process performed at a higher temperature. Notably, a permanent hollow hole with high aspect ratio will be produced on the copper substrate, while copper atoms in close proximity to the hole are only slightly disordered, especially when the indentation is manipulated at a lower temperature by using a longer SWCNC tip.

  16. Optical fibre sensing during critical care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. U.; Wang, T.; Korposh, S.; Correia, R.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Hromadka, J.; Mohd Hazlan, N. N.; Norris, A.; Evans, D.; Lee, S.-W.; Morgan, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    Optical fibre sensing is a platform technology for applications in biomedical and environmental monitoring. Fibre Bragg Gratings can be used to monitor parameters such as pressure and temperature. Alternatively, coating the fibres with functional layers, either at the tip of the fibre, on a U-shaped fibre, or a long period grating enables sensing of analytes in liquids and gases. This paper describes the application of optical fibre sensing techniques during mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube in critical care. Functional coatings on the fibres are used to monitor humidity of inspired air and can be used to monitor other analytes.

  17. The effect of two fibre impregnation methods on the cytotoxicity of a glass and carbon fibre-reinforced acrylic resin denture base material on oral epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Cumhur; Ozen, Julide; Ural, A Ugur; Dalkiz, Mehmet; Beydemir, Bedri

    2006-09-01

    Acrylic resin dentures may have cytotoxic effects on oral soft tissues. However, there is sparse data about the cytotoxic effect of fibre-reinforced acrylic resin denture base materials. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of two fibre impregnation methods on the cytotoxicity of a glass and carbon fibre-reinforced heat-polymerized acrylic resin denture base material on oral epithelial cells and fibroblasts. One hundred acrylic resin discs were assigned to five experimental groups (n = 20). One of the groups did not include any fibre. Two groups consisted of silane and monomer treated glass fibres (Vetrolex) impregnated into acrylic resin (QC-20) discs. The other two groups consisted of silane and monomer treated carbon fibres (Type Tenox J, HTA). Untreated cell culture was used as positive control. The human oral epithelial cell line and buccal fibroblast cultures were exposed to test specimens. The cytotoxicity of the test materials was determined by succinic dehydrogenase activity (MTT method) after 24 and 72 h exposures. Data were analysed with a statistical software program (SPSSFW, 9.0). A one-way analysis of variance (anova) test and Bonferroni test were used for the comparisons between the groups. All statistical tests were performed at the 0.95 confidence level (P < 0.05). After 24 and 72 h incubation, cell viability percentages of all experimental groups showed significant decrease according to the positive control cell culture. Fibroblastic cell viability percentages of silane and monomer treated fibre-reinforced groups were lower than the unreinforced group. Cell viability of monomer-treated groups displayed the lowest percentages. Elapsed incubation time decreased epithelial cell viability in silane-treated groups. Fibroblastic cell viability was not influenced by elapsed time except the unreinforced group.

  18. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S

    2017-07-13

    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p < 0.001). The stiffness and load to failure of shaft locking screws was significantly decreased when inserted 10 degrees off-axis compared to on-axis in CFR-PEEK plates (p < 0.001). Stiffness and load to failure did not vary significantly following screw reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  19. Carbon/Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Composites from Green Pellets Contain CNTs and Self-adhesive Carbon Grains from Fibres of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraman, Mohamad; Saad, Siti Khatijah Md.; Ishak, Maria M.; Awitdrus, Taer, Erman; Talib, Ibrahim; Omar, Ramli; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj.

    2010-10-01

    Nano composites green pellets (GPs) were prepared from the mixtures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at varying percentage (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunch. These GPs were carbonized and CO2 activated to produce activated carbon/CNTs composites in the form of pellets (ACPs). It was found that the density (ρ) and electrical conductivity (σ) of the ACPs varied nonlinearly with CNTs content; as for the CNTs content of 3-5%, we observed the peak values of ρ and σ at 1.3781 gcm-3 and 3.4146 (Ωcm)-1 respectively. The presence of the agglomerated and individual particles of CNTs in the pores of the ACPs was clearly shown by the micrograph of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The nitrogen adsorption isotherm data showed the decrease in surface area, volume and diameter of pores due to the effect of CNTs. The effect of CNTs on the electrochemical behavior of the ACPs were investigated from the supercapacitor cells fabricated using the ACPs as composite electrodes. It was found that the specific capacitance, energy density and power density of the supercapacitor with electrodes containing 10% CNTs were lower than that with electrodes without CNTs. This result is consistent with the change of pores characteristic due to the presence of CNTs in the ACPs, suggesting the need to optimize the pore characteristic for improving the supercapacitor performance.

  20. A comparison of mechanical properties between different percentage layups of a single-style carbon fibre ankle foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Conor; Figgins, Elaine

    2017-08-01

    Currently, a range of 'off-the-shelf' ankle foot orthoses are used in clinical practice, of various functions and designs. Their use relates to immediate control over mild conditions. To investigate the properties of carbon fibre ankle foot orthoses at different percentage layups and provide a comparison of these through assessment of the (1) elastic properties, (2) deflection about the ankle (including the calculation of stiffness) and (3) failure under compressive forces (dorsiflexion). Experimental, bench test. Literature was reviewed to derive a suitable bench test for mechanical testing of ankle foot orthoses. Two universal Instron machines were used to apply the necessary forces. A pilot device was utilised to establish the range of forces appropriate to confirm the setup chosen was effective. Each test was then carried out on nine ankle foot orthoses (3 × 3 different percentage layups). All nine devices had their elastic properties deduced. Stiffness exhibited greater resistance in tension, with angular deflection being greatest in the 'Lite' set and least in the Rigid. Failure occurred mainly due to fracture, proximally on the strut; however, this was not consistent among the devices. Results confirmed the properties expected of carbon fibre ankle foot orthoses were consistent. This can now be related to functionality and therefore specific device prescription options. Clinical relevance This article attempts to increase the understanding and develop the area of mechanically testing ankle foot orthoses. This was achieved by comparing carbon fibre at different percentage layups on an identical design and their resultant structural properties. This article outlines a clear and simple setup for obtaining repeatable results.

  1. Three-dimensional porous hollow fibre copper electrodes for efficient and high-rate electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction.

    PubMed

    Kas, Recep; Hummadi, Khalid Khazzal; Kortlever, Ruud; de Wit, Patrick; Milbrat, Alexander; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W J; Benes, Nieck E; Koper, Marc T M; Mul, Guido

    2016-02-18

    Aqueous-phase electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide requires an active, earth-abundant electrocatalyst, as well as highly efficient mass transport. Here we report the design of a porous hollow fibre copper electrode with a compact three-dimensional geometry, which provides a large area, three-phase boundary for gas-liquid reactions. The performance of the copper electrode is significantly enhanced; at overpotentials between 200 and 400 mV, faradaic efficiencies for carbon dioxide reduction up to 85% are obtained. Moreover, the carbon monoxide formation rate is at least one order of magnitude larger when compared with state-of-the-art nanocrystalline copper electrodes. Copper hollow fibre electrodes can be prepared via a facile method that is compatible with existing large-scale production processes. The results of this study may inspire the development of new types of microtubular electrodes for electrochemical processes in which at least one gas-phase reactant is involved, such as in fuel cell technology.

  2. Three-dimensional porous hollow fibre copper electrodes for efficient and high-rate electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction

    PubMed Central

    Kas, Recep; Hummadi, Khalid Khazzal; Kortlever, Ruud; de Wit, Patrick; Milbrat, Alexander; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W. J.; Benes, Nieck E.; Koper, Marc T. M.; Mul, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous-phase electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide requires an active, earth-abundant electrocatalyst, as well as highly efficient mass transport. Here we report the design of a porous hollow fibre copper electrode with a compact three-dimensional geometry, which provides a large area, three-phase boundary for gas–liquid reactions. The performance of the copper electrode is significantly enhanced; at overpotentials between 200 and 400 mV, faradaic efficiencies for carbon dioxide reduction up to 85% are obtained. Moreover, the carbon monoxide formation rate is at least one order of magnitude larger when compared with state-of-the-art nanocrystalline copper electrodes. Copper hollow fibre electrodes can be prepared via a facile method that is compatible with existing large-scale production processes. The results of this study may inspire the development of new types of microtubular electrodes for electrochemical processes in which at least one gas-phase reactant is involved, such as in fuel cell technology. PMID:26888578

  3. Three-dimensional porous hollow fibre copper electrodes for efficient and high-rate electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Recep; Hummadi, Khalid Khazzal; Kortlever, Ruud; de Wit, Patrick; Milbrat, Alexander; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W. J.; Benes, Nieck E.; Koper, Marc T. M.; Mul, Guido

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous-phase electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide requires an active, earth-abundant electrocatalyst, as well as highly efficient mass transport. Here we report the design of a porous hollow fibre copper electrode with a compact three-dimensional geometry, which provides a large area, three-phase boundary for gas-liquid reactions. The performance of the copper electrode is significantly enhanced; at overpotentials between 200 and 400 mV, faradaic efficiencies for carbon dioxide reduction up to 85% are obtained. Moreover, the carbon monoxide formation rate is at least one order of magnitude larger when compared with state-of-the-art nanocrystalline copper electrodes. Copper hollow fibre electrodes can be prepared via a facile method that is compatible with existing large-scale production processes. The results of this study may inspire the development of new types of microtubular electrodes for electrochemical processes in which at least one gas-phase reactant is involved, such as in fuel cell technology.

  4. Analysis, design and development of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic knee-ankle-foot orthosis prototype for myopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Granata, C; De Lollis, A; Campo, G; Piancastelli, L; Merlini, L

    1990-01-01

    A traditional knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) for myopathic patients has been studied for the assessment of loads and fatigue resistance. Starting from this basis a thermoplastic matrix carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite (CFRP) KAFO has been developed in order to reduce the weight. A finite-element simulation programme for deformation analysis was used to compare the behaviour of conventional and CFRP orthosis. There were no breakages either of the prototype or of its parts. The CFRP orthosis allows a weight reduction of more than 40 per cent.

  5. Phase-Imaging with a Sharpened Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube AFM Tip: Investigation of Low-k Dielectric Polymer Hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Stevens, Ramsey M.; Meyyappan, M.; Volksen, Willi; Miller, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Phase shift tapping mode scanning force microscopy (TMSFM) has evolved into a very powerful technique for the nanoscale surface characterization of compositional variations in heterogeneous samples. Phase shift signal measures the difference between the phase angle of the excitation signal and the phase angle of the cantilever response. The signal correlates to the tip-sample inelastic interactions, identifying the different chemical and/or physical property of surfaces. In general, the resolution and quality of scanning probe microscopic images are highly dependent on the size of the scanning probe tip. In improving AFM tip technology, we recently developed a technique for sharpening the tip of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) AFM tip, reducing the radius of curvature of the CNT tip to less than 5 nm while still maintaining the inherent stability of multi-walled CNT tips. Herein we report the use of sharpened (CNT) AFM tips for phase-imaging of polymer hybrids, a precursor for generating nanoporous low-k dielectrics for on-chip interconnect applications. Using sharpened CNT tips, we obtained phase-contrast images having domains less than 10 nm. In contrast, conventional Si tips and unsharpened CNT tips (radius greater than 15 nm) were not able to resolve the nanoscale domains in the polymer hybrid films. C1early, the size of the CNT tip contributes significantly to the resolution of phase-contrast imaging. In addition, a study on the nonlinear tapping dynamics of the multi-walled CNT tip indicates that the multi-walled CNT tip is immune to conventional imaging instabilities related to the coexistence of attractive and repulsive tapping regimes. This factor may also contribute to the phase-contrast image quality of multi-walled CNT AFM tips. This presentation will also offer data in support of the stability of the CNT tip for phase shift TMSFM.

  6. Role of negatively charged ions in plasma on the growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, Aarti; Walia, Ritu; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2012-01-15

    The role of negatively charged ions in plasma on growth (without catalyst) and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube (CNT) tip has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, negatively and positively charged ions, neutral atoms, and the energy balance of various species has been developed. Numerical calculations of the spherical CNT tip radius for different relative density of negatively charged ions {epsilon}{sub r}(=n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}}/n{sub C{sup +}}, where n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}} and n{sub C}{sup +} are the equilibrium densities of sulphur hexafluoride and carbon ions, respectively) have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the spherical CNT tip radius decreases with {epsilon}{sub r} and hence the field emission of electrons from the spherical CNT tip increases. Some of our theoretical results are in accordance with the existing experimental observations.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of the heating dynamics of carbon-containing optothermal fibre converters for laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Kurnyshev, V. Yu; Shatilova, K. V.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied carbon-containing optothermal fibre converters (COTFCs) that are located on the distal end of a quartz - quartz optical fibre for delivering laser radiation in medical laser surgery systems and differ in the thickness and structure of the layer of a material converting laser radiation into heat. The heating dynamics of 'thin-film' and '3D' converters have been investigated at average incident 980-nm semiconductor laser beam powers of 0.3, 1.0 and 4.0 W, with the converters placed freely in air. The results demonstrate that, before the instant of disintegration, the efficiency of laser heating of the converter surface can reach 3000 °C W-1 for thin-film converters, 1000 °C W-1 for spherical 3D converters and 55 °C W-1 for planar 3D converters. The thin-film converter breaks down at an average laser beam power as low as 0.30 +/- 0.05 W, which is accompanied by a considerable reduction in heating efficiency and is caused by the disintegration of the carbon film on its surface. The spherical 3D converter breaks down at an average power of 4.0 +/- 0.1 W, as a result of the disintegration of the carbon film on its surface and partial melting of a modified layer containing microbubbles. The carbon film on the surface of the planar 3D converter also disintegrates at an average power of 4.0 +/- 0.1 W, but the structure of the modified layer remains unchanged. We have constructed structural and optophysical models of the converters by simulating light absorption in carbon films on the surface of the COTFC and inside the microbubbles present in the modified layer of the converters. The proposed models of the COTFCs have been shown to adequately describe real converters.

  8. Fracture characteristics of carbon fibre, ceramic and non-palladium endodontic post systems at monotonously increasing loads.

    PubMed

    Ottl, P; Hahn, L; Lauer, H Ch; Fay, M

    2002-02-01

    A carbon fibre post system, three non-palladium and one palladium metal post systems, two ceramic post systems, and a metal post system with a ceramic core were studied in vitro. The control group consisted of root-filled test teeth without posts. The test teeth were identical artificial roots of an upper central incisor made from a posterior composite whose module of elasticity was similar to that of natural dentine. All posts were cemented in the roots using Panavia 21 TC. Subsequently, standardized full crowns were cemented onto all roots. On a universal testing machine, the test teeth were loaded palatally at monotonously increasing loads until root fracture. The highest mean fracture loads were found for the carbon fibre post system (312.5 +/- 58.8 N). The fracture load of non-palladium metal posts (242.3-300.4 N) did not differ significantly from that of the Perma-dor post (265.9 N), which does contain palladium. Values of 300.3 +/- 89.3 N (aluminium oxide ceramics) and 193.5 +/-57.0 N (zirconia ceramics) were found for the ceramic posts. The control group exhibited a fracture load of 228.8 +/- 35.7 N. The mean distance between the vestibular end of the fracture gap and the point of force application was between 10.1 +/- 2.3 and 14.7 +/- 1.2 mm.

  9. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotube tips allowing fabrication of new classes of nanoscale sensing and manipulation tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A. (Inventor); Shapiro, Ian R. (Inventor); Collier, Charles Patrick (Inventor); Esplandiu, Maria J. (Inventor); Bittner, Jr., Vern Garrett (Inventor); Giapis, Konstantinos P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Embodiments in accordance with the present invention relate to techniques for the growth and attachment of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), facilitating their use as robust and well-characterized tools for AFM imaging and other applications. In accordance with one embodiment, SWNTs attached to an AFM tip can function as a structural scaffold for nanoscale device fabrication on a scanning probe. Such a probe can trigger, with nanometer precision, specific biochemical reactions or conformational changes in biological systems. The consequences of such triggering can be observed in real time by single-molecule fluorescence, electrical, and/or AFM sensing. Specific embodiments in accordance with the present invention utilize sensing and manipulation of individual molecules with carbon nanotubes, coupled with single-molecule fluorescence imaging, to allow observation of spectroscopic signals in response to mechanically induced molecular changes. Biological macromolecules such as proteins or DNA can be attached to nanotubes to create highly specific single-molecule probes for investigations of intermolecular dynamics, for assembling hybrid biological and nanoscale materials, or for developing molecular electronics. In one example, electrical wiring of single redox enzymes to carbon nanotube scanning probes allows observation and electrochemical control over single enzymatic reactions by monitoring fluorescence from a redox-active cofactor or the formation of fluorescent products. Enzymes ''nanowired'' to the tips of carbon nanotubes in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, may enable extremely sensitive probing of biological stimulus-response with high spatial resolution, including product-induced signal transduction.

  10. Fibre based cellular transfection.

    PubMed

    Tsampoula, X; Taguchi, K; Cizmár, T; Garces-Chavez, V; Ma, N; Mohanty, S; Mohanty, K; Gunn-Moore, F; Dholakia, K

    2008-10-13

    Optically assisted transfection is emerging as a powerful and versatile method for the delivery of foreign therapeutic agents to cells at will. In particular the use of ultrashort pulse lasers has proved an important route to transiently permeating the cell membrane through a multiphoton process. Though optical transfection has been gaining wider usage to date, all incarnations of this technique have employed free space light beams. In this paper we demonstrate the first system to use fibre delivery for the optical transfection of cells. We engineer a standard optical fibre to generate an axicon tip with an enhanced intensity of the remote output field that delivers ultrashort (~ 800 fs) pulses without requiring the fibre to be placed in very close proximity to the cell sample. A theoretical model is also developed in order to predict the light propagation from axicon tipped and bare fibres, in both air and water environments. The model proves to be in good agreement with the experimental findings and can be used to establish the optimum fibre parameters for successful cellular transfection. We readily obtain efficiencies of up to 57 % which are comparable with free space transfection. This advance paves the way for optical transfection of tissue samples and endoscopic embodiments of this technique.

  11. Laser heating dynamics and glow spectra of carbon-, titanium- and erbium-containing optothermal fibre converters for laser medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    Titanium- and erbium-containing optothermal fibre converters of laser radiation mounted at the distal end of quartz-quartz optical fibre are discussed for the first time. Technology of fabricating such converters is described. Carbon-containing converters are also considered. The laser heating dynamics of the converters and the glow spectra are studied by irradiating converters of each type by a 980 ± 10 nm semiconductor laser with an average power up to 4 W. It is shown that alongside with broadband thermal radiation accompanying the laser heating of all three types of converters in the temperature range 600-1100 °C, only in the spectrum of the erbium-containing converter the intense bands with the maxima at wavelengths 493, 523, 544, 660, and 798 nm, corresponding to the erbium radiative transitions 4F7/2 → 4I15/2, 2H11/2 → 4I15/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 and 4I9/2 → 4I15/2, respectively, are present. Such converters can be used in laser medicine for tissue surgery as well as in procedures combining laser, thermal, biostimulation or photodynamic action.

  12. Acoustic Emission Source Location in Unidirectional Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Plates Using Virtually Trained Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Caprino, G.; Lopresto, V.; Leone, C.; Papa, I.

    2010-06-02

    Acoustic emission source location in a unidirectional carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic plate was attempted employing Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technology. The acoustic emission events were produced by a lead break, and the response wave received by piezoelectric sensors, type VS150-M resonant at 150 kHz. The waves were detected by a Vallen AMSY4 eight-channel instrumentation. The time of arrival, determined through the conventional threshold crossing technique, was used to measure the dependence of wave velocity on fibre orientation. A simple empirical formula, relying on classical lamination and suggested by wave propagation theory, was able to accurately model the experimental trend. Based on the formula, virtual training and testing data sets were generated for the case of a plate monitored by three transducers, and adopted to select two potentially effective ANN architectures. For final validation, experimental tests were carried out, positioning the source at predetermined points evenly distributed within the plate area. A very satisfactory correlation was found between the actual source locations and the ANN predictions.

  13. Effect of UV and electrochemical surface treatments on the adsorption and reaction of linear alcohols on non-porous carbon fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osbeck, S.; Ward, S.; Idriss, H.

    2013-04-01

    The adsorption properties of untreated, electrochemically treated and ultra-violet/ozone treated polyacrylonitrile based carbon fibres were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) on a series of linear alcohols as probes in order to understand its surface properties. Surface uptake was found to be sensitive to both the surface treatment and the nature of the adsorbates. Surface coverage increased with increasing alcohol chain due to the increase in their polarizability. It also increased with the level of surface oxygen of the fibres most likely because it facilitates the Osbnd H bond dissociation of the alcohol functional group. In addition, the desorption temperature (during TPD) tracked the surface oxygen levels (as determined from XPS O1s signal) suggesting increasing in the adsorption energy. The reactions of C1-C4 linear alcohols were also investigated on the surface of the fibre carbon. The main reaction was dehydrogenation to the corresponding aldehydes; the dehydration reaction to olefins was not observed. The dehydrogenation reaction was sensitive to the length of the alky chain. It was highest for methanol (to formaldehyde) and decreased with increasing the carbon number. Overall TPD of linear alcohols was shown to be a promising method for quantifying the level and strength of bonding occurring on carbon fibre surfaces.

  14. Separation of CO2-CH4 mixtures on defective single walled carbon nanohorns--tip does matter.

    PubMed

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; Terzyk, Artur P; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Kaneko, Katsumi; Gauden, Piotr A

    2013-10-21

    Using realistic models of single-walled carbon nanohorns and their single-walled carbon nanotube counterparts, we study the equilibrium separation of CO2-CH4 mixtures near ambient operating conditions by using molecular simulations. We show that regardless of the studied operating conditions (i.e., total CO2-CH4 mixture pressures and mole fractions of mixture components in the bulk phase), single-walled carbon nanohorns maximize the CO2-CH4 equilibrium separation factor. Optimized samples of single-walled carbon nanohorns consisting of narrow tubular parts capped with horn-shaped tips show highly selective adsorption of CO2 over the CH4 mixture component, with the CO2-CH4 equilibrium separation factor of ~8-12. A large surface-to-volume ratio (i.e., enhanced surface forces) and unique defective morphology (i.e., packing of adsorbed molecules in quasi-one/quasi-zero dimensional nanospaces) of single-walled carbon nanohorns are their key structural properties responsible for the excellent separation performance. Our theoretical simulation results are in quantitative agreement with a recent experimental/theoretical study of the CO2-CH4 adsorption and separation on oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns [Ohba et al., Chem. Lett., 40, 2011, 1089]. Both experiment and theory showed that the CO2-CH4 equilibrium separation factor of oxidized samples of single-walled nanohorns measured near ambient operating conditions is ~2-5. This reduction in the separation efficiency as compared to optimized samples of single-walled carbon nanohorns is theoretically justified by their lower surface-to-volume ratio (i.e., larger diameters of tubular parts and horn-shaped tips).

  15. High throughput nanofabrication of silicon nanowire and carbon nanotube tips on AFM probes by stencil-deposited catalysts.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Daniel S; Savu, Veronica; Zhu, Xueni; Bu, Ian Y Y; Milne, William I; Brugger, Juergen; Boggild, Peter

    2011-04-13

    A new and versatile technique for the wafer scale nanofabrication of silicon nanowire (SiNW) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) tips on atomic force microscope (AFM) probes is presented. Catalyst material for the SiNW and MWNT growth was deposited on prefabricated AFM probes using aligned wafer scale nanostencil lithography. Individual vertical SiNWs were grown epitaxially by a catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process and MWNTs were grown by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) process on the AFM probes. The AFM probes were tested for imaging micrometers-deep trenches, where they demonstrated a significantly better performance than commercial high aspect ratio tips. Our method demonstrates a reliable and cost-efficient route toward wafer scale manufacturing of SiNW and MWNT AFM probes.

  16. Effect of doping on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip placed over cylindrical surface

    SciTech Connect

    Santolia, Isha; Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku

    2014-06-15

    Theoretical investigations to study the effect of doping of hetero-atoms on the growth and field emission properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) tip placed over a cylindrical surface in complex plasma have been carried out. A theoretical model incorporating kinetics of plasma species such as electron, ions, and neutral atoms including doping elements like nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and energy balance of CNTs in a complex plasma has been developed. The effect of doping elements of N and B on the growth of CNTs, namely, the tip radius has been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that N and B as doping elements affect the radius of CNTs extensively. We obtain small radii of CNT doped with N and large radius of CNT doped with B. The field emission characteristics from CNTs have therefore been suggested on the basis of results obtained. Some of theoretical results are in compliance with the existing experimental observations.

  17. Role of carbon nanotube interlayer in enhancing the electron field emission behavior of ultrananocrystalline diamond coated Si-tip arrays.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Hsun; Kunuku, Srinivasu; Kurian, Joji; Manekkathodi, Afsal; Chen, Lih-Juann; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2015-04-15

    We improved the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films grown on Si-tip arrays by using the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as interlayer and post-treating the films in CH4/Ar/H2 plasma. The use of CNTs interlayer effectively suppresses the presence of amorphous carbon in the diamond-to-Si interface that enhances the transport of electrons from Si, across the interface, to diamond. The post-treatment process results in hybrid-granular-structured diamond (HiD) films via the induction of the coalescence of the ultrasmall grains in these films that enhanced the conductivity of the films. All these factors contribute toward the enhancement of the electron field emission (EFE) process for the HiDCNT/Si-tip emitters, with low turn-on field of E0 = 2.98 V/μm and a large current density of 1.68 mA/cm(2) at an applied field of 5.0 V/μm. The EFE lifetime stability under an operation current of 6.5 μA was improved substantially to τHiD/CNT/Si-tip = 365 min. Interestingly, these HiDCNT/Si-tip materials also show enhanced plasma illumination behavior, as well as improved robustness against plasma ion bombardment when they are used as the cathode for microplasma devices. The study concludes that the use of CNT interlayers not only increase the potential of these materials as good EFE emitters, but also prove themselves to be good microplasma devices with improved performance.

  18. Corrosive effect of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic on stainless-steel screws during implantation into man.

    PubMed

    Tayton, K

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion of stainless-steel screws used to fix carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to human fractures was compared with the corrosion on similar screws used to fix stainless-steel AO plates. Corrosive changes were noted in both sets of screws with similar frequency and severity; however, the stainless-steel plates were 'in situ' almost twice as long as the CFRP ones, showing that the corrosive changes occurred more rapidly on screws in contact with CFRP. Nevertheless, over the implantation time necessary for bone healing, corrosion was very mild and there is no clinical contra-indication to the use of stainless-steel and CFRP together in this particular application.

  19. Investigating the use of endogenous quinoid moieties on carbon fibre as means of developing micro pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ashleigh; Phair, Jolene; Benson, John; Meenan, Brian; Davis, James

    2014-10-01

    The redox profile obtained from electrochemically oxidised carbon fibre was exploited as a foundation from which to design a reusable pH probe. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the surface after anodisation revealed an increase in the population of endogenous quinone moieties. Square wave voltammograms recorded in various buffer solutions (pH3-9) yielded a distinct and unambiguous oxidation process through which to ascribe the peak potential - with the latter found to shift in a sub-Nernstian (-0.052 V/pH) manner. The design of a discrete 2-electrode reusable probe which provides a rapid assessment of pH is described and a preliminary characterisation of the electrochemical performance is critically assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanerva, M.; Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J. M.; Revitzer, H.; Sarlin, E.; Brander, T.; Saarela, O.

    2015-02-01

    Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten-CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔGc≈ 8.4 J/m2.

  1. Laser treatment of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic matrix for adhesive bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genna, S.; Leone, C.; Ucciardello, N.; Giuliani, M.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, laser surface treatment of CFRP made of PPS thermoplastic matrix by means of a 30 W Q-Switched Yb:YAG fiber laser, is investigated with the aim to improve adhesive bonding. The process parameters pulse power, scanning speed, hatch distance and scanning strategy, were varied to the aim to study the influence of the process condition on the first top resin layer removal and fibre damage. The operating window was experimentally determined. The effectiveness of laser treatment was verified by single lap shear test.

  2. A preliminary biomechanical study of a novel carbon-fibre hip implant versus standard metallic hip implants.

    PubMed

    Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Rad; Dubov, Anton; Shah, Suraj; Khurshid, Shaheen; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a widespread surgical approach for treating severe osteoarthritis of the human hip. Aseptic loosening of standard metallic hip implants due to stress shielding and bone loss has motivated the development of new materials for hip prostheses. Numerically, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model that mimicked hip implants was used to compare a new hip stem to two commercially available implants. The hip implants simulated were a novel CF/PA12 carbon-fibre polyamide-based composite hip stem, the Exeter hip stem (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA), and the Omnifit Eon (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA). A virtual axial load of 3 kN was applied to the FE model. Strain and stress distributions were computed. Experimentally, the three hip stems had their distal portions rigidly mounted and had strain gauges placed along the surface at 3 medial and 3 lateral locations. Axial loads of 3 kN were applied. Measurements of axial stiffness and strain were taken and compared to FE analysis. The overall linear correlation between FE model versus experimental strains showed reasonable results for the lines-of-best-fit for the Composite (Pearson R(2)=0.69, slope=0.82), Exeter (Pearson R(2)=0.78, slope=0.59), and Omnifit (Pearson R(2)=0.66, slope=0.45), with some divergence for the most distal strain locations. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite stem was much lower than that in the Omnifit and Exeter implants by 200% and 45%, respectively. The preliminary experiments showed that the Composite stem stiffness (1982 N/mm) was lower than the metallic hip stem stiffnesses (Exeter, 2460 N/mm; Omnifit, 2543 N/mm). This is the first assessment of stress, strain, and stiffness of the CF/PA12 carbon-fibre hip stem compared to standard commercially-available devices.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Tip Probes: Stability and Lateral Resolution in Scanning Probe Microscopy and Application to Surface Science to Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Chao, Kuo-Jen; Stevens, Ramsey M. D.; Delzeit, Lance; Cassell, Alan; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present results on the stability and lateral resolution capability of carbon nanotube (CNT) scanning probes as applied to atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface topography images of ultra-thin films (2-5 nm thickness) obtained with AFM are used to illustrate the lateral resolution capability of single-walled carbon nanotube probes. Images of metal films prepared by ion beam sputtering exhibit grain sizes ranging from greater than 10 nm to as small as approximately 2 nm for gold and iridium respectively. In addition, imaging stability and lifetime of multi-walled carbon nanotube scanning probes are studied on a relatively hard surface of silicon nitride (Si3N4). AFM images Of Si3N4 surface collected after more than 15 hrs of continuous scanning show no detectable degradation in lateral resolution. These results indicate the general feasibility of CNT tips and scanning probe microscopy for examining nanometer-scale surface features of deposited metals as well as non-conductive thin films. AFM coupled with CNT tips offers a simple and nondestructive technique for probing a variety of surfaces, and has immense potential as a surface characterization tool in integrated circuit manufacturing.

  4. Application of Al2O3:C+fibre dosimeters for 290 MeV/n carbon therapeustic beam dosimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, L. F.; Vanhavere, F.; Kodaira, S.; Kitamura, H.; Verellen, D.; De Deene, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The capability of radioluminescence (RL) dosimeters composed of carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) detectors+optical fibre has been verified for absorbed dose-rate measurements during carbon radiotherapy. The RL signals from two separate Al2O3:C detectors (single crystal 'CG' and droplet 'P1') have been systematically measured and compared along the Bragg-curve and Spread-Out Bragg-Peak of 290 MeV/n carbon beams in the water. The absorbed dose response was assessed for the range of 0.5-10 Gy. For doses up to 6 Gy, we observed a linear response for both types of detectors, while for higher doses CG presented a more prominent supraliearity than P1. The RL response for low-LET protons in the entrance from the curve was found to closely resemble that observed for a clinical 6 MV X-ray beam, while it was found that P1 has a better agreement with the reference data from standard ionization chamber than CG. We observed a significant decrease in luminescence efficiency with LET in the Bragg peak region. The Al2O3:C RL luminescence efficiency differs from Al2O3:C OSL results, which implies that the signal can be corrected for LET dependency to match the correct SOBP and Bragg Peak.

  5. Characterization and analysis of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminates with embedded circular vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C.-Y.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the influence of embedded circular hollow vascules on structural performance of a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminate is presented. Incorporating such vascules will lead to multi-functional composites by bestowing functions such as self-healing and active thermal management. However, the presence of off-axis vascules leads to localized disruption to the fibre architecture, i.e. resin-rich pockets, which are regarded as internal defects and may cause stress concentrations within the structure. Engineering approaches for creating these simple vascule geometries in conventional FRP laminates are proposed and demonstrated. This study includes development of a manufacturing method for forming vascules, microscopic characterization of their effect on the laminate, finite element (FE) analysis of crack initiation and failure under load, and validation of the FE results via mechanical testing observed using high-speed photography. The failure behaviour predicted by FE modelling is in good agreement with experimental results. The reduction in compressive strength owing to the embedding of circular vascules ranges from 13 to 70 per cent, which correlates with vascule dimension. PMID:20150337

  6. Characterization and analysis of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite laminates with embedded circular vasculature.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-Y; Trask, R S; Bond, I P

    2010-08-06

    A study of the influence of embedded circular hollow vascules on structural performance of a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminate is presented. Incorporating such vascules will lead to multi-functional composites by bestowing functions such as self-healing and active thermal management. However, the presence of off-axis vascules leads to localized disruption to the fibre architecture, i.e. resin-rich pockets, which are regarded as internal defects and may cause stress concentrations within the structure. Engineering approaches for creating these simple vascule geometries in conventional FRP laminates are proposed and demonstrated. This study includes development of a manufacturing method for forming vascules, microscopic characterization of their effect on the laminate, finite element (FE) analysis of crack initiation and failure under load, and validation of the FE results via mechanical testing observed using high-speed photography. The failure behaviour predicted by FE modelling is in good agreement with experimental results. The reduction in compressive strength owing to the embedding of circular vascules ranges from 13 to 70 per cent, which correlates with vascule dimension.

  7. Carbon fibres and plasma-preserved tendon allografts for gap repair of flexor tendon in bovines: gross, microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N; Sharma, A K; Sharma, A K; Kumar, S

    2002-06-01

    The efficacy of carbon fibres and plasma-preserved tendon allografts for gap repair in the superficial digital flexor tendon in the mid-metatarsal region was evaluated in 12 crossbred calves. Experimental tenectomies were performed, followed by implantation of carbon fibres in group I (12 legs) and plasma-preserved tendon allografts in group II (12 legs). Gross observations in group I showed filling of the defect with granulation tissue with more vascularity on day 7, which was less prominent at day 14. On day 30, the neotendon formed was slightly thicker and comparable to normal tendon in appearance and texture. On day 90, it exhibited all the characteristics of a fully developed tendon. Whereas, in group II increased vascularity at the site and encapsulation of the graft with connective tissue in early periods was observed. The gap between graft and host was filled with fibrous connective tissue. Peritendinous adhesions were maximum on day 7 which were gradually reduced in both groups. Microscopically, an acute inflammatory reaction in the periphery of carbon fibres was observed on day 7. Immature fibroblasts were arranged in a haphazard pattern at this stage. By day 14, numerous newly formed capillaries and comparatively more mature fibroblasts were present in between and around the carbon fibres which were aligning parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tendon. By day 30 the healing tissue exhibited longitudinal orientation of collagen fibres and was at a more advance stage of maturation. By day 90, the neotendon formed simulated the picture of normal tendon. In the grafted tendon group, there was normal healing tissue at the functional sites between host and grafted tendon. The fibroblastic activity appeared to be both extrinsic and intrinsic in origin. The connective tissue had invaded the graft to a variable distance and there was resorption of graft which was replaced by newly formed connective tissue on day 90. Scanning electron microscopic observation

  8. Fibre laser machining for glassy carbon master mould and soft lithography based two-step printing for Ag nanoparticle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qin; Chopra, Pranav

    2011-04-01

    Traditional manufacturing techniques widely used in semiconductor industries involve many processing steps that consume both time and material and lead to high cost. Soft Lithography (SL) offers a new way to print micro/nano structures, which is a fast and low cost alternative to the conventional route, although the high processing temperature of metals, semiconductors and ceramics limits the application SL techniques. In this paper we report the use of Ag nanoparticles as building blocks to make structures by combing the merits of SL, nanotechnology and laser engineering, which provide a simple additive route with low capital investment. Glassy carbon (GC) was chosen as the material for the rigid master mould, as no release coating is needed for replicating the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould. GC moulds were machined by a nanosecond-pulsed Yb fibre laser. The machined GC moulds were further cleaned by PDMS and the same fibre laser system to remove the process debris. The master mould was further replicated by PDMS. PDMS replicas with either positive or negative features from the master mould were attainable. A two-step strategy was used to print patterns using PDMS mould and Ag nanoparticle paste. Metal patterns were formed on various substrates, and the PDMS mould was left clean and ready for reuse. The resultant printed patterns were found to be uniform over millimetre range, with negligible residual layer, and the thickness of up to several micrometres. The thermal responses of Ag nanoparticles at various sintering temperatures were investigated. The factors affecting the resolution of printed structures were discussed.

  9. Effect of interaction between AC electric field and phonon oscillation of metal cluster on tip-growth of carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeidi, Mohammadreza

    2015-06-01

    The paper reports effect of interaction between AC electric field and metal cluster sitting at tip end of the carbon nanotube (CNT) on CNT tip-growth in CVD theoretically. For this purpose, a theoretical model based on phonon oscillations of the metal catalyst and influence of AC electric field on these oscillations is presented. Results show that there is an optimum AC electric field which optimizes growth of ultra-long CNTs. Then it is demonstrated that, in comparison with CNTs in the absence of field, CNTs under optimum electric field grow more. In addition, relation between optimum temperature and amplitude of AC electric field is investigated and it is shown that increasing electric field leads to higher optimum temperature. Finally, Investigation of effect of catalyst type on optimum electric field demonstrates the optimum field for various catalysts is different due to their different characteristics including van der Waals interaction with carbon, atomic mass and number of free charge carriers per each atom. All results are discussed and interpreted.

  10. Ultra-sensitive and wide-dynamic-range sensors based on dense arrays of carbon nanotube tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gengzhi; Huang, Yinxi; Zheng, Lianxi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Zhang, Yani; Pang, John H. L.; Wu, Tom; Chen, Peng

    2011-11-01

    Electrochemical electrodes based on dense and vertically aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were produced. The open tips of individual hollow nanotubes are exposed as active sites while the entangled nanotube stems encapsulated in epoxy collectively provide multiplexed and highly conductive pathways for charge transport. This unique structure together with the extraordinary electrical and electrochemical properties of MWCNTs offers a high signal-to-noise ratio (thus high sensitivity) and a large detection range, compared with other carbon-based electrodes. Our electrodes can detect K3FeCN6 and dopamine at concentrations as low as 5 nM and 10 nM, respectively, and are responsive in a large dynamic range that spans almost 5 orders of magnitude.Electrochemical electrodes based on dense and vertically aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were produced. The open tips of individual hollow nanotubes are exposed as active sites while the entangled nanotube stems encapsulated in epoxy collectively provide multiplexed and highly conductive pathways for charge transport. This unique structure together with the extraordinary electrical and electrochemical properties of MWCNTs offers a high signal-to-noise ratio (thus high sensitivity) and a large detection range, compared with other carbon-based electrodes. Our electrodes can detect K3FeCN6 and dopamine at concentrations as low as 5 nM and 10 nM, respectively, and are responsive in a large dynamic range that spans almost 5 orders of magnitude. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10899a

  11. Asbestos, carbon nanotubes and the pleural mesothelium: a review of the hypothesis regarding the role of long fibre retention in the parietal pleura, inflammation and mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The unique hazard posed to the pleural mesothelium by asbestos has engendered concern in potential for a similar risk from high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) such as carbon nanotubes. In the course of studying the potential impact of HARN on the pleura we have utilised the existing hypothesis regarding the role of the parietal pleura in the response to long fibres. This review seeks to synthesise our new data with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) with that hypothesis for the behaviour of long fibres in the lung and their retention in the parietal pleura leading to the initiation of inflammation and pleural pathology such as mesothelioma. We describe evidence that a fraction of all deposited particles reach the pleura and that a mechanism of particle clearance from the pleura exits, through stomata in the parietal pleura. We suggest that these stomata are the site of retention of long fibres which cannot negotiate them leading to inflammation and pleural pathology including mesothelioma. We cite thoracoscopic data to support the contention, as would be anticipated from the preceding, that the parietal pleura is the site of origin of pleural mesothelioma. This mechanism, if it finds support, has important implications for future research into the mesothelioma hazard from HARN and also for our current view of the origins of asbestos-initiated pleural mesothelioma and the common use of lung parenchymal asbestos fibre burden as a correlate of this tumour, which actually arises in the parietal pleura. PMID:20307263

  12. Preparation of highly porous binderless activated carbon electrodes from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches for application in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Farma, R; Deraman, M; Awitdrus, A; Talib, I A; Taer, E; Basri, N H; Manjunatha, J G; Ishak, M M; Dollah, B N M; Hashmi, S A

    2013-03-01

    Fibres from oil palm empty fruit bunches, generated in large quantities by palm oil mills, were processed into self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). Untreated and KOH-treated SACG were converted without binder into green monolith prior to N2-carbonisation and CO2-activation to produce highly porous binderless carbon monolith electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Characterisation of the pore structure of the electrodes revealed a significant advantage from combining the chemical and physical activation processes. The electrochemical measurements of the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes, using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques consistently found that approximately 3h of activation time, achieved via a multi-step heating profile, produced electrodes with a high surface area of 1704m(2)g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.889cm(3)g(-1), corresponding to high values for the specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power of 150Fg(-1), 4.297Whkg(-1) and 173Wkg(-1), respectively.

  13. Stable calcium isotope composition of a pedogenic carbonate in forested ecosystem: the case of the needle fibre calcite (NFC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliere, Laure; Verrecchia, Eric; Gussone, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    Calcium (Ca), carbon (C) and oxygen (O) are important elements in terrestrial environment, as their biogeochemical cycles are directly related to the storage of atmospheric carbon. Nevertheless, contrarily to C and O, Ca isotope composition has been only poorly studied in the terrestrial carbonates. Needle Fibre Calcite (NFC) is one of the most common pedogenic carbonates, unless its origin is still under debate. Recent studies explain its formation by precipitation inside fungal hyphae. Due to this possible biogenic origin, NFC can be considered as a potential bridge between the biochemistry (precipitation inside organic structure) and geochemistry (pedogenic carbonate related to soil conditions) of the Ca. Thus, the study of the Ca isotope composition of NFC seem to be of first interest in order to shed light on the behaviour of Ca in terrestrial environment, especially when precipitation of secondary carbonates is involved. The sampling site is situated in the Swiss Jura Mountains and has been chosen due to a previous complete study of the C and O isotope composition of NFC in relation to the ecosystem, which represent a good precondition for the understanding of the NFC Ca isotope signatures in this context. In this study, the implication of the fungi in the origin of NFC is investigated, by comparing the Ca isotope composition of NFC and a purely physicochemical calcite cement (LCC), both precipitated in the same environment. The δ44Ca signature of NFC and LCC crystals were used to determine possible differences of the precipitation rate during their formation. NFC and LCC have similar δ18O composition and are supposed to precipitate at the same temperature (Milliere et al., 2011a). Thus the study of Ca isotope composition of NFC seems to demonstrate that the elongated shape of the calcite needle can be explained by different precipitation processes than the rhombohedric calcite crystals precipitated in the same environment; and more precisely, the specific

  14. [Massive arthrofibrosis of the knee joint after carbon fibre rod implantation. Two cases].

    PubMed

    Akbar, A; Diedrichs, V; Wagner, U A

    2003-01-01

    Summary. In the treatment of cartilage damage the use of carbon rods is getting more and more popular. The papers are promising. There are no reports about significant complications. The following cases show a post operative enormous increasing discomfort.

  15. Some Mechanical and Physical Properties of Discontinuous Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    carbon fiber composites made from the same batches of fiber. In most cases the properties of discontinuous fiber composites made by this process were similar to those obtained with continuous fiber except for flexural and tensile strength which exhibited a reduction of 30 to 40 per cent when using short fibers. The properties of planar pseudo-isotropic composites made from discontinuous fiber pseudo-random mats were shown to be markedly superior to those for random carbon fiber composites .

  16. Major differences in the behaviour of carbon paste and carbon fibre electrodes in a protein-lipid matrix: implications for voltammetry in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; O'Neill, R D

    1998-12-01

    The widely documented differences in behaviour of carbon fibre electrodes (CFEs) and carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) used for neurochemical analysis in vivo were investigated. Differential staircase voltammetry was used to study the electrooxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) at CFEs and CPEs in the presence of major constituents of brain tissue, viz., protein, lipid or a mixture of both. Both electrode types were poisoned by protein, reflected in positive shifts in the AA voltammetric peak potential, and also peak broadening, following exposure of the electrodes to protein solution. In contrast, CFEs and CPEs responded very differently to exposure to lipid suspension: CFEs exhibited poisoning whereas CPEs showed enhanced electron transfer kinetics for AA. This significant difference in the response of the two carbon materials to lipid was further demonstrated by showing that lipid could reverse the poisoning caused by protein for CPEs but not CFEs. It appears, therefore, that proteins adsorb on both CPEs and CFEs, hindering electron transfer from AA to the electrode surface. Surfactant lipid molecules, in contrast, have a cleaning effect on CPEs, removing pasting oil and adsorbed proteins from the CPE surface. These results provide an explanation for the stability of CPEs in brain tissue and for the contrasting instability of CFEs in the same environment. The data also suggest that a lipid-protein matrix represents a valuable in vitro chemical model of brain tissue that should allow a truer characterisation in vitro of new and existing in vivo sensors, reducing the need for animal experiments in these studies.

  17. The short pulse carbon dioxide laser versus the colorado needle tip with electrocautery for upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rokhsar, Cameron K; Ciocon, David H; Detweiler, Susan; Fitzpatrick, Richard E

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques for blepharoplasty have been described, including those performed with the assistance of the short pulse carbon dioxide laser and those performed with the assistance of the Colorado microdissection needle attached to an electrocautery unit. Although the superiority of the carbon dioxide laser to cold steel has been demonstrated for the performance of eyelid blepharoplasty, no studies have ever compared the carbon dioxide laser to the Colorado needle. This is a paired comparison study in which 12 healthy patients underwent bilateral blepharoplasty of their upper and/or lower eyelids by a single surgeon. For each patient, a short pulse carbon dioxide laser was used on one side, and a Colorado needle attached to an electrocautery unit was used on the other. Intraoperative times were recorded. At five post-operative visits patients were evaluated for post-operative healing parameters including edema, erythema, scar width, and bruising. Finally, excised tissue was assessed histologically for thermal damage. Comparing both techniques, no difference in patient or physician-measured parameters of healing were noted up to 1 month post-operatively. However, Colorado needle assisted blepharoplasty resulted in slightly shorter intraoperative times. It also resulted in less thermal damage on a histologic level, although these differences were not clinically significant. For the performance of blepharoplasty, the Colorado needle tip with electrocautery offers benefits equivalent to those of the short pulsed CO2 laser but has the advantage of shorter intraoperative times and lower cost.

  18. Biomechanical properties of a structurally optimized carbon-fibre/epoxy intramedullary nail for femoral shaft fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2016-03-01

    Intramedullary nails are the golden treatment option for diaphyseal fractures. However, their high stiffness can shield the surrounding bone from the natural physiologic load resulting in subsequent bone loss. Their stiff structure can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. Composite intramedullary nails have recently been introduced to address these drawbacks. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of a previously developed composite IM nail made of carbon-fibre/epoxy whose structure was optimized based on fracture healing requirements using the selective stress shielding approach. Following manufacturing, the cross-section of the composite nail was examined under an optical microscope to find the porosity of the structure. Mechanical properties of the proposed composite intramedullary nail were determined using standard tension, compression, bending, and torsion tests. The failed specimens were then examined to obtain the modes of failure. The material showed high strength in tension (403.9±7.8MPa), compression (316.9±10.9MPa), bending (405.3±8.1MPa), and torsion (328.5±7.3MPa). Comparing the flexural modulus (41.1±0.9GPa) with the compressive modulus (10.0±0.2GPa) yielded that the material was significantly more flexible in compression than in bending. This customized flexibility along with the high torsional stiffness of the nail (70.7±2.0Nm(2)) has made it ideal as a fracture fixation device since this unique structure can stabilize the fracture while allowing for compression of fracture ends. Negligible moisture absorption (~0.5%) and low porosity of the laminate structure (< 3%) are other advantages of the proposed structure. The findings suggested that the carbon-fibre/epoxy intramedullary nail is flexible axially while being relatively rigid in bending and torsion and is strong enough in all types of physiologic loading, making it a potential

  19. Cranioplasty with individual carbon fibre reinforced polymere (CFRP) medical grade implants based on CAD/CAM technique.

    PubMed

    Saringer, W; Nöbauer-Huhmann, I; Knosp, E

    2002-11-01

    The authors present a new method for the reconstruction of large or complex-formed cranial bone defects using prefabricated, computer-generated, individual CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced plastics) medical grade implants. CFRP is a composite material containing carbon fibres embedded in an epoxy resin matrix. It is radiolucent, heat-resistant, extremely strong and light (its weight is 20% that of steel), has a modulus of elasticity close to that of bone, and an established biocompatibility. The utilisation of a CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacture) technique based on digitised computed tomography (CT) data, with stereolithographic modelling as intermediate step, enabled the production of individual, prefabricated CFRP medical grade implants with an arithmetical maximum aberration in extension of less than +/-0.25 mm. Between 1995 and February 2002, 29 patients (15 men and 14 women; mean age, 39.9 years; range, 16 to 67 years) underwent cranioplasty with CFRP medical grade implants at the neurosurgical department of the University of Vienna. Twenty-four patients were repaired secondarily (delayed cranioplasty) while 5 were repaired immediately following craniectomy (single stage cranioplasty). All cases were assessed for the accuracy of the intra-operative fit of the implant, restoration of the natural skull contour and aesthetics and adverse symptoms. The intra-operative fit was excellent in 93.1% and good in 6.9% of the implants. In two cases minor adjustments of the bony margin of the defect were required. The operating time for insertion ranged from 16 to 38 minutes, median 21 minutes. Postoperatively, 86.2% of the patients graded the restoration of their natural skull shape and symmetry as excellent while 13.8% termed it good. In one patient a non-space occupying subdural hygroma was found at the follow-up, but required no intervention. Two patients experienced atrophy of the frontal portion of the temporal muscle while one patient had a

  20. The influence of nominal stress on wear factors of carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK-OPTIMA® Wear Performance) against zirconia toughened alumina (Biolox® delta ceramic).

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew; Horton, Henrietta; Unsworth, Anthony; Briscoe, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone is an attractive alternative to ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene in artificial joints, but little has been published on the influence of stress on the wear factor. We know that in ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, the wear factor reduces as the normal stress increases, which is counter-intuitive but very helpful in the case of non-conforming contacts. In this study, carbon fibre-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK-OPTIMA(®) Wear Performance) has been investigated in a pin-on-plate machine under steady loads and under stresses typical of hip and knee joints. At stresses below about 6 MPa, wear factors are between 10 and a 100 times lower than for ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene but at higher stresses the wear factors increase substantially.

  1. Electrodeposition of copper and iron oxides on to activated carbon fibre cloths: application to H2S and NH3 removal from air.

    PubMed

    Subrenat, A; Le Leuch, L M; Le Cloirec, P

    2008-09-01

    The present study concerns metal electrodeposition onto activated carbon fibre cloths (ACFC) for the treatment of odorous molecules such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Characterizations of virgin, chemical impregnated and electroimpregnated carbon fibre cloths allowed the determination of the physical and chemical properties of such materials. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms in a batch reactor were carried out with non-impregnated and copper- or iron-impregnated ACFC. It was observed that differences in the metal deposit directly influenced the porous structure and elimination kinetics and capacities towards both odorous molecules. Compared to non-impregnated material, the adsorption velocities decrease in the case of chemically impregnated materials whereas they were similar when electrodeposition was used. Moreover, the maximal adsorption capacities were highest when metal was electrochemically deposited.

  2. Ultrathin diamond-like carbon coatings used for reduction of pole tip recession in magnetic tape heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, William W.; Bhushan, Bharat; Lakshmikumaran, Anand V.

    2000-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited using a commercial direct ion beam deposition technique on thin-film Al2O3-TiC inductive write heads. The coating thicknesses used were 5, 10, and 20 nm. Accelerated wear tests were conducted with metal particle tapes in a linear tape drive. Atomic force microscopy was used to image the thin-film regions to measure pole tip recession (PTR), relative wear of the pole tip with respect to the air bearing surface. It is found that the coating wears off of the head substrate to a significant extent in the first 1000 km of sliding distance. The coating is worn off the substrate long before it wears off of the thin-film region. The existence of the coating on the thin-film region provides close enough wear characteristics between the substrate and thin film that the two wear at similar rates. This results in little growth in pole tip recession. Early in the wear test, the coated substrate wears at a slightly higher rate than the DLC coated thin-film region due to the difference in tape contact pressure between the two materials; decreasing PTR is the result. As the coating on the substrate wears significantly, PTR begins to increase with sliding distance. Failure does not actually occur until the coating has worn off of the thin-film region. Near failure, the coating delaminates locally. Results indicate that coatings of 20 nm thickness may provide protection against PTR in future tape drives.

  3. Simultaneous determination of parathion, malathion, diazinon, and pirimiphos methyl in dried medicinal plants using solid-phase microextraction fibre coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Salimi, Mona; Sarkhail, Parisa; Rastkari, Noushin

    2012-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of different organophosphorus pesticides in dried medicinal plant samples is described. The analytes were extracted by single-walled carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. The developed method showed good performance. For diazinon and pirimiphos methyl calibration, curves were linear (r(2) ≥ 0.993) over the concentration ranges from 1.5 to 300 ng g(-1), and the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 ng g(-1). For parathion and malathion, the linear range and limit of detection were 2.5-300 (r(2) ≥ 0.991) and 0.5 ng g(-1), respectively. In addition, a comparative study between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre for the determination of target analytes was carried out. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350 °C), and longer lifespan (over 250 times) than the commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The developed method was successfully applied to determine target organophosphorus pesticides in real samples.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Parathion, Malathion, Diazinon, and Pirimiphos Methyl in Dried Medicinal Plants Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibre Coated with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Salimi, Mona; Sarkhail, Parisa; Rastkari, Noushin

    2012-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of different organophosphorus pesticides in dried medicinal plant samples is described. The analytes were extracted by single-walled carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. The developed method showed good performance. For diazinon and pirimiphos methyl calibration, curves were linear (r2 ≥ 0.993) over the concentration ranges from 1.5 to 300 ng g−1, and the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 ng g−1. For parathion and malathion, the linear range and limit of detection were 2.5–300 (r2 ≥ 0.991) and 0.5 ng g−1, respectively. In addition, a comparative study between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre for the determination of target analytes was carried out. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350°C), and longer lifespan (over 250 times) than the commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The developed method was successfully applied to determine target organophosphorus pesticides in real samples. PMID:22645439

  5. Oxygen monitoring in supercritical carbon dioxide using a fibre optic sensor.

    PubMed

    Tservistas, M; Köneke, R; Comte, A; Scheper, T

    2001-05-07

    Investigations of enzymatic reactions in supercritical CO(2) are often hindered by the high pressure involved in these processes, making reaction monitoring extremely difficult. This paper describes the implementation of a fiber optic based oxygen sensor into a high pressure reactor for supercritical carbon dioxide. The sensor is pressure resistant, working in supercritical carbon dioxide and reusable after depressurisation. The sensor signal is found to be affected by pressure changes, but stable at constant pressure. Oxygen concentration in supercritical CO(2) is monitored using the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide as a simple oxygen producing reaction.

  6. Flat nose low velocity drop-weight impact response of carbon fibre composites using non-destructive damage detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Umar; Myler, Peter

    2015-03-01

    This work is mainly concerned with the nondestructive post-impact damage evaluation of carbon fibre reinforced laminated composite panels subject to low velocity drop-weight impact by flat and round nose impactors. Quasi-isotropic laminates consisting of eight-, sixteen-, and twenty-four plies were impacted by flat and round nose impactors at different velocity levels. Load-time history data were recorded and plotted to correlate loaddrop as damage level to the impactor nose profiles. Test produced data, non-destructive damage detection techniques: visual, ultrasonic, and eddy- current, and computer simulations were utilised to identify and quantify status of the impact induced damage. To evaluate damage in relatively thick laminates (consisting of 24-Ply), the damage ratios and deflection quantities were correlated to the corresponding impactor nose profiles. Damage induced by the flat nose impactor to thick laminates was compared against the data produced by the round nose impactor. Results show that relatively thin laminates were largely affected by the impactor nose. Reasonable difference was observed in damage caused by flat and round impactor nose profiles to thick laminates impacted at relatively higher velocity impacts. Resultswere compared and validated against simulation produced data.

  7. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of 2-nitroaniline onto activated carbon prepared from cotton stalk fibre.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunquan; Zheng, Zheng; Huang, Xingfa; Zhao, Guohua; Feng, Jingwei; Zhang, Jibiao

    2009-07-15

    Activated carbon prepared from cotton stalk fibre has been utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of 2-nitroaniline from aqueous solutions. The influence of adsorbent mass, contact time and temperature on the adsorption was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm was found to best describe the experimental data. The adsorption amount increased with increasing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of 2-nitroaniline was found to be 383 mg/g for initial 2-nitroaniline concentration of 200mg/L at 45 degrees C. The kinetic rates were modeled by using the Lagergren-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. The pseudo-second-order model was found to explain the adsorption kinetics most effectively. It was also found that the pore diffusion played an important role in the adsorption, and intraparticle diffusion was the rate-limiting step at the first 30 min for the temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 degrees C. FTIR and (13)C NMR study revealed that the amino and isocyanate groups present on the surface of the adsorbent were involved in chemical interaction with 2-nitroaniline. The negative change in free energy (Delta G degrees) and positive change in enthalpy (Delta H degrees) indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  8. Investigation of metallic and carbon fibre PEEK fracture fixation devices for three-part proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Kennedy, Jim; Mullett, Hannan; FitzPatrick, David; McGarry, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    A computational investigation of proximal humeral fracture fixation has been conducted. Four devices were selected for the study; a locking plate, intramedullary nail (IM Nail), K-wires and a Bilboquet device. A 3D model of a humerus was created using a process of thresholding based on the grayscale values of a CT scan of an intact humerus. An idealised three part fracture was created in addition to removing a standard volume from the humeral head as a representation of bone voids that occur as a result of the injury. All finite element simulations conducted represent 90° arm abduction. Simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of filling this bone void with calcium phosphate cement for each device. The effect of constructing devices from carbon fibre polyetheretherketone (CFPEEK) was investigated. Simulations of cement reinforced devices predict greater stability for each device. The average unreinforced fracture line opening (FLO) is reduced by 48.5% for metallic devices with a lesser effect on composite devices with FLO reduced by 23.6%. Relative sliding (shear displacement) is also reduced between fracture fragments by an average of 58.34%. CFPEEK device simulations predict reduced stresses at the device-bone interface. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced stress shielding with limited micromotions using a carbon fibre composite biomimetic hip stem: a finite element model.

    PubMed

    Caouette, C; Yahia, L H; Bureau, M N

    2011-09-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) enjoys excellent rates of success in older patients, but younger patients are still at risk of aseptic loosening and bone resorption from stress shielding. One solution to the stress shielding problem is to use a hip stem with mechanical properties matching those of cortical bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate numerically the biomechanical performance of such a biomimetic hip stem based on a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated carbon fibre composite. A finite element model (FEM) of the biomimetic stem was constructed. Contact elements were studied to model the bone-implant interface in a non-osseointegrated and osseointegrated state in the best way. Three static load cases representing slow walking, stair climbing, and gait in a healthy individual were considered. Stress shielding and bone-implant interface micromotions were evaluated and compared with the results of a similar FEM based on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The composite stems allowed for reduced stress shielding when compared with a traditional Ti-6Al-4V stem. Micromotions were slightly higher with the composite stem, but remained below 40 microm on most of the HA-coated surface. It is concluded that a biomimetic composite stem might offer a better compromise between stress shielding and micromotions than the Ti-6Al-4V stem with the same external geometry.

  10. Contrast Enhancement of MicroCT Scans to Aid 3D Modelling of Carbon Fibre Fabric Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djukic, Luke P.; Pearce, Garth M.; Herszberg, Israel; Bannister, Michael K.; Mollenhauer, David H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology for volume capture and rendering of plain weave and multi-layer fabric meso-architectures within a consolidated, cured laminate. Micro X-ray Computed Tomography (MicroCT) is an excellent tool for the non-destructive visualisation of material microstructures however the contrast between tows and resin is poor for carbon fibre composites. Firstly, this paper demonstrates techniques to improve the contrast of the microCT images by introducing higher density materials such as gold, iodine and glass into the fabric. Two approaches were demonstrated to be effective for enhancing the differentiation between the tows in the reconstructed microCT visualisations. Secondly, a method of generating three-dimensional volume models of woven composites using microCT scan data is discussed. The process of generating a model is explained from initial manufacture with the aid of an example plain weave fabric. These methods are to be used in the finite element modelling of three-dimensional fabric preforms in future work.

  11. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD.

  12. Researches on the ultrasonic scattering attenuation of carbon fibre reinforced plastics with 2D real morphology void model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S. S.; Jin, S. J.; Luo, Z. B.; Chen, J.; Lin, L.

    2017-07-01

    In order to investigate the ultrasonic propagation in carbon fibre reinforced plastics with complex void morphology, the effective mathematical model needs to be established. The current models are oversimplified on void morphology, leading to the significant inconsistency of theoretical calculation with experimental results. In view of the problem, a real morphology void model (RMVM) was established with the idea of image-based modeling. The void morphology was extracted by digital image processing technology, and the material properties were assigned subsequently. As a result of the complex and random void morphology in RMVMs, a non-unique corresponding relationship was verified between porosity P and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient α. In the scatterplot of simulation, about 66 percent of points were plotted within the ±10% error band of fitting line, while almost all the data located at the ±20% error zone. The simulation results showed good consistency with experiments, and it proved the validity of RMVM. The investigation provides a novel model to explore the ultrasonic scattering mechanism for the composite materials containing random voids.

  13. Investigation of interactions of intense plasma streams with tungsten and carbon fibre composite targets in the PF-1000 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubkowska, Monika; Skladnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Kwiatkowski, Roch; Malinowski, Karol; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, Ewa; Paduch, Marian; Sadowski, Marek J.; Pisarczyk, Tadeusz; Chodukowski, Tomasz; Kalinowska, Zofia; Zielinska, Ewa; Scholz, Marek

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the results of research on interactions of pulsed plasma streams, as generated by the PF-1000 facility, with solid targets made of tungsten or carbon fibre composite. The device was equipped with a modified inner electrode with a central tungsten insert of 50 mm in diameter. The PF-1000 experimental chamber was filled with pure deuterium at p0 = 1.47 hPa. At the charging voltage U0 = 24 kV, the maximum current amounted to 1.8 MA in about 5.5 μs after the discharge initiation. The investigated targets were located on the z-axis, at a distance of 9 cm from the inner electrode end. For plasma diagnostics, optical emission spectroscopy, 16-frame laser interferometry and a soft x-ray measuring system of four silicon pin diodes were used. It was observed that plasma streams reached the target about 100 ns after the maximum compression and generated a plasma pillow at the sample surface, as proved from time-resolved optical spectra.

  14. Comparative Study of Achievable Quality Cutting Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics Using Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluemel, S.; Jaeschke, P.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    Laser cutting of CFRP lightweight parts has the advantages of a contact-free, automatable and flexible processing for a prospective series production. For the development of strategies for laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP), different scientific approaches exist to achieve a process with small heat affected zones (HAZ), and high cutting rates. Within this paper a cw laser, a nanosecond and a picosecond laser source emitting in the near infrared range have been used in combination with a scanning system to cut CFRP with a thermoplastic matrix. The influence of the scanning speed on the size of the HAZ and the corresponding tensile strength were investigated for each laser source. Furthermore, the authors compared the achievable HAZ and the effective cutting speeds of the different setups in order to evaluate the efficiency and quality of the chosen strategies. The results show that a nanosecond pulsed laser source with high average power is a good trade-off between attainable quality and cutting rate.

  15. Leaf wounding or simulated herbivory in young N. attenuata plants reduces carbon delivery to roots and root tips.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lilian; Hummel, Grégoire M; Thiele, Björn; Schurr, Ulrich; Thorpe, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    In Nicotiana attenuata seedlings, simulated herbivo ry by the specialist Manduca sexta decreases root growth and partitioning of recent photoassimilates to roots in contrast to increased partitioning reported for older plants. Root elongation rate in Nicotiana attenuata has been shown to decrease after leaf herbivory, despite reports of an increased proportion of recently mobilized photoassimilate being delivered towards the root system in many species after similar treatments. To study this apparent contradiction, we measured the distribution of recent photoassimilate within root tissues after wounding or simulated herbivory of N. attenuata leaves. We found no contradiction: herbivory reduced carbon delivery to root tips. However, the speed of phloem transport in both shoot and root, and the delivery of recently assimilated carbon to the entire root system, declined after wounding or simulated herbivory, in contrast with the often-reported increase in root partitioning. We conclude that the herbivory response in N. attenuata seedlings is to favor the shoot and not bunker carbon in the root system.

  16. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic knee-ankle-foot orthosis with a partially flexible thigh cuff: a modification for comfort while sitting on a toilet seat.

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, K; Arai, K; Arai, M

    2007-06-01

    At the request of a polio survivor, a partially flexible thigh cuff made of leather and canvas for a carbon KAFO was devised to allow the wearer to feel more comfortable while sitting on a toilet seat. The original, acrylic resin, thigh cuff was partially excised to make an opening (15x10 cm), which was stuffed with rubber sponge, and was sealed with leather and canvas. The opening's surround was vertically and horizontally reinforced with carbon fibres. This modification provided relief to the polio survivor from the discomfort previously experienced while sitting on a toilet seat, and satisfied her needs in daily life.

  17. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    De Muri, M. Pasqualotto, R.; Dalla Palma, M.; Cervaro, V.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Tollin, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavallin, T.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.

    2014-02-15

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given.

  18. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Muri, M.; Cavallin, T.; Pasqualotto, R.; Dalla Palma, M.; Cervaro, V.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Tollin, M.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Serianni, G.

    2014-02-01

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given.

  19. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter.

    PubMed

    De Muri, M; Cavallin, T; Pasqualotto, R; Dalla Palma, M; Cervaro, V; Fasolo, D; Franchin, L; Tollin, M; Greuner, H; Böswirth, B; Serianni, G

    2014-02-01

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given.

  20. Fatigue Micromechanism Characterization in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers Using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Carbon fiber reinforced polymers ( CFRPs ) are well established as an important weight-reducing structural technology...particularly within the aerospace sector due to their high specific stiffness and strength. CFRPs are widely identified as being very fatigue resistant, but...M.N. Mavrogordato, A.E. Scott, I. Sinclair, S.M. Spearing, “Synchrotron computed tomography of fatigue micromechanisms in CFRP ”, Proceeding of 19th

  1. Process control and interface optimisation of carbon fibre/PEEK matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shanglin

    1999-11-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effect of cooling rate on the interphase adhesion and mechanical properties of carbon fiber/PEEK matrix composites. The fiber/matrix interface adhesion was characterized based on the fiber fragmentation and fiber pull-out tests. A series of tensile, flexure, short-beam shear, interlaminar fracture and impact tests were conducted. The interface adhesion was correlated to the degree of crystallinity and crystalline morphology, as well as the bulk mechanical properties of laminates composites. It is shown that the amorphous PEEK rich interphase introduced in fast cooled specimens results in a relatively ductile interface failure and low interfacial shear strength (IFSS), whereas the transcrystalline interphase in slow cooled specimens gives rise to a high IFSS with relatively brittle interface debonding. The sensitivity of matrix crystallinity on cooling rate was much higher than the changes in IFSS. The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) varied with cooling rate in a manner similar to IFSS. The increases in the interlaminar, tensile and flexural properties with decreasing cooling rate was attributed to the changes in interfacial shear strength, matrix properties, and transition of the failure mechanisms which was observed from adhesive to cohesive failure when the cooling rate was decreased. The presence of brittle crystalline interphase and matrix material resulting from a low cooling rate reduced the mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture resistance despite the large contribution from the strong interface adhesion. At high cooling rates, however, the high ductility of PEEK matrix with less crystallinity was not fully translated to interlaminar fracture toughness due to the weak interfacial bond. A strong fiber/matrix interface bond is essential to the occurrence of extensive matrix plastic deformation, otherwise the matrix deformation is preempted by interfacial debonding. The fast cooled carbon/PEEK composites had

  2. Characterisation of the mechanical and fracture properties of a uni-weave carbon fibre/epoxy non-crimp fabric composite.

    PubMed

    Bru, Thomas; Hellström, Peter; Gutkin, Renaud; Ramantani, Dimitra; Peterson, Göran

    2016-03-01

    A complete database of the mechanical properties of an epoxy polymer reinforced with uni-weave carbon fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF) is established. In-plane and through-the-thickness tests were performed on unidirectional laminates under normal loading and shear loading. The response under cyclic shear loading was also measured. The material has been characterised in terms of stiffness, strength, and failure features for the different loading cases. The critical energy release rates associated with different failure modes in the material were measured from interlaminar and translaminar fracture toughness tests. The stress-strain data of the tensile, compressive, and shear test specimens are included. The load-deflection data for all fracture toughness tests are also included. The database can be used in the development and validation of analytical and numerical models of fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs), in particular FRPs with NCF reinforcements.

  3. Characterisation of the mechanical and fracture properties of a uni-weave carbon fibre/epoxy non-crimp fabric composite

    PubMed Central

    Bru, Thomas; Hellström, Peter; Gutkin, Renaud; Ramantani, Dimitra; Peterson, Göran

    2016-01-01

    A complete database of the mechanical properties of an epoxy polymer reinforced with uni-weave carbon fibre non-crimp fabric (NCF) is established. In-plane and through-the-thickness tests were performed on unidirectional laminates under normal loading and shear loading. The response under cyclic shear loading was also measured. The material has been characterised in terms of stiffness, strength, and failure features for the different loading cases. The critical energy release rates associated with different failure modes in the material were measured from interlaminar and translaminar fracture toughness tests. The stress–strain data of the tensile, compressive, and shear test specimens are included. The load–deflection data for all fracture toughness tests are also included. The database can be used in the development and validation of analytical and numerical models of fibre reinforced plastics (FRPs), in particular FRPs with NCF reinforcements. PMID:26958626

  4. Rapid analysis of phthalates in beverage and alcoholic samples by multi-walled carbon nanotubes/silica reinforced hollow fibre-solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Su, Qiong; Li, Ke-Yao; Sun, Chu-Feng; Zhang, Wen-Bo

    2013-12-15

    A novel procedure based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/silica reinforced hollow fibre solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed to analyse trace phthalate acid esters in beverage and alcoholic samples. Because of their excellent adsorption capability towards hydrophobic compounds, functionalized MWCNTs, acting as solid-phase sorbent, were co-deposited with silica particles in the pores of polypropylene hollow fibre through a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as pH values and ionic strength of sample solution, extraction time, temperature and desorption solvent were optimised. Recoveries for phthalates at spiking levels in different matrices were satisfactory (between 68% and 115%). Moreover, the results were further confirmed by comparing them with those obtained using a solvent extraction method according to the national standard of China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polysiloxane optical fibres and fibre structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martincek, Ivan; Pudis, Dusan

    2016-12-01

    The polysiloxane fibres made of polysiloxanes such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly(dimethyl)(diphenil)siloxane (PDMDPS) can be attractive for different fibre applications and fibre structures. In this paper we describe the fabrication technological process of polysiloxane fibres and fibre structures integrated with conventional single-mode optical fibres. We present two-modes interferometer prepared from PDMS biconical optical fibre taper, PDMDPS optical fibre microloop interferometer and liquid microdroplet optical fibre interferometer. We achieved interesting optical properties all these fibre structures as was confirmed from the transmission characteristics what may be attractive for utilisation in various types of optical fibre sensors.

  6. On the Motion of Carbon Nanotube Clusters near Optical Fiber Tips: Thermophoresis, Radiative Pressure, and Convection Effects.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Cordero, J Rodrigo; Hernández-Cordero, J

    2015-09-15

    We analyze the motion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes clusters in water or ethanol upon irradiation with a 975 and 1550 nm laser beam guided by an optical fiber. Upon measuring the velocities of the nanotube clusters in and out of the laser beam cone, we were able to identify thermophoresis, convection and radiation pressure as the main driving forces that determine the equilibrium position of the dispersion at low optical powers: while thermophoresis and convection pull the clusters toward the laser beam axis (negative Soret coefficient), radiation pressure pushes the clusters away from the fiber tip. A theoretical solution for the thermophoretic velocity, which considers interfacial motion and a repulsive potential interaction between the nanotubes and the solvent (hydrophobic interaction), shows that the main mechanism implicated in this type of thermophoresis is the thermal expansion of the fluid, and that the clusters migrate to hotter regions with a characteristic thermal diffusion coefficient D(T) of 9 × 10(-7) cm(2) K(-1) s(-1). We further show that the characteristic length associated with thermophoresis is not that of the nanotube clusters size, O(1) μm, but that corresponding to the microstructure of the clusters, O(1) nm. We finally discuss the role of the formation of gas-liquid interfaces (microbubbles) at high optical powers on the deposition of carbon nanotubes on the optical fiber end faces.

  7. Fibre Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Kun, F.

    2007-12-01

    Fibre models have been introduced as simple models to describe failure. They are based on the probability distribution of broken fibres. The load redistribution after a fibre yields can be global or local and the first case can often be solved analytically. We will present an interpolation between these the local and the global case and apply it to experimental situations like the compression of granular packings. Introducing viscoelastic fibres allows to describe the creep of wood. It is even possible to deal analytically with a gradual degradation of fibres and consider damage as well as healing. In this way Basquin's law of fatigue can be reproduced and new universalities concerning the histograms of bursts and waiting times can be uncovered.

  8. Scanning induction thermography (SIT) for imaging damages in carbon-fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. Renil; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2015-03-01

    Scanning Induction Thermography (SIT) combines both Eddy Current Technique (ECT) and Thermographic Non-Destructive Techniques (TNDT) [1],[2]. This NDT technique has been earlier demonstrated for metallic components for the detection of cracks, corrosion, etc.[3]-[9] Even though Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) has a relatively less electrical conductivity compared to metals, it was observed that sufficient heat could be generated using induction heating that can be used for nondestructive evaluation using the Induction Thermography technique. Also, measurable temperatures could be achieved using relatively less currents, when compared to metals. In Scanning Induction Thermography (SIT) technique, the induction coil moves over the sample at optimal speeds and the temperature developed in the sample due to Joule heating effects is captured as a function of time and distance using an IR camera in the form of video images. A new algorithm is also presented for the analysis of the video images for improved analysis of the data obtained. Several CFRP components were evaluated for detection of impact damage and delaminations using the SIT technique.

  9. Defect Detection on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (cfrp) with Laser Generated Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, O.; Huke, P.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2011-06-01

    Standard ultrasound methods using a phased-array or a single transducer are commonly used for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) parts and certificated testing schemes were developed for individual parts and geometries. However, most testing methods need direct contact, matching gels and remain therefore time consuming. Laser-Ultrasonics is advantageous due to the contactless measurement technology and high accessibility even on complex parts. Despite the non-destructive testing with body waves, we show that the NDE can be expanded using two-dimensional surface (Lamb) waves for detection of delaminations close to the surface or small deteriorations caused by e.g. impacts. Lamb waves have been excited with a single transducer and with a short-pulse Laser with additionally producing A0-and S0-Lamb waves. The waves were detected with a shearography setup that allows for measuring two-dimensionally the displacement of a surface. Short integration times of the camera were realized using a pulsed ruby laser for illumination. As a consequence to the anisotropy the propagation in different directions exhibits individual characteristics like amplitude, damping and velocity. This has motivated to build up models for the propagation of Lamb waves and to compare them with experimental results.

  10. Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Lars-Eric; Carlsson, Lena; Eriksson, Per-Olof; Liu, Jing-Xia; Österlund, Catharina; Stål, Per; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150 years ago. It took, however, another 100 years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umeå University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei. PMID:26179023

  11. The Significance of Defects on the Failure of Fibre Composites,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    effects produced by discontinuous and kinked plies in unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced plastic under tension. The mean stress at failure on the...5 to6.5%) void contents on changes in torsional properties of carbon fibre reinforced plastic when exposed at various temperatures to dry or wet...properties of carbon fibre/Kevlar fibre reinforced plastic hybrid composites." RAE Technical Report 76057 (1976)* 15 G. Dorey, D.J. Portsmouth, Private

  12. EVITA Project: Comparison Between Traditional Non-Destructive Techniques and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging Applied to Aerospace Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresil, Matthieu; Revol, Vincent; Kitsianos, Konstantinos; Kanderakis, Georges; Koulalis, Ilias; Sauer, Marc-Olivier; Trétout, Hervé; Madrigal, Ana-Maria

    2016-10-01

    The EU-project EVITA (Non-Destructive EValuation, Inspection and Testing of Primary Aeronautical Composite Structures Using Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging) aims at bringing Grating-based Phase Contrast X-ray imaging technology to Non-Destructive Evaluation and Inspection of advanced primary and/or complex aerospace composite structures. Grating-based Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging is based on the so-called Talbot-Lau interferometer, which is made of the combination of a standard X-ray apparatus with three transmission gratings as documented in the literature. This paper presents a comparison of two traditional non-destructive techniques (NDT): ultrasonic through transmission (immersed and water jet) and ultrasonic phased-array pulse echo, with the developed phase contrast X-Ray Imaging applied to advanced aerospace carbon fibre reinforced polymer. Typical defects produced during manufacture is examined as part of the testing and validation procedure. The following defects have been identified as being those most likely to be detected more effectively by the Grating-based Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging process than other state of the art industrial NDT techniques: porosity, foreign objects, cracks, resin rich, cut fibres, and wavy fibres. The introduction of this innovative methodology is expected to provide the aeronautical industry with a reliable and detailed insight of the integrity of thin and thick composite structures as well as of complex geometry ones, such as integrated closed boxes and sandwiches.

  13. EVITA Project: Comparison Between Traditional Non-Destructive Techniques and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging Applied to Aerospace Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresil, Matthieu; Revol, Vincent; Kitsianos, Konstantinos; Kanderakis, Georges; Koulalis, Ilias; Sauer, Marc-Olivier; Trétout, Hervé; Madrigal, Ana-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The EU-project EVITA (Non-Destructive EValuation, Inspection and Testing of Primary Aeronautical Composite Structures Using Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging) aims at bringing Grating-based Phase Contrast X-ray imaging technology to Non-Destructive Evaluation and Inspection of advanced primary and/or complex aerospace composite structures. Grating-based Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging is based on the so-called Talbot-Lau interferometer, which is made of the combination of a standard X-ray apparatus with three transmission gratings as documented in the literature. This paper presents a comparison of two traditional non-destructive techniques (NDT): ultrasonic through transmission (immersed and water jet) and ultrasonic phased-array pulse echo, with the developed phase contrast X-Ray Imaging applied to advanced aerospace carbon fibre reinforced polymer. Typical defects produced during manufacture is examined as part of the testing and validation procedure. The following defects have been identified as being those most likely to be detected more effectively by the Grating-based Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging process than other state of the art industrial NDT techniques: porosity, foreign objects, cracks, resin rich, cut fibres, and wavy fibres. The introduction of this innovative methodology is expected to provide the aeronautical industry with a reliable and detailed insight of the integrity of thin and thick composite structures as well as of complex geometry ones, such as integrated closed boxes and sandwiches.

  14. Health monitoring of carbon cantilever using femtosecond laser inscribed FBG array in gradient-index CYTOP polymer fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodosiou, Antreas; Kalli, Kyriacos; Komodromos, Michael

    2017-04-01

    We report on the femtosecond laser inscription of a fibre Bragg grating array in multimode, gradient-index, CYTOP polymer optical fibre and its demonstration as a quasi-distributed sensor for cantilever health monitoring measurements. We exploit the key advantage of polymer optical fibres, having a significantly lower Young's modulus compared with silica fibres, for vibration measurements. We also modify the typical multi-mode Bragg grating spectrum through control of the femtosecond laser inscription process, thereby producing gratings having single peak wavelength spectra. The sensor array is used to recover the time-dependent, wavelength response from each Bragg grating sensor and extract the mode shape of the beam. The mode shapes of the beam were used to observe "damage" introduced to the cantilever by adding masses to its surface; adjusting the level of damage by using different weights and placing them at different point across the beam. We show that health monitoring measurements are feasible with polymer based fibre Bragg gratings. The accurate and rapid detection of damage points on structural beams and the damage level is an important parameter for improved maintenance and servicing of beams under load and for the prevention of long-term damage.

  15. Packaging and Mounting of In-Fibre Bragg Grating Arrays for Structural Health Monitoring of Large Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    33 Abbreviations CFRP Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer FBG Fibre Bragg Grating FGI Fiberglass International FO... Fibre Optic FOS Fibre Optic Sensor GFRP Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer HDPE High Density Polyethylene LED Light Emitting Diode MHC Mine Hunter...subsequent paragraphs. An operational loads monitoring system for wind turbine blades was demonstrated [7] using FBGs surface-mounted onto glass fibre

  16. The mechanism of pleural inflammation by long carbon nanotubes: interaction of long fibres with macrophages stimulates them to amplify pro-inflammatory responses in mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Fiona A; Schinwald, Anja; Poland, Craig A; Donaldson, Ken

    2012-04-03

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are high aspect ratio nanoparticles with diameters in the nanometre range but lengths extending up to hundreds of microns. The structural similarities between CNT and asbestos have raised concern that they may pose a similar inhalation hazard. Recently CNT have been shown to elicit a length-dependent, asbestos-like inflammatory response in the pleural cavity of mice, where long fibres caused inflammation but short fibres did not. However the cellular mechanisms governing this response have yet to be elucidated. This study examined the in vitro effects of a range of CNT for their ability to stimulate the release of the acute phase cytokines; IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6 and the chemokine, IL-8 from both Met5a mesothelial cells and THP-1 macrophages. Results showed that direct exposure to CNT resulted in significant cytokine release from the macrophages but not mesothelial cells. This pro-inflammatory response was length dependent but modest and was shown to be a result of frustrated phagocytosis. Furthermore the indirect actions of the CNT were examined by treating the mesothelial cells with conditioned media from CNT-treated macrophages. This resulted in a dramatic amplification of the cytokine release from the mesothelial cells, a response which could be attenuated by inhibition of phagocytosis during the initial macrophage CNT treatments. We therefore hypothesise that long fibres elicit an inflammatory response in the pleural cavity via frustrated phagocytosis in pleural macrophages. The activated macrophages then stimulate an amplified pro-inflammatory cytokine response from the adjacent pleural mesothelial cells. This mechanism for producing a pro-inflammatory environment in the pleural space exposed to long CNT has implications for the general understanding of fibre-related pleural disease and design of safe nanofibres.

  17. Anterior cervical corpectomy: review and comparison of results using titanium mesh cages and carbon fibre reinforced polymer cages.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed M R; Alabi, J; Rezajooi, Kia; Casey, Adrian T H

    2010-10-01

    Different types of cages have recently become available for reconstruction following anterior cervical corpectomy. We review the results using titanium mesh cages (TMC) and stackable CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer) cages. Forty-two patients who underwent anterior cervical corpectomy between November 2001 and September 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Pathologies included cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), cervical radiculopathy, OPLL (ossified posterior longitudinal ligament), metastasis/primary bone tumour, rheumatoid arthritis and deformity correction. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Outcome was assessed on the basis of the Odom's criteria, neck disability index (NDI) and myelopathy disability index (MDI). Mean age was 60 years and mean follow-up was 1½ years. Majority of the patients had single-level corpectomy. Twenty-three patients had TMC cages while 19 patients had CFRP cages. The mean subsidence noted with TMC cage was 1.91 mm, while with the stackable CFRP cage it was 0.5 mm. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant correlation noted between subsidence and clinical outcome (p > 0.05) or between subsidence and post-operative sagittal alignment (p > 0.05) in either of the groups. Three patients had significant subsidence (> 3 mm), one of whom was symptomatic. There were no hardware-related complications. On the basis of the Odom's criterion, 9 patients (21.4%) had an excellent outcome, 14 patients (33.3%) had a good outcome, 9 patients (21.4%) had a fair outcome and 5 patients (11.9%) had a poor outcome, i.e. symptoms and signs unchanged or exacerbated. Mean post-operative NDI was 26.27% and mean post-operative MDI was 19.31%. Fusion was noted in all 42 cases. Both TMC and stackable CFRP cages provide solid anterior column reconstruction with good outcome following anterior cervical corpectomy. However, more subsidence is noted with TMC cages though

  18. Ocean methane hydrates as a slow tipping point in the global carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Archer, David; Buffett, Bruce; Brovkin, Victor

    2009-12-08

    We present a model of the global methane inventory as hydrate and bubbles below the sea floor. The model predicts the inventory of CH(4) in the ocean today to be approximately 1600-2,000 Pg of C. Most of the hydrate in the model is in the Pacific, in large part because lower oxygen levels enhance the preservation of organic carbon. Because the oxygen concentration today may be different from the long-term average, the sensitivity of the model to O(2) is a source of uncertainty in predicting hydrate inventories. Cold water column temperatures in the high latitudes lead to buildup of hydrates in the Arctic and Antarctic at shallower depths than is possible in low latitudes. A critical bubble volume fraction threshold has been proposed as a critical threshold at which gas migrates all through the sediment column. Our model lacks many factors that lead to heterogeneity in the real hydrate reservoir in the ocean, such as preferential hydrate formation in sandy sediments and subsurface gas migration, and is therefore conservative in its prediction of releasable methane, finding only 35 Pg of C released after 3 degrees C of uniform warming by using a 10% critical bubble volume. If 2.5% bubble volume is taken as critical, then 940 Pg of C might escape in response to 3 degrees C warming. This hydrate model embedded into a global climate model predicts approximately 0.4-0.5 degrees C additional warming from the hydrate response to fossil fuel CO(2) release, initially because of methane, but persisting through the 10-kyr duration of the simulations because of the CO(2) oxidation product of methane.

  19. Ocean methane hydrates as a slow tipping point in the global carbon cycle

    PubMed Central

    Archer, David; Buffett, Bruce; Brovkin, Victor

    2009-01-01

    We present a model of the global methane inventory as hydrate and bubbles below the sea floor. The model predicts the inventory of CH4 in the ocean today to be ≈1600–2,000 Pg of C. Most of the hydrate in the model is in the Pacific, in large part because lower oxygen levels enhance the preservation of organic carbon. Because the oxygen concentration today may be different from the long-term average, the sensitivity of the model to O2 is a source of uncertainty in predicting hydrate inventories. Cold water column temperatures in the high latitudes lead to buildup of hydrates in the Arctic and Antarctic at shallower depths than is possible in low latitudes. A critical bubble volume fraction threshold has been proposed as a critical threshold at which gas migrates all through the sediment column. Our model lacks many factors that lead to heterogeneity in the real hydrate reservoir in the ocean, such as preferential hydrate formation in sandy sediments and subsurface gas migration, and is therefore conservative in its prediction of releasable methane, finding only 35 Pg of C released after 3 °C of uniform warming by using a 10% critical bubble volume. If 2.5% bubble volume is taken as critical, then 940 Pg of C might escape in response to 3 °C warming. This hydrate model embedded into a global climate model predicts ≈0.4–0.5 °C additional warming from the hydrate response to fossil fuel CO2 release, initially because of methane, but persisting through the 10-kyr duration of the simulations because of the CO2 oxidation product of methane. PMID:19017807

  20. Changing snow cover in tundra ecosystems tips the Arctic carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, D.; Hufkens, K.; Gioli, B.; Kalhori, A. A. M.; Oechel, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has witnessed important changes due to global warming, resulting in increased surface air temperatures and rain events which both exacerbate snow cover deterioration (Semmens et al, 2013; Rennert et al, 2009; White et al, 2007; Min et al, 2008; Sharp et al, 2013; Schaeffer et al, 2013). Snow cover duration is declining by almost 20% per decade, a far higher rate than model estimates (Derksen and Brown, 2012). Concomitant with increasing temperatures and decreasing snow cover duration, the length of the arctic growing season is reported to have increased by 1.1 - 4.9 days per decade since 1951 (Menzel et al, 2006), and, plant productivity and CO2 uptake from arctic vegetation are strongly influenced by changes in growing season length (Myneni et al., 1997; Schaefer et al., 2005; Euskirchen et al., 2006). Based on more than a decade of eddy flux measurements in Arctic tundra ecosystems across the North slope of Alaska, and remotely sensed snow cover data, we show that earlier snow melt in the spring increase C uptake while an extended snow free period in autumn is associated with a higher C loss. Here we present the impacts of changes in snow cover dynamics between spring and autumn in arctic tundra ecosystems on the carbon dynamics and net C balance of the Alaskan Arctic. ReferencesDerksen, C., Brown R. (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2012GL053387 Euskirchen, E.S., et al. (2006) Glob. Change Biol., 12, 731-750. Menzel, A., et al. 2006. Glob. Change Biol., 12, 1969-1976. Min SK, Zhang X, Zweirs F (2008) Science 320: 518-520. Rennert K J, Roe G, Putkonen J and Bitz C M (2009) J. Clim. 22 2302-15. Schaefer, K., Denning A.S., Leonard O. (2005) Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB3017. Schaeffer, S. M., Sharp, E., Schimel, J. P. & Welker, J. M. (2013). Soil- plant N processes in a High Arctic ecosystem, NW Greenland are altered by long-term experimental warming and higher rainfall. Glob. Change Biol., 11, 3529-39. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12318

  1. Design and characterisation of a real time proton and carbon ion radiography system based on scintillating optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, D; Bonanno, D L; Longhitano, F; Bongiovanni, D G; Russo, G V; Leonora, E; Randazzo, N; Reito, S; Sipala, V; Gallo, G

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the design and characterization of a charged particle imaging system composed of a position sensitive detector and residual range detector. The position detector consists of two identical overlying and orthogonal planes each of which consists of two layers of pre-aligned and juxtaposed scintillating fibres. The 500μm square section fibres are optically coupled to two Silicon Photomultiplier arrays using a channel reduction system patented by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The residual range detector consists of sixty parallel layers of the same fibres used in the position detector each of which is optically coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier array by wavelength shifting fibres. The sensitive area of the two detectors is 9×9cm(2). Characterising the position sensitive and the residual range detectors to reconstruct the radiography, is fundamental to validating the detectors' designs. The proton radiography of a calibrated target in imaging conditions is presented. The spatial resolution of the position sensitive detector is about 150μm and the range resolution is about 170μm. The performance of the prototypes were tested at CATANA proton therapy facility (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania) with energy up to 58MeV and rate of about 10(6) particles per second. The comparison between the simulations and measurements confirms the validity of this system. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LASERS: Ultrashort-pulse erbium-doped fibre laser using a saturable absorber based on single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesised by the arc-discharge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tausenev, A. V.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Lobach, A. S.; Konov, V. I.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Kryukov, P. G.; Dianov, E. M.

    2007-09-01

    An erbium-doped fibre laser operating in self-mode-locked regime achieved with the help of a saturable absorber based on single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesised by the arc-discharge method is fabricated and studied. Due to the development of an original method for preparing samples, films of the optical quality containing individual single-wall carbon nanotubes were synthesised. The study of the dependence of resonance absorption at a wavelength of 1.5 μm on the laser radiation intensity transmitted through a film showed that these films have nonlinear transmission and can be used in fibre lasers as saturable absorbers to provide self-mode locking. Stable transform-limited pulses having the shape of optical solitons were generated at a wavelength of 1557.5 nm in the laser with a ring resonator. The pulse duration was 1.13 ps at a pulse repetition rate of 20.5 MHz. The continuous output power achieved 1.1 mW upon pumping by a 25-mW laser diode at 980 nm.

  3. Toughening of a Carbon-Fibre Composite Using Electrospun Poly(Hydroxyether of Bisphenol A) Nanofibrous Membranes Through Inverse Phase Separation and Inter-Domain Etherification

    PubMed Central

    Magniez, Kevin; Chaffraix, Thomas; Fox, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    The interlaminar toughening of a carbon fibre reinforced composite by interleaving a thin layer (~20 microns) of poly(hydroxyether of bisphenol A) (phenoxy) nanofibres was explored in this work. Nanofibres, free of defect and averaging several hundred nanometres, were produced by electrospinning directly onto a pre-impregnated carbon fibre material (Toray G83C) at various concentrations between 0.5 wt % and 2 wt %. During curing at 150 °C, phenoxy diffuses through the epoxy resin to form a semi interpenetrating network with an inverse phase type of morphology where the epoxy became the co-continuous phase with a nodular morphology. This type of morphology improved the fracture toughness in mode I (opening failure) and mode II (in-plane shear failure) by up to 150% and 30%, respectively. Interlaminar shear stress test results showed that the interleaving did not negatively affect the effective in-plane strength of the composites. Furthermore, there was some evidence from DMTA and FT-IR analysis to suggest that inter-domain etherification between the residual epoxide groups with the pendant hydroxyl groups of the phenoxy occurred, also leading to an increase in glass transition temperature (~7.5 °C). PMID:28824118

  4. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  5. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-21

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  6. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas. PMID:27650254

  7. Toughening of a Carbon-Fibre Composite Using Electrospun Poly(Hydroxyether of Bisphenol A) Nanofibrous Membranes Through Inverse Phase Separation and Inter-Domain Etherification.

    PubMed

    Magniez, Kevin; Chaffraix, Thomas; Fox, Bronwyn

    2011-11-02

    The interlaminar toughening of a carbon fibre reinforced composite by interleaving a thin layer (~20 microns) of poly(hydroxyether of bisphenol A) (phenoxy) nanofibres was explored in this work. Nanofibres, free of defect and averaging several hundred nanometres, were produced by electrospinning directly onto a pre-impregnated carbon fibre material (Toray G83C) at various concentrations between 0.5 wt % and 2 wt %. During curing at 150 °C, phenoxy diffuses through the epoxy resin to form a semi interpenetrating network with an inverse phase type of morphology where the epoxy became the co-continuous phase with a nodular morphology. This type of morphology improved the fracture toughness in mode I (opening failure) and mode II (in-plane shear failure) by up to 150% and 30%, respectively. Interlaminar shear stress test results showed that the interleaving did not negatively affect the effective in-plane strength of the composites. Furthermore, there was some evidence from DMTA and FT-IR analysis to suggest that inter-domain etherification between the residual epoxide groups with the pendant hydroxyl groups of the phenoxy occurred, also leading to an increase in glass transition temperature (~7.5 °C).

  8. Forest dynamics and tip-up pools drive pulses of high carbon accumulation rates in a tropical peat dome in Borneo (Southeast Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, René; Cobb, Alexander R.; Joosten, Hans; Glaser, Paul H.; Chua, Amy F. L.; Gandois, Laure; Kai, Fuu-Ming; Noren, Anders; Salim, Kamariah A.; Su'ut, N. Salihah H.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands of Southeast Asia store large pools of carbon but the mechanisms of peat accumulation in tropical forests remain to be resolved. Patch dynamics and forest disturbance have seldom been considered as drivers that can amplify or dampen rates of peat accumulation. Here we used a modified piston corer, noninvasive geophysical measurements, and geochemical and paleobotanical techniques to establish the effect of tree fall on carbon accumulation rates in a peat swamp forest dominated by Shorea albida in Brunei (Borneo). Carbon initially accumulated in a mangrove forest at over 300 g C m-2 yr-1 but declined to less than 50 g C m-2 yr-1 with the establishment of a peat swamp forest. A rapid accumulation pulse of 720-960 g C m-2 yr-1 occurred around 1080 years ago as a tip-up pool infilled. Tip-up pools are common in the peatlands of northwest Borneo where windthrow and lightning strikes produce tree falls at a rate of 4 trees ha-1 every decade. A simulation model indicates that tip-up pools, which are formed across the entire forested peat dome, produce local discontinuities in the peat deposit, when peat is removed to create a pool that is rapidly filled with younger material. The resulting discontinuities in peat age at the base and sides of pool deposits obscure linkages between carbon accumulation rates and climate and require new approaches for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Our results suggest that carbon accumulation in tropical peat swamps may be based on fundamentally different peat-forming processes than those of northern peatlands.

  9. Carbon nanotubes-reinforced hollow fibre solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamate pesticides in apples.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2013-08-15

    An effective and sensitive method to determinate five carbamate pesticides in apples was developed by using carbon nanotubes-reinforced hollow fibre solid-phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SPME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The CNTs were dispersed in water via adding surfactant, and then were held in the pores of HF supported by capillary forces and sonification. The SPME device, which was wetted with 1-octanol, was placed in a stirred apple samples to extract target analytes. After extraction, analytes were desorbed and analyzed using HPLC-DAD. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the enrichment factors were achieved in the range from 49 to 308 with good inter-fibre repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility, while good linearity ranges and recoveries were obtained. The limits of detection ranged from 0.09 to 6.00 ng/g. Therefore, the results demonstrated that this novel method was an efficient pretreatment and enrichment procedure for the determination of trace carbamate pesticides in apples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In-syringe dispersive micro-solid phase extraction using carbon fibres for the determination of chlorophenols in human urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Valverde, M T; Lucena, R; Cárdenas, S; Valcárcel, M

    2016-09-16

    In this article, carbon fibres (CFs) are presented as sorbent material for the dispersive micro-solid phase extraction of twelve chlorophenols from urine samples. CFs are synthesized by a reagentless and green procedure consisting of heating raw cotton, a natural precursor, at high temperature (400°C) in an inert atmosphere (Ar) during 2h. The resulting fibres, which present good water dispersibility, are finally loaded on an in-syringe device. This device, which integrates the extraction and final elution of the analytes, is disposable and it is adapted to process low sample volumes. Working at the optimum conditions, the extraction procedure in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry allows the determination of the analytes in urine at the low μg/L range. In fact, the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the analytes were in the interval from 1μg/L to 2.5μg/L with precision values, expressed as relative standard deviations (RSD), better than 13%. Relative recovery values, ranging from 74.5% to 113%, demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers under conditions of minimal roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyatyev, V B

    2014-10-31

    The results of an experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers are generalised. The dependence of roughness of the cut surface on the cutting parameters is investigated, and the conditions under which the surface roughness is minimal are formulated. It is shown that for both types of lasers these conditions can be expressed in the same way in terms of the dimensionless variables – the Péclet number Pe and the output power Q of laser radiation per unit thickness of the cut sheet – and take the form of the similarity laws: Pe = const, Q = const. The optimal values of Pe and Q are found. We have derived empirical expressions that relate the laser power and cutting speed with the thickness of the cut sheet under the condition of minimal roughness in the case of cutting by means of radiation from fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers. (laser technologies)

  12. Electrospinning preparation of oxygen-deficient nano TiO2-x/carbon fibre membrane as a self-standing high performance anode for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Mao-xiang; Li, Jing-quan; Han, Chong; Yao, Shan-shan; Zhang, Ji; Zhai, Hong-ai; Chen, Li-li; Shen, Xiang-qian; Xiao, Ke-song

    2017-07-01

    Improving the specific capacity and electronic conductivity of TiO2 can boost its practical application as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. In this work, a three-dimensional networking oxygen-deficient nano TiO2-x/carbon fibre membrane was achieved by combining the electrospinning process with a hot-press sintering method and directly used as a self-standing anode. With the synergistic effects of three-dimensional conductive networks, surface oxygen deficiency, high specific surface area and high porosity, binder-free and self-standing structure, etc., the nano TiO2-x/carbon fibre membrane electrode displays a high electrochemical reaction kinetics and a high specific capacity. The reversible capacity could be jointly generated from porous carbon, full-lithiation of TiO2 and interfacial lithium storage. At a current density of 100 mA g-1, the reversible discharge capacity can reach 464 mA h g-1. Even at 500 mA g-1, the discharge capacity still remains at 312 mA h g-1. Compared with pure carbon fibre and TiO2 powder, the TiO2-x/C fibre membrane electrode also exhibits an excellent cycle performance with a discharge capacity of 209 mA h g-1 after 700 cycles at the current density of 300 mA g-1, and the coulombic efficiency always remains at approximately 100%.

  13. Simulator trials to determine the wear of the combination aluminium oxide ceramic-carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) used as an insert in a hip socket.

    PubMed

    Scheller, G; Schwarz, M; Früh, H J; Jani, L

    1999-01-01

    Hip simulator trials were conducted to determine the initial wear between alumina femoral heads and carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP, CAPROMAN) insert in a titanium socket. A force of 2500 N and a frequency of 0.857 H were applied. Using surface and sphericity measurement techniques, the amount of wear was determined. After 500,000 cycles, the centre of the head had moved by 10 microm into the insert, and the average radius increased by 2 microm. After 1 million cycles, the additional changes were less than 1 microm. Based on an examination of retrieved implants (wear rate: 6.1 microm/year) and based on the simulator results, the combination alumina-CFRP inserts could be approved for total hip replacement.

  14. Lung counting: comparison of detector performance with a four detector array that has either metal or carbon fibre end caps, and the effect on mda calculation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asm Sabbir; Hauck, Barry; Kramer, Gary H

    2012-08-01

    This study described the performance of an array of high-purity Germanium detectors, designed with two different end cap materials-steel and carbon fibre. The advantages and disadvantages of using this detector type in the estimation of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for different energy peaks of isotope (152)Eu were illustrated. A Monte Carlo model was developed to study the detection efficiency for the detector array. A voxelised Lawrence Livermore torso phantom, equipped with lung, chest plates and overlay plates, was used to mimic a typical lung counting protocol with the array of detectors. The lung of the phantom simulated the volumetric source organ. A significantly low MDA was estimated for energy peaks at 40 keV and at a chest wall thickness of 6.64 cm.

  15. Ply level failure prediction of carbon fibre reinforced laminated composite panels subjected to low velocity drop-weight impact using adaptive meshing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Umar; Myler, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This work is concerned with physical testing and numerical simulations of flat and round nose drop-weight impact of carbon fibre-reinforced laminate composite panels to predict ply level failure. Majority of the existing studies on impact of composites by spherical nose impactors are experimental, computational models are simplified, and based on classical laminated plate theories where contributions of through-thickness stresses are neglected. Present work considers flat nose impact and contributions from through-thickness stresses and is mainly simulation based. A computational model was developed in ABAQUS™ software using adaptive meshing techniques. Simulation produced (2D model) stresses were numerically integrated using MATALB™ code to predict through-thickness (3D) stresses. Through-the-thickness stresses were then utilised in advanced failure criteria coded in MATLAB™ software to predict ply level failures. Simulation produced results demonstrate that the computational model can efficiently and effectively predict ply-by-ply failure status of relatively thick laminates.

  16. Double-Wall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mode-Locker in Tm-doped Fibre Laser: A Novel Mechanism for Robust Bound-State Solitons Generation

    PubMed Central

    Chernysheva, Maria; Bednyakova, Anastasia; Al Araimi, Mohammed; Howe, Richard C. T.; Hu, Guohua; Hasan, Tawfique; Gambetta, Alessio; Galzerano, Gianluca; Rümmeli, Mark; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    The complex nonlinear dynamics of mode-locked fibre lasers, including a broad variety of dissipative structures and self-organization effects, have drawn significant research interest. Around the 2 μm band, conventional saturable absorbers (SAs) possess small modulation depth and slow relaxation time and, therefore, are incapable of ensuring complex inter-pulse dynamics and bound-state soliton generation. We present observation of multi-soliton complex generation in mode-locked thulium (Tm)-doped fibre laser, using double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT-SA) and nonlinear polarisation evolution (NPE). The rigid structure of DWNTs ensures high modulation depth (64%), fast relaxation (1.25 ps) and high thermal damage threshold. This enables formation of 560-fs soliton pulses; two-soliton bound-state with 560 fs pulse duration and 1.37 ps separation; and singlet+doublet soliton structures with 1.8 ps duration and 6 ps separation. Numerical simulations based on the vectorial nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation demonstrate a transition from single-pulse to two-soliton bound-states generation. The results imply that DWNTs are an excellent SA for the formation of steady single- and multi-soliton structures around 2 μm region, which could not be supported by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The combination of the potential bandwidth resource around 2 μm with the soliton molecule concept for encoding two bits of data per clock period opens exciting opportunities for data-carrying capacity enhancement. PMID:28287159

  17. Double-Wall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mode-Locker in Tm-doped Fibre Laser: A Novel Mechanism for Robust Bound-State Solitons Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Bednyakova, Anastasia; Al Araimi, Mohammed; Howe, Richard C. T.; Hu, Guohua; Hasan, Tawfique; Gambetta, Alessio; Galzerano, Gianluca; Rümmeli, Mark; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2017-03-01

    The complex nonlinear dynamics of mode-locked fibre lasers, including a broad variety of dissipative structures and self-organization effects, have drawn significant research interest. Around the 2 μm band, conventional saturable absorbers (SAs) possess small modulation depth and slow relaxation time and, therefore, are incapable of ensuring complex inter-pulse dynamics and bound-state soliton generation. We present observation of multi-soliton complex generation in mode-locked thulium (Tm)-doped fibre laser, using double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT-SA) and nonlinear polarisation evolution (NPE). The rigid structure of DWNTs ensures high modulation depth (64%), fast relaxation (1.25 ps) and high thermal damage threshold. This enables formation of 560-fs soliton pulses; two-soliton bound-state with 560 fs pulse duration and 1.37 ps separation; and singlet+doublet soliton structures with 1.8 ps duration and 6 ps separation. Numerical simulations based on the vectorial nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation demonstrate a transition from single-pulse to two-soliton bound-states generation. The results imply that DWNTs are an excellent SA for the formation of steady single- and multi-soliton structures around 2 μm region, which could not be supported by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The combination of the potential bandwidth resource around 2 μm with the soliton molecule concept for encoding two bits of data per clock period opens exciting opportunities for data-carrying capacity enhancement.

  18. Double-Wall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mode-Locker in Tm-doped Fibre Laser: A Novel Mechanism for Robust Bound-State Solitons Generation.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Bednyakova, Anastasia; Al Araimi, Mohammed; Howe, Richard C T; Hu, Guohua; Hasan, Tawfique; Gambetta, Alessio; Galzerano, Gianluca; Rümmeli, Mark; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2017-03-13

    The complex nonlinear dynamics of mode-locked fibre lasers, including a broad variety of dissipative structures and self-organization effects, have drawn significant research interest. Around the 2 μm band, conventional saturable absorbers (SAs) possess small modulation depth and slow relaxation time and, therefore, are incapable of ensuring complex inter-pulse dynamics and bound-state soliton generation. We present observation of multi-soliton complex generation in mode-locked thulium (Tm)-doped fibre laser, using double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT-SA) and nonlinear polarisation evolution (NPE). The rigid structure of DWNTs ensures high modulation depth (64%), fast relaxation (1.25 ps) and high thermal damage threshold. This enables formation of 560-fs soliton pulses; two-soliton bound-state with 560 fs pulse duration and 1.37 ps separation; and singlet+doublet soliton structures with 1.8 ps duration and 6 ps separation. Numerical simulations based on the vectorial nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation demonstrate a transition from single-pulse to two-soliton bound-states generation. The results imply that DWNTs are an excellent SA for the formation of steady single- and multi-soliton structures around 2 μm region, which could not be supported by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The combination of the potential bandwidth resource around 2 μm with the soliton molecule concept for encoding two bits of data per clock period opens exciting opportunities for data-carrying capacity enhancement.

  19. How to make auxetic fibre reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderson, K. L.; Simkins, V. R.; Coenen, V. L.; Davies, P. J.; Alderson, A.; Evans, K. E.

    2005-03-01

    Auxetic composite materials can be produced either from conventional components via specially designed configurations or from auxetic components. This paper reviews manufacturing methods for both these scenarios. It then looks at the possibility of property enhancements in both low velocity impact and fibre pull out due to the negative Poisson's ratio. Tests revealed that auxetic carbon fibre composites made from commercially available prepreg show evidence of increased resistance to low velocity impact and static indentation with a smaller area of damage. Also, using auxetic fibres in composite materials is shown to produce a higher resistance to fibre pullout.

  20. Microstructure characterization of advanced protective Cr/CrN+a-C:H/a-C:H:Cr multilayer coatings on carbon fibre composite (CFC).

    PubMed

    Major, L; Janusz, M; Lackner, J M; Kot, M; Major, B

    2016-06-01

    Studies of advanced protective chromium-based coatings on the carbon fibre composite (CFC) were performed. Multidisciplinary examinations were carried out comprising: microstructure transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HREM) studies, micromechanical analysis and wear resistance. Coatings were prepared using a magnetron sputtering technique with application of high-purity chromium and carbon (graphite) targets deposited on the CFC substrate. Selection of the CFC for surface modification in respect to irregularities on the surface making the CFC surface more smooth was performed. Deposited coatings consisted of two parts. The inner part was responsible for the residual stress compensation and cracking initiation as well as resistance at elevated temperatures occurring namely during surgical tools sterilization process. The outer part was responsible for wear resistance properties and biocompatibility. Experimental studies revealed that irregularities on the substrate surface had a negative influence on the crystallites growth direction. Chromium implanted into the a-C:H structure reacted with carbon forming the cubic nanocrystal chromium carbides of the Cr23 C6 type. The cracking was initiated at the coating/substrate interface and the energy of brittle cracking was reduced because of the plastic deformation at each Cr interlayer interface. The wear mechanism and cracking process was described in micro- and nanoscale by means of transmission electron microscope studies. Examined materials of coated CFC type would find applications in advanced surgical tools. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Radiation-resistant erbium-doped silica fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Zotov, K V; Likhachev, M E; Tomashuk, A L; Bubnov, M M; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N

    2007-10-31

    It is shown that the service life of erbium-doped fibres can be increased many times under conditions of an elevated radiation level by loading the fibre glass network with molecular hydrogen. Backdiffusion of hydrogen from the fibre in the process of its operation is virtually excluded for the fibre covered with a hermetic carbon coating. It is shown that this technique of fibre preparation allows one to slow down significantly degradation of the lasing properties of erbium fibres under the conditions characteristic of space applications. (special issue devoted to the 25th anniversary of the a.m. prokhorov general physics institute)

  2. Electrospinning preparation of oxygen-deficient nano TiO2-x/carbon fibre membrane as a self-standing high performance anode for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mao-Xiang; Li, Jing-Quan; Han, Chong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Ji; Zhai, Hong-Ai; Chen, Li-Li; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Xiao, Ke-Song

    2017-07-01

    Improving the specific capacity and electronic conductivity of TiO2 can boost its practical application as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. In this work, a three-dimensional networking oxygen-deficient nano TiO2-x/carbon fibre membrane was achieved by combining the electrospinning process with a hot-press sintering method and directly used as a self-standing anode. With the synergistic effects of three-dimensional conductive networks, surface oxygen deficiency, high specific surface area and high porosity, binder-free and self-standing structure, etc., the nano TiO2-x/carbon fibre membrane electrode displays a high electrochemical reaction kinetics and a high specific capacity. The reversible capacity could be jointly generated from porous carbon, full-lithiation of TiO2 and interfacial lithium storage. At a current density of 100 mA g(-1), the reversible discharge capacity can reach 464 mA h g(-1). Even at 500 mA g(-1), the discharge capacity still remains at 312 mA h g(-1). Compared with pure carbon fibre and TiO2 powder, the TiO2-x/C fibre membrane electrode also exhibits an excellent cycle performance with a discharge capacity of 209 mA h g(-1) after 700 cycles at the current density of 300 mA g(-1), and the coulombic efficiency always remains at approximately 100%.

  3. Hierarchically arranged helical fibre actuators driven by solvents and vapours.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peining; Xu, Yifan; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Pan, Shaowu; Deng, Jue; Chen, Daoyong; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical responsiveness in many plants is produced by helical organizations of cellulose microfibrils. However, simple mimicry of these naturally occurring helical structures does not produce artificial materials with the desired tunable actuations. Here, we show that actuating fibres that respond to solvent and vapour stimuli can be created through the hierarchical and helical assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes. Primary fibres consisting of helical assemblies of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are twisted together to form the helical actuating fibres. The nanoscale gaps between the nanotubes and micrometre-scale gaps among the primary fibres contribute to the rapid response and large actuation stroke of the actuating fibres. The compact coils allow the actuating fibre to rotate reversibly. We show that these fibres, which are lightweight, flexible and strong, are suitable for a variety of applications such as energy-harvesting generators, deformable sensing springs and smart textiles.

  4. Hierarchically arranged helical fibre actuators driven by solvents and vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peining; Xu, Yifan; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Pan, Shaowu; Deng, Jue; Chen, Daoyong; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical responsiveness in many plants is produced by helical organizations of cellulose microfibrils. However, simple mimicry of these naturally occurring helical structures does not produce artificial materials with the desired tunable actuations. Here, we show that actuating fibres that respond to solvent and vapour stimuli can be created through the hierarchical and helical assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes. Primary fibres consisting of helical assemblies of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are twisted together to form the helical actuating fibres. The nanoscale gaps between the nanotubes and micrometre-scale gaps among the primary fibres contribute to the rapid response and large actuation stroke of the actuating fibres. The compact coils allow the actuating fibre to rotate reversibly. We show that these fibres, which are lightweight, flexible and strong, are suitable for a variety of applications such as energy-harvesting generators, deformable sensing springs and smart textiles.

  5. TIP list

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M E

    2006-06-22

    Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.

  6. Technology Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohl, Hollylynne; Harper, Suzanne R.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the graphing capabilities of The Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in the "Technology Tips" are introduced. The new graphing features of GSP allow teachers to implement the software not only in geometry classrooms but also into their algebra, precalculus and calculus classes.

  7. Technology Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic program for geometry called Cabri Geometry II is used to examine properties of figures like triangles and make connections with other mathematical ideas like ellipse. The technology tip includes directions for creating such a problem with technology and suggestions for exploring it.

  8. Technology Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic program for geometry called Cabri Geometry II is used to examine properties of figures like triangles and make connections with other mathematical ideas like ellipse. The technology tip includes directions for creating such a problem with technology and suggestions for exploring it.

  9. Research about tensile sensitive characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced concrete and security self-diagnosis system of beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Longnan; Wang, Xinbo; Zhang, Dongxing

    2009-07-01

    Based on real-time diagnosis of health status of reinforced concrete beam, intellectual supervisory layer of carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) was set up at the bottom of girder structure. The intrinsic law of tensile sensitive characteristic of CFRC was studied and the electrical property collection and the stress transformation system of structure intellectual layer were established. It depends on the premise that carbon fibers are conductive, and that a stable relationship between electric resistivity and stress field exists. The security self-diagnosis of girder structure was fulfilled through online real-time monitoring and evaluation on electrical signal of intelligence layer of reinforced concrete beam.

  10. Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Herbert; Kato, Takeharu; Arai, Shigeo; Saka, Hiroyasu; Kuroda, Kotaro; Wielage, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Two Focused Ion Beam based transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin film preparation techniques are introduced. One is dedicated to the preparation of single fibres, the other to fibre/matrix interfaces of fibre reinforced composites. Due to their thin film quality, reliability and predictable processing times both techniques are suited for routine applications in material science like TEM studies of fibre microtextures and fibre/matrix interfaces. Exemplarily they are applied to Carbon Fibres and Carbon Fibre reinforced Carbon Matrix Composites (C/C). The achieved preparation standard in both cases is substantiated by TEM investigations.

  11. Fibre-reinforced materials.

    PubMed

    Brown, D

    2000-11-01

    This paper considers the role of fibres in the reinforcement of composite materials, and the significance of the form the fibre takes and the material from which it is made. The current dental applications of fibre reinforcement, including dental cements and splints, fibres made into structures for use in composites, denture bases and the contemporary use of fibres in fixed partial dentures, are reviewed. Their role in biomedical implants is surveyed and their future forecast.

  12. Treatment of dye works wastewater using anaerobic-oxic biological filter reactor packed with carbon fibre and aerated with micro-bubbles.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, R; Sakurai, E

    2006-01-01

    A new anaerobic-oxic biological filter reactor, which was packed with carbon fibre and aerated with micro-bubbles, was proposed. The reactor performance was examined using dye works wastewater compared with the activated sludge reactor. Effluent SS from the experimental reactor was significantly lower than that from the activated sludge reactor, and transparency was higher. Temperatures of the activated sludge reactor were over 35 degrees C and DOC removal ratios were 40-80% depending on the influent wastewater. On the other hand, the DOC removal efficiency of the experimental reactor was over 70%, when the reactor temperature was over 22 degrees C. In the anaerobic zone, sulphate reduction occurred predominantly and acetate was produced. In the oxic reactor, sulphur oxidation and organic removal occurred. When the amount of sulphate reduction in the anaerobic zone increased, DOC and colour in effluent decreased. The sulphate reducing activity of biofilm at 30 degrees C was three times higher than those at 20 degrees C. The sulphate reducing activity of biofilm in the oxic zone was higher than those in the anaerobic zone, meaning that the sulphate reduction-oxidation cycles were established in the biofilm of the oxic zone. Microbial community of sulphate reducing bacteria was examined by in situ hybridisation with 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. Desulfobulbus spp. was most common sulphate reducing bacteria in the anaerobic zone. In the oxic zone, Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfococcus spp. were observed.

  13. Microwave-synthesized freestanding iron-carbon nanotubes on polyester composites of woven Kevlar fibre and silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K.; Kim, Doyoung; Kong, Kyungil; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized Ag nanoparticle-decorated multilayered graphene nanosheets (Ag-graphene) from graphite nanoplatelets and silver nitrate through 90–100 s of microwave exposure, without the use of any mineral acids or harsh reducing agents. Fe nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs) were grown on polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on woven Kevlar fibre (WKF), using ferrocene as a catalyst, under microwave irradiation. Fe-CNTs grown on WKF and Ag-graphene dispersed in polyester resin (PES) were combined to fabricate Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites by vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding. The combined effect of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene in the resulting composites resulted in a remarkable enhancement of tensile properties (a 192.56% increase in strength and 100.64% increase in modulus) as well as impact resistance (a 116.33% increase). The electrical conductivity significantly increased for Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites. The effectiveness of electromagnetic interference shielding, which relies strongly on the Ag-graphene content in the composites, was 25 times higher in Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES than in neat WKF/PES composites. The current work offers a novel route for fabricating highly promising, cost effective WKF/PES composites through microwave-assisted synthesis of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene.

  14. Microwave-synthesized freestanding iron-carbon nanotubes on polyester composites of woven Kevlar fibre and silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K; Kim, DoYoung; Kong, Kyungil; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-01-11

    We synthesized Ag nanoparticle-decorated multilayered graphene nanosheets (Ag-graphene) from graphite nanoplatelets and silver nitrate through 90-100 s of microwave exposure, without the use of any mineral acids or harsh reducing agents. Fe nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs) were grown on polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on woven Kevlar fibre (WKF), using ferrocene as a catalyst, under microwave irradiation. Fe-CNTs grown on WKF and Ag-graphene dispersed in polyester resin (PES) were combined to fabricate Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites by vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding. The combined effect of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene in the resulting composites resulted in a remarkable enhancement of tensile properties (a 192.56% increase in strength and 100.64% increase in modulus) as well as impact resistance (a 116.33% increase). The electrical conductivity significantly increased for Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites. The effectiveness of electromagnetic interference shielding, which relies strongly on the Ag-graphene content in the composites, was 25 times higher in Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES than in neat WKF/PES composites. The current work offers a novel route for fabricating highly promising, cost effective WKF/PES composites through microwave-assisted synthesis of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene.

  15. Pitch-based carbon-fibre-reinforced poly (ether-ether-ketone) OPTIMA assessed as a bearing material in a mobile bearing unicondylar knee joint.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of unicondylar knee prostheses has allowed the preservation of the non-diseased compartment of the knee while replacing the diseased or damaged compartment. In an attempt to reduce the likelihood of aseptic loosening, new material combinations have been investigated within the laboratory. Tribological tests (friction, lubrication, and wear) were performed on metal-on-carbon-fibre-reinforced (CFR) poly (ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) (pitch-based) mobile unicondylar knee prostheses up to 5 x 10(6) cycles. Both a loaded soak control and an unloaded soak control (both medial and lateral components) were used to compensate for weight change due to lubricant absorption. For this material combination the loaded soak control gave slightly lower wear for both the medial and the lateral components than did the unloaded soak control. The medial components gave higher steady state wear than the lateral components (1.70 mm3 per 10(6) cycles compared with 1.02 mm3 per 10(6) cycles with the loaded soak control). The results show that the CFR PEEK unicondylar knee joints performed well in these wear tests. They gave lower volumetric wear rates than conventional metal-on-ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene prostheses have given in the past when tested under similar conditions. The friction tests showed that, at physiological viscosities, these joints operated in the boundary-mixed-lubrication regime. The low wear produced by these joints seems to be a function of the material combination and not of the lubrication regime.

  16. Microwave-synthesized freestanding iron-carbon nanotubes on polyester composites of woven Kevlar fibre and silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K.; Kim, DoYoung; Kong, Kyungil; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized Ag nanoparticle-decorated multilayered graphene nanosheets (Ag-graphene) from graphite nanoplatelets and silver nitrate through 90–100 s of microwave exposure, without the use of any mineral acids or harsh reducing agents. Fe nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs) were grown on polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on woven Kevlar fibre (WKF), using ferrocene as a catalyst, under microwave irradiation. Fe-CNTs grown on WKF and Ag-graphene dispersed in polyester resin (PES) were combined to fabricate Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites by vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding. The combined effect of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene in the resulting composites resulted in a remarkable enhancement of tensile properties (a 192.56% increase in strength and 100.64% increase in modulus) as well as impact resistance (a 116.33% increase). The electrical conductivity significantly increased for Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites. The effectiveness of electromagnetic interference shielding, which relies strongly on the Ag-graphene content in the composites, was 25 times higher in Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES than in neat WKF/PES composites. The current work offers a novel route for fabricating highly promising, cost effective WKF/PES composites through microwave-assisted synthesis of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene. PMID:28074877

  17. Self-mode-locking in erbium-doped fibre lasers with saturable polymer film absorbers containing single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesised by the arc discharge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tausenev, Anton V.; Obraztsova, Elena D.; Lobach, A. S.; Chernov, A. I.; Konov, Vitalii I.; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V.; Kryukov, P. G.; Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2007-03-01

    We studied the ring and linear schemes of erbium-doped fibre lasers in which passive mode locking was achieved with the help of saturable absorbers made of high-optical quality films based on cellulose derivatives with dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes. The films were prepared by the original method with the use of nanotubes synthesised by the arc discharge method. The films exhibit nonlinear absorption at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. Pulses in the form of optical solitons of duration 1.17 ps at a avelength of 1.56 μm were generated in the ring scheme of the erbium laser. The average output power was 1.1 mW at a pulse repetition rate of 20.5 MHz upon pumping by the 980-nm, 25-mW radiation from a laser diode. The pulse duration in the linear scheme was reduced to 466 fs for the output power up to 4 mW and a pulse repetition rate of 28.5 MHz. The specific feature of these lasers is a low pump threshold in the regime of generation of ultrashort pulses.

  18. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by urea loaded on activated carbon fibre (ACF) and CeO2/ACF at 30 degrees C: the SCR mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng; Lu, Pei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhai, Yunbo; Fan, Xiaopeng

    2012-06-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by urea loaded on rayon-based activated carbon fibre (ACF) and CeO2/ACF (CA) was studied at ambient temperature (30 degrees C) to establish a basic scheme for its reduction. Nitric oxide was found to be reduced to N2 with urea deposited on the ACF and CA. When oxygen was present, the greater the amount of loaded urea (20-60%), the greater the NO(x) conversions, which were between 72.03% and 77.30%, whereas the NO(x) conversions were about 50% when oxygen was absent. Moreover, when the urea was loaded on CA, a catalyst containing 40% urea/ACF loaded with 10% CeO2 (UCA4) could yield a NO(x) conversion of about 80% for 24.5 h. Based on the experimental results, the catalytic mechanisms of SCR with and without oxygen are discussed. The enhancing effect of oxygen resulted from the oxidation of NO to NO2, and urea was the main reducing agent in the SCR of loaded catalysts. ACF-C was the catalytic centre in the SCR of NO of ACF, while CeO2 of urea-loaded CA was the catalytic centre.

  19. Preparation & characterization of SiO{sub 2} interface layer by dip coating technique on carbon fibre for C{sub f}/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Kundan; Jariwala, C. Pillai, R.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.

    2015-08-28

    Carbon fibres (C{sub f}) are one of the most important reinforced materials for ceramic matrix composites such as C{sub f} - SiC composites and they are generally sought for high temperature applications in as space application, nuclear reactor and automobile industries. But the major problem arise when C{sub f} reinforced composites exposed to high temperature in an oxidizing environment, C{sub f} react with oxygen and burnt away. In present work, we have studied the effect of silica (SiO{sub 2}) coating as a protective coating on C{sub f} for the C{sub f} / SiC composites. The silica solution prepared by the sol-gel process and coating on C{sub f} is done by dip coating technique with varying the withdrawing speed i.e. 2, 5, 8 mm/s with fixed dipping cycle (3 Nos.). The uniform silica coating on the C{sub f} is shown by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The tensile test shows the increase in tensile strength with respect to increase in withdrawing speed. The isothermal oxidation analysis confirmed enhancement of oxidation resistance of silica coated C{sub f} as compared tothe uncoated C{sub f}.

  20. Tribological assessment of a flexible carbon-fibre-reinforced poly(ether-ether-ketone) acetabular cup articulating against an alumina femoral head.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Inman, I A; Unsworth, A; Jones, E

    2008-04-01

    New material combinations have been introduced as the bearing surfaces of hip prostheses in an attempt to prolong their life by overcoming the problems of failure due to wear-particle-induced osteolysis. This will hopefully reduce the need for revision surgery. The study detailed here used a hip simulator to assess the volumetric wear rates of large-diameter carbon-fibre-reinforced pitch-based poly(ether-ether-ketone) (CFR-PEEK) acetabular cups articulating against alumina femoral heads. The joints were tested for 25 x 10(6) cycles. Friction tests were also performed on these joints to determine the lubrication regime under which they operate. The average volumetric wear rate of the CFR-PEEK acetabular component of 54 mm diameter was 1.16 mm(3)/10(6) cycles, compared with 38.6 mm(3)/10(6) cycles for an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene acetabular component of 28 mm diameter worn against a ceramic head. This extremely low wear rate was sustained over 25 x 10(6) cycles (the equivalent of up to approximately 25 years in vivo). The frictional studies showed that the joints worked under the mixed-boundary lubrication regime. The low wear produced by these joints showed that this novel joint couple offers low wear rates and therefore may be an alternative material choice for the reduction of osteolysis.

  1. Non-contact characterization of hybrid aluminium/carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic sheets using multi-frequency eddy-current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.; Li, X.; Withers, P. J.; Peyton, A. J.

    2010-10-01

    The characterization of hybrid aluminium/carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheets using multi-frequency eddy-current sensors is presented in this paper. Both air-cored circular sensors and highly directional ferrite-cored sensors are designed for bulk conductivity measurements and directionality characterization. An analytical model describing the interaction of the circular sensors with the hybrid planar structure is developed. Finite element (FE) models that take into account the anisotropicity of CFRP have also been proposed. Both models are in good agreement with experimental results. The features of the sensor output signals are analysed and explained. It is proved that an anisotropic model (tensor expression for conductivity) is appropriate for the CFRP materials under investigation. A formula to link the bulk conductivity with the conductivity tensor is proposed and verified. Lift-off effects are also discussed. It is believed that this is amongst the first published reports of using eddy-current techniques for characterizing the hybrid aluminium/CFRP material.

  2. Phosphate glass fibres and their role in neuronal polarization and axonal growth direction.

    PubMed

    Vitale-Brovarone, C; Novajra, G; Lousteau, J; Milanese, D; Raimondo, S; Fornaro, M

    2012-03-01

    Phosphate glass fibres with composition 50P(2)O(5)-30CaO-9Na(2)O-3SiO(2)-3MgO-(5-x)K(2)O-xTiO(2)mol.% (x=0, 2.5, 5, respectively coded as TiPS(0), TiPS(2.5) and TiPS(5)) were drawn following the preform drawing approach. A 20-day solubility test in bi-distilled water was carried out on glass fibres with different compositions and diameters ranging between 25 and 82 μm. The results show that the glass composition, the initial fibre diameter and the thermal treatment are the main factors influencing the dissolution kinetics and that the fibres maintain their structural integrity and composition during dissolution. Biological tests were carried out on aligned TiPS(2.5) glass fibres using Neonatal Olfactory Bulb Ensheathing Cell Line (NOBEC) and Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neurons. The fibres showed to be permissive substrates for cell adhesion and proliferation. The aligned configuration of the fibres seemed to provide a directional cue for growing axons of DRG neurons, which showed to sprout and grow long neurites along the fibre axis direction. These promising findings encourages further studies to evaluate the potential use of resorbable glass fibres (e.g.in combination with a nerve guidance tube) for the enhancement of the peripheral nerve healing with the role of supporting and guiding the cells involved in the nerve regeneration.

  3. Nonvascular, Symplasmic Diffusion of Sucrose Cannot Satisfy the Carbon Demands of Growth in the Primary Root Tip of Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Bret-Harte, M. S.; Silk, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Nonvascular, symplasmic transport of sucrose (Suc) was investigated theoretically in the primary root tip of maize (Zea mays L. cv WF9 x Mo 17) seedlings. Symplasmic diffusion has been assumed to be the mechanism of transport of Suc to cells in the root apical meristem (R.T. Giaquinta, W. Lin, N.L. Sadler, V.R. Franceschi [1983] Plant Physiol 72: 362-367), which grow apical to the end of the phloem and must build all biomass with carbon supplied from the shoot or kernel. We derived an expression for the growth-sustaining Suc flux, which is the minimum longitudinal flux that would be required to meet the carbon demands of growth in the root apical meristem. We calculated this flux from data on root growth velocity, area, and biomass density, taking into account construction and maintenance respiration and the production of mucilage by the root cap. We then calculated the conductivity of the symplasmic pathway for diffusion, from anatomical data on cellular dimensions and the frequency and dimensions of plasmodesmata, and from two estimates of the diffusive conductance of a plasmodesma, derived from independent data. Then, the concentration gradients required to drive a growth-sustaining Suc flux by diffusion alone were calculated but were found not to be physiologically reasonable. We also calculated the hydraulic conductivity of the plasmodesmatal pathway and found that mass flow of Suc solution through plasmodesmata would also be insufficient, by itself, to satisfy the carbon demands of growth. However, much of the demand for water to cause cell expansion could be met by the water unloaded from the phloem while unloading Suc to satisfy the carbon demands of growth, and the hydraulic conductivity of plasmodesmata is high enough that much of that water could move symplasmically. Either our current understanding of plasmodesmatal ultrastructure and function is flawed, or alternative transport mechanisms must exist for Suc transport to the meristem. PMID:12232183

  4. Atomic force microscopy characterization of the surface wettability of natural fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietak, Alexis; Korte, Sandra; Tan, Emelyn; Downard, Alison; Staiger, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Natural fibres represent a readily available source of ecologically friendly and inexpensive reinforcement in composites with degradable thermoplastics, however chemical treatments of fibres are required to prepare feasible composites. It is desirable to characterize the surface wettability of fibres after chemical treatment as the polarity of cellulose-based fibres influences compatibility with a polymer matrix. Assessment of the surface wettability of natural fibres using conventional methods presents a challenge as the surfaces are morphologically and chemically heterogeneous, rough, and can be strongly wicking. In this work it is shown that under atmospheric conditions the adhesion force between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and the fibre surface can estimate the water contact angle and surface wettability of the fibre. AFM adhesion force measurements are suitable for the more difficult surfaces of natural fibres and in addition allow for correlations between microstructural features and surface wettability characteristics.

  5. Mode I fracture toughness behavior of hydro-thermally aged carbon fibre reinforced DGEBA-HHPA-PES systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Sabina; Pitarresi, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Giuseppe; Tumino, Davide

    2012-07-01

    In this work the Mode I fracture toughness behavior of unidirectional CFRP laminates is investigated by means of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests. The composite samples were manufactured by thermal curing after impregnation of a Carbon fabric with a DGEBA epoxy and anhydride HHPA curing agent. One resin batch was also mixed with a PES thermoplastic monomer to enhance the matrix toughness. Two lots of samples, toughened and untoughened, were then left to soak in hot water to achieve various degrees of aging. The influence of matrix toughening and hydrothermal aging on the delamination behavior of the composite have then been assessed and correlated with characterization data from Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  6. Investigations into the damage for various types of unprotected carbon fibre composites with a variety of lightning arc attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Very little quantitative information exists on the extent and nature of damage caused to unprotected carbon fiber composites (CFC's) due to lightning arc attachment. An initial investigation into the arc damage to three different types and various thickness of CFC's from A and C component type lightning discharges is described. The difference in damage which the two types of waveform produced and the way the area of damage varies with different levels of action integral and charge transfer is compared. In some cases, the temperature rise at the rear of the panels was recorded for various levels of action integral and charge transfer. A comparison was made of the area of damage from visual inspection and soft x ray photography, using a suitable penetrant in the damage area. It is concluded there is a need for a more detailed analysis of the damage.

  7. Investigations into the damage for various types of unprotected carbon fibre composites with a variety of lightning arc attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Very little quantitative information exists on the extent and nature of damage caused to unprotected carbon fiber composites (CFC's) due to lightning arc attachment. An initial investigation into the arc damage to three different types and various thickness of CFC's from A and C component type lightning discharges is described. The difference in damage which the two types of waveform produced and the way the area of damage varies with different levels of action integral and charge transfer is compared. In some cases, the temperature rise at the rear of the panels was recorded for various levels of action integral and charge transfer. A comparison was made of the area of damage from visual inspection and soft x ray photography, using a suitable penetrant in the damage area. It is concluded there is a need for a more detailed analysis of the damage.

  8. Si nanoparticles encapsulated in elastic hollow carbon fibres for Li-ion battery anodes with high structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shan; Shen, Laifa; Tong, Zhenkun; Zheng, Hao; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2015-04-01

    Silicon has a large specific capacity which is an order of magnitude beyond that of conventional graphite, making it a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. However, the large volume changes (~300%) during cycling caused material pulverization and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase resulting in poor cyclability which prevented its commercial application. Here, we have prepared a novel one-dimensional core-shell nanostructure in which the Si nanoparticles have been confined within hollow carbon nanofibres. Such a unique nanostructure exhibits high conductivity and facile ion transport, and the uniform pores within the particles which are generated during magnesiothermic reduction can serve as a buffer zone to accommodate the large volume changes of Si during electrochemical lithiation. Owing to these advantages, the composite shows high rate performance and good cycling stability. The optimum design of the core-shell nanostructure shows promise for the synthesis of a variety of high-performance electrode materials.Silicon has a large specific capacity which is an order of magnitude beyond that of conventional graphite, making it a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. However, the large volume changes (~300%) during cycling caused material pulverization and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase resulting in poor cyclability which prevented its commercial application. Here, we have prepared a novel one-dimensional core-shell nanostructure in which the Si nanoparticles have been confined within hollow carbon nanofibres. Such a unique nanostructure exhibits high conductivity and facile ion transport, and the uniform pores within the particles which are generated during magnesiothermic reduction can serve as a buffer zone to accommodate the large volume changes of Si during electrochemical lithiation. Owing to these advantages, the composite shows high rate performance and good cycling stability. The optimum design of

  9. Use of a novel carbon fibre composite material for the femoral stem component of a THR system: in vitro biological assessment.

    PubMed

    Scotchford, Colin A; Garle, Michael J; Batchelor, J; Bradley, John; Grant, David M

    2003-11-01

    A novel, low elastic modulus femoral component for THR has been developed using a composite of polyetheretherketone and carbon fibre. The objectives of this study were to investigate human osteoblast-like cell and macrophage responses to this material in vitro. Cells were grown on composite discs and controls. Osteoblast attachment and proliferation was not significantly different to that on Ti6Al4V. The levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, Type I collagen production and osteocalcin production were not significantly different to that on Ti6Al4V by the end of the experimental period. Hydrogen peroxide production by macrophages was significantly less than that detected for cells cultured on copper, but was still greater than that detected for cells cultured on tissue culture plastic and Ti6Al4V. Beta-glucoronidase activity was not significantly different to that detected for cells cultured on tissue culture plastic. The in vitro biocompatibility assessment of this composite undertaken in this study showed initial osteoblast attachment at least comparable to that of the tissue culture plastic and Ti6Al4V controls, with proliferation similar to the controls at all time points up to 11 days. Alkaline phosphatase activity was similar to that of Ti6Al4V but reduced compared to tissue culture plastic controls. Whilst hydrogen peroxide production by macrophages was raised on composite surfaces compared to controls, beta-glucoronidase activity and osteoblastic production of Type I collagen and osteocalcin were similar to levels detected on Ti6Al4V.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction coupled to square wave voltammetry at carbon fibre microelectrodes for the determination of fenbendazole in beef liver.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Vázquez de Prada, A; Loaiza, Oscar A; Serra, B; Morales, D; Martínez-Ruiz, P; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2007-05-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer was developed and used for solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of the antihelmintic fenbendazole in beef liver samples. Detection of the analyte was accomplished using square wave voltammetry (SWV) at a cylindrical carbon fibre microelectrode (CFME). A mixture of MeOH/HAc (9:1) was employed both as eluent in the MISPE system and as working medium for electrochemical detection of fenbendazole. The limit of detection was 1.9x10(-7) mol L-1 (57 microg L-1), which was appropriate for the determination of fenbendazole at the maximum residue level permitted by the European Commission (500 microg kg-1 in liver). Given that the SW voltammetric analysis could not be directly performed in the sample extract as a consequence of interference from some sample components, a sample clean-up with a MIP for selectively retaining fenbendazole was performed. The MIP was synthesized using a 1:8:22 template/methacrylic acid/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate ratio. A Britton-Robinson Buffer of pH 9.0 was selected for retaining fenbendazole in the MIP cartridges, and an eluent volume of 5.0 mL at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 was chosen in the elution step. Cross-reactivity with the MIP was observed for other benzimidazoles. The synthesized MIP exhibited a good selectivity for benzimidazoles with respect to other veterinary drugs. The applicability of the MISPE-SWV method was tested with beef liver samples, spiked with fenbendazole at 5,000 and 500 microg kg-1. Results obtained for ten different liver samples yielded mean recoveries of (95+/-12)% and (96+/-11)% for the upper and lower concentration level, respectively.

  11. Restorative Case Report: Flexibility of Fibre-Posts.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Paula E

    2015-06-01

    Restoration of an anterior root-filled tooth with little remaining coronal tooth-tissue can utilise a post to retain a core, enabling definitive restoration. Post material was, until recently, primarily metal--be it cast or prefabricated. Currently, fibre-posts are promoted as being advantageous due to a favourable failure mechanism which may protect the root from fracture. This Case Report demonstrates failure of the structural integrity of a fibre-post in a maxillary lateral incisor, with a proposed explanation. Retreatment employed a diamond-coated ultrasonic tip for removal of the residual fibre-post and restoration with a cast-post and metal ceramic crown.

  12. Fun with optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-07-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today’s technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student’s curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete implications at the research level also.

  13. Fun with Optical Fibres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today's technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student's curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete…

  14. CW bismuth fibre laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M; Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Umnikov, A A; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N

    2005-12-31

    A new fibre laser based on a bismuth-doped aluminosilicate glass fibre is proposed and fabricated. CW lasing is obtained in the spectral region between 1150 and 1300 nm. The fibres are fabricated by the method of modified chemical vapour deposition. (letters)

  15. In situ self-sensing fibre reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, S.; Liu, T.; Brooks, D.; Monteith, S.; Ralph, B.; Vickers, S.; Fernando, G. F.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of a novel composite system in which some of the reinforcing fibres act as the light guide. The reinforcing fibre light guide was made by applying an appropriate cladding material onto commercially available 9 0964-1726/6/4/007/img1m diameter silica fibres. The resultant light guide was termed a `self-sensing' fibre. The self-sensing fibres were embedded within a 16-ply carbon fibre reinforced epoxy prepreg system and cured to produce a composite panel. The composite panels were impact tested to investigate the feasibility of using the self-sensing fibres as an impact damage sensor system. Similarly, three types of conventional optical fibre, with outer diameters of 30, 50 and 125 0964-1726/6/4/007/img1m respectively, were also embedded within composite panels. The results indicated that the self-sensing fibres were capable of detecting impact damage as low as 2 J for impacts carried out using a 20 mm hemispherical tup. The self-sensing fibres proved more sensitive to impact damage than the conventional optical fibres used in this study.

  16. Fibre Optics In Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmer, A. L.

    1984-08-01

    Optical fibres are used in three application areas in automobiles. Illumination of the dashboard is done with a single lamp and monofilament fibres or woven tapes which illuminate the front panel. Fibre-optic multiplexing can replace the conventional wiring harness. Different trial systems (two-fibre links, bidirectional transmission, star-coupled architecture) are reviewed. Problems still exist in component performance, high costs and unknown reliability of optoelectronic systems. Fibre-optics are also used in sensors; for headlight monitoring, liquid-level sensing and other applications.

  17. Oxygen consumption, oxygen cost and physiological cost index in polio survivors: a comparison of walking without orthosis, with an ordinary or a carbon-fibre reinforced plastic knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, Kenji; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Saeki, Satoru; Yoshimoto, Nami

    2007-10-01

    To examine, for polio survivors, whether walking with a carbon-fibre reinforced plastic knee-ankle-foot orthosis (carbon KAFO) is more efficient than walking with an ordinary KAFO or without an orthosis. Consecutive sample. Post-polio clinic, University Hospital of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan. Eleven polio survivors who had a carbon KAFO prescribed at the post-polio clinic. A carbon KAFO was prescribed, fabricated and inspected. Oxygen consumption, oxygen cost and physiological cost index. An ordinary KAFO weighed 1403 g (standard deviation(SD) 157 g), whereas a carbon KAFO weighed 992 g (SD 168 g). Subjects walking with a carbon KAFO showed a tendency to increase step length, and to increase speed significantly compared with walking without an orthosis and with an ordinary KAFO (paired t-test, p < 0.05). Oxygen consumption per body weight, oxygen cost (O2 consumption for 1-m walk divided by body weight) and physiological cost index ((heart rate at 3-min walk - heart rate at rest) /speed) were significantly lower than those walking without an orthosis (-16%, -35%, -33%; paired t-test, p < 0.05) and were lower than those walking with an ordinary KAFO (-9%, -14%, -15%; paired t-test, p < 0.05). The gait efficiency of polio survivors with a carbon KAFO was objectively better than those without an orthosis or with an ordinary KAFO.

  18. Compaction in optical fibres and fibre Bragg gratings under nuclear reactor high neutron and gamma fluence

    SciTech Connect

    Remy, L.; Cheymol, G.; Morana, A.; Marin, E.; Girard, S.

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of the development by CEA and SCK.CEN of a Fabry Perot Sensor (FPS) able to measure dimensional changes in Material Testing Reactor (MTR), the first goal of the SAKE 1 (Smirnof extention - Additional Key-tests on Elongation of glass fibres) irradiation was to measure the linear compaction of single mode fibres under high fast neutron fluence. Indeed, the compaction of the fibre which forms one side of the Fabry Perot cavity, may in particular cause a noticeable measurement error. An accurate quantification of this effect is then required to predict the radiation-induced drift and optimize the sensor design. To achieve this, an innovative approach was used. Approximately seventy uncoated fibre tips (length: 30 to 50 mm) have been prepared from several different fibre samples and were installed in the SCK.CEN BR2 reactor (Mol Belgium). After 22 days of irradiation a total fast (E > 1 MeV) fluence of 3 to 5x10{sup 19} n{sub fast}/cm{sup 2}, depending on the sample location, was accumulated. The temperature during irradiation was 291 deg. C, which is not far from the condition of the intended FPS use. A precise measurement of each fibre tip length was made before the irradiation and compared to the post irradiation measurement highlighting a decrease of the fibres' length corresponding to about 0.25% of linear compaction. The amplitude of the changes is independent of the capsule, which could mean that the compaction effect saturates even at the lowest considered fluence. In the prospect of performing distributed temperature measurement in MTR, several fibre Bragg gratings written using a femtosecond laser have been also irradiated. All the gratings were written in radiation hardened fibres, and underwent an additional treatment with a procedure enhancing their resistance to ionizing radiations. A special mounting made it possible to test the reflection and the transmission of the gratings on fibre samples cut down to 30 to 50 mm. The comparison of

  19. Tips for Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips and Gadgets for Daily Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...

  20. Fibre mapping analysis in composite forming: Experimental and numerical comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmars, J.; Rusanov, A.; Ta, A. T.; Naouar, N.; Boisse, P.

    2016-10-01

    The work presented here is part of European project "FibreMap", which aims at the development of an automatic quality control and feedback mechanism to improve draping of carbon fibres on complex parts. The technology that is being developed in the project include a sensor system for robust detection of fibre orientation combined with a robotic system to scan complex parts. This paper focus on a comparison procedure made to compare experimental fibre orientation with finite element simulations results. First comparison results will be shown on a complex part chosen for the project.

  1. Children Health Tips in Other Languages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These tips for protecting children from environmental risks/exposures are available in spanish, chinese, vietnamese, and korean. They cover topics such as lead, pesticides, carbon monoxide, air pollution, drinking water contaminants, and radon.

  2. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  3. Statistical data for the tensile properties of natural fibre composites.

    PubMed

    Torres, J P; Vandi, L-J; Veidt, M; Heiztmann, M T

    2017-06-01

    This article features a large statistical database on the tensile properties of natural fibre reinforced composite laminates. The data presented here corresponds to a comprehensive experimental testing program of several composite systems including: different material constituents (epoxy and vinyl ester resins; flax, jute and carbon fibres), different fibre configurations (short-fibre mats, unidirectional, and plain, twill and satin woven fabrics) and different fibre orientations (0°, 90°, and [0,90] angle plies). For each material, ~50 specimens were tested under uniaxial tensile loading. Here, we provide the complete set of stress-strain curves together with the statistical distributions of their calculated elastic modulus, strength and failure strain. The data is also provided as support material for the research article: "The mechanical properties of natural fibre composite laminates: A statistical study" [1].

  4. Fibres For Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, D. N.

    1984-11-01

    Sensors which rely on the external modulation of the properties of an optical fibre (intrinsic sensors) are receiving much attention since they can be made extremely sensitive, and can be used for distributed measurements. Distributed sensing provides some particularly exciting prospects for acoustic, magnetic and electric field monitoring. To date, however, the great majority of experimental and commercial fibre sensors employ telecommunications-grade fibres, largely as a result of their ready availability. Not only does this policy frequently lead to a design compromise, but in some cases makes the performance marginal or untenable as a result of excessive environmental sensitivity. Despite this, little attention has been given to the design of special sensor fibres with enhanced (or depressed) sensitivity to specific measurands. The position is somewhat better with respect to fibres designed to eliminate sensor polarisation problems (e.g. polar isation-maintaining fibres), but even here further work is required to provide the performance demanded.

  5. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background.

  6. Development of novel composites through fibre and interface/interphase modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bismarck, A.; Blaker, JJ; Anthony, DB; Qian, H.; Maples, HA; Robinson, P.; Shaffer, MSP; Greenhalgh, ES

    2016-07-01

    We show how fibre/matrix interface (or interphase) modification can be used to develop a range of novel carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites that open up new applications far beyond those of standard CFRPs. For example, composites that undergo pseudo-ductile failure have been created through laser treatment of carbon fibres. Composites manufactured with thermo-responsive interphases can undergo significant reductions in stiffness at elevated temperatures. Additionally, structural supercapacitors have been developed through a process that involves encapsulating carbon fibres in carbon aerogel.

  7. In-situ process and condition monitoring of advanced fibre-reinforced composite materials using optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, C.; Martin, A.; Liu, T.; Wu, M.; Hayes, S.; Crosby, P. A.; Powell, G. R.; Brooks, D.; Fernando, G. F.

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents a general overview of a number of optical fibre sensor systems which have been developed and used in advanced fibre-reinforced composites for in-situ process and condition monitoring. The in-situ process monitoring techniques were optical-fibre-based evanescent wave spectroscopy, transmission near-infrared spectroscopy and refractive index monitoring. The optical fibre sensors were successful in tracking the cure reaction. The condition monitoring of advanced fibre-reinforced composites was carried out using two intensity-based optical fibre sensor systems: an extrinsic multi-mode Fabry-Pérot sensor and Bragg gratings. In addition to this, the feasibility of using the reinforcing fibre as a light guide was demonstrated. These sensor systems were evaluated under quasi-static, impact and fatigue loading. The test specimens consisted of prepreg-based carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxy and glass-fibre-reinforced epoxy filament-wound tubes. Excellent correlation was obtained between surface-mounted strain gauges and the embedded optical fibre sensors. The feasibility of using these sensor systems for the detection of impact damage and stiffness reduction in the composite due to fatigue damage was successfully demonstrated.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Fibre-Reinforced Composites Tested under Superposed Hydrostatic Pressures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    The carbon fibres were Harwell Type II surface treated with a smn strength of 2240 K1v-2 and a noen diameter of 9.08 Pa. The glans fibres were Owens ... Corning type 810C. The fibres were pulled by means of a slteel cord cast, via a brasum scro, into the end of the 4 fibre b6ndles. The rods produced

  9. Tips for Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan, Comp.; Morningstar, Mary E., Comp.

    2009-01-01

    The Tips for Transition contains 134 Transition Tips submitted from all over the country by practitioners. The purpose of the Tips was to identify grassroots transition practices being used by practitioners. Tips are categorized into the following domains: (1) Transition Planning; (2) Student Involvement; (3) Family Involvement; (4) Curriculum and…

  10. Probe tip heating assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  11. Sensitive determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol F in canned food using a solid-phase microextraction fibre coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes before GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Rastkari, N; Ahmadkhaniha, R; Yunesian, M; Baleh, L J; Mesdaghinia, A

    2010-10-01

    A reliable and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol F (BPF) in canned food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is described after extraction and pre-concentration by a new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbent. The potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as SPME adsorbent for the pre-concentration of environmental contaminants has been investigated in recent years. This work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of SWCNTs as a headspace SPME adsorbent for the determination of bisphenol derivatives in canned food. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time, desorption temperature, and salinity were optimized. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)> or = 0.994) over the concentration range from 0.30 to 60 microg kg(-1). For both target analytes, the limit of detection (LOD) at signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 was 0.10 microg kg(-1). In addition, a comparative study between the SWCNT and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fibre for the determination of bisphenol derivatives in canned food was conducted. SWCNT fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350 degrees C) and longer life span (over 150 times) than the commercial PDMS fibre. The method was successfully applied to determine BPA in canned food samples which were purchased from local markets. BPA was found in some of the samples within the concentration range from 0.5 to 5.2 microg kg(-1).

  12. Fibre and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B

    1989-01-01

    The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely

  13. EDITORIAL: Optical Fibre Sensors 17 (OFS-17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatam, Ralph P.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology provides an overview of current developments in the field of optical fibre sensors. The papers presented here are more detailed versions of those presented at the 17th Optical Fibre Sensors conference (OFS-17) held at the Oud St-Jan Art and Congress Centre in Bruges, Belgium, from 23 27 May 2005. The first OFS conference was held in London in 1983 and the conference series is now held in international locations every 18 months and is the recognized venue for presentations of papers describing recent developments in the field of fibre optic sensing. The conference in Bruges was the largest to date of the OFS series with approximately 450 attendees and consisted of a plenary talk, describing photonic crystal gas sensors, ten invited contributions, 51 oral presentations and 197 posters. A third of the papers in this special issue are concerned with fibre Bragg and long period gratings, reflecting the widespread interest in this technology. Papers describe new laser based fabrication and processing techniques, signal processing methods, and applications to the measurement of physical parameters such as radiation detection, hydrogen sensing, load monitoring in wind turbines and stress measurement for geotechnical applications. Other non-grating sensing methodologies are presented for the measurement of gases, refractive index, colour and electric field/voltage. In addition to the descriptions of optical fibres sensors and signal processing schemes there are a number of contributions describing developments in enabling technologies such as sources for use with fibre sensors including, for example, quantum dots for temperature sensing. Developments in emerging technologies such as nanostructured fibres for sensing and investigating the sensing properties of carbon nanotubes using fibre sensor techniques are described along with the use of coherent imaging fibre bundles for flow measurement applications. We hope that

  14. Experimental comparison of laser energy losses in high-quality laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using radiation from fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat'ev, V B

    2015-09-30

    We report a comparative experimental study of laseroxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using a fibre laser with a wavelength of 1.07 μm and a CO{sub 2} laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm at the sheet thickness of 3 – 16 mm. For the two lasers we have measured the dependence of the cutting speed on the radiation power and determined the cutting speed at which the surface roughness is minimal. The coefficient of laser radiation absorption in the laser cutting process is measured for these lasers at different values of the cutting speed and radiation power. It is found that the minimal roughness of the cut surface is reached at the absorbed laser energy per unit volume of the removed material, equal to 11 – 13 J mm{sup -3}; this value is the same for the two lasers and does not depend on the sheet thickness. (laser technologies)

  15. New generation of optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, E M; Semjonov, S L; Bufetov, I A

    2016-01-31

    The growing need for information in contemporary society is the motivating force behind the development of fibre optics in general and optical fibre communications in particular. Intensive research effort has been concentrated on designing new types of optical fibres and extending their application field. This paper reviews results of research on new types of optical fibres: bismuthdoped active fibres, multicore fibres and hollow-core fibres, which can be used as key components of systems that ensure further increase in optical information transfer rate. (invited paper)

  16. Progress and development in fibre laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horley, Ray; Norman, Stephen; Zervas, Mikhail N.

    2007-10-01

    High performance fibre lasers are now well established as an extremely robust and reliable technology enabling a growing and diverse number of demanding industrial and medical and applications. Compared to rival technologies, such as carbon-dioxide (CO II), Lamp/Diode-Pumped Solid-State (L/DPSS) and disk lasers, fibre lasers offer a number of unique characteristics that have resulted in their wide adoption in an increasing number of industrial sectors. In addition to replacing conventional lasers in existing applications, fibre lasers have been very successful in enabling new applications, both factors which explain their increasing market share. In this paper we describe the basic features of fibre lasers, and discuss their generic advantages compared with other laser technologies and consider how these may translate to defence applications. We explain our proprietary cladding-pumping technology (GTWave TM) and the laser architectures we use to implement our commercial products. We present parametric performance data that show the vast range of pulse waveforms that can be produced and discuss some new industrial applications that they have recently enabled. Finally, we reference some of the leading research results for multi-kW continuous-wave (CW) fibre lasers and summarise SPIE's published work in this field.

  17. Slender tip laser scalpel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-01-06

    A laser scalpel includes a ribbon optical waveguide extending therethrough and terminating at a slender optical cutting tip. A laser beam is emitted along the height of the cutting tip for cutting tissue therealong.

  18. Energy transfer in optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Biryukov, A S; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2007-04-30

    The possibility of energy transfer over long distances in the form of laser radiation propagating in dielectric optical fibres is discussed. Because nonlinear-optical phenomena in glasses prevent the transfer of high radiation powers in standard two-layer fibres, the outlook for this transfer is associated with the development of the technology of microstructure fibres with a hollow core and with further progress in the development of high-power fibre lasers. (optical fibres)

  19. Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G.; Abboud, Zeinab; Bressler, David C.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles. Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Interestingly, mercerization prior to xylanase + cellulase and laccase treatments resulted in greater enzyme access evident in the increased adhesion force measurements. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulene-3-sulfonic acid (AT3S) treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications. Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces.

  20. Fibres get functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2011-02-01

    New forms of advanced optical fibres featuring exotic glasses, carefully designed microstructures and cores that are either hollow, fluidic, semiconductor or piezoelectric are giving light guides a new lease of life, reports Duncan Graham-Rowe.

  1. Ultrafast fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermann, Martin E.; Hartl, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    Ultrafast fibre lasers are fundamental building blocks of many photonic systems used in industrial and medical applications as well as for scientific research. Here, we review the essential components and operation regimes of ultrafast fibre lasers and discuss how they are instrumental in a variety of applications. In regards to laser technology, we discuss the present state of the art of large-mode-area fibres and their utilization in high-power, chirped-pulse amplification systems. In terms of commercial applications, we introduce industrial micromachining and medical imaging, and describe emerging applications in the mid-infrared and extreme-ultraviolet spectral regions, as facilitated by frequency shifting induced by fibre frequency combs.

  2. 100 Tips for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Noting that involved parents can improve their children's chances of succeeding in school, this packet of cards offers 100 tips created to help parents become more involved in their child's education. Following a card of general tips on becoming involved, tips are offered in the following topic areas: helping a child stay alcohol, tobacco, and…

  3. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  4. Fibre glass induced synovitis.

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, L G; Vernon-Roberts, B; Smith, K

    1984-01-01

    Chronic synovitis developed in the dorsal extensor sheath of the hand of a 25-year-old manufacturer of fibre glass reinforced boats and surfboards . Particles found in synovial fluid aspirates were similar in morphology and elemental content to unused fibre glass and particles found in dust from the workshop floor. It was concluded that hard disc grinding required during manufacture resulted in percutaneous implantation of small glass particles, leading to chronic synovitis and effusion. Images PMID:6742919

  5. Economics of tipping the climate dominoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Derek; Traeger, Christian P.

    2016-05-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions can trigger irreversible regime shifts in the climate system, known as tipping points. Multiple tipping points affect each other’s probability of occurrence, potentially causing a `domino effect’. We analyse climate policy in the presence of a potential domino effect. We incorporate three different tipping points occurring at unknown thresholds into an integrated climate-economy model. The optimal emission policy considers all possible thresholds and the resulting interactions between tipping points, economic activity, and policy responses into the indefinite future. We quantify the cost of delaying optimal emission controls in the presence of uncertain tipping points and also the benefit of detecting when individual tipping points have been triggered. We show that the presence of these tipping points nearly doubles today’s optimal carbon tax and reduces peak warming along the optimal path by approximately 1 °C. The presence of these tipping points increases the cost of delaying optimal policy until mid-century by nearly 150%.

  6. Localization and attempted quantification of various functional groups on pulpwood fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klash, A.; Ncube, E.; Meincken, M.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution of different free chemical functional groups on wood and pulp fibres has been determined by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with chemically modified tips. Because these functional groups show a higher affinity to similar groups on the substrate surface during scanning, AFM images determined with an additional digital pulsed-force mode (DPFM) controller allow the distribution of the chemical components to be imaged and to a degree also to be quantified. The investigated tip coatings showed a different sensitivity towards the major chemical components present in wood fibres, determined on spin-coated films and on wood fibres. A clear distinction between cellulose and lignin was possible in both cases. This technique could therefore be used to differentiate between cellulose and lignin present on pulp fibre surfaces and confirm the successful removal of lignin by pulping.

  7. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  8. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations.

  9. Respiratory monitoring using fibre long period grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allsop, T.; Reeves, R.; Webb, D. J.; Bennion, I.; Earthrowl, T.; Jones, B.; Miller, M.

    2005-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a series of in-line fibre long period grating curvature sensors on a garment, used to monitor the thoracic and abdominal volumetric tidal movements of a human subject. These results are used to obtain volumetric tidal changes of the human torso showing reasonable agreement with a spirometer used simultaneously to record the volume at the mouth during breathing. The curvature sensors are based upon long period gratings written in a progressive three layered fibre that are insensitive to refractive index changes. The sensor platform consists of the long period grating laid upon a carbon fibre ribbon, which is encapsulated in a low temperature curing silicone rubber.

  10. Nanomechanical measurements of hair as an example of micro-fibre analysis using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Charles A; Sano, Naoko; Doyle, Peter; Seah, Martin P

    2012-03-01

    The characterisation of nanoscale surface properties of textile and hair fibres is key to developing new effective laundry and hair care products. Here, we develop nanomechanical methods to characterise fibres using an atomic force microscope (AFM) to give their nanoscale modulus. Good mounting methods for the fibre that are chemically inert, clean and give strong mechanical coupling to a substrate are important and here we detail two methods to do this. We show, for elastic nanoindentation measurements, the situation when the tip radius significantly affects the result via a function of the ratio of the radii of the tip and fibre and indicate the importance of using an AFM for such work. A valid method to measure the nanoscale modulus of fibres using AFM is thus detailed and exampled on hair to show that bleaching changes the nanoscale reduced modulus at the outer surface. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Causes of TIPS dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cura, Marco; Cura, Alejandro; Suri, Rajeev; El-Merhi, Fadi; Lopera, Jorge; Kroma, Ghazwan

    2008-12-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is an effective method to control portal hypertension. TIPS creations with bare stents have shown limited and unpredictable patency. In nearly all cases of rebleeding or recurrent ascites after TIPS creation, there is shunt stenosis or occlusion. The purpose of this article is to review the biologic and technical factors that predispose to TIPS failure and how the use of an expandable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered-stent has significantly improved TIPS patency. Biologic and technical factors may predispose to shunt failure. The combination of improved technique and expandable PTFE has significantly improved TIPS patency. The need for follow-up venography and secondary interventions has been reduced significantly as a result of improved shunt patency.

  12. Helicopter blade tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyothier, R.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving helicopter performance and vibration level by proper shaping of helicopter blade tips are considered. The principle involved consists of reducing the extent of the supersonic zone above the advancing tip and of the turbulent interaction. For stationary and advancing flight, the influence of the rotor and the problems posed by blade tips are reviewed. The theoretical methods of dealing with the two types of flight are briefly stated, and the experimental apparatus is described, including model triple and quadruple rotors. Different blade tip shapes are shown and briefly discussed. The theoretical results include an advancing speed of 309 km/H and a blade tip rotational speed of 215 m/s. The experimental values are advancing speed of 302 km/h and blade tip Mach number 0.86 for both types of rotors.

  13. Comportement en compression d'une fibre de carbone dans un composite modèle monofilamentaire : simulation des images observées en photoélasticité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigouroux, A.; Andrieux, M.; Sixou, P.

    1996-05-01

    Nous calculons les images observables en photoélasticité pour un composite monofilamentaire, constitué par une fibre de carbone de 7 ou 49 μm de diamètre dans une matrice époxyde, soumis à un effort de compression. Le modèle de microflambage initialement développé par Lee et Harris [21] et repris à l'O.N.E.R.A. par Grandsire-Vinçon [14] est utilisé. Il est possible d'obtenir les déformations principales, leur différence ainsi que les directions principales. En dehors de la couche qui contient le plan de microflambage de la fibre, il est pris en compte des couches supplémentaires qui correspondent aux couches de matières situées au-dessus et au-dessous du plan de microflambage de la fibre. Dans le cas de la fibre T300 (diamètre 7 μm), et pour une ondulation initiale de 0,5 μm, une période d'oscillation de 50 ou 100 μm et une compression globale comprise entre 1 et 3 %, les calculs réalisés avec ou sans couches supplémentaires et avec ou sans lames quart-d'onde montrent des images assez sombres : le contraste est faible et les déformations sont presque du même ordre de grandeur pour une image donnée. Dans le cas de la fibre C49 (diamètre 49 μm), le contraste est bien plus important. Les images colorimétriques présentent des modifications notables en fonction des différents paramètres que l'on peut faire varier et sont très voisines de l'expérience. Une discussion détaillée de ce cas a été réalisée. En particulier, la différence des déformations principales diminue sur à-peu-près une épaisseur de fibre autour de cette dernière ; on constate de plus une alternance des couleurs lorsque l'on fait varier l'angle entre polariseur et axe neutre de la fibre, et enfin les déformations sont plus importantes au niveau des parties concaves de l'ondulation que des parties convexes. Based on a compressed single embedded fiber composite, constituted with a 7 μm or 49 μm fiber in an epoxy matrix, photoelasticity observables images

  14. Distribution of tension wood like gelatinous fibres in the roots of Acacia nilotica (Lam.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Pramod, S; Patel, Vinay R; Rajput, Kishore S; Rao, Karumanchi S

    2014-12-01

    The present study unravels the anatomical characteristics and distribution patterns of cell wall polymers in the G-fibres found in the roots of A. nilotica using different microscopy techniques (light, electron and immunofluorescence microscopy). The present study was aimed to investigate the anatomy of reaction xylem in the positively gravitropic roots of Acacia nilotica growing in compact and waterlogged soils. The roots collected from the two different sites showed occurrence of gelatinous fibres throughout xylem radii from a distance of 4 cm from the soil surface. The thickness of gelatinous layer (G-layer) increased in the root collected from the deeper soil. Further, the ultrastructural studies revealed a complete replacement of S2 and S3 layers in G-fibres nearer to root tip region as compared to the root portion close to upper part of the soil surface. In addition, these fibres demonstrated intense lignification in compound middle lamellae region of G-fibre walls. Moreover, the vessel density and their width increased considerably near the root tip region. The immunofluorescence analysis suggested that the β-1,4-galactans were prevalent in G-layer, whereas the xylan was restricted to only regions of lignified secondary wall. The similarities in distribution pattern and anatomical features of G-fibres in waterlogged and non-waterlogged roots suggest the occurrence of G-fibres as inherent characteristics in the roots of Acacia nilotica.

  15. Compressive and flexural behaviour of fibre reinforced endodontic posts.

    PubMed

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Pagano, Stefano; Pennacchi, Manuela; Lombardo, Guido; D'Errico, Potito; Kenny, Josè M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of five types of fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and compare them with traditional metal post. Five FRC posts and a metallic post having different geometry and type of fibre (glass, carbon or quartz fibre) were loaded to failure in compression and bending. The transverse sections of FRC posts were observed using SEM to evaluate the fracture mode and the percentage of fibres (compared with burn-off test). Densities and voids content were also evaluated. Mechanical results were subjected to a one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). In compression, quartz fibre posts exhibited the greater maximum load and ultimate strength, carbon fibre posts showed a poor compressive behaviour. All posts had similar compressive moduli. Carbon posts showed the highest flexural properties (p<0.0001) while glass posts the greater maximum load. The fracture load values correlated to the diameters of posts showed a parabolic behaviour. The flexural strengths of all posts were four and seven times higher than dentine. The elastic moduli of almost all posts were similar to dentine. The compressive strengths were lower than flexural strengths. The fibre diameters ranged from 5.2 to 26 μm, the volume percentage of fibres was about 64%. The content of voids of some posts lower their mechanical behaviour. Compressive properties of FRC posts were lower than in bending. The flexural properties of FRC posts were higher than the metal post and similar to dentine. The mechanical behaviour is influenced by voids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioluminescence of some optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, R

    2007-02-21

    Measurement of radiation fields with small scintillators as detectors for radiation dose is an attractive method provided that the scintillator luminescence can be discriminated against other unwanted signals. In diagnostic radiology radioluminescence of the optical fibres required for a transmission of the luminescence to an optical detector is the only source for such an impairment of the signal. To find fibres with low radioluminosity a survey of ten commercial fibres including polystyrene (PS), polystyrene wavelength shifting fibres, poly-methylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silica as fibre core material was made. Measurements were made with two photomultipliers of different spectral response and a clinical x-ray unit. Lowest radioluminosity was obtained with PMMA fibres. Depending on spectral sensitivity of the multiplier clear PS fibres give five to ten times the luminescence of PMMA. From the silica fibres only one high-OH fibre gave comparable results for wavelength up to 520 nm. Wavelength shifting fibres and silica fibres with low OH-content show strong fluorescence and are not suitable fibre materials.

  17. Fibre gratings and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Sergei A; Medvedkov, O I; Korolev, I G; Bozhkov, A S; Kurkov, Andrei S; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2005-12-31

    A brief review is given of the state of the art in the research on the photosensitivity of fibres and photoinduced fibre gratings. The most important properties of fibre gratings are considered and the main methods of their production and their applications are discussed. The photosensitive compositions of silica glasses are presented and methods for increasing their photosensitivity are indicated. (review)

  18. Laser Cutting of CFRP with a Fibre Guided High Power Nanosecond Laser Source - Influence of the Optical Fibre Diameter on Quality and Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluemel, S.; Bastick, S.; Staehr, R.; Jaeschke, P.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    For the development of a robot based laser cutting process of automotive 3D parts consisting of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP), investigations with a newly developed fibre guided nanosecond pulsed laser with an average power of PL = 1.5 kW were conducted. In order to investigate the best combination of quality and process time 2 different optical fibres were used, with diameters of df = 400 μm and df = 600 μm. The main differences between the two setups are the resulting focal diameter and the maximum available pulse energy up to EP = 80 mJ. In a first instance, a comparable investigation was performed with both fibres for a constant pulse overlap. For each fibre the minimum required line energy was investigated and cuts were performed, distributed over the complete parameter range of the laser source. The influences of the fibre diameter on the quality and efficiency of the cutting process are summarized and discussed.

  19. [Pleural lymphatics and pleural diseases related to fibres].

    PubMed

    Fleury Feith, J; Jaurand, M-C

    2013-12-01

    It is now well established that some pleural diseases, pleural plaques and malignant mesothelioma are related to asbestos fibre exposure although the mechanism of action of asbestos fibres is not fully understood. The development of artificial mineral fibres and carbon nanotubes, which share some morphological characteristics similar to asbestos fibres, is a present concern in the context of pleural diseases. Pleural plaques develop only in the parietal pleura, and in the 1990s, clinical observations have shown that the early development of mesothelioma also occurred on the parietal pleura. The peculiarity of the parietal pleura in contrast to the visceral pleura is the presence of "stomas" which are communication holes between the pleural cavity and the parietal pleura lymphatics. Morphological observations by thoracoscopy and experimental studies have shown that inhaled fibres translocate to the pleural space and, in human, are present in the parietal pleura at specific anthracotic areas (blackspots). Fibres accumulate on the stomas, up to block and locally induce an inflammatory reaction with cytokines release, that can be the bed of mesothelioma. However, despite the experimental data and observations in human pathology, the mechanisms of fibre translocation into the pleura is not yet clearly established.

  20. Small fibre neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, Daniele; Lauria, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To provide a review on the state-of-art of clinical features, diagnostics, genetics and treatments of small fibre neuropathy (SFN). The spectrum of clinical features has been widened from the classical presentation of burning feet as length-dependent SFN to that of small fibre dysfunction and/or degeneration associated with focal, diffuse and episodic neuropathic pain syndromes. The involvement of small nerve fibres in neurodegenerative diseases has been further defined, challenging the relationship between neuropathic pain symptoms and small fibre loss. The clinical reliability of skin biopsy has been strengthened by the availability of normative values for both the immunohistochemistry techniques used and their comparison, and by side and short-term follow-up analyses. Corneal confocal microscopy has implemented its diagnostic potentiality because of the availability of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted normative values. Genetic studies expanded the panel on genes involved in SFN because of the discovery of new mutations in SCN10A and SCN11A, besides the first found in SCN9A, and identification of mutations in COL6A5 in patients with itching. In the last 5 years, the chapter of SFN has been widened by new clinical and genetics descriptions leading to a more comprehensive approach to patients in clinical practice and research.

  1. Bismuth-ring-doped fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Zlenko, Aleksandr S; Dvoirin, Vladislav V; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A; Firstov, Sergei V; Akhmetshin, Ural G

    2009-11-30

    A new process for bismuth doping of optical fibres is proposed in which the dopant is introduced into a thin layer surrounding the fibre core. This enables bismuth stabilisation in the silica glass, with no limitations on the core composition. In particular, the GeO{sub 2} content of the fibre core in this study is 16 mol %. Spectroscopic characterisation of such fibres and optical gain measurements suggest that the proposed approach has considerable potential for laser applications. (optical fibres and fibreoptic sensors)

  2. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  3. Total Telephone Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Lloyd E.; And Others

    This manual of telephone behavior tips for business and sales professionals offers ways to handle the disgruntled caller and makes suggestions on topics relevant to the telephone. The manual is divided into the following sections and subsections: (1) Common Courtesy (staff tips, answering the telephone, screening calls, transferring calls, taking…

  4. Southwestern Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Jennings; Robert E. Stevens

    1982-01-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar), injures young ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Southwest, central Rockies, and midwestern plains. Larvae feed on and destroy new, expanding shoots, often seriously reducing terminal growth of both naturally regenerated and planted pines. The tip moth is especially damaging to trees on...

  5. Parameters influencing the thermal expansion of polymers and fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baschek, G.; Hartwig, G.

    Thermal expansion of polymers and fibre composites is an important design parameter in cryogenics. Measurements have been carried out with a laser interference dilatometer and an inductive dilatometer. Parameters which might influence the thermal expansion have been investigated. For polymers the influence of annealing has been studied. Annealing at a temperature near to the main glass transition yielded deviations of about 5% compared to those of untreated samples. The very large expansion of polymers can be drastically varied by reinforcement with fibres of different fibre arrangements. For carbon fibre angle-plies even negative expansion can be achieved (Humphreys, E.A. and Rosen, B.W., Properties analysis of laminates. In Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, Composites. ASM International, USA, 1987, p. 226). This behaviour arises from thermally induced shear stresses between the laminates. For carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CRPs) with different fibre angles the influences of thermal cycling, mechanical creep loading and geometrical shape (plates, half-tubes and tubes) on the expansion behaviour has been investigated. The expansion is influenced in a different manner by thermal cycling and mechanical creep loading. The largest effects arise from thermal cycling and mechanical creep loading of CRPs. The geometrical shape of the specimens influences the expansion behaviour remarkably. The expansion of tubes is smaller compared to that of plates. The reason is coupling of radial and azimuthal components existing for cylindrical samples.

  6. The effect of the addition of different fibres on the transverse and impact strength of acrylic resin denture base material.

    PubMed

    Rahamneh, A; Jagger, D C; Harrison, A

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the addition of different types of fibres on the transverse and impact strength of acrylic resin denture base material. The addition of glass fibres (strand) and polyethylene fibres produced a non significant increase in the modulus of elasticity, compared with the control of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin. The addition of glass fibres (woven and strand), polyethylene and carbon fibres to acrylic resin produced a non significant increase in the modulus of rupture. The addition of carbon, glass (strand) and polyethylene fibres produced a significant increase in the impact strength. Within the limitations of this study the addition of silk fibres did not produce an improvement in the mechanical properties.

  7. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  8. Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D) and Two Dimensional (2D) Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Pardo, Fabiola; Martínez-Barrera, Gonzalo; Martínez-Hernández, Ana Laura; Castaño, Víctor M.; Rivera-Armenta, José Luis; Medellín-Rodríguez, Francisco; Velasco-Santos, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Electrospun one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100) decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites. PMID:28811448

  9. Nerve fibre refractory period in patients treated with rubidium and lithium.

    PubMed Central

    Betts, R P; Paschalis, C; Jarratt, J A; Jenner, F A

    1978-01-01

    Nerve fibre refractory period distributions have been measured on the median nerves of six manic-depressive patients controlled with lithium carbonate, three chronic patients (two manic-depressives and one catatonic schizophrenic) controlled with rubidium chloride, and eight normal volunteers. Rubidium prolonged the refractory periods of all nerve fibres while lithium increased only the longer refractory periods. PMID:690649

  10. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  11. Small fibre neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lauria, Giuseppe; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G

    2012-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent advances in classification, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of small fibre neuropathy (SFN). Clinically based diagnostic criteria for SFN have been proposed and reliably supported by the recent availability of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted normative values for intraepidermal nerve fibre density. Apart from skin biopsy, corneal confocal microscopy and nociceptive evoked potentials have been implemented to investigate SFN of different causes, and correlated with skin biopsy findings, especially in diabetic patients. The association between SFN and several metabolic and immune-mediated systemic diseases, and drugs toxic to this subset of peripheral nerve fibres has been reported. An exciting advance has been the identification of gain-of-function mutations in the SCN9A gene encoding for Nav1.7 sodium channel in patients with SFN, leading to the definition of a new genetic channelopathy. SFN represents a distinct condition encountered in patients with different acquired and genetic disorders. The recent improved definition of clinical and skin biopsy criteria allows clinicians to reliably meet the diagnosis, identify the underlying cause, and prescribe appropriate treatments. This meaningful approach permits the correct management of patients in clinical practice and the design of symptomatic and disease-modifying clinical trials.

  12. Distributed ultrafast fibre laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming; Cui, Yudong; Han, Dongdong; Yao, Xiankun; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-01-01

    A traditional ultrafast fibre laser has a constant cavity length that is independent of the pulse wavelength. The investigation of distributed ultrafast (DUF) lasers is conceptually and technically challenging and of great interest because the laser cavity length and fundamental cavity frequency are changeable based on the wavelength. Here, we propose and demonstrate a DUF fibre laser based on a linearly chirped fibre Bragg grating, where the total cavity length is linearly changeable as a function of the pulse wavelength. The spectral sidebands in DUF lasers are enhanced greatly, including the continuous-wave (CW) and pulse components. We observe that all sidebands of the pulse experience the same round-trip time although they have different round-trip distances and refractive indices. The pulse-shaping of the DUF laser is dominated by the dissipative processes in addition to the phase modulations, which makes our ultrafast laser simple and stable. This laser provides a simple, stable, low-cost, ultrafast-pulsed source with controllable and changeable cavity frequency. PMID:25765454

  13. Fibre-optical microendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, M; Bao, H; Kang, H

    2014-04-01

    Microendoscopy has been an essential tool in exploring micro/nano mechanisms in vivo due to high-quality imaging performance, compact size and flexible movement. The investigations into optical fibres, micro-scanners and miniature lens have boosted efficiencies of remote light delivery to sample site and signal collection. Given the light interaction with materials in the fluorescence imaging regime, this paper reviews two classes of compact microendoscopy based on a single fibre: linear optical microendoscopy and nonlinear optical microendoscopy. Due to the fact that fluorescence occurs only in the focal volume, nonlinear optical microendoscopy can provide stronger optical sectioning ability than linear optical microendoscopy, and is a good candidate for deep tissue imaging. Moreover, one-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy as the linear optical microendoscopy suffers from severe photobleaching owing to the linear dependence of photobleaching rate on excitation laser power. On the contrary, nonlinear optical microendoscopy, including two-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy and second harmonic generation microendoscopy, has the capability to minimize or avoid the photobleaching effect at a high excitation power and generate high image contrast. The combination of various nonlinear signals gained by the nonlinear optical microendoscopy provides a comprehensive insight into biophenomena in internal organs. Fibre-optical microendoscopy overcomes physical limitations of traditional microscopy and opens up a new path to achieve early cancer diagnosis and microsurgery in a minimally invasive and localized manner.

  14. Tips for Breastfeeding Moms

    MedlinePlus

    United States Department of Agriculture Tips for Breastfeeding Moms Making healthy food choices along with regular physical activity will keep you healthy while you breastfeed. Find Your Healthy Eating Style Choose ...

  15. Health Tips for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... clinical feasibility to large multi-center studies Funding Process Tips for applicants; grant review and management resources; and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for ...

  16. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  17. Tips for Daily Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... date on the latest news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with ... What is dementia What is Alzheimer's Stages of Alzheimer's Treatments Contact us 24/7 Helpline: 1-800-272- ...

  18. Tips for Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Tips for Chronic Pain The SSF thanks Stuart S. Kassan, MD, FACP, Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, for authoring ...

  19. Bed Bug Tips

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  20. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Resources STEADI Initiative for Health Care Providers Water-Related Injuries Get the Facts Publications Poisoning Tips ... containers. Do not use food containers such as cups, bottles, or jars to store chemical products such ...

  1. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jim; Ashcraft, Nikki; Clarke, Paul M.; Wolf, Grant S.

    1999-01-01

    Four tips for use in the English-as-a-Second-Language classroom are highlighted: Mr. Bean in the Classroom; Defining Your Future; Coin Questions; Our Futures: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. (Author/VWL)

  2. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day Arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day Arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  3. Insider conference tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Attending an educator conference and its associated exhibit hall can be a rewarding experience for your brain. But if you keep in mind these insider's tips, your feet, arms, stomach, and wallet will also thank you.

  4. Optical fibre-based reflective displacement sensor: computer modelling and application to impact detection in aeronautical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorebieta, Josu; Garcia, Iker; Durana, Gaizaka; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Zubia, Joseba; Sáez-Ocáriz, Idurre

    2017-06-01

    Impact detection is used as proof of concept to demonstrate that the design principle of optical fibre-based reflective displacement sensors is versatile enough to fit applications that go beyond the original concept for which they were designed, i.e. Tip Clearance and Tip Timing. For that, a custom software has been created that allows to find the best fibre arrangement within the fibre bundle that matches the specifications of the target application. After fabricating the fibre bundle, the validity and usefulness of the simulations have been assessed by means of laboratory measurements on the reflective displacement sensor. Finally some preliminary impact tests have been carried out to confirm the previous work.

  5. Dual pO2/pCO2 fibre optic sensing film.

    PubMed

    Davenport, John J; Hickey, Michelle; Phillips, Justin P; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A

    2017-05-15

    A fibre optic multi-sensor has been developed for biomedical sensing applications using a tip coating solution sensitive to both oxygen and carbon dioxide. An oxygen sensitive phosphorescence quenching complex based on platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) was combined with a carbon dioxide sensitive phosphorescence compound based on 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS). When excited by blue light (470 nm), the resultant coating had two fluorescent peaks at 515 nm (green) and 645 nm (red) which responded to partial pressure of CO2 and O2 respectively. The sensor was tested in vitro and shown to be able to measure CO2 and O2 simultaneously and in real time, with calibration constants of 0.0384 kPa(-1) and 0.309 kPa(-1) respectively. The O2 sensitive peak received some overlap from the 515 nm peak (0.38% of peak intensity) as well as some cross-sensitivity (maximum, 5.1 kPa pCO2 gave a measurement equivalent to 0.43 kPa of O2, a ratio of 0.08 : 1). However, these effects can be subtracted from measurements and no significant cross-sensitivity or overlap was seen in CO2 measurements from O2. This novel compound presents great potential for use in medical sensors and we expect it to be important to a wide range of future applications.

  6. Properties of nanocomposite PP fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smole, Majda S.; Stakne, Kristina; Svetec, Diana G.; Kleinschek, Karin S.; Ribitsch, Volker

    2005-06-01

    PP-based nanocomposite fibres were prepared by direct polymer melt intercalation. With the intention to determine the size and dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, fibres were plasma etched and SEM observations were performed. The influence of nanofiller content and coupling agent on electrokinetic properties was studied. PP monofilament fibres exhibit hydrophobe character with negative zeta potential value. The zeta potential value of co-polymer PP fibre decreases with increasing PPAA content and the isoelectric point IEP of co-polymer samples shifts towards acid region. Addition of modified montmorillonite due to the particles electropositive character, affects the reduction of zeta potential value and a slight shift of IEP towards neutral region is observed. Nano-particles content influences electrokinetic fibres properties, i.e. ZP value is changed, however IE point is not significantly changed by different concentrations of nanofiller. In addition to, mechanical properties of nanocomposite fibres were determined.

  7. Mould design and manufacturing considerations of honeycomb biocomposites with transverse fibre direction for aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, N. H.; Majid, D. L.; Romli, F. I.

    2016-10-01

    Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are known to significantly improve stiffness at lower weight and possess high flexural rigidity. They have found wide applications in aerospace as part of the primary structures, as well as the interior paneling and floors. High performance aluminum and aramid are the typical materials used for the purpose of honeycomb core whereas in other industries, materials such as fibre glass, carbon fibre, Nomex and also Kevlar reinforced with polymer are used. Recently, growing interest in developing composite structures with natural fibre reinforcement has also spurred research in natural fibre honeycomb material. The majority of the researches done, however, have generally emphasized on the usage of random chopped fibre and only a few are reported on development of honeycomb structure using unidirectional fibre as the reinforcement. This is mainly due to its processing difficulties, which often involve several stages to account for the arrangement of fibres and curing. Since the use of unidirectional fibre supports greater strength compared to random chopped fibre, a single-stage process in conjunction with vacuum infusion is suggested with a mould design that supports fibre arrangement in the direction of honeycomb loading.

  8. Fibre reinforced CMC with polymer/filler derived matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Suttor, D.; Erny, T.; Greil, P.

    1995-09-01

    A ceramic matrix for carbon fibre reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) has been developed from polysiloxane/boron mixtures. Complex geometries can be realized by using processing technologies of fibre reinforced polymer composites. Upon pyrolysis the polymer/filler mixture is converted into a ceramic matrix consisting of SiC, B{sub 4}C, BN and a Si-O-C-(N) glass, without reacting with the carbon fibre. Due to the large volume increase of the reactive boron filler upon nitridation (+142 vol%) no multiple reinfiltration of the structure is necessary in order to achieve a dense matrix. Thermodynamic modelling of the pyrolysis is a useful tool to estimate the qualitative and quantitative phase composition as a function of polymer, filler and gas atmospheres.

  9. Compressive failure of fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiansky, B.; Fleck, N. A.

    1993-01-01

    A REVIEW OF experimental data and elementary theoretical formulas for compressive failure of polymer matrix fibre composites indicates that the dominant failure mode is by plastic kinking. Initial local fibre misalignment plays a central role in the plastic kinking process. Theoretical analyses and numerical results for compressive kinking are presented, encompassing effects of strain-hardening, kink inclination, and applied shear stress. The assumption of rigid fibres is assessed critically, and the legitimacy of its use for polymer matrix composites is established.

  10. It is possible to cause damage to a laser fibre during delivery of tumescent anaesthesia for endovenous laser ablation (EVLA).

    PubMed

    Holdstock, J M; Marsh, P; Whiteley, M S; Price, B A

    2008-10-01

    To establish a possible mechanism of damage to a laser fibre significant enough to cause a retained segment within a patient. A 21 G needle was used to pierce a VARILASE 810 nm Laser Fibre inserted within a 4F sheath. A tiny pin source of light from the aiming beam emerged from the needle hole in the sheath. Using laser protection protocol, the generator was fired for one minute at 14 Watts (W) continuous wave. The sheath and fibre were then examined. In a control experiment, we were unable manually to break a fibre where the coating had been damaged prior to the laser being fired. The aiming beam was noted to be concentrated at the side of the catheter at the point of needle damage rather than at the fibre tip. When the fibre was removed from the sheath the distal length, from the point of damage to the tip, was retained within the sheath. Longer firing with the sheath surrounded by a wet towel or a pork loin resulted in complete severance of the sheath and fibre. There are no firm manufacturer's guidelines on whether Tumescent Anaesthesia should be delivered before or after the laser fibre has been inserted into the patient. Some units performing EVLA prefer to do this with the laser fibre in situ as it is easier to image on ultrasound than the sheath alone. The results of this in-vitro experiment would suggest it is possible to cause sufficient needle damage to fracture a laser fibre when fired. In the interests of safety we would recommend administration of tumescent anaesthesia should always be carried out before introduction of the laser fibre.

  11. Fibre constituents of some foods.

    PubMed

    Rani, B; Kawatra, A

    1994-06-01

    Some plant foods viz. bottlegourd, carrot, cauliflower, cabbage, green bengalgram, pea, apple, plum, guava, karonda, blackgram husk and lentil husk were analysed for their dietary fibre components. The total dietary fibre contents of these foods varied from 14.68 to 78.21 percent on dry matter basis. As compared to fruits and vegetables, the husks had higher amount of total dietary fibre. Cellulose represented as the major fibre constituent in most of the foods whereas, husks were observed to be good sources of hemicellulose. All foods were low in pectin and lignin contents except guava.

  12. Sulphur-doped silica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimova, V I; Rybaltovskii, A O; Chernov, P V; Mashinsky, V M; Sazhin, O D; Medvedkov, O I; Rybaltovsky, A A; Khrapko, R R

    2003-01-31

    An optical fibre with low optical losses is manufactured from a sulphur-doped quartz glass. Optical absorption spectra are measured for various parts of the fibre core. Most of the bands of these spectra are assigned to oxygen-deficient centres and colour centres containing sulphur atoms. The photosensitivity of glasses exposed to laser radiation at wavelengths of 193 and 244 nm is investigated to estimate the possibility of their application for producing photorefracting devices. A Bragg grating of the refractive index with {Delta}n = 7.8 x 10{sup -4} is written in a sulphur-doped silica fibre. (fibre optics)

  13. A new solid phase microextraction method using organic ligand in micropipette tip syringe system packed with modified carbon cloth for preconcentration of cadmium in drinking water and blood samples of kidney failure patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Salma Aslam; Naeemullah; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient miniaturized solid phase microextraction (M-SPμE) in a syringe system was developed for preconcentration of cadmium (Cd) in environmental and biological samples, followed by flame atomic absorption technique. The syringe system contains the micropipette tip packed with activated carbon cloth, coated with modified magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide Triton X114 (ACC-NPs). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy used for characterization of the size, morphology and elemental composition of ACC-NPs. The sample solution treated with a complexing reagent 8-hydroxyqunilone (8-HQ), and drawn into the syringe, filled with ACC-MNPs and dispensed manually for 2-10 drawing/discharging cycles. The analyte retained on ACC-NPs in micropipette tip-syringe system were then eluted with different volume of 1.5 mol L-1 HCl by 1-5 drawing/discharging cycles. The syringe system directly couple with FAAS for analysis. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency of Cd, including adsorbent dosage, pH, sample volume, eluent volume and drawing/discharging cycles of syringe system were optimized. At optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 5-250 μg L-1, with a limit of detection 0.15 μg L-1. Repeatability of the extraction (%RSD) was <5%, n = 5. The validity and accuracy of the method was checked by the certified reference materials. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd in different drinking water and biological samples of kidney failure patients and healthy controls.

  14. A new solid phase microextraction method using organic ligand in micropipette tip syringe system packed with modified carbon cloth for preconcentration of cadmium in drinking water and blood samples of kidney failure patients.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Salma Aslam; Naeemullah; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi

    2015-03-05

    A simple and efficient miniaturized solid phase microextraction (M-SPμE) in a syringe system was developed for preconcentration of cadmium (Cd) in environmental and biological samples, followed by flame atomic absorption technique. The syringe system contains the micropipette tip packed with activated carbon cloth, coated with modified magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide Triton X114 (ACC-NPs). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy used for characterization of the size, morphology and elemental composition of ACC-NPs. The sample solution treated with a complexing reagent 8-hydroxyqunilone (8-HQ), and drawn into the syringe, filled with ACC-MNPs and dispensed manually for 2-10 drawing/discharging cycles. The analyte retained on ACC-NPs in micropipette tip-syringe system were then eluted with different volume of 1.5molL(-1) HCl by 1-5 drawing/discharging cycles. The syringe system directly couple with FAAS for analysis. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency of Cd, including adsorbent dosage, pH, sample volume, eluent volume and drawing/discharging cycles of syringe system were optimized. At optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 5-250μgL(-1), with a limit of detection 0.15μgL(-1). Repeatability of the extraction (%RSD) was <5%, n=5. The validity and accuracy of the method was checked by the certified reference materials. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd in different drinking water and biological samples of kidney failure patients and healthy controls.

  15. Intraoperative fracture of phacoemulsification tip.

    PubMed

    Angmo, Dewang; Khokhar, Sudarshan K; Ganguly, Anasua

    2014-01-01

    Phacoemulsification (phaco) is an established procedure for cataract extraction and has undergone a significant advances in techniques, machines and phaco tips. The Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) phaco tip was introduced for phacoemulsification in 1998. The ABS tip allows fluid to be drawn through the opening when the phaco tip is occluded by nuclear material. The ABS tip allowed the safe use of high vacuum and flow rates and improved chamber stability by decreasing surge and therefore reducing intraoperative complications. To date, no disadvantages of ABS tips have been reported. We report a unique case of an intraoperative break of an ABS phaco tip during routine cataract surgery.

  16. Intraoperative Fracture of Phacoemulsification Tip

    PubMed Central

    Angmo, Dewang; Khokhar, Sudarshan K.; Ganguly, Anasua

    2014-01-01

    Phacoemulsification (phaco) is an established procedure for cataract extraction and has undergone a significant advances in techniques, machines and phaco tips. The Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) phaco tip was introduced for phacoemulsification in 1998. The ABS tip allows fluid to be drawn through the opening when the phaco tip is occluded by nuclear material. The ABS tip allowed the safe use of high vacuum and flow rates and improved chamber stability by decreasing surge and therefore reducing intraoperative complications. To date, no disadvantages of ABS tips have been reported. We report a unique case of an intraoperative break of an ABS phaco tip during routine cataract surgery. PMID:24669153

  17. Simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements in a mechanical ventilator using an optical fibre sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. U.; Correia, R.; Morgan, S. P.; Hayes-Gill, B.; Evans, D.; Sinha, R.; Norris, A.; Harvey, D.; Hardman, J. G.; Korposh, S.

    2016-05-01

    An optical fibre sensor for simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements consisting of one fibre Bragg grating (FBG) to measure temperature and a mesoporous film of bilayers of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH) and silica (SiO2) nanoparticles deposited onto the tip of the same fibre to measure humidity is reported. The hygroscopic film was created using the layer-by-layer (LbL) method and the optical reflection spectra were measured up to a maximum of 23 bilayers. The temperature sensitivity of the FBG was 10 pm/°C while the sensitivity to humidity was (-1.4x10-12 W / %RH) using 23 bilayers. The developed sensor was tested in the mechanical ventilator and temperature and humidity of the delivered artificial air was simultaneously measured. Once calibrated, the optical fibre sensor has the potential to control the absolute humidity as an essential part of critical respiratory care.

  18. Palladium coated ball lens for optical fibre refractometry based hydrogen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sahar A.; Correia, Ricardo; Francis, Daniel; Brooks, Simon J.; Jones, Ben J. S.; Thompson, Alexander W. J.; Hodgkinson, Jane; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-05-01

    An optical fibre refractometer using a ball lens as a sensor head has been developed and characterised. Light from a superluminescent diode is directed to an optical fibre sensor head and the intensity of the returned beam gives a measure of the refractive index of the medium at the ball lens fibre tip. A second beam is used to reference the intensity measurements. The system is capable of detecting changes in refractive index with a resolution of 0.003 RIU. The ball lenses have been coated with an 80nm thick layer of palladium and the potential use of this system as a micromirror hydrogen sensor is demonstrated. This technique offers a simple sensor head arrangement, with a large signal sampling area compared with that of a bare fibre.

  19. The Bacterial Community Structure and Dynamics of Carbon and Nitrogen when Maize (Zea mays L.) and Its Neutral Detergent Fibre Were Added to Soil from Zimbabwe with Contrasting Management Practices.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz-Barrón, Magali; Cruz-Mendoza, Alejandra; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Victor M; Ortíz-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Ramírez-Villanueva, Daniel A; Luna-Guido, Marco; Thierfelder, Cristian; Wall, Patrick C; Verhulst, Nele; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Water infiltration, soil carbon content, aggregate stability and yields increased in conservation agriculture practices compared to conventionally ploughed control treatments at the Henderson research station near Mazowe (Zimbabwe). How these changes in soil characteristics affect the bacterial community structure and the bacteria involved in the degradation of applied organic material remains unanswered. Soil was sampled from three agricultural systems at Henderson, i.e. (1) conventional mouldboard ploughing with continuous maize (conventional tillage), (2) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter and continuous maize (direct seeding with continuous maize) and (3) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter with rotation of maize sunn hemp (direct seeding with crop rotation). Soil was amended with young maize plants or their neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and incubated aerobically for 56 days, while C and N mineralization and the bacterial community structure were monitored. Bacillus (Bacillales), Micrococcaceae (Actinomycetales) and phylotypes belonging to the Pseudomonadales were first degraders of the applied maize plants. At day 3, Streptomyces (Actinomycetales), Chitinophagaceae ([Saprospirales]) and Dyella (Xanthomonadales) participated in the degradation of the applied maize and at day 7 Oxalobacteraceae (Burkholderiales). Phylotypes belonging to Halomonas (Oceanospirillales) were the first degraders of NDF and were replaced by Phenylobacterium (Caulobacterales) and phylotypes belonging to Pseudomonadales at day 3. Afterwards, similar bacterial groups were favoured by application of NDF as they were by the application of maize plants, but there were also clear differences. Phylotypes belonging to the Micrococcaceae and Bacillus did not participate in the degradation of NDF or its metabolic products, while phylotypes belonging to the Acidobacteriaceae participated in the degradation of NDF but not in that of maize plants. It was found that agricultural

  20. Multifunctional non-woven fabrics of interfused graphene fibres.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Yingjun; Wang, Ran; Gao, Chao

    2016-11-30

    Carbon-based fibres hold promise for preparing multifunctional fabrics with electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, permeability, flexibility and lightweight. However, these fabrics are of limited performance mainly because of the weak interaction between fibres. Here we report non-woven graphene fibre fabrics composed of randomly oriented and interfused graphene fibres with strong interfibre bonding. The all-graphene fabrics obtained through a wet-fusing assembly approach are porous and lightweight, showing high in-plane electrical conductivity up to ∼2.8 × 10(4 )S m(-1) and prominent thermal conductivity of ∼301.5 W m(-1 )K(-1). Given the low density (0.22 g cm(-3)), their specific electrical and thermal conductivities set new records for carbon-based papers/fabrics and even surpass those of individual graphene fibres. The as-prepared fabrics are further used as ultrafast responding electrothermal heaters and durable oil-adsorbing felts, demonstrating their great potential as high-performance and multifunctional fabrics in real-world applications.

  1. Multifunctional non-woven fabrics of interfused graphene fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Yingjun; Wang, Ran; Gao, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-based fibres hold promise for preparing multifunctional fabrics with electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, permeability, flexibility and lightweight. However, these fabrics are of limited performance mainly because of the weak interaction between fibres. Here we report non-woven graphene fibre fabrics composed of randomly oriented and interfused graphene fibres with strong interfibre bonding. The all-graphene fabrics obtained through a wet-fusing assembly approach are porous and lightweight, showing high in-plane electrical conductivity up to ~2.8 × 104 S m-1 and prominent thermal conductivity of ~301.5 W m-1 K-1. Given the low density (0.22 g cm-3), their specific electrical and thermal conductivities set new records for carbon-based papers/fabrics and even surpass those of individual graphene fibres. The as-prepared fabrics are further used as ultrafast responding electrothermal heaters and durable oil-adsorbing felts, demonstrating their great potential as high-performance and multifunctional fabrics in real-world applications.

  2. Multifunctional non-woven fabrics of interfused graphene fibres

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Yingjun; Wang, Ran; Gao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based fibres hold promise for preparing multifunctional fabrics with electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, permeability, flexibility and lightweight. However, these fabrics are of limited performance mainly because of the weak interaction between fibres. Here we report non-woven graphene fibre fabrics composed of randomly oriented and interfused graphene fibres with strong interfibre bonding. The all-graphene fabrics obtained through a wet-fusing assembly approach are porous and lightweight, showing high in-plane electrical conductivity up to ∼2.8 × 104 S m−1 and prominent thermal conductivity of ∼301.5 W m−1 K−1. Given the low density (0.22 g cm−3), their specific electrical and thermal conductivities set new records for carbon-based papers/fabrics and even surpass those of individual graphene fibres. The as-prepared fabrics are further used as ultrafast responding electrothermal heaters and durable oil-adsorbing felts, demonstrating their great potential as high-performance and multifunctional fabrics in real-world applications. PMID:27901022

  3. Fibers comprised of epitaxially grown single-wall carbon nanotubes, and a method for added catalyst and continuous growth at the tip

    DOEpatents

    Kittrell, W. Carter; Wang, Yuhuang; Kim, Myung Jong; Hauge, Robert H.; Smalley, Richard E.; Marek leg, Irene Morin

    2010-06-01

    The present invention is directed to fibers of epitaxially grown single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and methods of making same. Such methods generally comprise the steps of: (a) providing a spun SWNT fiber; (b) cutting the fiber substantially perpendicular to the fiber axis to yield a cut fiber; (c) etching the cut fiber at its end with a plasma to yield an etched cut fiber; (d) depositing metal catalyst on the etched cut fiber end to form a continuous SWNT fiber precursor; and (e) introducing feedstock gases under SWNT growth conditions to grow the continuous SWNT fiber precursor into a continuous SWNT fiber.

  4. Magnet pole tips

    DOEpatents

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  5. Magnet pole tips

    DOEpatents

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-11-19

    An improved magnet more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  6. Evolving Indications for Tips.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mitchell; Durham, Janette

    2016-03-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is a well-established therapy for refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients who do not tolerate repeated large volume paracentesis. Experience and technical improvements including covered stents have led to improved TIPS outcomes that have encouraged an expanded application. Evidence for other less frequent indications continues to accumulate, including the indications of primary prophylaxis in patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding, gastric and ectopic variceal bleeding, primary treatment of medically refractory ascites, recurrent refractory ascites following liver transplantation, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatorenal syndrome, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and portal vein thrombosis. Treatment of patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding with early TIPS and using transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts as a primary therapy rather than large volume paracentesis for refractory ascites would likely be the 2 circumstances that permit expansion in the frequency of TIPS procedures. The remaining populations discussed above are relatively rare.

  7. Fluoride Glass Fibres For Telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maze, Gwenael; Cardin, Vincent; Poulain, Marcel

    1983-09-01

    Zirconium fluoride glasses are the best known and the most stable beryllium-free glasses. They offer numerous potential uses for I.R.-transmitting fibres and ultra-long repeaterless optical wave-guides. Various problems arise in the manufacturing of fluoride glass fibres, essentially because of the steep viscosity profile and the devitrification phenomena. This paper discusses the processes for manufacturing step-index preforms and for drawing fibres. Optical quality preforms have been obtained and fibres have been drawn over more than 1 km. A spectral loss measurement system has been constructed using fluoride glass optical components. Several curves showing the optical attenuation versus wavelength are presented and discussed. These fibres are now available for optical transmission in infra-red systems.

  8. Speciality optical fibres for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2015-05-01

    Astrophotonics is a rapidly developing area of research which applies photonic technology to astronomical instrumentation. Such technology has the capability of significantly improving the sensitivity, calibration and stability of astronomical instruments, or indeed providing novel capabilities which are not possible using classical optics. We review the development and application of speciality fibres for astronomy, including multi-mode to single-mode converters, notch filters and frequency combs.In particular we focus on our development of instruments designed to filter atmospheric emission lines to enable much deeper spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared. These instruments employ two novel photonic technologies. First, we have developed complex aperiodic fibre Bragg gratings which filter over 100 irregularly spaced wavelengths in a single device, covering a bandwidth of over 200 nm. However, astronomical instruments require highly multi-mode fibres to enable sufficient coupling into the fibre, since atmospheric turbulence heavily distorts the wavefront. But photonic technologies such as fibre Bragg gratings, require single mode fibres. This problem is solved by the photonic lantern, which enables efficient coupling from a multi-mode fibre to an array of single-mode fibres and vice versa. We present the results of laboratory tests of these technologies and of on-sky experiments made using the first instruments to deploy these technologies on a telescope. These tests show that the fibre Bragg gratings suppress the night sky background by a factor of 9. Current instruments are limited by thermal and detector emission. Planned instruments should improve the background suppression even further, by optimising the design of the spectrograph for the properties of the photonic components. Finally we review ongoing research in astrophotonics, including multi-moded multicore fibre Bragg gratings, which enable multiple gratings to be written into the same device

  9. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  10. A facile approach to spinning multifunctional conductive elastomer fibres with nanocarbon fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedin, Shayan; Razal, Joselito M.; Innis, Peter C.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2016-03-01

    Electrically conductive elastomeric fibres prepared using a wet-spinning process are promising materials for intelligent textiles, in particular as a strain sensing component of the fabric. However, these fibres, when reinforced with conducting fillers, typically result in a compromise between mechanical and electrical properties and, ultimately, in the strain sensing functionality. Here we investigate the wet-spinning of polyurethane (PU) fibres with a range of conducting fillers such as carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and chemically converted graphene. We show that the electrical and mechanical properties of the composite fibres were strongly dependent on the aspect ratio of the filler and the interaction between the filler and the elastomer. The high aspect ratio SWCNT filler resulted in fibres with the highest electrical properties and reinforcement, while the fibres produced from the low aspect ratio CB had the highest stretchability. Furthermore, PU/SWCNT fibres presented the largest sensing range (up to 60% applied strain) and the most consistent and stable cyclic sensing behaviour. This work provides an understanding of the important factors that influence the production of conductive elastomer fibres by wet-spinning, which can be woven or knitted into textiles for the development of wearable strain sensors.

  11. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Babin, Sergey A.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim; Podivilov, Evgenii V.

    2014-09-01

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors-random distributed feedback fibre laser-was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (˜0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the generation

  12. Dichroism measurements in forensic fibre examination: part 5-pigmented fibres.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2012-09-01

    A number of pigmented fibre samples were examined with plane polarized light on their dichroic behaviour by optical light microscopy (OLM) and microspectrophotometry with plane polarized light (MSP-PPL). It was found that about half of the samples show a strong dichroic effect and another 20% have a weak dichroism. Both regular (80%) and inversed dichroic effects (20%) occur. The dichroic characteristics of pigmented fibres can be compared to these of sheet polarizers. It is suggested that the dichroic behaviour of pigmented fibres depends strongly on the crystal structure (shape of the pigment grains) and the draw ratio (orientation of the polymer chains).

  13. Fibre laser based on tellurium-doped active fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Alyshev, S V; Ryumkin, K E; Shubin, A V; Medvedkov, O I; Dianov, E M; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, A N

    2014-02-28

    We have studied the lasing properties of tellurium-doped germanosilicate fibre, identified its gain and excited-state absorption bands, and assessed the effect of cooling to low temperature (77 K) on the bands. The excitation spectrum of the near-IR luminescence in the fibre has been measured. Lasing at 1.55 mm has been demonstrated for the first time in this gain medium at liquidnitrogen temperature and pump wavelengths of 1.064 and 1.085 mm. The measured Raman spectrum of the fibre provides some insight into the structure of the near-IR luminescence centre. (letters)

  14. Characteristics of optimized fibre-optic ultrasound receivers for minimally invasive photoacoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.

    2015-03-01

    A range of miniature (125μm o.d.) fibre optic ultrasound sensors based on the use of interferometric polymer optical cavities has been developed for minimally invasive photoacoustic imaging and sensing applications. It was observed that by careful selection of both the fibre tip and cavity geometry it is possible to achieve exceptional acoustic performance. Specifically, rounding the tip of the fibre to remove the presence of sharp diffractive boundaries enables a well behaved frequency response along with a near omnidirectional response at frequencies in the tens of MHz range to be achieved. The use of a plano-convex rather than a planar cavity provides high finesse and therefore detection sensitivity. Thus, by using a plano-convex cavity formed at the tip of radiused single mode fibre it was possible to realise a miniature ultrasound detector with a bandwidth of 80MHz, a noise-equivalent pressure of 40Pa (over a 20MHz measurement bandwidth) and a near omnidirectional response at frequencies as high as 30MHz. These characteristics suggest this type of sensor could find applications in interventional medicine for guiding needles or catheters, as mechanically scanned photoacoustic imaging probes or in laser scanning OR-PAM.

  15. Newsletter Design Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Sally

    This paper presents detailed tips on newsletter design. Following an overview, it discusses effective design, anatomy of a page, type, designing tools (organizational tools, text organizers, emphasizing tools, and graphics, presented with some do's and don'ts), and a list of other items to consider. Three appendixes contain a brief glossary of…

  16. Tips for Energy Savers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    According to 1986 U.S. Department of Energy data, 48% of our residential energy is used to heat and cool our homes, 16% goes for heating water, 12% is used to refrigerators and freezers, and the remaining 24% goes into lighting, cooking, and running appliances. This booklet contains tips for saving energy, including sections on: (1) draft-proof…

  17. Taxicab tipping and sunlight

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Does the level of sunlight affect the tipping percentage in taxicab rides in New York City? We examined this question using data on 13.82 million cab rides from January to October in 2009 in New York City combined with data on hourly levels of solar radiation. We found a small but statistically significant positive relationship between sunlight and tipping, with an estimated tipping increase of 0.5 to 0.7 percentage points when transitioning from a dark sky to full sunshine. The findings are robust to two-way clustering of standard errors based on hour-of-the-day and day-of-the-year and controlling for day-of-the-year, month-of-the-year, cab driver fixed effects, weather conditions, and ride characteristics. The NYC cab ride context is suitable for testing the association between sunlight and tipping due to the largely random assignment of riders to drivers, direct exposure to sunlight, and low confounding from variation in service experiences. PMID:28594917

  18. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Harry O. III Yates; Nell A. Overgaard; Thomas W. Koerber

    1981-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock),4 is a major forest insect pest in the United States. Its range extends from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Texas. It was found in San Diego County, California, in 1971 and traced to infested pine seedlings shipped from Georgia in 1967. The moth has since spread north and east in California and is now...

  19. EcoTipping Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Gerald G.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Contrary to what we often hear and teach, there is good news to be found on the environmental front. Environmental success stories show us not only that sustainability is possible, but also how people have made it happen. We can make these stories and their lessons accessible to students with help from the EcoTipping Points Project, which has…

  20. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Teresa; De Gaetano, Yvonne; Weinstein-McShane, Ruth; Paez, Doris; McCarty, Laurie; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Bakken, Jeffrey P.

    1997-01-01

    This group of classroom tips discusses the benefits of peer coaching, peer group conversation about teachers' classroom experiences, using visual displays for collegial sharing, using cultural brokers in educational settings, and the role of picture books in developing literacy skills in diverse students with disabilities. (Author/CK)

  1. Taxicab tipping and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Srikant; Patel, Pankaj C

    2017-01-01

    Does the level of sunlight affect the tipping percentage in taxicab rides in New York City? We examined this question using data on 13.82 million cab rides from January to October in 2009 in New York City combined with data on hourly levels of solar radiation. We found a small but statistically significant positive relationship between sunlight and tipping, with an estimated tipping increase of 0.5 to 0.7 percentage points when transitioning from a dark sky to full sunshine. The findings are robust to two-way clustering of standard errors based on hour-of-the-day and day-of-the-year and controlling for day-of-the-year, month-of-the-year, cab driver fixed effects, weather conditions, and ride characteristics. The NYC cab ride context is suitable for testing the association between sunlight and tipping due to the largely random assignment of riders to drivers, direct exposure to sunlight, and low confounding from variation in service experiences.

  2. Effect of the doped fibre length on soliton pulses of a bidirectional mode-locked fibre laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, H; Alwi Kutty, N A; Zulkifli, M Z; Harun, S W

    2015-08-31

    A passively bidirectional mode-locked fibre laser is demonstrated using a highly concentrated erbium-doped fibre (EDF) as a gain medium. To accomplish mode-locked operation in a short cavity, use is made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a saturable absorber. Soliton pulses are obtained at a wavelength of 1560 nm with a repetition rate ranging from 43.92 MHz to 46.97 MHz and pulse width stretching from 0.56 ps to 0.41 ps as the EDF length is reduced from 60 cm to 30 cm. (lasers)

  3. TIPS geometry influences patency.

    PubMed

    Klasen-Sansone, J; Bode, J; Lanzman, R S; Kubitz, R; Immig, S; Heusch, P; Antoch, G; Häussinger, D; Blondin, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential causes of Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction. We retrospectively evaluated 26 patients who required TIPS revision (group I) and 24 patients who did not require any further intervention (group II) within the first two years following TIPS implantation. The distance of the distal end of the stent to the hepatocaval junction was measured. Furthermore, the angle between the stent and the portal vein (inflow) and the angle between the stent and the hepatic vein (outflow) were measured. Furthermore, the following data were evaluated: pre- and postinterventional portal pressure gradients, maximal postinterventional flow and blood values [C-reactive protein (CRP), bilirubin, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT)]. Compared with control subjects, patients who required TIPS revision showed a significantly longer distance from the distal end of the stent to the hepatocaval junction (I: 17.3 ± 10 mm, II: 6.7 ± 5.7 mm, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the above named distance and the time to revision (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.5, p = 0.01). In addition, patients with TIPS revision had a significantly larger angle of portalvenous inflow (alpha angle) than the control group (I: 100.5 ± 31.5°, II: 64.5 ± 31.6°, p < 0.001). Our results show that the distance from the end of the stent to the hepatocaval junction and the angle of portalvenous inflow are technical factors that may influence the shunt's patency rate. Of these two, the distance to the hepatocaval junction can be influenced easily by the interventionalist. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Tapered optical fibres for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martan, Tomas; Kanka, Jiri; Kasik, Ivan; Matejec, Vlastimil

    2008-11-01

    Recently, optical fibre tapers have intensively been investigated for many applications e.g. in telecommunications, medicine and (bio-) chemical sensing. The paper deals with enhancement of evanescent-field sensitivity of the solid-core microstructured fibre with steering-wheel air-cladding. Enhancement of a performance of the microstructured fibre is based on reduction of fibre core diameter down to narrow filament by tapering thereby defined part of light power is guided by an evanescent wave traveling in axial cladding air holes. The original fibre structure with outer diameter of 125 µm was reduced 2×, 2.5×, 3.33×, and 4× for increasing relatively small intensity overlap of guided core mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm with axial air holes. The inner structures of tapered microstructured fibre with steering-wheel aircladding were numerically analyzed and mode intensity distributions were calculated using the FDTD technique. Analyzed fiber tapers were prepared by constructed fibre puller employing 'flame brush technique'.

  5. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres.

    PubMed

    Russell, P St J; Beravat, R; Wong, G K L

    2017-02-28

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic 'space', cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of 'numerical experiments' based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Beravat, R.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic ‘space’, cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of ‘numerical experiments’ based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069771

  7. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. St. J.; Beravat, R.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2017-02-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic `space', cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of `numerical experiments' based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  8. Determination of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk samples using a pipette-tip SPE step based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes prior to CE separation.

    PubMed

    Springer, Valeria; Jacksén, Johan; Ek, Patrik; Lista, Adriana G; Emmer, Asa

    2014-01-01

    A simple CE-UV method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin in milk samples. The optimum separation was obtained using a 20 mM ammonium dihydrogenphosphate solution with 2 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at pH 3.0 as the BGE. Satisfactory resolution for structurally very similar analytes, like norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, was achieved without including any organic solvent. Milk samples were prepared using a simple/extraction procedure based on acidic protein precipitation followed by an SPE step using only 5 mg of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the sorbent material. The LODs for the three compounds were between 7.5 and 11.6 μg/L and the RSDs for the peak areas were between 2.6 and 4.9%. The complete method was applied to spiked real milk samples with satisfactory recoveries for all analytes (84-106%). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  10. Tipping off endothelial tubes: nitric oxide drives tip cells.

    PubMed

    Priya, Mani Krishna; Sahu, Giriraj; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Goldy, Naga; Sundaresan, Abaya Meenakshi; Jadhav, Vivek; Barathkumar, T R; Saran, Uttara; Jaffar Ali, B M; Roberts, David D; Bera, Amal Kanti; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2015-04-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is a complex process that warrants cell migration, proliferation, tip cell formation, ring formation, and finally tube formation. Angiogenesis is initiated by a single leader endothelial cell called "tip cell," followed by vessel elongation by "stalk cells." Tip cells are characterized by their long filopodial extensions and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and endocan. Although nitric oxide (NO) is an important modulator of angiogenesis, its role in angiogenic sprouting and specifically in tip cell formation is poorly understood. The present study tested the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling in tip cell formation. In primary endothelial cell culture, about 40% of the tip cells showed characteristic sub-cellular localization of eNOS toward the anterior progressive end of the tip cells, and eNOS became phosphorylated at serine 1177. Loss of eNOS suppressed tip cell formation. Live cell NO imaging demonstrated approximately 35% more NO in tip cells compared with stalk cells. Tip cells showed increased level of cGMP relative to stalk cells. Further, the dissection of NO downstream signaling using pharmacological inhibitors and inducers indicates that NO uses the sGC/cGMP pathway in tip cells to lead angiogenesis. Taken together, the present study confirms that eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling defines the direction of tip cell migration and thereby initiates new blood vessel formation.

  11. Whispering-gallery waves in optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Sychugov, V A; Torchigin, V P; Tsvetkov, M Yu

    2002-08-31

    The process of excitation of whispering-gallery waves (WGWs) in optical fibres (microcavities) with the help of a bitapered fibre is analysed. It is shown that useful information on the WGW modes can be obtained from the spectrograms recorded by scanning the exciting-radiation frequency. Based on the geometrical-optic approximation, the longitudinal sizes of the WGW modes are estimated and it is shown that the ultimate diameter of the fibre exists for optical fibres (microcavities) where a mode can be still excited with the help of a bitapered fibre. (fibre optics. optical fibres)

  12. Optical fibre gas detections systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian

    2016-05-01

    This tutorial review covers the principles of and prospects for fibre optic sensor technology in gas detection. Many of the potential benefits common to fibre sensor technology also apply in the context of gas sensing - notably long distance - many km - access to multiple remote measurement points; invariably intrinsic safety; access to numerous important gas species and often uniquely high levels of selectivity and/or sensitivity. Furthermore, the range of fibre sensor network architectures - single point, multiple point and distributed - enable unprecedented flexibility in system implementation. Additionally, competitive technologies and regulatory issues contribute to final application potential.

  13. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mosquito Control Contact Us Share Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites Información relacionada disponible en español Using the ... Also see Tips to Prevent Tick Bites. Remove Mosquito Habitats Eliminate standing water in rain gutters, old ...

  14. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by U.S.A. Little League and the American Sports Medicine Institute: 7-8 years old: 50 pitches a ... ON THIS TOPIC Signing Kids Up for Sports Sports Medicine Center Safety Tips: Hockey Safety Tips: Basketball Competitive ...

  15. A portable device for cancer margin assessment using a pH sensitive optical fibre probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartner, Erik P.; Henderson, Matthew R.; Purdey, Malcolm; Monro, Tanya M.; Gill, P. Grantley; Callen, David F.

    2017-04-01

    We report the development of an optical fibre probe which could find use as an aid for margin detection during surgery. A fluorophore doped polymer is coated on an optical fibre tip, allowing for pH values of unknown tissue to be measured and compared to healthy tissue, to discriminate between healthy and cancerous tissue. This probe is integrated within a portable system, requiring no alignment or access to specialised vibration damped optical tables. A miniature spectrometer allows for measurements to be performed on-site, opening up the potential for use of these probes within the operating theatre for in-vivo measurements.

  16. Microbubble generation using fiber optic tips coated with nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Hernández-Cordero, Juan; Zenit, Roberto

    2012-04-09

    We show that fiber optic tips can be used as microbubble generators in liquid media. Using standard single-mode silica fibers incorporating nanoparticles (carbon nanoparticles and metallic powders), bubbles can be generated with low optical powers owing to the enhanced photothermal effects of the coating materials. We provide details about the hydrodynamic effects generated in the vicinity of the fiber tip during the coating process, bubble generation and growth. Flow visualization techniques show that thermal effects lead to bubble formation on the tip of the fibers, and coating optimization is crucial for optimal performance of the probes.

  17. Investigating the particle to fibre transition threshold during electrohydrodynamic atomization of a polymer solution.

    PubMed

    Husain, O; Lau, W; Edirisinghe, M; Parhizkar, M

    2016-08-01

    Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) is a key research area for producing micro and nano-sized structures. This process can be categorized into two main operating regimes: electrospraying for particle generation and electrospinning for fibre production. Producing particles/fibres of the desired size or morphology depends on two main factors; properties of the polymeric solution used and the processing conditions including flow rate, applied voltage and collection distance. In this work the particle-fibre transition region was analyzed by changing the polymer concentration of PLGA poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) in acetone between 2 and 25wt%. Subsequently the processing conditions were adjusted to study the optimum transition parameters. Additionally the EHDA configuration was also modified by adding a metallic plate to observe the deposition area. The diameter and the distance of the plate from the capillary tip were adjusted to investigate variations in particle and fibre morphologies as well. It was found that complete transition from particles to fibres occurs at 20wt% indicating concentration to be the dominant criterion. Low flow rates yielded fibres without beads. However the applied voltage and distance between the tip of the nozzle jetting the polymer solution and collector (working distance) did not yield definitive results. Reducing the collector distance and increasing applied voltages produces smooth as well as beaded fibres. Addition of a metal plate reduces particle size by ~1μm; the fibre size increases especially with increasing plate diameter while bead density and size reduces when the disc is fixed closer to the capillary tip. Additionally, the deposition area is reduced by 70% and 57% with the addition of metal plates of 30mm and 60mm, respectively. The results indicate that a metal plate can be utilized further to tune the particle/fibre size and morphology and this also significantly increases the yield of EHDA process which is currently a

  18. Propeller tip vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Propeller wakes interacting with aircraft aerodynamic surfaces are a source of noise and vibration. For this reason, flow visualization work on the motion of the helical tip vortex over a wing and through the second stage of a counterrotation propeller (CRP) has been pursued. Initially, work was done on the motion of a propeller helix as it passes over the center of a 9.0 aspect ratio wing. The propeller tip vortex experiences significant spanwise displacements when passing across a lifting wing. A stationary propeller blade or stator was installed behind the rotating propeller to model the blade vortex interaction in a CRP. The resulting vortex interaction was found to depend on the relative vortex strengths and vortex sign.

  19. Effects of fibre-surface morphology on the mechanical properties of Porifera-inspired rubber-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez; Stillfried, Daniela Graf; Celli, Jessika; Toivakka, Martti

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, mineralised organic fibre morphologies, inspired by the structures of Porifera (sponges) are correlated to the mechanical performance of fibre reinforced rubbers. The mineralised structures are rich in calcium carbonate and silica. These compounds nucleate and precipitate on the fibre surfaces yielding different morphologies as a function of mineral ion concentrations. Smaller mineralised precipitates manifestly improve the mechanical performance of composites while thicker precipitates enveloping the fibres give rise to inferior properties. Mechanisms and evidenced reasoning for these differences are reported herein.

  20. Tipping point leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2003-04-01

    When William Bratton was appointed police commissioner of New York City in 1994, turf wars over jurisdiction and funding were rife and crime was out of control. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bratton turned New York into the safest large city in the nation. And the NYPD was only the latest of five law-enforcement agencies Bratton had turned around. In each case, he succeeded in record time despite limited resources, a demotivated staff, opposition from powerful vested interests, and an organization wedded to the status quo. Bratton's turnarounds demonstrate what the authors call tipping point leadership. The theory of tipping points hinges on the insight that in any organization, fundamental changes can occur quickly when the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people create an epidemic movement toward an idea. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block organizations from recognizing the need for change. He does this by putting managers face-to-face with operational problems. Next, he manages around limitations on funds, staff, or equipment by concentrating resources on the areas that are most in need of change and that have the biggest payoffs. He meanwhile solves the motivation problem by singling out key influencers--people with disproportionate power due to their connections or persuasive abilities. Finally, he closes off resistance from powerful opponents. Not every CEO has the personality to be a Bill Bratton, but his successes are due to much more than his personality. He relies on a remarkably consistent method that any manager looking to turn around an organization can use to overcome the forces of inertia and reach the tipping point.

  1. Fibre reinforced composites in aircraft construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soutis, C.

    2005-02-01

    Fibrous composites have found applications in aircraft from the first flight of the Wright Brothers’ Flyer 1, in North Carolina on December 17, 1903, to the plethora of uses now enjoyed by them on both military and civil aircrafts, in addition to more exotic applications on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), space launchers and satellites. Their growing use has risen from their high specific strength and stiffness, when compared to the more conventional materials, and the ability to shape and tailor their structure to produce more aerodynamically efficient structural configurations. In this paper, a review of recent advances using composites in modern aircraft construction is presented and it is argued that fibre reinforced polymers, especially carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) can and will in the future contribute more than 50% of the structural mass of an aircraft. However, affordability is the key to survival in aerospace manufacturing, whether civil or military, and therefore effort should be devoted to analysis and computational simulation of the manufacturing and assembly process as well as the simulation of the performance of the structure, since they are intimately connected.

  2. Southern tip of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Between the Arctic Ocean to the North and the Atlantic to the South, the island of Greenland remains covered in snow and ice throughout the year except for small portions of the coast line that thaw briefly in the summer. This true-color image from November 2, 2001, shows that even the southern tip of Greenland is back to winter, with even the rugged coastline snow-covered once again. About halfway up the western coastline, a phytoplankton bloom is occurring in the Davis Strait, coloring the water blue-green.

  3. A Micro-Computed Tomography Technique to Study the Quality of Fibre Optics Embedded in Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Voet, Eli; Lammens, Nicolas; Van Paepegem, Wim; Degrieck, Joris; Dierick, Manuel; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vanderniepen, Pieter; Sulejmani, Sanne; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Quality of embedment of optical fibre sensors in carbon fibre-reinforced polymers plays an important role in the resultant properties of the composite, as well as for the correct monitoring of the structure. Therefore, availability of a tool able to check the optical fibre sensor-composite interaction becomes essential. High-resolution 3D X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography, or Micro-CT, is a relatively new non-destructive inspection technique which enables investigations of the internal structure of a sample without actually compromising its integrity. In this work the feasibility of inspecting the position, the orientation and, more generally, the quality of the embedment of an optical fibre sensor in a carbon fibre reinforced laminate at unit cell level have been proven. PMID:25961383

  4. The effect of fibre orientation on a TWCP composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Nicholas; Wood, David; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Leighs, James; Roberts, Andrew; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Multiple authors have shown that orientation can greatly affect the shock profiles seen in composites. Carbon fibre composites are employed in multiple sectors, with their use in the aerospace industry becoming more prevalent. An angle of 20° between the outer surface and the weave direction provides a good compromise between strength and ablation. Using a single stage gas gun with manganin pressure gauges the shock response of both a 90° and 45° layup TWCP composite were investigated up to a particle velocity of c.a. 1 mm μs-1, in both the US-up and pressure-volume plane. Comparisons in terms of shock propagation were also made with previously investigated TWCP orientations of 0° and 20° as well as other carbon fibre based composites from the literature. This allowed a detailed interrogation of the effects of weave orientation in this important TWCP composite to be made.

  5. Fibre prestressed composites: A study of the influences of fibre prestressing on the mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motahhari, Siamak

    1998-12-01

    Fibre prestressing during the curing of the polymeric resin is applied in some fabrication processes of composite materials such as filament winding and pultrusion processes. The influences of fibre prestressing on certain mechanical properties have been investigated and justified in the present thesis. Epoxy resin with E-glass fibre and carbon fibre were used to manufacture the samples. The samples were made by applying and holding the tension on the fibres on a horizontal tensiometer machine while the resin was being cured. For glass-epoxy and carbon-epoxy samples different prestressing levels from 10 to 100 MPa and 20 to 140 MPa were applied respectively during the curing of the resin. The samples were made at three different curing temperatures. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, and impact strength of the composites were chosen and measured as representative of the mechanical properties. It was shown that in all cases the studied mechanical properties significantly increased when fibre prestressing increased. The increase of the mechanical properties continued up to a certain fibre prestressing level. Beyond that level, however, the mechanical properties declined. The best fibre prestressing level at which the highest mechanical properties were obtained, was shown to be a function of the curing temperature and the constituent materials of the composites. In the second part of this thesis, the effort has been taken to explain the changes of the mechanical properties caused by fibre prestressing. The residual stresses resulting from the fibre prestressing and resin shrinkage were responsible for the changes of the mechanical properties. A new method was developed to measure the residual stresses which were formed in the composite during the curing process. This method was based of the evaluation of the residual strain in the fibres right after the curing process and removal of applied prestress. Using this method, it was indicated that the residual stresses in

  6. Enhanced imaging of biomolecules with electron beam deposited tips for scanning force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenhausern, F.; Adrian, M.; ten Heggeler-Bordier, B.; Ardizzoni, F.; Descouts, P.

    1993-06-01

    Tip/sample interaction on the scanning force microscope (SFM) is a particularly difficult problem with biological materials. One major factor affecting image quality is the tip shape. Improved electron beam induced deposition technique with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used for the reproducible fabrication of carbon sharp tips on the end of commercially available silicon nitride cantilevers for scanning force microscopy. By aligning a fine focused beam of 20 nm diameter directly down the axis of the pyramidal tip at electron energy of 20 kV, carbon deposits grow with full cone angle of about 25°, cone length of 2 μm, and radii of curvature down to 10 nm, making these e-beam tips suitable for biomolecules imaging. The tip dimensions also were controlled by adjusting the beam parameters. Three different types of SFM tips were used to image tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Conventional pyramidal tips appeared generally worse for imaging helical particles of TMV than SEM-deposited tips which were found more robust than commercially available conical tips. The use of sharper tips for SFM imaging of protein DNA revealed a 25% improvement in lateral resolution.

  7. Optofluidic realization and retaining of cell-cell contact using an abrupt tapered optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hongbao; Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Yayi; Zhang, Huixian; Li, Baojun

    2013-06-01

    Studies reveal that there exists much interaction and communication between bacterial cells, with parts of these social behaviors depending on cell-cell contacts. The cell-cell contact has proved to be crucial for determining various biochemical processes. However, for cell culture with relatively low cell concentration, it is difficult to precisely control and retain the contact of a small group of cells. Particularly, the retaining of cell-cell contact is difficult when flows occur in the medium. Here, we report an optofluidic method for realization and retaining of Escherichia coli cell-cell contact in a microfluidic channel using an abrupt tapered optical fibre. The contact process is based on launching a 980-nm wavelength laser into the fibre, E. coli cells were trapped onto the fibre tip one after another, retaining cell-cell contact and forming a highly organized cell chain. The formed chains further show the ability as bio-optical waveguides.

  8. Optofluidic realization and retaining of cell–cell contact using an abrupt tapered optical fibre

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hongbao; Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Yayi; Zhang, Huixian; Li, Baojun

    2013-01-01

    Studies reveal that there exists much interaction and communication between bacterial cells, with parts of these social behaviors depending on cell–cell contacts. The cell–cell contact has proved to be crucial for determining various biochemical processes. However, for cell culture with relatively low cell concentration, it is difficult to precisely control and retain the contact of a small group of cells. Particularly, the retaining of cell–cell contact is difficult when flows occur in the medium. Here, we report an optofluidic method for realization and retaining of Escherichia coli cell–cell contact in a microfluidic channel using an abrupt tapered optical fibre. The contact process is based on launching a 980-nm wavelength laser into the fibre, E. coli cells were trapped onto the fibre tip one after another, retaining cell–cell contact and forming a highly organized cell chain. The formed chains further show the ability as bio-optical waveguides. PMID:23771190

  9. Moderate-power cw fibre lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2004-10-31

    A review of the development and investigation of moderate-power (10{sup -1}-10{sup 2} W) cw fibre lasers is presented. The properties of optical fibres doped with rare-earth ions and methods for fabricating double-clad fibres are considered. The methods for fabrication of fibre Bragg gratings used as selective reflectors are discussed and the grating properties are analysed. The main pump schemes for double-clad fibre lasers are described. The properties of fibre lasers doped with neodymium, ytterbium, erbium, thulium, and holmium ions are also considered. The principles of fabrication of Raman converters of laser radiation based on optical fibres of different compositions are discussed and the main results of their studies are presented. It is concluded that fibre lasers described in the review can produce moderate-power radiation at any wavelength in the spectral range from 0.9 to 2 {mu}m. (review)

  10. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark; LHCb Upgrade Scintillating Fibre Tracker Group

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  11. Dietary fibre and colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, H J

    1979-01-01

    Dietary plant fibre, or plantix, is thought to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer in humans. It is a complex polymeric substance that has several distinct components resistant to hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes of humans. These components include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, lignin, gums, mucilages and, in certain instances, algal polysaccharides. These polymers have different physicochemical properties, and recent evidence from experimental studies in animals treated with carcinogens suggests that some may exert protective effects in the intestine and others may enhance colon carcinogenesis. This review synthesizes information on the chemical composition, methods of analysis and physicochemical properties of dietary plant fibre and reviews available studies examining the role of fibre in colonic neoplasia in animals and humans. PMID:466603

  12. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  13. Stochastic integrated assessment of climate tipping points indicates the need for strict climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lontzek, Thomas S.; Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2015-05-01

    Perhaps the most `dangerous’ aspect of future climate change is the possibility that human activities will push parts of the climate system past tipping points, leading to irreversible impacts. The likelihood of such large-scale singular events is expected to increase with global warming, but is fundamentally uncertain. A key question is how should the uncertainty surrounding tipping events affect climate policy? We address this using a stochastic integrated assessment model, based on the widely used deterministic DICE model. The temperature-dependent likelihood of tipping is calibrated using expert opinions, which we find to be internally consistent. The irreversible impacts of tipping events are assumed to accumulate steadily over time (rather than instantaneously), consistent with scientific understanding. Even with conservative assumptions about the rate and impacts of a stochastic tipping event, today’s optimal carbon tax is increased by ~50%. For a plausibly rapid, high-impact tipping event, today’s optimal carbon tax is increased by >200%. The additional carbon tax to delay climate tipping grows at only about half the rate of the baseline carbon tax. This implies that the effective discount rate for the costs of stochastic climate tipping is much lower than the discount rate for deterministic climate damages. Our results support recent suggestions that the costs of carbon emission used to inform policy are being underestimated, and that uncertain future climate damages should be discounted at a low rate.

  14. Preliminary study: fibre content in pet rabbit diets, crude fibre versus total dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Molina, J; Martorell, J; Hervera, M; Pérez-Accino, J; Fragua, V; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Fibre is an important nutrient for rabbit health, and, on commercial pet rabbit packaging, it is labelled as crude fibre (CF). In several species, it is considered that CF is not an accurate representation of the fibre content in feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to compare the CF stated on the label (CFL) with laboratory analysis of CF (CFA) and the analysed content of total dietary fibre (TDF) in different commercial pet rabbit feeds. We selected 15 commercial diets and analysed CF and TDF. A mixed model was used to evaluate differences between CFL, CFA and TDF, and linear regression was performed to study the correlation between CFL and CFA with TDF. CFA and CFL were not significantly different (p = 0.836) in the feeds studied, and both were lower than TDF (p < 0.001). The correlations between TDF and both CFA and CFL were significant (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively), but the correlation was better with CFA (R = 0.86) than with CFL (R = 0.53). As expected, TDF content was higher than CF content, an average of two times. These results suggest that the CF content in rabbit diets reported on the label is not an appropriate indicator of their total fibre content, although further work with a larger sample size is required to confirm these results.

  15. Optical properties of microstructure tellurite glass fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Gaponov, D A; Biryukov, A S

    2006-04-30

    The dispersion characteristics and waveguide optical losses are calculated by the multipole method for microstructure optical fibres with a continuous core, which can be made of a tellurite glass holding much promise for fibre optics. The effect of geometrical parameters on the optical properties is studied and conditions for the single-mode propagation of radiation in such fibres are determined. (optical fibres and waveguides)

  16. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  17. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  18. Friction and wear of human hair fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s-1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%-50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  19. Respiratory muscle fibres: specialisation and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Polla, B; D'Antona, G; Bottinelli, R; Reggiani, C

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of fibres of different types, each type being identified by the isoform of myosin heavy chain which is expressed as slow 1, fast 2A, fast 2X, and fast 2B. Slow fibres are resistant to fatigue due to their highly oxidative metabolism whereas 2X and 2B fibres are easily fatiguable and fast 2A fibres exhibit intermediate fatigue resistance. Slow fibres and fast fibres are present in equal proportions in the adult human diaphragm while intercostal muscles contain a higher proportion of fast fibres. A small fibre size, abundance of capillaries, and a high aerobic oxidative enzyme activity are typical features of diaphragm fibres and give them the resistance to fatigue required by their continuous activity. Because of their fibre composition, intercostal muscles are less resistant to fatigue. The structural and functional characteristics of respiratory muscle fibres are not fixed, however, and can be modified in response to several physiological and pathological conditions such as training (adaptation to changes in respiratory load), adaptation to hypoxia, age related changes, and changes associated with respiratory diseases. The properties of respiratory muscle fibres can also be modified by pharmacological agents such as ß2 agonists and corticosteroids used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. PMID:15333861

  20. Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Rozhin, A. G.; Scardaci, V.; Sun, Z.; Hennrich, F.; White, I. H.; Milne, W. I.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2008-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse lasers with spectral tuning capability have widespread applications in fields such as spectroscopy, biomedical research and telecommunications. Mode-locked fibre lasers are convenient and powerful sources of ultrashort pulses, and the inclusion of a broadband saturable absorber as a passive optical switch inside the laser cavity may offer tuneability over a range of wavelengths. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors are widely used in fibre lasers, but their operating range is typically limited to a few tens of nanometres, and their fabrication can be challenging in the 1.3-1.5 µm wavelength region used for optical communications. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are excellent saturable absorbers because of their subpicosecond recovery time, low saturation intensity, polarization insensitivity, and mechanical and environmental robustness. Here, we engineer a nanotube-polycarbonate film with a wide bandwidth (>300 nm) around 1.55 µm, and then use it to demonstrate a 2.4 ps Er3+-doped fibre laser that is tuneable from 1,518 to 1,558 nm. In principle, different diameters and chiralities of nanotubes could be combined to enable compact, mode-locked fibre lasers that are tuneable over a much broader range of wavelengths than other systems.

  1. Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Rozhin, A G; Scardaci, V; Sun, Z; Hennrich, F; White, I H; Milne, W I; Ferrari, A C

    2008-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse lasers with spectral tuning capability have widespread applications in fields such as spectroscopy, biomedical research and telecommunications. Mode-locked fibre lasers are convenient and powerful sources of ultrashort pulses, and the inclusion of a broadband saturable absorber as a passive optical switch inside the laser cavity may offer tuneability over a range of wavelengths. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors are widely used in fibre lasers, but their operating range is typically limited to a few tens of nanometres, and their fabrication can be challenging in the 1.3-1.5 microm wavelength region used for optical communications. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are excellent saturable absorbers because of their subpicosecond recovery time, low saturation intensity, polarization insensitivity, and mechanical and environmental robustness. Here, we engineer a nanotube-polycarbonate film with a wide bandwidth (>300 nm) around 1.55 microm, and then use it to demonstrate a 2.4 ps Er(3+)-doped fibre laser that is tuneable from 1,518 to 1,558 nm. In principle, different diameters and chiralities of nanotubes could be combined to enable compact, mode-locked fibre lasers that are tuneable over a much broader range of wavelengths than other systems.

  2. Occupational ceramic fibres dermatitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M; Wojtczak, J

    2000-07-01

    Recently, the use of asbestos has been considerably limited in Poland, with the simultaneous increase in the manufacture, processing and application of man-made mineral fibres, which includes ceramic fibres. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the type and frequency of dermal changes caused by the irritant activity of ceramic fibres among workers at the plants that manufacture packing and insulation products; and (2) to compare the irritant activity of Polish-made L-2 and L-3 ceramic fibres with that of the Thermowool ceramic fibres made in England. Workers (n = 226) who were exposed to ceramic fibres underwent dermatological examination. Patch tests with the standard allergen set, together with samples of the fibres L-2, L-3, and Thermowool fibres, were applied to all the workers. It has been shown that the Polish-made L-2 and L-3 fibres differed from Thermowool fibres in that the L-2 and L-3 fibres contained zirconium and were coarser. The proportion of filaments with diameters above 3 microns was 11.1% in the L-3 fibre and 6.3% in the L-2 fibre samples. The Thermowool fibre did not contain filaments thicker than 3 microns. Evident dermal changes, resulting from strong irritant activity of the fibres, were detected in 109 (48.2%) of the workers examined. Irritant contact dermatitis acuta (maculae, sometimes papulae and small crusts on the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities), disappearing after 2-3 days, was found in 50 (22.1%) workers. Irritant contact dermatitis chronica (diffuse permanent erythema with numerous telangiectasiae on the lateral portions of the face and neck, on the trunk, behind the auricles) was detected in 40 (17.7%) workers. The remaining 19 (8.4%) workers had both types of dermal change. All examined workers complained of very strong itching. The results of the patch tests confirmed the irritant activity of the ceramic fibres. Erythema without oedema, persisting for up to 96 h, appeared at the places where the fibres had

  3. A method for estimating the fibre length in fibre-PLA composites.

    PubMed

    Chinga-Carrasco, G; Solheim, O; Lenes, M; Larsen, A

    2013-04-01

    Wood pulp fibres are an important component of environmentally sound and renewable fibre-reinforced composite materials. The high aspect ratio of pulp fibres is an essential property with respect to the mechanical properties a given composite material can achieve. The length of pulp fibres is affected by composite processing operations. This thus emphasizes the importance of assessing the pulp fibre length and how this may be affected by a given process for manufacturing composites. In this work a new method for measuring the length distribution of fibres and fibre fragments has been developed. The method is based on; (i) dissolving the composites, (ii) preparing the fibres for image acquisition and (iii) image analysis of the resulting fibre structures. The image analysis part is relatively simple to implement and is based on images acquired with a desktop scanner and a new ImageJ plugin. The quantification of fibre length has demonstrated the fibre shortening effect because of an extrusion process and subsequent injection moulding. Fibres with original lengths of >1 mm where shortened to fibre fragments with length of <200 μm. The shortening seems to be affected by the number of times the fibres have passed through the extruder, the amount of chain extender and the fraction of fibres in the polymer matrix. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Interfacial sliding strength in fibre reinforced ceramic matrix composites involving positive radial thermal misfit strain

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Benoit, M.; Rouby, D. )

    1993-06-01

    The mechanical properties of ceramic matrix fibre composites largely depend on the behavior of the fibre-matrix interface and their characteristics have been the subject of much research. However, very little information is available about the experimental analysis of the effect of the fibre diameter. The Nicalon[trademark] Si-O-C fibre (from Nippon Carbon) is known to exhibit a large variation in diameter, from roughly 5 to more than 20 micrometers, with an average value close to 15 micrometers. This feature give one a good opportunity for studying the interfacial characteristics as a function of fibre size. In addition, recent works clearly show that the interface roughness plays an important role in the frictional sliding mechanisms. The purpose of the present paper is to present and to analyze the effect of the fibre radius on the interfacial shear stress related to the friction characteristic (ISSF) measured by means of the non-instrumentated indentation method, in the case of a Nicalon[trademark]/glass-ceramic composite where the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the matrix is lower than that of the fibres.

  5. Brilliant Writing Tips for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, Julia

    2010-01-01

    With tips on punctuation, style, grammar and essay structure, this handy guide provides succinct and practical guidance on students most common areas of concern in their written work. Each tip is supplemented by authentic examples of student writing, suggested re-writes, and appropriate self-help exercises. This book contains four parts. Part I:…

  6. Tips for Mental Health Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

  7. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  8. Fibre ring cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Medvedev, S V

    2013-10-31

    This paper presents a study of semiconductor lasers having a polarisation maintaining fibre ring cavity. We examine the operating principle and report main characteristics of a semiconductor ring laser, in particular in single- and multiple-frequency regimes, and discuss its application areas. (lasers)

  9. Threshold temperature optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiewicz, K. A.; Musial, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to manufacture a threshold temperature sensor based on a biconical optical fibre taper. The presented sensor employs the influence of variable state of concentration of some isotropic materials like wax or paraffin. Application of the above- mentioned materials is an attempt to prove that there is a possibility to obtain a low-cost, repeatable and smart sensor working as an in-line element. Optical fibre taper was obtained from a standard single mode fibre (SMF28®) by using a low pressure gas burner technique. The diameter of the manufactured tapers was 6.0 ± 0.5 μm with the length of elongation equal to 30.50 ± 0.16 mm. The applied technology allowed to produce tapers with the losses of 0.183 ± 0.015 dB. Application of materials with different temperature transition points made it possible to obtain the threshold work at the temperatures connected directly with their conversion temperature. External materials at the temperatures above their melting points do not influence the propagation losses. For each of them two types of the protection area and position of the optical fibre taper were applied.

  10. The development of advanced cellulosic fibres.

    PubMed

    Woodings, C R

    1995-12-01

    For the majority of the last century, commercial routes to regenerated cellulose fibres have coped with the difficulties of making a good cellulose solution by using an easy to dissolve derivative (e.g. xanthate in the case of viscose rayon) or complex (e.g. cuprammonium rayon). For the purposes of this paper, advanced cellulosic fibres are defined as those made from a process involving direct dissolution of cellulose. The first examples of such fibres have now been generically designated as lyocell fibres to distinguish them from rayons, and the first commercial lyocell fibre is Courtaulds' Tencel.

  11. Rearrangement of 1D conducting nanomaterials towards highly electrically conducting nanocomposite fibres for electronic textiles.

    PubMed

    Han, Joong Tark; Choi, Sua; Jang, Jeong In; Seol, Seung Kwon; Woo, Jong Seok; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2015-03-20

    Nanocarbon-based conducting fibres have been produced using solution- or dry-spinning techniques. Highly conductive polymer-composite fibres containing large amounts of conducting nanomaterials have not been produced without dispersants, however, because of the severe aggregation of conducting materials in high-concentration colloidal solutions. Here we show that highly conductive (electrical conductivity ~1.5 × 10(5) S m(-1)) polymer-composite fibres containing carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires can be fabricated via a conventional solution-spinning process without any other treatment. Spinning dopes were fabricated by a simple mixing of a polyvinyl alcohol solution in dimethylsulfoxide with a paste of long multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in organic solvents, assisted by quadruple hydrogen-bonding networks and an aqueous silver nanowire dispersion. The high electrical conductivity of the fibre was achieved by rearrangement of silver nanowires towards the fibre skin during coagulation because of the selective favourable interaction between the silver nanowires and coagulation solvents. The prepared conducting fibres provide applications in electronic textiles such as a textile interconnector of light emitting diodes, flexible textile heaters, and touch gloves for capacitive touch sensors.

  12. Rearrangement of 1D Conducting Nanomaterials towards Highly Electrically Conducting Nanocomposite Fibres for Electronic Textiles

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joong Tark; Choi, Sua; Jang, Jeong In; Seol, Seung Kwon; Woo, Jong Seok; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Nanocarbon-based conducting fibres have been produced using solution- or dry-spinning techniques. Highly conductive polymer-composite fibres containing large amounts of conducting nanomaterials have not been produced without dispersants, however, because of the severe aggregation of conducting materials in high-concentration colloidal solutions. Here we show that highly conductive (electrical conductivity ~1.5 × 105 S m−1) polymer-composite fibres containing carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires can be fabricated via a conventional solution-spinning process without any other treatment. Spinning dopes were fabricated by a simple mixing of a polyvinyl alcohol solution in dimethylsulfoxide with a paste of long multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in organic solvents, assisted by quadruple hydrogen-bonding networks and an aqueous silver nanowire dispersion. The high electrical conductivity of the fibre was achieved by rearrangement of silver nanowires towards the fibre skin during coagulation because of the selective favourable interaction between the silver nanowires and coagulation solvents. The prepared conducting fibres provide applications in electronic textiles such as a textile interconnector of light emitting diodes, flexible textile heaters, and touch gloves for capacitive touch sensors. PMID:25792333

  13. Rearrangement of 1D Conducting Nanomaterials towards Highly Electrically Conducting Nanocomposite Fibres for Electronic Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Joong Tark; Choi, Sua; Jang, Jeong In; Seol, Seung Kwon; Woo, Jong Seok; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2015-03-01

    Nanocarbon-based conducting fibres have been produced using solution- or dry-spinning techniques. Highly conductive polymer-composite fibres containing large amounts of conducting nanomaterials have not been produced without dispersants, however, because of the severe aggregation of conducting materials in high-concentration colloidal solutions. Here we show that highly conductive (electrical conductivity ~1.5 × 105 S m-1) polymer-composite fibres containing carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires can be fabricated via a conventional solution-spinning process without any other treatment. Spinning dopes were fabricated by a simple mixing of a polyvinyl alcohol solution in dimethylsulfoxide with a paste of long multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in organic solvents, assisted by quadruple hydrogen-bonding networks and an aqueous silver nanowire dispersion. The high electrical conductivity of the fibre was achieved by rearrangement of silver nanowires towards the fibre skin during coagulation because of the selective favourable interaction between the silver nanowires and coagulation solvents. The prepared conducting fibres provide applications in electronic textiles such as a textile interconnector of light emitting diodes, flexible textile heaters, and touch gloves for capacitive touch sensors.

  14. Comparison of direct and indirect methods of measuring airborne chrysotile fibre concentration.

    PubMed

    Eypert-Blaison, Celine; Veissiere, Sylvie; Rastoix, Olivier; Kauffer, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy observations most frequently form a basis for estimating asbestos fibre concentration in the environment and in buildings with asbestos-containing materials. Sampled fibres can be transferred to microscope grids by applying either a direct [ISO (1995) Draft International ISO/DIS 10312. Ambient air. Determination of asbestos fibres. Direct transfer transmission electron microscopy procedure. Geneva, Switzerland: International Standardization Organization] or an indirect [AFNOR (1996) Détermination de la concentration en fibres d'amiante par microscopie électronique à transmission-Méthode indirecte. Cedex, France: AFNOR, p. 42; ISO (1997) Draft International ISO/DIS 13794. Ambient air. Determination of asbestos fibres. Indirect-transfer transmission electron microscopy procedure. Geneva, Switzerland: International Standardization Organization] method. In the latter case, ISO Standard 13794 recommends filtering calcination residues either on a polycarbonate (PC) filter (PC indirect method) or on a cellulose ester (CE) membrane (CE indirect method). The PC indirect method requires that fibres deposited on a PC filter be covered by a carbon layer, whereas in the CE indirect method, the CE membrane has to be directly processed using a method described in ISO Standard 10312. The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using, on the one hand, direct preparation methods and, on the other hand, PC indirect or CE indirect methods, for counting asbestos fibres deposited on filters as a result of liquid filtration or air sampling. In direct method-based preparation, we observed that an etching time of 6-14 min does not affect the measured densities, except for fibres <1 microm deposited by liquid filtration. Moreover, in all cases, the direct method gives higher densities than the PC indirect method because of possible fibre disappearance when using the carbon evaporator implemented in the PC indirect method. The CE membrane

  15. Optical fibres for high radiation dose environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, H.; Kohn, O.; Schmidt, H. U.; Bawirzanski, E.; Landers, A.

    1994-06-01

    A variety of modern single mode (SM) and graded index (GI) fibres as well as a new pure silica multimode step index (MMSI) fibre with high OH content were irradiated at a Co-60 gamma ray source with a dose rate of approximately = 1.5Gy/s up to a total dose of 10(exp 6)Gy. The radiation-induced loss of all fibres was measured continuously during and after irradiation at discrete wavelengths (approximately = 850, approximately = 1070, approximately = 1300, approximately = 1550nm). With one SM fibre type also the 'breaking stress' before and after irradiation was determined. Radiation-induced losses of approximately less than 5dB/50m (at approximately = 1300nm) were found with some of the SM fibres, whereas the MMSI fibre showed a final induced loss of only 0.5dB/50m at 1070nm wavelength. The breaking stress of the SM fibre increased by about 10%.

  16. Retained laser fibre: insights and management.

    PubMed

    Lekich, C; Hannah, P

    2014-06-01

    To describe a case of retained endovenous laser fibre. To review the literature and Food and Drug Administration device failure reports. To suggest protocols for avoiding this complication and a method of removal. A case of retained fibre removal is described. Fibre removal techniques in vivo and ex vivo in a bovine model on the laboratory bench are presented. Successful in vivo and ex vivo fibre removal was performed using duplex ultrasound scan guided phlebectomy techniques. Unexplained measured fibre-length discrepancies due to misleading manufacturer's packaging was discovered. Simple ultrasound-guided micro-phlebectomy techniques can be used to remove retained laser fibres in the office environment. Laser fibre length measurements before and after treatment are recommended. Some preventive guidelines are described to avoid, or at least diagnose immediately, this complication, such as the 'Laser Eclipse Sign'. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Glass fibre paper separator for electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, F.J.T.

    1984-08-14

    A separator suitable for electrochemical cells of the lead-acid recombinant type comprises a sheet of entangled glass fibres. It has been found that significant improvements in performance can be obtained when 5 to 35% by weight of the fibres have a diameter of less than 1 ..mu..m. It has also been found surprisingly advantageous if the overall solubility of the glass fibres is greater than 3% and preferably at least 4%, by weight in 5 hours at 85/sup 0/ C. in sulphuric acid of specific gravity 1.200. It has been found that further benefits can accrue if all or a major proportion of the fibres cover a continuous range of fibre diameters and fibre lengths, and preferably a minor proportion of the fibres being over 5 mm in length.

  18. A colour-tunable, weavable fibre-shaped polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhitao; Guo, Kunping; Li, Yiming; Li, Xueyi; Guan, Guozhen; Li, Houpu; Luo, Yongfeng; Zhao, Fangyuan; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Bin; Pei, Qibing; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of wearable electronics and optoelectronics requires the development of devices that are not only highly flexible but can also be woven into textiles to offer a truly integrated solution. Here, we report a colour-tunable, weavable fibre-shaped polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell (PLEC). The fibre-shaped PLEC is fabricated using all-solution-based processes that can be scaled up for practical applications. The design has a coaxial structure comprising a modified metal wire cathode and a conducting aligned carbon nanotube sheet anode, with an electroluminescent polymer layer sandwiched between them. The fibre shape offers unique and promising advantages. For example, the luminance is independent of viewing angle, the fibre-shaped PLEC can provide a variety of different and tunable colours, it is lightweight, flexible and wearable, and it can potentially be woven into light-emitting clothes for the creation of smart fabrics.

  19. Critical dimension AFM tip characterization and image reconstruction applied to the 45-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlen, Gregory; Osborn, Marc; Liu, Hao-Chih; Jain, Rohit; Foreman, William; Osborne, Jason R.

    2006-03-01

    Three significant critical dimension atomic force microscopy (CD AFM) advances are presented in this paper. First, scanning probe image reconstruction methodologies that were formerly limited to parabolic type tip shapes and single-valued surfaces (i.e., non-reentrant topography), are extended to multi-valued surfaces and reentrant tip geometries. This crucial step allows the elimination of image artifacts associated with CD AFM scanning of complex feature shapes using reentrant tips. Second, in situ AFM tip images are provided in an automated tool that enables full image reconstruction. Consequently, for the first time, the combination of in situ tip reconstruction with the inherent reference measurement qualities of the AFM and full morphology reconstruction allow CD AFM metrology essentially free of tip shape effects. CD AFM is now primarily driven by development of tip geometries that contact the entire specimen surface while retaining adequate tip lifetime. The background of CD AFM image dilation is described, and the limitations of "legacy" 1D image reconstruction ("tip width subtraction") are illustrated with idealized probe shapes. Initial validation of the automated software is provided by comparison with TEM micrographs. Tip characterizations are presented for a morphologically complex ~20 nm diameter carbon nanotube tip and reentrant silicon CD32 tips (tip width ~ 30nm). Finally, the capability for CD AFM to scan a reentrant sub-45 nm width trench is demonstrated. An EUV resist trench was scanned with a CD32 tip (tip width = 27.4 nm). Minimum CD ranged from 42 to 45 nm. Reentrant image reconstruction is shown for the scan cross-section.

  20. Ytterbium fibre laser with a heavily Yb{sup 3+}-doped glass fibre core

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetov, Igor' A; Semenov, S L; Kosolapov, A F; Mel'kumov, Mikhail A; Dudin, V V; Dianov, Evgenii M; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Sverchkov, S E

    2006-03-31

    The use of optical fibres with a high concentration of active ions in the fibre core allows the reduction of the active fibre length and the increase in the threshold powers of various nonlinear effects in the fibre, thereby increasing the maximum output power of fibre lasers. For this purpose, we manufactured a highly concentrated ytterbium-doped ({approx}1.0x10{sup 21}cm{sup -3}) phosphate glass for the active fibre core and a pure glass of a similar composition for the fibre cladding. A single-mode fibre is fabricated from these glasses and generation is obtained in an ytterbium laser based on this fibre with the slope efficiency of no less than 60% at a wavelength of 975 nm. (letters)